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Sample records for moringa oleifera lam

  1. Moringa oleifera Lam: Targeting Chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Karim, Nurul Ashikin Abd; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha; Rukayadi, Yaya; Hamid, Hazrulizawati Abd; Razis, Ahmad Faizal Abdull

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam, family Moringaceae, is a perennial plant which is called various names, but is locally known in Malaysia as "murungai" or "kelor". Glucomoringin, a glucosinolate with from M. oleifera is a major secondary metabolite compound. The seeds and leaves of the plant are reported to have the highest amount of glucosinolates. M. oleifera is well known for its many uses health and benefits. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal and chemopreventive potentials. Chemopreventive effects of M. oleifera are expected due to the existence of glucosinolate which it is reported to have the ability to induce apoptosis in anticancer studies. Furthermore, chemopreventive value of M. oleifera has been demonstrated in studies utilizing its leaf extract to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines. This review highlights the advantages of M. oleifera targeting chemoprevention where glucosinolates could help to slow the process of carcinogenesis through several molecular targets. It is also includes inhibition of carcinogen activation and induction of carcinogen detoxification, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, for synergistic effects of M. oleifera with other drugs and safety, essential for chemoprevention, it is important that it safe to be consumed by human body and works well. Although there is promising evidence about M. oleifera in chemoprevention, extensive research needs to be done due to the expected rise of cancer in coming years and to gain more information about the mechanisms involved in M. oleifera influence, which could be a good source to inhibit several major mechanisms involved in cancer development.

  2. Antioxidant action of Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) against antitubercular drugs induced lipid peroxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, N; Pari, L

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidants was investigated during antitubercular drug (isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide)-induced toxicity in rats. Enhanced hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation of antitubercular drug treatment was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of vitamin C, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Administration of Moringa oleifera extract and silymarin significantly decreased hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation with a simultaneous increase in the level of antioxidants. We speculate that Moringa oleifera extract exerts its protective effects by decreasing liver lipid peroxides and enhancing antioxidants.

  3. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation.

  4. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera.

  5. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products

    PubMed Central

    Limmatvapirat, C.; Limmatvapirat, S.; Charoenteeraboon, J.; Wessapan, C.; Kumsum, A.; Jenwithayaamornwech, S.; Luangthuwapranit, P.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health. PMID:26664066

  6. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  7. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro. PMID:24490175

  8. Anti-nutritional factors in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera (Lam).

    PubMed

    Igwilo, I O; Ezeonu, F C; Ezekwesili-Ofili, J O; Igwilo, S N; Nsofor, C I; Abdulsalami, M S; Obi, E

    2014-01-01

    The evergreen plant, Moringa oleifera (Lam) has been known to have both medicinal and nutritional properties, thus its wide use in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia. The roots, in particular, have been reported to possess antibiotic, anti-tumour and anti-oxidative activities. This study therefore seeks to determine the levels of the anti-nutritional factors and other proximate analyses in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera which might be responsible for such activities. The concentrations of oxalates and phytates in the roots were determined using the methods of Munro and Bassir and Griffith and Thomas, respectively. The methods of Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to estimate the amount of tannins, saponins and cyanogenic glycosides while the Technicon sequential Multi-sample amino acid analyzer (TSM) was used determine the amino acid concentration in the roots. Tannins (45 mg 100 g(-1)) and oxalates (17.08 mg 100 g(-1)) were present in the roots at higher levels while saponins (4.20mg 100 g(-1)), cyanogenic glycosides (2.72 mg 100 g(-1)) and phytates (0.07 mg 100 g(-1)) occurred at much lower levels. The roots contained (Mean +/- Standard Error of mean) %crude lipid (6.33 +/- 1.64), %crude proteins (5.02 +/- 1.52), %carbohydrates (76.75), %ash (4.97 +/- 0.53) and %moisture (6.93 +/- 0.58). The roots lacked the water-soluble vitamins pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamine but contained ascorbic acid (48.13 mg 100 g(-1)) and niacin (5.83 mg 100 g(-1)). This study has shown that Moringa oleifera roots are rich in anti-nutritional factors and that is why they are widely used in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia and Americas for its medicinal importance.

  9. Inhibitory Action of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. On Systemic and Local Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-10-01

    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) decreases the mast cell-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. The immediate type hypersensitivity reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Moringa oleifera, a shrub widely used in the traditional medicine in India, has been reported to possess anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE-herbal remedy) on systemic and local anaphylaxis were investigated. The potential anti-anaphylactic effect of MOEE was studied in a mouse model of Compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti IgE-antibody was also used to assess the effect of MOEE. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were used to investigate the effect of MOEE on histamine release induced by compound 48/80. When administered 1 hr before 48/80 injection, MOEE at doses of 0.001-1.000 g/kg completely inhibited the inducible induced anaphylactic shock. MOEE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-IgE antibody at a dose of 1 g/kg. When MOEE extract was given as pretreatment at concentrations ranging 0.1-100 mg/ml, the histamine release from the mast cells that was induced by the 48/80 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential role for MOEE as a source of anti-anaphylactic agents for use in allergic disorders.

  10. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids

  11. Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael

    2014-05-01

    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water.

  12. Bioremediation of turbid surface water using seed extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) tree.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael

    2010-02-01

    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for simplified, point-of-use, low-risk water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water.

  13. Clinical Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. Stems Bark in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common problem in clinical practice. Usually they are asymptomatic and are commonly present with distressing symptoms like pain and burning sensation on urination. Antibiotics are widely used to treat UTIs; however, they have their own limitations like resistance, reinfection, and relapses. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the value of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark as a potential medicine for UTIs. Study Design. 30 patients with UTI were randomly divided into two groups with 15 patients in each group. Shigru bark was given to patients of the first group (trial group) and modern medicines were prescribed to the other group of patients. At least three follow-ups are taken in both groups at the end of every week of treatment. Results. After treatment 66.67 % were cured, 13.33 % improved, 13.33% patients have no change, and 6.67% relapsed in trial group and in control group 46.67% were cured, 26.66% improved, 6.67% patients have no change, and 20% relapsed. Interpretation and Conclusion. The trial drug is significant in the management of UTI. This study needs to be done on a large scale and for a long time. PMID:27437504

  14. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. Against Inflammation Associated with Development of Arthritis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mali, Ravindra G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MOEE) in adjuvant-induced arthritis in adult female Wistar rats. During the experimental period, body weight, paw edema volume (primary lesion) and arthritic index (secondary lesion) was observed. On the 21st day, serum from each animal was used for estimation of Rheumatoid Factor (RF) value and levels of selected cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1, and IL-6). Whole blood was used for measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Liver homogenate was utilized for assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology was performed to measure degree of inflammation in synovial joint. Our results suggest that, percentage reduction in body weight was less, paw edema volume and arthritic index score was decreased significantly as compared to diseased control animals. Serum levels of RF, TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6 also showed decreased levels as compared to those in the diseased control group. Treatment with MOEE also altered oxidative stress in relation to its anti-inflammatory activity. Histopathological observations showed mild or less infiltration of lymphocytes, angiogenesis and synovial lining thickening. From all above results and observations, it can be concluded that Moringa oleifera possesses promising antiarthritic property.

  15. Application of a puffer fish skin gelatin film containing Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract to the packaging of Gouda cheese.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to develop a puffer fish skin gelatin (PSG) film that contains Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract (ME) as a new biodegradable film. With the increase in ME concentration, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PSG film increased, whereas the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability decreased. In addition, the PSG film with ME exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and antioxidant activity. To apply the ME-containing PSG film to food packaging, Gouda cheese was wrapped with the ME-containing PSG film. During storage, the cheese packaging with the ME-containing PSG film effectively inhibited the microbial growth and retarded the lipid oxidation of cheese compared with the control sample. Thus, the ME-containing PSG film can be used as an antimicrobial and antioxidative packaging material to improve the quality of food products.

  16. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

  17. Suppressive effects of Moringa oleifera Lam pod against mouse colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Budda, Sirintip; Butryee, Chaniphun; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Wangnaithum, Supradit; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Kupradinun, Piengchai

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) is a major ingredient in Thai cuisine and has some medicinal properties. Previous studies have shown potentially antioxidant, antitumor promoter, anticlastogen and anticarcinogen activities both in vitro and in vivo. The present study was conducted to investigate chemopreventive effects on azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted colon carcinogenesis in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into 8 groups: Group 1 served as a negative control; Group 2 received AOM/DSS as a positive control; Groups 3-5 were fed boiled freeze-dried M. oleifera (bMO) at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively supplemented in basal diets for 5 weeks; Groups 6-8 were fed with bMO diets at the designed doses above for 2 weeks prior to AOM, during and 1 week after DSS administration. At the end of the study, colon samples were processed for histopathological examination. PCNA indices, and iNOS and COX-2 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated the incidences and multiplicities of tumors in Groups 6-8 to be decreased when compared to Group 2 in a dose dependent manner, but this was significant only in Group 8. The PCNA index was also significantly decreased in Group 8 whereas iNOS and COX-2 protein expression were significantly decreased in Groups 7 and 8. The findings suggest that M. oleifera Lam pod exerts suppressive effects in a colitis-related colon carcinogenesis model induced by AOM/DSS and could serve as a chemopreventive agent.

  18. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on toluene diisocyanate-induced immune-mediated inflammatory responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mali, Ravindra G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-04-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a small tree cultivated throughout India. We have investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE, an herbal remedy) on the potential prevention of immune-mediated inflammatory responses in toluene diisocyanate (TDI as antigen)-induced asthma in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into five different groups (n = 8/group): Group-I = unsensitized control; Group-II = TDI control/vehicle; Group-III = dexamethasone (DXM) 2.5 mg/kg; and, Groups IV and V = 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight [BW] of MOEE, respectively. All rats (except unsensitized controls) were sensitized by intranasal application of 10% TDI to induce airway hypersensitivity. Animals in Groups II-V were given their respective drug treatment per os from 1 wk prior to initiation of sensitization until the day of final provocation with 5% TDI. After this last challenge, all rats were examined for hyperreactivity symptoms and then sacrificed to determine their total and differential leucocytes in blood and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid and levels of TNF proportional, variant, IL-4, and IL-6 in their BAL and serum. Homogenates of one lung lobe from each animal were utilized to assess oxidative stress; a separate lobe underwent histologic examination to assess airway inflammatory status. The results suggest that asthmatic symptoms were found in TDI control rats only, while both MOEE- and DXM-treated rats did not manifest any airway abnormality. In MOEE- and DXM-treated rats, neutrophil and eosinophil levels in the blood were decreased significantly; levels of total cells and each different cell in their BAL fluid were markedly decreased as compared to those in TDI controls. TNF alpha, IL-4, and IL-6 were predominant in serum as well as in BAL fluids in TDI controls, but these levels were reduced significantly by MOEE treatment. The antioxidant activity in relation to antiinflammatory activity of the extract and histopathological observations also reflected a

  19. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, S.; Raghavendra, K. M.; Biswas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  20. Effects of Oral Administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on Glucose Tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-01-01

    Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30–60 min and 60–120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (p<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats. PMID:18398501

  1. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra; Arya, Priya Vrat; Aggarwal, Ved Prakash; Gupta, Radhey Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum concomitantly with the activities of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and GPx in liver. The activities of all parameters registered a significant (p ≤ 0.001) alteration in CCl4 treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in rats co-administered with M. oleifera extract in a dose-dependent manner. All the biochemical investigations were confirmed by the histopathological observations and compared with the standard drug. silymarin. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetin and kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves. PMID:26785072

  2. Direct effects of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) acetone leaf extract on broiler chickens naturally infected with Eimeria species.

    PubMed

    Ola-Fadunsin, Shola David; Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi

    2013-08-01

    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of all broiler mortalities worldwide. The control of this disease relies mainly on the use of anticoccidial drugs. However, herbal preparations could be an alternative for the treatment against coccidiosis in chickens. The direct effects of Moringa oleifera acetone extracts on broiler chickens naturally infected with mixed Eimeria species was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the extracts against coccidiosis in birds. The investigations were carried out in seven groups (ten chickens per group). The birds were given various doses (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) of acetone extract of leaves of M. toltrazuril (positive control) and untreated (negative control). The extract was evaluated for anticoccidial activity by means of inhibition of oocyst output in faeces, faecal score, weight gain and mortality. Haematological indices were evaluated by standard methods. The group treated with 1.0 g/ kg body weight Moringa oleifera extract produced the least inhibitory effect on oocyst shed in the faeces (96.4%), while the groups treated with 2.0 g/kg, 3.0 g/kg, 4.0 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg body weight of the extract produced 97.4, 98.7, 99.1 and 99.8%, respectively. Body weight gains of infected chickens treated with the extract significantly improved (p < 0.05), and faecal scores were milder. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood count of the treated birds were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the infected untreated group. Moringa oleifera leaves could find application in the treatment of avian coccidiosis in veterinary practice.

  3. Genetic Dissection of New Genotypes of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker

    PubMed Central

    Rufai, Shamsuddeen; Hanafi, M. M.; Rafii, M. Y.; Ahmad, S.; Arolu, I. W.; Ferdous, Jannatul

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity of tree crop is very important for breeding and improvement program for the purpose of improving the yield and quality of its produce. Genetic diversity study and analysis of genetic relationship among 20 Moringa oleifera were carried out with the aid of twelve primers from, random amplified polymorphic DNA marker. The seeds of twenty M. oleifera genotypes from various origins were collected and germinated and raised in nursery before transplanting to the field at University Agricultural Park (TPU). Genetic diversity parameter, such as Shannon's information index and expected heterozygosity, revealed the presence of high genetic divergence with value of 1.80 and 0.13 for Malaysian population and 0.30 and 0.19 for the international population, respectively. Mean of Nei's gene diversity index for the two populations was estimated to be 0.20. In addition, a dendrogram constructed, using UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance, grouped the twenty M. oleifera into five distinct clusters. The study revealed a great extent of variation which is essential for successful breeding and improvement program. From this study, M. oleifera genotypes of wide genetic origin, such as T-01, T-06, M-01, and M-02, are recommended to be used as parent in future breeding program. PMID:23862149

  4. Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday E; Atawodi, Joy C; Idakwo, Gabriel A; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Wurtele, Gerd; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert W

    2010-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered.

  5. Health benefits of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha

    2014-01-01

    Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and are regaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages. Moringa oleifera contains essential amino acids, carotenoids in leaves, and components with nutraceutical properties, supporting the idea of using this plant as a nutritional supplement or constituent in food preparation. Some nutritional evaluation has been carried out in leaves and stem. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range of vital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used as a source for nutrition with other useful values. This mini-review elaborate on details its health benefits.

  6. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%–24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera

  7. Simultaneous analysis of eight vitamin E isomers in Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves by ultra performance convergence chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ningli; Gong, Xiao; Feng, Cuiping; Wang, Xiaoxi; Xu, Yongwei; Lin, Lijing

    2016-09-15

    A new method for simultaneous determination of eight vitamin E isomers including α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol by ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC(2)) equipped with a diode array detector was reported. They were separated on a BEH 2-EP column (3.0 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) using gradient elution (95:5-80:20) with a mobile phase consisted of CO2 and methanol:isopropanol (1:1, v/v), back pressure of 1800 psi, flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and detection at 294 nm. The results showed good linearity (R(2)=0.9990-0.9998) and high resolution (1.48-7.67). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged from 23-49 ng/L and 70-150 ng/L, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) for repeatability and reproducibility were 0.62-3.16% and 0.82-3.34%, respectively. Moreover, this method was successfully applied to analysis the vitamin E isomers in Moringa oleifera leaf samples.

  8. Activation of Cellular Immunity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Infected Mice by the Oral Administration of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Masahiko; Wadhwani, Ashish; Kai, Hisahiro; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Sugita, Chihiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Matsuno, Koji; Hagiwara, Akinori

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is used as a nutritive vegetable and spice. Its ethanol extract has been previously shown to be significantly effective in alleviating herpetic skin lesions in mice. In this study, we evaluated the alleviation by the aqueous extract (AqMOL) and assessed the mode of its anti-herpetic action in a murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection model. AqMOL (300 mg/kg) was administered orally to HSV-1-infected mice three times daily on days 0 to 5 after infection. AqMOL significantly limited the development of herpetic skin lesions and reduced virus titers in the brain on day 4 without toxicity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to inactivated HSV-1 antigen was significantly stronger in infected mice administered AqMOL and AqMOL augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes of HSV-1-infected mice at 4 days post-infection. AqMOL administration was effective in elevating the ratio of CD11b(+) and CD49b(+) subpopulations of splenocytes in infected mice. As DTH is a major host defense mechanism for intradermal HSV infection, augmentation of the DTH response by AqMOL may contribute to their efficacies against HSV-1 infection. These results provided an important insights into the mechanism by which AqMOL activates cellular immunity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

    2003-01-01

    The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the

  10. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  11. Microalgae removal with Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Barrado-Moreno, M M; Beltran-Heredia, J; Martín-Gallardo, J

    2016-02-01

    Moringa oleifera seed extract was tested for algae (Chlorella, Microcystis, Oocystis and Scenedesmus) removal by Jar-test technique. This coagulant can be used in drinking water treatment. Jar-test has been carried out in order to evaluate the efficiency of this natural coagulant agent inside real surface water matrix. The influence of variables has been studied in this process, including operating parameters such as coagulant dosage, initial algae concentration, pH, agitation time and water matrix. Removal capacity is verified for water with high contamination of algae while the process is not affected by the pH and water matrix. Coagulation process may be modelling through Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption hypothesis, so acceptable r2 coefficients are obtained.

  12. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) attenuates isoprotrenol-induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: an EPR study.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiac damage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model of Wistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (s.c.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. At the end of the experiment levels of serum troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities/levels of different cellular antioxidants were estimated in control and experimental groups. Additionally, scavenging potential to the hydroxyl radical of the fraction was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). ISO administered rats showed significant increase in the levels of serum troponin-I, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and heart tissue MDA content. Furthermore, marked reduction in the activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were observed. EPR study showed an increase in signal intensity in ISO-induced rats. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of heart section revealed a marked increase in infarcted area in ISO-induced rats. Histological features of the heart also indicated a disruption in the structure of cardiac myofibrils in these animals. MOPF (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment prevented all these adverse effects of ISO. Present results show that the rich polyphenolic content of Moringa oleifera significantly reduced the myocardial damage and decreased the oxidative stress, possibly through hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as evidenced from the EPR spectra.

  13. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) attenuates isoprotrenol-induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: an EPR study

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiac damage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model of Wistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (s.c.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. At the end of the experiment levels of serum troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities/levels of different cellular antioxidants were estimated in control and experimental groups. Additionally, scavenging potential to the hydroxyl radical of the fraction was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). ISO administered rats showed significant increase in the levels of serum troponin-I, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and heart tissue MDA content. Furthermore, marked reduction in the activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were observed. EPR study showed an increase in signal intensity in ISO-induced rats. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of heart section revealed a marked increase in infarcted area in ISO-induced rats. Histological features of the heart also indicated a disruption in the structure of cardiac myofibrils in these animals. MOPF (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment prevented all these adverse effects of ISO. Present results show that the rich polyphenolic content of Moringa oleifera significantly reduced the myocardial damage and decreased the oxidative stress, possibly through hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as evidenced from the EPR spectra. PMID:26417351

  14. Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract prevents fat diet induced oxidative stress in mice and protects liver cell-nuclei from hydroxyl radical mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Debdutta; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronic disorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedy against this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. In this study, we explored if (i) Moringa oleifera seed extract (MoSE) can neutralize ROS generated in HFD fed mice; (ii) protect cell-nuclei damage developed by Fenton reaction in vitro. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group). Other groups were control, seed extract alone treated, and MoSE simultaneously (HS) treated. Treatment period was of 15 days. Antioxidant enzymes with tissue nitrite content (TNC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated from liver homogenate. HS group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to only HFD fed group. Further, TNC and LPO decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in HS group compared to HFD fed group. MoSE also protected hepatocytes nuclei from the hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction. MoSE was found to be polyphenol rich with potent reducing power, free radicals and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity. Thus, MoSE exhibited robust antioxidant prospective to neutralize ROS developed in HFD fed mice and also protected the nuclei damage from hydroxyl radicals. Hence, it can be used as herbal medication against HFD induced ROS mediated disorders.

  15. Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract prevents early liver injury and restores antioxidant status in mice fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Sikder, Kunal; Ghosh, Santinath; Fromenty, Bernard; Dey, Sanjit

    2012-06-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may lead to multiple complications affecting human health. In the present study, effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) in alleviating HFD induced liver injury in mice has been reported. Liver histology and serum activity of hepatic marker enzymes i.e. aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been studied. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated using liver homogenate. Results of the study suggested that MoLE treatment protected HFD-induced liver damage as indicated by histopathology and liver enzyme activity compared to only-HFD fed group (P < 0.05). Interestingly, early signs of HFD-induced fatty liver were also alleviated by MoLE. Moreover, significant increase in endogenous antioxidant parameters and lower lipid peroxidation were found in liver of all MoLE treated groups. Results of the study indicated that MoLE has both preventive as also curative hepatoprotective activity.

  16. Development of a magnetic coagulant based on Moringa oleifera seed extract for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tássia R T; Silva, Marcela F; Nishi, Leticia; Vieira, Angélica M S; Klein, Márcia R F; Andrade, Murilo B; Vieira, Marcelo F; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-04-01

    In this work, to evaluate the effectiveness of the coagulation/flocculation using a natural coagulant, using Moringa oleifera Lam functionalized with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, producing flakes that are attracted by an external magnetic field, thereby allowing a fast settling and separation of the clarified liquid, is proposed. The removal efficiency of the parameters, apparent color, turbidity, and compounds with UV254nm absorption, was evaluated. The magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant could effectively remove 90 % of turbidity, 85 % of apparent color, and 50 % for the compounds with absorption at UV254nm, in surface waters under the influence of an external magnetic field within 30 min. It was found that the coagulation/flocculation treatment using magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant was able to reduce the values of the physico-chemical parameters evaluated with reduced settling time.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera on antitubercular drug-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Pari, L; Kumar, N Ashok

    2002-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae), commonly known as "Drumstick," is used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of various illness. We have evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves on liver damage induced by antitubercular drugs such as isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), and pyrazinamide (PZA) in rats. Oral administration of the extract showed a significant protective action made evident by its effect on the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (aspartate aminotransferase), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (alanine aminotransferase), alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin in the serum; lipids, and lipid peroxidation levels in liver. This observation was supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The results of this study showed that treatment with M. oleifera extracts or silymarin (as a reference) appears to enhance the recovery from hepatic damage induced by antitubercular drugs.

  18. The Antidiabetic Effect of Low Doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; El Rabey, Haddad A.

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  19. The antidiabetic effect of low doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in male rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; El Rabey, Haddad A

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group.

  20. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Ann Lila, Mary; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC) made by extracting fresh leaves with water utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates (1–4) into moringa isothiocyanates (5–8). Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, compound 5 (4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate), and compound 8 (4-[(4’-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate) content were established (1:5 fresh leaf weight to water ratio at room temperature). The optimized MC contained 1.66% isothiocyanates and 3.82% total polyphenols. Compound 8 exhibited 80% stability at 37 °C for 30 days. MC, 5, and 8 significantly decreased gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. Specifically, 5 and 8 attenuated expression of iNOS and IL-1β and production of nitric oxide and TNFβ at 1 and 5 µM. Our results suggest a potential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates (5–8), delivered in MC as a food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases. PMID:24731259

  1. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-07-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as both a food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC), made by extracting fresh leaves with water, utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates into moringa isothiocyanates. Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate, and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate content were established (1:5 fresh leaf weight to water ratio at room temperature). The optimized MC contained 1.66% isothiocyanates and 3.82% total polyphenols. 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate exhibited 80% stability at 37°C for 30 days. MC, and both of the isothiocyanates described above significantly decreased gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. Specifically, both attenuated expression of iNOS and IL-1β and production of nitric oxide and TNFα at 1 and 5 μM. These results suggest a potential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates, delivered in MC as a food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases.

  2. The increase of compressive strength of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilorini, Rr. M. I. Retno; Santosa, Budi; Rejeki, V. G. Sri; Riangsari, M. F. Devita; Hananta, Yan's. Dianaga

    2017-03-01

    Polymer modified concrete is one of some concrete technology innovations to meet the need of strong and durable concrete. Previous research found that Moringa oleifera can be applied as natural polymer modifiers into mortars. Natural polymer modified mortar using Moringa oleifera is proven to increase their compressive strength significantly. In this resesearch, Moringa oleifera seeds have been grinded and added into concrete mix for natural polymer modified concrete, based on the optimum composition of previous research. The research investigated the increase of compressive strength of polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera as natural polymer modifiers. There were 3 compositions of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera referred to previous research optimum compositions. Several cylinder of 10 cm x 20 cm specimens were produced and tested for compressive strength at age 7, 14, and, 28 days. The research meets conclusions: (1) Natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera, with and without skin, has higher compressive strength compared to natural polymer modified mortar with Moringa oleifera and also control specimens; (2) Natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera without skin is achieved by specimens contains Moringa oleifera that is 0.2% of cement weight; and (3) The compressive strength increase of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera without skin is about 168.11-221.29% compared to control specimens

  3. Effect of Different Parts (Leaf, Stem and Stalk) and Seasons (Summer and Winter) on the Chemical Compositions and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Ming-Chih; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Kang, Sue-Ming; Tsai, Min-Lang

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera grown in Taiwan. The results showed that the winter samples of Moringa had higher ash (except the stalk part), calcium and phenolic compounds (except the leaf part) and stronger antioxidative activity than summer samples. The methanolic extract of Moringa showed strong scavenging effect of DPPH radicals and reducing power. The trend of antioxidative activity as a function of the part of Moringa was: leaf > stem > stalk for samples from both seasons investigated. The Moringa extract showed strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and high Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity except the stalk part. PMID:22016645

  4. Effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ming-Chih; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Kang, Sue-Ming; Tsai, Min-Lang

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera grown in Taiwan. The results showed that the winter samples of Moringa had higher ash (except the stalk part), calcium and phenolic compounds (except the leaf part) and stronger antioxidative activity than summer samples. The methanolic extract of Moringa showed strong scavenging effect of DPPH radicals and reducing power. The trend of antioxidative activity as a function of the part of Moringa was: leaf > stem > stalk for samples from both seasons investigated. The Moringa extract showed strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and high Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity except the stalk part.

  5. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of Moringa oleifera oil.

    PubMed

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Michael H; Ezeh, Onyinye; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports on the extraction of Moringa oleifera (MO) oil by using aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method. The effect of different process parameters on the oil recovery was discovered by using statistical optimization, besides the effect of selected parameters on the formation of its oil-in-water cream emulsions. Within the pre-determined ranges, the use of pH 4.5, moisture/kernel ratio of 8:1 (w/w), and 300stroke/min shaking speed at 40°C for 1h incubation time resulted in highest oil recovery of approximately 70% (goil/g solvent-extracted oil). These optimized parameters also result in a very thin emulsion layer, indicating minute amount of emulsion formed. Zero oil recovery with thick emulsion were observed when the used aqueous phase was re-utilized for another AEE process. The findings suggest that the critical selection of AEE parameters is key to high oil recovery with minimum emulsion formation thereby lowering the load on the de-emulsification step.

  6. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects.

  7. Direct and Indirect Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenol- and Isothiocyanate-Enriched Fractions from Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Boyunegmez Tumer, Tugba; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]-isothiocyanate and 4-[(4′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects. PMID:25605589

  8. Toxicity potentials of the nutraceutical Moringa oleifera at supra-supplementation levels.

    PubMed

    Asare, George Awuku; Gyan, Ben; Bugyei, Kwasi; Adjei, Samuel; Mahama, Razak; Addo, Phyllis; Otu-Nyarko, Lydia; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Nyarko, Alexander

    2012-01-06

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (order -Moringales, family -Moringaceae and genus -Moringa) is a well known nutraceutical used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia, and also, as a nutritional supplementation. Its popularity use raises the question of possible toxicity at supra-supplementation levels. The objective of the study was to ascertain possible acute toxicity with supra-supplementation using Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. In experiment 1, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were given graded doses of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract to induce cytotoxicity. In experiment 2, two groups of rats received low and high dose (LD and HD, respectively) levels (1,000 and 3,000 mg/kgb.wt, respectively) per o.s. alongside negative and positive control rats (0.9% saline and 10mg/mL N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea - administered i.m., respectively). Each group consisted of five rats. Rats were killed after 48 h and the femur bone marrow aspirate examined for polychromatic micronucleated erythrocytes (PCEMN)/normochromatic micronucleated erythrocytes (NCEMN) ratios after Giemsa/Leishman staining. In experiment 3, control, LD and HD groups were established. The LD and HD extracts were administered per o.s. to the respective groups and observed for 14 days. Each group consisted of five rats. Blood was sampled after 48 h and 14 days and examined biochemically and haematologically for acute toxicity. Experiment 1 showed that Moringa oleifera was cytotoxic at 20mg/mL. In experiment 2, PCEMN/NCEMN ratios were: negative control=2.087; LD=1.849; HD=1.397; positive control=1.257. Statistically, LD and HD ratios were significant (p=0.020). Experiment 3 showed that hepatonephro-toxicity was nil with no abnormal haematology results. Genotoxicity results have hitherto not been shown. Moringa oleifera is genotoxic at supra-supplementation levels of 3,000 mg/kg b.wt. However, intake is safe at levels ≤ 1,000 mg/kg b.wt.

  9. Effective flocculation of fine mineral suspensions using Moringa oleifera seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, T.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using Moringa oleifera seeds, or the active components of the seeds, in the clarification of waters containing suspended mineral fines. In comparative testing using a hematite suspension, the flocculating activity of Moringa oleifera seeds was better than alum. Twenty milligrams of seed powder was sufficient to clarify the hematite to near zero turbidity, while the same amount of alum had a minimal effect on turbidity. Extracts were prepared from the seeds in an attempt to separate the proteins. A crude protein extract was enriched by lowering the pH to 6.0. Only 0.08 mg/L of the enriched extract was required to flocculate a minusil suspension. Environmentally friendly protein flocculants could theoretically be produced and enhanced with recombinant DNA techniques as an alternative to chemical flocculants currently used in water treatment.

  10. Moringa oleifera oil: a possible source of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Moser, Bryan R; Knothe, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. After acid pre-treatment to reduce the acid value of the M. oleifera oil, biodiesel was obtained by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and an alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C and alcohol/oil ratio of 6:1. M. oleifera oil has a high content of oleic acid (>70%) with saturated fatty acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil exhibit a high cetane number of approximately 67, one of the highest found for a biodiesel fuel. Other fuel properties of biodiesel derived from M. oleifera such as cloud point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. The 1H NMR spectrum of M. oleifera methyl esters is reported. Overall, M. oleifera oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel.

  11. Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Hartman, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Moringa oleifera leaves, seeds, bark, roots, sap, and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine, and the leaves and immature seed pods are used as food products in human nutrition. Leaf extracts exhibit the greatest antioxidant activity, and various safety studies in animals involving aqueous leaf extracts indicate a high degree of safety. No adverse effects were reported in association with human studies. Five human studies using powdered whole leaf preparations of M. oleifera have been published, which have demonstrated anti-hyperglycemic (antidiabetic) and anti-dyslipidemic activities. These activities have been confirmed using extracts as well as leaf powders in animal studies. A rapidly growing number of published studies have shown that aqueous, hydroalcohol, or alcohol extracts of M. oleifera leaves possess a wide range of additional biological activities including antioxidant, tissue protective (liver, kidneys, heart, testes, and lungs), analgesic, antiulcer, antihypertensive, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory actions. A wide variety of polyphenols and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids, glucosinolates, and possibly alkaloids is believed to be responsible for the observed effects. Standardization of products is an issue. However, the results of published studies to date involving M. oleifera are very promising. Additional human studies using standardized extracts are highly desirable.

  12. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Toppo, Reetu; Roy, Birendra Kumar; Gora, Ravuri Halley; Baxla, Sushma Lalita; Kumar, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), significant (p≤0.01) increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg), daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27047130

  13. Preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in DSSC solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saehana, Sahrul; Darsikin, Muslimin

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We found that polymer electrolyte membrane was formed by using solution casting methods. It is observed that polymer electrolyte was in elastic form and it is very potential to application as DSSC component. Performance of DSSC which employing Moringa oleifera resin was also observed and photovoltaic effect was found.

  14. Anti-cyanobacterial activity of Moringa oleifera seeds

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Filtrates from crushed Moringa oleifera seeds were tested for their effects on growth and Photosystem II efficiency of the common bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa populations exhibited good growth in controls and treatments with 4- and 8-mg crushed Moringa seeds per liter, having similar growth rates of 0.50 (±0.01) per day. In exposures of 20- to 160-mg crushed Moringa seeds L−1, growth rates were negative and on average −0.23 (±0.05) .day−1. Presumably, in the higher doses of 20- to 160-mg crushed seeds per liter, the cyanobacteria died, which was supported by a rapid drop in the Photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII), while the ΦPSII was high and unaffected in 0, 4, and 8 mg L−1. High-density populations of M. aeruginosa (chlorophyll-a concentrations of ∼270 µg L−1) were reduced to very low levels within 2 weeks of exposure to ≥80-mg crushed seeds per liter. At the highest dosage of 160 mg L−1, the ΦPSII dropped to zero rapidly and remained nil during the course of the experiment (14 days). Hence, under laboratory conditions, a complete wipeout of the bloom could be achieved. This is the first study that yielded evidence for cyanobactericidal activity of filtrate from crushed Moringa seeds, suggesting that Moringa seed extracts might have a potential as an effect-oriented measure lessening cyanobacterial nuisance. PMID:20676212

  15. Effect of storage of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds from reaping time on turbidity removal.

    PubMed

    Golestanbagh, M; Ahamad, I S; Idris, A; Yunus, R

    2011-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an indigenous plant to Malaysia whose seeds are used for water purification. Many studies on Moringa oleifera have shown that it is highly effective as a natural coagulant for turbidity removal. In this study, two different methods for extraction of Moringa's active ingredient were investigated. Results of sodium chloride (NaCl) and distilled water extraction of Moringa oleifera seeds showed that salt solution extraction was more efficient than distilled water in extracting Moringa's active coagulant ingredient. The optimum dosage of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds extracted by the NaCl solution was comparable with that of the conventional chemical coagulant alum. Moreover, the turbidity removal efficiency was investigated for shelled Moringa oleifera seeds before drying in the oven under different storage conditions (i.e. open and closed containers at room temperature, 27 °C) and durations (fresh, and storage for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks from the time the seeds were picked from the trees). Our results indicate that there are no significant differences in coagulation efficiencies and, accordingly, turbidity removals between the examined storage conditions and periods.

  16. Quality and labeling information of Moringa oleifera products marketed for HIV-infected people in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Monera-Penduka, Tsitsi Grace; Jani, Zvinji Tella; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Mudzengi, Josephine; Morse, Gene D; Nhachi, Charles Fungai Brian

    2016-12-31

    Labeling information and quality of marketed Moringa oleifera products were assessed. Personnel in 60 pharmacies and 11 herbal shops were interviewed about the sources, dosages, indications and counseling information of Moringa oleifera products. Content analysis of written information provided on Moringa oleifera products was also done. Three samples of Moringa from popular sources were acquired to determine heavy metal content and microbial contamination. The results were compared to specified limits in the European and Chinese pharmacopeia, World Health Organization guidelines and Bureau of Indian Standards. Moringa was available as capsules or powder in 73% of the premises. Moringa was recommended for seven different disease conditions. Four different dosage regimens were prescribed. The main references cited for the counseling information were unscientific literature (62%). The selected Moringa samples were contaminated with bacteria and fungi above the European Pharmacopeia specified limits. Escherichia coli and Salmonella species were present in all three samples. All three samples contained arsenic, nickel and cadmium above the permissible limits. Moringa oleifera with variable labeling information and poor microbial and heavy metal quality is widely available in Zimbabwe.

  17. Quality and Labelling Information Moringa Oleifera Products Marketed for HIV-infected People in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Zvinji Tella; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Mudzengi, Josephine; Morse, Gene D.; Nhachi, Charles Fungai Brian

    2016-01-01

    Labeling information and quality of marketed Moringa oleifera products were assessed. Personnel in 60 pharmacies and 11 herbal shops were interviewed about the sources, dosages, indications and counseling information of Moringa oleifera products. Content analysis of written information provided on Moringa oleifera products was also done. Three samples of Moringa from popular sources were acquired to determine heavy metal content and microbial contamination. The results were compared to specified limits in the European and Chinese pharmacopeia, World Health Organization guidelines and Bureau of Indian Standards. Moringa was available as capsules or powder in 73% of the premises. Moringa was recommended for seven different disease conditions. Four different dosage regimens were prescribed. The main references cited for the counseling information were unscientific literature (62%). The selected Moringa samples were contaminated with bacteria and fungi above the European Pharmacopeia specified limits. Escherichia coli and Salmonella species were present in all three samples. All three samples contained arsenic, nickel and cadmium above the permissible limits. Moringa oleifera with variable labeling information and poor microbial and heavy metal quality is widely available in Zimbabwe. PMID:28239441

  18. Characterization of Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seed oil of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Tsaknis, J; Lalas, S; Gergis, V; Dourtoglou, V; Spiliotis, V

    1999-11-01

    The oil from Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seeds from Kenya was extracted using three different procedures including cold press (CP), extraction with n-hexane (H), and extraction with a mixture of chloroform/methanol (50:50) (CM). The oil concentration ranged from 25.8% (CP) to 31.2% (CM). The density, refractive index, color, smoke point, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters, sterols, tocopherols (by HPLC), peroxide value, and at 232 and 270 nm and the susceptibility to oxidation measured with the Rancimat method were determined. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic (up to 75.39%). The dominant saturated acids were behenic (up to 6. 73%) and palmitic (up to 6.04%). The oil was also found to contain high levels of beta-sitosterol (up to 50.07%), stigmasterol (up to 17.27%), and campesterol (up to 15.13%). alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols were detected up to levels of 105.0, 39.54, and 77. 60 mg/kg of oil, respectively. The induction period (at 120 degrees C) of M. oleifera seed oil was reduced from 44.6 to 64.3% after degumming. The M. oleifera seed oil showed high stability to oxidative rancidity. The results of all the above determinations were compared with those of a commercial virgin olive oil.

  19. 'Moringa oleifera: study of phenolics and glucosinolates by mass spectrometry'.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Maksoud, Salwa A; Natella, Fausta; Montoro, Paola; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Foddai, Marzia; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Chessa, Mario; Pintore, Giorgio

    2014-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is a medicinal plant and an excellent dietary source of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and health-promoting phytochemicals (phenolic compounds, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates). Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates are known to possess anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant effects and have attracted great interest from both toxicological and pharmacological points of view, as they are able to induce phase 2 detoxification enzymes and to inhibit phase 1 activation enzymes. Phenolic compounds possess antioxidant properties and may exert a preventative effect in regards to the development of chronic degenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to assess the profile and the level of bioactive compounds in all parts of M. oleifera seedlings, by using different MS approaches. First, flow injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) fingerprinting techniques and chemometrics (PCA) were used to achieve the characterization of the different plant's organs in terms of profile of phenolic compounds and glucosinolates. Second, LC-MS and LC-MS/MS qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the identification and/or determination of phenolics and glucosinolates in M. oleifera.

  20. Moringa oleifera extract enhances sexual performance in stressed rats*

    PubMed Central

    Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Somsapt, Pichet; Sritragool, Opass; Thukhummee, Wipawee; Muchimapura, Supaporn

    2015-01-01

    Aphrodisiacs are required to improve male sexual function under stressful conditions. Due to the effects of oxidative stress and dopamine on male sexual function, we hypothesized that Moringa oleifera leaves might improve male sexual dysfunction induced by stress. Therefore, the effects on various factors playing important roles in male sexual behavior, such as antioxidant effects, the suppression of monoamine and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) activities, serum testosterone and corticosterone levels, and histomorphological changes in the testes, of a hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves were investigated. Various doses of extract including 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg body weight (BW) were given orally to male Wistar rats before exposure to 12 h-immobilization stress for 7 d. The results demonstrated that the extract showed both antioxidant and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) suppression activities. At 7 d of treatment, the low dose of extract improved sexual performance in stress-exposed rats by decreasing intromission latency and increasing intromission frequency. It also suppressed PDE-5 activity, decreased serum corticosterone level, but increased serum testosterone, numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa. The increased numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa might have been due to the antioxidant effect of the extract. The increased sexual performance during the intromission phase might have been due to the suppression of MAO-B and PDE-5 activities and increased testosterone. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential aphrodisiac, but further research concerning the precise underlying mechanisms is still needed. PMID:25743119

  1. Moringa oleifera extract enhances sexual performance in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Somsapt, Pichet; Sritragool, Opass; Thukhummee, Wipawee; Muchimapura, Supaporn

    2015-03-01

    Aphrodisiacs are required to improve male sexual function under stressful conditions. Due to the effects of oxidative stress and dopamine on male sexual function, we hypothesized that Moringa oleifera leaves might improve male sexual dysfunction induced by stress. Therefore, the effects on various factors playing important roles in male sexual behavior, such as antioxidant effects, the suppression of monoamine and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) activities, serum testosterone and corticosterone levels, and histomorphological changes in the testes, of a hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves were investigated. Various doses of extract including 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg body weight (BW) were given orally to male Wistar rats before exposure to 12 h-immobilization stress for 7 d. The results demonstrated that the extract showed both antioxidant and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) suppression activities. At 7 d of treatment, the low dose of extract improved sexual performance in stress-exposed rats by decreasing intromission latency and increasing intromission frequency. It also suppressed PDE-5 activity, decreased serum corticosterone level, but increased serum testosterone, numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa. The increased numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa might have been due to the antioxidant effect of the extract. The increased sexual performance during the intromission phase might have been due to the suppression of MAO-B and PDE-5 activities and increased testosterone. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential aphrodisiac, but further research concerning the precise underlying mechanisms is still needed.

  2. Nutritive evaluation and effect of Moringa oleifera pod on clastogenic potential in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Promkum, Chadamas; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Butryee, Chaniphun

    2010-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) has been consumed as a vegetable and utilized as a major ingredient of healthy Thai cuisine. Previous studies have shown that M. oleifera pod extracts act as bifunctional inducers along with displaying antioxidant properties and also inhibiting skin papillomagenesis in mice. This study was aimed to determine the nutritive value, and clastogenic and anticlastogenic potentials of M. oleifera pod. The nutritive value was determined according to AOAC methods. The clastogenic and anticlastogenic potentials were determined using the in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay in the mouse. Eighty male mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0% of ground freeze-dried boiled M. oleifera pod (bMO) for 2 weeks prior to administration of both direct-acting (mitomycin C, MMC) and indirect-acting (7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, DMBA), clastogens. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, dropped on acridine orange-coated slides, and then counted for reticulocytes both with and without micronuclei by fluorescence microscopy. The nutritive value of 100 g bMO consisted of: moisture content, 8.2 g; protein, 19.2 g; fat, 3.9 g; carbohydrate (dietary fiber included), 60.5 g; dietary fiber, 37.5 g; ash, 8.1 g and energy, 354 kcal. Freeze-dried boiled M. oleifera had no clastogenic activity in the mouse while it possessed anticlastogenic activity against both direct and indirect-acting clastogens. Freeze-dried boiled M. oleifera pod at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0% in the diets decreased the number of micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes (MNRETs) induced by both MMC and DMBA. However, the effect was statistically significant in the dose dependent manner only in the MMC-treated group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that bMO has no clastogenicity and possesses anticlastogenic potential against clastogens, and particularly a direct-acting clastogen in the mouse.

  3. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R

    2009-12-01

    Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to human against infections and degenerative diseases. Current research is now directed towards natural antioxidants originated from plants due to safe therapeutics. Moringa oleifera is used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide range of various ailments. To understand the mechanism of pharmacological actions, antioxidant properties of the Moringa oleifera leaf extracts were tested in two stages of maturity using standard in vitro models. The successive aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, superoxide, nitric oxide radical and inhibition of lipid per oxidation. The free radical scavenging effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract was comparable with that of the reference antioxidants. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extracts of Moringa oleifera both mature and tender leaves have potent antioxidant activity against free radicals, prevent oxidative damage to major biomolecules and afford significant protection against oxidative damage.

  4. Identification of bioactive candidate compounds responsible for oxidative challenge from hydro-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Tangestani Fard, Masoumeh; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-09-01

    Free radicals trigger chain reaction and inflict damage to the cells and its components, which in turn ultimately interrupts their biological activities. To prevent free radical damage, together with an endogenous antioxidant system, an exogenous supply of antioxidant components to the body in the form of functional food or nutritional diet helps undeniably. Research conducted by the Natl. Inst. of Health claimed that Moringa oleifera Lam possess the highest antioxidant content among various natural food sources based on an oxygen radical absorbent capacity assay. In this study, a 90% (ethanol:distilled water--90:10) gradient solvent was identified as one of the best gradient solvents for the effectual extraction of bioactive components from M. oleifera leaves. This finding was confirmed by various antioxidant assays, including radical scavenging activity (that is, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H(2)O(2), and NO radical scavenging assay) and total antioxidant capacity (that is, ferric reducing antioxidant power and molybdenum assay). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of the 90% gradient extract visually showed few specific peaks, which on further analysis, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, were identified as flavonoids and their derivatives. Despite commonly reported flavonoids, that is, kaempferol and quercetin, we report here for the 1st time the presence of multiflorin-B and apigenin in M. oleifera leaves. These findings might help researchers to further scrutinize this high activity exhibiting gradient extract and its bio-active candidates for fruitful clinical/translational investigations.

  5. A Review on the Possible Neuroprotective Effects of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Igado, O O; Olopade, J K

    2017-03-06

    Moringa oleifera is an edible plant that has been reputed to be a miracle plant by numerous authors, with effects on practically every body system. Phytochemical analyses have demonstrated that the leaves are rich in various minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. Its use in some continents dates back to Antiquity. Neurodegeneration are chronic diseases of the nervous system. There is currently an increase in the use of natural products to combat these debilitating diseases. So far, no suitable cure has been found, and conditions are managed and the symptoms treated. This article reviews the literature on the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves on the nervous system in vivo and in vitro.

  6. Micro- and Macroelemental Composition and Safety Evaluation of the Nutraceutical Moringa oleifera Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Asiedu-Gyekye, I. J.; Frimpong-Manso, S.; Awortwe, C.; Antwi, D. A.; Nyarko, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose plant used in Ghana and most parts of Africa. Its high mineral, protein, and vitamins content has enabled its use as a nutraceutical and panacea for various diseases. This study aimed at measuring the micro- and macroelements content of dried Moringa oleifera leaves using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic (EDXRF) and assessing its toxicological effect in rats. Acute toxicity (5000 mg/kg) and a subacute toxicity studies of the leaf (40 mg/kg to 1000 mg/kg) extract were conducted in rats. Blood samples were assessed for biochemical and haematological parameters. Results showed significant levels of thirty-five (35) elements (14 macroelements and 21 microelements) in M. oleifera extract. There were no observed overt adverse reactions in the acute and subacute studies. Although there were observed elevations in liver enzymes ALT and ALP (P < 0.001) and lower creatinine levels in the extract treated groups, no adverse histopathological findings were found. Moringa oleifera dried leaf extract may, therefore, be reasonably safe for consumption. However, the consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves should not exceed a maximum of 70 grams per day to prevent cumulative toxicity of these essential elements over long periods. PMID:25136361

  7. Assessment of toxicity of Moringa oleifera flower extract to Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni and Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Filho, Cláudio A A; Albuquerque, Lidiane P; Silva, Luanna R S; Silva, Patrícia C B; Coelho, Luana C B B; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Albuquerque, Monica C P A; Melo, Ana Maria M A; Napoleão, Thiago H; Pontual, Emmanuel V; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the effect of an aqueous extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. flowers on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults and on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The extract contains tannins, saponins, flavones, flavonols, xanthones, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The toxicity of the extract on Artemia salina larvae was also investigated to determine the safety of its use for schistosomiasis control. After incubation for 24h, the flower extract significantly (p<0.05) delayed the development of B. glabrata embryos and promoted mortality of adult snails (LC50: 2.37±0.5mgmL(-1)). Furthermore, treatment with the extract disrupted the development of embryos generated by snails, with most of them remaining in the blastula stage while control embryos were already in the gastrula stage. Flower extract killed A. salina larvae with a LC50 value (0.2±0.015mgmL(-1)) lower than that determined for snails. A small reduction (17%) in molluscicidal activity was detected when flower extract (2.37mgmL(-1)) was exposed to tropical environmental conditions (UVI index ranging from 1 to 14, temperature from 25 to 30°C, and 65% relative humidity). Toxicity to A. salina was also reduced (LC50 value of 0.28±0.01mgmL(-1)). In conclusion, M. oleifera flower extract had deleterious effects on B. glabrata adults and embryos. However, unrestricted use to control schistosomiasis should be avoided due to the toxicity of this extract on A. salina.

  8. Review: an exposition of medicinal preponderance of Moringa oleifera (Lank.).

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz; Mahmood, Sidra

    2014-03-01

    Medicinal plants are believed to be a precious natural reservoir as they are assumed to have paranormal effects for the mankind. Moringa oleifera grows throughout most of the tropics and has numerous industrial and medicinal uses. This review acquaints with the consequence of fera (Moringaceae), a fast growing medicinal plant wide spread in tropical regions with height ranging from 5-10m. It has an enormous nutritional worth due to existence of vitamins and proteins. It is subsisted with many constituents. Its oil consists of oleic, tocopherols, stearic, palmitic, behenic and arachidic acid. Flavanoids and phenolics such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol, ellagic acid, quercetin and vanillin are present by means of leaf extract, being richest in phenolics and subsequent fruit and seed extract respectively, that are accountable for antioxidant activity of plant. Seeds have been pragmatic with active components as novel O-ethyl-4- (α -L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl carbamate together with seven known compounds, 4 (α -L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate, niazimicin, niazirin, β-sitosterol, glycerol-1- (9 -octadecanoate), 3 -O- 6 -O-oleoyl- β -D-glucopyranosyl-b-sitosterol, and β - sitosterol- 3-X-O -β -D-glucopyranoside , that have been discerned to inhibit EBV-EA (Epstein- Barr virus-early antigen), that is persuaded by the cancer promoter. M. oleifera leaves, gums, roots, flowers as well as kernels have been unanimously utilized for managing tissue tenderness, cardiovascular and liver maladies, normalize blood glucose and cholesterol. It has also profound antimicrobial, hypoglycemic and anti-tubercular activities.

  9. Potential anti-inflammatory phenolic glycosides from the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided isolation and purification of the ethyl acetate extract of Moringa oleifera fruits yielded three new phenolic glycosides; 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl]isothiocyanate (1), 4-[(3'-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (2), and S-methyl-N-{4-[(a-L-rhamnosyloxy)benz...

  10. Assessment of transesterified palm olein and Moringa oleifera oil blends as vanaspati substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Rahman, Fazal

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the suitability of Moringa oleifera oil and palm olein blends as vanaspati substitutes on the basis of physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Blends were prepared either by blending Moringa oleifera oil or palm olein at 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100 ratios, transesterified by Rhizopus miehei, compared with market vanaspati, designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The blends were filled in 3-layer polyethylene pouch packs, stored at ambient temperature, sampled at every at 0, 90 and 180-days for the assessment of storage stability. The melting point and iodine value of T2 and control were 36.8, 37.2 °C and 62.2, 51.8, with no effect on free fatty acids content, peroxide, anisidine values and color of the deodorized stuffs. C18:1 content of T2 was 59.7 % with no trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acid content of the market vanaspati was 22.9 %. The addition of Moringa oleifera oil improved the induction period of the blends strongly inhibited the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. The overall acceptability score of French fries prepared in T2 was 81 % of the total score (9). Blend containing 50 % palm olein and 50 % Moringa oleifera oil can be used in the formulation of a functional shelf stable fat that can be used as a vanaspati substitute.

  11. Characterization of faecal microbial communities of dairy cows fed diets containing ensiled Moringa oleifera fodder

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiajie; Zeng, Bin; Chen, Zujing; Yan, Shijuan; Huang, Wenjie; Sun, Baoli; He, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyang; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Qingyan; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is a remarkable species with high nutritional value and good biomass production, which can be used as livestock fodder. In this study, we examined changes in the faecal microbiota of thirty dairy cows in response to alternative M. oleifera diets and their effects on nutrient digestion, milk traits and the faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. No differences in milk yield and constituents were found between the control and the M. oleifera alternative groups. Cows fed M. oleifera silage had lower dry matter digestibility, as well as the propionate and isovalerate concentrations in M. oleifera treated group. Using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, 1,299,556 paired-end reads were obtained. Clustering analysis revealed 13 phyla and 93 genera across all samples. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the co-dominant phyla. Ten taxa displayed a significant difference in response to the high M. oleifera diet. In addition, strong correlations between Akkermansia and Prevotella with milk yield and protein indicated that some bacterial groups could be used to improve milk traits. Our results provided an insight into the microbiome-associated responses to M. oleifera in livestock diets, and could aid the development of novel applications of M. oleifera. PMID:28134261

  12. Characterization of faecal microbial communities of dairy cows fed diets containing ensiled Moringa oleifera fodder.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiajie; Zeng, Bin; Chen, Zujing; Yan, Shijuan; Huang, Wenjie; Sun, Baoli; He, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyang; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Qingyan; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang

    2017-01-30

    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is a remarkable species with high nutritional value and good biomass production, which can be used as livestock fodder. In this study, we examined changes in the faecal microbiota of thirty dairy cows in response to alternative M. oleifera diets and their effects on nutrient digestion, milk traits and the faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. No differences in milk yield and constituents were found between the control and the M. oleifera alternative groups. Cows fed M. oleifera silage had lower dry matter digestibility, as well as the propionate and isovalerate concentrations in M. oleifera treated group. Using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, 1,299,556 paired-end reads were obtained. Clustering analysis revealed 13 phyla and 93 genera across all samples. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the co-dominant phyla. Ten taxa displayed a significant difference in response to the high M. oleifera diet. In addition, strong correlations between Akkermansia and Prevotella with milk yield and protein indicated that some bacterial groups could be used to improve milk traits. Our results provided an insight into the microbiome-associated responses to M. oleifera in livestock diets, and could aid the development of novel applications of M. oleifera.

  13. Comparison of Moringa Oleifera seeds oil characterization produced chemically and mechanically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eman, N. A.; Muhamad, K. N. S.

    2016-06-01

    It is established that virtually every part of the Moringa oleifera tree (leaves, stem, bark, root, flowers, seeds, and seeds oil) are beneficial in some way with great benefits to human being. The tree is rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals. All Moringa oleifera food products have a very high nutritional value. They are eaten directly as food, as supplements, and as seasonings as well as fodder for animals. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of seeds particle size on oil extraction using chemical method (solvent extraction). Also, to compare Moringa oleifera seeds oil properties which are produced chemically (solvent extraction) and mechanically (mechanical press). The Moringa oleifera seeds were grinded, sieved, and the oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction technique with n-Hexane using three different size of sample (2mm, 1mm, and 500μm). The average oil yield was 36.1%, 40.80%, and 41.5% for 2mm, 1mm, and 500μm particle size, respectively. The properties of Moringa oleifera seeds oil were: density of 873 kg/m3, and 880 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity of 42.2mm2/s and 9.12mm2/s for the mechanical and chemical method, respectively. pH, cloud point and pour point were same for oil produced with both methods which is 6, 18°C and 12°C, respectively. For the fatty acids, the oleic acid is present with high percentage of 75.39%, and 73.60% from chemical and mechanical method, respectively. Other fatty acids are present as well in both samples which are (Gadoleic acid, Behenic acid, Palmitic acid) which are with lower percentage of 2.54%, 5.83%, and 5.73%, respectively in chemical method oil, while they present as 2.40%, 6.73%, and 6.04%, respectively in mechanical method oil. In conclusion, the results showed that both methods can produce oil with high quality. Moringa oleifera seeds oil appear to be an acceptable good source for oil rich in oleic acid which is equal to olive oil quality, that can be consumed in Malaysia where the olive oil

  14. Cultivation, Genetic, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Leaves: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is an interesting plant for its use in bioactive compounds. In this manuscript, we review studies concerning the cultivation and production of moringa along with genetic diversity among different accessions and populations. Different methods of propagation, establishment and cultivation are discussed. Moringa oleifera shows diversity in many characters and extensive morphological variability, which may provide a resource for its improvement. Great genetic variability is present in the natural and cultivated accessions, but no collection of cultivated and wild accessions currently exists. A germplasm bank encompassing the genetic variability present in Moringa is needed to perform breeding programmes and develop elite varieties adapted to local conditions. Alimentary and medicinal uses of moringa are reviewed, alongside the production of biodiesel. Finally, being that the leaves are the most used part of the plant, their contents in terms of bioactive compounds and their pharmacological properties are discussed. Many studies conducted on cell lines and animals seem concordant in their support for these properties. However, there are still too few studies on humans to recommend Moringa leaves as medication in the prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, further studies on humans are recommended. PMID:26057747

  15. Cultivation, Genetic, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Leaves: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-06-05

    Moringa oleifera is an interesting plant for its use in bioactive compounds. In this manuscript, we review studies concerning the cultivation and production of moringa along with genetic diversity among different accessions and populations. Different methods of propagation, establishment and cultivation are discussed. Moringa oleifera shows diversity in many characters and extensive morphological variability, which may provide a resource for its improvement. Great genetic variability is present in the natural and cultivated accessions, but no collection of cultivated and wild accessions currently exists. A germplasm bank encompassing the genetic variability present in Moringa is needed to perform breeding programmes and develop elite varieties adapted to local conditions. Alimentary and medicinal uses of moringa are reviewed, alongside the production of biodiesel. Finally, being that the leaves are the most used part of the plant, their contents in terms of bioactive compounds and their pharmacological properties are discussed. Many studies conducted on cell lines and animals seem concordant in their support for these properties. However, there are still too few studies on humans to recommend Moringa leaves as medication in the prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, further studies on humans are recommended.

  16. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, O S; Elebiyo, T C

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  17. Bioactive Extract from Moringa oleifera Inhibits the Pro-inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fard, Masoumeh Tangestani; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of M. oleifera extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory effect of M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extracts was evaluated by assessing the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production during Griess reaction and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Results: Interestingly, we found that M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract significantly inhibited the secretion of NO production and other inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. Meanwhile, the bioactive extract has induced the production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract effectively suppressed the protein expression of inflammatory markers inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells p65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These findings support the traditional use of M. oleifera plant as an effective treatment for inflammation associated diseases/disorders. SUMMARY Hydroethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera effectively inhibit the NO production in LPS induced inflammatory model.M. oleifera crude extracts successfully modulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages.M. oleifera extracts suppressed the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages. PMID:27013794

  18. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera as a dietary supplement on growth and reproductive performance in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Paul, Latoya T; Fowler, Lauren A; Barry, Robert J; Watts, Stephen A

    2013-12-01

    The leaves of the Moringa oleifera (Moringa) tree contain a significant source of protein, vitamins and minerals, and are considered as an important dietary supplement in countries where chronic malnourishment is linked to poor fetal development. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Moringa leaf as a supplemental replacement for vitamins, minerals, and protein in a formulated zebrafish diet and the impact that it may have on growth and reproductive outcome. Diets included a formulated control (FC) containing an array of vitamins and mineral supplements (pre-mixes), dried ground Moringa only (M), formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes (Fvm), and formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes and supplemented with Moringa (FM). Juvenile zebrafish were fed experimental diets ad libitum. After a 12 week feeding period, each treatment group was evaluated based on growth and reproductive performance. The M treatment showed the least growth performance (length and weight gain) and no reproductive success (no egg production). Although small, M fish appeared otherwise healthy, with survivorship at ca. 70%, suggesting, Moringa can serve as a single ingredient source for a short period of time. FC showed the highest growth performance, and had the highest reproductive success. Growth performance and reproduction in the Fvm diet was greatly reduced. However, inclusion of Moringa (FM) promoted significant, but not total, recovery of growth and reproductive metrics. These data suggest that Moringa leaves can serve as an acceptable supplement for macro and micronutrients in the diet and could, in part, reduce problems associated with nutrient deficiencies.

  19. Toxicity assessment and modelling of Moringa oleifera seeds in water purification by whole cell bioreporter.

    PubMed

    Al-Anizi, Ali Adnan; Hellyer, Maria Theresa; Zhang, Dayi

    2014-06-01

    Moringa oleifera has been used as a coagulation reagent for drinking water purification, especially in developing countries such as Malawi. This research revealed the cytoxicity and genotoxicity of M. oleifera by Acinetobacter bioreporter. The results indicated that significant cytoxicity effects were observed when the powdered M. oleifera seeds concentration is from 1 to 50 mg/L. Through direct contact, ethanolic-water extraction and hexane extraction, the toxic effects of hydrophobic and hydrophilic components in M. oleifera seeds were distinguished. It suggested that the hydrophobic lipids contributed to the dominant cytoxicity, consequently resulting in the dominant genotoxicity in the water-soluble fraction due to limited dissolution when the M. oleifera seeds granule concentration was from 10 to 1000 mg/L. Based on cytoxicity and genotoxicity model, the LC50 and LC90 of M. oleifera seeds were 8.5 mg/L and 300 mg/L respectively and their genotoxicity was equivalent to 8.3 mg mitomycin C per 1.0 g dry M. oleifera seed. The toxicity of M. oleifera has also remarkable synergistic effects, suggesting whole cell bioreporter as an appropriate and complementary tool to chemical analysis for environmental toxicity assessment.

  20. Environmentally friendly biosorbents husks, pods and seeds from Moringa oleifera for Pb(II) removal from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Fernanda Oliveira; Pinto, Laura Adriane de Moraes; Bassetti, Fátima de Jesus; Vieira, Marcelo Fernandes; Beragamasco, Rosângela; Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo

    2017-02-01

    Lead is a heavy metal considered highly toxic, responsible for causing several health problems as well as being extremely harmful to fauna and flora. Given this fact, several techniques have been studied for the removal of this metal from contaminated water, in which stands out adsorption. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of lead (II) biosorption from contaminated water by seed husks, seeds and pods of Moringa oleifera Lam (moringa). Biomass was characterized by EDX, SEM and FTIR analyses. From the studied parameters, the optimal conditions obtained for the three analyzed biosorbents are: 30 minutes to equilibrium, pH 6, and 25 °C temperature. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was the best fitted to the experimental data for the three evaluated biosorbents. Regarding the adsorption isotherms, the model showed that the best fitted to the experimental data for seed and seed husk was the model proposed by Freundlich, and for the pod the Langmuir model. The analysis of the obtained thermodynamic data showed that the adsorption process is favorable and of exothermic nature. Through the results it was concluded that the evaluated biosorbents are efficient in lead (II) biosorption.

  1. Trace Element Studies on Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) Using PIXE.

    PubMed

    Gowrishankar, Ramadurai; Kumar, Manish; Menon, Vinay; Divi, Sai Mangala; Saravanan, M; Magudapathy, P; Panigrahi, B K; Nair, K G M; Venkataramaniah, K

    2010-03-01

    Traditionally, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. F. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) are some of the commonly used medicinal plants in India for curing ailments ranging from common cold, skin diseases, and dental infections to major disorders like diabetes, hypertension, jaundice, rheumatism, etc. To understand and correlate their medicinal use, trace element studies on the aqueous extract of these medicinal plants have been carried out using particle-induced X-ray emission technique. A 2-MeV proton beam was used to identify and characterize major and minor elements namely Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Sr in them. Results have revealed that these elements are present in varying concentrations in the selected plants. Notable results include very high concentrations of Cl, K, and Ca in all the leaf samples, appreciable levels of Mn in all plants, high Zn content in T. cordifolia, and the aqueous extract of Moringa leaves compared to others and relative higher concentrations of Cr in all the plants.

  2. Preparation and characterization of a novel adsorbent from Moringa oleifera leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, Olugbenga Solomon; Adegoke, Kayode Adesina; Akinyunni, Opeyemi Omowumi

    2015-10-01

    A new and novel adsorbent was obtained by impregnation of Moringa oleifera leaf in H2SO4 and NaOH, respectively. Prepared adsorbents were characterized using elemental analysis, FT-IR, SEM, TGA and EDX analyses, respectively. The effects of operational parameters, such as pH, moisture content, ash content, porosity and iodine number on these adsorbents were investigated and compared with those of commercial activated carbon (CAC). EDX results of acid activated M. oleifera leaf have the highest percentage of carbon by weight (69.40 %) and (76.11 %) by atom, respectively. Proximate analysis showed that the fixed carbon content of acid activated M. oleifera leaf (69.14 ± 0.01) was the highest of all adsorbents studied. Conclusively, the present investigation shows that acid activated M. oleifera leaf is a good alternative adsorbent that could be used in lieu of CAC for recovery of dyes and heavy metal from aqueous solutions and other separation techniques.

  3. Characterization of soluble dietary fiber from Moringa oleifera seeds and its immunomodulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Anudeep, Sandanamudi; Prasanna, Vaddi K; Adya, Shruthi M; Radha, Cheruppanpullil

    2016-10-01

    Moringa oleifera (moringa or drumstick) seeds are a potential source of dietary fiber with 6.5% w/w soluble dietary fiber. Biochemical characterization of moringa seed soluble fiber revealed that it is a glycoprotein with 5% neutral sugars. Arabinose and xylose are the major neutral sugars identified by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Moringa seed soluble fiber was identified as protease resistant-glycoprotein and termed as moringa seed resistant protein (MSRP). MSRP was found to be a homodimer (18kDa) containing two 9kDa monomeric units as revealed by SDS-PAGE analysis with pI 10.8. Immunostimulating activity of MSRP was assessed by murine splenocyte proliferation and production of NO from macrophages. MSRP at low concentration (0.01μg/well) strongly increased proliferation of splenocytes, while MSRP at high concentration weakly responded. MSRP induced 6-fold increase in NO production when compared to the control which indicates the activation of macrophages. MSRP isolated from defatted moringa seed flour is a potent mitogen, enhancing the proliferation of lymphocytes and inducing NO from macrophages. This study concludes that moringa seed is a potential nutritional source to promote the immune system of the host.

  4. Effects of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract in alloxan induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Tuorkey, Muobarak J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms of the antidiabetic activity of Moringa oleifera. This study investigates the antidiabetic effect of M. oleifera and its impact on the immune tolerance. Methods Alloxan-induced diabetes model for mice was used. A dose of 100 mg/kg of Moringa extract was orally administered to diabetic treated mice. Glucose and insulin levels were evaluated to calculate insulin resistance. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were measured. The relative percentage of CD44, CD69, and IFN-γ was investigated by flow cytometry. Results In diabetic mice, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was increased 4.5-fold than in the control group, and HOMA-IR was decreased 1.3-fold in the Moringa treatment group. The level of TAC was declined 1.94-fold in diabetic mice, and increased 1.67-fold in diabetic treated group. In diabetic mice, creatinine and BUN levels were significantly reduced 1.42- and 1.2-fold, respectively, in Moringa treatment mice. The relative percentage of CD44 was not changed in diabetic mice, but the relative percentage of CD69 was found to be increased. INF-γ was decreased 2.4-fold in diabetic mice and elevated in treated groups. Conclusion Moringa may ameliorate insulin resistance, increase TAC, and improve immune tolerance. PMID:28203392

  5. Probing Regenerative Potential of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts Using In vitro Cellular Assays

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Evangeline E.; Pulwale, Anubha V.; Patil, Gauri A.; Moghe, Alpana S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. Objective: To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Materials and Methods: Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Results: Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion: A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera flower extract showed significant ability to promote proliferation of rat fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cells. The extract also had prominent angiogenic and hepatoprotective effects.The extract did not influence proliferation of cancer cell lines indicating its safety for human consumption and use in pharmaceuticals.The Moringa oleifera leaf extract

  6. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment.

  7. Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes in rats by regeneration of β cells and reduction of pyruvate carboxylase expression.

    PubMed

    Abd El Latif, Amira; El Bialy, Badr El Said; Mahboub, Hamada Dahi; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk Attia

    2014-10-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. contains many active ingredients with nutritional and medicinal values. It is commonly used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The present study was designed to investigate how an aqueous extract from the leaves of M. oleifera reveals hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. M. oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats as it normalized the elevated serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde, and normalized mRNA expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase in hepatic tissues. It also increased live body weight gain and normalized the reduced mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the liver and pancreas damaged by alloxan in diabetic rats. This study revealed that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves possesses potent hypoglycemic effects through the normalization of elevated hepatic pyruvate carboxylase enzyme and regeneration of damaged hepatocytes and pancreatic β cells via its antioxidant properties.

  8. The Flocculating Cationic Polypetide from Moringa oleifera Seeds Damages Bacterial Cell Membranes by Causing Membrane Fusion.

    PubMed

    Shebek, Kevin; Schantz, Allen B; Sines, Ian; Lauser, Kathleen; Velegol, Stephanie; Kumar, Manish

    2015-04-21

    A cationic protein isolated from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been extensively studied for use in water treatment in developing countries and has been proposed for use in antimicrobial and therapeutic applications. However, the molecular basis for the antimicrobial action of this peptide, Moringa oleifera cationic protein (MOCP), has not been previously elucidated. We demonstrate here that a dominant mechanism of MOCP antimicrobial activity is membrane fusion. We used a combination of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and fluorescence assays to observe and study the kinetics of fusion of membranes in liposomes representing model microbial cells. We also conducted cryo-EM experiments on E. coli cells where MOCP was seen to fuse the inner and outer membranes. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of membrane vesicles with MOCP molecules were used to elucidate steps in peptide adsorption, stalk formation, and fusion between membranes.

  9. Antipyretic activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Moringa oleifera in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Saeed; Shah, Syed Muhammad-Ali; Alam, Muhammad Khurshid; Usmanghani, Khan; Azhar, Iqbal; Akram, Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    Pyrexia and inflammation are indicatives of various disorders. Modern medicines are available for treatment of pyrexia, but they have few side effects. Several studies are ongoing Worldwide to search natural antipyretic agents with better efficacy and fewer or no side effects. This study was aimed at evaluating the antipyretic activity of Moringa oleifera bark in rabbits against E. coli induced pyrexia. Rectal temperature was recorded with digital thermometer at 0 h and E. coli suspension was injected. After 1 h again rectal temperature of the animals was recorded and hydro-alcoholic extract were administered to the treatment groups and paracetamol hydro-alcoholic 50 mg/kg orally to the positive control group. Then rectal temperature was recorded at the interval of one h for 4 h. After the drug administration (at h 1), the decrease in body temperature with the dose of 25mg/kg(-1) during next four h ranged between 1.9-2.6of as compared to the negative control. At the dose of 50mg/kg(-1) the decrease in temperature was 1.9-3.0 of. The decrease in body temperature at the dose of 100mg/kg(-1) was high, which ranged from 2.3-3.1of as compared to negative control. Paracetamol, a standard drug , also significantly lowered the temperature but Moringa oleifera at the concentration of 100mg/kg(-1) lowered the body temperature significantly as compared to the negative as well as positive control. Moringa oleifera bark has marked antipyretic activity in animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Moringa oleifera bark as an antipyretic plant.

  10. Effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Ayobami Oladele; Aderoju, Hameed Adeola; Alagbonsi, Isiaka Abdullateef

    2013-01-01

    While anti-oxidant effects of Moringa oleifera in much oxidative stress related diseases have been well reported, cryptorchidism on the other hand has been shown to cause oxidative stress. However, study is scanty on the likely role of Moringa oleifera in reducing cryptorchidism-induced oxidative stress in rats has not been studied. The present study looked into the effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MEMO) on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats. Twenty male albino rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5 each). Groups A and B were sham-operated and treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively, while groups C and D were rendered cryptorchid and also treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively. Cryptorchid rats had lower testicular weight, sperm count, germ cell count, testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration, testicular total protein and higher testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration compared to sham-operated rats. MEMO had no significant effect on testicular weight and MDA concentration, while it significantly increased sperm count, germ cell count, testicular SOD and total protein in the cryptorchid rats. The present study suggests that MEMO ameliorates cryptorchidism associated germ cell loss and oxidative stress.

  11. Optimization of formulation and processing of Moringa oleifera and spirulina complex tablets.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Zhu, Fan; Lin, Dan; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Yichao; Mark, Bohn

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To prepare a more comprehensive nutrition, more balanced proportion of natural nutritional supplement tablets with Moringa oleifera leaves and spirulina the two nutrients which have complementary natural food ingredients. Method: On the basis of research M. oleifera leaves with spirulina nutrient composition was determined on M. oleifera leaves and spirulina ratio of raw materials, and the choice of microcrystalline cellulose, sodium salt of caboxy methyl cellulose(CMC),magnesium stearate excipient, through single factor and orthogonal experiment, selecting the best formula tablets prepared by powder direct compression technology, for preparation of M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets. Results: The best ratio of raw material for the M. oleifera leaves powder: spirulina powder was 7:3, the best raw materials for the tablet formulation was 88.5%, 8.0% microcrystalline cellulose, CMC 2.0%, stearin magnesium 1.5%, the optimum parameters for the raw material crushing 200-300 mesh particle size, moisture content of 7%, tableting pressure 40 kN. Conclusion: Through formulation and process optimization, we can prepare more comprehensive and balanced nutrition M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets, its sheet-shaped appearance, piece weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration and other indicators have reached the appropriate quality requirements.

  12. Soluble Moringa oleifera leaf extract reduces intracellular cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kerdsomboon, Kittikhun; Tatip, Supinda; Kosasih, Sattawat; Auesukaree, Choowong

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera leaves are a well-known source of antioxidants and traditionally used for medicinal applications. In the present study, the protective action of soluble M. oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) against cadmium toxicity was investigated in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that this extract exhibited a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by cadmium and H2O2 through the reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, not only the co-exposure of soluble MOLE with cadmium but also pretreatment of this extract prior to cadmium exposure significantly reduced the cadmium uptake through an inhibition of Fet4p, a low-affinity iron(II) transporter. In addition, the supplementation of soluble MOLE significantly reduced intracellular iron accumulation in a Fet4p-independent manner. Our findings suggest the potential use of soluble extract from M. oleifera leaves as a dietary supplement for protection against cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress.

  13. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera as a dietary supplement on growth and reproductive performance in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Latoya T.; Fowler, Lauren A.; Barry, Robert J.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The leaves of the Moringa oleifera (Moringa) tree contain a significant source of protein, vitamins and minerals, and are considered as an important dietary supplement in countries where chronic malnourishment is linked to poor fetal development. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Moringa leaf as a supplemental replacement for vitamins, minerals, and protein in a formulated zebrafish diet and the impact that it may have on growth and reproductive outcome. Diets included a formulated control (FC) containing an array of vitamins and mineral supplements (pre-mixes), dried ground Moringa only (M), formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes (Fvm), and formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes and supplemented with Moringa (FM). Juvenile zebrafish were fed experimental diets ad libitum. After a 12 week feeding period, each treatment group was evaluated based on growth and reproductive performance. The M treatment showed the least growth performance (length and weight gain) and no reproductive success (no egg production). Although small, M fish appeared otherwise healthy, with survivorship at ca. 70%, suggesting, Moringa can serve as a single ingredient source for a short period of time. FC showed the highest growth performance, and had the highest reproductive success. Growth performance and reproduction in the Fvm diet was greatly reduced. However, inclusion of Moringa (FM) promoted significant, but not total, recovery of growth and reproductive metrics. These data suggest that Moringa leaves can serve as an acceptable supplement for macro and micronutrients in the diet and could, in part, reduce problems associated with nutrient deficiencies. PMID:27570785

  14. Moringa oleifera Seeds and Oil: Characteristics and Uses for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds are a promising resource for food and non-food applications, due to their content of monounsaturated fatty acids with a high monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFA) ratio, sterols and tocopherols, as well as proteins rich in sulfated amino acids. The rapid growth of Moringa trees in subtropical and tropical areas, even under conditions of prolonged drought, makes this plant a reliable resource to enhance the nutritional status of local populations and, if rationalized cultivation practices are exploited, their economy, given that a biodiesel fuel could be produced from a source not in competition with human food crops. Despite the relatively diffuse use of Moringa seeds and their oil in traditional medicine, no pharmacological activity study has been conducted on humans. Some encouraging evidence, however, justifies new efforts to obtain clear and definitive information on the benefits to human health arising from seed consumption. A critical review of literature data concerning the composition of Moringa oil has set in motion a plan for future investigations. Such investigations, using the seeds and oil, will focus on cultivation conditions to improve plant production, and will study the health effects on human consumers of Moringa seeds and their oil. PMID:27999405

  15. Moringa oleifera Seeds and Oil: Characteristics and Uses for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2016-12-20

    Moringa oleifera seeds are a promising resource for food and non-food applications, due to their content of monounsaturated fatty acids with a high monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFA) ratio, sterols and tocopherols, as well as proteins rich in sulfated amino acids. The rapid growth of Moringa trees in subtropical and tropical areas, even under conditions of prolonged drought, makes this plant a reliable resource to enhance the nutritional status of local populations and, if rationalized cultivation practices are exploited, their economy, given that a biodiesel fuel could be produced from a source not in competition with human food crops. Despite the relatively diffuse use of Moringa seeds and their oil in traditional medicine, no pharmacological activity study has been conducted on humans. Some encouraging evidence, however, justifies new efforts to obtain clear and definitive information on the benefits to human health arising from seed consumption. A critical review of literature data concerning the composition of Moringa oil has set in motion a plan for future investigations. Such investigations, using the seeds and oil, will focus on cultivation conditions to improve plant production, and will study the health effects on human consumers of Moringa seeds and their oil.

  16. Molecular imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction of flavonol aglycones from Moringa oleifera extracts.

    PubMed

    Pakade, Vusumzi; Cukrowska, Ewa; Lindahl, Sofia; Turner, Charlotta; Chimuka, Luke

    2013-02-01

    Molecular imprinted polymer produced using quercetin as the imprinting compound was applied for the extraction of flavonol aglycones (quercetin and kaempferol) from Moringa oleifera methanolic extracts obtained using heated reflux extraction method. Identification and quantification of these flavonols in the Moringa extracts was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet detection. Breakthrough volume and retention capacity of molecular imprinted polymer SPE was investigated using a mixture of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. The calculated theoretical number of plates was found to be 14, 50 and 8 for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. Calculated adsorption capacities were 2.0, 3.4 and 3.7 μmol/g for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. No myricetin was observed in Moringa methanol extracts. Recoveries of quercetin and kaempferol from Moringa methanol extracts of leaves and flowers ranged from 77 to 85% and 75 to 86%, respectively, demonstrating the feasibility of using the developed molecularly imprinted SPE method for quantitative clean-up of both of these flavonoids. Using heated reflux extraction combined with molecularly imprinted SPE, quercetin concentrations of 975 ± 58 and 845 ± 32 mg/kg were determined in Moringa leaves and flowers, respectively. However, the concentrations of kaempferol found in leaves and flowers were 2100 ± 176 and 2802 ± 157 mg/kg, respectively.

  17. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and enzymatic activity of liver from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves/sunflower seed cake.

    PubMed

    Moyo, B; Oyedemi, S; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2012-08-01

    The study investigated antioxidant potency of Moringa oleifera leaves in different in vitro systems using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidative effect on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were investigated in goats supplemented with M. oleifera (MOL) or sunflower seed cake (SC). The acetone extract had higher concentrations of total flavonoids (295.01 ± 1.89 QE/g) followed by flavonols (132.74 ± 0.83 QE/g), phenolics (120.33 ± 0.76 TE/g) and then proanthocyanidins (32.59 ± 0.50 CE/g) than the aqueous extract. The reducing power of both solvent extracts showed strong antioxidant activity in a concentration dependent manner. The acetone extract depicted higher percentage inhibition against DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals which were comparable with reference standard antioxidants (vitamin C and BHT). MOL increased the antioxidant activity of GSH (186%), SOD (97.8%) and catalase (0.177%). Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by MOL. The present study suggests that M. oleifera could be a potential source of compounds with strong antioxidant potential.

  18. Therapeutic Potential of Moringa oleifera Leaves in Chronic Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mbikay, Majambu

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is an angiosperm plant, native of the Indian subcontinent, where its various parts have been utilized throughout history as food and medicine. It is now cultivated in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The nutritional, prophylactic, and therapeutic virtues of this plant are being extolled on the Internet. Dietary consumption of its part is therein promoted as a strategy of personal health preservation and self-medication in various diseases. The enthusiasm for the health benefits of M. oleifera is in dire contrast with the scarcity of strong experimental and clinical evidence supporting them. Fortunately, the chasm is slowly being filled. In this article, I review current scientific data on the corrective potential of M. oleifera leaves in chronic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, as symptoms of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reported studies in experimental animals and humans, although limited in number and variable in design, seem concordant in their support for this potential. However, before M. oleifera leaf formulations can be recommended as medication in the prevention or treatment of diabetes and CVD, it is necessary that the scientific basis of their efficacy, the therapeutic modalities of their administration and their possible side effects be more rigorously determined. PMID:22403543

  19. Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Moustapha; Lamien-Sanou, Assita; Ramdé, Norbert; Ouédraogo, Aimé S; Ouédraogo, Moussa; Zongo, Salifou P; Goumbri, Olga; Duez, Pierre; Guissou, Pierre I

    2013-03-01

    Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species has been implicated in the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. The nephroprotective effect of aqueous-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (150 and 300 mg/kg) was evaluated against gentamicin-induced (80 mg/kg) renal injury in rabbits. Serum urea and creatinine levels were evaluated as the markers of renal nephrotoxicity. At the end of the experiment, the kidneys of rabbits were excised for histological examinations and determination of lipid peroxidation levels. Serum urea and creatinine levels were reduced in the M. oleifera (150 and 300 mg/kg) plus gentamicin treated groups. On histological examinations, kidney of intoxicated rabbits groups which received M. oleifera extract showed reparative tendencies. A highly significant (p < 0.01) elevation was observed in lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in the kidneys of gentamicin-intoxicated rabbits whereas combined treatment of M. oleifera and gentamicin group showed a highly significant (p < 0.01) depletion in LPO. The present study indicates that aqueous-ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves attenuates renal injury in rabbits treated with gentamicin, possibly by inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

  20. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Woan Sean; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was quantified through Griess reaction while proinflammatory cytokines and other key inflammatory markers were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Results. Hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower significantly suppressed the secretion and expression of NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, it significantly increased the production of IL-10 and IκB-α (inhibitor of κB) in a concentration dependent manner (100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL). Conclusion. These results suggest that 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower has anti-inflammatory action related to its inhibition of NO, PGE2, proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory mediator's production in LPS-stimulated macrophages through preventing degradation of IκB-α in NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26609199

  1. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand- washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Moringa oleifera is a plant found in many tropical and subtropical countries. Many different uses and properties have been attributed to this plant, mainly as a nutritional supplement and as a water purifier. Its antibacterial activity against different pathogens has been described in different in vitro settings. However the potential effect of this plant leaf as a hand washing product has never been studied. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of this product using an in vivo design with healthy volunteers. Methods The hands of fifteen volunteers were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Moringa oleifera leaf powder was tested as a hand washing product and was compared with reference non-medicated liquid soap using a cross over design following an adaptation of the European Committee for Standardization protocol (EN 1499). In a second part of tests, the efficacy of the established amount of Moringa oleifera leaf powder was compared with an inert powder using the same protocol. Results Application of 2 and 3 g of dried Moringa oleifera leaf powder (mean log10-reduction: 2.44 ± 0.41 and 2.58 ± 0.34, respectively) was significantly less effective than the reference soap (3.00 ± 0.27 and 2.99 ± 0.26, respectively; p < 0.001). Application of the same amounts of Moringa oleifera (2 and 3 g) but using a wet preparation, was also significantly less effective than reference soap (p < 0.003 and p < 0.02, respectively). However there was no significant difference when using 4 g of Moringa oleifera powder in dried or wet preparation (mean log10-reduction: 2.70 ± 0.27 and 2.91 ± 0.11, respectively) compared with reference soap (2.97 ± 0.28). Application of calcium sulphate inert powder was significantly less effective than the 4 g of Moringa oleifera powder (p < 0.01). Conclusion Four grams of Moringa oleifera powder in dried and wet application had the same effect as non-medicated soap

  2. Moringa oleifera hydroethanolic extracts effectively alleviate acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats through their antioxidant nature.

    PubMed

    Fakurazi, Sharida; Sharifudin, Syazana Akmal; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2012-07-10

    The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant properties Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) extracts and its curative role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxic liver injury in rats caused by oxidative damage. The total phenolic content and antioxidant properties of hydroethanolic extracts of different MO edible parts were investigated by employing an established in vitro biological assay. In the antihepatotoxic study, either flowers or leaves extract (200 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg, i.p) were administered an hour after APAP administration, respectively. N-Acetylcysteine was used as the positive control against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. The levels of liver markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the levels of oxidative damage markers including malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) protein adduct, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analysed and compared between experimental groups. Among MO edible parts the flower extracts contain the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, followed by leaves extract. The oxidative marker MDA, as well as 4-HNE protein adduct levels were elevated and GSH, SOD and CAT were significantly decreased in groups treated with hepatotoxin. The biochemical liver tissue oxidative markers measured in the rats treated with MO flowers and leaves hydroethanolic extracts showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the severity of the liver damage. The results of this study strongly indicate the therapeutic properties of MO hydroethanolic extracts against acute liver injury and thereby scientifically support its traditional use.

  3. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased.

  4. Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Subhash; Othman, Zalina; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2007-06-25

    Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).

  5. Isothiocyanate-rich Moringa oleifera extract reduces weight gain, insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Carrie; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Kuhn, Peter; Richard, Allison J.; Wicks, Shawna; Stephens, Jacqueline M.; Wang, Zhong; Mynatt, Randy; Cefalu, William; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Scope Moringa oleifera (moringa) is tropical plant traditionally used as an antidiabetic food. It produces structurally unique and chemically stable moringa isothiocyanates (MICs) that were evaluated for their therapeutic use in vivo. Methods and results C57BL/6L mice fed very high fat diet (VHFD) supplemented with 5% moringa concentrate (MC, delivering 66 mg/kg/d of MICs) accumulated fat mass, had improved glucose tolerance and insulin signaling, and did not develop fatty liver disease compared to VHFD-fed mice. MC-fed group also had reduced plasma insulin, leptin, resistin, cholesterol, IL-1β, TNFα, and lower hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) expression. In hepatoma cells, MC and MICs at low micromolar concentrations inhibited gluconeogenesis and G6P expression. MICs and MC effects on lipolysis in vitro and on thermogenic and lipolytic genes in adipose tissue in vivo argued these are not likely primary targets for the anti-obesity and anti- diabetic effects observed. Conclusion Data suggest that MICs are the main anti-obesity and anti-diabetic bioactives of MC, and that they exert their effects by inhibiting rate-limiting steps in liver gluconeogenesis resulting in direct or indirect increase in insulin signaling and sensitivity. These conclusions suggest that MC may be an effective dietary food for the prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25620073

  6. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Moringa oleifera against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, K; Murugan, K; Nareshkumar, A; Ramasubramanian, N; Bragadeeswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm). Methods M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 100 g of the plant material were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield 122 mg and 110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) from Arcang amara and Ocimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm were prepared. Results Larvicidal activity of M. oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of the A. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were 57.79 ppm and 125.93 ppm for the first instar, 63.90 ppm and 133.07 ppm for the second instar, 72.45 ppm and 139.82 ppm for the third instar, 78.93 ppm and 143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract of M. oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were 67.77 ppm and 141.00 ppm, respectively. Conclusions The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived from M. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs. PMID:23569741

  7. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats.

    PubMed

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-Kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract. The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract.

  8. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract. The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract. PMID:26550159

  9. The use of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder as Coagulant to Improve the Quality of Wastewater and Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrawati; Rani Yuliastri, Indra; Nurhasni; Rohaeti, Eti; Effendi, Hefni; Darusman, Latifah K.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater and ground water treatment are mostly using Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC), a synthetic coagulant, which possess health risk and require expensive cost. This research was carried out to observe the effect of Moringa oleifera seed as natural coagulant to replace synthetic coagulant. M. oleifera reduced 98.6% turbidity of wastewater, 10.8% of its conductivity, 11.7% of its BOD and removed its metal contents (Cd, Cr, Mn). When applied to ground water, M. oleifera removed the turbidity of ground water as much as 97.5%, while reduced the conductivity and BOD of ground water 53.4% and 18%, respectively. The use of M. oleifera also reduced total number of coliform. The advantage of using M. oleifera is that it does not reduce pH as PAC, hence does not require further treatment to adjust pH of the treated water.

  10. Moringa oleifera leaf extracts inhibit 6β-hydroxylation of testosterone by CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Monera, Tsitsi G.; Wolfe, Alan R.; Maponga, Charles C.; Benet, Leslie Z.; Guglielmo, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Background Moringa oleifera is a tropical tree often used as a herbal medicine, including by people who test positive for HIV. Since herbal constituents may interact with drugs via inhibition of metabolizing enzymes, we investigated the effects of extracts of M. oleifera on the CYP3A4-mediated 6ß-hydroxylation of testosterone. Methods Methanolic and aqueous leaf and root of extracts of M. oleifera with concentrations between 0.01 and 10 mg/ml were incubated with testosterone and mixed-sex human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. Metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested with HepG2 cells using the MTT formazan assay. Results Significant CYP3A4 inhibitory effects were found, with IC50 values of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/ml for leaf-methanol and leaf-water extracts, respectively. Root extracts were less active. Cytotoxicity was observed only with the leaf-water extract (IC50 = 6 mg/ml). Conclusions Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the potential of M. oleifera for clinically significant interactions with antiretroviral and other drugs. PMID:19745507

  11. Moringa oleifera mitigates memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal model of age-related dementia.

    PubMed

    Sutalangka, Chatchada; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

    2013-01-01

    To date, the preventive strategy against dementia is still essential due to the rapid growth of its prevalence and the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress in age-related dementia and the antioxidant and nootropic activities of Moringa oleifera, the enhancement of spatial memory and neuroprotection of M. oleifera leaves extract in animal model of age-related dementia was determined. The possible underlying mechanism was also investigated. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were orally given M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 7 days after the intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A bilaterally. Then, they were assessed memory, neuron density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and AChE in hippocampus. The results showed that the extract improved spatial memory and neurodegeneration in CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of hippocampus together with the decreased MDA level and AChE activity but increased SOD and CAT activities. Therefore, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract is the potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. The possible mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the enhanced cholinergic function. However, further explorations concerning active ingredient(s) are still required.

  12. Moringa oleifera Mitigates Memory Impairment and Neurodegeneration in Animal Model of Age-Related Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sutalangka, Chatchada; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

    2013-01-01

    To date, the preventive strategy against dementia is still essential due to the rapid growth of its prevalence and the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress in age-related dementia and the antioxidant and nootropic activities of Moringa oleifera, the enhancement of spatial memory and neuroprotection of M. oleifera leaves extract in animal model of age-related dementia was determined. The possible underlying mechanism was also investigated. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–220 g, were orally given M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 7 days after the intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A bilaterally. Then, they were assessed memory, neuron density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and AChE in hippocampus. The results showed that the extract improved spatial memory and neurodegeneration in CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of hippocampus together with the decreased MDA level and AChE activity but increased SOD and CAT activities. Therefore, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract is the potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. The possible mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the enhanced cholinergic function. However, further explorations concerning active ingredient(s) are still required. PMID:24454988

  13. Protease inhibitor from Moringa oleifera with potential for use as therapeutic drug and as seafood preservative

    PubMed Central

    Bijina, B.; Chellappan, Sreeja; Krishna, Jissa G.; Basheer, Soorej M.; Elyas, K.K.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Protease inhibitors are well known to have several applications in medicine and biotechnology. Several plant sources are known to return potential protease inhibitors. In this study plants belonging to different families of Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Graminae and Moringaceae were screened for the protease inhibitor. Among them Moringa oleifera, belonging to the family Moringaceae, recorded high level of protease inhibitor activity after ammonium sulfate fractionation. M. oleifera, which grows throughout most of the tropics and having several industrial and medicinal uses, was selected as a source of protease inhibitor since so far no reports were made on isolation of the protease inhibitor. Among the different parts of M. oleifera tested, the crude extract isolated from the mature leaves and seeds showed the highest level of inhibition against trypsin. Among the various extraction media evaluated, the crude extract prepared in phosphate buffer showed maximum recovery of the protease inhibitor. The protease inhibitor recorded high inhibitory activity toward the serine proteases thrombin, elastase, chymotrypsin and the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and papain which have more importance in pharmaceutical industry. The protease inhibitor also showed complete inhibition of activities of the commercially available proteases of Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus oryzae. However, inhibitory activities toward subtilisin, esperase, pronase E and proteinase K were negligible. Further, it was found that the protease inhibitor could prevent proteolysis in a commercially valuable shrimp Penaeus monodon during storage indicating the scope for its application as a seafood preservative. This is the first report on isolation of a protease inhibitor from M. oleifera. PMID:23961135

  14. Use of Moringa oleifera Flower Pod Extract as Natural Preservative and Development of SCAR Marker for Its DNA Based Identification

    PubMed Central

    Gull, Iram; Javed, Attia; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Roohi; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094 mg QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317 bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry. PMID:27471732

  15. Kinetics modelling of Cu(II) biosorption on to coconut shell and Moringa oleifera seeds from tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Acheampong, Mike A; Pereira, Joana P C; Meulepas, Roel J W; Lens, Piet N L

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption kinetic studies are of great significance in evaluating the performance of a given adsorbent and gaining insight into the underlying mechanism. This work investigated the sorption kinetics of Cu(II) on to coconut shell and Moringa oleifera seeds using batch techniques. To understand the mechanisms of the biosorption process and the potential rate-controlling steps, kinetic models were used to fit the experimental data. The results indicate that kinetic data were best described by the pseudo-second-order model with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9974 and 0.9958 for the coconut shell and Moringa oleifera seeds, respectively. The initial sorption rates obtained for coconut shell and Moringa oleifera seeds were 9.6395 x 10(-3) and 8.3292 x 10(-2) mg g(-1) min(-1), respectively. The values of the mass transfer coefficients obtained for coconut shell (1.2106 x 10(-3) cm s(-1)) and Moringa oleifera seeds (8.965 x 10(-4) cm s(-1)) indicate that the transport of Cu(II) from the bulk liquid to the solid phase was quite fast for both materials investigated. The results indicate that intraparticle diffusion controls the rate of sorption in this study; however, film diffusion cannot be neglected, especially at the initial stage of sorption.

  16. Use of Moringa oleifera Flower Pod Extract as Natural Preservative and Development of SCAR Marker for Its DNA Based Identification.

    PubMed

    Gull, Iram; Javed, Attia; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Roohi; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094 mg QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317 bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry.

  17. In vitro fermentation characteristics and effective utilisable crude protein in leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera cultivated at low and mid-altitudes.

    PubMed

    Melesse, A; Steingass, H; Boguhn, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the in vitro nutrient digestibility and utilisation of leaves and green pods of two Moringa species in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season. Samples were analysed for proximate nutrients using official methods. The metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and effective utilisable crude protein (uCP) were estimated using the Hohenheim in vitro gas test method. Gas volume in Moringa stenopetala leaves and green pods was generally higher than those of Moringa oleifera. Gas volume for leaves was similar between low and mid-altitudes but was higher for green pods at mid-altitude. M. stenopetala leaves contained significantly higher ME (9.8 MJ/kg DM) and OMD (75%) than those of M. oleifera. Similarly, M. stenopetala green pods had higher ME and OMD values than those of M. oleifera. For green pods, the ME and OMD values were significantly higher at mid-altitude than those at low altitude although these values for leaves were similar between both altitudes. Moringa oleifera leaves had higher effective uCP than those of M. stenopetala. Nevertheless, the effective uCP was higher for green pods of M. stenopetala than those of M. oleifera. The effective uCP for leaves cultivated at mid-altitude was slightly higher than those at low altitude. This study suggested that leaves and green pods could be used as alternative energy and protein supplements for tropical ruminants, particularly during dry periods. It was further concluded that leaves were generally better in nutrient compositions and in vitro nutrient digestibility characteristics than green pods.

  18. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and its application to optical limiting.

    PubMed

    Sathyavathi, R; Krishna, M Bala Murali; Rao, D Narayana

    2011-03-01

    The Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. The work presented here with the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent and its application in nonlinear optics. The aqueous silver ions when exposed to Moringa oleifera leaf extract are reduced resulting in silver nanoparticles demonstrating the biosynthesis. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. TEM analysis shows a dispersion of the nanoparticles in a range of 5-80 nm with the average around 46 nm and are crystallized in face centred cubic symmetry. To show that these biosynthesized silver nanoparticles possess very good nonlinear properties similar to those nanoparticles synthesized by chemical route, we carried out the Z-scan studies with a 6 ns, 532 nm pulsed laser. We estimated the nonlinear absorption coefficient and compare it with the literature values of the nanoparticles synthesized through chemical route. The silver nanoparticles suspended in solution exhibited reverse saturable absorption with optical limiting threshold of 100 mJ/cm2.

  19. Assessment of the antiulcer potential of Moringa oleifera root-bark extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Bodakhe, Surendra H; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, an ethanolic root-bark extract of Moringa oleifera (MO) was examined for its antiulcer potential in albino Wistar rats using two experimental models: ethanol-induced and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulceration. The extract was orally administered at three different doses (150, 350, and 500 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days. The antiulcer effects in rats treated with different doses of the extract and omeprazole (30 mg/kg, p.o.) were determined and compared statistically with the antiulcer effects in the control rats treated with saline (NaCl, 0.9%). The MO at doses of 350 and 500 mg/kg decreased the ulcer index significantly as compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The percentage protections against gastric ulcers were 82.58%, 85.13%, and 86.15% for MO doses of 150, 350, and 500 mg/kg, respectively, in the pylorus-ligated ulcer model and 55.75%, 59.33%, and 78.51%, respectively, in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The MO significantly reduced the free acidity, total acidity, and ulcer index (p < 0.01) and increased the pH of gastric content compared with the control group. This study suggests that MO possesses valuable antiulcer, antisecretory, and cytoprotective activity. Thus, an ethanolic root-bark extract of Moringa oleifera can be used as source for an antiulcer drug.

  20. Nano-Micelle of Moringa Oleifera Seed Oil Triggers Mitochondrial Cancer Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed

    Abd-Rabou, Ahmed A; A Zoheir, Khairy M; Kishta, Mohamed S; Shalby, Aziza B; Ezzo, Mohamed I

    2016-11-01

    Cancer, a worldwide epidemic disease with diverse origins, involves abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade other parts of the body. Globally, it is the main cause of mortality and morbidity. To overcome the drawbacks of the commercially available chemotherapies, natural products-loaded nano-composites are recommended to improve cancer targetability and decrease the harmful impact on normal cells. This study aimed at exploring the anti-cancer impacts of Moringa oleifera seed oil in its free- (MO) and nano-formulations (MOn) through studying whether it mechanistically promotes mitochondrial apoptosis-mediating cell death. Mitochondrial-based cytotoxicity and flow cytometric-based apoptosis analyses were performed on cancer HepG2, MCF7, HCT 116, and Caco-2 cell lines against normal kidney BHK-21 cell line. The present study resulted that MOn triggered colorectal cancer Caco-2 and HCT 116 cytotoxicity via mitochondrial dysfunction more powerful than its free counterpart (MO). On the other side, MOn and MO remarkably induces HCT 116 mitochondrial apoptosis, while sparing normal BHK-21 cells with minimal cytotoxic effect. The present results concluded that nano-micelle of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MOn) can provide a novel therapeutic approach for colorectal and breast cancers via mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, while sparing normal and even liver cancer cells a bit healthy or with minimal harmful effect. Intriguingly, MOn induced breast cancer not hepatocellular carcinoma cell death.

  1. Feeding Moringa oleifera fresh or ensiled to dairy cows--effects on milk yield and milk flavor.

    PubMed

    Mendieta-Araica, Bryan; Spörndly, Eva; Reyes-Sánchez, Nadir; Spörndly, Rolf

    2011-06-01

    Moringa oleifera, either fresh or ensiled, was compared with Elephant grass as a main feedstuff for dairy cows. To test the effects feed had on milk yield, milk composition, ration digestibility, and the organoleptic characteristics of milk, six lactating dairy cows were used in a Changeover 3 × 3 Latin Square experiment, replicated twice. With equal intake of metabolizable energy the intake of protein and fiber differed (p < 0.001) between all diets where fresh Moringa had the highest and the Elephant grass diet had the lowest intake. Compared with the control diet, ensiled Moringa had higher digestibility (P < 0.05) of both protein and fiber. With the exception of DM digestibility, no digestibility differences were found between fresh Moringa and Moringa silage treatments. Milk yield did not differ between any of the treatments and averaged 13.7 kg cow day(-1). Milk composition was similar among all treatments. Milk from the fresh Moringa treatment, however, had a grassy flavor and aroma, significantly different from the other two treatments, even though it was normal in color and appearance. No organoleptic differences were found between milk from the control treatment and the Moringa silage treatment. The conclusion is that Moringa silage can be fed to dairy cows in large quantities to produce the same quantity and quality of milk as traditional diets.

  2. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Taha, Nevine R; Amin, Hanan Ali; Sultan, Asrar A

    2015-02-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating antineoplastic agent is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors and B-cell malignant disease. It is known to cause urinary bladder damage due to inducing oxidative stress. Moringa oleifera (Mof) is commonly known as drumstick tree. Moringa leaves have been reported to be a rich source of β-carotene, protein, vitamin C, calcium, and potassium. It acts as a good source of natural antioxidants; due to the presence of various types of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics and carotenoids. The aim of this work was to test the possible antioxidant protective effects of M. oleifera leaves against CP induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats. Female Wister albino rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I served as control, received orally normal saline, group II received a single dose CP 100mg/kg intraperitoneally, group III and VI both received orally hydroethanolic extract of Mof; 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively daily for a week, 1h before and 4h after CP administration. Rats were sacrificed 24h after CP injection. The bladder was removed, sectioned, and subjected to light, transition electron microscopic studies, and biochemical studies (measuring the parameter of lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde along with the activities of the antioxidant enzyme reduced glutathione). The bladders of CP treated rats showed ulcered mucosa, edematous, hemorrhagic, and fibrotic submucosa by light microscopy. Ultrastructure observation showed; losing large areas of uroepithelium, extended intercellular gaps, junction complexes were affected as well as damage of mitochondria in the form of swelling and destruction of cristae. Biochemical analysis showed significant elevation of malondialdhyde, while reduced glutathione activity was significantly lowered. From the results obtained in this work, we can say that Moringa leaves play an important role in ameliorating and protecting the bladder from CP toxicity.

  3. Moringa oleifera as an Anti-Cancer Agent against Breast and Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman Khazim; Albalawi, Sulaiman Mansour; Athar, Md Tanwir; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Al-Shahrani, Hamoud; Islam, Mozaffarul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the anti-cancer effect of Moringa oleifera leaves, bark and seed extracts. When tested against MDA-MB-231 and HCT-8 cancer cell lines, the extracts of leaves and bark showed remarkable anti-cancer properties while surprisingly, seed extracts exhibited hardly any such properties. Cell survival was significantly low in both cells lines when treated with leaves and bark extracts. Furthermore, a striking reduction (about 70–90%) in colony formation as well as cell motility was observed upon treatment with leaves and bark. Additionally, apoptosis assay performed on these treated breast and colorectal cancer lines showed a remarkable increase in the number of apoptotic cells; with a 7 fold increase in MD-MB-231 to an increase of several fold in colorectal cancer cell lines. However, no significant apoptotic cells were detected upon seeds extract treatment. Moreover, the cell cycle distribution showed a G2/M enrichment (about 2–3 fold) indicating that these extracts effectively arrest the cell progression at the G2/M phase. The GC-MS analyses of these extracts revealed numerous known anti-cancer compounds, namely eugenol, isopropyl isothiocynate, D-allose, and hexadeconoic acid ethyl ester, all of which possess long chain hydrocarbons, sugar moiety and an aromatic ring. This suggests that the anti-cancer properties of Moringa oleifera could be attributed to the bioactive compounds present in the extracts from this plant. This is a novel study because no report has yet been cited on the effectiveness of Moringa extracts obtained in the locally grown environment as an anti-cancer agent against breast and colorectal cancers. Our study is the first of its kind to evaluate the anti-malignant properties of Moringa not only in leaves but also in bark. These findings suggest that both the leaf and bark extracts of Moringa collected from the Saudi Arabian region possess anti-cancer activity that can be used to develop new drugs for treatment of

  4. Moringa oleifera as an Anti-Cancer Agent against Breast and Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman Khazim; Albalawi, Sulaiman Mansour; Athar, Md Tanwir; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Al-Shahrani, Hamoud; Islam, Mozaffarul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the anti-cancer effect of Moringa oleifera leaves, bark and seed extracts. When tested against MDA-MB-231 and HCT-8 cancer cell lines, the extracts of leaves and bark showed remarkable anti-cancer properties while surprisingly, seed extracts exhibited hardly any such properties. Cell survival was significantly low in both cells lines when treated with leaves and bark extracts. Furthermore, a striking reduction (about 70-90%) in colony formation as well as cell motility was observed upon treatment with leaves and bark. Additionally, apoptosis assay performed on these treated breast and colorectal cancer lines showed a remarkable increase in the number of apoptotic cells; with a 7 fold increase in MD-MB-231 to an increase of several fold in colorectal cancer cell lines. However, no significant apoptotic cells were detected upon seeds extract treatment. Moreover, the cell cycle distribution showed a G2/M enrichment (about 2-3 fold) indicating that these extracts effectively arrest the cell progression at the G2/M phase. The GC-MS analyses of these extracts revealed numerous known anti-cancer compounds, namely eugenol, isopropyl isothiocynate, D-allose, and hexadeconoic acid ethyl ester, all of which possess long chain hydrocarbons, sugar moiety and an aromatic ring. This suggests that the anti-cancer properties of Moringa oleifera could be attributed to the bioactive compounds present in the extracts from this plant. This is a novel study because no report has yet been cited on the effectiveness of Moringa extracts obtained in the locally grown environment as an anti-cancer agent against breast and colorectal cancers. Our study is the first of its kind to evaluate the anti-malignant properties of Moringa not only in leaves but also in bark. These findings suggest that both the leaf and bark extracts of Moringa collected from the Saudi Arabian region possess anti-cancer activity that can be used to develop new drugs for treatment of breast

  5. Development of a reliable extraction and quantification method for glucosinolates in Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Schreiner, Monika; Müller, Carsten T; Mewis, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are the characteristic secondary metabolites of plants in the order Brassicales. To date the common DIN extraction 'desulfo glucosinolates' method remains the common procedure for determination and quantification of glucosinolates. However, the desulfation step in the extraction of glucosinolates from Moringa oleifera leaves resulted in complete conversion and degradation of the naturally occurring glucosinolates in this plant. Therefore, a method for extraction of intact Moringa glucosinolates was developed and no conversion and degradation of the different rhamnopyranosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolates was found. Buffered eluents (0.1 M ammonium acetate) were necessary to stabilize 4-α-rhamnopyranosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolate (Rhamno-Benzyl-GS) and acetyl-4-α-rhamnopyranosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolate isomers (Ac-Isomers-GS) during HPLC analysis. Due to the instability of intact Moringa glucosinolates at room temperature and during the purification process of single glucosinolates, influences of different storage (room temperature, frozen, thawing and refreezing) and buffer conditions on glucosinolate conversion were analysed. Conversion and degradations processes were especially determined for the Ac-Isomers-GS III.

  6. Innovative physico-chemical treatment of wastewater incorporating Moringa oleifera seed coagulant.

    PubMed

    Bhuptawat, Hitendra; Folkard, G K; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2007-04-02

    Moringa oleifera is a pan tropical, multipurpose tree whose seeds contain a high quality edible oil (up to 40% by weight) and water soluble proteins that act as effective coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. The use of this natural coagulant material has not yet realised its potential. A water extract of M. oleifera seed was applied to a wastewater treatment sequence comprising coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation-sand filtration. The study was laboratory based using an actual wastewater. Overall COD removals of 50% were achieved at both 50 and 100mg/l M. oleifera doses. When 50 and 100mg/l seed doses were applied in combination with 10mg/l of alum, COD removal increased to 58 and 64%, respectively. The majority of COD removal occurred during the filtration process. In the tests incorporating alum, sludge generation and filter head loss increased by factors of 3 and 2, respectively. These encouraging treatment results indicate that this may be the first treatment application that can move to large scale adoption. The simple water extract may be obtained at minimal cost from the presscake residue remaining after oil extraction from the seed. The regulatory compliance issues of adopting 'new materials' for wastewater treatment are significantly less stringent than those applying to the production of potable water.

  7. Moringa oleifera, a species with potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Claudia Lizbeth; Martínez, Laura; Martínez-Ortiz, Efraín J; González-Trujano, María Eva; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Díaz-Reval, Irene

    2017-03-01

    Moringa oleifera has long been used in large demand in folk medicine to treat pain. The present study was undertaken to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory spectrum of M. oleifera leaf extracts discriminating the constituents' nature by using different kind of experimental models in rats. Pharmacological evaluation of a non-polar and/or polar extracts at several doses (30-300mg/kg, p.o.) was explored through experimental nociception using formalin test, carrageenan-induced paw edema and arthritis with subcutaneous injection of collagen in rats. Basic morphology characterization was done by scanning electronic microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Not only polar (from 30 or 100mg/kg, p.o.) but also non-polar extract produced significant inhibition of the nociceptive behavior with major efficacy in the inflammatory response in different assessed experimental models. This antinociceptive activity involved constituents of different nature and depended on the intensity of the induced painful stimulus. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of kaempferol-3-glucoside in the polar extract and fatty acids like chlorogenic acid, among others, in the non-polar extract. Data obtained with M. oleifera leaf extracts give evidence of its potential for pain treatment.

  8. Antiproliferation and induction of apoptosis by Moringa oleifera leaf extract on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Jeyachitra, A; Padma, P R

    2011-06-01

    Medicinal plants provide an inexhaustible source of anticancer drugs in terms of both variety and mechanism of action. Induction of apoptosis is the key success of plant products as anticancer agents. The present study was designed to determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic events of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) using human tumor (KB) cell line as a model system. KB cells were cultured in the presence of leaf extracts at various concentrations for 48 h and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. MLE showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of KB cells. The antiproliferative effect of MLE was also associated with induction of apoptosis as well as morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The morphology of apoptotic nuclei was quantified using DAPI and propidium iodide staining. The degree of DNA fragmentation was analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, MLE at various concentrations was found to induce ROS production suggesting modulation of redox-sensitive mechanism. Eventually, HPTLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolics such as quercetin and kaempferol. Thus, these findings suggest that the leaf extracts from M. oleifera had strong antiproliferation and potent induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that M. oleifera leaf extracts has potential for cancer chemoprevention and can be claimed as a therapeutic target for cancer.

  9. Identification and characterization of a potent anticancer fraction from the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera L.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Praveen T; Vardarajalu, Ambalika; Wadhwani, Ashish; Patel, Viral

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer potential of Moringa oleifera L. extracts have been well established. However, there are no reports on the isolated molecules/fractions from these extracts which are responsible for the anticancer/cytotoxic activity. Thus, in the present study, we explored the same. The n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol extracts of the M. oleifera leaves and 15 fractions (F1 to F15) of ethyl acetate extract were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity using Hep-2 cell lines and Dalton's lymphoma ascites model in mice, respectively. Among the tested samples, the F1 fraction showed potential cytotoxic effect in Hep-2 cell lines with a CTC50 value of 12.5 ± 0.5 μg/ml. In vivo studies with the doses 5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o. demonstrated significant reduction in body weight and increased the mean survival time compared to the control group. These results were also comparable to the standard, 5-Fluorouracil, treated animals. We have also successfully isolated and characterized the anticancer fraction, F1 from the leaves of M. oleifera L.

  10. Therapeutic effects of Moringa oleifera on arsenic-induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; Kannan, Gurusamy M; Sharma, Mamta; S Flora, Swaran J

    2005-11-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarack (English: Horseradish-tree, Drumstick-tree; Hindi: Saijan; Sanskrit: Shigru) belongs to the Moringaceae family, is generally known in the developing world as a vegetable, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities, including hypocholesterolemic agent, regulation of thyroid hormone status, anti-diabetic agent, gastric ulcers, anti-tumor agent and hypotensive agent, used for treating various diseases such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. Therapeutic efficacy of oral administration of seed powder of M. oleifera (500mg/kg, orally, once daily) post arsenic exposure (100ppm in drinking water for 4 months) was investigated in rats. Animals exposed to arsenic(III) showed a significant inhibition of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) level and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood. On the other hand, a significant decrease in hepatic ALAD, and an increase in δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase (ALAS) activity was noted after arsenic exposure. These changes were accompanied by an increase in thiobarbiturc acid reactive substances (TBARS) level in liver and kidney. Activities of liver, kidney and brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase also showed a decrease on arsenic exposure. Administration of M. oleifera seed powder post arsenic exposure, exhibited significant recovery in blood ALAD activity while, it restored blood GSH and ROS levels. Most of the other blood biochemical variables remained unchanged on M. oleifera supplementation. A significant protection in the altered ALAD and ALAS activities of liver and TBARS level in liver and kidney was however, observed after M. oleifera administration. Interestingly, there was a marginal but significant depletion of arsenic from blood, liver and kidneys. The results, thus lead us to conclude that post arsenic exposure administration with

  11. Effect of Moringa oleifera on hematological parameters of calves reared in industrial fluorotic area

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Kruti Debnath; Das, M. R.; Pati, M.; Pati, P. D.; Gupta, A. R.; Patra, R. C.; Senapati, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative potential of dried Moringa oleifera fruit powder in fluorosis affected calves reared around the vicinity of aluminium smelter plant. Materials and Methods: Total 107 calves were screened on the basis of clinical signs and higher plasma fluoride (more than 0.2 ppm) level for evidence of fluorosis. Out of that, 90 samples found positive and from them 18 calves of 6-12 months age group were selected and divided equally into three groups named as Group II, III, and IV. Group II remained as disease control group whereas Group III calves were supplemented with dried M. oleifera fruit powder of 25 g/calve for 60 days. Group IV calves were supplemented with calcium carbonate at 100 mg/kg body weight and boric acid at 10 mg/kg for the same experimental period. Group I consisted of six numbers of healthy calves taken from the non-fluorotic zone, i.e. Bhubaneswar. Plasma fluoride level, hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential count (DC), total erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and MCH concentration (MCHC) were estimated on day 0, 30, and 60 of the experiment. Results: Supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder to fluorosis affected calves resulted in significant reduction in plasma fluoride level and increase in Hb%, PCV, TLC and altered DC. Similar results were also recorded in calcium+boron group, except PCV and Hb. No significant changes were observed in MCV, MCH, and MCHC values. Conclusion: The present study concluded that supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder daily for 60 days has shown protection against chronic fluoride toxicity in calves. PMID:27047044

  12. Relative bioavailability of folate from the traditional food plant Moringa oleifera L. as evaluated in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Saini, R K; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Srinivasan, K; Giridhar, P

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is an affordable and rich source of dietary folate. Quantification of folate by HPLC showed that 5-formyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid (502.1 μg/100 g DW) and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid (223.9 μg/100 g DW) as the most dominant forms of folate in M. oleifera leaves. The bioavailability of folate and the effects of folate depletion and repletion on biochemical and molecular markers of folate status were investigated in Wistar rats. Folate deficiency was induced by keeping the animals on a folate deficient diet with 1 % succinyl sulfathiazole (w/w). After the depletion period, animals were repleted with different levels of folic acid and M. oleifera leaves as a source of folate. Feeding the animals on a folate deficient diet for 7 weeks caused a significant (3.4-fold) decrease in serum folate content, compared to non-depleted control animals. Relative bioavailability of folate from dehydrated leaves of M. oleifera was 81.9 %. During folate depletion and repletion, no significant changes in liver glycine N-methyl transferase and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase expression were recorded. In RDA calculations, only 50 % of natural folate is assumed to be bioavailable. Therefore, the bioavailability of folate from Moringa is much higher, suggesting that M. oleifera based food can be used as a significant source of folate.

  13. Moringa oleifera leaf extract prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage in rats: evidence for an antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and cardioprotective intervention.

    PubMed

    Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar; Joshi, Sujata; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2009-02-01

    The present study evaluated cardioprotective effect of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera in the isoproterenol (ISP)-induced model of myocardial infarction. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups and orally fed saline once daily alone (sham) or with ISP (ISP control) or ISP with M. oleifera (200 mg/kg), respectively, for 1 month. On days 29 and 30 of administration, rats of the ISP control and M. oleifera-ISP groups were administered ISP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) at an interval of 24 hours. On day 31, hemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure [MAP], heart rate [HR], left ventricular end-diastolic pressure [LVEDP], and left ventricular peak positive [(+) LV dP/dt] and negative [(-) LV dP/dt] pressures were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed, and hearts were excised and processed for biochemical, histopathological, and ultrastructural studies. Chronic treatment with M. oleifera demonstrated mitigating effects on ISP-induced hemodynamic [HR, (+) LV dP/dt, (-) LV dP/dt, and LVEDP] perturbations. Chronic M. oleifera treatment resulted in significant favorable modulation of the biochemical enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB) but failed to demonstrate any significant effect on reduced glutathione compared to the ISP control group. Moringa treatment significantly prevented the rise in lipid peroxidation in myocardial tissue. Furthermore, M. oleifera also prevented the deleterious histopathological and ultrastructural perturbations caused by ISP. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that M. oleifera extract possesses significant cardioprotective effect, which may be attributed to its antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and myocardial preservative properties.

  14. Effect of the refining process on Moringa oleifera seed oil quality.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Núñez-Gastélum, José A; Servín de la Mora-López, Gabriela; López-Hernández, Julia; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2015-11-15

    We evaluated the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of the oil extracted from the seeds of Moringa oleifera during its refining process. Refining is accomplished in three stages: neutralization, degumming, and bleaching. Four samples were analyzed, corresponding to each step of the processed and crude oil. Increases in the density, viscosity, saponification value and oxidation of the oil were detected during the refining, while the peroxide value and carotenoid content diminished. Moreover, the refractive index and iodine content were stable throughout the refining. Nine fatty acids were detected in all four samples, and there were no significant differences in their composition. Oleic acid was found in the largest amount, followed by palmitic acid and behenic acid. The crude, neutralized, and degummed oils showed high primary oxidation stability, while the bleached oil had a low incidence of secondary oxidation.

  15. Subcritical ethanol extraction of flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf and evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui; Liu, Shejiang; Han, Xu; Gui, Jianzhou; Liu, Dan

    2017-03-01

    A large-scale process to extract flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf by subcritical ethanol was developed and HPLC-MS analysis was conducted to qualitatively identify the compounds in the extracts. To optimize the effects of process parameters on the yield of flavonoids, a Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was conducted in the present work. The results indicated that the highest extraction yield of flavonoids by subcritical ethanol extraction could reach 2.60% using 70% ethanol at 126.6°C for 2.05h extraction. Under the optimized conditions, flavonoids yield was substantially improved by 26.7% compared with the traditional ethanol reflux method while the extraction time was only 2h, and obvious energy saving was observed. FRAP and DPPH assays showed that the extracts had strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.

  16. Analytical characterization of Moringa oleifera seed oil grown in temperate regions of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Farooq; Bhanger, M I

    2003-10-22

    The hexane-extracted oil content of Moringa oleifera seeds ranged from 38.00 to 42.00%. Protein, fiber, and ash contents were found to be 26.50-32.00, 5.80-9.29, and, 5.60-7.50%, respectively. Results of physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oil were as follows: iodine value, 68.00-71.80; refractive index (40 degrees C), 1.4590-1.4625; density (24 degrees C), 0.9036-0.9080 mg/mL; saponification value, 180.60-190.50; unsaponifiable matter, 0.70-1.10%; and color (1 in. cell), 0.95-1.10 R + 20.00-35.30 Y. Tocopherols (alpha, gamma, and delta) in the oil were up to 123.50-161.30, 84.07-104.00, and 41.00-56.00 mg/kg, respectively. The oil was found to contain high levels of oleic acid (up to 78.59%) followed by palmitic, stearic, behenic, and arachidic acid up to levels of 7.00, 7.50, 5.99, and 4.21%, respectively. The induction period (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 degrees C) of the crude oil was 9.99 h and reduced to 8.63 h after degumming. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 1.70 and 0.31, respectively. Many parameters of M. oleifera oil indigenous to Pakistan were comparable to those of typical Moringa seed oils reported in the literature. The results of the present analytical study were also compared with those of different vegetable oils.

  17. Chemopreventive efficacy of Moringa oleifera pods against 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced hepatic carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Veena; Paliwal, Ritu; Janmeda, Pracheta; Sharma, Shatruhan

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage in a variety of liver disorders. Hence there is a great demand for the development of agents with potent antioxidant effect. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the efficacy of Moringa oleifera as a hepatoprotective and an antioxidant against 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced hepatocellular damage. Single oral administration of DMBA (15 mg/kg) to mice resulted in significantly (p<0.001) depleted levels of xenobiotic enzymes like, cytochrome P450 and b5. DMBA induced oxidative stress was confirmed by decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the liver tissue. The status of hepatic aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which is indicative of hepatocellular damage were also found to be decreased in DMBA administered mice. Pretreatment with the Moringa oleifera (200 and 400 mg/kg) orally for 14 days significantly reversed the DMBA induced alterations in the liver tissue and offered almost complete protection. The results from the present study indicate that Moringa oleifera exhibits good hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential against DMBA induced hepatocellular damage in mice that might be due to decreased free radical generation.

  18. A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

    The powder obtained from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been shown to be an effective primary coagulant for water treatment. When the seeds are dried, dehusked, crushed and added to water, the powder acts as a coagulant binding colloidal particles and bacteria to form agglomerated particles (flocs), which settle allowing the clarified supernatant to be poured off. Very little research has been undertaken on the parameters affecting the effectiveness of M. oleifera, especially in Malawi, for purification of drinking water and there is a great need for further testing in this area. Conclusive data needs to be compiled to demonstrate the effects of various water parameters have on the efficiency of the seeds. A parametric study was undertaken at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, with the aim to establish the most appropriate dosing method; the optimum dosage for removal of turbidity; the influence of pH and temperature; together with the shelf life of the M. oleifera seeds. The study revealed that the most suitable dosing method was to mix the powder into a concentrated paste, hence forming a stock suspension. The optimum M. oleifera dose, for turbidity values between 40 and 200 NTU, ranged between 30 and 55 mg/l. With turbidity set at 130 NTU and a M. oleifera dose within the optimum range at 50 mg/l, pH levels were varied between 4 and 9. It was discovered that the coagulant performance was not too sensitive to pH fluctuations when conditions were within the optimum range. The most efficient coagulation, determined by the greatest reduction in turbidity, occurred at pH 6.5. Alkaline conditions were overall more favourable than acidic conditions; pH 9 had an efficiency of 65% of optimum, whilst at pH 5 the efficiency dropped to around 55%. The efficiency further dropped at pH 4, where the powder only produced results of around 10% of optimum conditions. A temperature range of 4-60 °C was studied in this research. Colder waters (<15 °C) were found to

  19. Coagulant properties of Moringa oleifera protein preparations: application to humic acid removal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Teixeira, José A C; Brito, António G; Coelho, Luana C B B; Nogueira, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This work aimed to characterize the coagulant properties of protein preparations from Moringa oleifera seeds in the removal of humic acids from water. Three distinct preparations were assayed, namely extract (seeds homogenized with 0.15 M NaCl), fraction (extract precipitated with 60% w/v ammonium sulphate) and cMoL (protein purified with guar gel column chromatography). The extract showed the highest coagulant activity in a protein concentration between 1 mg/L and 180 mg/L at pH 7.0. The zeta potential of the extract (-10 mV to -15 mV) was less negative than that of the humic acid (-41 mV to -42 mV) in a pH range between 5.0 and 8.0; thus, the mechanism that might be involved in this coagulation activity is adsorption and neutralization of charges. Reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was observed in water samples containing 9 mg/L carbon as humic acid when treated with 1 mg/L of the extract. A decrease in colour and in the aromatic content of the treated water was also observed. These results suggested that the extract from M. oleifera seeds in a low concentration (1 mg/L) can be an interesting natural alternative for removing humic acid from water in developing countries. The extract dose determined in the present study does not impart odour or colour to the treated water.

  20. Crystal structure of mature 2S albumin from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Anwar; Mariutti, Ricardo Barros; Masood, Rehana; Caruso, Icaro Putinhon; Costa, Gustavo Henrique Gravatim; Millena de Freita, Cristhyane; Santos, Camila Ramos; Zanphorlin, Leticia Maria; Rossini Mutton, Márcia Justino; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy

    2S albumins, the seed storage proteins, are the primary sources of carbon and nitrogen and are involved in plant defense. The mature form of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera), a chitin binding protein isoform 3-1 (mMo-CBP3-1) a thermostable antifungal, antibacterial, flocculating 2S albumin is widely used for the treatment of water and is potentially interesting for the development of both antifungal drugs and transgenic crops. The crystal structure of mMo-CBP3-1 determined at 1.7 Å resolution demonstrated that it is comprised of two proteolytically processed α-helical chains, stabilized by four disulfide bridges that is stable, resistant to pH changes and has a melting temperature (TM) of approximately 98 °C. The surface arginines and the polyglutamine motif are the key structural factors for the observed flocculating, antibacterial and antifungal activities. This represents the first crystal structure of a 2S albumin and the model of the pro-protein indicates the structural changes that occur upon formation of mMo-CBP3-1 and determines the structural motif and charge distribution patterns for the diverse observed activities.

  1. Cerebroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera against focal ischemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kirisattayakul, Woranan; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Wannanon, Panakaporn; Jittiwat, Jinatta

    2013-01-01

    The protection against ischemic stroke is still required due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. Based on the role of oxidative stress in stroke pathophysiology, we determined whether Moringa oleifera, a plant possessing potent antioxidant activity, protected against brain damage and oxidative stress in animal model of focal stroke. M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg·kg(-1) was orally given to male Wistar rats (300-350 g) once daily at a period of 2 weeks before the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO) and 3 weeks after Rt.MCAO. The determinations of neurological score and temperature sensation were performed every 7 days throughout the study period, while the determinations of brain infarction volume, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px were performed 24 hr after Rt.MCAO. The results showed that all doses of extract decreased infarction volume in both cortex and subcortex. The protective effect of medium and low doses of extract in all areas occurred mainly via the decreased oxidative stress. The protective effect of the high dose extract in striatum and hippocampus occurred via the same mechanism, whereas other mechanisms might play a crucial role in cortex. The detailed mechanism required further exploration.

  2. Removal of tetracycline from contaminated water by Moringa oleifera seed preparations.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Matos, Maria; Sousa, Ângela; Costa, Cátia; Nogueira, Regina; Teixeira, José A; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Parpot, Pier; Coelho, Luana C B B; Brito, António G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tetracycline antibiotic (TA) removal from contaminated water by Moringa oleifera seed preparations. The composition of synthetic water approximate river natural contaminated water and TA simulated its presence as an emerging pollutant. Interactions between TA and protein preparations (extract; fraction and lectin) were also evaluated. TA was determined by solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moringa extract and flour removed TA from water. The extract removed TA in all concentrations, and better removal (40%) was obtained with 40 mg L(-1); seed flour (particles < 5 mm), 1.25 and 2.50 g L(-1) removed 28% and 29% of tetracycline, respectively; particles > 5 mm (0.50 g L(-1)) removed 55% of antibiotic. Interactions between TA and seed preparations were assayed by haemagglutinating activity (HA). Specific HA (SHA) of extract (pH 7) was abolished with tetracycline (5 mg L(-1)); fraction (75%) and lectin HA (97%) were inhibited with TA. Extract SHA decreased by 75% at pH 8. Zeta potential (ZP) of extract 700 mg L(-1) and tetracycline 50 mg L(-1) , pH range 5-8, showed different results. Extract ZP was more negative (-10.73 to -16.00 mV) than tetracycline ZP (-0.27 to -20.15 mV); ZP difference was greater in pH 8. The focus of this study was achieved since Moringa preparations removed TA from water and compounds interacting with tetracycline involved at least lectin-binding sites. This is a natural process, which do not promote environmental damage.

  3. Healing Potentials of Oral Moringa Oleifera Leaves Extract and Tetracycline on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infected Wounds of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Eyarefe, Oghenemega D; Idowu, Aderayo; Afolabi, Jeremiah M

    2015-12-20

    The effects of oral dose of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera and tetracycline antibiotics on cutaneous wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus were studied in eighteen adult wistar rats (159±31.5g) randomized into three groups: Group A, n = 6, Moringa oleifera-(300 mg/kg). Group B, n = 6, tetracycline (9.4 mg/kg) and Group C, n = 6, Sterile water (control). Six millimetres diameter nape wound, created on each rat under 2% xylazine (5 mg/kg) and 5% ketamine (35 mg/kg), was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (108 Colony Forming Unit (CFU). Following infection, treatment was commenced with daily oral dose of test preparations and the wounds were evaluated every other day i.e., day 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 for wetness (wound exudation), wound edge oedema, hyperaemia, granulation tissues and contraction (diameter). Severe wound exudation existed in all the groups between days 0-3 (p = 1.00). A significantly less wound exudation was observed at days 3-5 (p = 0.000) and 5-9 (p = 0.003) (Control< Tetracycline <Moringa). Wound edge oedema was significantly less on days 5-9 (p = 0.000) and 9-15 (p = 0.001) (Control<MoringaMoringa Moringa> Tetracycline). Differences in wound diameter was not significant except at days 5-9 (p = 0.013) (Control> Moringa >Tetracycline). Oral doses of Moringa oleifera extract (300mg/kg) and tetracycline (9.4mg/kg) are not effective as antimicrobial or immune-boosting agents to enhance healing of wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus and hence not recommended for rapid clearance of Staphylococcus aureus infected wounds.

  4. Screening Reliable Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li-Ting; Wu, Yu-Ling; Li, Jun-Cheng; OuYang, Kun-Xi; Ding, Mei-Mei; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Li, Shu-Qi; Lin, Meng-Fei; Chen, Han-Bin; Hu, Xin-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a promising plant species for oil and forage, but its genetic improvement is limited. Our current breeding program in this species focuses on exploiting the functional genes associated with important agronomical traits. Here, we screened reliable reference genes for accurately quantifying the expression of target genes using the technique of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in M. oleifera. Eighteen candidate reference genes were selected from a transcriptome database, and their expression stabilities were examined in 90 samples collected from the pods in different developmental stages, various tissues, and the roots and leaves under different conditions (low or high temperature, sodium chloride (NaCl)- or polyethyleneglycol (PEG)- simulated water stress). Analyses with geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms revealed that the reliable reference genes differed across sample designs and that ribosomal protein L1 (RPL1) and acyl carrier protein 2 (ACP2) were the most suitable reference genes in all tested samples. The experiment results demonstrated the significance of using the properly validated reference genes and suggested the use of more than one reference gene to achieve reliable expression profiles. In addition, we applied three isotypes of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene that are associated with plant adaptation to abiotic stress to confirm the efficacy of the validated reference genes under NaCl and PEG water stresses. Our results provide a valuable reference for future studies on identifying important functional genes from their transcriptional expressions via RT-qPCR technique in M. oleifera. PMID:27541138

  5. Soluble extract from Moringa oleifera leaves with a new anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Jung, Il Lae

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera has been regarded as a food substance since ancient times and has also been used as a treatment for many diseases. Recently, various therapeutic effects of M. oleifera such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antioxidant effects have been investigated; however, most of these studies described only simple biological phenomena and their chemical compositions. Due to the increasing attention on natural products, such as those from plants, and the advantages of oral administration of anticancer drugs, soluble extracts from M. oleifera leaves (MOL) have been prepared and their potential as new anticancer drug candidates has been assessed in this study. Here, the soluble cold Distilled Water extract (4°C; concentration, 300 µg/mL) from MOL greatly induced apoptosis, inhibited tumor cell growth, and lowered the level of internal reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human lung cancer cells as well as other several types of cancer cells, suggesting that the treatment of cancer cells with MOL significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Moreover, over 90% of the genes tested were unexpectedly downregulated more than 2-fold, while just below 1% of the genes were upregulated more than 2-fold in MOL extract-treated cells, when compared with nontreated cells. Since severe dose-dependent rRNA degradation was observed, the abnormal downregulation of numerous genes was considered to be attributable to abnormal RNA formation caused by treatment with MOL extracts. Additionally, the MOL extract showed greater cytotoxicity for tumor cells than for normal cells, strongly suggesting that it could potentially be an ideal anticancer therapeutic candidate specific to cancer cells. These results suggest the potential therapeutic implications of the soluble extract from MOL in the treatment of various types of cancers.

  6. Ecotype variability in growth and secondary metabolite profile in Moringa oleifera: impact of sulfur and water availability.

    PubMed

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Schreiner, Monika; Arndt, Nick; Schmidt, Reinhard; Mewis, Inga

    2015-03-25

    Moringa oleifera is widely cultivated in plantations in the tropics and subtropics. Previous cultivation studies with M. oleifera focused primarily only on leaf yield. In the present study, the content of potentially health-promoting secondary metabolites (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were also investigated. Six different ecotypes were grown under similar environmental conditions to identify phenotypic differences that can be traced back to the genotype. The ecotypes TOT4880 (origin USA) and TOT7267 (origin India) were identified as having the best growth performance and highest secondary metabolite production, making them an ideal health-promoting food crop. Furthermore, optimal cultivation conditions-exemplarily on sulfur fertilization and water availability-for achieving high leaf and secondary metabolite yields were investigated for M. oleifera. In general, plant biomass and height decreased under water deficiency compared to normal cultivation conditions, whereas the glucosinolate content increased. The effects depended to a great extent on the ecotype.

  7. MicroRNA from Moringa oleifera: Identification by High Throughput Sequencing and Their Potential Contribution to Plant Medicinal Value

    PubMed Central

    Pirrò, Stefano; Zanella, Letizia; Kenzo, Maurice; Montesano, Carla; Minutolo, Antonella; Potestà, Marina; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Canini, Antonella; Cirilli, Marco; Muleo, Rosario; Colizzi, Vittorio; Galgani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a widespread plant with substantial nutritional and medicinal value. We postulated that microRNAs (miRNAs), which are endogenous, noncoding small RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, might contribute to the medicinal properties of plants of this species after ingestion into human body, regulating human gene expression. However, the knowledge is scarce about miRNA in Moringa. Furthermore, in order to test the hypothesis on the pharmacological potential properties of miRNA, we conducted a high-throughput sequencing analysis using the Illumina platform. A total of 31,290,964 raw reads were produced from a library of small RNA isolated from M. oleifera seeds. We identified 94 conserved and two novel miRNAs that were validated by qRT-PCR assays. Results from qRT-PCR trials conducted on the expression of 20 Moringa miRNA showed that are conserved across multiple plant species as determined by their detection in tissue of other common crop plants. In silico analyses predicted target genes for the conserved miRNA that in turn allowed to relate the miRNAs to the regulation of physiological processes. Some of the predicted plant miRNAs have functional homology to their mammalian counterparts and regulated human genes when they were transfected into cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of discovering M. oleifera miRNAs based on high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis and we provided new insight into a potential cross-species control of human gene expression. The widespread cultivation and consumption of M. oleifera, for nutritional and medicinal purposes, brings humans into close contact with products and extracts of this plant species. The potential for miRNA transfer should be evaluated as one possible mechanism of action to account for beneficial properties of this valuable species. PMID:26930203

  8. MicroRNA from Moringa oleifera: Identification by High Throughput Sequencing and Their Potential Contribution to Plant Medicinal Value.

    PubMed

    Pirrò, Stefano; Zanella, Letizia; Kenzo, Maurice; Montesano, Carla; Minutolo, Antonella; Potestà, Marina; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Canini, Antonella; Cirilli, Marco; Muleo, Rosario; Colizzi, Vittorio; Galgani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a widespread plant with substantial nutritional and medicinal value. We postulated that microRNAs (miRNAs), which are endogenous, noncoding small RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, might contribute to the medicinal properties of plants of this species after ingestion into human body, regulating human gene expression. However, the knowledge is scarce about miRNA in Moringa. Furthermore, in order to test the hypothesis on the pharmacological potential properties of miRNA, we conducted a high-throughput sequencing analysis using the Illumina platform. A total of 31,290,964 raw reads were produced from a library of small RNA isolated from M. oleifera seeds. We identified 94 conserved and two novel miRNAs that were validated by qRT-PCR assays. Results from qRT-PCR trials conducted on the expression of 20 Moringa miRNA showed that are conserved across multiple plant species as determined by their detection in tissue of other common crop plants. In silico analyses predicted target genes for the conserved miRNA that in turn allowed to relate the miRNAs to the regulation of physiological processes. Some of the predicted plant miRNAs have functional homology to their mammalian counterparts and regulated human genes when they were transfected into cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of discovering M. oleifera miRNAs based on high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis and we provided new insight into a potential cross-species control of human gene expression. The widespread cultivation and consumption of M. oleifera, for nutritional and medicinal purposes, brings humans into close contact with products and extracts of this plant species. The potential for miRNA transfer should be evaluated as one possible mechanism of action to account for beneficial properties of this valuable species.

  9. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Alessandro; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Criscuoli, Franca; Ravasenghi, Stefano; Santagostini, Laura; Fico, Gelsomina; Spadafranca, Angela; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Pozzi, Federica; di Lello, Sara; Filippini, Sandro; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14–0.33 and 6.61–9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients. PMID:26274956

  10. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti.

    PubMed

    Leone, Alessandro; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Criscuoli, Franca; Ravasenghi, Stefano; Santagostini, Laura; Fico, Gelsomina; Spadafranca, Angela; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Pozzi, Federica; di Lello, Sara; Filippini, Sandro; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-08-12

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14-0.33 and 6.61-9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients.

  11. In vitro Evaluation of Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Moringa oleifera Seeds on HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, CACO-2 and L929 Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud A; Wadaan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is widely consumed in tropical and subtropical regions for their valuable nutritional and medicinal characteristics. Recently, extensive research has been conducted on leaf extracts of M. oleifera to evaluate their potential cytotoxic effects. However, with the exception of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, little information is present on the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil obtained from M. oleifera seeds. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to investigate the potential cytotoxic activity of seed essential oil obtained from M. oleifera on HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, CACO-2 and L929 cell lines. The different cell lines were subjected to increasing oil concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 1 mg/mL for 24h, and the cytotoxicity was assessed using MTT assay. All treated cell lines showed a significant reduction in cell viability in response to the increasing oil concentration. Moreover, the reduction depended on the cell line as well as the oil concentration applied. Additionally, HeLa cells were the most affected cells followed by HepG2, MCF-7, L929 and CACO-2, where the percentages of cell toxicity recorded were 76.1, 65.1, 59.5, 57.0 and 49.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values obtained for MCF-7, HeLa and HepG2 cells were 226.1, 422.8 and 751.9 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusively, the present investigation provides preliminary results which suggest that seed essential oil from M. oleifera has potent cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines.

  12. Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the

  13. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  14. Adoption of Moringa oleifera to combat under-nutrition viewed through the lens of the “Diffusion of Innovations” theory

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Melanie D.; Fahey, Jed W.

    2009-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, an edible tree found worldwide in the dry tropics, is increasingly being used for nutritional supplementation. Its nutrient-dense leaves are high in protein quality, leading to its widespread use by doctors, healers, nutritionists and community leaders, to treat under-nutrition and a variety of illnesses. Despite the fact that no rigorous clinical trial has tested its efficacy for treating under-nutrition, the adoption of M. oleifera continues to increase. The “Diffusion of innovations theory” describes well, the evidence for growth and adoption of dietary M. oleifera leaves, and it highlights the need for a scientific consensus on the nutritional benefits. PMID:20161339

  15. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gothai, Sivapragasam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Tan, Woan Sean; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for the treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera (MO) is an herb used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves extract are completely unknown. Materials and Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate) in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml) of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: This study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. PMID:27069722

  16. Food safety assessment of an antifungal protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in an agricultural biotechnology perspective.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Clidia E M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José T A; Pereira, Mirella L; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, José E C; Viana, Daniel A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-09-01

    Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (>35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs.

  17. Interaction of Moringa oleifera seed protein with a mineral surface and the influence of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kwaambwa, Habauka M; Hellsing, Maja S; Rennie, Adrian R; Barker, Robert

    2015-06-15

    The paper describes the adsorption of purified protein from seeds of Moringa oleifera to a sapphire interface and the effects of addition of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Neutron reflection was used to determine the structure and composition of interfacial layers adsorbed at the solid/solution interface. The maximum surface excess of protein was found to be about 5.3 mg m(-2). The protein does not desorb from the solid/liquid interface when rinsed with water. Addition of SDS increases the reflectivity indicating co-adsorption. It was observed that CTAB is able to remove the protein from the interface. The distinct differences to the behavior observed previously for the protein at the silica/water interface are identified. The adsorption of the protein to alumina in addition to other surfaces has shown why it is an effective flocculating agent for the range of impurities found in water supplies. The ability to tailor different surface layers in combination with various surfactants also offers the potential for adsorbed protein to be used in separation technologies.

  18. Photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of phytosynthesized CeO2 NPs using Moringa oleifera peel extract.

    PubMed

    Surendra, T V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthetic methods are alternative approaches which are much safer than the normal techniques (physical and chemical) used for the methods for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The benefits are sample as it is economic and environment friendly. Herein present investigation, we have reported a microwave mediated eco-friendly synthetic approach for preparing cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles. Here, we used Moringa oleifera peel as the stabilizing and reducing agent towards synthesize of Ce2O NPs via microwave irradiation. The NPs were further characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR, XRD and HR-TEM techniques. The FTIR analysis confirmed the phytochemical involvement in NPs stabilization. The crystallinity of CeO2 nanoparticles are well demonstrated through X-ray Diffraction and HR-TEM. The TEM images reveal the spherical shape of the CeO2 NPs having an average size of 45nm. Additionally, these CeO2 NPs were used successfully as a catalyst in the degradation of the dye, crystal violet. Also the antibacterial activity of the synthesized CeO2 NPs was evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria). CeO2 NPs showed better activity on E. coli than S. aureus. We have demonstrated an eco-friendly preparation of CeO2 nanoparticles, a good photocatalyst and having better antibacterial properties.

  19. Biosynthesis of palladium nanoparticles by using Moringa oleifera flower extract and their catalytic and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Anand, K; Tiloke, C; Phulukdaree, A; Ranjan, B; Chuturgoon, A; Singh, S; Gengan, R M

    2016-12-01

    The biosynthesis of nanostructured biopalladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) from an aqueous solution of crystalline palladium acetate is reported. For the synthesised PdNPs in solution, an agroforest biomass waste petal of Moringa oleifera derived bis-phthalate was used as natural reducing and biocapping agents. Continuous absorption in the UV region and subsequent brown colour change confirmed the formation of PdNPs. A strong surface plasmon peak for PdNPs occurred at 460nm. PdNPs were characterized by SEM with EDX, FTIR, TEM and DLS. The chemical composition of the aqueous extract was determined by GC-MS coupled with FTIR and (1)NMR. The catalytic degradation effect by PdNPs on industrial organic toxic effluents p-nitrophenol (PNP) and methylene blue dye was monitored by UV Spectroscopy. On the other hand PdNPs catalysed the base mediated suzuki coupling reaction for biphenyl synthesis, in water. Moreover, PdNPs were found to be reusable catalysts. Toxicity studies of PdNPs showed that the death of brine shrimp to be <50%. Therefore, PdNPs displayed potential for further anticancer studies via tumour cell lines. The in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of the extract capped nanoparticles was carried out using human lung carcinoma cells (A549) and peripheral lymphocytes normal cells by MTT cell viability assay. Also, PdNPs showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis among the different tested strains, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Esherichia coli and Candida albicans, Candida utilis.

  20. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera Seed Lectin as a Metal Remover in Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Freitas, José H E S; de Santana, Keissy V; da Silva, Pollyanna M; de Moura, Maiara C; Coelho, Luana C B B; do Nascimento, Aline E; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Napoleao, Thiago H

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of Moringa oleifera seed lectin (WSMoL) as a metal remover in water and the effects of metals on its hemagglutinating and antibacterial activities were determined. Aqueous metal solutions were incubated with WSMoL for 8 h at 4°C and the concentrations of metals were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Hemagglutination and antibacterial assays were conducted with WSMoL and lectin exposed or not to the metals. The removal efficiency of WSMoL was 49.00%, 53.21%, 71.45%, 55.42%, 69.88%, 62.14%, and 49.36% for Cd+2, Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Mg+2, Mn+2, and Al+3, respectively. WSMoL showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. However, hemagglutinating and antibacterial activities were impaired after exposure to metals. In conclusion, WSMoL efficiently removed metals present in water but the interaction with metals impaired lectin carbohydrate-binding ability and antibacterial activity. This should be considered when properties of WSMoL other than metal removal are desired.

  1. Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera prevents ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh K; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Majumdar, Subrata; Dey, Sanjit

    2011-10-01

    The present study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous ethanolic Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced oxidative stress, which is assessed in terms of inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Swiss albino mice were administered MoLE (300 mg/kg of body weight) for 15 consecutive days before exposing them to a single dose of 5 Gy of ⁶⁰Co γ-irradiation. Mice were sacrificed at 4 hours after irradiation. Liver was collected for immunoblotting and biochemical tests for the detection of markers of hepatic oxidative stress. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and lipid peroxidation were augmented, whereas the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values were decreased by radiation exposure. Translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus and lipid peroxidation were found to be inhibited, whereas increases in SOD, CAT, GSH, and FRAP were observed in the mice treated with MoLE prior to irradiation. Therefore pretreatment with MoLE protected against γ-radiation-induced liver damage. The protection may be attributed to the free radical scavenging activity of MoLE, through which it can ameliorate radiation-induced oxidative stress.

  2. Characteristic single glucosinolates from Moringa oleifera: Induction of detoxifying enzymes and lack of genotoxic activity in various model systems.

    PubMed

    Förster, Nadja; Mewis, Inga; Glatt, Hansruedi; Haack, Michael; Brigelius-Flohé, Regina; Schreiner, Monika; Ulrichs, Christian

    2016-11-09

    Leaves of Moringa oleifera are used by tribes as biological cancer medicine. Scientific investigations with M. oleifera conducted so far have almost exclusively used total plant extracts. Studies on the activity of single compounds are missing. Therefore, the biological effects of the two main aromatic multi-glycosylated glucosinolates of M. oleifera were investigated in the present study. The cytotoxic effects of M. oleifera glucosinolates were identified for HepG2 cells (NRU assay), for V79-MZ cells (HPRT assay, SCE assay), and for two Salmonella typhimurium strains (Ames test). Genotoxic effects of these glucosinolates were not observed (Ames test, HPRT assay, and SCE assay). Reporter gene assays revealed a significant increase in the ARE-dependent promoter activity of NQO1 and GPx2 indicating an activation of the Nrf2 pathway by M. oleifera glucosinolates. Since both enzymes can also be induced via activation of the AhR, plasmids containing promoters of both enzymes mutated in the respective binding sites (pGL3enh-hNQO1-ARE, pGL3enh-hNQO1-XRE, pGL3bas-hGPX2-mutARE, pGL3bas-hGPX2-mutXRE) were transfected. Analyses revealed that the majority of the stimulating effects was mediated by the ARE motif, whereas the XRE motif played only a minor role. The stimulating effects of M. oleifera glucosinolates could be demonstrated both at the transcriptional (reporter gene assay, real time-PCR) and translational levels (enzyme activity) making them interesting compounds for further investigation.

  3. Effect of soaked Moringa oleifera seeds on growth rates and the levels of some biochemical parameters in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Igwilo, I O; Ogoke, T J; Ogbu, D O; Igwilo, S N; Obi, E; Abdulsalami, M S

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its antinutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06 +/- 3.54 to 100.98 +/- 5.37, 66.70 +/- 7.54 to 55.23 +/- 7.47 and 52.99 +/- 4.15 to 35.47 +/- 2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00 +/- 16.80 (AST), 41.00 +/- 7.05 (ALT), 66.50 +/- 8.80 (ALP) and 12.45 +/- 1.18 (Total Bilirubin). The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (p < 0.05). Hence, the soaked Moringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed's nutritional capabilities.

  4. A potential oral anticancer drug candidate, Moringa oleifera leaf extract, induces the apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, IL LAE; LEE, JU HYE; KANG, SE CHAN

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been reported that cold water-extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf have anticancer activity against various human cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer. In the present study, the anticancer activity of M. oleifera leaf extracts was investigated in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. By the analysis of apoptotic signals, including the induction of caspase or poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and the Annexin V and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assays, it was demonstrated that M. oleifera leaf extracts induce the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In the hollow fiber assay, oral administration of the leaf extracts significantly reduced (44–52%) the proliferation of the HepG2 cells and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. These results support the potential of soluble extracts of M. oleifera leaf as orally administered therapeutics for the treatment of human liver and lung cancers. PMID:26622717

  5. A potential oral anticancer drug candidate, Moringa oleifera leaf extract, induces the apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Il Lae; Lee, Ju Hye; Kang, Se Chan

    2015-09-01

    It has previously been reported that cold water-extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf have anticancer activity against various human cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer. In the present study, the anticancer activity of M. oleifera leaf extracts was investigated in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. By the analysis of apoptotic signals, including the induction of caspase or poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and the Annexin V and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assays, it was demonstrated that M. oleifera leaf extracts induce the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In the hollow fiber assay, oral administration of the leaf extracts significantly reduced (44-52%) the proliferation of the HepG2 cells and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. These results support the potential of soluble extracts of M. oleifera leaf as orally administered therapeutics for the treatment of human liver and lung cancers.

  6. RSM optimized Moringa oleifera peel extract for green synthesis of M. oleifera capped palladium nanoparticles with antibacterial and hemolytic property.

    PubMed

    Surendra, T V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Rayalu, G Mokesh

    2016-09-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) are the very good catalytic agents in many coupling reactions, also these are very well biological agents against bacteria and fungus. M. oleifera capped Pd NPs were synthesized from microwave assisted methanolic extract of M. oleifera peel. To optimize the extraction process RSM (Response Surface Methodology) was applied. To get a good extraction yield BBD (Box-Behnken Design) was employed. The better optimized conditions for the extraction was found as 400W, 25mL of CH3OH at 65°C for 2min. We observed 61.66mg of extract yield from this method. Eco-friendly M. oleifera capped Pd NPs were synthesized using M. oleifera peel extract and confirmed using the different characterization techniques like UV- Vis spectroscopy, XRD, SEM and HR-TEM analysis. We found the size of the M. oleifera capped Pd NPs nanoparticles as 27±2nm and shape of the particles as spherical through the TEM analysis. M. oleifera capped Pd NPs exhibits good antibacterial activity against S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and E. coli (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains and we found the zone inhibition as 0.6 and 0.7mm. The synthesized M. oleifera capped Pd NPs are screened for hemolytic activity and it proved the M. oleifera capped Pd NPs are non-toxic on RBCs cells.

  7. Assessment of the Anti-Hyperglycaemic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanol Extract of Moringa Oleifera in Diabetes-Induced Nephrotoxic Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I; Aboua, Yapo G; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2017-03-23

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease of multiple aetiologies in insulin secretion. A deficiency in insulin results in hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances of biomolecules. Moringa oleifera (MO) is endemic in the tropics with a variety of ethnomedicinal importance. The leaf of this plant has been reported to possess antioxidant and medicinal properties that may be helpful in the treatment and management of diabetes and its associated complications. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally in rats by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) and treated with methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (250 mg/kg b.wt) for six weeks. Forty-eight (48) adult male Wistar strain rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC), Moringa oleifera treated control rats (NC + MO), diabetic rats (DM) and Moringa oleifera treated diabetic rats (DM + MO). Estimation of antioxidant capacity, total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content of Moringa oleifera extract was performed and serum biochemical markers were evaluated. Antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, glutathione (GSH) and inflammatory biomarkers were determined in the kidney. Results showed high antioxidant capacities of MO extract and improved serum biochemical markers, whilst lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels were reduced in non-diabetic and diabetic rats after MO treatment when compared to normal control. Subsequent administration of MO led to an increased concentration of serum albumin, globulin and total protein with a decrease in the level of MDA, and improvements in CAT, SOD, GSH, GPx, (tumour necrosis factor-alpha)TNF-α and (interleukin-6)IL-6. MO contains potent phytochemical constituents that offer protective action against diabetic-induced renal damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation and could therefore play a role in reducing diabetic complications, particularly in developing countries such as in

  8. Sperm abnormalities induced by pre-pubertal exposure to cyclophosphamide are effectively mitigated by Moringa oleifera leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Nayak, G; Vadinkar, A; Nair, S; Kalthur, S G; D'Souza, A S; Shetty, P K; Mutalik, S; Shetty, M M; Kalthur, G; Adiga, S K

    2016-03-01

    Moringa oleifera L. is a medicinal plant with potential antioxidant property. This study was aimed at investigating the chemoprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOE) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced testicular toxicity. Two-week-old male Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally injected with phosphate-buffered saline, 50 mg kg(-1) of CP and 25 mg kg(-1) of MOE. In combination treatment, mice were injected with 25 mg kg(-1) of MOE 24 h prior to CP injection, 24 h prior and post-CP injection and 24 h post-CP injection for 5 consecutive days (10 mg kg(-1) ). Six weeks later, mice were sacrificed to assess epididymal sperm parameters. MOE alone did not have any significant effect on sperm parameters. However, acute injection of CP resulted in significant decline in motility (P < 0.001), increase in head abnormality (P < 0.01) and DNA damage (P < 0.05). Combining MOE with CP increased the sperm density, motility and reduced head defect and DNA damage, irrespective of the schedule and dosage of MOE. Administration of MOE prior to CP significantly elevated the level of superoxide dismutase and catalase with concomitant decrease in lipid peroxidation in the testicular tissue. In conclusion, MOE may have potential benefit in reducing the loss of male gonadal function following chemotherapy.

  9. The Chemopreventive Phytochemical Moringin Isolated from Moringa oleifera Seeds Inhibits JAK/STAT Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Weigl, Julia; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Canistro, Donatella; Paolini, Moreno; Iori, Renato; Rascle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) and moringin (GMG-ITC) are edible isothiocyanates present as glucosinolate precursors in cruciferous vegetables and in the plant Moringa oleifera respectively, and recognized for their chemopreventive and medicinal properties. In contrast to the well-studied SFN, little is known about the molecular pathways targeted by GMG-ITC. We investigated the ability of GMG-ITC to inhibit essential signaling pathways that are frequently upregulated in cancer and immune disorders, such as JAK/STAT and NF-κB. We report for the first time that, similarly to SFN, GMG-ITC in the nanomolar range suppresses IL-3-induced expression of STAT5 target genes. GMG-ITC, like SFN, does not inhibit STAT5 phosphorylation, suggesting a downstream inhibitory event. Interestingly, treatment with GMG-ITC or SFN had a limited inhibitory effect on IFNα-induced STAT1 and STAT2 activity, indicating that both isothiocyanates differentially target JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Furthermore, we showed that GMG-ITC in the micromolar range is a more potent inhibitor of TNF-induced NF-κB activity than SFN. Finally, using a cellular system mimicking constitutive active STAT5-induced cell transformation, we demonstrated that SFN can reverse the survival and growth advantage mediated by oncogenic STAT5 and triggers cell death, therefore providing experimental evidence of a cancer chemopreventive activity of SFN. This work thus identified STAT5, and to a lesser extent STAT1/STAT2, as novel targets of moringin. It also contributes to a better understanding of the biological activities of the dietary isothiocyanates GMG-ITC and SFN and further supports their apparent beneficial role in the prevention of chronic illnesses such as cancer, inflammatory diseases and immune disorders. PMID:27304884

  10. Modulatory effects of Moringa oleifera extracts against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R

    2011-09-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the induction of oxidative stress may be involved in oxidative DNA damage. The present study examined and assessed the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-mediated DNA damage in human tumor KB cells and also assessed the ability of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts to inhibit the oxidative damage. H(2)O(2) imposed a stress on the membrane lipids which was quantified by the extent of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formed. The leaf extracts caused a very significant inhibition of the extent of LPO formation and enhanced the activity of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in KB cells. The comet assay was employed to study the DNA damage and its inhibition by the leaf extracts. H(2)O(2) caused a significant increase in the number of cells bearing comets, resulting in significant DNA damage. The leaf extracts significantly reduced the incidence of comets in the oxidant stressed cells. The extent of cytotoxicity of H(2)O(2) in the presence and the absence of leaf extracts studied in KB tumor cells by the MTT assay showed that H(2)O(2) caused a marked decrease in the viability of KB cells where as the leaf extracts effectively increased the viability of assaulted KB cells. The observed cytoprotective activity is probably due to the antioxidant properties of its constituents, mainly phenolics. Total phenolics showed higher correlation with antioxidant activity. The leaf extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the reference compound. These results suggest that the inhibition by the leaf extracts on oxidative DNA damage could be attributed to their free radical scavenging activities and the effect evidenced in KB cells can be in part correlated to a modulation of redox-sensitive mechanisms.

  11. The Antiproliferative Effect of Moringa oleifera Crude Aqueous Leaf Extract on Human Esophageal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2016-04-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is commonly diagnosed in South Africa (SA), with high incidences occurring in SA's black population. Moringa oleifera (MO), a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of ailments, including cancer. We investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO crude aqueous leaf extract (MOE) on a cancerous esophageal cell line (SNO). SNO cells were exposed to a range of MOE dilutions to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay). Oxidative stress was determined using the TBARS assay. The comet assay was used to assess DNA damage. We then determined cell death mechanisms by measuring phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels (luminometry). Protein expression of Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by western blotting. SNO cells were treated with a range of MOE dilutions to obtain an IC50 value of 389.2 μg/mL MOE (24 h), which was used in all subsequent assays. MOE significantly increased lipid peroxidation (P < .05) and DNA fragmentation (P < .0001) in SNO cells. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by the increase in PS externalization (P < .0001), caspase-9 (P < .05) and caspase-3/7 (P = .22) activities, and decreased ATP levels (P < .0001). MOE significantly increased both the expression of Smac/DIABLO protein and cleavage of PARP-1, resulting in an increase in the 24-kDa fragment (P < .001). MOE possesses antiproliferative effects on SNO EC cells by increasing lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and induction of apoptosis.

  12. Neuroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on aluminium-induced temporal cortical degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ekong, Moses B; Ekpo, Mfon M; Akpanyung, Edet O; Nwaokonko, Dennis U

    2017-04-11

    Aluminium (Al), one of the metals implicated in neurodegeneration easily gain access to the nervous system through its presence in many manufactured foods, medicines and drinking water, and causes neurotoxicity utilizing the reactive oxygen specie pathway. The need to curtail these effects on the nervous system motivated the use of the plant Moringa oleifera (MO). This study thus, investigated the neuroprotective effects of MO leaf extract on aluminium-induced temporal cortical degeneration in rats. 24 male albino Wistar rats were grouped (n = 6) into control (1 ml/kg distilled water), l00 mg/kg aluminium chloride (AlCl3), 300 mg/kg MO, and 100 mg/kg AlCl3 and 300 mg/kg MO groups. The administration lasted for 28 days and the rats were sacrificed on day 29 by perfusion-fixation after blood was obtained for serum Al estimation. The brain tissues were then routinely processed for some histological and immunnolabelling studies. There was no significant difference in serum Al in the test groups. Histological results showed atrophied and karyorrhetic cells with loss of Nissl substance in the temporal cortex of the AlCl3 group, while no adverse effect was observed in the cytoarchitecture of the temporal cortex and Nissl substance of the MO group. However, groups which were administered AlCl3 simultaneously with MO extract showed less degenerative features in the cyto-architecture of the temporal cortex with normal Nissl substance staining. There was increased neuron specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressions in the AlCl3 group, while the MO group also showed increased NSE but decreased GFAP expression. However, the group which were administered AlCl3 simultaneously with MO extract showed less expression of NSE and GFAP. In conclusion, MO protects against Al-induced neurotoxicity of the temporal cortex of rats.

  13. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  14. The Chemopreventive Phytochemical Moringin Isolated from Moringa oleifera Seeds Inhibits JAK/STAT Signaling.

    PubMed

    Michl, Carina; Vivarelli, Fabio; Weigl, Julia; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Canistro, Donatella; Paolini, Moreno; Iori, Renato; Rascle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) and moringin (GMG-ITC) are edible isothiocyanates present as glucosinolate precursors in cruciferous vegetables and in the plant Moringa oleifera respectively, and recognized for their chemopreventive and medicinal properties. In contrast to the well-studied SFN, little is known about the molecular pathways targeted by GMG-ITC. We investigated the ability of GMG-ITC to inhibit essential signaling pathways that are frequently upregulated in cancer and immune disorders, such as JAK/STAT and NF-κB. We report for the first time that, similarly to SFN, GMG-ITC in the nanomolar range suppresses IL-3-induced expression of STAT5 target genes. GMG-ITC, like SFN, does not inhibit STAT5 phosphorylation, suggesting a downstream inhibitory event. Interestingly, treatment with GMG-ITC or SFN had a limited inhibitory effect on IFNα-induced STAT1 and STAT2 activity, indicating that both isothiocyanates differentially target JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Furthermore, we showed that GMG-ITC in the micromolar range is a more potent inhibitor of TNF-induced NF-κB activity than SFN. Finally, using a cellular system mimicking constitutive active STAT5-induced cell transformation, we demonstrated that SFN can reverse the survival and growth advantage mediated by oncogenic STAT5 and triggers cell death, therefore providing experimental evidence of a cancer chemopreventive activity of SFN. This work thus identified STAT5, and to a lesser extent STAT1/STAT2, as novel targets of moringin. It also contributes to a better understanding of the biological activities of the dietary isothiocyanates GMG-ITC and SFN and further supports their apparent beneficial role in the prevention of chronic illnesses such as cancer, inflammatory diseases and immune disorders.

  15. Microbiological Assessment of Moringa Oleifera Extracts and Its Incorporation in Novel Dental Remedies against Some Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Elgamily, Hanaa; Moussa, Amani; Elboraey, Asmaa; EL-Sayed, Hoda; Al-Moghazy, Marwa; Abdalla, Aboelfetoh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of different parts of Moringa oleifera plant using different extraction methods in attempts to formulate natural dental remedies from this plant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three solvents extracts (Ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate) of different parts of Egyptian Moringa tree were prepared and tested against oral pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method; As well as to incorporate the plant extract to formulate experimental toothpaste and mouthwash. The two dental remedies were assessed against the same microbial strains. Statistical analysis was performed using One-Way ANOVA test to compare the inhibition zone diameter and t-test. RESULTS: Ethanol extracts as well as leaves extracts demonstrated the highest significant mean inhibition zone values (P ≤ 0.05) against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans growth. However, all extracts revealed no inhibition zone against Candida albicans. For dental remedies, experimental toothpaste exhibited higher mean inhibition than the mouthwash against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and only the toothpaste revealed antifungal effect against Candida albicans. CONCLUSION: The different extracts of different parts of Moringa showed an antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans growth. The novel toothpaste of ethanolic leaves extract has antimicrobial and antifungal potential effects all selected strains. PMID:28028395

  16. Comparative study on nutrient composition, phytochemical, and functional characteristics of raw, germinated, and fermented Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole S; Adeoti, Oluwole A; Ariyo, Oluwaseun

    2013-11-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds were processed as raw M. oleifera (RMO), germinated M. oleifera (GMO), and fermented M. oleifera (FMO), and were evaluated for proximate, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, phytochemicals/antinutrients, and functional properties. Protein content of GMO (23.69 ± 0.11 g/100 g) was higher than FMO (21.15 ± 0.08 g/100 g) and that of RMO (18.86 ± 0.09 g/100 g) (P < 0.05), respectively. Energy value of FMO (465.32 ± 0.48 kcal) was higher than GMO (438.62 ± 0.12 kcal) and that of RMO (409.04 ± 1.61 kcal), respectively. Mineral contents in GMO were significantly higher in iron, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and copper, while FMO were higher in calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, and both were significantly lower than those in RMO (P < 0.05). Total essential amino acids (TEAAs) in FMO (31.07 mg/g crude protein) were higher than in GMO (26.52 mg/g crude protein), and were higher than that in RMO (23.56 mg/g crude protein). Linoleic acid (58.79 ± 0.02-62.05 ± 0.01 g/100 g) and behenic acid (0.13 ± 0.00-0.20 ± 0.06 g/100 g) were the predominant and least fatty acids, respectively. Phytochemical/antinutrient compositions in FMO samples were significantly lower than GMO, and both were significantly lower when compared with RMO samples (P < 0.05). The bulk density (pack and loose), foaming capacity, swelling capacity, and water absorption capacity (WAC) of FMO were significantly higher than those of GMO, and there was no significant difference between GMO and RMO samples. The study established that fermentation processing methods increased the protein content, essential amino acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles, and reduced antinutrient compositions of M. oleifera seed than germination processing techniques; hence, fermentation techniques should be encouraged in processing moringa seeds in food processing.

  17. Comparative study on nutrient composition, phytochemical, and functional characteristics of raw, germinated, and fermented Moringa oleifera seed flour

    PubMed Central

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole S; Adeoti, Oluwole A; Ariyo, Oluwaseun

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds were processed as raw M. oleifera (RMO), germinated M. oleifera (GMO), and fermented M. oleifera (FMO), and were evaluated for proximate, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, phytochemicals/antinutrients, and functional properties. Protein content of GMO (23.69 ± 0.11 g/100 g) was higher than FMO (21.15 ± 0.08 g/100 g) and that of RMO (18.86 ± 0.09 g/100 g) (P < 0.05), respectively. Energy value of FMO (465.32 ± 0.48 kcal) was higher than GMO (438.62 ± 0.12 kcal) and that of RMO (409.04 ± 1.61 kcal), respectively. Mineral contents in GMO were significantly higher in iron, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and copper, while FMO were higher in calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, and both were significantly lower than those in RMO (P < 0.05). Total essential amino acids (TEAAs) in FMO (31.07 mg/g crude protein) were higher than in GMO (26.52 mg/g crude protein), and were higher than that in RMO (23.56 mg/g crude protein). Linoleic acid (58.79 ± 0.02–62.05 ± 0.01 g/100 g) and behenic acid (0.13 ± 0.00–0.20 ± 0.06 g/100 g) were the predominant and least fatty acids, respectively. Phytochemical/antinutrient compositions in FMO samples were significantly lower than GMO, and both were significantly lower when compared with RMO samples (P < 0.05). The bulk density (pack and loose), foaming capacity, swelling capacity, and water absorption capacity (WAC) of FMO were significantly higher than those of GMO, and there was no significant difference between GMO and RMO samples. The study established that fermentation processing methods increased the protein content, essential amino acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles, and reduced antinutrient compositions of M. oleifera seed than germination processing techniques; hence, fermentation techniques should be encouraged in processing moringa seeds in food processing. PMID:24804056

  18. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test.

    PubMed

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130-132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid.

  19. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test

    PubMed Central

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130–132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  20. New insights into the structure and mode of action of Mo-CBP3, an antifungal chitin-binding protein of Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Batista, Adelina B; Oliveira, José T A; Gifoni, Juliana M; Pereira, Mirella L; Almeida, Marina G G; Gomes, Valdirene M; Da Cunha, Maura; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Dias, Germana B; Beltramini, Leila M; Lopes, José Luiz S; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2014-01-01

    Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein purified from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds that displays inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi. This study investigated the structural properties and the antifungal mode of action of this protein. To this end, circular dichroism spectroscopy, antifungal assays, measurements of the production of reactive oxygen species and microscopic analyses were utilized. Mo-CBP3 is composed of 30.3% α-helices, 16.3% β-sheets, 22.3% turns and 30.4% unordered forms. The Mo-CBP3 structure is highly stable and retains its antifungal activity regardless of temperature and pH. Fusarium solani was used as a model organism for studying the mechanisms by which this protein acts as an antifungal agent. Mo-CBP3 significantly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth at 0.05 mg.mL-1. Mo-CBP3 has both fungistatic and fungicidal effects, depending on the concentration used. Binding of Mo-CBP3 to the fungal cell surface is achieved, at least in part, via electrostatic interactions, as salt was able to reduce its inhibitory effect. Mo-CBP3 induced the production of ROS and caused disorganization of both the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane in F. solani cells. Based on its high stability and specific toxicity, with broad-spectrum efficacy against important phytopathogenic fungi at low inhibitory concentrations but not to human cells, Mo-CBP3 has great potential for the development of new antifungal drugs or transgenic crops with enhanced resistance to phytopathogens.

  1. New Insights into the Structure and Mode of Action of Mo-CBP3, an Antifungal Chitin-Binding Protein of Moringa oleifera Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Adelina B.; Oliveira, José T. A.; Gifoni, Juliana M.; Pereira, Mirella L.; Almeida, Marina G. G.; Gomes, Valdirene M.; Da Cunha, Maura; Ribeiro, Suzanna F. F.; Dias, Germana B.; Beltramini, Leila M.; Lopes, José Luiz S.; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Vasconcelos, Ilka M.

    2014-01-01

    Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein purified from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds that displays inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi. This study investigated the structural properties and the antifungal mode of action of this protein. To this end, circular dichroism spectroscopy, antifungal assays, measurements of the production of reactive oxygen species and microscopic analyses were utilized. Mo-CBP3 is composed of 30.3% α-helices, 16.3% β-sheets, 22.3% turns and 30.4% unordered forms. The Mo-CBP3 structure is highly stable and retains its antifungal activity regardless of temperature and pH. Fusarium solani was used as a model organism for studying the mechanisms by which this protein acts as an antifungal agent. Mo-CBP3 significantly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth at 0.05 mg.mL−1. Mo-CBP3 has both fungistatic and fungicidal effects, depending on the concentration used. Binding of Mo-CBP3 to the fungal cell surface is achieved, at least in part, via electrostatic interactions, as salt was able to reduce its inhibitory effect. Mo-CBP3 induced the production of ROS and caused disorganization of both the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane in F. solani cells. Based on its high stability and specific toxicity, with broad-spectrum efficacy against important phytopathogenic fungi at low inhibitory concentrations but not to human cells, Mo-CBP3 has great potential for the development of new antifungal drugs or transgenic crops with enhanced resistance to phytopathogens. PMID:25347074

  2. Protective role of Moringa oleifera (Sajina) seed on arsenic-induced hepatocellular degeneration in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit; Maji, Gurupada; Deb, Bimal; Pan, Bappaditya; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-08-01

    In an attempt to develop new herbal therapy, an aqueous extract of the seed of Moringa oleifera was used to screen the effect on arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in female rat of Wistar strain. Subchronic exposure to sodium arsenite (0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/day via drinking water for a period of 24 days) significantly increased activities of hepatic and lipid function markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL along with a decrease in total protein and HDL. A notable distortion of hepatocellular histoarchitecture was prominent with a concomitant increase in DNA fragmentation following arsenic exposure. A marked elevation of lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue was also evident from the hepatic accumulation of malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes along with suppressed activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. However, co-administration of aqueous seed extract of M. oleifera (500 mg/100 g body weight/day for a period of 24 days) was found to significantly prevent the arsenic-induced alteration of hepatic function markers and lipid profile. Moreover, the degeneration of histoarchitecture of liver found in arsenic-treated rats was protected along with partial but definite prevention against DNA fragmentation induction. Similarly, generation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals were found to be significantly less along with restored activities of antioxidant enzymes in M. oleifera co-administered group with comparison to arsenic alone treatment group. The present investigation offers strong evidence for the hepato-protective and antioxidative efficiencies of M. oleifera seed extract against oxidative stress induced by arsenic.

  3. The antiproliferative effect of Moringa oleifera crude aqueous leaf extract on cancerous human alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of lung cancer is expected to increase due to increases in exposure to airborne pollutants and cigarette smoke. Moringa oleifera (MO), a medicinal plant found mainly in Asia and South Africa is used in the traditional treatment of various ailments including cancer. This study investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO leaf extract (MOE) in cancerous A549 lung cells. Methods A crude aqueous leaf extract was prepared and the cells were treated with 166.7 μg/ml MOE (IC50) for 24 h and assayed for oxidative stress (TBARS and Glutathione assays), DNA fragmentation (comet assay) and caspase (3/7 and 9) activity. In addition, the expression of Nrf2, p53, Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by Western blotting. The mRNA expression of Nrf2 and p53 was assessed using qPCR. Results A significant increase in reactive oxygen species with a concomitant decrease in intracellular glutathione levels (p < 0.001) in MOE treated A549 cells was observed. MOE showed a significant reduction in Nrf2 protein expression (1.89-fold, p < 0.05) and mRNA expression (1.44-fold). A higher level of DNA fragmentation (p < 0.0001) was seen in the MOE treated cells. MOE’s pro-apoptotic action was confirmed by the significant increase in p53 protein expression (1.02-fold, p < 0.05), p53 mRNA expression (1.59-fold), caspase-9 (1.28-fold, p < 0.05), caspase-3/7 (1.52-fold) activities and an enhanced expression of Smac/DIABLO. MOE also caused the cleavage and activation of PARP-1 into 89 KDa and 24 KDa fragments (p < 0.0001). Conclusion MOE exerts antiproliferative effects in A549 lung cells by increasing oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis. PMID:24041017

  4. Oviposition-Stimulant and Ovicidal Activities of Moringa oleifera Lectin on Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Nataly Diniz de Lima; de Moura, Kézia Santana; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Santos, Geanne Karla Novais; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural insecticides against the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been the object of research due to their high level of eco-safety. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL) is a larvicidal agent against A. aegypti. This work reports the effects of WSMoL on oviposition and egg hatching of A. aegypti. Methodology/Principal Findings WSMoL crude preparations (seed extract and 0–60 protein fraction), at 0.1 mg/mL protein concentration, did not affect oviposition, while A. aegypti gravid females laid their eggs preferentially (73%) in vessels containing isolated WSMoL (0.1 mg/mL), compared with vessels containing only distilled water (control). Volatile compounds were not detected in WSMoL preparation. The hatchability of fresh eggs deposited in the solutions in the oviposition assay was evaluated. The numbers of hatched larvae in seed extract, 0–60 protein fraction and WSMoL were 45±8.7 %, 20±11 % and 55±7.5 %, respectively, significantly (p<0.05) lower than in controls containing only distilled water (75–95%). Embryos were visualized inside fresh control eggs, but not within eggs that were laid and maintained in WSMoL solution. Ovicidal activity was also assessed using stored A. aegypti eggs. The protein concentrations able to reduce the hatching rate by 50% (EC50) were 0.32, 0.16 and 0.1 mg/mL for seed extract, 0–60 protein fraction and WSMoL, respectively. The absence of hatching of stored eggs treated with WSMoL at 0.3 mg/mL (EC99) after transfer to medium without lectin indicates that embryos within the eggs were killed by WSMoL. The reduction in hatching rate of A. aegypti was not linked to decrease in bacteria population. Conclusions/Significance WSMoL acted both as a chemical stimulant cue for ovipositing females and ovicidal agent at a given concentration. The oviposition-stimulant and ovicidal activities, combined with the previously reported larvicidal activity, make WSMoL a very interesting candidate in integrated A. aegypti

  5. Effects of Moringa oleifera seed extract on rumen fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Becker, K

    2003-02-01

    Moringa oleifera is a pantropical tree of the family Moringaceae. A previously undescribed property of an aqueous extract from the seeds of this plant is the modulation of ruminal fermentation patterns, especially protein degradation, as demonstrated in a short-term batch incubation system. Gas, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cellulolytic enzyme activities were determined as general fermentation parameters. A dot blot assay able to directly detect true protein in rumen fluid samples was used to quantify protein degradation. For complex substrates the interpretation of protein degradation profiles was amended by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of the samples. When incubated with pure carbohydrates at a concentration of 1 mg ml(-1), the extract reduced microbial degradation of the model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), such that its concentration was at least 40% above the control after 12 h of incubation. Total protein degradation was thus delayed by approximately 9 h. When fermented along with wheat straw, leaf protein (Rubisco) was almost entirely protected during 12 h of fermentation. The degradation of soy proteins was retarded by at least 4-6 h, depending on the protein band. There were strong side effects on the fermentation of pure cellulose (SCFA yield-60% after 12 h), whereas cellobiose and starch fermentation were less affected (-18 and -8%, respectively). When the complex substrates were fermented, SCFA yield was reduced by approximately 30% after 12 h. In our work we clearly demonstrate the efficacy of the new substance, which is neither a tannin nor a saponin, in an in vitro system, using pure as well as complex substrates. The properties shown in vitro for the crude extract suggest that it could have a positive effect on the protein metabolism of ruminants under intensive management and that negative side effects can be overcome by an optimized dosage. If the chemical nature of the active substance and its mechanism of action can be

  6. Evaluation of the antidepressant activity of Moringa oleifera alone and in combination with fluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ginpreet; Invally, Mihir; Sanzagiri, Resham; Buttar, Harpal S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of mental depression has increased in recent years, and has become a serious health problem in most countries of the world, including India. Due to the high cost of antidepressant synthetic drugs and their accompanying side effects, the discovery of safer antidepressant herbal remedies is on the rise. Moringa oleifera (MO) (drumstick) has been used in traditional folk medicine, and in Ayurveda, it is considered as a valuable remedy for treating nervous system disorders as well as memory enhancing agent. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the acute and chronic behavioral and antidepressant effects of alcoholic extracts of MO leaves in standardized mouse models of depression. Materials and Methods: Alcoholic extracts of MO (MOE) leaves were prepared, and phytoconstituents were determined using appropriate chemical analytical methods. Following preliminary dose-finding toxicity studies, the biological activity of MOE was tested in Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into six groups: Groups 1 and 2 served as vehicle control and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) standard control, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 served as treatment groups and were orally administered ethanolic MOE at doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Groups 5 and 6, respectively, received combination doses of MOE 100 mg/kg + 10 mg fluoxetine, and MOE 200 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg fluoxetine. Following acute and 14 days chronic treatments, all animals were tested using behavioral models of depression, such as forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and locomotor activity test (LAT). Results: Significant changes in all tested activities (FST, TST, LAT) of chronically dosed mice were observed, especially in animals given simultaneously combined doses of 200 mg/kg/day MOE + 10 mg/kg/day fluoxetine for 14 days. The antidepressant effect of MOE may have been invoked through the noradrenergic-serotonergic neurotransmission pathway, which is the hallmark of

  7. Sensory evaluation of locally-grown fruit purees and inulin fibre on probiotic yogurt in Mwanza, Tanzania and the Microbial Analysis of Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Morgan, Kathryn; Soltani, Mohammad; Gough, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish new food products that increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the probiotic yogurt currently used in the Western Heads East (WHE) Project in Mwanza, Tanzania. The probiotic yogurt has established health benefits, and product development through fortification must not adversely affect the acceptability of yogurt or the viability of the probiotics. Both sensory testing and microbial analysis testing were conducted. The products tested were yogurt fortified with locally-grown fruit purees with inulin and Moringa oleifera. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that all yogurts were not rated significantly different from the control, except for appearance. The avocado puree without inulin rated significantly lower in all categories. The microbial analysis showed that Moringa oleifera did not negatively affect the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in MRS, milk or yogurt, although a significant decrease was found after 5 weeks of storage at 4 (o)C.

  8. Sensory Evaluation of Locally-grown Fruit Purees and Inulin Fibre on Probiotic Yogurt in Mwanza, Tanzania and the Microbial Analysis of Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Kathryn; Soltani, Mohammad; Gough, Robert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to establish new food products that increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the probiotic yogurt currently used in the Western Heads East (WHE) Project in Mwanza, Tanzania. The probiotic yogurt has established health benefits, and product development through fortification must not adversely affect the acceptability of yogurt or the viability of the probiotics. Both sensory testing and microbial analysis testing were conducted. The products tested were yogurt fortified with locally-grown fruit purees with inulin and Moringa oleifera. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that all yogurts were not rated significantly different from the control, except for appearance. The avocado puree without inulin rated significantly lower in all categories. The microbial analysis showed that Moringa oleifera did not negatively affect the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in MRS, milk or yogurt, although a significant decrease was found after 5 weeks of storage at 4 oC. PMID:25995722

  9. Chemopreventive and anti-leukemic effects of ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves on wistar rats bearing benzene induced leukemia.

    PubMed

    Akanni, E O; Adedeji, A L; Adedosu, O T; Olaniran, O I; Oloke, J K

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological exploitation of natural compounds has continued to lead to development of non-synthetic and non-toxic anticancer agents that are promising at ameliorating the menace of neoplastic diseases such as leukemia. This study is an attempt to determine the chemopreventive and antileukemic activities of ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves on benzene induced leukemia bearing rats. Leukemia was induced by intravenous injection of 0.2 mL benzene solution 48 hourly for 4 weeks in appropriate rat groups. Ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera (EMO) leaves was administered at 0.2 mL of 100 mg/mL to respective treatment rat groups. A standard antileukemic drug (cyclophosphamide) was also used to treat appropriate rat groups. Clinical examination of liver and spleen with hematological parameters were employed to assess the leukemia burden following analysis of the rat blood samples on Sysmex KX-21N automated instrument. Leukemia induction reflected in severe anemia and a marked leukocytosis over the control/baseline group. Liver and spleen enlargements were also observed in group exposed to benzene carcinogen. The in vivo antioxidative potential of EMO was evaluated using Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. The liver MDA and GSH levels obtained in benzene induced leukemic rats treated with EMO compared favorably with those obtained in similar treatments with the standard drug (p< 0.05). The extract demonstrated chemopreventive and anti-leukemic activities as much as the standard anti-leukemic drug (p>0.05) by ameliorating the induced leukemic condition in the affected rat groups owing to its bioactive constituents. This study reveals that the extract might be an active, natural and non-toxic anticancer drug lead.

  10. Synergistic antimicrobial efficacy of mesoporous ZnO loaded with 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate isolated from the Moringa oleifera seed.

    PubMed

    Rim Jeon, Se; Ha Lee, Keun; Ha Shin, Dong; Sang Kwon, Sun; Sung Hwang, Jae

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of isolated compounds from seed extracts of Moringa oleifera and synergistic antimicrobial efficacy through hybridized complex of organic-inorganic composite materials were studied. The two main components of the Moringa oleifera seed were isolated and determined to be niazimicin and 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (RBI). The antimicrobial activity of the separated compounds of the Moringa oleifera seed were tested in vitro against 3 bacterial species and 2 fungal species by the paper disc diffusion assay and broth dilution methods. Both compounds showed antimicrobial activity against tested species and RBI was more effective than niazimicin. The MIC of RBI on S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans, and A. niger was 0.005%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 0.5%, and 0.5%, respectively, while the MIC of niazimicin on S. aureus was 0.1%. Next, we investigated the combined antimicrobial action of mesoporous ZnO and RBI by incorporating the compound within the pore of mesoporous ZnO. The MIC of mesoporous ZnO with RBI on S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans, and A. niger was 0.001%, 0.01%, 0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. A synergistic effect of RBI with mesoporous ZnO was shown. From these results, the mesoporous ZnO could act as a reservoir for RBI and mesoporous ZnO with RBI could be used for cosmetic preservatives.

  11. Phenolic Extract from Moringa oleifera Leaves Inhibits Key Enzymes Linked to Erectile Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Rats' Penile Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Olasehinde, Tosin A.; Oyeleye, Sunday I.; Boligon, Aline A.; Athayde, Margareth L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects of extract from Moringa oleifera leaves on angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase activities in vitro. The extract was prepared and phenolic (total phenols and flavonoid) contents, radical (nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl (OH)) scavenging abilities, and Fe2+-chelating ability were assessed. Characterization of the phenolic constituents was done via high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the extract on Fe2+-induced MDA production in rats' penile tissue homogenate as well as its action on ACE and arginase activities were also determined. The extract scavenged NO∗, OH∗, chelated Fe2+, and inhibited MDA production in a dose-dependent pattern with IC50 values of 1.36, 0.52, and 0.38 mg/mL and 194.23 µg/mL, respectively. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol were the most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the leaf extract. The extract also inhibited ACE and arginase activities in a dose-dependent pattern and their IC50 values were 303.03 and 159.59 µg/mL, respectively. The phenolic contents, inhibition of ACE, arginase, and Fe2+-induced MDA production, and radical (OH∗, NO∗) scavenging and Fe2+-chelating abilities could be some of the possible mechanisms by which M. oleifera leaves could be used in the treatment and/or management of erectile dysfunction. PMID:26557995

  12. A Protein Isolate from Moringa oleifera Leaves Has Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Paula, Paulo C; Sousa, Daniele O B; Oliveira, Jose T A; Carvalho, Ana F U; Alves, Bella G T; Pereira, Mirella L; Farias, Davi F; Viana, Martonio P; Santos, Flavia A; Morais, Talita C; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2017-02-11

    Moringa oleifera has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. However, few studies have been conducted to relate its antidiabetic properties to proteins. In this study, a leaf protein isolate was obtained from M. oleifera leaves, named Mo-LPI, and the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects on alloxan-induced diabetic mice were assessed. Mo-LPI was obtained by aqueous extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The electrophoresis profile and proteolytic hydrolysis confirmed its protein nature. Mo-LPI showed hemagglutinating activity, cross-reaction with anti-insulin antibodies and precipitation after zinc addition. Single-dose intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Mo-LPI (500 mg/kg·bw) reduced the blood glucose level (reductions of 34.3%, 60.9% and 66.4% after 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively). The effect of Mo-LPI was also evidenced in the repeated dose test with a 56.2% reduction in the blood glucose level on the 7th day after i.p. administration. Mo-LPI did not stimulate insulin secretion in diabetic mice. Mo-LPI was also effective in reducing the oxidative stress in diabetic mice by a decrease in malondialdehyde level and increase in catalase activity. Mo-LPI (2500 mg/kg·bw) did not cause acute toxicity to mice. Mo-LPI is a promising alternative or complementary agent to treat diabetes.

  13. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    PubMed

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent.

  14. A comparison between Moringa oleifera and chemical coagulants in the purification of drinking water - An alternative sustainable solution for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

    A research project was commissioned to investigate the performance of Moringa oleifera compared with that of aluminium sulphate (Al 2(SO 4) 3) and ferric sulphate (Fe 2(SO 4) 3), termed alum and ferric respectively. A series of jar tests was undertaken using model water, different raw water sources and hybrid water containing a mixture of both of these types of water. The model water consisted of deionised water spiked with Escherichia coli (E. coli) at 10 4 per 100 ml and turbidity (146 NTU) artificially created by kaolin. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 84% turbidity and 88% E. coli, whereas alum removed greater than 99% turbidity and E. coli. Low turbidity river water (<5 NTU), with an E. coli count of 605 colony forming units (cfu)/100 ml was treated with M. oleifera and ferric. Results showed an 82% and 94% reduction in E. coli for M. oleifera and ferric respectively. Tests on turbid river water of 45 NTU, with an E. coli count of 2650 cfu/100 ml, showed a removal of turbidity of 76% and E. coli reduction of 93% with M. oleifera. The equivalent reductions for alum were 91% and 98% respectively. Highly coloured reservoir water was also spiked with E. coli (10 4 cfu/100 ml) and turbidity (160 NTU) artificially created by kaolin; termed hybrid water. Under these conditions M. oleifera removed 83% colour, 97% turbidity and reduced E. coli by 66%. Corresponding removal values for alum were 88% colour, 99% turbidity and 89% E. coli, and for ferric were 93% colour, 98% turbidity and 86% E. coli. Tests on model water, using a secondary treatment stage sand filter showed maximum turbidity removal of 97% and maximum E. coli reduction of 98% using M. oleifera, compared with 100% turbidity and 97% E. coli for alum. Although not as effective as alum or ferric, M. oleifera showed sufficient removal capability to encourage its use for treatment of turbid waters in developing countries.

  15. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    PubMed

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability).

  16. Point-of-use interventions to decrease contamination of drinking water: a randomized, controlled pilot study on efficacy, effectiveness, and acceptability of closed containers, Moringa oleifera, and in-home chlorination in rural South India.

    PubMed

    Firth, Jacqueline; Balraj, Vinohar; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Roy, Sheela; Rani, Lilly Michael; Chandresekhar, R; Kang, Gagandeep

    2010-05-01

    To assess water contamination and the relative effectiveness of three options for point-of-use water treatment in South India, we conducted a 6-month randomized, controlled intervention trial using chlorine, Moringa oleifera seeds, a closed valved container, and controls. One hundred twenty-six families participated. Approximately 70% of public drinking water sources had thermotolerant coliform counts > 100/100 mL. Neither M. oleifera seeds nor containers reduced coliform counts in water samples from participants' homes. Chlorine reduced thermotolerant coliform counts to potable levels, but was less acceptable to participants. Laboratory testing of M. oleifera seeds in water from the village confirmed the lack of reduction in coliform counts, in contrast to the improvement seen with Escherichia coli seeded distilled water. This discrepancy merits further study, as M. oleifera was effective in reducing coliform counts in other studies and compliance with Moringa use in this study was high.

  17. Dietary effects of Moringa oleifera leaf powder on growth, gastrointestinal morphometry and blood and liver metabolites in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Zvinorova, P I; Lekhanya, L; Erlwanger, K; Chivandi, E

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) as a dietary supplement on growth performance, gastrointestinal (GIT) morphometry and liver function using weanling Sprague Dawley rats to model humans under ad libitum and restricted feeding. An MOLP-based diet was generated by supplementing normal rat feed with the leaf powder at 20%. Four dietary regimens included normal rat feed fed at 20% of body mass (NRF: ad libitum), NRF fed at 14% of body mass (NRFR, restricted), Moringa-supplemented feeds fed at 20% and 14% of body mass (MOF: ad libitum and MOFR: restrictedly) respectively. Thirty-two pups were randomly assigned to the diets and fed for 5 weeks, after which they were fasted, euthanased and GIT viscera masses, lengths and histology were assessed. Blood was collected for metabolite and markers of liver function assays. Tibiae and femora lengths were used to determine linear growth. Rats fed the restricted diets had lower weekly body mass gains (p = 0.0001) than those on ad libitum feeding; however, they showed compensatory growth by 5 weeks. Terminally, the rats fed MOFR had shorter (p < 0.05) femora and tibiae than their counterparts on the other diets. Except on the caeca, diet had no effect on the absolute masses and lengths of GIT viscera. Relative to tibia length, rats on the MOF had significantly heavier stomachs and caeca and longer small and large intestines than their counterparts on NRF, but this was not supported histologically. Level of feeding and supplementation did not affect blood metabolite concentration, liver glycogen and lipid storage nor the plasma activities AST and ALP in the rats. Supplementing diets with MOLP under restricted access to feed (low calorific supply) might compromise linear growth.

  18. Effect of dietary inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera leaf meal on performance of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Safwat, Assem Mohamed; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Nieves, Duilio

    2014-10-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of including either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as tropical feed resources at two levels (30 or 40 %) on growth performance, carcass traits, and economical efficiency of growing rabbits. A total of 60 California growing rabbits were randomly distributed into five experimental groups, each consisting of 12 rabbits and were allocated individually; the groups were control, 30 % LLM, 40 % LLM, 30 % MOLM, and 40 % MOLM. The experimental period lasted from 6 to 12 weeks of age. The results showed that rabbits fed control and 30 % MOLM diets had significantly the highest final body weight and daily weight gain being 2,040 and 2,000 g and 31.6 and 30.6 g/day, respectively. Similarly, the best feed conversion ratio was associated with 30 % MOLM and control groups (3.2 and 3.4), while the worst value was for 40 % LLM group (5.2). MOLM treatments recorded significantly the highest dressing percentage along with control group. The inclusion of MOLM by 30 and 40 % improved the economical efficiency (2 and 1.5) in comparison with the control group (1.1). The results suggest that MOLM can be included in growing rabbit diets up to 40 % without any adverse effect on growth performance or carcass traits with higher economical efficiency of growing rabbits.

  19. Competing Role of Bioactive Constituents in Moringa oleifera Extract and Conventional Nutrition Feed on the Performance of Cobb 500 Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Alimon, Abd. Razak; Safinar Ismail, Intan; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf extract as a dietary supplement on the growth performance and antioxidant parameters was evaluated on broiler meat and the compounds responsible for the corresponding antioxidant activity were identified. 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/v of MO leaf aqueous extracts (MOLE) were prepared, and nutritional feed supplemented with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/w of MO leaf meal (MOLM) extracts were also prepared and analysed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the treated broiler groups (control (T1) and treatment (T2, T3, and T4)) were evaluated for performance, meat quality, and antioxidant status. The results of this study revealed that, among the broilers fed MOLM, the broilers fed 0.5% w/w MOLM (T2) exhibited enhanced meat quality and antioxidant status (P < 0.05). However, the antioxidant activity of the MOLE is greater than that of the MOLM. The LC-MS/MS analysis of MOLM showed high expression of isoflavones and fatty acids from soy and corn source, which antagonistically inhibit the expression of the flavonoids/phenols in the MO leaves thereby masking its antioxidant effects. Thus, altering the soy and corn gradients in conventional nutrition feed with 0.5% w/w MO leaves supplement would provide an efficient and cost-effective feed supplement. PMID:25793214

  20. Color removal from distillery spent wash through coagulation using Moringa oleifera seeds: use of optimum response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Prasad, R Krishna

    2009-06-15

    The effects of dosage, pH and concentration of salts were investigated for an optimized condition of color removal from the distillery spent wash. The optimization process was analyzed using custom response surface methodology (RSM). The design was employed to derive a statistical model for the effect of parameters studied on removal of color using Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). The dosage (20 and 60 ml), pH (7 and 8.5) and concentration of 0.25 M had been found to be the optimum conditions for maximum 56% and 67% color removal using sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) salts respectively. The actual color removal at optimal conditions was found to be 53% and 64% respectively for NaCl and KCl salts which confirms close to RSM results. The effects of storage duration and temperature on MOC studied reveal that coagulation efficiency of MOC kept at room temperature was effective for 3 days and at 4 degrees C it performed coagulation up to 5 days.

  1. Cytotoxicity and effect of extraction methods on the chemical composition of essential oils of Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Kayode, Rowland Monday Ojo; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-08-01

    Renewed interest in natural materials as food flavors and preservatives has led to the search for suitable essential oils. Moringa oleifera seed essential oil was extracted by solvent-free microwave and hydrodistillation. This study assessed its chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity of the oils was investigated using hatchability and lethality tests on brine shrimps. A total of 16 and 26 compounds were isolated from the hydrodistillation extraction (HDE) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SME) oils, respectively, which accounted for 97.515% and 97.816% of total identifiable constituents, respectively. At 24 h when the most eggs had hatched, values of the SME (56.7%) and HDE (60.0%) oils were significantly different (P<0.05) from those of sea water (63.3%) and chloramphenicol (15.0%). Larva lethality was different significantly (P<0.05) between HDE and SME oils at different concentrations and incubation periods. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the oils was >1000 mg/ml recommended as an index for non-toxicity, which gives the oil advantage over some antioxidant, antimicrobial, therapeutic, and preservative chemicals.

  2. RETRACTED: Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, K; Velmurugan, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Ashokkumar, S

    2015-05-15

    The development of semiconductor materials made a considerable progress of catalytic technologies. In the present study, a simple and eco-friendly chemical direction for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf extract of Moringa oleifera has been used. The prepared ZnO NPs were characterized various techniques such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD analysis revealed the wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO NPs. FT-IR confirmed the presence of functional groups of both leaf extract and ZnO NPs. The particles size, morphology and topography determined from FE-SEM. The intense and narrow width of zinc and oxygen have high purity and crystalline were identified using EDX. UV-Vis absorption showed the characteristic absorption peak of ZnO NPs. The results of antimicrobial activities revealed that maximum zones of inhibition was observed Gram (+ve) positive bacteria and followed by the Gram (-ve) negative bacteria and fungal at concentration of 200μg/mL of ZnO NPs.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect glucosinolate and mineral element composition in leaves of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Marco; Franken, Philipp; Mewis, Inga; Baldermann, Susanne; Wurst, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Moringa is a mycorrhizal crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics and appreciated for its nutritive and health-promoting value. As well as improving plant mineral nutrition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect plant synthesis of compounds bioactive against chronic diseases in humans. Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae were used in a full factorial experiment to investigate the impact of AMF on the accumulation of glucosinolates, flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and mineral elements in moringa leaves. Levels of glucosinolates were enhanced, flavonoids and phenolic acids were not affected, levels of carotenoids (including provitamin A) were species-specifically reduced, and mineral elements were affected differently, with only Cu and Zn being increased by the AMF. This study presents novel results on AMF effects on glucosinolates in leaves and supports conclusions that the impacts of these fungi on microelement concentrations in edible plants are species dependent. The nonspecific positive effects on glucosinolates and the species-specific negative effects on carotenoids encourage research on other AMF species to achieve general benefits on bioactive compounds in moringa.

  4. Effect of Moringa oleifera lectins on survival and enzyme activities of Aedes aegypti larvae susceptible and resistant to organophosphate.

    PubMed

    Agra-Neto, Afonso Cordeiro; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Santos, Nataly Diniz de Lima; Luz, Luciana de Andrade; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes aegypti has led to emergence of resistant populations. Moringa oleifera seeds contain the lectins WSMoL and cMoL. WSMoL has larvicidal activity on fourth-stage of A. aegypti organophosphate-susceptible larvae (Rockefeller L4). This study reports on the effects of cMoL on the survival of Rockefeller L4 as well as of WSMoL and cMoL on L4 from an organophosphate-resistant population (Rec-R). The effects of lectins on digestive (amylase, trypsin, and protease) and detoxifying (superoxide dismutase (SOD), α- and β-esterases) enzymes from larvae were also determined. cMoL (0.1-0.8 mg/ml) did not kill Rockefeller L4 as well as WSMoL and cMoL (0.1-0.8 mg/ml) were not larvicidal for Rec-R L4. WSMoL stimulated protease, trypsin-like, and α-amylase from Rockefeller L4 while cMoL inhibited these enzymes. WSMoL had no effect on trypsin-like activity from Rec-R L4 but inhibited protease and α-amylase. Among digestive enzymes of Rec-R L4, cMoL inhibited only trypsin-like activity. cMoL inhibited SOD activities from Rockefeller and Rec-R L4 in a higher level than WSMoL while β-esterase from Rockefeller L4 was more inhibited by WSMoL. The lectins promoted low stimulation or inhibition of α-esterase activities from both populations. In conclusion, Rockefeller and Rec-R larvae were distinctly affected by M. oleifera lectins, and larvicidal mechanism of WSMoL on Rockefeller L4 may involve deregulation of digestive enzymes. cMoL interfered mainly on SOD activity and thus it can be investigated as a synergistic agent for controlling populations whose resistance is linked to an increased detoxifying process mediated by this enzyme.

  5. Green synthesis of NiO nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera extract and their biomedical applications: Cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles against HT-29 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ezhilarasi, A Angel; Vijaya, J Judith; Kaviyarasu, K; Maaza, M; Ayeshamariam, A; Kennedy, L John

    2016-11-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera plant extract has been reported in the present study as they are cost effective and ecofriendly, moreover this paper records that the nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles prepared from green method shows better cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity. The NiO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The formation of a pure nickel oxide phase was confirmed by XRD and FTIR. The synthesized NiO nanoparticles was single crystalline having face centered cubic phase and has two intense photoluminescence emissions at 305.46nm and 410nm. The formation of nano- and micro-structures was confirmed by HRTEM. The in-vitro cytotoxicity and cell viability of human cancer cell HT-29 (Colon Carcinoma cell lines) and antibacterial studies against various bacterial strains were studied with various concentrations of nickel oxide nanoparticles prepared from Moringa oleifera plant extract. MTT assay measurements on cell viability and morphological studies proved that the synthesized NiO nanoparticles posses cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells and the various zones of inhibition (mm), obtained revealed the effective antibacterial activity of NiO nanoparticles against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial pathogens.

  6. Antimalarial Properties of Aqueous Crude Extracts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Moringa oleifera Leaves in Combination with Artesunate in Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Borkaew, Preeyanuch; Klubsri, Chokdee; Dondee, Kittiyaporn; Bootprom, Panatda; Saiphet, Butsarat

    2016-01-01

    Due to the emergence and spread of malaria parasite with resistance to antimalarial drugs, discovery and development of new, safe, and affordable antimalarial are urgently needed. In this respect, medicinal plant extracts are targets to optimize antimalarial actions and restore efficacy of standard antimalarial drugs. The present study was aimed at determining the antimalarial activities of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Moringa oleifera leaf extracts in combination with artesunate against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. P. berghei ANKA maintained by serial passage in ICR mice were used based on intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes and subsequent development of parasitemia. These infected mice were used to investigate the antimalarial activity of artesunate (6 mg/kg) in combination with 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg of G. pentaphyllum and M. oleifera leaf extracts using 4-day suppressive test. It was found that these extracts showed significant (P < 0.05) antimalarial activity in dose-dependent manner with percentage of suppression of 45, 50, and 55% for G. pentaphyllum leaf extract and 35, 40, and 50% for M. oleifera leaf extract. Additionally, artesunate combined with these extracts presented higher antimalarial activity, compared to extract treated alone with percentage of suppression of 78, 91, and 96% for G. pentaphyllum leaf extract and 73, 82, and 91% for M. oleifera leaf extract. The results indicated that combination treatment of G. pentaphyllum or M. oleifera leaf extracts with artesunate was able to increase the antimalarial activity by using low dose of artesunate. Hence, these results justified the combination of these extracts and artesunate in antimalarial herbal remedies. PMID:27872647

  7. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  8. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  9. The use of Moringa oleifera seed as a natural coagulant for wastewater treatment and heavy metals removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Tan Chu; Matar, Manaf Al; Makky, Essam A.; Ali, Eman N.

    2016-11-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) is a multipurpose tree with considerable potential and its cultivation is currently being actively promoted in many developing countries. Seeds of this tropical tree contain water-soluble, positively charged proteins that act as an effective coagulant for water and wastewater treatment. Based on this, water quality of "Sungai baluk" river was examined before and after the treatment using MO seed. MO seed exhibited high efficiency in the reduction and prevention of the bacterial growth in both wastewater and "Sungai baluk" river samples. The turbidity was removed up to 85-94% and dissolved oxygen (DO) was improved from 2.58 ± 0.01 to 4.00 ± 0.00 mg/L. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were increased after the treatment from 99.5 ± 0.71 to 164.0 ± 2.83 mg/L for COD and from 48.00 ± 0.42 to 76.65 ± 2.33 mg/L for BOD, respectively. Nevertheless, there was no significant alteration of pH, conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solid after the treatment. Heavy metals such as Fe were fully eliminated, whereas Cu and Cd were successfully removed by up to 98%. The reduction of Pb was also achieved by up to 78.1%. Overall, 1% of MO seed cake was enough to remove heavy metals from the water samples. This preliminary laboratory result confirms the great potential of MO seed in wastewater treatment applications.

  10. Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, Adebanjo A.; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ∘Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts. PMID:25320721

  11. The nutritional effect of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves as feed supplement on Rhode Island Red hen egg production and quality.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elezz Fouad Mohammed, Khaled; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves (MOL) as feed supplement on the performance and egg quality of Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens under the tropical conditions of Yucatan, Mexico. Forty-eight RIR hens were allocated in 12 floor pen replicates each with four birds. Thereafter, the replicates were divided into three groups which were corresponded to ad libitum feed (control), ad libitum feed supplemented with MOL T1 (AL + MOL) and restricted feed amount (20% lower than control) with MOL T2 (RCD + MOL), respectively. T1 (AL + MOL) had higher egg laying rate (71.4% versus 66.6%), higher daily egg mass production (45.4 versus 41.9 g/day), lower feed intake (121.3 versus 127.5 g/day) and better feed conversion ratio (2.8 versus 3.2 g feed:g egg) versus control. T2 / (RCD + MOL) had lower values of body weight, egg laying rate, egg weight and egg mass, and recorded better feed conversion ratio than the control group. The control group recorded a higher percentage of pecked eggs versus T1 and T2 (6.5% versus 1.2% and 2.0 %). Similar intake of MOL (3.1 and 3.4 g DM/day) was recorded in T1 (AL + MOL) and T2 (RCD + MOL). Yolk color was improved significantly in T1 (AL + MOL) than both control and T2 (RCD + MOL), while T2 (RCD + MOL) had eggs with lower yolk and higher albumen percentages than the other two ad libitum groups. The results suggest that MOL could be used successfully as sustainable tropical feed resource for RIR hens.

  12. Oral administration of Moringa oleifera oil but not coconut oil prevents mercury-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Abarikwu, S O; Benjamin, S; Ebah, S G; Obilor, G; Agbam, G

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of administration of coconut oil (CO) and Moringa oleifera oil (MO) on testicular oxidative stress, sperm quality and steroidogenesis parameters in rats treated with mercury chloride (HgCl2 ). After 15 days of oral administration of CO (2 ml kg(-1) body weight) and MO (2 ml kg(-1) body weight) along with intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HgCl2 (5 mg kg(-1) body weight) alone or in combination, we found that CO treatment did not protect against HgCl2 -induced poor sperm quality (motility, count) as well as decreased testosterone level and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity. Treatment with CO alone decreased glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rat's testis, whereas MO did not change these parameters. Cotreatment with MO prevented HgCl2 -induced testicular catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, poor sperm quality and low testosterone level and also blocks the adverse effect of CO+HgCl2 (2 ml kg(-1) body weight + 5 mg kg(-1) body weight) on the investigated endpoints. In conclusion, MO and not CO decreased the deleterious effects of HgCl2 on sperm quality and steroidogenesis in rats and also strengthen the antioxidant defence of the testes. Therefore, MO is beneficial as an antioxidant in HgCl2 -induced oxidative damage.

  13. Anticancer activity of Moringa oleifera mediated silver nanoparticles on human cervical carcinoma cells by apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Vasanth, Karunamoorthy; Ilango, Kaliappan; MohanKumar, Ramasamy; Agrawal, Aruna; Dubey, Govind Prasad

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanomaterial plays a crucial role in the growing field of nanotechnology as there is an increasing commercial demand for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) owing to their wide biological applications. The present investigation aims at developing anti-cancerous colloidal silver using Moringa olifera stem bark extract. Electron and atomic force microscopic images were taken to analyze the surface morphology of the synthesized AgNPs. The effects of synthesized AgNPs were tested against human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) and cell morphology was further evaluated using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The efficiency of green synthesized AgNPs was studied with the help of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and was shown to induce apoptosis through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HeLa cells.

  14. Adsorption Study on Moringa Oleifera Seeds and Musa Cavendish as Natural Water Purification Agents for Removal of Lead, Nickel and Cadmium from Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, N. A. A.; Jayasuriya, N.; Fan, L.

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of plant based materials Moringa oleifera (Moringa) seeds and Musa cavendish (banana peel) for removing heavy metals namely lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from contaminated groundwater was studied. Tests were carried out with individual and combined biomass at neutral pH condition on synthetic groundwater samples. The optimum biomass doses were determined as 200 mg/L for single biomass and 400 mg/L (in the ratio of 200 mg/L: 200 mg/L) for combined biomasses and used for adsorption isotherm studies with contact time of 30 minutes. Results showed that combined biomasses was able to met the Pb, Ni and Cd WHO standards from higher Pb, Ni and Cd initial concentrations which were up to 40 µg/L, 50 µg/L 9 µg/L, respectively compared to individual biomass of Moringa seed and banana peel. Moringa seeds exhibited the highest removal of Pb (81%) while the combined biomasses was most effective in removing Ni (74%) and Cd (97%) over wider their initial concentration ranges. The experimental data were linearized with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Freundlich model described the Pb adsorption better than the Langmuir model for all the tested biomasses. However, the Langmuir model fit better with the experimental data of Ni adsorption by Moringa seeds. Both models showed negligible differences in the coefficient of determination (R2) when applied for Ni and Cd adsorption on banana peel and combined biomasses, suggesting that there were multiple layers on the biomass interacting with the metals. Chemisorption is suggested to be involved in Pb adsorption for all tested biomasses as the value of nF calculated was lower than one. This type of adsorption could explain the phenomenon of different behavior of Pb removal and the higher Pb adsorption capacity (represented by KF values) compared to Ni and Cd. The study demonstrates that Moringa seeds, banana peel and their combination have the potential to be used as a natural alternative

  15. Moringa oleifera Gold Nanoparticles Modulate Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Caspase-9 Splice Variants in A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Anand, Krishnan; Gengan, Robert M; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP's) facilitate cancer cell recognition and can be manufactured by green synthesis using nutrient rich medicinal plants such as Moringa oleifera (MO). Targeting dysregulated oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is crucial for cancer therapeutics. We investigated the antiproliferative effects of AuNP synthesized from MO aqueous leaf extracts (MLAuNP ) in A549 lung and SNO oesophageal cancer cells. A one-pot green synthesis technique was used to synthesise MLAuNP . A549, SNO cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were exposed to MLAuNP and CAuNP to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay); apoptosis was measured by phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, mitochondrial depolarization (ΔΨm) (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7, -9 activity, and ATP levels (luminometry). The mRNA expression of c-myc, p53, Skp2, Fbw7α, and caspase-9 splice variants was determined using qPCR, while relative protein expression of c-myc, p53, SRp30a, Bax, Bcl-2, Smac/DIABLO, Hsp70, and PARP-1 were determined by Western blotting. MLAuNP and CAuNP were not cytotoxic to PBMCs, whilst its pro-apoptotic properties were confirmed in A549 and SNO cells. MLAuNP significantly increased caspase activity in SNO cells while MLAuNP significantly increased PS externalization, ΔΨm, caspase-9, caspase-3/7 activities, and decreased ATP levels in A549 cells. Also, p53 mRNA and protein levels, SRp30a (P = 0.428), Bax, Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 24 kDa fragment levels were significantly increased. Conversely, MLAuNP significantly decreased Bcl-2, Hsp70, Skp2, Fbw7α, c-myc mRNA, and protein levels and activated alternate splicing with caspase-9a splice variant being significantly increased. MLAuNP possesses antiproliferative properties and induced apoptosis in A549 cells by activating alternate splicing of caspase-9. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2302-2314, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Acceptability and solubility of iron and zinc contents of modified Moringa oleifera sauces consumed in the Far-north region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mawouma, Saliou; Ponka, Roger; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves is a local and inexpensive solution to iron and zinc deficiencies in the Far-north region of Cameroon. However, traditional household's cooking techniques result in sauces with high pH levels and low leaves incorporation rates that compromise the bioavailability of iron and zinc. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of modifying a standard Moringa sauce on consumer acceptability and the solubility of iron and zinc, which is an indicator of their bioavailability. Lime juice or tamarind pulp was added to a standard recipe in order to reduce the pH by about one unit, and Moringa leaf powder was incorporated in each acidulated sauce at three levels (1, 2, and 4 g/100 g of sauce). All the formulations were evaluated for their acceptability by 30 housewives using a five-point hedonic scale. The pH was measured by a digital electronic pH-meter. Moisture and ash were determined by AOAC methods. Total iron and zinc contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and soluble iron and zinc by HCl-extractability. The lime juice-acidulated sauce and the tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder were the most acceptable formulations with scores of 3.4 and 3.6, respectively. Their chemical analysis showed a reduced pH (6.4 and 6.1, respectively), compared to the Control (7.2). Lime juice-acidulated sauce improved iron and zinc solubility from 42.19 to 66.38% and 54.03 to 82.03%, respectively. Tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder showed a decrease in iron solubility from 42.19 to 38.26% and an increase in zinc solubility from 54.03 to 72.86%. These results confirm the beneficial effect of lime juice in improving iron and zinc bioavailability.

  17. Fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of breast meat from broiler chickens supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaf meal over a period of refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Nkukwana, T T; Muchenje, V; Masika, P J; Hoffman, L C; Dzama, K; Descalzo, A M

    2014-01-01

    Effects of diets supplemented with or without Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidative stability of broiler breast meat during refrigerated storage was determined. Dietary treatments (T) were as follows: T1, positive control, 668g/ton Salinomycin and 500g/ton Albac; T2, T3 and T4 contained graded levels of MOLM at 1%, 3% and 5% of dry matter (DM) intake, respectively; and T5, a negative control (0% additives). Oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on day (D) 1-8 of storage at 4°C; and FA analysis was done on samples obtained on D1 and D8. Significant effects on TBARS were noted on day (D) 1, 3, 4 and 7; increased with increasing storage time, and with increase in MOLM supplementation. Highest (P<0.05) C18:0 and C15:0 levels were noted on D1 in T2; C20:0 in T4 on D8; C20:2, C20:3n6 and C22:6n3 in T2; C18:3n6 and P/S ratio in T4 on D1; and n-3 in T3. Thus, despite the high SFA content, additive supplementation of M. oleifera leaf meal up to 5% of the bird's DMI improved the FA profile and reduced lipid oxidation in broiler breast meat.

  18. Effect of supplementing crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goat castrates with Moringa oleifera leaves on growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Busani; Masika, Patrick J; Muchenje, Voster

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of supplementing Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) on growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goats. A total of 24 castrated goats aged 8 months, with a mean initial weight of 15.1 ± 2.3 kg, were randomly divided into three diet groups with eight goats in each. The duration of the trial was 60 days. All goats received a basal diet of grass hay (GH) ad libitum and wheat bran (200 g/day each). The MOL and sunflower cake (SC) groups were fed additional 200 g of dried M. oleifera leaves and 170 g of SC, respectively. The third group (GH) did not receive any additional ration. The crude protein of MOL (23.75%) and SC (23.27%) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the GH diet (14.08%). The attained average daily weight gain for goats fed MOL, SC and GH were 103.3, 101.3 and 43.3 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Higher (P < 0.05) feed intakes observed were in SC (491.5 g) and MOL (490.75 g) compared with GH (404.5 g). The hot carcass weight was higher (P < 0.05) for SC (10.48 kg) and MOL (10.34 kg) than for the GH group (8.59 kg). The dressing percentage in SC (55.8%) and MOL (55.1%) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the GH (52.9%). The growth performance and carcass characteristics of SC and MOL goats were not different. Feeding MOL or SC improved the growth performance and carcass characteristics of goats in an almost similar way, which indicates that M. oleifera could be used as an alternative protein supplement in goats.

  19. Moringa fruit inhibits LPS-induced NO/iNOS expression through suppressing the NF-κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Tae-Sung; Park, Yoon-Yub; Chae, Whi-Gun; Chung, Il-Kyung; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a natural biologically active substance, by determining its inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Extracts from different parts of moringa (root, leaf, and fruit) reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) release in a dose-dependent manner. The moringa fruit extract most effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production and levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The moringa fruit extract also was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Furthermore, moringa fruit extract inhibited the cytoplasmic degradation of I κ B -α and the nuclear translocation of p65 proteins, resulting in lower levels of NF -κ B transactivation. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that moringa fruit extract reduces the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including NO , IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 via the inhibition of NF -κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells. These findings reveal, in part, the molecular basis underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of moringa fruit extract.

  20. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  1. Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant and Apoptosis Studies of Quercetin-3-O Glucoside and 4-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-Rhamnopyranosyloxy)-Benzyl Isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Maiyo, Fiona C; Moodley, Roshila; Singh, Moganavelli

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, from the family Moringaceae, is used as a source of vegetable and herbal medicine and in the treatment of various cancers in many African countries, including Kenya. The present study involved the phytochemical analyses of the crude extracts of M.oleifera and biological activities (antioxidant, cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in-vitro) of selected isolated compounds. The compounds isolated from the leaves and seeds of the plant were quercetin-3-O-glucoside (1), 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2), lutein (3), and sitosterol (4). Antioxidant activity of compound 1 was significant when compared to that of the control, while compound 2 showed moderate activity. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1 and 2 were tested in three cell lines, viz. liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), colon carcinoma (Caco-2) and a non-cancer cell line Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293), using the MTT cell viability assay and compared against a standard anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil. Apoptosis studies were carried out using the acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining method. The isolated compounds showed selective in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic activity against human cancer and non-cancer cell lines, respectively. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Caco-2 cell line with an IC50 of 79 μg mL(-1) and moderate cytotoxicity against the HepG2 cell line with an IC50 of 150 μg mL(-1), while compound 2 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Caco- 2 and HepG2 cell lines with an IC50 of 45 μg mL(-1) and 60 μg mL(-1), respectively. Comparatively both compounds showed much lower cytotoxicity against the HEK293 cell line with IC50 values of 186 μg mL(-1) and 224 μg mL(-1), respectively.

  2. Removal of Anabaena flos-aquae in water treatment process using Moringa oleifera and assessment of fatty acid profile of generated sludge.

    PubMed

    Moreti, Livia O R; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Camacho, Franciele P; Carvalho Bongiovani, Milene; Pereira de Souza, Aloisio Henrique; Kirie Gohara, Aline; Matsushita, Makoto; Fernandes Silva, Marcela; Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the coagulation/flocculation/dissolved air flotation (C/F/DAF) process using the coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed powder, and to analyse the profile of fatty acids present in the generated sludge after treatment. For the tests, deionized water artificially contaminated with cell cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae was used, with a cell density in the order of 10(4) cells mL(-1). C/F/DAF tests were conducted using 'Flotest' equipment. For fatty acid profile analyses, a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used. It was seen that the optimal dosage (100 mg L(-1)) of MO used in the C/F/DAF process was efficient at removing nearly all A. flos-aquae cells (96.4%). The sludge obtained after treatment contained oleic acid (61.7%) and palmitic acid (10.8%). Thus, a water treatment process using C/F/DAF linked to integral MO powder seed was found to be efficient in removing cells of cyanobacteria, and produced a sludge rich in oleic acid that is a precursor favourable for obtaining quality biodiesel, thus becoming an alternative application for the recycling of such biomass.

  3. Interactions of surfactants with a water treatment protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in solution studied by zeta-potential and light scattering measurements.

    PubMed

    Kwaambwa, Habauka M; Rennie, Adrian R

    2012-04-01

    Protein extracted from Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds has been advocated as a cheap and environmental friendly alternative to ionic flocculants for water purification. However, the nature and mechanism of its interaction with particles in water, as well as with dissolved surface-active molecules, are not well understood. In this article, we report studies of the protein and its interaction with four surfactants using dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential and turbidity measurements. Zeta-potential measurements identified points of charge reversal and the turbidity and DLS measurements were used to characterize the microstructure and size of protein-surfactant complexes. From the points of charge reversal, it was estimated that 7 anions are required to neutralize the positive charges of each protein molecule at pH 7. For protein mixtures with sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl di-acid sodium salt, the peak in turbidity corresponds to concentrations with a large change in zeta-potential. No turbidity was observed for protein mixtures with either the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 or the zwitterionic surfactant N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate. Changes of pH in the range 4-10 have little effect on the zeta-potential, turbidity, and the hydrodynamic radius reflecting the high isoelectric point of the protein. Addition of small amounts of salt has little effect on the size of protein in solution. These results are discussed in the context of the use of the MO protein in water treatment.

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba-Moringa oleifera-Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2016-04-01

    This 60-day, 30-subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45-measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86-item self-reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of -2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI.

  5. Anion Gap Toxicity in Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Antidiabetic Noncytotoxic Bioactive Compounds of Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) is used for a number of therapeutic purposes. This raises the question of safety and possible toxicity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the safety and possible metabolic toxicity in comparison with metformin, a known drug associated with acidosis. Animals confirmed with diabetes were grouped into 2 groups. The control group only received oral dose of PBS while the test group was treated with ethanolic extract of MO orally twice daily for 5-6 days. Data showed that the extract significantly lowered glucose level to normal values and did not cause any significant cytotoxicity compared to the control group (P = 0.0698); there was no gain in weight between the MO treated and the control groups (P > 0.8115). However, data showed that treatment with an ethanolic extract of MO caused a decrease in bicarbonate (P < 0.0001), and more than twofold increase in anion gap (P < 0.0001); metformin treatment also decreased bicarbonate (P < 0.0001) and resulted in a threefold increase in anion gap (P < 0.0001). Conclusively, these data show that while MO appears to have antidiabetic and noncytotoxic properties, it is associated with statistically significant anion gap acidosis in alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:25548560

  6. Direct Zinc Determination in Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit by Solid-Phase Extraction Using Moringa oleifera Husks in a Flow System with Detection by FAAS

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vanessa N.; Borges, Simone S. O.; Coelho, Nivia M. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese), using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 4.0, a sample flow rate of 6.0 mL min−1, 30.0 mg of sorbent mass, and 1.0 mol L−1 HNO3 as the eluent at a flow rate of 4.0 mL min−1. The limit of detection for zinc was 1.9 μg L−1, and the precision was below 0.82% (20.0 μg L−1, n = 7). The analytical curve was linear from 2 to 50 μg L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The method developed was successfully applied to spiked Brazilian sugar cane spirit, and accuracy was assessed through recovery tests, with results ranging from 83% to 100%. PMID:21785595

  7. Facile Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Heteroatom-Doped and Hierarchical Egg-Box-Like Carbons Derived from Moringa oleifera Branches for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yijin; Luo, Ying; Xiao, Yong; Zhao, Xiao; Liang, Yeru; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Sun, Luyi; Liu, Yingliang; Zheng, Mingtao

    2016-12-07

    In this paper, we demonstrate that Moringa oleifera branches, a renewable biomass waste with abundant protein content, can be employed as novel precursor to synthesize three-dimensional heteroatom-doped and hierarchical egg-box-like carbons (HEBLCs) by a facile room-temperature pretreatment and direct pyrolysis process. The as-prepared HEBLCs possess unique egg-box-like frameworks, high surface area, and interconnected porosity as well as the doping of heteroatoms (oxygen and nitrogen), endowing its excellent electrochemical performances (superior capacity, high rate capability, and outstanding cycling stability). Therefore, the resultant HEBLC manifests a maximum specific capacitance of 355 F g(-1) at current density of 0.5 A g(-1) and remarkable rate performance. Moreover, 95% of capacitance retention of HEBLCs can be also achieved after 20 000 charge-discharge cycles at an extremely high current density (20 A g(-1)), indicating a prominent cycling stability. Furthermore, the as-assembled HEBLC//HEBLC symmetric supercapacitor displays a superior energy density of 20 Wh kg(-1) in aqueous electrolyte and remarkable capacitance retention (95.6%) after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. This work provides an environmentally friendly and reliable method to produce higher-valued carbon nanomaterials from renewable biomass wastes for energy storage applications.

  8. Anion Gap Toxicity in Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Antidiabetic Noncytotoxic Bioactive Compounds of Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Omabe, Maxwell; Nwudele, Chibueze; Omabe, Kenneth Nwobini; Okorocha, Albert Egwu

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) is used for a number of therapeutic purposes. This raises the question of safety and possible toxicity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the safety and possible metabolic toxicity in comparison with metformin, a known drug associated with acidosis. Animals confirmed with diabetes were grouped into 2 groups. The control group only received oral dose of PBS while the test group was treated with ethanolic extract of MO orally twice daily for 5-6 days. Data showed that the extract significantly lowered glucose level to normal values and did not cause any significant cytotoxicity compared to the control group (P = 0.0698); there was no gain in weight between the MO treated and the control groups (P > 0.8115). However, data showed that treatment with an ethanolic extract of MO caused a decrease in bicarbonate (P < 0.0001), and more than twofold increase in anion gap (P < 0.0001); metformin treatment also decreased bicarbonate (P < 0.0001) and resulted in a threefold increase in anion gap (P < 0.0001). Conclusively, these data show that while MO appears to have antidiabetic and noncytotoxic properties, it is associated with statistically significant anion gap acidosis in alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats.

  9. Evaluation of using aluminum sulfate and water-soluble Moringa oleifera seed lectin to reduce turbidity and toxicity of polluted stream water.

    PubMed

    Freitas, José Henrique Edmilson Souza; de Santana, Keissy Vanderley; do Nascimento, Ana Cláudia Claudina; de Paiva, Sérgio Carvalho; de Moura, Maiara Celine; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; de Oliveira, Maria Betânia Melo; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Aluminum salts are used as coagulants in water treatment; however, the exposure to residual aluminum has been associated with human brain lesions. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL), which is extracted with distilled water and isolated by chitin chromatography, has coagulant activity and is able to reduce the concentration of metal ions in aqueous solutions. This study evaluated the potential of using aluminum sulfate and WSMoL to reduce the turbidity and toxicity of water from the Cavouco stream located in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The water sample used (called P1) was collected from the stream source, which was found to be strongly polluted based on physicochemical and water quality analyses, as well as ecotoxicity assays with Artemia salina and seeds of Eruca sativa and Lactuca sativa. The assays combining WSMoL and aluminum sulfate were more efficient than those that used these agents separately. Furthermore, the greatest reduction in turbidity (96.8%) was obtained with the treatment using aluminum sulfate followed by WSMoL, compared to when they were applied simultaneously (91.3%). In addition, aluminum sulfate followed by WSMoL treatment resulted in residual aluminum concentration (0.3 mg/L) that was much lower than that recorded after the treatment using only the salt (35.5 mg/L). The ecotoxicity of P1 was also strongly reduced after the treatments. In summary, the combined use of aluminum sulfate and WSMoL was efficient in promoting a strong reduction of turbidity and ecotoxicity of a polluted water sample, without resulting in a high residual aluminum concentration at the conclusion of the treatment.

  10. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Chang, Leng Chee; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Pezzuto, John M

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck is commonly consumed for nutritional or medicinal properties. We recently reported the isolation and structure elucidation of novel bioactive phenolic glycosides, including 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (RBITC), which was found to suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Inhibitors of proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and iNOS are potential antiinflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents. The inhibitory activity of RBITC on NO production (IC(50) = 0.96 ± 0.23 μM) was greater than that mediated by other well-known isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (IC(50) = 2.86 ± 0.39 μM) and benzyl isothiocyanate (IC(50) = 2.08 ± 0.28 μM). RBITC inhibited expression of COX-2 and iNOS at both the protein and mRNA levels. Major upstream signaling pathways involved mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). RBITC inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase, as well as ubiquitin-dependent degradation of inhibitor κBα (IκBα). In accordance with IκBα degradation, nuclear accumulation of NF-κB and subsequent binding to NF-κB cis-acting element was attenuated by treatment with RBITC. These data suggest RBITC should be included in the dietary armamentarium of isothiocyanates potentially capable of mediating antiinflammatory or cancer chemopreventive activity.

  11. Leaf Protein and Mineral Concentrations across the "Miracle Tree" Genus Moringa.

    PubMed

    Olson, Mark E; Sankaran, Renuka P; Fahey, Jed W; Grusak, Michael A; Odee, David; Nouman, Wasif

    2016-01-01

    The moringa tree Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree cultivated across the lowland dry tropics worldwide for its nutritious leaves. Despite its nutritious reputation, there has been no systematic survey of the variation in leaf nutritional quality across M. oleifera grown worldwide, or of the other species of the genus. To guide informed use of moringa, we surveyed protein, macro-, and micro- nutrients across 67 common garden samples of 12 Moringa taxa, including 23 samples of M. oleifera. Moringa oleifera, M. concanensis, M. stenopetala, an M. concanensis X oleifera hybrid, and M. longituba were highest in protein, with M. ruspoliana having the highest calcium levels. A protein-dry leaf mass tradeoff may preclude certain breeding possibilities, e.g. maximally high protein with large leaflets. These findings identify clear priorities and limitations for improved moringa varieties with traits such as high protein, calcium, or ease of preparation.

  12. Leaf Protein and Mineral Concentrations across the “Miracle Tree” Genus Moringa

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Renuka P.; Fahey, Jed W.; Grusak, Michael A.; Odee, David; Nouman, Wasif

    2016-01-01

    The moringa tree Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree cultivated across the lowland dry tropics worldwide for its nutritious leaves. Despite its nutritious reputation, there has been no systematic survey of the variation in leaf nutritional quality across M. oleifera grown worldwide, or of the other species of the genus. To guide informed use of moringa, we surveyed protein, macro-, and micro- nutrients across 67 common garden samples of 12 Moringa taxa, including 23 samples of M. oleifera. Moringa oleifera, M. concanensis, M. stenopetala, an M. concanensis X oleifera hybrid, and M. longituba were highest in protein, with M. ruspoliana having the highest calcium levels. A protein-dry leaf mass tradeoff may preclude certain breeding possibilities, e.g. maximally high protein with large leaflets. These findings identify clear priorities and limitations for improved moringa varieties with traits such as high protein, calcium, or ease of preparation. PMID:27459315

  13. Leaf protein and mineral concentrations across the "miracle tree" genus Moringa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The moringa tree Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree cultivated across the lowland dry tropics worldwide for its nutritious leaves. Despite its nutritious reputation, there has been no systematic survey of the variation in leaf nutritional quality across M. oleifera grown worl...

  14. The modulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on endogenous antioxidant systems and inflammatory markers in an acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic mice model.

    PubMed

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Kura, Aminu Umar; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Md Isa, Norhaszalina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol (APAP), also known as acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the counter analgesic and antipyretic medication. However, its overdose leads to both liver and kidney damage. APAP-induced toxicity is considered as one of the primary causes of acute liver failure; numerous scientific reports have focused majorly on APAP hepatotoxicity. Alternatively, not many works approach APAP nephrotoxicity focusing on both its mechanisms of action and therapeutic exploration. Moringa oleifera (MO) is pervasive in nature, is reported to possess a surplus amount of nutrients, and is enriched with several bioactive candidates including trace elements that act as curatives for various clinical conditions. In this study, we evaluated the nephro-protective potential of MO leaf extract against APAP nephrotoxicity in male Balb/c mice. A single-dose acute oral toxicity design was implemented in this study. Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a toxic dose of APAP (400 mg/kg of bw, i.p) and after an hour, these groups were administered with saline (10 mL/kg), silymarin-positive control (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), MO leaf extract (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), and MO leaf extract (200 mg/kg bw, i.p) respectively. Group 1 was administered saline (10 mL/kg) during both the sessions. APAP-treated mice exhibited a significant elevation of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium and chloride levels. A remarkable depletion of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GSH-Px with elevated MDA levels has been observed in APAP treated kidney tissues. They also exhibited a significant rise in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine level in the kidney tissues. Disorganized glomerulus and dilated tubules with inflammatory cell infiltration were clearly observed in the histology of APAP treated mice kidneys. All these pathological changes were reversed in a dose-dependent manner after MO leaf extract treatment

  15. The modulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on endogenous antioxidant systems and inflammatory markers in an acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic mice model

    PubMed Central

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Kura, Aminu Umar; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Md. Isa, Norhaszalina

    2016-01-01

    N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol (APAP), also known as acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the counter analgesic and antipyretic medication. However, its overdose leads to both liver and kidney damage. APAP-induced toxicity is considered as one of the primary causes of acute liver failure; numerous scientific reports have focused majorly on APAP hepatotoxicity. Alternatively, not many works approach APAP nephrotoxicity focusing on both its mechanisms of action and therapeutic exploration. Moringa oleifera (MO) is pervasive in nature, is reported to possess a surplus amount of nutrients, and is enriched with several bioactive candidates including trace elements that act as curatives for various clinical conditions. In this study, we evaluated the nephro-protective potential of MO leaf extract against APAP nephrotoxicity in male Balb/c mice. A single-dose acute oral toxicity design was implemented in this study. Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a toxic dose of APAP (400 mg/kg of bw, i.p) and after an hour, these groups were administered with saline (10 mL/kg), silymarin—positive control (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), MO leaf extract (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), and MO leaf extract (200 mg/kg bw, i.p) respectively. Group 1 was administered saline (10 mL/kg) during both the sessions. APAP-treated mice exhibited a significant elevation of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium and chloride levels. A remarkable depletion of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GSH-Px with elevated MDA levels has been observed in APAP treated kidney tissues. They also exhibited a significant rise in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine level in the kidney tissues. Disorganized glomerulus and dilated tubules with inflammatory cell infiltration were clearly observed in the histology of APAP treated mice kidneys. All these pathological changes were reversed in a dose-dependent manner after MO leaf extract treatment

  16. A study of the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by Moringa oleifera seeds and amine-based ligand 1,4-bis[N,N-bis(2-picoyl)amino]butane.

    PubMed

    Obuseng, Veronica; Nareetsile, Florence; Kwaambwa, Habauka M

    2012-06-12

    Uptake for lead, copper, cadmium, nickel and manganese from aqueous solution using the Moringa oleifera seeds biomass (MOSB) and amine-based ligand (ABL) was investigated. Experiments on two synthetic multi-solute systems revealed that MOSB performed well in the biosorption and followed the decreasing orders Pb(II)>Cu(II)>Cd(II)>Ni(II)>Mn(II) and Zn(II)>Cu(II)>Ni(II). The general trend of the heavy metal ions uptake by the amine-based ligand followed decreased in the order Mn>Cd>Cu>Ni>Pb, which is the reverse trend for what was observed for MOSB. Comparing the single- and multi-metal solutions, there was no clear effect in the biosorption capacity of MOSB suggesting the presence of sufficient active binding sites for all metal ions studied. The MOSB performance is also not affected by pH in the range 3.5-8.

  17. Improving the sludge conditioning potential of moringa seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ademiluyi, Joel O.; Eze, Romanus M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for a cheaper material to effectively condition sludge, oil-free moringa seed was prepared and tested. A Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract the oil from moringa seed ( Moringa oleifera). The oil-free seed (marc) has been found to have higher conditioning potential than the ordinary moringa seed. However, the traditional ferric chloride is still a better sludge conditioner than moringa seed marc. For the digested domestic sludge used, optimum conditioning dosages were found to be 0.6, 0.80, and 1.10% of the total solids for ferric chloride, marc of the moringa seed, and ordinary moringa seed, respectively. Since little or no operational material is lost in the extraction process, the moringa seed marc is a promising conditioner in place of the ordinary seed.

  18. Cardioprotective effect of magnetic hydrogel nanocomposite loaded N, α-L-rhamnopyranosyl vincosamide isolated from Moringa oleifera leaves against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Mostafa; Namdari, Mehrdad; Daraee, Hadis; Negahdari, Babak; Aiyelabegan, Hammed T

    2017-04-13

    Cardioprotective effect of N, α-L-rhamnopyranosyl vincosamide (VR), isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera plant in doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity rats was evaluated. Twelve (12) rats were randomly selected into 3 groups; 2 rats received distilled water in the control group, 5 rats in group I received varying concentration of VR treatment, and group II containing 5 rats received varying concentration of VR-loaded magnetic hydrogel nanocomposite. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activities level were analysed after two weeks. In addition, the expression of three heart failure markers; beta major histocompatibility complex (β-MHC), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were also evaluated. It was observed that the level of these markers expression decreases with an increase in VR concentration (P < 0.05). The reduced GSH and SOD level were increased after VR administration, this extract also reduced the initially increased MDA level in cardiac tissue. Pharmacokinetic parameters evaluation showed that nanogel treated rats possesses a significantly increased VR plasma concentration, Cmax, Kel, t½(a), t½(el), Ka and AUC. The result of this study indicated that VR may help to lower the dosage level, and reduces the treatment course in cardiovascular diseases. Our conclusion propose the cardio-protective ability of the isolated VR and its beneficial effect via free radical scavenging properties.

  19. Dietary iron supplements and Moringa oleifera leaves influence the liver hepcidin messenger RNA expression and biochemical indices of iron status in rats.

    PubMed

    Saini, R K; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Srinivasan, K; Giridhar, P

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the effects of iron depletion and repletion on biochemical and molecular indices of iron status were investigated in growing male Wistar rats. We hypothesized that iron from Moringa leaves could overcome the effects of iron deficiency and modulate the expression of iron-responsive genes better than conventional iron supplements. Iron deficiency was induced by feeding rats an iron-deficient diet for 10 weeks, whereas control rats were maintained on an iron-sufficient diet (35.0-mg Fe/kg diet). After the depletion period, animals were repleted with different source of iron, in combination with ascorbic acid. Iron deficiency caused a significant (P < .05) decrease in serum iron and ferritin levels by 57% and 40%, respectively, as compared with nondepleted control animals. Significant changes in the expression (0.5- to100-fold) of liver hepcidin (HAMP), transferrin, transferrin receptor-2, hemochromatosis type 2, ferroportin 1, ceruloplasmin, and ferritin-H were recorded in iron-depleted and iron-repleted rats, as compared with nondepleted rats (P < .05). Dietary iron from Moringa leaf was found to be superior compared with ferric citrate in overcoming the effects of iron deficiency in rats. These results suggest that changes in the relative expression of liver hepcidin messenger RNA can be used as a sensitive molecular marker for iron deficiency.

  20. A novel Moringa oleifera leaf extract can mitigate the stress effects of salinity and cadmium in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Howladar, Saad M

    2014-02-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris plants were grown in the presence of NaCl and/or CdCl2 beginning from the second week, sprayed twice with moringa leaf extract (MLE) at 21 and 28 days after sowing (DAS), and were sampled at 35 DAS for growth and chemical analyses and yielded at the end of experiment. Growth traits, level of photosynthetic pigments, green pod yield and pod protein were significantly reduced with exposing the plants to NaCl and/or CdCl2. However, the follow up foliar application with MLE detoxified the stress generated by NaCl and/or CdCl2 and significantly enhanced the aforementioned parameters. Either individual or combined used stresses increased the electrolyte leakage (EL), lipid peroxidation and plant Cd(2+) content, and decreased the membrane stability index (MSI) and relative water content (RWC). However, the foliar application of MLE in the absence of the stress improved the MSI and RWC and minimized plant Cd(2+) content but could not affect EL and lipid peroxidation. Proline content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant increase in response to MLE as well as to NaCl and/or CdCl2 stress.

  1. Mo-CBP3, an Antifungal Chitin-Binding Protein from Moringa oleifera Seeds, Is a Member of the 2S Albumin Family

    PubMed Central

    Freire, José E. C.; Vasconcelos, Ilka M.; Moreno, Frederico B. M. B.; Batista, Adelina B.; Lobo, Marina D. P.; Pereira, Mirella L.; Lima, João P. M. S.; Almeida, Ricardo V. M.; Sousa, Antônio J. S.; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C. O.; Oliveira, José T. A.; Grangeiro, Thalles B.

    2015-01-01

    Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein from M. oleifera seeds that inhibits the germination and mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi. This protein is highly thermostable and resistant to pH changes, and therefore may be useful in the development of new antifungal drugs. However, the relationship of MoCBP3 with the known families of carbohydrate-binding domains has not been established. In the present study, full-length cDNAs encoding 4 isoforms of Mo-CBP3 (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2, Mo-CBP3-3 and Mo-CBP3-4) were cloned from developing seeds. The polypeptides encoded by the Mo-CBP3 cDNAs were predicted to contain 160 (Mo-CBP3-3) and 163 amino acid residues (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2 and Mo-CBP3-4) with a signal peptide of 20-residues at the N-terminal region. A comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that Mo-CBP3 is a typical member of the 2S albumin family, as shown by the presence of an eight-cysteine motif, which is a characteristic feature of the prolamin superfamily. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that Mo-CBP3 is a mixture of isoforms that correspond to different mRNA products. The identification of Mo-CBP3 as a genuine member of the 2S albumin family reinforces the hypothesis that these seed storage proteins are involved in plant defense. Moreover, the chitin-binding ability of Mo-CBP3 reveals a novel functionality for a typical 2S albumin. PMID:25789746

  2. How Is LAM Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor about the latest American Thoracic Society clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management of LAM which include ... fluid in the lung called chylothorax. The latest clinical guidelines recommend sirolimus for people with LAM if they ...

  3. Comparative study between M. oleifera and aluminum sulfate for water treatment: case study Colombia.

    PubMed

    Salazar Gámez, Lorena L; Luna-delRisco, Mario; Cano, Roberto Efrain Salazar

    2015-10-01

    The world has a water deficit, mostly located in developing countries. For example, in Colombia, water deficit is a major concern and it increases in rural areas, where the rate of accessibility to drinking water is of 33.26% in 2005. Since the 1970s, the most used technology for water purification is the conventional physicochemical process. The most common coagulant used in this process is aluminum sulfate (alum). This study focuses on a comparison between Moringa oleifera seeds and alum for water treatment in different natural waters. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 90% turbidity and alum 96% from water samples from the tested natural brook. However, color removal for M. oleifera was 95 and 80.3% for alum. For water-polluted samples, both coagulants have shown high efficiency (100%) in color and turbidity removal. Usage of natural coagulants (i.e., M. oleifera) instead of chemical ones (i.e., alum) are more convenient in rural areas where the economic situation and accessibility of those products are key elements to maintain fresh water treatment standards. Additionally, results demonstrated that high dosages M. oleifera did not affect the optimal value in terms of color and turbidity removal. In rural and developing countries, this is important because it does not require a sophisticated dosing equipment.

  4. Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

  5. Turbidity and chlorine demand reduction using alum and moringa flocculation before household chlorination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Preston, Kelsey; Lantagne, Daniele; Kotlarz, Nadine; Jellison, Kristen

    2010-03-01

    Over 1.1 billion people in the world lack access to improved drinking water. Diarrhoeal and other waterborne diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. The Safe Water System (SWS) is a household water treatment intervention that reduces diarrhoeal disease incidence among users in developing countries. Turbid waters pose a particular challenge to implementation of SWS programmes; although research shows that a 3.75 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite dose effectively treats turbid waters, users sometimes object to the strong chlorine taste and prefer to drink water that is more aesthetically pleasing. This study investigated the efficacy of two locally available chemical water treatments-alum and Moringa oleifera flocculation-to reduce turbidity and chlorine demand at turbidities of 10, 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU. Both treatments effectively reduced turbidity (alum flocculation 23.0-91.4%; moringa flocculation 14.2-96.2%). Alum flocculation effectively reduced chlorine demand compared with controls at 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU (p=0.01-0.06). Moringa flocculation increased chlorine demand to the point where adequate free chlorine residual was not maintained for 24 hours after treatment. Alum pretreatment is recommended in waters>or=30 NTU for optimum water disinfection. Moringa flocculation is not recommended before chlorination.

  6. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  7. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    short term efficacy and safety. Currently, most LAM patients are treated with rapamycin, which growth-inhibits but does not kill LAM cells . In the...laboratory of Dr. D’Armiento, imatinib was shown to completely block the growth of LAM cells through initiation of targeted cell death. This study...LAM patients are treated with rapamycin, which growth-inhibits but does not kill LAM cells . In the laboratory of Dr. D’Armiento, imatinib was shown

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of alcbholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of Moringa olifera Lam leaves.

    PubMed

    Banji, Otilia J F; Banji, David; Kavitha, R

    2012-04-01

    Effects of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of the alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of M. olifera were studied on various immune paradigms like delayed type hypersensitivity reaction using SRBC as an antigen, determination of antibody titer, neutrophil adhesion test as an indicator for neutrophil index, total leucocyte count in cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressed animals and carbon clearance assay as a measure of phagocytic activity. Hydro-alcoholic extract of M. olifera substantially enhanced cellular immune response, humoral immune response, neutrophil index and phagoctic activity in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg body weight) was efficient in improving immune response. The results suggest that M. olifera has a significant role to play as an immune stimulator.

  9. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  10. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): Molecular insights lead to targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, Connie G.; Steagall, Wendy K.; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Cai, Xiong; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Moses, Marsha; Darling, Thomas; Moss, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Summary LAM is a rare lung disease, found primarily in women of childbearing age, characterized by cystic lung destruction and abdominal tumors (e.g., renal angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyoma). The disease results from proliferation of a neoplastic cell, termed the LAM cell, which has mutations in either of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 or TSC2 genes. Molecular phenotyping of LAM patients resulted in the identification of therapeutic targets for drug trials. Loss of TSC gene function leads to activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and thereby, effects on cell size and number. The involvement of mTOR in LAM pathogenesis is the basis for initiation of therapeutic trials of mTOR inhibitors (e.g., sirolimus). Occurrence of LAM essentially entirely in women is consistent with the hypothesis that anti-estrogen agents might prevent disease progression (e.g., gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues). Levels of urinary matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were elevated in LAM patients, and MMPs were found in LAM lung nodules. In part because of these observations, effects of doxycycline, an anti-MMP, and anti-angiogenic agent, are under investigation. The metastatic properties of LAM cells offer additional potential for targets. Thus, insights into the molecular and biological properties of LAM cells and molecular phenotyping of patients with LAM have led to clinical trials of targeted therapies. Funded by the Intramural Research Program, NIH/NHLBI PMID:20630348

  11. On LAM's and SAM's for Halley's rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, Stanton J.

    1992-01-01

    Non principal axis rotation for comet Halley is inferred from dual periodicities evident in the observations. The modes where the spin axis precesses around the axis of minimum moment of inertia (long axis mode or LAM) and where it precesses around the axis of maximum moment of inertia (short axis mode or SAM) are described from an inertial point of view. The currently favored LAM model for Halley's rotation state satisfies observational and dynamical constraints that apparently no SAM can satisfy. But it cannot reproduce the observed post perihelion brightening through seasonal illumination of localized sources on the nucleus, whereas a SAM can easily produce post or pre perihelion brightening by this mechanism. However, the likelihood of a LAM rotation for elongated nuclei of periodic comets such as Halley together with Halley's extreme post perihelion behavior far from the Sun suggest that Halley's post perihelion brightening may be due to effects other than seasonal illumination of localized sources, and therefore such brightening may not constrain its rotation state.

  12. Targeting Estrogen-Induced COX-2 Activity in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    bioluminescence, cell proliferation 14. ABSTRACT: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive neoplastic disorder that leads to lung destruction and...consideration) APPENDICES: Manuscript under final consideration-conditional accepted. (pdf file is attached ) Chenggang Li*, Po-Shun Lee*, Yang...35,415 1 Abstract Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive neoplastic disorder that leads to lung destruction and respiratory failure

  13. Targeting Estrogen-Induced COX-2 Activity in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), prostaglandin biosynthesis, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), COX-2 inhibitors, xenograft tumors, bioluminescent imaging...Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), prostaglandin biosynthesis, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), COX-2 inhibitors, xenograft tumors, bioluminescent imaging...TSC2- null cells. We found that aspirin treatment for three weeks decreased the intensity of bioluminescence , Page 5 of 8 and decreased the

  14. UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED TO OLDER BEAMS, NEW STRINGERS AND COMPONENTS MAKE UP A NEARLY NEW SUPPORT SYSTEM - Short Bridge, Spanning South Santiam River at High Deck Road, Cascadia, Linn County, OR

  15. Classical closure theory and Lam's interpretation of epsilon-RNG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

  16. Targeting Autophagy for the Treatment of TSC and LAM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    tolerability of a combination of hydroxychloroquine and sirolimus in women with LAM. We will measure the effect of therapy using the following...5. Quality of life and 6. VEGF-D serum levels 15. SUBJECT TERMS sirolimus, hydroxychloroquine , lymphangiomyoleiomatosis 16. SECURITY...the combination of sirolimus and hydroxychloroquine in women with LAM. The combination of sirolimus (2mg adjusted to keep trough levels between 5

  17. RETRACTED: Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Ashokkumar, S.

    2015-05-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor. The article contains the same image in two panels (Fig. 8A and B) which was previously published in "Facile, eco-friendly and template free photosynthesis of cauliflower like ZnO nanoparticles using leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) and its biological evolution of antibacterial and antifungal activities" by K. Elumalai et al. in Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 136 (2015) 1052-1057, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2014.09.129 despite being attributed to different nanoparticles. Furthermore, Figures 9C, D and E are the same, despite being indicated as analysis of different microorganisms. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this scientific misbehavior and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  18. The Isothiocyanate Isolated from Moringa oleifera Shows Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity in the Treatment of Murine Subacute Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-02-01

    The present study was aimed at estimating a possible neuroprotective effect of glucomoringin (GMG) [4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate] bioactivated with the enzyme myrosinase to form the corresponding isothiocyanate [4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl C; moringin] in the treatment or prevention of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, the beneficial effects of moringin were compared with those of pure GMG, not enzymatically activated, in an in vivo experimental mouse model of subacute PD. Subacute PD was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Mice were pretreated daily for 1 week with moringin (10 mg/kg +5 μL myrosinase/mouse) and with GMG (10 mg/kg). Behavioral evaluations were also performed to assess motor deficits and bradykinesia in MPTP mice. Besides, assuming that pretreatment with moringin could modulate the triggering of inflammatory cascade with a correlated response, we tested its in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by using a model of RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Achieved results in vivo showed a higher efficacy of moringin compared with GMG not only to modulate the inflammatory pathway but also oxidative stress and apoptotic pathways. In addition, the greater effectiveness of moringin in countering mainly the inflammatory pathway has been corroborated by the results obtained in vitro. The relevance and innovation of the present study lie in the possible use of a safe formulation of a bioactive compound, resulting from exogenous myrosinase hydrolysis of the natural phytochemical GMG, which can be used in clinical practice as a useful drug for the treatment or prevention of PD.

  19. A remarkable new species of Coeliccia from the Tuyen Lam Lake area, Lam Dong, southern Vietnam (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae).

    PubMed

    Dow, Rory A

    2016-04-15

    Coeliccia suoitia sp. nov. (holotype ♂, from Suoi Tia, Tuyen Lam Lake, Da Lat, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, deposited in RMNH) is described from males from southern Vietnam. It is a distinctive species that possess highly unusual characters in the thorax and anal appendages that make its ultimate generic placement questionable. Relationships between Coeliccia Kirby, Asthenocnemis Lieftinck and Indocnemis Laidlaw, and within Coeliccia, are briefly discussed.

  20. The next breakthrough in LAM clinical trials may be their design: challenges in design and execution of future LAM clinical trials.

    PubMed

    El-Chemaly, Souheil; Henske, Elizabeth P

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has resulted in stunning progress in the pathogenesis and therapy of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), culminating in the pivotal 'MILES' trial, the first-ever randomized, placebo-controlled trial in LAM, demonstrating the efficacy of sirolimus in 2011. Here, we review clinical progress since 2011, focusing on new therapeutic and observational trials. These trials include the second randomized, placebo-controlled trial, a 2-year study of doxycycline effectiveness in LAM. Other clinical studies have addressed lower-dose sirolimus and treatment of pulmonary hypertension. An improved understanding of LAM pathogenesis is essential to future therapeutic breakthroughs. Critical questions that remain to be addressed include the role of estrogen and lymphangiogenesis in LAM pathogenesis and therapy, mechanisms of cystic lung destruction, the role of autophagy and pro-survival pathways in LAM cell survival. Ultimately, achieving future 'breakthroughs' in LAM will require continued rigorous basic and preclinical investigation, innovative clinical trial design and robust biomarkers.

  1. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz-Alon, Yael; Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Shinder, Vera; Stiller, Sebastian Berthold; Shimoni, Eyal; Wiedemann, Nils; Geiger, Tamar; Schuldiner, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Summary Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure), vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch), and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction). We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication. PMID:26119743

  2. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of LAM?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Lungs With LAM. Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. The inset image shows a cross-section of a healthy lung. Figure B shows a view ... STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG CONTACT US ...

  3. Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Gold Nanocrystals Using Virola oleifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milaneze, Bárbara A.; Oliveira, Jairo P.; Augusto, Ingrid; Keijok, Wanderson J.; Côrrea, Andressa S.; Ferreira, Débora M.; Nunes, Otalíbio C.; Gonçalves, Rita de Cássia R.; Kitagawa, Rodrigo R.; Celante, Vinícius G.; da Silva, André Romero; Pereira, Ana Claudia H.; Endringer, Denise C.; Schuenck, Ricardo P.; Guimarães, Marco C. C.

    2016-10-01

    The development of new routes and strategies for nanotechnology applications that only employ green synthesis has inspired investigators to devise natural systems. Among these systems, the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts has been actively developed as an alternative, efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe method for producing nanoparticles, and this approach is also suitable for large-scale synthesis. This study reports reproducible and completely natural gold nanocrystals that were synthesized using Virola oleifera extract. V. oleifera resin is rich in epicatechin, ferulic acid, gallic acid, and flavonoids (i.e., quercetin and eriodictyol). These gold nanoparticles play three roles. First, these nanoparticles exhibit remarkable stability based on their zeta potential. Second, these nanoparticles are functionalized with flavonoids, and third, an efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly mechanism can be employed to produce green nanoparticles with organic compounds on the surface. Our model is capable of reducing the resin of V. oleifera, which creates stability and opens a new avenue for biological applications. This method does not require painstaking conditions or hazardous agents and is a rapid, efficient, and green approach for the fabrication of monodisperse gold nanoparticles.

  4. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P < 0.05) 40.2, 79.1 and 110.1 g/head/day, respectively, while the control group (T1) lost weight (-13.3 g/head/day). The apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P < 0.05) for 450 g moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  5. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba–Moringa oleifera–Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kaats, Gilbert R.; Preuss, Harry G.

    2016-01-01

    This 60‐day, 30‐subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45‐measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86‐item self‐reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X‐ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat‐free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of −2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:26871553

  7. The α-cyclodextrin complex of the Moringa isothiocyanate suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells through Akt and p38 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-03-13

    In the last decades, a growing need to discover new compounds for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases has led researchers to consider drugs derived from natural products as a valid option in the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a new formulation of Moringa oleifera-derived 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate as a complex with alpha-cyclodextrin (moringin + α-CD) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, a common model used for inflammation studies. In buffered/aqueous solution, the moringin + α-CD complex has enhanced the water solubility and stability of this isothiocyanate by forming a stable inclusion system. Our results showed that moringin + α-CD inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), by preventing IκB-α phosphorylation, translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and also via the suppression of Akt and p38 phosphorylation. In addition, as a consequence of upstream inhibition of the inflammatory pathway following treatment with moringin + α-CD, the modulation of the oxidative stress (results focused on the expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine) and apoptotic pathway (Bax and Bcl-2) was demonstrated. Therefore, moringin + α-CD appears to be a new relevant helpful tool to use in clinical practice for inflammation-associated disorders.

  8. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. PMID:26942012

  9. Stiochiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, K.; Cheng, Chaohsiung; Jap, B.K. ); Nikaido, H. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 {mu}M for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of their results.

  10. Transcending Silence: The Limitations of the Theme of Betrayal in the Novels of George Lamming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Harrell, Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    This critical study of West Indian novelist George Lamming's work finds a preoccupation in his earlier works with British colonizers' betrayal of the West Indian people and its appearance as a father-son relationship. Lamming's latest work creates a less limited West Indian identity in the context of pre-colonial cultural history. (DMM)

  11. High-sensitivity detection of newly induced LamB protein on the Escherichia coli cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Vos-Scheperkeuter, G H; Hofnung, M; Witholt, B

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of the appearance at the cell surface of the outer membrane LamB protein after induction were determined by using specific antibodies and radioiodinated protein A as a probe. This was done in two different induction systems. First, LamB protein was induced in a wild-type strain by the simultaneous addition of cyclic AMP and maltose. Second, an operon fusion strain in which the lamB gene is expressed under lac promoter control was used; in this system, LamB protein can be induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. When uninduced cells were grown in glucose minimal medium, background expression of the lamB gene was found to be ca. 10-fold lower in lac-lamB cells than in wild-type cells. The level of LamB protein present in uninduced wild-type cells could, however, be reduced by supplementing the growth medium with Casamino Acids. After induction, the LamB protein appeared at the cell surface of both strains within a few minutes, and then the LamB level per cell increased linearly. The time lag in cell surface exposure of LamB protein differed slightly under both induction conditions: the LamB protein appeared at the surface of lac-lamB cells within 3 min of induction, whereas in wild-type cells it could not be detected earlier than after 4 to 5 min of induction. PMID:6204968

  12. Solid-state characterization and dissolution properties of meloxicam-moringa coagulant-PVP ternary solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Noolkar, Suhail B; Jadhav, Namdeo R; Bhende, Santosh A; Killedar, Suresh G

    2013-06-01

    The effect of ternary solid dispersions of poor water-soluble NSAID meloxicam with moringa coagulant (obtained by salt extraction of moringa seeds) and polyvinylpyrrolidone on the in vitro dissolution properties has been investigated. Binary (meloxicam-moringa and meloxicam-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) and ternary (meloxicam-moringa-PVP) systems were prepared by physical kneading and ball milling and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry. The in vitro dissolution behavior of meloxicam from the different products was evaluated by means of United States Pharmacopeia type II dissolution apparatus. The results of solid-state studies indicated the presence of strong interactions between meloxicam, moringa, and PVP which were of totally amorphous nature. All ternary combinations were significantly more effective than the corresponding binary systems in improving the dissolution rate of meloxicam. The best performance in this respect was given by the ternary combination employing meloxicam-moringa-PVP ratio of [1:(3:1)] prepared by ball milling, with about six times increase in percent dissolution rate, whereas meloxicam-moringa (1:3) and meloxicam-PVP (1:4) prepared by ball milling improved dissolution of meloxicam by almost 3- and 2.5-folds, respectively. The achieved excellent dissolution enhancement of meloxicam in the ternary systems was attributed to the combined effects of impartation of hydrophilic characteristic by PVP, as well as to the synergistic interaction between moringa and PVP.

  13. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  14. Elaeis oleifera genomic-SSR markers: exploitation in oil palm germplasm diversity and cross-amplification in arecaceae.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Singh, Rajinder; Rosli, Rozana; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2012-01-01

    Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR). Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%), followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%). Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626). Low values of observed heterozygosity (H(o)) (0.164) and highly positive fixation indices (F(is)) in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family.

  15. Policy considerations for the introduction and promotion of the lactational amenorrhea method: advantages and disadvantages of LAM.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K I; Kotelchuck, M

    1998-09-01

    Some attributes of LAM are unquestionably positive, such as the fact that it is effective. Clinical trials of LAM have upheld the Bellagio Consensus that the chance of pregnancy is less than 2% in the first 6 months postpartum in amenorrheic women who are fully or nearly fully breastfeeding. Secondary data analyses in numerous settings have drawn the same conclusion. Whether as a strategy or a method, used correctly or even if used imperfectly, LAM is a reliable way to avoid pregnancy. To the extent that LAM represents an additional contraceptive option, this is also clearly positive since a broad array of contraceptive options maximizes the likelihood of finding a good fit between user and method, and increases contraceptive use. Other characteristics of LAM represent potentially positive impacts. If LAM is shown to be an effective conduit to other modern methods, the implications are profoundly positive. If LAM is cost effective, for households and/or for programs, this will also make the method extraordinarily attractive. Conversely, some aspects of LAM are negative, such as the fact that it affords no protection against STDs, it requires counseling from a well-informed provider, and intensive breastfeeding can make heavy demands on the woman's time. Many of the remaining attributes of LAM may not be important to a policy decision about LAM promotion. For example, whether LAM is actualized as a strategy or a method may not be important to a decision to promote LAM, although it has a huge impact on how services are delivered. Some factors may be profound on a local or individual level. For example, one simple factor, such as the absence of full/nearly full breastfeeding, can rule out the method as an option, while another, such as the fact that it provides the needed waiting period during vasectomy counseling, can make LAM the method of choice. Although LAM seems unlikely to have widespread popularity in societies like the United States, within such settings are

  16. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Ming-Shiang; Ciou, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34 and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5 crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1 of 0.5 SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared. PMID:21151446

  17. Foam properties and detergent abilities of the saponins from Camellia oleifera.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Ming-Shiang; Ciou, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chun

    2010-11-04

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34 and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5 crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1 of 0.5 SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared.

  18. [Population genetic structure and interspecific introgressive hybridization between Camellia meiocarpa and C. oleifera].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong

    2013-08-01

    A total of 11 pairs of SSR primers were applied to study the genetic diversity of five sympatric populations of Camellia meiocarpa and C. oleifera, the populations' genetic structure, and the interspecific introgressive hybridization. The alleles shared by the two species were 57, accounting for 96.6% of the total. There were two specific alleles in C. oleifera, but no specific alleles in C. meiocarpa. Certain difference was observed in the phenotypic frequency between the two species, and the intraspecific genetic diversity of the two species was high. At species level and population level, the polymorphism information content of the two species was between 0.25 and 0.50, suggesting that the genetic polymorphism was moderate. The mean value of genetic differentiation among the sympatric species was 0. 057, being obviously lower than that of the foreign species (C. meiocarpa 0.332; C. oleifera 0.201) and of xyloid angiosperms (0.102). The mean value of gene flow among the sympatric species was 10. 072, which was significantly higher than that among the foreign species (C. meiocarpa 1.006, C. oleifera 1.990). The UPGMA cluster results showed that the genetic relationship of the two species was very close to, meaning that there existed an obvious interspecific introgressive hybridization. C. meiocarpa was possibly a variety of C. oleifera as a result of the introgressive hybridization.

  19. Combinatorial approach to Mathieu and Lamé equations

    SciTech Connect

    He, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Based on some recent progress on a relation between four dimensional super Yang-Mills gauge theory and quantum integrable system, we study the asymptotic spectrum of the quantum mechanical problems described by the Mathieu equation and the Lamé equation. The large momentum asymptotic expansion of the eigenvalue is related to the instanton partition function of supersymmetric gauge theories which can be evaluated by a combinatorial method. The electro-magnetic duality of gauge theory indicates that in the parameter space, there are three asymptotic expansions for the eigenvalue, and we confirm this fact by performing the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) analysis in each asymptotic expansion region. The results presented here give some new perspective on the Floquet theory about periodic differential equation.

  20. Phytochemical Investigations on Chemical Constituents of Achillea tenuifolia Lam

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdol Majid

    2014-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a methanolic extract from which after fractionation in solvents with different polarities, two known flavones 3’, 5- dihydroxy- 4’, 6, 7- trimethoxy flavone (eupatorine, compound 3), 5- hydroxy- 3’,4’, 6, 7- tetramethoxyflavone (compound 4), besides stearic acid (compound 1), lupeol (compound 2), daucosterol (β- sitosterol 3-O- β- D- glucopyranoside, compound 5), 2, 4- dihydroxy methyl benzoate (compound 6) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by means of different spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, Mass and 1H- NMR (1D and 2D) and 13C-NMR. For further confirming the structures of isolated compounds, comparison of the spectral data of them with those reported in the litratures have been done. PMID:25276207

  1. Inhibition of α-glucosidase by polysaccharides from the fruit hull of Camellia oleifera Abel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Xiang-Zhou

    2015-01-22

    We isolated and purified polysaccharides from the Camellia oleifera Abel. fruit hull and studied its hypoglycemic potential. Our results revealed six polysaccharides (CFPA-1-5 & CFPB) from the aqueous extract from the defatted C. oleifera fruit hull. Purified polysaccharides (purity >90%) were investigated for the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in vitro. Two polysaccharides, CFPB and CFPA-3 were present in high concentration in the fruit hull and showed a dose-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase activity, with IC50 concentrations of 11.80 and 10.95 μg/mL, respectively. This result suggests that polysaccharides (CFP) extracted from the fruit hull of C. oleifera may have potential as functional foods with featuring a hypoglycemic effect.

  2. Analysis of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) patent tomograms: Stereology and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.; Wing, G.M.; Winter, L.; Zahrt, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an insidious disease of young women which attacks the lungs and if untreated results in death. Treatment is radical. Currently a woman diagnosed as having LAM (usually by computed tomography (CT) of the lung) is run through an exhausting set of tests and exercises to determine the extent of the disease. Image processing techniques have been able to quantify the tomograms by providing a histogram of the number of cyst intercepts of a given area. The images are digital, so the data are discrete, and the areas are in terms of square pixels. It is hoped that by analyzing the data and by recovering the probability density of the cysts themselves one can provide a set of parameters that will aid in the early diagnosis of the disease and that will correlate well with the physiology. The desire to invert the data, that is to determine the probability density of the cysts from the probability density of the circular intersections of the cysts with the tomographic plane, led to a re-examination of the Wicksell equation. In Section 2, the authors transform Wicksell`s equation in diameter (a generalized Abel equation) into an equation in areas (the original Abel equation). In Section 3 they present the adjoint equation in several equivalent forms. Analytic solutions of the adjoint equation necessary for later use are developed in Section 4. Outside of the framework of integral equations they have done some modeling of the data. They find that, to a very high degree of reliability, the data follows a simple power law. The distribution of spheres likewise follows a simple power law. These considerations are given in Section 5. Then in Section 6 they explore the exponential model as an alternative. Section 7 solves the Wicksell equation and uses the Golberg device, via the adjoint, to solve a related problem. They finally get to the number of cysts and their average size in Section 8. Their conclusions are in Section 9.

  3. Genetic relationships in a germplasm collection of Camellia japonica and Camellia oleifera using SSR analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Ruan, C J; Ding, G J; Mopper, S

    2017-02-16

    Camellia japonica produces different color and bigger flowers, widely being used for gardening green in southern China. However, cultivars were introduced from different regions, but their origin and pedigree information is either not available poorly documented, causing problems in authentication. Many low-yield trees in Camellia oleifera forests have been used as stocks for grafting C. japonica. However, the survival rate of grafts between these two species is related to genetic relationship between stock of C. oleifera and scion of C. japonica. We used simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to genotype 41 C. japonica cultivars from different regions, as well as nine genotypes of C. oleifera in China. Twenty-one SSR markers generated 438 alleles, with an average of 20.85 alleles per locus. All alleles were used to generate Dice coefficients between two genotypes of all genotypes of these two species. Cluster analysis based on SSR data clustered genotypes showed clustering of genotypes into groups that agreed well with their taxonomic classification and geographic origin. Cultivar 'Damaonao' was a large tree with flowers of composite color, and showed the most genetic distance from other C. japonica cultivars and C. oleifera genotypes in the cluster analysis. The cultivars of C. japonica are distinct from genotypes of C. oleifera. The results for cultivars of C. japonica also revealed the presence of different cultivars with the same name, and identical cultivars but with a different name. SSR profiles can improve C. japonica germplasm management, and provide potential determine correlations between genetic relationship and graft compatibility among scions of C. japonica and genotypes of C. oleifera.

  4. Complete genome sequence of strain Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens LAM0015(T) isolated from saline sediment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Li; Li, Yan-Bin; Ruan, Zhi-Yong; You, Yang; Wang, Lu-Shan; Qin, Han; Liu, Song; Shui, Zong-Xia; Wang, Yan-Wei; Tan, Fu-Rong; Wu, Bo; Dai, Li-Chun; Hu, Guo-Quan; Ma, Ke-Dong; He, Ming-Xiong

    2016-02-20

    The type strain Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens LAM0015(T) with considerably highly NaCl tolerance is a member of halophiles. Here we report its genome sequence, the first to publish complete genome sequence of the Lentibacillus genus. It contains 3,858,520bp with an average GC content of 42.12%, encoding multiple valuable proteins academically and industrially. The genome sequence of strain LAM0015(T) provides basic information for further elucidation of halophilic mechanism and wider exploitation of functional genes.

  5. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

  6. Antitrypanosomal isothiocyanate and thiocarbamate glycosides from Moringa peregrina.

    PubMed

    Ayyari, Mahdi; Salehi, Peyman; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Zimmermann, Stefanie; Portmann, Lena; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Rezadoost, Hassan; Rezazadeh, Shamsali; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    O-Methyl (1), O-ethyl (2), and O-butyl (3) 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] thiocarbamate (E), along with 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate (4) have been isolated from the aerial parts of Moringa peregrina. The compounds were tested for in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity in rat skeletal myoblasts (L6 cells). The most potent compound was 4 with an IC50 of 0.10 µM against T.b. rhodesiense and a selectivity index of 73, while the thiocarbamate glycosides 1, 2, and 3 showed only moderate activity. Intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg body weight/day of 4 in the T.b. rhodesiense STIB 900 acute mouse model revealed significant in vivo toxicity. Administration of 10 mg/kg body weight/day resulted in a 95% reduction of parasitemia on day 7 postinfection, but did not cure the animals. Because of its high in vitro activity and its ability to irreversibly inhibit trypanothione reductase, an attractive parasite-specific target enzyme, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate (4), can be considered as a lead structure for the development and characterization of novel antitrypanosomal drugs.

  7. [Application of HATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with cluster analysis to identification of Cuscuta chinensis lam and its unofficial varieties].

    PubMed

    Hong, Qing-hong; Cheng, Ze-feng; Li, Qun-li

    2008-08-01

    Horizontal attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to identify Cuscuta chinensis lam. samples directly and their chemical differences were compared. In addition to FTIRS/cluster analysis, the kindredship between the different varieties of official and unofficial Cuscuta chinensis lam was studied. As shown by the results of cluster analysis, the four samples mentioned above were separated to three groups. The proposed method can be effectively applied to analyse the qualitify of Cuscuta chinensis lam.

  8. 75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... transformers, electromagnetic couplings, batteries, induction equipment, electrothermic appliances, speakers... designation would further allow Lam to realize logistical benefits through the use of weekly customs...

  9. Reassessment of the Genome Size in Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera, and Its Interspecific Hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Camillo, Julceia; Leão, André P; Alves, Alexandre A; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Azevedo, Ana LS; Nunes, Juliana D; de Capdeville, Guy; de A Mattos, Jean K; Souza, Manoel T

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at generating a comprehensive genomic database on Elaeis spp., our group is leading several R&D initiatives with Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm) and Elaeis oleifera (American oil palm), including the whole-genome sequencing of the last. Genome size estimates currently available for this genus are controversial, as they indicate that American oil palm genome is about half the size of the African oil palm genome and that the genome of the interspecific hybrid is bigger than both the parental species genomes. We estimated the genome size of three E. guineensis genotypes, five E. oleifera genotypes, and two interspecific hybrids genotypes. On average, the genome size of E. guineensis is 4.32 ± 0.173 pg, while that of E. oleifera is 4.43 ± 0.018 pg. This indicates that both genomes are similar in size, even though E. oleifera is in fact bigger. As expected, the hybrid genome size is around the average of the two genomes, 4.40 ± 0.016 pg. Additionally, we demonstrate that both species present around 38% of GC content. As our results contradict the currently available data on Elaeis spp. genome sizes, we propose that the actual genome size of the Elaeis species is around 4 pg and that American oil palm possesses a larger genome than African oil palm. PMID:26203259

  10. New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh) as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5αH,11αH)-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1), n-docosanyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2), 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3), 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4) and salicylic acid-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (5) along with the known compounds α-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6) and α-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 → 1ʹ)-α-D-glucopyranoside (7). The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future. PMID:24959414

  11. A single leaf of Camellia oleifera has two types of carbon assimilation pathway, C(3) and crassulacean acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; Xu, Fei; Wang, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Cao, Yang; Xu, Xiao-Chao; Luo, Ming-Hua; Yuan, Shu

    2012-02-01

    The C(4) plants, whose first product of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation is a four-carbon acid, have evolved independently many times. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a biological mechanism known to exhibit some C(4) characteristics such as the C(3) cycle during daylight and demonstrates the C(4) cycle at night. There are also various C(3)-CAM intermediates, whose CAM pathway can be induced by environmental changes. However, neither fungus-induced CAM nor Theaceae CAM have been reported previously. Here, we show that CAM could be generated by fungus infection in Camellia oleifera Abel. young leaves, even at a location of a single leaf where the upper part had been transformed into a succulent one, while the lower part remained unchanged. The early photosynthetic products of dark-grown C. oleifera succulent leaves were malate, whereas C. oleifera normal leaves and light-grown succulent leaves incorporated most of (14)C into the primary photosynthetic product 3-phosphoglycerate. Camellia oleifera succulent leaves have a lower absolute δ(13)C value, much lower photorespiration rates and lower transpiration rates during the day than those of C. oleifera normal leaves. Like a typical CAM plant, stomata of C. oleifera succulent leaves closed during the daylight, but opened at night, and therefore had a detectable CO(2) compensation point in darkness. Net photosynthetic rates (P(n)) fluctuated diurnally and similarly with stomatal aperture. No light intensity saturation could be defined for C. oleifera succulent leaves. C(4) key enzymes in C. oleifera succulent leaves were increased at both the transcriptional/translational levels as well as at the enzyme activity level.

  12. Aluminum could be transported via phloem in Camellia oleifera Abel.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qi Long; Chen, Rong Fu; Zhao, Xue Qiang; Shen, Ren Fang; Noguchi, Akira; Shinmachi, Fumie; Hasegawa, Isao

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) accumulation and long-distance transport in oil tea (Camellia oleifera Abel.), known to be an Al accumulator, was investigated. The average Al concentration in the embryo of oil tea seeds was 389 mg Al kg(-1) dry weight, which was higher than seeds of other Al accumulators. By partially suppressing leaf transpiration in the field, Al accumulation in leaves was depressed, which clarified the importance of xylem transport to Al accumulation in leaves. However, the effects of xylem transport alone could not sufficiently explain the high Al accumulation in the seasons when the leaf transpiration is weak, which hints the necessity of phloem transport working. Aluminum content in phloem exudates of barks provides another evidence of phloem transport. Images from scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis also showed that Al was present in the phloem of oil tea petioles. Aluminum in oil tea could also be redistributed: higher concentrations of Al were found in leaves when Al was supplied to a different leaf of the same plant. In addition, Al was present in newly emerging roots of oil tea seedlings in which all original roots were excised prior to treatment, and a positive correlation existed between Al content in the newly formed roots and that in the leaves. The results using the empty seed coat technique showed that Al unloading via the phloem occurred during seed development. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that Al could be redistributed between leaves, from seeds to leaves, leaves to roots and leaves to seeds, which indicates that Al can be transported via the phloem in oil tea.

  13. Properties of enzyme preparations and homogeneous enzymes - endoglucanases EG2 Penicillium verruculosum and LAM Myceliophthora thermophila.

    PubMed

    Merzlov, D A; Zorov, I N; Dotsenko, G S; Denisenko, Yu A; Rozhkova, A M; Satrutdinov, A D; Rubtsova, E A; Kondratieva, E G; Sinitsyn, A P

    2015-04-01

    The genes of endoglucanases EG2 (36.2 kDa) Penicillium verruculosum and LAM (30.8 kDa) Myceliophthora thermophila were cloned in P. verruculosum recombinant strain. New enzyme preparations with highly stable activity against β-glucan and laminarin were obtained and investigated, homogeneous enzymes EG2 (EC 3.2.1.4) and LAM (EC 3.2.1.6) being purified and characterized. For β-glucan, the EG2 Km value was found to be 10 times higher than that for LAM; however, EG2 demonstrated greater processivity due to its higher kcat. The pH and temperature optima of EG2 and LAM activity against barley β-glucan overlapped and were 4.3-4.9 and 61-67°C, respectively, and EG2 appeared to be more stable than LAM. Oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization 2-10 were formed by hydrolysis of β-glucan and laminarin by the studied enzymes. The recombinant enzyme preparations were faster and more effective in decreasing the reduced viscosity of wholegrain barley extract than some commercial enzyme preparations. Thus, the new enzyme preparations seem to be rather perspective as feed additives for degradation of non-starch polysaccharides in grain animal feed.

  14. Temperature compensation of silicon Lamé resonators using etch holes: theory and design methodology.

    PubMed

    Luschi, Luca; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Pieri, Francesco

    2017-02-09

    We present a new approach to the temperature compensation of MEMS Lamé resonators, based on the combined effect of the doping concentration and of the geometry of etch holes on the equivalent temperature coefficients of silicon. To this purpose, we develop and validate an analytical model which describes the effect of etch holes on the temperature stability of Lamé resonators through comparison with experiments available in the literature and FEM simulations. We show that two interesting regions of the design space for Lamé resonators exist, where a cancellation of the first-order temperature coefficient of the resonance frequency is possible: [100]-oriented silicon with n-doping of 2.5∙1019 cm-3, and [110]-oriented silicon with p-doping higher than 1.4∙1020 cm-3.

  15. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

  16. Determination of antimicrobial activity and resistance to oxidation of moringa peregrina seed oil.

    PubMed

    Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Athanasiadis, Vasilios; Tsaknis, John; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-02-24

    The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid) were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined.

  17. Ethanol extract of Moringa oliefera prevents in vitro glucose induced cataract on isolated goat eye lens

    PubMed Central

    Kurmi, Raghvendra; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Agnihotri, Abhishek; Dubey, Nazneen

    2014-01-01

    Aim of Study: The aim of current work was to evaluate in vitro anticataract potential of Moringa oliefera extract. Materials and Methods: Goat eye lenses were divided into 4 groups; Group served as control, Group II as toxic control, Group III and Group IV were incubated in extract (250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml of extract of M. oliefera) Group II, III and IV were incubated in 55 mM glucose in artificial aqueous humor to induce lens opacification. Estimation of total, water soluble protein, catalase, glutathione and malondialdehyde along with photographic evaluation of lens was done. Results: Group II (toxic control) lenses showed high amount of MDA (Malondialdehyde), soluble, insoluble protein, decreased catalase and glutathione levels, while lenses treated with Moringa oliefera extract (Group III and Group IV) showed significant (* P < 0.05) reduction in MDA and increased level of catalase, glutathione, total and soluble protein. Conclusion: Results of present findings suggest protective effect of Moringa oliefera in prevention of in vitro glucose induced cataract. PMID:24008789

  18. Endophytic fungi associated with Macrosolen tricolor and its host Camellia oleifera.

    PubMed

    Sheng-Liang, Zhou; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhen-Ying, Wu; Shuang-Lin, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Endophytic fungi play an important role in terrestrial ecosystem, while little is known about those in hemi-parasitic plants, a group of special plants which absorb nutrients from its hosts by haustoria. The relationship of the endophytes in the two parts of the bipartite systems (hemiparasites together with their hosts) is also poorly understood. Endophytic fungi of a hemi-parasitic plant Macrosolen tricolor, and its host plant Camellia oleifera were investigated and compared in this study. M. tricolor contained rich and diversified endophytic fungi (H' = 2.829), which consisted mainly of ascomycetes, distributed in more than ten orders of four classes (Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Leotiomycetes and Eurotiomycetes) besides Incertae sedis strains (23.2 % of total). In addition, 2.2 % of isolates were identified to be Basidiomycota, all of which belonged to Agaricomycetes. Obvious differences were observed between the endophytic fungal assembles in the leaves and those in the branches of M. tricolor. The endophytic fungi isolated from C. oleifera distributed in nearly same orders of the four classes of Ascomycota and one class (Agaricomycetes) of Basidiomycota as those from M. tricolor with similar proportion. For both M. tricolor and C. oleifera, Valsa sp. was the dominant endophyte species in the leaves, Torula sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 were the dominant endophytic fungi in the branches. The similarity coefficient of the endophyte assembles in the two host was 64.4 %. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the endophyte assembles of M. tricolor and C. oleifera were significantly different (p < 0.01).

  19. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a novel biflavonoid from shells of Camellia oleifera.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong; Guo, Ya; Luo, Yue-Ting

    2012-09-27

    Shells are by-products of oil production from Camellia oleifera which have not been harnessed effectively. The purpose of this research is to isolate flavonoid from shells of Camellia oleifera and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The flavonoid was identified as bimolecular kaempferol structure by UV, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, which is a new biflavonoid and first found in Camellia oleifera. It showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw oedema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice, and analgesic activity by hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing. The mechanism of anti-inflammation of biflavonoid is related to both bradykinin and prostaglandins synthesis inhibition. The biflavonoid showed both central and peripheral analgesic effects different from aspirin, inhibition of the synthesis or action of prostaglandins may contribute to analgesic effect of biflavonoid. The biflavonoid significantly decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) and increased superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in serum (p < 0.01), revealed strong free radical scavenging activity in vivo. It indicates the biflavonoid can control inflammation and pain by eliminating free radical so as to inhibit the mediators and decrease the prostaglandins. The biflavonoid can be used as a prospective medicine for inflammation and pain.

  20. Stochasticity in the Expression of LamB and its Affect on λ phage Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Emily; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2006-03-01

    λ phage binds to E. Coli's lamB protein and injects its DNA into the cell. The phage quickly replicates and after a latent period the bacteria bursts, emitting mature phages. We developed a mathematical model based on the known physical events that occur when a λ phage infects an E.Coli cell. The results of these models predict that the bacteria and phage populations become extinct unless the parameters of the model are very finely tuned, which is untrue in the nature. The lamB protein is part of the maltose regulon and can be repressed to minimal levels when grown in the absence of inducer. Therefore, a cell that is not expressing any lamB protein at that moment is resistant against phage infection. We studied the dynamic relationship between λ phage and E. Coli when the concentration of phage greatly outnumbers the concentration of bacteria. We study how the stochasticity of the expression of lamB affects the percentage of cells that the λ phage infects. We show that even in the case when the maltose regulon is fully induced a percentage of cells continue to persist against phage infection.

  1. 78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam Research Corporation, SK hynix Semiconductor (China) Ltd... Advanced Micro Devices China Inc.'s (AMD China) current list of eligible destinations. BIS also amends the...-User Authorizations in the PRC Revisions to the List of Eligible Destinations for Advanced...

  2. Khellin and visnagin, furanochromones from Amni visnaga (L.) Lam., as potential bioherbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants constitute a source of novel and structurally diverse phytotoxic compounds to be explored in searching for effective and environmentally safe herbicides. From screening nearly 2400 plant extracts for their phytotoxicity, a dichloromethane extract of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. was selected for fur...

  3. Fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral composition variability among seven macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc. accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] seeds containing high concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols and minerals will provide government, public and private organizations with a nutritious and healthy food for use by malnourished and food deprived people worldwide. Seeds from seven horse...

  4. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family.

  5. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family. PMID:26517715

  6. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region.

    PubMed

    Drain, Paul K; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S

    2016-02-11

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (Determine(TM) TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm(3) (IQR 89-256/mm(3)). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1-55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4-33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0-66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51-0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 <200/mm(3). Urine LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression.

  7. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K.; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (DetermineTM TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm3 (IQR 89–256/mm3). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1–55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4–33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0–66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59–0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51–0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 <200/mm3. Urine LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression. PMID:26865526

  8. Economic evaluation of micafungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) for the treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (IC).

    PubMed

    Neoh, Chin Fen; Liew, Danny; Slavin, Monica A; Marriott, Debbie; Chen, Sharon C-A; Morrissey, Orla; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2013-09-01

    Micafungin was non-inferior to liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) for the treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (IC) in a major clinical trial. The present study investigated the economic impact of micafungin vs. LAmB in treating candidaemia and IC. A decision analytical model was constructed to capture downstream consequences of using micafungin or LAmB as primary definitive therapy. The main outcomes were treatment success and treatment failure due to mycological persistence, or death. Outcome probabilities were derived from key published sources. Resource used was estimated by an expert panel and cost inputs were from the latest Australian resources. The analysis was from an Australian hospital perspective. Sensitivity analyses using Monte Carlo simulation were conducted. Micafungin (AU$61 426) had a lower total cost than LAmB (AU$72 382), with a total net cost-saving of AU$10 957 per patient. This was primarily due to the lower cost associated with initial antifungal treatment and shorter length of stay for patients in the micafungin arm. Hospitalisation was the main cost driver for both arms. Results were robust over a wide range of variables. The uncertainty analysis demonstrated that micafungin had a 99.9% chance of being cost-saving compared with LAmB. Micafungin was associated with cost-saving relative to LAmB in the treatment of candidaemia and IC in Australia.

  9. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    PubMed Central

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J.M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  10. Molecular Characteristics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM-RUS Family Prevalent in Central Russia▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dubiley, Svetlana; Kirillov, Eugene; Ignatova, Anna; Stepanshina, Valentina; Shemyakin, Igor

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed IS6110-associated polymorphisms in the phospholipase C genes of 107 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis selected to be representative of isolates circulating in central Russia. We found that the majority of Latin American-Mediterranean family strains contained an insertion in a unique position in the plcA gene, suggesting a common ancestor. This insertion can serve as a specific genetic marker for this group, which we designate the LAM-RUS family. PMID:17942651

  11. Interaction of Bacteriophage λ with Its E. coli Receptor, LamB

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sujoy; Rothenberg, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The initial step of viral infection is the binding of a virus onto the host cell surface. This first viral-host interaction would determine subsequent infection steps and the fate of the entire infection process. A basic understating of the underlining mechanism of initial virus-host binding is a prerequisite for establishing the nature of viral infection. Bacteriophage λ and its host Escherichia coli serve as an excellent paradigm for this purpose. λ phages bind to specific receptors, LamB, on the host cell surface during the infection process. The interaction of bacteriophage λ with the LamB receptor has been the topic of many studies, resulting in wealth of information on the structure, biochemical properties and molecular biology of this system. Recently, imaging studies using fluorescently labeled phages and its receptor unveil the role of spatiotemporal dynamics and divulge the importance of stochasticity from hidden variables in the infection outcomes. The scope of this article is to review the present state of research on the interaction of bacteriophage λ and its E. coli receptor, LamB. PMID:23202520

  12. PREDICTING WATER ACTIVITY IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CISTERNAS-LAM MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS JG; GREER DA; DISSELKAMP RL

    2011-03-01

    Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

  13. Differentially methylated obligatory epialleles modulate context-dependent LAM gene expression in the honeybee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Wedd, Laura; Kucharski, Robert; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Differential intragenic methylation in social insects has been hailed as a prime mover of environmentally driven organismal plasticity and even as evidence for genomic imprinting. However, very little experimental work has been done to test these ideas and to prove the validity of such claims. Here we analyze in detail differentially methylated obligatory epialleles of a conserved gene encoding lysosomal α-mannosidase (AmLAM) in the honeybee. We combined genotyping of progenies derived from colonies founded by single drone inseminated queens, ultra-deep allele-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing, and gene expression to reveal how sequence variants, DNA methylation, and transcription interrelate. We show that both methylated and non-methylated states of AmLAM follow Mendelian inheritance patterns and are strongly influenced by polymorphic changes in DNA. Increased methylation of a given allele correlates with higher levels of context-dependent AmLAM expression and appears to affect the transcription of an antisense long noncoding RNA. No evidence of allelic imbalance or imprinting involved in this process has been found. Our data suggest that by generating alternate methylation states that affect gene expression, sequence variants provide organisms with a high level of epigenetic flexibility that can be used to select appropriate responses in various contexts. This study represents the first effort to integrate DNA sequence variants, gene expression, and methylation in a social insect to advance our understanding of their relationships in the context of causality. PMID:26507253

  14. Differentially methylated obligatory epialleles modulate context-dependent LAM gene expression in the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Wedd, Laura; Kucharski, Robert; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Differential intragenic methylation in social insects has been hailed as a prime mover of environmentally driven organismal plasticity and even as evidence for genomic imprinting. However, very little experimental work has been done to test these ideas and to prove the validity of such claims. Here we analyze in detail differentially methylated obligatory epialleles of a conserved gene encoding lysosomal α-mannosidase (AmLAM) in the honeybee. We combined genotyping of progenies derived from colonies founded by single drone inseminated queens, ultra-deep allele-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing, and gene expression to reveal how sequence variants, DNA methylation, and transcription interrelate. We show that both methylated and non-methylated states of AmLAM follow Mendelian inheritance patterns and are strongly influenced by polymorphic changes in DNA. Increased methylation of a given allele correlates with higher levels of context-dependent AmLAM expression and appears to affect the transcription of an antisense long noncoding RNA. No evidence of allelic imbalance or imprinting involved in this process has been found. Our data suggest that by generating alternate methylation states that affect gene expression, sequence variants provide organisms with a high level of epigenetic flexibility that can be used to select appropriate responses in various contexts. This study represents the first effort to integrate DNA sequence variants, gene expression, and methylation in a social insect to advance our understanding of their relationships in the context of causality.

  15. Antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori.

    PubMed Central

    Dehshahri, S.; Wink, M.; Afsharypuor, S.; Asghari, G.; Mohagheghzadeh, A.

    2012-01-01

    Natural antioxidants have an important role in the prevention of many age-related diseases and promotion of health. Among natural antioxidants from plants, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds are potent antioxidants and chelating agents. Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori (Moringaceae) is a small desert tree distributed from tropical Africa to east India. Moringa tree is also growing in south-east of Iran. The antioxidant activity of M. peregrina methanolic leaf extract on 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radicals was determined in in vitro experiments. It exhibited the scavenging activity on DPPH and superoxide anion radicals with IC50 of 8.06 ± 0.29 μg/ml and 47.93 ± 1.33 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, total phenolic content of the leaf extract was determined and using 1HNMR, mass and spectroscopic methods, the structure of the isolated flavonoid glycoside, rutin, as one of the compounds responsible for reported antioxidant activities was identified. PMID:23181088

  16. Microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Camellia oleifera fruit hull.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man; Chen, Jiahong

    2011-05-27

    The abundant fruit hulls of tea-oil tree (Camellia oleifera) are still underutilized and wastefully discaded to pollute the environment. In order to solve this problem and better utilize the fruit hulls of C. oleifera, a microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract their polyphenols using water as the extraction solvent. A central composite design (CCD) was used to monitor the effects of three extraction processing parameters--liquid:solid ratio (mL/g), extraction time (min) and extraction temperature (°C)--on the polyphenol yield (%). The results showed that the optimal conditions were liquid:solid ratio of 15.33:1 (mL/g), extraction time of 35 min and extraction temperature of 76 °C. Validation tests indicated that under the optimized conditions the actual yield of polyphenols was 15.05 ± 0.04% with RSD = 0.21% (n = 5), which was in good agreement with the predicted yield. Phenolic compounds in the extracts were analysed by HPLC, and gallic acid was found to be the predominant constituent. The total flavonoid content in the extracts was determined and high total flavonoid content was revealed (140.06 mg/g dry material).

  17. Antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) oil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Pu; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2006-02-08

    The oil of tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is used extensively in China as cooking oil. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antioxidant activity of tea seed oil and its active compounds. Of the five solvent extracts, methanol extract of tea seed oil exhibited the highest yield and the strongest antioxidant activity as determined by DPPH scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Two peaks separated from the methanol extract by HPLC contributed the most significant antioxidant activity. These two peaks were further identified as sesamin and a novel compound: 2,5-bis-benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-tetrahydro-furo [3,4-d][1,3]dioxine (named compound B) by UV absorption and characterized by MS, IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR techniques. Sesamin and compound B decreased H2O2-mediated formation of reactive oxygen species in red blood cells (RBCs), inhibited RBCs hemolysis induced by AAPH, and increased the lag time of conjugated dienes formation in human low-density lipoprotein. The results indicate that both compounds isolated from tea seed oil exhibit remarkable antioxidant activity. Apart from the traditional pharmacological effects of Camellia oleifera, the oil of tea seed may also act as a prophylactic agent to prevent free radical related diseases.

  18. Resin from Virola oleifera Protects Against Radiocontrast-Induced Nephropathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Claudia Hertel; Ramos, Jean Pierre Louzada; Scherer, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Jairo Pinto; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Meyrelles, Silvana Santos; Pereira, Thiago Melo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an iatrogenic medical event for which there is not yet a successful therapy. Increasing evidence in rodents has suggested that this disease is associated with renal tubular and vascular injury that is triggered directly by oxidative stress. In the present study, we evaluated whether the antioxidant resin from Virola oleifera (RV) could attenuate renal damage in an experimental mouse model of CIN. Adult male Swiss mice were divided into six groups and pre-treated orally with RV (10, 100 and 300 mg/kg), N-acetylcysteine (200 mg/kg) or vehicle for 5 days before the induction of CIN and Control group. Renal function was assessed by measuring plasma creatinine and urea levels. Additionally, renal oxidative stress and apoptosis/cell viability were determined with flow cytometry. Finally, kidney tissues were sectioned for histopathological examination. In this CIN model, pre-treatment with RV improved renal function, lowered the mortality rate, and reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in both the medulla and cortex renal cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the RV treatment had beneficial effects on kidney histopathology that were superior to the standard treatment with N-acetylcysteine. These data suggest that because of its antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects and its ability to preserve renal function, resin from Virola oleifera may have potential as a new therapeutic approach for preventing CIN. PMID:26674346

  19. Resin from Virola oleifera Protects Against Radiocontrast-Induced Nephropathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bôa, Igor Santos Fonte; Porto, Marcella Leite; Pereira, Ana Claudia Hertel; Ramos, Jean Pierre Louzada; Scherer, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Jairo Pinto; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Meyrelles, Silvana Santos; Vasquez, Elisardo Corral; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; Pereira, Thiago Melo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an iatrogenic medical event for which there is not yet a successful therapy. Increasing evidence in rodents has suggested that this disease is associated with renal tubular and vascular injury that is triggered directly by oxidative stress. In the present study, we evaluated whether the antioxidant resin from Virola oleifera (RV) could attenuate renal damage in an experimental mouse model of CIN. Adult male Swiss mice were divided into six groups and pre-treated orally with RV (10, 100 and 300 mg/kg), N-acetylcysteine (200 mg/kg) or vehicle for 5 days before the induction of CIN and Control group. Renal function was assessed by measuring plasma creatinine and urea levels. Additionally, renal oxidative stress and apoptosis/cell viability were determined with flow cytometry. Finally, kidney tissues were sectioned for histopathological examination. In this CIN model, pre-treatment with RV improved renal function, lowered the mortality rate, and reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in both the medulla and cortex renal cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the RV treatment had beneficial effects on kidney histopathology that were superior to the standard treatment with N-acetylcysteine. These data suggest that because of its antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects and its ability to preserve renal function, resin from Virola oleifera may have potential as a new therapeutic approach for preventing CIN.

  20. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Camellia oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shiling; Cheng, Haoran; Fu, Liang; Ding, Chunbang; Zhang, Li; Yang, Ruiwu; Zhou, Yonghong

    2014-07-01

    Polysaccharides from Camellia oleifera leaves were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and optimized with response surface methodology. The optimal conditions of the extraction of polysaccharides were determined to be the extraction time of 1.6h, extraction temperature of 88°C and ratio of liquid to raw material of 20, which contributed to the highest yield of 3.77%. The crude polysaccharide was purified and three fractions (CLP-1, CLP-2 and CLP-3) were obtained. Their physicochemical properties were investigated with chemical method. The results indicated that the uronic acid content of CLP-2 was significantly higher than those of CLP-1 and CLP-3, and CLPs were mainly composed of glucose and galactose residue. In vitro antioxidant assay indicated that three polysaccharide fractions showed remarkable antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with CLP-1 and CLP-2, CLP-3 exhibited higher iron chelating activity. CLP-2 possessed significant higher hydroxyl radial and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities than those of CLP-1 and CLP-3. Overall, the polysaccharides derived from C. oleifera leaves might be explored as potential natural antioxidant.

  1. Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems.

  2. A Job Pause Service under LAM/MPI+BLCR for Transparent Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Mueller, Frank; Engelmann, Christian; Scott, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Checkpoint/restart (C/R) has become a requirement for long-running jobs in large-scale clusters due to a meantime- to-failure (MTTF) in the order of hours. After a failure, C/R mechanisms generally require a complete restart of an MPI job from the last checkpoint. A complete restart, however, is unnecessary since all but one node are typically still alive. Furthermore, a restart may result in lengthy job requeuing even though the original job had not exceeded its time quantum. In this paper, we overcome these shortcomings. Instead of job restart, we have developed a transparent mechanism for job pause within LAM/MPI+BLCR. This mechanism allows live nodes to remain active and roll back to the last checkpoint while failed nodes are dynamically replaced by spares before resuming from the last checkpoint. Our methodology includes LAM/MPI enhancements in support of scalable group communicationwith fluctuating number of nodes, reuse of network connections, transparent coordinated checkpoint scheduling and a BLCR enhancement for job pause. Experiments in a cluster with the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite show that our overhead for job pause is comparable to that of a complete job restart. A minimal overhead of 5.6% is only incurred in case migration takes place while the regular checkpoint overhead remains unchanged. Yet, our approach alleviates the need to reboot the LAM run-time environment, which accounts for considerable overhead resulting in net savings of our scheme in the experiments. Our solution further provides full transparency and automation with the additional benefit of reusing existing resources. Executing continues after failures within the scheduled job, i.e., the application staging overhead is not incurred again in contrast to a restart. Our scheme offers additional potential for savings through incremental checkpointing and proactive diskless live migration, which we are currently working on.

  3. Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Junchen; Liu, Yuan; An, Tianchen; Liu, Yujun; Wang, Manchuriga; Song, Yanting; Zheng, Feifei; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yingxia; Deng, Shiming

    2015-05-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor against trypsin was isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. The trypsin inhibitor, named as AHLTI (A. heterophyllus Lam. trypsin inhibitor), consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa, which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of AHLTI was DEPPSELDAS, which showed no similarity to other known trypsin inhibitor sequence. AHLTI completely inhibited bovine trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (AHLTI:trypsin) analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, inhibition activity assay, and gel-filtration chromatography. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were carried out to understand the inhibition mechanism of AHLTI against trypsin. Results showed that AHLTI was a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.7 × 10(-8) M. However, AHLTI showed weak inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin and elastase. AHLTI was stable over a broad range of pH 4-8 and temperature 20-80°C. The reduction agent, dithiothreitol, had no obvious effect on AHLTI. The trypsin inhibition assays of AHLTI toward digestive enzymes from insect pest guts in vitro demonstrated that AHLTI was effective against enzymes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). These results suggested that AHLTI might be a novel trypsin inhibitor from A. heterophyllus Lam. belonging to Kunitz family, and play an important role in protecting from insect pest.

  4. Transport solutions of the Lamé equations and shock elastic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeyeva, L. A.; Kaishybaeva, G. K.

    2016-07-01

    The Lamé system describing the dynamics of an isotropic elastic medium affected by a steady transport load moving at subsonic, transonic, or supersonic speed is considered. Its fundamental and generalized solutions in a moving frame of reference tied to the transport load are analyzed. Shock waves arising in the medium at supersonic speeds are studied. Conditions on the jump in the stress, displacement rate, and energy across the shock front are obtained using distribution theory. Numerical results concerning the dynamics of an elastic medium influenced by concentrated transport loads moving at sub-, tran- and supersonic speeds are presented.

  5. Lithographically defined aluminum nitride cross-sectional Lamé mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Cassella, C.; Qian, Z.; Hummel, G. E.; Rinaldi, M.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports on aluminum nitride (AlN) cross-sectional Lamé mode resonators (CLMRs) showing high electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt{2} ) in excess of 4% in a lithographically defined 307 MHz frequency range around 920 MHz. In addition, we report the performance of a CLMR showing a figure of merit (FoM, defined as the product of quality factor, Q, and kt{2} ) in excess of 85. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, such FoM value is the highest reported for AlN resonators using interdigitated metal electrodes (IDTs).

  6. Isolation, characterization and pharmacological activity of Magydaris pastinacea (Lam) Paol. glucosides.

    PubMed

    Cerri, R; Pintore, G; Dessí, G; Asproni, B; Piseddu, G; Sini, S

    1995-12-01

    The glycoside fraction of fresh rhizomes from Magydaris pastinacea (Lam.) Paol. was separated from the alcoholic extract using the method of Kobayashi et al. The fraction was found to have six main constituents, the most abundant of which had previously been isolated and identified as 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8-(2',3'-dihydroxy-3-methyl-butylcoumarin++ +). The present paper describes the separation and characterization of the other constituents, all with coumarin or furancoumarin structures. Pharmacological experiments to test these compounds as platelet antiaggregants are also reported.

  7. Advances in functional use of sweet potato, [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    PubMed

    Barnes, Sandra L; Sanders, Sheila A

    2012-08-01

    This article reviews the patents that have been presented over the past two decades related to alternative functional use of the Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. The major categories of available patents include alternative food products such as Sweet potato chips and fries, Sweet potato ornamental products, and fuel ethanol production from Sweet potato. The majority of recent patents fall under the category of ornamental products and alternative food products, with only a few fuel ethanol products. Figure 1 shows the major categories of patented alternative products from Sweet potato.

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Umesh B; Panaskar, Shrimant N; Bapat, V A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant capacity of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Fam. Moracae) fruit pulp (JFP) obtained from Western Ghats India was determined by evaluating the scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing power assays and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical cation decolorization assay. JFP was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). The ethanol and water are the best solvents for the extracting phenols and flavonoids from the JFP. The antioxidant activities of JFP extracts were correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoids content. The results indicated that the jackfruit pulp is one natural source of antioxidant compounds.

  9. Assembly of LamB and OmpF in deep rough lipopolysaccharide mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Laird, M W; Kloser, A W; Misra, R

    1994-01-01

    Assembly of the OmpF and LamB proteins was kinetically retarded in deep rough lipopolysaccharide mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. OmpF assembly was affected at the step of conversion of metastable trimers to stable trimers, whereas LamB assembly was influenced both at the monomer-to-metastable trimer and metastable-to-stable trimer steps. These assembly defects were reversed in the presence of the sfaA1 and sfaB3 suppressor alleles, which were isolated by using ompF assembly mutants. Images PMID:8157594

  10. Beneficial Effects of Camellia Oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) on Hepatoprotective and Gastroprotective Activities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that increased dietary intake of natural antioxidants is beneficial for health because of their bioactivities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation actions. Camellia oil made from tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is commonly used as an edible oil and a traditional medicine in Taiwan and China. Until now, the camellia oil has been widely considered as a dietary oil for heath. In this review, we summarize the protective effects of camellia oil with antioxidant activity against oxidative stress leading to hepatic damage and gastrointestinal ulcers. The information in this review leads to the conclusion that camellia oil is not only an edible oil but also a vegetable oil with a potential function for human health.

  11. Antineoplastic potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum lam. on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Muhammad; Kazmi, Imran; Anwar, Firoz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. used in folk medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China and Australia contains a wide range of active compounds, well known for their haemostatic and wound-healing properties. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. on N-diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced hepatic injury in rats. Material and Methods: The aerial part of B. pinnatum aqueous and ethanolic extract was prepared in doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Hepatic injury was induced by DENA. Acute toxicity was also carried out. Result: Treatment with different doses of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum (250 mg/kg, p.o.) was not significantly able to treat the liver injury induced by DENA, but 500 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum protects the liver slightly. Treatment with different doses of aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P*<0.05; P**<0.01 and P***<0.001) treated the liver injury induced by DENA. Conclusion: It may be inferred from the present study that the hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum leaves in DENA-induced hepatotoxicity may involve its antioxidant or oxidative free radical scavenging activities by alleviating lipid peroxidation through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of antioxidants. PMID:24174817

  12. Effect of different growth stages of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. on its chemical composition

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenhuan; Yang, Tao; Liu, Feng; Tian, Shuge

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to monitor the changes in the chemical composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. throughout nine different growth stages. Materials and Methods: Volatile components such as essential oils were analyzed using the gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry, and the contents of non-volatile components were determined by a visible spectrophotometer. Results: Hydro-distilled essential oil content ranged from a minimum of 1.1% (in the post-flowering stage) to a maximum of 1.8% (in the flowering stage). The essential oils included pulegone, which was the most abundant component (77.48-87.3%), p-menthanone (2.79-12.39%), trans-isopulegone (1.04-2.06%), d-limonene (0.51-3.03%) and eucarvone (1.5-4.48%). The contents of non-volatile components, such as that of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), total triterpenoids content (TTC) and total free amino acids content (TFAAC) were measured using visible spectrophotometry. In the growing stage, TPC, TFC, TTC and TFAAC were 9.91-12.80 mg/g, 29.84-50.63 mg/g, 0.57-1.41 mg/g and 13.33-28.56 mg/g, respectively. Conclusion: These data can be used as a basis to determine the optimal harvest time of Z. clinopodioide Lam. PMID:24914287

  13. A cytological study of anther and pollen development in Camellia oleifera.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; Yuan, D Y; Wang, B F; Yang, Y; Liu, D M; Han, Z Q

    2015-07-31

    The plant species Camellia oleifera is an important producer of edible oil in China. However, it suffers from a low fruit-setting rate. This study used high resolution scanning electron microscopy of semi-thin tissue sections to investigate anther development and pollen formation, and to determine whether problems in forming functional pollen cause low seed setting rates. During anther development, cell sizes within the epidermis and end othecium gradually increase, and at the beginning of the microsporocyte phase, the cells become highly vacuolated. The cell walls of the inner wall cells thicken in a ribbon pattern during the later part of the two-cell pollen stage. Middle layer cells become flattened during the later part of the secondary sporogenous cell stage. A tapetum also forms at this stage; the secondary sporogenous cells begin to degrade at the early microspore stage and completely disappear by the time the pollen is mature, thus forming a glandular tapetum. In microsporocyte, cytokinesis occurs simultaneously with microsporocyte meiosis, and a tetrahedral arrangement is present in tetrads. Reproductive cells begin to form at the later stage of microsporogenesis; the nuclei of the reproductive cells are enlarged as the reproductive cells begin to move away from the pollen wall. Two-cell pollen is first formed after reproductive cells have left the pollen wall, and the number of inclusions in the pollen subsequently increases. The pollen matures for 5-8 days before flowering occurs. No pollen abortion phenomena were observed, suggesting that anther development in C. oleifera is normal and that functional pollen are formed.

  14. "Phloem sap analysis of Schleichera oleosa (Lour) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub. and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam) and hemolymph of Kerria lacca (Kerr) using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry".

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Amit; Rathi, Brijesh; Kaushik, Sandeep; Sharma, K K; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-10-01

    Females of lac insects especially of Kerria lacca (Kerr) secret a resin known as lac for their own protection, which has tremendous applications. Lac insect completes its lifecycle on several host taxa where it exclusively feeds on phloem sap but Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam.) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam.) are its major hosts. Analysis of phloem sap constituents as well as hemolymph of lac insect is important because it ultimately gets converted into lac by insect intervention. Main phloem sap constituent's viz. sugars and free amino acids and hemolymph of lac insect were analyzed using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The results were transformed to relative percentage of the total sugars and free amino acids analyzed in each sample for comparison among lac insect hemolymph and the phloem sap of the three different host taxa. Sucrose (58.9 ± 3.6-85.6 ± 0.9) and trehalose (62.3 ± 0.4) were the predominant sugars in phloem sap of three taxa and hemolymph of lac insect, respectively. Glutamic acid (33.1 ± 1.4-39.8 ± 1.4) was found to be main amino acid among the phloem sap of three taxa while tyrosine (61 ± 2.6) was the major amino acid in hemolymph of lac insect. The relative percentage of non-essential amino acids (60.8 %-69.9 %) was found to be more in all the three host taxa while essential amino acids (30.1 %-35.4 %) were present at a lower relative percentage. In contrast to this, the relative percentage of essential amino acids (81.9 %) was observed to be higher as compared to non-essential amino acids (17.7 %) in lac insect hemolymph. These results led to the detection of lac insect's endosymbionts. Moreover, this study revealed a clue regarding the importance of development of a synthetic diet for this insect so that a precise pathway of lac biosynthesis could be investigated for thorough understanding.

  15. Differences in hoarding behaviors among six sympatric rodent species on seeds of oil tea ( Camellia oleifera) in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gang; Zhang, Zhibin

    2011-05-01

    Seed hoarding is an important behavioral adaptation to food shortages for many rodent species. Sympatric rodents may affect the natural regeneration of large-seeded trees differently as seed dispersers or seed predators. Using seeds of oil tea ( Camellia oleifera), we investigated differences in hoarding behaviors among six sympatric rodent species in semi-natural enclosures in a subtropical forest in southwest of China. We found that all these six species ate seeds of C. oleifera, but only Edward's long-tailed rats ( Leopoldamys edwardsi) were predominantly scatter hoarders; chestnut rats ( Niviventer fulvescens) and white-bellied rats ( Niviventer confucianus) scatter hoarded and larder hoarded few seeds, but were seed predators; South China field mice ( Apodemus draco) exhibited little larder-hoarding behavior; and Chevrier's field mice ( A. chevrieri) as well as Himalayan rats ( Rattus nitidusa) did not hoard seeds at all. The rodents that engaged in scatter hoarding often formed single-seed caches and tended to cache seeds under grass or shrubs. Our findings indicate that sympatric rodents consuming seeds of the same species of plant can have different hoarding strategies, affecting seed dispersal and plant regeneration differently. We conclude by discussing the role of these species in hoarding seeds of C. oleifera and highlight the essential role of Edward's long-tailed rats as predominantly potential dispersers of this plant species.

  16. Self-sterility in Camellia oleifera may be due to the prezygotic late-acting self-incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ting; Yuan, De-Yi; Zou, Feng; Gao, Chao; Yang, Ya; Zhang, Lin; Tan, Xiao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    In this report, self-sterility in Camellia oleifera was explored by comparing structural and statistical characteristics following self-pollination (SP) and cross-pollination (CP). Although slightly delayed pollen germination and pollen tube growth in selfed ovaries compared to crossed ovaries was observed, there was no significant difference in the percentages of pollen that germinated and pollen tubes that grew to the base of the style. There was also no difference in morphological structure after the two pollination treatments. However, the proportions of ovule penetration and double fertilization in selfed ovules were significantly lower than in crossed ovules, indicating that a prezygotic late-acting self-incompatible mechanism may exist in C. oleifera. Callose deposition was observed in selfed abortive ovules, but not in normal. Ovules did not show differences in anatomic structure during embryonic development, whereas significant differences were observed in the final fruit and seed set. In addition, aborted ovules in selfed ovaries occurred within 35 days after SP and prior to zygote division. However, this process did not occur continuously throughout the life cycle, and no zygotes were observed in the selfed abortive ovules. These results indicated that the self-sterility in C. oleifera may be caused by prezygotic late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI).

  17. Development and cross-species transferability of unigene-derived microsatellite markers in an edible oil woody plant, Camellia oleifera (Theaceae).

    PubMed

    Jia, B G; Lin, Q; Feng, Y Z; Hu, X Y; Tan, X F; Shao, F G; Zhang, L

    2015-06-18

    Camellia oleifera is an important edible oil woody plant in China. Lack of useful molecular markers hinders current genetic research on this tree species. Transcriptome sequencing of developing C. oleifera seeds generated 69,798 unigenes. A total of 6949 putative microsatellites were discovered among 6042 SSR-containing unigenes. Then, 150 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were evaluated in 20 varieties of C. oleifera. Of these, 52 SSRs revealed polymorphism, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 15 and expected heterozygosity values from 0.269 to 0.888. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.32 to 0.897. Cross-species transferability rates in Camellia chekangoleosa and Camellia japonica were 90.4 and 78.8%, respectively. The 52 polymorphic unigene-derived SSR markers serve to enrich existing microsatellite marker resources for C. oleifera and offer potential for applications in genetic diversity evaluation, molecular fingerprinting, and genetic mapping in C. oleifera, C. chekangoleosa, and C. japonica.

  18. Ecological consequences of primary and secondary seed dispersal on seed and seedling fate of Dipteryx oleifera (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Javier; Boucher, Douglas H; Chaves, Luis F; Ingram-Flóres, Cherryl; Guillén, Delvis; Tórrez, René; Martínez, Oscar

    2010-09-01

    The relative contributions of primary and secondary seed dispersal to plant demography have received little investigation. Evidence on these seed dispersal types, on seed fate and seedling recruitment of the tropical rain forest tree Dipteryx oleifera, is presented. The study was conducted in a 6.37ha permanent plot where seeds and seedlings were located and tagged for the 2007 cohort. A total of 2 814 seeds were threaded and their fate was followed one year after germination. Primary seed dispersal by bats protected seeds from insect larval predation below the adult tree. Bats congregated seeds in bat seed piles located at a mean distance of 40.94 +/- 1.48m from the nearest adult individual of D. oleifera. Terrestrial vertebrates congregated seeds in caches located 41.90 +/- 2.43m from the nearest adult individual of D. oleifera. The results of the fitted proportional hazard model suggested that primary seed dispersal decreased seed hazard probability by 1.12% for each meter from the adult conspecific (p<0.001) and that secondary seed dispersal decreased it by 23.97% (p<0.001). Besides, the odds ratio regression models results showed that the overall effect of unviable seeds was a reduction in viable seed predation rate. For each unviable seed deposited by bats into the seed piles, the rate of seed predation by terrestrial vertebrates decreased 6% (p<0.001). For each damaged seed by terrestrial vertebrates in the seed piles, the rate of germination decreased 4% (p<0.001). For each germinated seed in the seed piles, the rate of recruitment increased 16% (p=0.001). Seedling survival of seeds that emerged after secondary seed dispersal events, showed no statistically significant difference in arthropod herbivory, in relation to seedlings that came from seeds that were dispersed only primarily by bats (F=0.153, p=0.697, df=1.98). Thus both primary and secondary dispersal contributed to higher seedling survival away from the nearest adult D. oleifera (r2=0.713, n=578

  19. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thua Thien Hue and Lam Dong Provinces, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2015-05-21

    Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were carried out in Thua Thien Hue Province of central Vietnam, and Lam Dong Province of southern Vietnam in 2014. A total of 26 species belonging to the genus Simulium were collected, consisting of eight known species, one newly recorded species, and 17 new species (of which three species of the subgenus Nevermannia were described in 2014). The remaining 14 new species (nine of the subgenus Gomphostilbia and five of the subgenus Simulium) are described here based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The total number of species of black flies in Vietnam is now 46. Keys to identify all 26 species recorded from the two provinces of Vietnam are given for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.

  20. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp.

  1. Pharmacognostical evaluation of leaf of Bada Rasna [Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.; Acanthaceae].

    PubMed

    Acharya, Rabinarayan; Padiya, Riddhish H; Patel, Eisha D; Rudrapa, Harisha C; Shukla, Vinaya J; Chauhan, Malati G

    2012-04-01

    Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. (Acanthaceae), a well-known plant in traditional systems of medicine, known as "Bada Rasna" by the traditional practitioners of Odisha, is being used as Rasna for managing pain and inflammation. The detailed macroscopic and microscopic characters of the plant, except its root, are lacking. Hence, it was thought worth to study the leaves of the plant for its detailed morphological and microscopical characters, by following the standard pharmacognostical procedures. The study shows the presence of diacytic stomata in the lower epidermis of lamina, microsphenoidal and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in the mesophyll cells, simple and glandular trichomes. The observed major diagnostic characters of the leaf may find useful for its standardization.

  2. Biosystematic studies on Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal subsp. Axillare (Gentianaceae) in peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Shahina, P M; Nampy, Santhosh

    2014-05-01

    The pantropical genus Enicostema (Gentianaceae) has three species and two sub species world over, namely, E. verticillatum (L.) Engl. (America), E. elizabethae Veldkamp (Madagascar) and E. axillare having 3 subsp. viz., subsp. axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal (India), subsp. latilobum (N.E. Br.) A. Raynal (East Africa) and subsp. littorale (Blume) A. Raynal (Indonesia). The present study aims to delimit the Indian taxa based on field and herbarium studies. Comparative morphology is studied using live as well as consulting wide range of specimens housed at various herbaria. The anatomy of leaf, stem, and root is studied using free hand sections and from epidermal peelings. The seed and pollen morphology are studied under SEM. Information on anatomy, palynology and seed micromorphology of E. axillare subsp. axillare is provided for the first time.

  3. Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Burgos-Hernández, A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; López-Saiz, C M; Velázquez-Contreras, C A; Navarro-Ocaña, A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A

    2015-05-15

    The present focused on the study of the antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of pulp Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) extract, using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line M12.C3.F6 (murine B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Jackfruit pulp extract was sequentially fractionated by chromatography (RP-HPLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. The organic extracts obtained from Jackfruit pulp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and proliferation of cells M12.C3.F6; a dose-response relationship was showed. Sequential RP-HPLC fractionation of the active extracts produced both antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the Jackfruit contained compounds with chemoprotective properties to reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1, also proliferation of a cancer cell line.

  4. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. [Centaurea maculosa Lam

    SciTech Connect

    Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource maps. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation map of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration prediction technique shows promise for predicting suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  5. Chemotherapeutic potential of the volatile oils from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Saulo L; Figueiredo, Patrícia M S; Yano, Tomomasa

    2007-12-08

    In this work, the anti-tumor properties of the volatile oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves and some terpenes (alpha-humulene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene) were investigated in vitro and in vivo using the Ehrlich ascites tumor model. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice with 20 mg/kg of the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene for 4 days has significantly increased survival, whereas administration of alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were ineffective in affording protection. Volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene exhibited little direct activity against Ehrlich tumor cells in vitro, while alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene did not such activity. Investigation of the effects of the volatile oil (and terpenes) treatment on total natural killer cells (NK cell) activity from tumor-bearing mice as a possible mechanism of these compounds in vivo revealed that volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene significantly improved NK cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1, a Moloney virus-induced mouse T-cell lymphoma of A/SN origin and Ehrlich ascites cells. As expected, tumor growth in non-treated mice markedly suppressed NK cell cytolysis while the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene reversed this effect when mice were treated with 20-mg/kg dosages of these compounds for 4 days. Summing up, volatile oil exhibits anti-tumor efficacy and significative immunomodulatory action in vivo, which may be related to beta-caryophyllene associated to the synergism of other natural compounds presented in volatile oil from Z. rhoifolium Lam leaves.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOCONTROL POTENT OF STREPTOMYCES SP. ISOLATED FROM THE RHIZOSPHERE OF ONONIS ANGUSTISSIMA LAM.

    PubMed

    Ghadbane, M; Belhadj, H; Medjekal, S; Harzallah, D

    2015-01-01

    A total of 40 actinomycetes isolated from rhizosphere soils of Ononis angustissima Lam. were in vitro tested for their antagonism against deferent pathogenic microorganisms by streak assay. Among the isolates, four (21, 2A26, 1B10 and 2C34) present a potent antagonism against both pathogenic bacteria and fungi, they were selected, identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic properties, and tested for their antimicrobial activity as well as their biocontrol potential against Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) pathogenic fungus (Fusarium oxysporum). Cultural characteristic studies strongly suggested that these strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. The four Streptomyces sp., solubilize phosphate and produce extracellular fungal cell-wall degrading enzymes chitinase and protease, as well as a marked production of acid-β-indole acetic (AIA). The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces sp. strains 21, 2A26, 1B10 and 2C34 exhibited close similarity (62-75%) with Streptomyces parvulus MARS 16S rRNA genes. The inhibition was higher against fungi and Gram+ bacteria, while Gram- bacteria were less inhibited. The growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum was considerably inhibited in the presence of the strains 21, 2A26, 1B10 and 2C34 culture supernatant. These studies revealed that the presence of the Streptomyces strains in the soil significantly promoted the growth of the Chickpea plants. These results indicate that the Streptomyces strains isolated for rhizosphere from Ononis angustissima Lam. growing in arid conditions in southern Algeria (Sahara) could be an interesting source for antimicrobial bioactive substances and as biocontrol agents.

  7. The toxicity of extracts of plant parts of Moringa stenopetala in HEPG2 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Negussu; Houghton, Peter; Timbrell, John

    2005-10-01

    The cytotoxicity of extracts from a widely used species of plant, Moringa stenopetala, was assessed in HEPG2 cells, by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell viability. The functional integrity of extract-exposed cells was determined by measuring intracellular levels of ATP and glutathione (GSH). The ethanol extracts of leaves and seeds increased significantly (p < 0.01) LDH leakage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The water extract of leaves and the ethanol extract of the root did not increase LDH leakage. A highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in HEPG2 viability was found after incubating the cells with the highest concentration (500 microg/mL) of the ethanol leaf and seed extracts. At a concentration of 500 microg/mL, the water extract of leaves increased (p < 0.01), while the ethanol extract of the same plant part decreased (p < 0.01), ATP levels. The root and seed extracts had no significant effect on ATP levels. The ethanol leaf extract decreased GSH levels at a concentration of 500 microg/mL (p < 0.01), as did the ethanol extract of the seeds at 250 microg/mL and 500 microg/mL (p < 0.05). The water extract of the leaves did not alter GSH or LDH levels or affect cell viability, suggesting that it may be non-toxic, and is consistent with its use as a vegetable. The data obtained from the studies with the ethanol extract of the leaves and seeds from Moringa stenopetala show that they contain toxic substances that are extractable with organic solvents or are formed during the process of extraction with these solvents. The significant depletion of ATP and GSH only occurred at concentrations of extract that caused leakage of LDH. Further investigation with this plant in order to identify the constituents extracted and their individual toxic effects both in vivo and in vitro is warranted. This study also illustrates the utility of cell culture for screening plant extracts for potential toxicity.

  8. In vitro rescue of interspecific embryos from Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Angelo, Paula Cristina da Silva; Moraes, Larissa Alexandra Cardoso; Lopes, Ricardo; Sousa, Nelcimar Reis; da Cunha, Raimundo Nonato Vieira; Quisen, Regina Caetano

    2011-09-01

    The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most effective oil producer in tons per hectare. Nevertheless, its increasing cultivation in Latin America is harmed by the "lethal yellowing". Genetic resistance to this anomaly can be found in the germplasm of American oil palm or caiaué (E. oleifera), a native species from the Amazon rainforest. However, the procedures adopted to induce seeds of E. guineensis to germination frequently result mild for interespecific hybrids. Embryo in vitro cultivation can be a viable option. This work was aimed initially to test liquid MS medium supplemented with different glucose or sucrose concentrations for the in vitro cultivation of zygotic embryos from E. guineensis x E. oleifera controlled pollinations. Additionally we investigated different compost mixtures to acclimatize the regenerated hybrid plantlets. Concentrations of 10, 20 and 30g/L of both sugars were tested on flasks containing five mature zygotic embryos, with 15 repetitions per treatment in a total of 450 explants. The number of embryos displaying shoots and radicles at least 2mm in length per experimental unit was evaluated during phase one of in vitro cultivation. Plantlets displaying shoots and radicles were transferred to phase two of in vitro cultivation and subsequently to acclimatization, under 70% shading with manual water supply. The experiments of acclimatization were conducted with 130 plantlets randomly distributed in pure horticultural compost, 3:1 or 1:1 compost:sand mixtures and each plantlet was defined as an experimental unit. Data were submitted to ANOVA, t test and analyzes of correlation (p < or = 0.05). Highest emergence rates were 97% for shoots and 73% for radicles, observed in MS medium supplemented with 20g/L (110mM) of glucose. This sugar in concentrations of 20 or 30g/L provided balanced shoot/root development, and this was considered one of the reasons for the higher frequency of plantlet establishment. The survival percentage was 55

  9. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed.

  10. In Vitro Anticancer Activities of Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna Indian Plants.

    PubMed

    Diab, Kawthar A E; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Saxena, Ajit K

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro anti-proliferative potential of extracts from four Indian medicinal plants, namely Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna. Their cytotoxicity was tested in nine human cancer cell lines, including cancers of lung (A549), prostate (PC-3), breast (T47D and MCF-7), colon (HCT-16 and Colo-205) and leukemia (THP-1, HL-60 and K562) by using SRB and MTT assays. The findings showed that the selected plant extracts inhibited the cell proliferation of nine human cancer cell lines in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts inhibited cell viability of leukemia HL-60 and K562 cells by blocking G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, A. catechu extract at 100 μg/mL induced G2/M arrest in K562 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis displayed the appearance of a smear pattern of cell necrosis upon agarose gel electrophoresis after incubation of HL-60 cells with these extracts for 24 h.

  11. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon from Camellia oleifera shells with enhanced electrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Xu, Bibo; Zhu, Yun; Qing, Renpeng; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen doped porous activated carbon was prepared by annealing treatment of Camellia oleifera shell activated carbon under NH3. We found that nitrogen content of activated carbon up to 10.43 at.% when annealed in NH3 at 800 °C. At 600 °C or above, the N-doped carbon further reacts with NH3, leads to a low surface area down to 458 m(2)/g and low graphitization degree. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analysis indicated that the nitrogen functional groups on the nitrogen-doped activated carbons (NACs) were mostly in the form of pyridinic nitrogen. We discovered that the oxygen groups and carbon atoms at the defect and edge sites of graphene play an important role in the reaction, leading to nitrogen atoms incorporated into the lattice of carbon. When temperatures were lower than 600 °C the nitrogen atoms displaced oxygen groups and formed nitrogen function groups, and when temperatures were higher than 600 °C and ~4 at.% carbon atoms and part of oxygen function groups reacted with NH3. When compared to pure activated carbon, the nitrogen doped activated carbon shows nearly four times the capacitance (191 vs 51 F/g).

  12. An integrated process to produce ethanol, vanillin, and xylooligosaccharides from Camellia oleifera shell.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjun; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Faxian; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Yu, Shiyuan

    2013-12-15

    This study aims to present an integrated process that can be used to produce ethanol, vanillin, and xylooligosaccharides from Camellia oleifera shell. After the shell was pretreated with NaOH, two fractions were obtained: solid and liquid fractions. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed with cellulase and then fermented with Pichia stipitis to produce ethanol. The liquid fraction was subjected to oxidation to prepare vanillin or hydrolysis with xylanase to prepare xylooligosaccharides. The optimal pretreatment conditions of an orthogonal test were as follows: 12% NaOH concentration; 120°C; 150 min; and liquid-solid ratio of 10.0. After pretreatment, the solid fraction containing cellulose and a small part of xylan at 10% substance concentration via enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose-xylose cofermentation could obtain 17.35 g/L of ethanol, 80.90% of the theoretical yield. The liquid fraction was initially hydrolyzed with xylanase to produce 1758.63 mg/L of xylooligosaccharides (DP2-6) and then oxidized to produce 322.07 mg/L of vanillin.

  13. Two triterpenoid glycosides from the roots of Camellia oleifera and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Li, Xia; Liu, Yan-Li; Xu, Qiong-Ming; Li, Yun-Qiu; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Two new triterpenoid saponins, oleiferoside N and oleiferoside O, were isolated from the EtOH extract from the roots of Camellia oleifera C. Abel. Their structures were elucidated as 16α-acetoxy-21β,22α-O-diangeloyloxy-23,28-dihydroxyolean-12-ene 3β-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (1), 16α-acetoxy-21β-O-angeloyloxy-23,28-dihydroxy-22α-O-(2-methylbutanoyloxy)olean-12-ene 3β-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR) and acid hydrolysis. Both were characterized to be oleanane-type saponins with sugar moieties linked to C-3 of the aglycone. Cytotoxic activities of two saponins were evaluated against four human tumor cell lines (A549, B16, BEL-7402, and MCF-7) by using the MTT in vitro assay. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxic activities toward the tested cell lines.

  14. Beneficial effect of Berberis buxifolia Lam, Ziziphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba extracts on oxidative stress induced by chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Claudia; Pellarin, Gabriela; Rojas, María José; Albesa, Inés; Eraso, Alberto F

    2010-01-01

    The chemiluminescence of luminol, a measure of oxidative stress, increased immediately as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulated by this antibiotic. The effect of Ch was dose dependent with maximum stimulus at 8 mg/ml (Vmax); above this concentration the cells began to reduce the production of ROS. The oxidative injury of Ch was counteracted by water extracts of Berberis buxifolia lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba, indigenous fruits from Argentina. The relatively light units (RLU) emitted decreased immediately as a consequence of a protective effect exerted by the extracts of these fruit extracts on blood cells. The three indigenous fruit extracts reduced to a different extent the oxidative injury caused by Ch. B.buxifolia lam exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Z.mistol Griseb. Water extracts of both fruit extracts were the most effective against the oxidative stress, while P.alba presented better antioxidant capacity in the ethanolic fraction obtained. Hexane extracts showed low protective action on blood cells, with little reduction of area under curve (AUC) of RLU plotted versus time. Leukocytes remained viable in blood samples incubated for 3h with Ch and water extracts of B. buxifolia lam or Z. mistol Griseb (97.1% and 92.5% viability by Trypan blue exclusion, respectively); whereas with Ch only the cells were stressed and viability decreased to 30%. The three fruit extracts protected the viability of leukocytes in parallel with the decrease of ROS. Erythrocytes were not lysed in the presence of Ch.

  15. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metab...

  16. Diurnal observations on the behavioral ecology of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) and Muraena miliaris (Kaup) on a Caribbean coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, R. W.; Abrams, M. D.; Schein, M. W.

    1983-09-01

    Activities of muraenids, primarily Gymnothorax moringa and Muraena miliaris, were observed on a Caribbean coral reef with a view to further understanding their role in the reef ecosystem. Other muraenid species included in the total of 198 sightings were Echidna catenata, Enchelycore nigricans, and an unidentified brown moray. The five species were unequally distributed among three basic habitats (sand, coral head, reef rock) available on the reef. Nine particular holes accounted for 52.5% of the total sightings, although hundreds of other seemingly appropriate sites were available. The eels (except M. miliaris) were transient with respect to given holes and particular sections of the reef. While some G. moringa were sighted in the same holes for several consecutive days, M. miliaris individuals remained in the same coral heads throughout the 6-week study period. Muraenids observed in this study showed high tolerances for and were tolerated by other fishes (including other morays) and invertebrates on the reef. They appeared to be opportunistic, roving predators and were not strictly nocturnal. Distinct behavioral interactions and displays between muraenids and reef fish were observed.

  17. A new myrsinol-type diterpene polyester from Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yang, Jing; Chi, Yu-Qian; Ouyang, Wen-Bin; Zang, Zhen; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Cao, Pei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A new myrsinol-type diterpene polyester, 14-deoxo-3β-O-propinoyl-2α,5α,7β,15β-tetra-O-acetyl-14α-O-benzoyl-myrsinol (1), and its known analogue, 14-deoxo-3β-O-prorionyl-5α,15β-di-O-acetyl-7β-O-nicotinoyl-myrsinol-14β-acetate (2), together with a monoterpenoid, pubinernoid A (3), two indole alkaloids, neoechinulin A (4) and dihydroxyisoechinulin A (5), two benzene derivatives, siringin (6) and (3-methoxyphenyl) acetic acid (7), were isolated from the 70% acetone extract of the aerial parts of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with literature reports. The absolute configuration of 1 was deduced by comparing experimental and calculated ECD spectra. Among them, compounds 4 and 5 were first obtained from the plant source. In addition, the (13)C NMR data of compound 2 was reported for the first time.

  18. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Barioni, Eric Diego; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes de Paula; Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Wagner, Theodoro Marcel; Cogliati, Bruno; Corrêa dos Santos, Matheus; Machado, Marina da Silva; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Niero, Rivaldo; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli

    2013-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA-) stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity. PMID:23476704

  19. Gene Expression Rhythms in the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) across an Annual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Banni, Mohamed; Negri, Alessandro; Mignone, Flavio; Boussetta, Hamadi; Viarengo, Aldo; Dondero, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal environmental changes may affect the physiology of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.), an intertidal filter-feeder bivalve occurring commonly in Mediterranean and Atlantic coastal areas. We investigated seasonal variations in relative transcript abundance of the digestive gland and the mantle (gonads) of males and females. To identify gene expression trends – in terms of relative mRNA abundance- we used a medium-density cDNA microarray (1.7 K probes) in dual-color competitive hybridization analyses. Hierarchical clustering of digestive gland microarray data showed two main branches, distinguishing profiles associated with the “hot” months (May–August) from the other months. Genes involved in chitin metabolism, associated with mussel nutrition and digestion showed higher mRNA levels during summer. Moreover, we found different gene transcriptomic patterns in the digestive glands of males when compared to females, during the four stages of mussel gonadal development. Microarray data from gonadal transcripts also displayed clear patterns during the different developmental phases respect to the resting period (stage I) with peak relative mRNA abundance at the ripe phase (stage III) for both sexes. These data showed a clear temporal pattern in transcriptomic profiles of mussels sampled over an annual cycle. Physiological response to thermal variation, food availability, and reproductive status across months may contribute to variation in relative mRNA abundance. PMID:21573210

  20. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., "subabul" stem lignin: Isolation, structural characterization and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Yearla, Srinivasa Rao; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-06-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant renewable biopolymer on earth after cellulose. It is being used in many industrial applications due to its abundance. In the present study, lignin was isolated from the stems of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., a high biomass yielding plant using acidic dioxane under N2 atmosphere. Structural characterization of isolated dioxane lignin (DL) was performed by analytical techniques: UV, FT-IR, ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR. Their monolignol content was determined by nitrobenzene oxidation followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The data was compared with commercial alkali lignin (AL). The results showed that DL is of hardwood guaiacyl-syringyl (GS) type, whereas AL is softwood type with more guaiacyl units and trace amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of DL showed two stage thermal degradation profile similar to AL. The DTGmax for DL and AL were found in the second major loss event of second stage of TGA at 424°C and 404°C, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study exhibited the glass transition temperatures (Tg) at 132°C and 122°C for DL and AL, respectively. The results from thermal stability studies suggest that dioxane lignin isolated from the "miracle tree" (subabul) can be exploited in various thermoplastic industrial applications.

  1. Extraction and derivatization of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) galactomannan: Optimization and characterization.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Neeraj; Mattu, Pooja; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2016-11-01

    Water soluble gums also known as hydrocolloids are increasingly finding applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry due to their versatile functional properties. They possess considerable use in food and pharmaceutical industries as emulsifying, thickening and gelling agents. In the present investigation a heteropolysaccharide galactomannan was extracted from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) seeds by an aqueous method, characterized for its compositional analysis (mannose: galactose ratio), physicochemical and functional properties (solubility), and mechanical properties. The extracted gum was derivatized to form its carboxymethyl derivative and the method of its derivatization was optimized by varying the reaction parameters. The native and derivatized gum was characterized by FTIR, XRD, DSC, NMR, SEM and elemental analysis, etc. The yield of Leucaena leucocephala galactomannan (LLG) was found to be 20% (w/w). The optimized parameters for carboxymethylation reaction (degree of substitution 0.805) were found to be 6.0g NaOH, 10.0g MCA, at 60°C for 4h. The physicochemical and functional characteristics of native and derivatized gum suggest its potential role in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. A proteomic analysis of storage stress responses in Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. tuberous root.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yusong; Chen, Cheng; Tao, Xiang; Wang, Jianxi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2012-08-01

    During post-harvest storage, tuberous roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) usually undergo a biotic and abiotic stress influencing protein expression pattern and substance contents. This research compared the change of total proteins and carbohydrate content in tuberous roots of sweet potato during the storage period. The result of the two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there were 25 differentially expressed proteins between day 0 and day 75 during the storage. Among these proteins, 11 proteins were down-regulated and the other 14 were up-regulated. The results from MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analyses and mascot database searching showed that 11 of the 25 differentially expressed proteins were identified as store-stress regulated proteins. It was also found that the proteins involved in the energy metabolism and the stress-response were drastically up-regulated, whereas those in biomacromolecule synthesis were markedly down-regulated. Meanwhile, under the experimental conditions, the content of the starch and the cellulose was decreased by more than a quarter and the amylase activity was increased moderately.

  3. The Effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. Extracts on In Vitro Dengue Replication

    PubMed Central

    Husin, Fitrien; Chan, Yean Yean; Gan, Siew Hua; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Shueb, Rafidah Hanim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the potential effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. (H. sibthorpioides) extracts against in vitro dengue viral replication. Methods. The cytotoxicity of H. sibthorpioides was evaluated using a cell viability assay. Cells were pre- and posttreated with water and methanol extracts of H. sibthorpioides, and the viral inhibitory effect was investigated by observing the morphological changes, which were further confirmed by plaque assay. Results. The methanolic extract cytotoxicity was higher in Vero and C6/36 cells than the cytotoxicity of the water extract. Preincubation of the cells with H. sibthorpioides extract showed nonexistent to mild prophylactic effects. The posttreatment of Vero cells with H. sibthorpioides methanolic extract presented higher antidengue activities when compared with the water extract. Surprisingly, posttreatment of C6/36 cells resulted in an enhancement of viral replication. Conclusion. H. sibthorpioides had variable effects on dengue viral replication, depending on the treatment, cell lines, and solvent types. This study provides important novel insights on the phytomedicinal properties of H. sibthorpioides extracts on dengue virus. PMID:25767554

  4. Volatiles of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi Leaves Influencing Attraction of Two Generalist Insect Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Nupur; Karmakar, Amarnath; Barik, Anandamay

    2016-10-01

    Epilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are important pests of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as creeping cucumber. The profiles of volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 48 hr continuous feeding of adult females of either E. vigintioctopunctata or A. foveicollis, by adults of both species, and after mechanical damaging were identified and quantified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Thirty two compounds were detected in volatiles of all treatments. In all plants, methyl jasmonate was the major compound. In Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays under laboratory conditions, both insect species showed a significant preference for complete volatile blends from insect damaged plants, compared to those of undamaged plants. Neither E. vigintioctopunctata nor A. foveicollis showed any preference for volatiles released by heterospecifically damaged plants vs. conspecifically damaged plants or plants attacked by both species. Epilachna vigintioctopunctata and A. foveicollis showed attraction to three different synthetic compounds, linalool oxide, nonanal, and E-2-nonenal in proportions present in volatiles of insect damaged plants. Both species were attracted by a synthetic blend of 1.64 μg linalool oxide + 3.86 μg nonanal + 2.23 μg E-2-nonenal, dissolved in 20 μl methylene chloride. This combination might be used as trapping tools in pest management strategies.

  5. Antifilarial activity of Mallotus philippensis Lam. on Setaria cervie (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Singhal, K C; Khan, N U

    1997-10-01

    The effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. was studied on the spontaneous movements of the whole worm and nerve-muscle (n.m.) preparation of Setaria cervi and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro. Both the extracts caused inhibition of spontaneous motility of whole worm and the n.m. preparation of S. Cervi characterized by initial stimulation followed by depression in amplitude. The tone and rate of contractions remained visibly unaffected. Aqueous extract at higher concentration showed immediate reduction in tone. The concentration required to inhibit the movements of n.m. preparation was 1/5th for aqueous and 1/11th for alcoholic extract compared to that for the whole worm, suggesting a cuticular permeability barrier. The stimulatory response of acetylcholine was blocked by aqueous extract on whole worm movements. On the microfilariae the LC50 and LC90 were 18 and 20 ng/ml for aqueous and 12 and 15 ng/ml for alcoholic extracts respectively.

  6. Hexane soluble extract of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. root possesses anti-leukaemic activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. is a well known medicinal plant of Asia and Australia. Various compounds from different aerial parts of the plant have been reported possessing potent pharmacological, antiviral, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. We were interested to determine the effects of some root extracts from M. philippensis on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell proliferation, cell cycle regulators and apoptosis in order to investigate its anti-leukemic potential. Results Root extract of M. philippensis was initially extracted in organic solvents, hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The hexane extract showed highest toxicity against p53-deficient HL-60 cells (IC50 1.5 mg dry roots equivalent/ml medium) after 72 h and interestingly, inhibition of cell proliferation was preceded by the upregulation of the proto-oncogenes Cdc25A and cyclin D1 within 24 h. The hexane extract induced 18% apoptosis after 48 h of treatment. Chemical composition of the hexane extract was analyzed by GC-MS and the 90% fragments were matched with polyphenolic compounds. Conclusions The present study confirms that the hexane fraction of M. philippensis root extract possesses anti-leukemic activity in HL-60 cells. The polyphenols were the main compounds of the hexane extract that inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. PMID:24041220

  7. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

  8. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

    PubMed

    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit.

  9. QTL analysis of lodging resistance and related traits in Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.).

    PubMed

    Inoue, Maiko; Gao, Zhensheng; Cai, Hongwei

    2004-11-01

    Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) is the most widely cultivated annual forage grass in Japan. Lodging damage reduces both harvested yield and forage quality. To identify the chromosomal regions controlling lodging resistance in Italian ryegrass, we analyzed seven quantitative characters--heading date, plant height, culm weight, culm diameter, culm strength, tiller number, and culm pushing resistance--and evaluated lodging scores in the field in a two-way pseudo-testcross F1 population. Significant correlations between most combinations of the traits examined were found. Seventeen QTLs for all traits except culm weight were detected on six of seven linkage groups by simple interval mapping using cross-pollination (CP) algorithm, and 33 independent QTLs were also detected by composite interval mapping from both male and female parental linkage maps. In addition, up to 18 QTLs for lodging scores evaluated at nine different times were detected on all linkage groups. The flanking markers of those QTLs will serve as a useful tool for marker-assisted selection of lodging resistance in Italian ryegrass.

  10. Khellin and Visnagin, Furanochromones from Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam., as Potential Bioherbicides.

    PubMed

    Travaini, Maria L; Sosa, Gustavo M; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A; Walter, Helmut; Cantrell, Charles L; Carrillo, Nestor J; Dayan, Franck E; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-12-21

    Plants constitute a source of novel phytotoxic compounds to be explored in searching for effective and environmentally safe herbicides. From a previous screening of plant extracts for their phytotoxicity, a dichloromethane extract of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. was selected for further study. Phytotoxicity-guided fractionation of this extract yielded two furanochromones, khellin and visnagin, for which herbicidal activity had not been described before. Khellin and visnagin were phytotoxic to model species lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and duckweed (Lemna paucicostata), with IC50 values ranging from 110 to 175 μM. These compounds also inhibited the growth and germination of a diverse group of weeds at 0.5 and 1 mM. These weeds included five grasses [ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyardgrass (Echinocloa crus-galli), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), foxtail (Setaria italica), and millet (Panicum sp.)] and two broadleaf species [morningglory (Ipomea sp.) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti)]. During greenhouse studies visnagin was the most active and showed significant contact postemergence herbicidal activity on velvetleaf and crabgrass at 2 kg active ingredient (ai) ha(-1). Moreover, its effect at 4 kg ai ha(-1) was comparable to the bioherbicide pelargonic acid at the same rate. The mode of action of khellin and visnagin was not a light-dependent process. Both compounds caused membrane destabilization, photosynthetic efficiency reduction, inhibition of cell division, and cell death. These results support the potential of visnagin and, possibly, khellin as bioherbicides or lead molecules for the development of new herbicides.

  11. Disentangling the Origins of Cultivated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  12. Parents’ perceived treatment match and treatment retention over 12 months among youth in the LAMS study

    PubMed Central

    Young, Andrea S.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Fristad, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of these analyses was to describe the 12-month prevalence and identify predictors of mental health services retention for youth, ages 6–12 years, using data from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study. Methods In a longitudinal cohort study, 416 children and their parents completed measures of mental health services use and parents’ perception of the services and semi-structured psychodiagnostic interviews at a baseline and 12-month assessment. Logistic regression analyses examined the effects of demographic and clinical variables and parents’ perception of how well their children’s treatment matched their needs on 12-month treatment retention. Results Sixty-nine percent of youth (n=289) continued to use services at 12 months. White race (p<.001) and greater functional impairment (p=.024) were associated with treatment retention; greater perceived treatment match at baseline significantly predicted retention above and beyond the effects of sociodemographic and clinical variables (p=.001). Conclusions White race and parents’ perceptions about appropriateness of treatment predict 12-month treatment retention. PMID:26522675

  13. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    PubMed Central

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  14. Physicochemical properties and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. pulp.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kexue; Zhang, Yanjun; Nie, Shaoping; Xu, Fei; He, Shuzhen; Gong, Deming; Wu, Gang; Tan, Lehe

    2017-01-02

    A water-soluble polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) pulp (JFP-Ps) was purified and its physicochemical properties were investigated. The in vitro antioxidant activities of JFP-Ps was evaluated by measuring DPPH and OH radicals scavenging activities, as well as reducing power. The results showed that JFP-Ps contained 79.12% of total sugar, 5.83% of protein, 15.65% of uronic acid, and 15 kinds of amino acids with high levels of Asp, Glu, Val, Leu and Lys. JFP-Ps was mainly composed of Rha, Ara, Gal, Glc, Xyl and GalA, with an average molecular weight of 1668kDa. FT-IR results showed the bands at the range of 1200-850cm(-1) suggested the presence of carbohydrates in JFP-Ps. The results of antioxidant activities showed that JFP-Ps exhibited strong DPPH and OH radical scavenging activities, with a relatively lower reducing power, suggesting that JFP-Ps can be exploited as effective natural antioxidant applications in medical and food industries.

  15. Evaluation of genetic diversity in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Shyamalamma, S; Chandra, S B C; Hegde, M; Naryanswamy, P

    2008-07-22

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly called jackfruit, is a medium-sized evergreen tree that bears high yields of the largest known edible fruit. Yet, it has been little explored commercially due to wide variation in fruit quality. The genetic diversity and genetic relatedness of 50 jackfruit accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Of 16 primer pairs evaluated, eight were selected for screening of genotypes based on the number and quality of polymorphic fragments produced. These primer combinations produced 5976 bands, 1267 (22%) of which were polymorphic. Among the jackfruit accessions, the similarity coefficient ranged from 0.137 to 0.978; the accessions also shared a large number of monomorphic fragments (78%). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis grouped all jackfruit genotypes into three major clusters. Cluster I included the genotypes grown in a jackfruit region of Karnataka, called Tamaka, with very dry conditions; cluster II contained the genotypes collected from locations having medium to heavy rainfall in Karnataka; cluster III grouped the genotypes in distant locations with different environmental conditions. Strong coincidence of these amplified fragment length polymorphism-based groupings with geographical localities as well as morphological characters was observed. We found moderate genetic diversity in these jackfruit accessions. This information should be useful for tree breeding programs, as part of our effort to popularize jackfruit as a commercial crop.

  16. Semi-viviparous embryo development and dehydrin expression in the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Flora AbdulRahman; Nitsch, Lisette M. C.; Wolters-Arts, Mieke M. C.; Derksen, Jan W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Rhizophora mucronata Lam. is a tropical mangrove with semi-viviparous (cotyledon body protrusion before shedding), non-quiescent and non-desiccating (recalcitrant) seeds. As recalcitrance has been thought to relate to the absence of desiccation-related proteins such as dehydrins, we for the first time systematically described and classified embryogenesis in R. mucronata and assessed the presence of dehydrin-like proteins. Embryogenesis largely follows the classic pattern till stage eight, the torpedo stage, with the formation of a cotyledonary body. Ovule and embryo express radical adaptations to semi-vivipary in the saline environment: (1) A large, highly vacuolated and persistent endosperm without noticeable food reserves that envelopes the developing embryo. (2) Absence of vascular tissue connections between embryo and maternal tissue, but, instead, transfer layers in between endosperm and integument and endosperm and embryo. Dehydrin-like proteins (55–65 kDa) were detected by the Western analysis, in the ovules till stage 10 when the integuments are dehisced. An additional 50 kDa band was detected at stages 6–8. Together these results suggest a continuous flow of water with nutrients from the integument via the endosperm to the embryo, circumventing the vascular route and probably suppressing the initially induced dehydrin expression. PMID:20084524

  17. The mixed problem for the Lamé system in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, K. A.; Brown, R. M.

    We consider the mixed problem for L the Lamé system of elasticity in a bounded Lipschitz domain Ω⊂R2. We suppose that the boundary is written as the union of two disjoint sets, ∂Ω=D∪N. We take traction data from the space Lp(N) and Dirichlet data from a Sobolev space W(D) and look for a solution u of Lu=0 with the given boundary conditions. In our main result, we find a scale-invariant condition on D and an exponent p0>1 so that for 1

  18. Nanoencapsulation of the sasanquasaponin from Camellia oleifera, its photo responsiveness and neuroprotective effects

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yong; Xing, Haiting; Li, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Sasanquasaponin, a bioactive compound isolated from seeds of Camellia oleifera, shows central effects in our previous research. In order to investigate its neuroprotective effects, a new kind of nanocapsule with photo responsiveness was designed to deliver sasanquasaponin into the brain and adjusted by red light. The nanocapsule was prepared using sasanquasaponin emulsified with soybean lecithin and cholesterol solution. The natural phaeophorbide from silkworm excrement as a photosensitizer was added in the lipid phase to make the nanocapsules photo responsive. The physicochemical properties of encapsulation efficiency, size distribution, morphology and stability were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Photo responsiveness was determined by the sasanquasaponin release in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer under the laser at 670 nm. The neuroprotective effects were evaluated by the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), decrease of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in the brain, and amelioration of kainic acid-induced behavioral disorder in mice. The nanocapsules had higher encapsulation efficiency and stability when the phaeophorbide content was 2% of lecithin weight. The average size was 172.2 nm, distributed in the range of 142–220 nm. The phaeophorbide was scattered sufficiently in the outer lecithin layer of the nanocapsules and increased the drug release after irradiation. TH expression in brain tissues and locomotive activities in mice were reduced by kainic acid, but could be improved by the sasanquasaponin nanocapsules after tail vein injection with 15 minutes of irradiation at the nasal cavity. The sasanquasaponin took effect through inflammatory alleviation in central tissues. The sasanquasaponin nanocapsules with phaeophorbide have photo responsiveness and neuroprotective effects under the irradiation of red light. This

  19. Nanoencapsulation of the sasanquasaponin from Camellia oleifera, its photo responsiveness and neuroprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong; Xing, Haiting; Li, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Sasanquasaponin, a bioactive compound isolated from seeds of Camellia oleifera, shows central effects in our previous research. In order to investigate its neuroprotective effects, a new kind of nanocapsule with photo responsiveness was designed to deliver sasanquasaponin into the brain and adjusted by red light. The nanocapsule was prepared using sasanquasaponin emulsified with soybean lecithin and cholesterol solution. The natural phaeophorbide from silkworm excrement as a photosensitizer was added in the lipid phase to make the nanocapsules photo responsive. The physicochemical properties of encapsulation efficiency, size distribution, morphology and stability were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Photo responsiveness was determined by the sasanquasaponin release in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer under the laser at 670 nm. The neuroprotective effects were evaluated by the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), decrease of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in the brain, and amelioration of kainic acid-induced behavioral disorder in mice. The nanocapsules had higher encapsulation efficiency and stability when the phaeophorbide content was 2% of lecithin weight. The average size was 172.2 nm, distributed in the range of 142-220 nm. The phaeophorbide was scattered sufficiently in the outer lecithin layer of the nanocapsules and increased the drug release after irradiation. TH expression in brain tissues and locomotive activities in mice were reduced by kainic acid, but could be improved by the sasanquasaponin nanocapsules after tail vein injection with 15 minutes of irradiation at the nasal cavity. The sasanquasaponin took effect through inflammatory alleviation in central tissues. The sasanquasaponin nanocapsules with phaeophorbide have photo responsiveness and neuroprotective effects under the irradiation of red light. This

  20. Triacylglyceride, antioxidant and antimicrobial features of virgin Camellia oleifera, C. reticulata and C. sasanqua Oils.

    PubMed

    Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M; Salinero, Carmen; Vela, Pilar; Sainz, María J; Vázquez-Tato, María Pilar; Seijas, Julio A

    2013-04-18

    Virgin oils obtained from seeds of Camellia oleifera (CO), Camellia reticulata (CR) and Camellia sasanqua (CS) were studied for their triacylglyceride composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Levels of fatty acids determined by ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were similar to those reported for olive oils (82.30%-84.47%; 5.69%-7.78%; 0.26%-0.41% and 8.04%-11.2%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated acids, respectively). The CR oil showed the best antioxidant potential in the three in vitro models tested. With regard to EC₅₀ values (µg/mL), the order in DPPH radical-scavenging was CR (33.48) < CO (35.20) < CS (54.87). Effectiveness in reducing power was CR (2.81) < CO (3.09) < CS (5.32). IC₅₀ for LPO inhibition were 0.37, 0.52 and 0.75 µg/mL for CR, CO and CS, respectively. All the oils showed antimicrobial activity, and exhibited different selectivity and MICs for each microorganism tested (E. coli, B. cereus and C. albicans). B. cereus was the less sensitive species (MIC: 52.083 ± 18.042 for CO; 41.667 ± 18.042 for CR; 104.167 ± 36.084 for CS mg/mL) and the E. coli was the most sensitive to camellia oil's effect. The standard gentamicin presented higher MIC for E. coli (4.2) than the CR (MIC= 2.6) and CO (MIC = 3.9) oils.

  1. Incremental Yield of Including Determine-TB LAM Assay in Diagnostic Algorithms for Hospitalized and Ambulatory HIV-Positive Patients in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ferlazzo, Gabriella; Bevilacqua, Paolo; Kirubi, Beatrice; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Wanjala, Stephen; Sitienei, Joseph; Bonnet, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    Background Determine-TB LAM assay is a urine point-of-care test useful for TB diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. We assessed the incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM to algorithms based on clinical signs, sputum smear-microscopy, chest X-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with symptoms of pulmonary TB (PTB). Methods Prospective observational cohort of ambulatory (either severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl or with Body Mass Index<17Kg/m2) and hospitalized symptomatic HIV-positive adults in Kenya. Incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM was the difference in the proportion of confirmed TB patients (positive Xpert or MTB culture) diagnosed by the algorithm with LAM compared to the algorithm without LAM. The multivariable mortality model was adjusted for age, sex, clinical severity, BMI, CD4, ART initiation, LAM result and TB confirmation. Results Among 474 patients included, 44.1% were severely ill, 69.6% had CD4<200cells/μl, 59.9% had initiated ART, 23.2% could not produce sputum. LAM, smear-microscopy, Xpert and culture in sputum were positive in 39.0% (185/474), 21.6% (76/352), 29.1% (102/350) and 39.7% (92/232) of the patients tested, respectively. Of 156 patients with confirmed TB, 65.4% were LAM positive. Of those classified as non-TB, 84.0% were LAM negative. Adding LAM increased the diagnostic yield of the algorithms by 36.6%, from 47.4% (95%CI:39.4–55.6) to 84.0% (95%CI:77.3–89.4%), when using clinical signs and X-ray; by 19.9%, from 62.2% (95%CI:54.1–69.8) to 82.1% (95%CI:75.1–87.7), when using clinical signs and microscopy; and by 13.4%, from 74.4% (95%CI:66.8–81.0) to 87.8% (95%CI:81.6–92.5), when using clinical signs and Xpert. LAM positive patients had an increased risk of 2-months mortality (aOR:2.7; 95%CI:1.5–4.9). Conclusion LAM should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms in parallel to microscopy or Xpert request for HIV-positive patients either ambulatory (severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl) or hospitalized. LAM

  2. Folding studies of Purified LamB Protein, the Maltoporin from the Escherichia coli Outer Membrane: Trimer Dissociation can be separated from Unfolding

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Valerie; Bhatia, Mandeep; Luckey, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The folding mechanisms for β-barrel membrane proteins present unique challenges because acquisition of both secondary and tertiary structure is coupled with insertion into the bilayer. For the porins in Escherichia coli outer membrane, the assembly pathway also includes association into homotrimers. We study the folding pathway for purified LamB protein in detergent and observe extreme hysteresis in unfolding and refolding, as indicated by the shift in intrinsic fluorescence. The strong hysteresis is not seen in unfolding and refolding a mutant LamB protein lacking the disulfide bond, as it unfolds at much lower denaturant concentrations than wild type LamB protein. The disulfide bond is proposed to stabilize the structure of LamB protein by clasping together the two sides of Loop 1 as it lines the inner cavity of the barrel. In addition we find that low pH promotes dissociation of the LamB trimer to folded monomers, which run at about one third the size of the native trimer during SDS PAGE and are much more resistant to trypsin than the unfolded protein. We postulate the loss at low pH of two salt bridges between Loop 2 of the neighboring subunit and the inner wall of the monomer barrel destabilizes the quaternary structure. PMID:21640073

  3. Investigation on the influence of foreign metal ions in crystal growth and characterization of L-Alaninium Maleate (LAM) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Ruby Nirmala, L; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

    2013-11-01

    A Nonlinear Optical, good quality, single crystals of doped and undoped l-Alaninium Maleate (LAM) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The lattice parameters were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The identification of Cadmium ion in the doped crystals was done using the EDAX spectrum. The presence of functional group of the dopant with LAM molecule was studied using FTIR spectra. The results of UV-Vis study is used to compare the transparencies of the doped and undoped LAM crystals. The optical band gap energy of the grown crystal was also calculated. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurement with KDP reference is used to find the incorporation of metal to l-Alaninium Maleate crystals and the parent material. Also the thermal stability of the grown crystals was studied by TGA/DTA spectrum. The mechanical stability of the grown crystals was confirmed through Vickers micro hardness study. By parallel plate capacitor technique, the dielectric response was studied over a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures. The various studies showed the incorporation of the impurity Cd(2+) into LAM crystals and the investigations indicated that the impurity played an important role in the changes of the spectral and structural properties of LAM crystals.

  4. Folding studies of purified LamB protein, the maltoporin from the Escherichia coli outer membrane: trimer dissociation can be separated from unfolding.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Valerie; Bhatia, Mandeep; Luckey, Mary

    2011-09-01

    The folding mechanisms for β-barrel membrane proteins present unique challenges because acquisition of both secondary and tertiary structure is coupled with insertion into the bilayer. For the porins in Escherichia coli outer membrane, the assembly pathway also includes association into homotrimers. We study the folding pathway for purified LamB protein in detergent and observe extreme hysteresis in unfolding and refolding, as indicated by the shift in intrinsic fluorescence. The strong hysteresis is not seen in unfolding and refolding a mutant LamB protein lacking the disulfide bond, as it unfolds at much lower denaturant concentrations than wild type LamB protein. The disulfide bond is proposed to stabilize the structure of LamB protein by clasping together the two sides of Loop 1 as it lines the inner cavity of the barrel. In addition we find that low pH promotes dissociation of the LamB trimer to folded monomers, which run at about one third the size of the native trimer during SDS PAGE and are much more resistant to trypsin than the unfolded protein. We postulate the loss at low pH of two salt bridges between Loop 2 of the neighboring subunit and the inner wall of the monomer barrel destabilizes the quaternary structure.

  5. Lamé parameters of common rocks in the Earth's crust and upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shaocheng; Sun, Shengsi; Wang, Qian; Marcotte, Denis

    2010-06-01

    Lamé parameter (λ) and shear modulus (μ) are the most important, intrinsic, elastic properties of rocks. The Lamé parameter λ, which relates stresses and strains in perpendicular directions, is closely related to the incompressibility and contains a high proportion of information about the resistance to a change in volume caused by a change in pressure. Recent studies have emphasized the roles played by λ in the discrimination of gas sands from carbonates and shale in sedimentary basins and in the seismic reflection of crustal fault zones. Here we analyze the equivalent isotropic elastic data of 475 natural rocks in order to characterize λ values for common types of crystalline rocks in the Earth's crust and upper mantle and their variations with pressure (P), temperature (T), and mineralogical composition. When no partial melting, metamorphic reaction, dehydration, or phase transformation occurs, λ of a crystalline rock as a function of P and T can be described by λ = a + (dλ/dP)P - c exp(- kP) - (dλ/dT)T, where a is the projected λ value at zero pressure if microcracks were fully closed; dλ/dP is the pressure derivative in the linear elastic regime; c is the initial λ drop caused by the presence of microcracks at zero pressure; k is a decay constant of the λ drop in the nonlinear poroelastic regime; and dλ/dT is the temperature derivative. The parameter λ increases nonlinearly and linearly with increasing pressure at low (<˜300 MPa) and high (>˜300 MPa) pressures, respectively. In the regime of high pressures, λ decreases quasi-linearly with increasing temperature with dλ/dT values in the range of 1-10 × 10-3 GPa/°C. Approaching the α-β quartz transition temperature, quartzite displays negative λ values. In the λ-ρ (density) and μ-λ plots, the main categories of lithology can be clearly distinguished. The ultramafic rocks display systematic decreases in both μ and λ with increasing the degree of serpentinization. Eclogites, mafic

  6. Analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the extract of Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Bhuyan, Shakhawat Hossan; Matin, Maima; Hossain, Faruq; Khatun, Farjana; Taiab, Abu; Jamaluddin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the ethanol extract of leaves of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Family: Solanaceae). Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition test. The neuropharmacological activities were evaluated using hole cross, hole board, and elevated plus-maze test and the anti-diarrheal activity was assessed using castor oil-induced diarrhea inhibition method. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was carried out for assessing the cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of the leaves. Except cytotoxic activity, all the tests were conducted on mice. Results: The extract at oral doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight showed highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in number of writhing, 52.1±0.66 and 4.4±0.64 compared with the control (78.6±0.29) with the percentage of inhibitions of writhing response were found to be 33.72% and 94.40%, respectively. Compare with the control, the extract at both doses showed significant sedative effect in hole cross test. In hole board test, the extract exhibited highly significant (p<0.001) anxiolytic activity at dose of (200 mg/kg), while the same activity was observed at dose of 400 mg/kg in elevated plus-maze test. The extract showed highly significant (p<0.001) anti-diarrheal activity in a dose-dependent manner. With the extract, significant lethality to brine shrimp was found with LC50 value of 61.66±0.9 μg/ml, which was comparable with the positive control (LC50: 11.89±0.8 µg/ml). Conclusion: The results from the present studies support the traditional uses of this plant part and could form the basis of further investigation including compound isolation. PMID:25050287

  7. Physiological and proteomic characterization of salt tolerance in a mangrove plant, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lam.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Chen, Juan; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2012-11-01

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress that is responsible for growth reduction in most higher plants. Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lam., a mangrove plant, is a halophyte and is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. Physiological and proteomic characteristics of B. gymnorrhiza were investigated under three NaCl concentrations (0, 200 and 500 mM) in this study. Maximum seedling growth occurred at 200 mM NaCl. Leaf osmotic potential was more negative as salt levels increased further. Physiological results revealed that inorganic ions (especially Na(+) and Cl(-)) played a key role in osmotic adjustment of B. gymnorrhiza leaves under salinity treatments. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 23 salt-responsive proteins in B. gymnorrhiza leaves, which were differentially expressed under salt treatment compared with control. Ten protein spots were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, leading to identification of proteins involved in photosynthesis, antioxidation, protein folding, cell organization and metabolism. Salt-responsive mechanism was different between 200 and 500 mM NaCl-treated plants on the basis of the physiological and proteomic analyses. Salt tolerance under 200 mM NaCl treatment was due to effective osmotic adjustment, accumulation of inorganic ions (especially Na(+) and Cl(-)) as well as increased expression of photosynthesis-related proteins and antioxidant enzymes, which improved the salt tolerance of B. gymnorrhiza, and furthermore promoted plant growth. On the other hand, 500 mM NaCl reduced the growth of B. gymnorrhiza, which appears to have been caused by the accumulation of NaCl (ionic effect) and energy consumption by organic solute synthesis. Moreover, the repressed expression of photosynthesis-related proteins and antioxidant enzymes led to the reduction of growth. Protein folding and degradation-related proteins and cell organization-related protein were up-regulated and played important roles in salt tolerance of B

  8. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons by using a freshwater fern species Azolla filiculoides Lam.

    PubMed

    Kösesakal, Taylan; Ünal, Muammer; Kulen, Oktay; Memon, Abdülrezzak; Yüksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phytoremediation capacity of Azolla filiculoides Lam. for the water resources contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated. The plants were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% crude oil under greenhouse conditions for 15 days. Although the growth rate of the plants were not negatively influenced by the presence of crude oil in the media for the concentration of 0.005% and 0.01% v/v, a gradual impeding effect of crude oil in the growth media has been observed at concentrations 0.05-0.1%. More than 0.1% crude oil in the growth medium ostensibly retarded the growth. For example, 0.2% oil in the media reduced growth approximately 50% relative to the control, and the presence of crude oil at concentrations 0.3% or more were lethal. The data about the percentage of plant growth, fresh weight increase and root growth clearly indicated that the tolerance level of A. filiculoides plants to crude oil ranges between 0.1% and 0.2%. In comparison to control samples, the biodegradation rate of total aliphatic and aromatic (phenathrene) hydrocarbons at 0.05-0.2% oil concentrations, was 94-73% and 81-77%, respectively. On the other hand, in case of further increases in oil concentration in media, i.e.; 0.3-0.5%, the biodegradation rate was still higher in the experimental samples, respectively 71-63% and 75-71%. The high biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in the experimental samples suggested that A. filiculoides plants could be a promising candidate to be used for the phytoremediation of low crude oil contaminated precious freshwater resources.

  9. In vitro antibacterial potency of Butea monosperma Lam. against 12 clinically isolated multidrug resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Mahesh Chandra; Padhy, Rabindra Nath

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity, using cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water to validate medicinal uses of Butea monosperma Lam (B. monosperma) in controlling infections; and to qualitatively estimate phytochemical constituents of leaf-extracts of the plant. Methods The antibacterial activity of leaf-extracts was evaluated by the agar-well diffusion method against clinically isolated 12 Gram-positive and -negative multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of leaf-extracts against each bacterium were obtained in a 96-well micro-titre plate, by broth dilution micro-titre plate technique. Results The presence of tannins, flavonoids, starch, glycosides and carbohydrates in different leaf extracts was established. Pathogenic bacteria used were, Acinetobacter sp., Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp., Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin resistant S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus, along with standard bacterial strains. These MDR bacteria had been recorded to have significant inhibitions by leaf extracts, obtained by cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents. In addition, the hot aqueous extract against Enterococcus sp. had the highest inhibition zone-size (21 mm). Ciprofloxacin 30 µg/disc was the positive/reference control and the diluting solvent, 10% dimethyl sulphoxide was the negative control. Recorded MIC values of different extracts ranged between 0.23 and 13.30 mg/mL, and MBC values were 0.52 to 30.00 mg/mL, for these bacteria. Conclusions Leaf-extracts with hot water and ethanol had shown significant antibacterial activity against all bacteria. B. monosperma leaf-extract could be used in treating infectious

  10. Quality improvement of sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) roots as feed by ensilage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y H; Huang, T C; Huang, C

    1988-07-01

    1. Sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) strips (SPS) mixed with maize powder (CP) in proportions 10:0, 9:1, 8:2, and 7:3 were ensiled for 1, 2 or 3 months. 2. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) decreased during ensilage in samples of all treatments while the SPS-CP mixture (7:3, w/w) ensiled for 3 months contained the lowest TIA. 3. SPS-CP (8:2, w/w) dried or ensiled for 2 months, or ensiled for 2 months and dried, were each mixed with twice the amount of control diet (1:2, w/w) to make three diets. These three diets together with the control diet were used for a feeding experiment with rats to evaluate the nutritive value. 4. General composition analysis (including metabolizable energy), fatty acid composition and amino acid analysis (including percentage of essential amino acids) of the samples did not change during ensilage to an extent which could explain the improved performance of rats fed on ensiled diets. 5. Rats fed on diets containing dried SPS-CP (8:2, w/w) showed significantly lower (P less than 0.05) body-weight gain than rats fed on the control diet or ensiled SPS diets, at the end of the 8th week. They also showed enlargement of the pancreas. The adverse effect of SPS was associated with TIA which seemed to be prevented to some extent by ensilage. 6. The possibility that the starch of SPS may also contribute to the adverse effect cannot be excluded at present.

  11. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

    2009-09-09

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs.

  12. Stability of Jahn-Teller distortion ordering in LaM n1 -xS cxO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuartero, V.; Blasco, J.; Subías, G.; García, J.; Meneghini, C.; Aquilanti, G.

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the role of M n3 + Jahn-Teller distortion in driving ferromagnetism in the LaM n1 -xS cxO3 series. The replacement of Mn by Sc in LaMn O3 decreases the orthorhombic distortion of the Pbnm cell, but the unit cell remains distorted even in the LaSc O3 sample. The analysis of the x-ray diffraction patterns indicates a continuous evolution from the typical Jahn-Teller distorted octahedron in LaMn O3 into a nearly regular one in LaSc O3 . Surprisingly, x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at the Mn and Sc K edges reveal the stability of both Jahn-Teller distorted Mn O6 octahedron and nearly regular Sc O6 octahedron along the whole Sc-substituted series. Moreover, the structure is described as a random distribution of Jahn-Teller distorted Mn O6 octahedra spatially ordered as in LaMn O3 and nearly regular Sc O6 octahedra. This result contrasts with the pseudocubic phase and the appearance of regular Mn O6 octahedra in LaM n1 -xG axO3 for x >0.5 . Thus the occurrence of Jahn-Teller distortion strongly depends on the distorted orthorhombic crystallographic structure of the matrix in which the M n3 + atom is allocated. Besides, a ferromagnetic ground state is observed for x >0.5 in both series independently of the presence (or not) of Jahn-Teller distortions around M n3 + , which discards either the spin flipping or the vibronic superexchange models proposed for the ferromagnetism in LaM n1 -xBxO3 (B =Sc or Ga) .

  13. Oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomšić, Sanja; Stanković, Suzana; Lucu, Čedomil

    2011-09-01

    Changes in oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity during early development were studied in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam. The oxygen consumption rate increased from 0.12 μmol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 in unfertilized eggs to 0.38 μmol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 25 min after fertilization. Specific activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase was significantly stimulated after fertilization, ranging up to 1.07 μmol Pi h-1 mg protein-1 in the late blastula stage and slightly lower values in the early and late pluteus stages.

  14. Catalytic Chan–Lam coupling using a ‘tube-in-tube’ reactor to deliver molecular oxygen as an oxidant

    PubMed Central

    Mallia, Carl J; Burton, Paul M; Smith, Alexander M R; Walter, Gary C

    2016-01-01

    Summary A flow system to perform Chan–Lam coupling reactions of various amines and arylboronic acids has been realised employing molecular oxygen as an oxidant for the re-oxidation of the copper catalyst enabling a catalytic process. A tube-in-tube gas reactor has been used to simplify the delivery of the oxygen accelerating the optimisation phase and allowing easy access to elevated pressures. A small exemplification library of heteroaromatic products has been prepared and the process has been shown to be robust over extended reaction times. PMID:27559412

  15. Identification of unique essential proteins from a M. tuberculosis F15/LAM4/KZN phage secretome library.

    PubMed

    Chiliza, Thamsanqa Emmanuel; Pillay, Manormoney; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2017-01-12

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis disease (TB), the leading cause of death from bacterial infection worldwide. Although treatable, the resurgence of multi- and extensively-drug resistance TB is a major setback for the fight against TB globally. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new Mtb derived biomarkers for use in the design of new drugs and rapid point-of-care diagnostic or prognostic tools for management of TB transmission. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify unique Mtb secreted proteins from the extensively drug resistant Mtb F15/LAM4/KZN phage secretome library. A whole genome library was constructed using genomic DNA fragments of Mtb F15/LAM4/KZN strain. A phage secretome sub-library of 8 × 10(3) clones was prepared and phage DNA was sequenced from 120 randomly selected clones. DNA sequence BLAST analysis identified 86 open reading frames. Using bioinformatics tools and databases, ten proteins essential for in vivo growth and survival of Mtb (Nrp, PssA, MmpL5, SirA, GatB, EspA, TopA, EccCa1, Rv1634 and Rv3103c). Proteins essential for growth and survival of Mtb during infection have potential application in the development of diagnostic tools, new drugs and vaccines. Further studies will be conducted to evaluate their potential application in the fight against TB.

  16. Performance Comparison of a Matrix Solver on a Heterogeneous Network Using Two Implementations of MPI: MPICH and LAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jennifer K.

    1995-01-01

    Two of the current and most popular implementations of the Message-Passing Standard, Message Passing Interface (MPI), were contrasted: MPICH by Argonne National Laboratory, and LAM by the Ohio Supercomputer Center at Ohio State University. A parallel skyline matrix solver was adapted to be run in a heterogeneous environment using MPI. The Message-Passing Interface Forum was held in May 1994 which lead to a specification of library functions that implement the message-passing model of parallel communication. LAM, which creates it's own environment, is more robust in a highly heterogeneous network. MPICH uses the environment native to the machine architecture. While neither of these free-ware implementations provides the performance of native message-passing or vendor's implementations, MPICH begins to approach that performance on the SP-2. The machines used in this study were: IBM RS6000, 3 Sun4, SGI, and the IBM SP-2. Each machine is unique and a few machines required specific modifications during the installation. When installed correctly, both implementations worked well with only minor problems.

  17. Determination of melatonin content in traditional Thai herbal remedies used as sleeping aids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Melatonin content was screened in leaves of seven edible herbs used as sleeping aids in Thai traditional medicine. These plants are Piper nigrum L, Sesbania glandiflora (L.) Desv., Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Momordica charantia L. and Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication in methanol for six hours at room temperature, and then melatonin was purified by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Melatonin was then quantified by a validated RP-C18 HPLC method with fluorescent detection. Findings Melatonin contents in extracts of B. ramiflora, S. glandiflora, M. charantia, S. tora and S. sesban were 43.2, 26.3, 21.4, 10.5 and 8.7 ng/g of dry sample weight, respectively. The highest melatonin content was from P. nigrum extract (1092.7 ng/g of dry sample weight). Melatonin was not detected in the extract of M. oleifera. Melatonin identification was confirmed by ELISA. Conclusions Melatonin was found in six of the seven herbs in the traditional Thai sleeping recipe. One of these, P. nigrum, exhibited an encouragingly high amount of melatonin. PMID:24393215

  18. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  19. Germination and ultrastructural studies of seeds produced by a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree: implications for its domestication and seed storage

    PubMed Central

    Fotouo-M, Helene; du Toit, Elsa S.; Robbertse, Petrus J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed ageing during storage is one of the main causes of reduction in seed quality and this results in loss of vigour and failure to thrive. Finding appropriate storage conditions to ameliorate deterioration due to ageing is, therefore, essential. Ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles during storage and seed germination rates are valuable indices of damage that occurs during seed ageing. There is increasing interest in Moringa oleifera Lam. because of its multiple uses as an agroforestry crop. Seeds of this species lose their viability within 6–12 months of harvest but no scientific information is available on the longevity of seed stored in the fruit (capsules). In most undeveloped countries, seeds are still stored inside the fruit by traditional methods in special handmade structures. In this experiment we tried to simulate these traditional storage conditions. Capsules of Moringa were stored at ambient room temperature for 12, 24 and 36 months. The ultrastructure, solute leakage and viability of seed were investigated. The ultrastructure of 1-year-old seed showed no sign of deterioration. It was evident, however, that some cells of the 3-year-old seed had deteriorated. The remnants of the outer and inner two integuments that remain tightly attached to the cotyledons probably play a role in seed dormancy. No significant difference was found between germination percentage of fresh and 1-year-old seed. The germination percentage decreased significantly from 2 years of storage onward. The decrease in seed viability during storage was associated with a loss in membrane integrity which was evidenced by an increase in electrolyte leakage. Our findings indicate that the longevity of M. oleifera seeds can be maintained if they are stored within their capsules. PMID:25725083

  20. Germination and ultrastructural studies of seeds produced by a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree: implications for its domestication and seed storage.

    PubMed

    Fotouo-M, Helene; du Toit, Elsa S; Robbertse, Petrus J

    2015-02-27

    Seed ageing during storage is one of the main causes of reduction in seed quality and this results in loss of vigour and failure to thrive. Finding appropriate storage conditions to ameliorate deterioration due to ageing is, therefore, essential. Ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles during storage and seed germination rates are valuable indices of damage that occurs during seed ageing. There is increasing interest in Moringa oleifera Lam. because of its multiple uses as an agroforestry crop. Seeds of this species lose their viability within 6-12 months of harvest but no scientific information is available on the longevity of seed stored in the fruit (capsules). In most undeveloped countries, seeds are still stored inside the fruit by traditional methods in special handmade structures. In this experiment we tried to simulate these traditional storage conditions. Capsules of Moringa were stored at ambient room temperature for 12, 24 and 36 months. The ultrastructure, solute leakage and viability of seed were investigated. The ultrastructure of 1-year-old seed showed no sign of deterioration. It was evident, however, that some cells of the 3-year-old seed had deteriorated. The remnants of the outer and inner two integuments that remain tightly attached to the cotyledons probably play a role in seed dormancy. No significant difference was found between germination percentage of fresh and 1-year-old seed. The germination percentage decreased significantly from 2 years of storage onward. The decrease in seed viability during storage was associated with a loss in membrane integrity which was evidenced by an increase in electrolyte leakage. Our findings indicate that the longevity of M. oleifera seeds can be maintained if they are stored within their capsules.

  1. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  2. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of total flavonoids from sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunguang; Zhang, Lianying

    2013-08-01

    The in vivo anti-fatigue activity of the total flavonoids from sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf was investigated in male Kunming mice. The total flavonoids from sweet potato leaf (TFSL) were orally administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks and the anti-fatigue effect was studied using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with the determination of serum urea nitrogen (SUN), blood lactic acid (BLA) and hepatic and muscle glycogen contents. The results showed that TFSL had significant anti-fatigue effects. TFSL extended the exhaustive swimming time, effectively inhibited the increase of BLA, decreased the level of SUN and increased the hepatic and muscle glycogen content of mice. Thus, TFSL may have potential as an anti-fatigue agent.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the vitamins, phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Taj Ur

    2016-10-01

    Plant based food products and medicines are given more consideration for their efficacy, safety and synergistic effects. Radiation processing has been valuably used for microbial decontamination and value addition of the plant materials. The current study is about the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves. The leaves of the plant were irradiated at the dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 kGy. The irradiated and control samples were evaluated for vitamin, phytochemicals, antibacterial and DPPH scavenging activities. The results showed that gamma irradiation doses up to 12.5 kGy enhanced the levels of certain phytochemicals and augmented the biological activities.

  4. Regeneration and assessment of genetic fidelity of the endangered tree Moringa peregrina (Forsk.) Fiori using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR).

    PubMed

    Al Khateeb, Wesam; Bahar, Eman; Lahham, Jamil; Schroeder, Dana; Hussein, Emad

    2013-01-01

    Moringa peregrinais an endangered species of Moringaceae.M. peregrinais a multipurpose tree with a wide variety of potential uses including its medicinal activity. In our study, a rapid and efficient micropropagation protocol for M. peregrina has been established. In vitro germinated seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different levels of either 6-benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin (Kin). The maximum shoot proliferation of 6.5 shoots per explant with 100 % shoot proliferation rate was observed on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA. On the other hand, MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) resulted in the maximum number of roots. Micropropagated plants were successfully acclimatized. Genetic stability of micropropagated plants was assessed using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR). The amplification products were monomorphic in all in vitro grown plants. No polymorphism was detected indicating the genetic integrity of in vitro propagated plants. This micropropagation protocol could be useful for raising genetically uniform plants for plant propagation and commercial cultivation.

  5. Low caffeine content in novel grafted tea with Camellia sinensis as scions and Camellia oleifera as stocks.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Li, Min; Gu, Chen-Chen; Li, Da-Xiang; Ma, Lin-Long; Jin, Yang; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2015-05-01

    Caffeine, a purine alkaloid, is a major secondary metabolite in tea leaves. The demand for low caffeine tea is increasing in recent years, especially for health reasons. We report a novel grafted tea material with low caffeine content. The grafted tea plant had Camellia sinensis as scions and C. oleifera as stocks. The content of purine alkaloids was determined in the leaves of one-year-old grafted tea plants by HPLC. We also characterized caffeine synthase (CS), a key enzyme involved in caffeine biosynthesis in tea plants, at the expression level. The expression patterns of CS were examined in grafted and control leaves by Western blot, using a self-prepared polyclonal antibody with high specificity and sensitivity. The expression of related genes (TCS1, tea caffeine synthase gene, GenBank accession No. AB031280; sAMS, SAM synthetase gene, AJ277206; TIDH, IMP dehydrogenase gene, EU106658) in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway was investigated by qRT-PCR. HPLC showed that the caffeine content was only 38% as compared with the non-grafted tea leaves. Immunoblotting analysis showed that CS protein decreased by half in the leaves of grafted tea plants. qRT-PCR revealed no significant changes in the expression of two genes in the upstream pathway (sAMS and TIDH), while the expression of TCS1 was greatly decreased (50%). Taken together, these data revealed that the low caffeine content in the grafted tea leaves is due to low TCS1 expression and CS protein accumulation.

  6. Isolation of the sapogenin from defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera and its neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong; Fang, Fei; Li, Yue

    2014-07-02

    Sasanqua saponin is a major active compound in the defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera but is always discarded without effective utilization. The sapogenin from hydrolysis of sasanqua saponin was purified, and its amination derivative was investigated on its neuroprotective effects, which were evaluated by animal models of Parkinson disease in mice induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The results showed that the sapogenin and its derivative increased dopamine content in striatum and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells in substantia nigra and relieved inflammation and behavioral disorder, but the effect on movement was reversed by dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol and was not intervened by adenosine receptor antagonist CGS 15943. Molecular simulation showed the interaction between dopamine receptor and the sapogenin or its derivative. It is proven that the sapogenin can protect dopamine neurons through antineuroinflammation and activation of dopamine receptor rather than adenosine receptor, and its amination improves the effects. This research provides the prospective prodrugs for Parkinson disease and a new medicinal application of sasanqua saponin.

  7. Two new 28-nor-oleanane-type triterpene saponins from roots of Camellia oleifera and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Yu; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Gao, Bin-Bin; Ren, Hai-Tao; Liu, Yan-Li; Li, Xiao-Ran; Li, Kun-Ping; Xu, Qiong-Ming; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Two new 28-nor-oleanane-type triterpene saponins, oleiferoside U (1), and oleiferoside V (2) were isolated from the 50% EtOH extract of the roots of Camellia oleifera C. Abel. Their structures were elucidated as camellenodiol 3β-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside and camellenodiol 3β-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside. Their chemical structures were established mainly on the basis of integrated spectroscopic techniques. In vitro, cytotoxic activities of the two new triterpene saponins were evaluated against three human tumor cell lines (A549, SMMC-7721, and MCF-7) using the MTT assay. Both of them showed a certain cytotoxic activities toward the tested cell lines and gave IC50 values in the range of 45.04-63.22 μM.

  8. Novel triterpenoid saponins from residual seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel. show anti-proliferative activity against tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zong, Jianfa; Wang, Ruilong; Bao, Guanhu; Ling, Tiejun; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Xinfu; Hou, Ruyan

    2015-07-01

    Four oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel.: camelliasaponin B1 and three new saponins, oleiferasaponin C1-C3 (1-3). Their structures were identified as 22-O-angeloyl-camelliagenin B 3-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (1); 22-O-angeloyl-camelliagenin A 3-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (2); and 28-O-cinnamoyl-camelliagenin B 3-O-[β-d-galactopyranosylz-(1→2)] [β-d-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (3) through 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, as well as GC-MS spectroscopic methods. The anti-proliferative activities of these four compounds were investigated on five human tumor cell lines (BEL-7402, BGC-823, MCF-7, HL-60 and KB). Compounds 1 and 2 and camelliasaponin B1 showed significant cytotoxic activities.

  9. Two New Oleanane-Type Saponins with Anti-Proliferative Activity from Camellia oleifera Abel. Seed Cake.

    PubMed

    Zong, Jian-Fa; Peng, Yun-Ru; Bao, Guan-Hu; Hou, Ru-Yan; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-02-04

    Two new oleanane-type saponins, named oleiferasaponins C₄ (1) and C₅ (2), were isolated from Camellia oleifera Abel. seed cake residue. Their respective structures were identified as 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxymethylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galacto-pyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosy-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosid-uronic acid methyl ester (1) and 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxy-methylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (2) through 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and GC-MS spectroscopic methods. The two compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines (BEL-7402, BGC-823, MCF-7, HL-60 and KB).

  10. Predominance of multi-drug-resistant LAM and Beijing family strains among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates recovered from prison inmates in Tula Region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Anna; Dubiley, Svetlana; Stepanshina, Valentina; Shemyakin, Igor

    2006-10-01

    The genotypic characteristics and drug susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recovered from prison hospital patients in the Tula region (central Russia) during 2001 and 2002 are reported. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) poses a major health risk to the population, with economic implications for TB control. Prisons serve as a continuous source of TB transmission. The results showed that members of the LAM and Beijing families are major contributors to the epidemiological picture of TB in the population studied. The two families of strains accounted for most of the drug-resistant TB in the population. The genotypic characteristics of the M. tuberculosis predominant LAM strain that was responsible for 31 % of TB cases in this setting are presented.

  11. Site-directed mutagenesis of tyrosine 118 within the central constriction site of the LamB (Maltoporin) channel of Escherichia coli. I. Effect on ion transport.

    PubMed Central

    Orlik, Frank; Andersen, Christian; Benz, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the malto-oligosaccharide-specific LamB-channel of Escherichia coli (also called maltoporin) is known from x-ray crystallography. The central constriction of the channel formed by the external loop 3 is controlled by a tyrosine residue (Y118). Y118 was replaced by site-directed mutagenesis by ten other amino acids (alanine, isoleucine, asparagine, serine, cysteine, aspartic acid, arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane) including neutral ones, negatively and positively charged amino acids to study the effect of their size, hydrophobicity, and charge on ion transport through LamB. The mutant proteins were purified to homogeneity. They were reconstituted into lipid bilayer membranes and single-channel conductance and ion selectivity were measured to get insight into the mechanism of ion transport through LamB. The mutation of Y118 to any other nonaromatic amino acid led to a substantial increase of the single-channel conductance by more than a factor of six at maximum. The highest effect was observed for Y118D. Additionally, a nonlinear relationship between the salt concentration in the aqueous phase and the channel conductance was observed for this mutant, indicating strong discrete charge effects on ion conductance. For all other mutants, with the exception of Y118R, linear relationships were found between single-channel conductance and bulk aqueous concentration. The individual hydrophobicity indices of the amino acids introduced inside the central constriction of the LamB channel had a somewhat smaller effect on the single-channel conductance as compared with the effect of their size and charge. PMID:11964234

  12. Coliphage which requires either the LamB protein or the OmpC protein for adsorption to Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Beher, M G; Pugsley, A P

    1981-01-01

    Either of two different proteins in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K-12 (LamB and OmpC) can function in the constitution of receptor activity for a newly isolated T-even bacteriophage. This bacteriophage (SSI) differs from other T-even phages which use the OmpC protein as their receptors. The simple procedure used to isolate phage SSI may be suitable for the detection of bacteriophages with novel outer membrane receptor requirements. PMID:6454006

  13. In situ trace-element analysis of individual silicate melt inclusions by laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. P.; Jackson, S. E.; Longerich, H. P.; Webster, J. D.

    1997-07-01

    This paper reports the successful application of laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS) to the in situ analysis of a diverse suite of twenty trace elements including Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REEs, in individual silicate melt inclusions in phenocrysts from Fantale volcano, Ethiopia. The UV laser, a frequency quadrupled Nd: YAG operating at 266 nm, significantly improves the ablation characteristics of minerals that do not absorb strongly at near-IR wavelengths (e.g., quartz and feldspar). Furthermore, it allows for a significant reduction in ablation pit size to ca. 10 μm, thereby permitting numerous applications that require high-resolution sampling. Multiple ablations in individual melt inclusions in the size range 10-50 μm demonstrate both the effectiveness of the technique and the generally homogeneous character of the inclusions. Comparison of the LAM-ICP-MS data for international reference material RGM-1 (a rhyolite), with recommended values, indicates an analytical precision of <10% for most of the trace elements determined in this study. The trace element abundances of the Fantale melt inclusions, determined by LAM-ICP-MS, are typical of those of pantellerites (i.e., peralkaline rhyolites), and are consistent with their origin as tiny volumes of melt trapped in quartz and alkali-feldspar phenocrysts during the final stage of fractional crystallization of the host peralkaline magma.

  14. Study of the structure and properties of native and hydrothermally processed wild-type, lam and r variant pea starches that affect amylolysis of these starches.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Rumana; Ellis, Peter R; Bogracheva, Tatiana Y; Meares-Taylor, Cheryl; Butterworth, Peter J

    2011-01-10

    Starches from WT, lam, and r pea mutants differing in amylopectin/amylose contents (70, 90, and 28% amylopectin, respectively) were used in kinetic studies of pancreatic α-amylase action at 37 °C and for investigations of their supramolecular structure and physicochemical properties during heating. For WT and lam starches, amylase accessibility and catalytic efficiencies (CE) increased following hydrothermal processing up to 100 °C. Accessibility changed relatively less in r during heating with increasing K(m) between 60-90 °C. Limiting values of K(m) after gelatinization were very similar for all three mutants, indicating that relative proportions of amylose/amylopectin have little influence on amylase accessibility once ordered structures are lost. For WT and lam, increases in enzyme accessibility and CE paralleled a rise in amorphous content. It is suggested that the complex behavior for r resulted from amylose gel formation between 60-90 °C. Amorphous amylopectin seems a better substrate for amylase than amorphous amylose.

  15. Microbiota at Multiple Body Sites during Pregnancy in a Rural Tanzanian Population and Effects of Moringa-Supplemented Probiotic Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Bisanz, Jordan E; Enos, Megan K; PrayGod, George; Seney, Shannon; Macklaim, Jean M; Chilton, Stephanie; Willner, Dana; Knight, Rob; Fusch, Christoph; Fusch, Gerhard; Gloor, Gregory B; Burton, Jeremy P; Reid, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    The nutritional status of pregnant women is vital for healthy outcomes and is a concern for a large proportion of the world's population. The role of the microbiota in pregnancy and nutrition is a promising new area of study with potential health ramifications. In many African countries, maternal and infant death and morbidity are associated with malnutrition. Here, we assess the influence of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, supplemented with Moringa plant as a source of micronutrients, on the health and oral, gut, vaginal, and milk microbiotas of 56 pregnant women in Tanzania. In an open-label study design, 26 subjects received yogurt daily, and 30 were untreated during the last two trimesters and for 1 month after birth. Samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and dietary recalls were recorded. Women initially categorized as nourished or undernourished consumed similar calories and macronutrients, which may explain why there was no difference in the microbiota at any body site. Consumption of yogurt increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and decreased Enterobacteriaceae in the newborn feces but had no effect on the mother's microbiota at any body site. The microbiota of the oral cavity and GI tract remained stable over pregnancy, but the vaginal microbiota showed a significant increase in diversity leading up to and after birth. In summary, daily micronutrient-supplemented probiotic yogurt provides a safe, affordable food for pregnant women in rural Tanzania, and the resultant improvement in the gut microbial profile of infants is worthy of further study.

  16. Effect of crude extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Artemisia absinthium on parasitaemia of mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of trypanosomosis is currently facing a number of problems including toxicity of trypanocidal drugs and development of resistance by the parasites. These limitations have prompted the search for alternative active substances (such as of natural origin). The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Artemisia absinthium on Trypanosoma congolense in mice. Methods Swiss white male mice aged 8–12 weeks were divided into six experimental groups of six animals. Water and methanol extracts of the two plants were prepared. T. congolense was isolated from cattle at Ghibe valley (Ethiopia). All experimental mice received approximately 1 x 105 trypanosomes in 0.2 ml of blood. Plant extracts were given orally to four groups (2 plant species and two extraction methods) at 400 mg/kg body weight for seven consecutive days. One group remained as distilled water treated control and the other as diminzene aceturate treated control. The effect of the extracts on levels of parasitaemia, body weight, packed cell volume (PCV) and mice survival was monitored for 25 days. Results All treatments have significantly reduced parasitaemia and helped improve body weight, PCV and survival of mice compared to the water-treated control (P < 0.01 in all cases). These effects were comparable to that with diminazene aceturate. No significant difference was observed in the reduction of parasitaemia between plant extract treatment groups. However, mice with extracts of A. absinthium had significantly higher body weight than those with extracts of M. stenopetala (P < 0.05). Conclusions The two plants have antitrypanosomal potential against T. congolense by reducing the levels of parasitaemia, maintaining good PCV and body weight, and prolonging the lives of infected animals. PMID:24962241

  17. Quantitative analysis of the nutritional components in leaves and seeds of the Persian Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Gholamreza; Palizban, Abbasali; Bakhshaei, Behnosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moringa peregrina (M. peregrina) is an important tropical tree recognized for its nutritional and medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional component in the leaves and seeds of the Persian M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. Materials and Methods: The M. peregrina leaves and seeds of wild cultivated trees were collected from the areas of arid environment located in the South-East of the Iran. The leaves and seeds of M. peregrina were dried and grounded to a fine powder and kept in dark for the day of experiment. The acidic digested leaves and seeds were analyzed for Vitamins C and A, calcium, and potassium using atomic adsorption and flame emission spectrophotometer. Results: The analytical data revealed that the leaves and seeds of the Persian M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori contain sufficient amounts of Vitamin C: 83 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.6 mg/100 g/DW; and Vitamin A: 6.8 ± 0.7 and 24.8 ± 0.7 mg/100 g/DW, respectively. The elemental analysis in the leaves and seeds showed that the calcium content are 764.8 ± 1.6 and 1164.8 ± 43.4 mg/100 g/DW and for potassium content are 900.2 ± 14 and 572 ± 10 mg/100 g/DW, respectively. Conclusions: The nutritional characteristics of the Persian M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori, investigated in this study revealed that, daily use of leaves and seeds of this plant could significantly provide the recommended dietary allowance for the Vitamins C and A, and minerals, such as calcium and potassium. PMID:26130935

  18. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Melo, Bernardo; Leitão, Joseana M S R; Oliveira, Luciano G C; Santos, Sérgio E M; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Chaves, Mariana H; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Carvalho, Fernando A A

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated with ZR-EEtOH or ZR-FHEX at non-lethal concentrations for 24 hours, and then macrophages were submitted to infection by promastigotes. Moreover, their effects on activation of macrophages, as well as on the DNA content, size and number of promastigotes by flow cytometry were also evaluated. The infection rate and the number of internalized amastigote forms were markedly decreased after pretreatment of macrophages or promastigotes when compared with non-treated cells. The increase in phagocytic capability and nitrite content was also observed. Furthermore, the decrease of DNA content, size and number of promastigotes was also observed. In conclusion, ZR-EEtOH and ZR-FHEX promoted a markedly significant antileishmanial effect and reduction of infection of macrophages, probably underlying defense mechanisms activation in macrophages. These findings reinforce the potential application of Z. rhoifolium in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  19. Integrated assessment of air pollution by metals and source apportionment using ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Illi, Júlia Carolina; Vancetta, Tafael; Alves, Darlan Daniel; Osório, Daniela Montanari Migliavacca; Bianchin, Liane; de Quevedo, Daniela Müller; Juchem, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    One of the biggest environmental problems existing today is air pollution, which is characterized by the presence of toxic gases and metal pollutants, the latter of which is generally associated with emissions of particulate matter (PM) from industries or automotive vehicles. Biomonitoring is a method that can be used to assess air pollution levels because it makes it possible to determine what effects these air pollutants cause in living organisms and their responses. The species Lolium multiflorum Lam., known as ryegrass, is considered a good bioindicator of metals, since it accumulates these substances during exposure. This study proposes to conduct an integrated assessment of air quality using two different monitoring methodologies: biomonitoring with L. multiflorum and active monitoring in areas with different levels of urbanization and industrialization. Concentrations found in ryegrass plants revealed high levels of Pb, Cr, Zn, and Cu, indicating that vehicular and industrial emissions were the main sources of pollution. Analysis of PM also revealed soot and biogenic particles, which can transport metals. Therefore, with the proposed method, the anthropogenic impact on air pollution in the investigated area could be clearly demonstrated.

  20. Purification and structural characterization of an α-glucosidase inhibitory polysaccharide from apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L. Lam.) pulp.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Gu, Xin; Wang, Fengjun; Ouyang, Jie; Wang, Jianzhong

    2015-05-05

    In this study, the crude polysaccharide (APPS) from the fruiting bodies of apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L. Lam.) was isolated and fractionated by ultrafiltration and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The hypoglycemic activities of all fractions were determined by α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. The fraction APPS1-2 showed the best activity with an IC50 of 6.06 mg/mL. The properties and chemical compositions of this fraction were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography, gel permeation chromatography-eighteen angle laser light scattering instrument, UV spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H). The results demonstrated that APPS1-2 was a neutral glycoconjugate with a molecular weight of 25.93 kDa. It comprised rhamnose, glucose, mannose, and galactose, with a relative molar ratio of 1.34:2.01:0.48:0.35. The backbone of APPS1-2 may consist of rhamnose and glucose, but its branches may consist of mannose and galactose. The IR and UV spectrum of APPS1-2 revealed the typical characteristics of heteropolysaccharide. (1)H NMR spectrum showed that APPS1-2 contained α-configurations.

  1. Involvement of mitochondria mediated pathways in hepatoprotection conferred by Fumaria parviflora Lam. extract against nimesulide induced apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Madhulika; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Mishra, Chetna; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Kakkar, Poonam

    2010-03-01

    Nimesulide, a popular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been associated with serious hepatotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial perturbations have been implicated in drug induced hepatotoxicity, although their role in the pathway needs exploration. Study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fp) on nimesulide induced cell death in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Fp extract treated cells showed increased viability as compared to nimesulide stressed cells as assessed by MTT assay. LDH leakage increased significantly at 500microM nimesulide, and the data suggested that apoptosis was the predominant mechanism responsible for cell death. Nimesulide induced apoptosis was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation. Nimesulide exposure increased intracellular ROS, translocation of Bax and Bcl2 followed by mitochondrial depolarization and cytochrome c (Cyt c) release along with caspase-9/-3 activity confirming involvement of mitochondria in nimesulide induced apoptosis. Events like membrane depolarization of mitochondria, expression of Bax, Bcl2, externalization of phosphatidyl serine are substantially reversed by the pre-treatment of Fp extract. Thus, the study indicates that Fp extract modulates critical events regulating pro and anti-apoptotic proteins in mitochondria dependent apoptosis induced by nimesulide.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP "Tainung 73," which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries.

  3. Investigation of active biomolecules involved in the nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles by Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xinde; Sun, Daohua; Zhang, Genlei; He, Ning; Liu, Hongyu; Huang, Jiale; Odoom-Wubah, Tareque; Li, Qingbiao

    2013-06-01

    The effects of different biomolecules in Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaf extract on the morphology of obtained gold nanoparticles were investigated in this study. The results indicated that reducing sugars, flavones, and polyphenols consisting of about 79.8 % dry weight of the leaf extract were mainly involved in providing the dual function of reduction and the size/shape control during the biosynthesis. The gold nanoparticles present included 64 ± 10 nm nanospheres, 131 ± 18 nm nanoflowers, and 347 ± 136 nm (edge length) nanoplates and they were synthesized using the main content of reducing sugars, flavones, and polyphenols, respectively, after they were desorbed by the AB-8 macroporous adsorption resin column. Particularly, flower-like and triangular/hexagonal gold nanoparticles with a yield more than 80 % were obtained. Possible shape-directed agents for the nucleation and growth were characterized by FTIR, it can be seen that ketones were bound on the surface of the spherical and flower-like GNPs, while both the ketones and carbonyls bound on the Au {111} plane this may have favored the formation of the twin defects, which are very essential for nanoplates' formation.

  4. In vitro screening and evaluation of antivenom phytochemicals from Azima tetracantha Lam. leaves against Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. Although antivenom is the only treatment available, it is associated with several side effects. As an alternative, plants have been extensively studied in order to obtain an alternative treatment. In folk medicine, Azima tetracantha Lam. is usually used to treat snakebites. The present study aims to provide a scientific explanation for the use of this plant against snakebite. The extracts of shade dried leaves of A. tetracantha were tested for in vitro inhibitory activity on toxic venom enzymes like phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, acetylcholinesterase, hyaluronidase etc. from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venoms. Results The ethylacetate extract rendered a significant inhibitory effect on the phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, phospholipase A2 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes. Conclusions The present study suggests that ethylacetate extract of A. tetracantha leaves possesses compounds that inhibit the activity of toxic enzymes from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venom. Further pharmacological and in vivo studies would provide evidence that this substance may lead to a potential treatment against these venoms. PMID:24690426

  5. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected.

  6. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Akio; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes.

  7. H(+) -pyrophosphatase IbVP1 promotes efficient iron use in sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.].

    PubMed

    Fan, Weijuan; Wang, Hongxia; Wu, Yinliang; Yang, Nan; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Peng

    2016-11-18

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies limiting crop production globally, especially in arid regions because of decreased availability of iron in alkaline soils. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] grows well in arid regions and is tolerant to Fe deficiency. Here, we report that the transcription of type I H(+) -pyrophosphatase (H(+) -PPase) gene IbVP1 in sweet potato plants was strongly induced by Fe deficiency and auxin in hydroponics, improving Fe acquisition via increased rhizosphere acidification and auxin regulation. When overexpressed, transgenic plants show higher pyrophosphate hydrolysis and plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase activity compared with the wild type, leading to increased rhizosphere acidification. The IbVP1-overexpressing plants showed better growth, including enlarged root systems, under Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient conditions. Increased ferric precipitation and ferric chelate reductase activity in the roots of transgenic lines indicate improved iron uptake, which is also confirmed by increased Fe content and up-regulation of Fe uptake genes, e.g. FRO2, IRT1 and FIT. Carbohydrate metabolism is significantly affected in the transgenic lines, showing increased sugar and starch content associated with the increased expression of AGPase and SUT1 genes and the decrease in β-amylase gene expression. Improved antioxidant capacities were also detected in the transgenic plants, which showed reduced H2 O2 accumulation associated with up-regulated ROS-scavenging activity. Therefore, H(+) -PPase plays a key role in the response to Fe deficiency by sweet potato and effectively improves the Fe acquisition by overexpressing IbVP1 in crops cultivated in micronutrient-deficient soils.

  8. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter.

    PubMed

    Nduwimana, André; Yang, Xiang-Long; Wang, Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture. The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter, to maintain acceptable levels of soil, water and air quality. In this study, two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems; recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation water in local communities with low income. In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation. It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen), 90% for NO2(-)-N, 64.8% for NO3(-)-N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN, 82% for NO2(-)-N and 60.5% for NO3(-)-N. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well, however, plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming. Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction, the treatment with L. perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality. A. viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge. The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves.

  9. Anti-apoptosis effect of polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam on cardiomyocytes in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-Li; Guo, Li; Ren, Ya-Chao; Wang, Bing; Li, Rong-Hui; Qi, Yu-Shan; Yu, Hui; Chang, Nai-Dan; Li, Ming-Hui; Peng, Hai-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the mechanism of apoptosis in myocardial cells of aging rats induced by D-galactose and to study the effect of the Polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam (PCCL) on apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and its corresponding machinasim in aging rat model. Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Normal control group (NC). D-galactose (100 mg · kg(-1)d(-1) for 56 day) indued aging group (MC), D-galactose plus 100 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (ML), D-galactose plus 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MM), and D-galactose plus 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MH). Same volume of solution (water, or PCCL aqueous solution) was given by gavage for 56 days. Then the hearts were collected and apoptosis parameters were evaluated. Caspase-3 and Cyt c were determined by fluorescence spectrometer, the apoptosis rate was assessed by AnnexinV-FITC method by Flow-Cytometry, [Ca(2+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i overloaded by KCL were observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM); Bcl-2 and Bax were examined by immunohistochemistry. The content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3, Bax expression level in D-galactose induced aging group were higher than NC (p < 0.05). The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased in D-galactose induced aging group compared to NC. On the other hand, the content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3 and apoptosis rate, as well as Bax expression level in all three PCCL groups were decreased compared to galactose induced group (p < 0.05). Bcl-2/Bax ratio was increased in all PCCL groups compared to galactose induced aging group. PCCL could decrease the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by the mitochondria apoptosis pathway.

  10. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Sales, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro José; Araújo, Márcio SS; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Resende, Jarbas M; Alves, Tânia MA; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; dos Santos, Vera Lúcia; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania Barros

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay. PMID:25742265

  11. Novel R-plasmid conjugal transfer inhibitory and antibacterial activities of phenolic compounds from Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Mull. Arg.

    PubMed

    Oyedemi, Blessing O M; Shinde, Vaibhav; Shinde, Kamlesh; Kakalou, Dionysia; Stapleton, Paul D; Gibbons, Simon

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance severely limits the therapeutic options for many clinically important bacteria. In Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug resistance is commonly facilitated by plasmids that have the ability to accumulate and transfer refractory genes amongst bacterial populations. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bioactive compounds from the medicinal plant Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Mull. Arg. with both direct antibacterial properties and the capacity to inhibit plasmid conjugal transfer. A chloroform-soluble extract of M. philippensis was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using chromatographic and spectrometric techniques that led to the isolation of the known compounds rottlerin [5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-methyl-5-acetylbenzyl)-8-cinnamoyl-1,2-chromene] and the red compound (8-cinnamoyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2,6-trimethylchromene). Both compounds were characterised and elucidated using one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Rottlerin and the red compound showed potent activities against a panel of clinically relevant Gram-positive bacteria, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). No significant direct activities were observed against Gram-negative bacteria. However, both rottlerin and the red compound strongly inhibited conjugal transfer of the plasmids pKM101, TP114, pUB307 and R6K amongst Escherichia coli at a subinhibitory concentration of 100mg/L. Interestingly, despite the planar nature of the compounds, binding to plasmid DNA could not be demonstrated by a DNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay. These results show that rottlerin and the red compound are potential candidates for antibacterial drug lead development. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mode of inhibition of the conjugal transfer of plasmids.

  12. Efficient embryogenic suspension culturing and rapid transformation of a range of elite genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Bi, Hui-Ping; Fan, Wei-Juan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was developed using embryogenic suspension cell cultures of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) cultivars, including Ayamurasaki, Sushu2, Sushu9, Sushu11, Wanshu1, Xushu18 and Xushu22. Embryogenic suspension cultures were established in LCP medium using embryogenic calli induced from apical or axillary buds on an induction medium containing 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Suspension cultures were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with the hpt gene as a selectable marker and an intron-interrupted uidA gene as a visible marker. Several key steps of the sweet potato transformation system have been investigated and optimized, including the appropriate antibiotics and their concentrations for suppressing Agrobacterium growth and the optimal doses of hygromycin for transformant selection. A total of 485 putative transgenic plant lines were produced from the transformed calli via somatic embryogenesis and germination to plants under 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin and 200 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. PCR, GUS and Southern blot analyses of the regenerated plants showed that 92.35% of them were transgenic. The number of T-DNA insertions varied from one to three in most transgenic plant lines. Plants showed 100% survival when 308 transgenics were transferred to soil in the greenhouse and then to the field. Most of them were morphologically normal, with the production of storage roots after 3 months of cultivation in the greenhouse or fields. The development of such a robust transformation method suitable to a range of sweet potato genotypes not only provides a routine tool for genetic improvement via transgenesis but also allows us to conduct a functional verification of endogenous genes in sweet potato.

  13. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentiality of Randia dumetorum Lam. Leaf and Bark via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Saikia, Bikas; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Singh, Yogendra P.; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Randia dumetorum Lam. (RD) (Rubiaceae) is traditionally used by some tribes of Assam and Manipur of North East India for the treatment of liver ailments. In this context, to scientifically validate this indigenous traditional knowledge, we have evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of RD leaf and bark. The methanol extracts of RD leaf and bark were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity which exhibited good antioxidant activity in terms of reducing power assay, total antioxidant assay and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found to be 112 ± 3.24 mg and 138 ± 2.46 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and 2.6 ± 0.26 mg and 3.34 ± 0.31 mg rutin equivalents/g extract respectively for RD leaf and bark methanol extracts. The in vivo hepato protective activity of the RD leaf and bark extract was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in male wistar rats. CCl4 administration induced hepatic damage in rats resulted in increased levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, albumin, bilirubin, TNF-α, IL-1β and decreased levels of total protein and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase. RD leaf and bark methanol extracts pre-treatment exhibited protection against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity by reversing all the abnormal parameters to significant levels. Histopathological results revealed that RD leaf and bark extracts at 400 mg/kg protects the liver from damage induced by CCl4. The results of this study scientifically validate the traditional use of RD leaf and bark for the treatment of liver ailments. PMID:27471465

  14. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of a novel compound N-octacosan 7β ol, from Fumaria parviflora Lam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumaraceae) is widely used in traditional as well as folkloric system of medicine from ancient. It is commonly known as ‘Pitpapra’ or ‘Shahtrah’ in Indian traditional system of medicine and used for treating numerous ailments like diarrhea, fever, influenza, blood purifier and other complications. The object of the present study was to evaluate the Antileishmanial, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic potential of isolated compound. Methods Methanolic extract of whole plant of Fumaria parviflora was dried under reduced pressure to obtain a dark brown residue which was adsorbed on silica gel column grade (60–120 mesh) to obtain a slurry and chromatographed over silica gel loaded column in petroleum ether – chloroform (3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 v/v). The in vitro antileishmanial evaluation of isolated compound against Leishmania donovani promastigotes was investigated by growth kinetics assay, reversibility assay, analysis of cellular morphology, adverse toxicity and determination of 50% growth inhibitory concentration (GI50). Disc diffusion and broth micro dilution methods were used to study the antibacterial (Gram + Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis; Gram - Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) potential in vitro. Results Structure elucidation by spectral data analysis revealed a novel compound, n-octacosan-7β-ol (OC), yield (0.471%), having significant antimicrobial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in vitro with GI50 = 5.35, MIC 250, MIC 250 and MFC 500 and MIC 250 μg ml-1 respectively. The isolated compound did not show adverse effect against mammalian macrophages. Conclusions The available evidence of compound suggested that it may be used as antimicrobial agent in future and may provide new platform for drug discovery

  15. Utilization of ensiled sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) leaves as a protein supplement in diets for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Van An, L; Hong, T T T; Ogle, B; Lindberg, J E

    2005-01-01

    Four diets were formulated with protein from fishmeal (FM), groundnut cake (GC), ensiled sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam.)) leaves (SP) or ensiled sweet potato leaves with lysine (SPL). In experiment 1, 24 crossbred (Large White x Mong Cai) growing pigs were allocated randomly by sex into four groups of six pigs and given one of four diets. Experiment 2 was conducted using 16 crossbred pigs (Large White x Mong Cai) at four farms. On each farm, pigs were allocated to two experimental groups. One group was fed the FM diet and the other group the SPL diet. In experiment 1, the daily live weight gains (DLWG) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for the FM and SPL treatments (542 and 536 g/day, respectively) than for the GC and SP treatments (464 and 482 g/day, respectively). Feed intake was highest (2.0 kg/day) for the SPL and lowest (1.7 kg/day) for the GC treatment (p < 0.05) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was highest (3.8 kg/kg gain) for SP and lowest (3.5 kg/kg gain) for FM (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences for carcase measurements among diets (p > 0.05). The feed cost per kg live weight gain was lowest for the SP and SPL diets compared to the FM and GC diets. The results of experiment 2 show that there were no significant differences in feed intake, DLWG and FCR between the two diets (p > 0.05). In conclusion, sweet potato leaves can replace fishmeal and groundnut cake in traditional Vietnamese diets for growing pigs.

  16. Trypanocidal and antileukaemic effects of the essential oils of Hagenia abyssinica, Leonotis ocymifolia, Moringa stenopetala, and their main individual constituents.

    PubMed

    Nibret, E; Wink, M

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils from three Ethiopian medicinal plants; Hagenia abyssinica (Rosaceae), Leonotis ocymifolia (Lamiaceae), and Moringa stenopetala (Moringaceae) were investigated for their chemical composition, trypanocidal, and cytotoxic activities. Twenty components were identified from the essential oil of H. abyssinica female flowers, ledol (58.57%) being the principal volatile oil component. Sixty-eight components were identified from the essential oil of L. ocymifolia aerial part, caryophyllene oxide (12.06%) being the major component. The essential oil of M. stenopetala seeds was dominated by isothiocyanates; benzyl isothiocyanate (54.30%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (16.37%) were the major components. The trypanocidal (Trypanosoma b. brucei) and antileukaemic (HL-60) effects of the three essential oils were studied. The oil of M. stenopetala seeds and its main compound, benzyl isothiocyanate showed the most potent trypanocidal activities with IC(50) values of 5.03 μg/ml and 1.20 μg/ml, respectively. The oils of H. abyssinica and L. ocymifolia exhibited trypanocidal activities with IC(50) values of 42.30 μg/ml and 15.41 μg/ml, respectively. Individual components (28 compounds) of the essential oils bearing different functional groups were also studied for their structure-activity relationships using trypanosomes and human leukaemia cells. Cinnamaldehyde (IC(50)=2.93 μg/ml) (a representative for aldehydes), nerolidol (IC(50)=15.78 μg/ml) (an alcohol), cedrene (IC(50)=4.07 μg/ml) (a hydrocarbon), benzyl isothiocyanate (IC(50)=1.20 μg/ml) (a representative for mustard oils), 1,8-cineole (IC(50)=83.15 μg/ml) (an ether), safrole (IC(50)=18.40 μg/ml) (aromatics with allyl and/or methoxy side chains), carvone (IC(50)=12.94μg/ml) (a ketone), styrene oxide (IC(50)=3.76 μg/ml) (an epoxide) and carvacrol (IC(50)=11.25 μg/ml) (a phenol) showed the most potent trypanocidal activities from their respective groups. Of all essential oil components tested, carvone

  17. Fate and risk assessment of heavy metals in residue from co-liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake and sewage sludge in supercritical ethanol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongmei; Zhai, Yunbo; Xu, Bibo; Xiang, Bobin; Zhu, Lu; Qiu, Lei; Liu, Xiaoting; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-09-01

    The fate and risk assessment of heavy metals (HMs) in solid residue from co-liquefaction of sewage sludge (SS) and Camellia oleifera cake (COC) in supercritical ethanol (SCE) were investigated. SCE effectively stabilized HMs in solid residues and a better stabilization was presented on Zn than Cd. Moreover, SCE significantly transformed Cd, Cu and Zn into F4, which reduced the risk to the environment. Furthermore, risk assessments of Igeo, Er(i), RI and RAC demonstrated that the addition of COC was beneficial to the contamination decrement of HMs since pollution levels of HMs all decreased after treatment, and the lowest pollution level was obtained with SC-350. Therefore, SS treated by SCE with the addition of COC could be a promising technology for disposal of SS, especially considering the safety of COC as regards HMs problem.

  18. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yanling; Tan, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metabolites for oil biosynthesis. The objectives of this study were to identify FBA genes and investigate the relationship between FBA gene expression and oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree. In this paper, four developmentally up-regulated CoFBA genes were identified in Camellia oleifera seeds based on the transcriptome from two seed developmental stages corresponding to the initiation and peak stages of lipid biosynthesis. The expression of CoFBA genes, along with three key oil biosynthesis genes CoACP, CoFAD2 and CoSAD were analyzed in seeds from eight developmental stages by real-time quantitative PCR. The oil content and fatty acid composition were also analyzed. The results showed that CoFBA and CoSAD mRNA levels were well-correlated with oil content whereas CoFAD2 gene expression levels were correlated with fatty acid composition in Camellia seeds. We propose that CoFBA and CoSAD are two important factors for determining tea oil yield because CoFBA gene controls the flux of key intermediates for oil biosynthesis and CoSAD gene controls the synthesis of oleic acid, which accounts for 80% of fatty acids in tea oil. These findings suggest that tea oil yield could be improved by enhanced expression of CoFBA and CoSAD genes in transgenic plants.

  19. Construction and use of a broad-host-range plasmid expressing the lamB gene for utilization of bacteriophage lambda vectors in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Jasiecki, J; Czy, A; Gabig, M; Wegrzyn, G

    2001-07-01

    The remarkable success of Escherichia coli as a model organism in molecular genetics was dependent, among other things, on its susceptibility to genetic manipulation. Many versatile and sophisticated genetic tools for molecular biology studies are derived from bacteriophage lambda. However, this bacteriophage is specific for E. coli, and thus lambda-based techniques have been restricted to this bacterium. Plasmids expressing the E. coli gene coding for bacteriophage lambda receptor were reported previously, and introduction of such plasmids into cells of some other bacteria made them sensitive to phage lambda infection. However, we found that these systems were not efficient for Vibrio harveyi, one of the most frequently investigated species of marine bacteria. Here we describe construction of a broad-host-range plasmid expressing the lamB gene. Introduction of this plasmid to V. harveyi cells and expression of lamB made this strain susceptible to bacteriophage lambda adsorption and lambda DNA injection. Foreign genetic material could be introduced into cells of this strain using a cosmid vector.

  20. Antiinflammatory activity of glucomoringin isothiocyanate in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Galuppo, Maria; Giacoppo, Sabrina; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Navarra, Michele; Lombardo, Giovanni Enrico; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    Glucomoringin (4(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate) (GMG) is an uncommon member of glucosinolate group belonging to the Moringaceae family, of which Moringa oleifera Lam. is the most widely distributed. Bioactivation of GMG with the enzyme myrosinase forms the corresponding isothiocyanate (4(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate) (GMG-ITC), which can play a key role in antitumoral activity and counteract the inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of GMG-ITC treatment in an experimental mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease with neurodegeneration characterized by demyelinating plaques, neuronal, and axonal loss. For this reason, C57Bl/6 male mice were injected with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35-55 which is able to evoke an autoimmune response against myelin fibers miming human multiple sclerosis physiopatogenesis. Results clearly showed that the treatment was able to counteract the inflammatory cascade that underlies the processes leading to severe MS. In particular, GMG-ITC was effective against proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Oxidative species generation including the influence of iNOS, nitrotyrosine tissue expression and cell apoptotic death pathway was also evaluated resulting in a lower Bax/Bcl-2 unbalance. Taken together, this work adds new interesting properties and applicability of GMG-ITC and this compound can be suggested as a useful drug for the treatment or prevention of MS, at least in association with current conventional therapy.

  1. Antioxidant extracts of African medicinal plants induce cell cycle arrest and differentiation in B16F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Impei, Stefania; Di Marco, Gabriele; Kenzo, Maurice; Colizzi, Vittorio; Canini, Antonella

    2013-09-01

    African ethnomedicine is essentially based on the traditional use of vegetal extracts. Since these natural drugs have shown health giving properties, in the present study we increased further the scientific basis supporting these data. We investigated the effects, on murine B16F10 melanoma cells, of plant extracts that were directly obtained by a Cameroon 'traditional healer'. After a preliminary study on the antioxidant functions of these compounds, already abundant in literature, Moringa oleifera Lam., Eremomastax speciosa (Hochst.) Cufod and Aframomum melegueta K. Schum extracts were individually analyzed. We performed laboratory assessments on these medicinal preparations in order to clearly demonstrate their antineoplastic features. All the treatments caused in tumor cells a great reduction in growth and proliferation rate, cell cycle arrest, increase of p53, p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 protein levels and induction of differentiation. These results, on the bioactivity and the biochemical characteristics of African plant extracts, may increase the comprehension of indigenous therapeutic practices and represent the first step for the individuation of new inexpensive and natural drugs able to prevent and contrast cancer onset.

  2. Expression of a plant-derived peptide harboring water-cleaning and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Suarez, M; Entenza, J M; Doerries, C; Meyer, E; Bourquin, L; Sutherland, J; Marison, I; Moreillon, P; Mermod, N

    2003-01-05

    Drinking water is currently a scarce world resource, the preparation of which requires complex treatments that include clarification of suspended particles and disinfection. Seed extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam., a tropical tree, have been proposed as an environment-friendly alternative, due to their traditional use for the clarification of drinking water. However, the precise nature of the active components of the extract and whether they may be produced in recombinant form are unknown. Here we show that recombinant or synthetic forms of a cationic seed polypeptide mediate efficient sedimentation of suspended mineral particles and bacteria. Unexpectedly, the polypeptide was also found to possesses a bactericidal activity capable of disinfecting heavily contaminated water. Furthermore, the polypeptide has been shown to efficiently kill several pathogenic bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant isolates of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Legionella species. Thus, this polypeptide displays the unprecedented feature of combining water purification and disinfectant properties. Identification of an active principle derived from the seed extracts points to a range of potential for drinking water treatment or skin and mucosal disinfection in clinical settings.

  3. Determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by enhanced chemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots on calcein/K3Fe(CN)6 system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jing; Li, Xuwen; Geng, Jiayang; Han, Lu; Tang, Jieli; Jin, Yongri; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, 3-mercaptocarboxylic acid (MPA) modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were used as sensitizers, to enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system. A new CL system of CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was developed. The effects of reactant concentrations and the particle sizes of CdTe QDs on the CL emission were investigated in detail. The possible enhancement mechanism of the CL was also further investigated based on the photoluminescence (PL) and CL spectra. Polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin, hyperin, catechin and kaempferol, were observed to inhibit the CL signal of the CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system and determined by the proposed method. The proposed method was applied to the determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and the results obtained were satisfactory.

  4. In vivo Antihypertensive and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of the Crude Extracts and Fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. Leaves in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Geleta, Bekesho; Makonnen, Eyasu; Debella, Asfaw; Tadele, Ashenif

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. is a medicinal plant that has been used in Ethiopian traditional medicine as a remedy for treatment of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect in fructose induced hypertensive rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into control and treatment groups (n = 6). Treatment groups were given daily extracts (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) orally with fructose. Whereas, positive, negative and normal control groups were received captopril (20 mg/kg/day with fructose), only fructose (66% w/v ad libitum) and distilled water ad libitum for 15 days, respectively. The blood pressure was measured every 5th day using tail cuff blood pressure analyzer, and on the 16th day the blood was sampled to evaluate antihyperlipidemic effect using clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: The study showed that aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts significantly prevented blood pressure increment in a dose dependent manner comparable to that of the standard drug. Similarly, the extracts suppressed increment in lipid profile (cholesterol, glucose, and triglycerides) compared with negative control. The biochemical test revealed that extracts produced a rise in liver but no effect on kidney function indicators compared with normal control. Conclusion: These findings revealed that both crude extracts of M. stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. possess antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect. PMID:27148056

  5. Effects of the Fruit Ripening Stage on Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Polyphenolic Composition of Crude Palm Oil from Interspecific Hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juanita C; Gómez, Daniela; Pacetti, Deborah; Núñez, Oscar; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Frega, Natale G; Ojeda, Myriam L; Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Lucci, Paolo

    2016-02-03

    In the present study, we assessed for the first time the changes in the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and polyphenolic composition of interspecific hybrid palm oil extracted from Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis (O × G, Coari × La Mé cultivar) during the fruit ripening process 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis. A progressive decrease (p < 0.05) of phenolic content occurred during fruit development together with marked changes in polyphenol profiles. Significant negative correlations were established between antioxidant activity measured by TEAC (R = -0.954; p < 0.05) and ORAC (R = -0.745; p < 0.05) and the fruit ripening stage, while a positive correlation between total phenolic content was found using either the TEAC assay or the ORAC assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was also obtained with oils extracted at 18 WAA. These results highlight that O × G fruits of early ripeness represent a better source of phenolic compounds and may provide extracts with higher antioxidant activities when hybrid palm oil is aimed to be used as a functional ingredient for the development of food or food products with antioxidant properties.

  6. Burial and seed survival in Brassica napus subsp. oleifera and Sinapis arvensis including a comparison of transgenic and non-transgenic lines of the crop.

    PubMed Central

    Hails, R S; Rees, M; Kohn, D D; Crawley, M J

    1997-01-01

    The creation of transgenic plants through genetic engineering has focused interest on how the fitness of a plant species may be altered by small changes in its genome. This study concentrates on a key component of fitness: persistence of seeds overwinter. Seeds of three lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera DC Metzger) and of charlock (Sinapis arvensis L.) were buried in nylon mesh bags at two depths in four habitats in each of three geographically separated sites: Cornwall, Berkshire and Sutherland. Seeds were recovered after 12 and 24 months. Charlock exhibited much greater seed survival (average 60% surviving the first year and 32.5% surviving the second year) than oilseed rape (1.5% surviving the first year and 0.2% surviving the second) at all sites. Charlock showed higher survival at 15 cm burial than 2 cm burial at certain sites, but oilseed rape showed no depth effect. Different genetic lines of oilseed rape displayed different rates of seed survival; non-transgenic rape showed greater survival (2%) than the two transgenic lines, one developed for tolerance to the antibiotic kanamycin (0.3%) and one for tolerance to both kanamycin and the herbicide glufosinate (0.25%). The absolute and relative performances of the different genetic lines of oilseed rape were context specific, illustrating the need to test hypotheses in a wide range of ecological settings. PMID:9061957

  7. Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

  8. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  9. Heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of new nanosized ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasenov, B. K.; Kasenova, Sh. B.; Sagintaeva, Zh. I.; Turtubaeva, M. O.; Kakenov, K. S.; Esenbaeva, G. A.

    2017-03-01

    The heat capacities of nanosized ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) are measured via dynamic calorimetry in the temperature range of 298.15-673 K using an IT-S-400 instrument. It is established that the C°p f( T) function of LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) has λ-type effects, due probably to phase transitions of the second order. Considering the temperatures of the phase transitions, equations of the heat capacity of ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) as a function of temperature are derived on the basis of experimental data. Thermodynamic functions H°( T)- H°(298.15), S°( T), and V xx( T) are calculated in the temperature range of 298.15-675 K.

  10. High-Q energy trapping of temperature-stable shear waves with Lamé cross-sectional polarization in a single crystal silicon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizian, R.; Daruwalla, A.; Ayazi, F.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-port electrostatically driven silicon acoustic cavity is implemented that efficiently traps the energy of a temperature-stable eigen-mode with Lamé cross-sectional polarization. Dispersive behavior of propagating and evanescent guided waves in a ⟨100⟩-aligned single crystal silicon waveguide is used to engineer the acoustic energy distribution of a specific shear eigen-mode that is well known for its low temperature sensitivity when implemented in doped single crystal silicon. Such an acoustic energy trapping in the central region of the acoustic cavity geometry and far from substrate obviates the need for narrow tethers that are conventionally used for non-destructive and high quality factor (Q) energy suspension in MEMS resonators; therefore, the acoustically engineered waveguide can simultaneously serve as in-situ self-oven by passing large uniformly distributed DC currents through its body and without any concern about perturbing the mode shape or deforming narrow supports. Such a stable thermo-structural performance besides large turnover temperatures than can be realized in Lamé eigen-modes make this device suitable for implementation of ultra-stable oven-controlled oscillators. 78 MHz prototypes implemented in arsenic-doped single crystal silicon substrates with different resistivity are transduced by in- and out-of-plane narrow-gap capacitive ports, showing high Q of ˜43k. The low resistivity device shows an overall temperature-induced frequency drift of 200 ppm over the range of -20 °C to 80 °C, which is ˜15× smaller compared to overall frequency drift measured for the similar yet high resistivity device in the same temperature range. Furthermore, a frequency tuning of ˜2100 ppm is achieved in high resistivity device by passing 45 mA DC current through its body. Continuous operation of the device under such a self-ovenizing current over 10 days did not induce frequency instability or degradation in Q.

  11. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. on blood pressure and oxidative status in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Leila; Asghari, Gholamreza; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo; Heidarinejad, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. is a tropical tree growing in southeast of Iran. All parts of this plant have nutritional uses and pharmacological activities. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of M. peregrina in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced hypertension in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats received Dex (30 μg/kg, subcutaneously; s.c.) or saline (as vehicle, 1 ml/kg, s.c.) for 14 days. In a prevention study, the rats received M. peregrina extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) for 4 days, followed by Dex for 14 days. In a reversal study, the animals received M. peregrina extract orally from day 8 to 14. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using tail-cuff method. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were assessed in plasma samples. Results: Dex significantly increased the SBP and the plasma H2O2 and decreased the plasma FRAP value (P < 0.001). M. peregrina extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg prevented (P < 0.01) but did not reverse Dex-induced hypertension in rats. It also dose-dependently reduced the plasma H2O2 concentration and improved the FRAP value upon Dex administration. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated the antioxidant and partially antihypertensive effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of M. peregrina in Dex-induced hypertension. Further experiments on other fractions of the leaves and also other parts of this plant are suggested for better evaluation of its antihypertensive effect and finding its mechanisms of action. PMID:26015927

  12. In vitro vasodilatory activity and possible mechanisms of the crude extracts and fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. leaves in isolated thoracic aorta of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Geleta, Bekesho; Makonnen, Eyasu; Debella, Asfaw; Abebe, Abiy; Fekadu, Netsanet

    2016-01-01

    Moringa stenopetala, a plant belonging to the family of Moringaceae, is traditionally used for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes in Ethiopia. This study evaluates the in vitro vasodilatory effect of the extract of M. stenopetala leaves and the possible mechanisms in precontracted isolated thoracic aorta of guinea pigs. A guinea pig was sacrificed by gentle cervical dislocation, and the thoracic aortic ring was removed, cut spirally, and mounted in an organ bath containing Krebs-Henseleit physiological solution maintained at 37°C, and then the solution was aerated with carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2). The vasodilatory activity of cumulative doses of M. stenopetala extracts and fractions was evaluated on intact and denuded endothelium of isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs precontracted with potassium chloride (80 mM), epinephrine (1 μM), methylene blue (10 μM), and glibenclamide (10 μM) using polygraph. All extracts showed a relaxant effect in precontracted isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the greater percentage of relaxant effect was shown with the addition of crude extracts in 80 mM of potassium chloride (99.10% and 95.56% for ethanol and aqueous crude extracts, respectively), and 1 μM of epinephrine (82.85% and 90.16% for ethanol and aqueous crude extracts, respectively) in precontracted isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs. Hence, the possible mechanism of relaxation might be mediated through the blockade of receptor-operated calcium influx and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. The aqueous extract showed more significant in vitro vasodilatory effect than its fractions and 70% ethanol extract.

  13. Late Quaternary environmental and human events at En Gedi, reflected by the geology and archaeology of the Moringa Cave (Dead Sea area, Israel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisker, Sorin; Porat, Roi; Davidovich, Uri; Eshel, Hanan; Lauritzen, Stein-Erik; Frumkin, Amos

    2007-09-01

    The Moringa Cave within Pleistocene sediments in the En Gedi area of the Dead Sea Fault Escarpment contains a sequence of various Pleistocene lacustrine deposits associated with higher-than-today lake levels at the Dead Sea basin. In addition it contains Chalcolithic remains and 5th century BC burials attributed to the Persian period, cemented and covered by Late Holocene travertine flowstone. These deposits represent a chain of Late Pleistocene and Holocene interconnected environmental and human events, echoing broader scale regional and global climate events. A major shift between depositional environments is associated with the rapid fall of Lake Lisan level during the latest Pleistocene. This exposed the sediments, providing for cave formation processes sometime between the latest Pleistocene (ca. 15 ka) and the Middle Holocene (ca. 4500 BC), eventually leading to human use of the cave. The Chalcolithic use of the cave can be related to a relatively moist desert environment, probably related to a shift in the location of the northern boundary of the Saharo-Arabian desert belt. The travertine layer was U-Th dated 2.46 ± 0.10 to 2.10 ± 0.04 ka, in agreement with the archaeological finds from the Persian period. Together with the inner consistency of the dating results, this strongly supports the reliability of the radiometric ages. The 2.46-2.10 ka travertine deposition within the presently dry cave suggests a higher recharge of the Judean Desert aquifer, correlative to a rising Dead Sea towards the end of the 1st millennium BC. This suggests a relatively moist local and regional climate facilitating human habitation of the desert.

  14. In vitro vasodilatory activity and possible mechanisms of the crude extracts and fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. leaves in isolated thoracic aorta of guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Geleta, Bekesho; Makonnen, Eyasu; Debella, Asfaw; Abebe, Abiy; Fekadu, Netsanet

    2016-01-01

    Moringa stenopetala, a plant belonging to the family of Moringaceae, is traditionally used for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes in Ethiopia. This study evaluates the in vitro vasodilatory effect of the extract of M. stenopetala leaves and the possible mechanisms in precontracted isolated thoracic aorta of guinea pigs. A guinea pig was sacrificed by gentle cervical dislocation, and the thoracic aortic ring was removed, cut spirally, and mounted in an organ bath containing Krebs–Henseleit physiological solution maintained at 37°C, and then the solution was aerated with carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2). The vasodilatory activity of cumulative doses of M. stenopetala extracts and fractions was evaluated on intact and denuded endothelium of isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs precontracted with potassium chloride (80 mM), epinephrine (1 μM), methylene blue (10 μM), and glibenclamide (10 μM) using polygraph. All extracts showed a relaxant effect in precontracted isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the greater percentage of relaxant effect was shown with the addition of crude extracts in 80 mM of potassium chloride (99.10% and 95.56% for ethanol and aqueous crude extracts, respectively), and 1 μM of epinephrine (82.85% and 90.16% for ethanol and aqueous crude extracts, respectively) in precontracted isolated whole, spirally cut thoracic aortic strips of guinea pigs. Hence, the possible mechanism of relaxation might be mediated through the blockade of receptor-operated calcium influx and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. The aqueous extract showed more significant in vitro vasodilatory effect than its fractions and 70% ethanol extract. PMID:27785112

  15. Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers using acrylamide-β-cyclodextrin as a cofunctional monomer for the specific capture of tea saponins from the defatted cake extract of Camellia oleifera.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiqin; Xiong, Jingjing; Ma, Wentian; Wu, Minghuo; Yan, Liushui; Li, Kexin; Liu, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized using mixed tea saponins as a template and acrylamide-β-cyclodextrin as a cofunctional monomer for the specific binding and purification of tea saponins from the defatted cake extract of Camellia oleifera. The adsorption properties of the prepared polymers were systematically evaluated including adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and selective recognition characteristics. It showed that the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.995) with an equilibrium time of 3 h, adsorption isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir-Freundlich model (R(2) = 0.984) with an adsorption capacity of 14.23 mg/g. The relative selectivity coefficient (k´) in the presence of the analogues glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid were 1.16 and 17.21, respectively. The performance of the molecularly imprinted polymers as solid-phase extraction materials was investigated and the results indicated that using acrylamide-β-cyclodextrin as a cofunctional monomer improved both the adsorption capacity and active sites stability of the imprinted polymers. The solid-phase extraction using the polymers as packing materials was subsequently applied for the separation of tea saponins in raw C. oleifera press extract, and targets were obtained with a purity reaching 89%.

  16. Development of EST-derived CAPS and AFLP markers linked to a gene for resistance to ryegrass blast (Pyricularia sp.) in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.).

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuichi; Ding, Chenglong; Ozaki, Rie; Hirata, Mariko; Fujimori, Masahiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Cai, Hongwei; Mizuno, Kazuhiko

    2005-09-01

    Ryegrass blast, also called gray leaf spot, is caused by the fungus Pyricularia sp. It is one of the most serious diseases of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in Japan. We analyzed segregation of resistance in an F(1) population from a cross between a resistant and a susceptible cultivar. The disease severity distribution in the F(1) population suggested that resistance was controlled by a major gene (Lm Pi1). Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms with bulked segregant analysis identified several markers tightly linked to Lm Pi1. To identify other markers linked to Lm Pi1, we used expressed sequence tag-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS) markers mapped in a reference population of Italian ryegrass. Of the 30 EST-CAPS markers screened, one marker, p 56, flanking the Lm Pi1 locus was found. The restriction pattern of p 56 amplification showed a unique fragment corresponding to the resistant allele at the Lm Pi1 locus. A linkage map constructed from the reference population showed that the Lm Pi1 locus was located in linkage group 5 of Italian ryegrass. Genotype results obtained from resistant and susceptible cultivars indicate that the p 56 marker is useful for introduction of the Lm Pi1 gene into susceptible germ plasm in order to develop ryegrass cultivars with enhanced resistance to ryegrass blast.

  17. Effects of heavy metals on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity present in gill cell plasma-membrane of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Viarengo, A; Mancinelli, G; Pertica, M; Fabbri, R; Orunesu, M

    1993-11-01

    1. Heavy metals (Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+) at micromolar concentrations strongly inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity present in the plasma-membrane obtained from the gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. Heavy metals act through inhibition of the formation of the phosphorylated intermediate. 2. All the heavy metals tested inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, the effect following the order: Hg2+ > Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+; the simultaneous addition of different heavy metals causes a summatory inhibition of the enzyme activity; addition to the reaction mixture of GSH at a final concentration of 0.5 mM, reverses inhibitory effects of heavy metals. 3. The inhibitory effects of Cu2+ on Ca(2+)-ATPase are highly enhanced by addition of ascorbate to the reaction mixture. In the presence of ascorbate (100 microM), copper strongly stimulates the lipid peroxidation damage of the gill plasma-membranes, a result that may explain the high copper cytotoxicity.

  18. Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Praxedes-Garcia, Priscila; Cruz-Silva, Ilana; Gozzo, Andrezza Justino; Abreu Nunes, Viviane; Torquato, Ricardo José; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Gonzalez, Yamile Gonzalez; Araújo, Mariana da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP) hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7 μM) in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50°C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4 3−, SO4 2−, and CH3COO−) or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+). It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins. PMID:22629147

  19. The Synergic Anti-inflammatory Impact of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 on Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a DSS-induced Colitis Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Koh, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Young Jun; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sea Hun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the synergic anti-inflammatory activity of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (GS) extract and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 both in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis and immunostaining showed that AKT phosphorylation that increased by the exposure of LPS were significantly decreased by the presence of either GS extract or L. brevis KY21. In addition, p65 intracellular transport was critically inhibited by GS extract and L. brevis KY21. We further studied these effects using an in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model. Body weight, food intake, and clinical scores were dramatically decreased after treatment with DSS, whereas these effects were palliated by the addition of GS extract and L. brevis KY21. Importantly, transcription of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the spleen were increased by DSS treatment, whereas they were inhibited by the presence of GS extract and L. brevis KY21.

  20. The Synergic Anti-inflammatory Impact of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 on Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a DSS-induced Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Oh, Sejong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the synergic anti-inflammatory activity of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (GS) extract and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 both in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis and immunostaining showed that AKT phosphorylation that increased by the exposure of LPS were significantly decreased by the presence of either GS extract or L. brevis KY21. In addition, p65 intracellular transport was critically inhibited by GS extract and L. brevis KY21. We further studied these effects using an in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model. Body weight, food intake, and clinical scores were dramatically decreased after treatment with DSS, whereas these effects were palliated by the addition of GS extract and L. brevis KY21. Importantly, transcription of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the spleen were increased by DSS treatment, whereas they were inhibited by the presence of GS extract and L. brevis KY21. PMID:26761887

  1. Microcontamination control in a Lam 4400 plasma etcher: 15X reduction in particle defect densities during SF6/He silicon trench etch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagvat, Shantanu; Cusack, Christine; Anderson, Larry

    1997-08-01

    Particles from the Lam 4400 blocked the etching of nitride and silicon during the trench etch for semi-recessed LOCOS field oxidation. This trench etch resulted in poor mean time between cleans (MTBC) of less than 500 wafers, reduced availability of the system, wafer scrappage up to 2.5%, and masked KLA defect source analysis at subsequent steps. EDX analysis of the particles showed them to be AlFx, the source of which we determined to be the Al chamber parts reacting with the F plasma. This unique paper shows the benefits of various improvements to plasma cleans, chamber cleans, and equipment hardware upgrades (such as DI water sealed, anodized chamber parts). We compare the performance of the tool before and after the improvements, resulting in a 10 fold increase in MTBC, 20% increase in system availability, 15X reduction in particle defect densities, and resultant zero wafer scrappage due to blocked trench etc. Detailed system performance data (MTBC, availability, particle data), KLA defect trend charts, and SEM/EDX data is presented.

  2. Beneficial effects of Camellia Oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) on ketoprofen-induced gastrointestinal mucosal damage through upregulation of HO-1 and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Wu, Shu-Li; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Huang, Shang-Ming; Cheng, Chun-Lung; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2014-01-22

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ketoprofen, are generally used to treat pain and inflammation and as pyretic agents in clinical medicine. However, the usage of these drugs may lead to oxidative injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa. Camellia oil ( Camellia oleifera Abel.) is commonly used in Taiwan and China as cooking oil. Traditional remedies containing this oil exert beneficial health effects on the bowel, stomach, liver, and lungs. However, the effects of camellia oil on ketoprofen-induced oxidative gastrointestinal mucosal lesions remain unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of camellia oil on ketoprofen-induced acute gastrointestinal ulcers. The results showed that treatment of Int-407 cells with camellia oil (50-75 μg/mL) not only increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA expression but also increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) protein secretion, which served as a mucosal barrier against gastrointestinal oxidative injury. Moreover, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with camellia oil (2 mL/kg/day) prior to the administration of ketoprofen (50 mg/kg/day) successfully inhibited COX-2 protein expression, inhibited the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitrite oxide (NO), reversed the impairment of the antioxidant system, and decreased oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal mucosa. More importantly, pretreatment of SD rats with camellia oil strongly inhibited gastrointestinal mucosal injury induced by ketoprofen, which was proved by the histopathological staining of gastrointestinal tissues. Our data suggest that camellia oil exerts potent antiulcer effects against oxidative damage in the stomach and intestine induced by ketoprofen.

  3. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Miller, Richard E.; Scotland, Robert W.; Wood, John R. I.; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A.; Jarret, Robert L.; Yencho, G. C.; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  4. Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea mays L.) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos, eastern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mungai, D N; Stigter, C J; Coulson, C L; Ng'Ang'A, J K; Netondo, G W; Umaya, G O

    2001-07-01

    Six seasons of experiments in Machakos, Kenya, revealed that above about 150 mm of rainfall, maize yields per row in alley cropped "replacement" agroforestry (AF) plots, of Cassia siamea Lam. and maize (Zea mays, cv. Katumani Composite B), may be expected to exceed those in the control (sole maize) plots. Such yields were insufficient to compensate for the area "lost" to the hedgerows. Below about 150 mm the control plots may be expected to perform better. This result was due to competition for water. Greater association of the fine roots of Cassia and maize was observed in the middle of the alleys than near the hedgerows. Photosynthetic consequences of shading were insignificant relative to other factors. In the alleys, reductions of soil temperature due to shade in the western and eastern maize rows were higher than in the middle row. Soil moisture extraction was higher in the AF than in the control plots. In the AF plots, moisture extraction was greater under the central maize rows than under those nearest the Cassia. Yield patterns followed such soil temperature and soil moisture patterns. Maize transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the control than in the AF plots during a below-average rainy season but not during above-average rainy seasons. It is concluded that alley cropping under semi-arid conditions should be approached differently from the system worked on. It must at least provide strong physical protection of crops and/or soils and have a strong economic incentive to be of interest to the farmers.

  5. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    PubMed

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae).

    PubMed

    Abotsi, W K M; Ainooson, G K; Woode, E

    2012-01-01

    Various parts of the perennial herb Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Family: Phytolaccaceae) are used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of several inflammatory-related disorders. The present study examined the anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia (HLE) in acute and chronic inflammation models. Since free radicals and reactive oxygen species are implicated in inflammatory diseases, the antioxidant potential of HLE was also investigated in in vitro experimental models. HLE (10-300 mg kg(-1), p.o.), either preemptively or curatively, significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced foot oedema in 7-day old chicks. Similarly, the NSAID diclofenac (10-100 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and the steroidal anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone (0.3-3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) dose-dependently reduced the oedema in both pre-emptive and curative treatments. In the Freund's adjuvant induced-arthritis model in rats, HLE as well as the positive controls, dexamethasone and methotrexate, showed significant anti-arthritic properties when applied to established adjuvant arthritis. HLE (10-300 mg kg(-1), p.o.) significantly reduced oedema in the ipsilateral paw of rats but failed to prevent systemic arthritic spread. The DMARD methotrexate (0.1-1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and dexamethasone (0.3-3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced significantly the total polyarthritic oedema as well as the spread of the arthritis from the ipsilateral to the contralateral paws of the treated animals. The extract (0.03-1.00 mg ml(-1)) exhibited Fe(3+) reducing activity, scavenged DPPH and prevented lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that the extract exerts in vivo anti-inflammatory activity after oral administration and also has antioxidant properties which may contribute to its activity.

  7. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of L-Dopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations using a crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] as enzymatic source.

    PubMed

    Fatibello-Filho, O; da Cruz Vieira, I

    1997-04-01

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of L-dopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations. After selection of the extraction medium (e.g., buffer-to-tissue ratio, pH, buffer concentration, protective agents and/or stabilizers) and storage conditions, crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was used as an enzymatic source of polyphenol oxidase (Tyrosinase; catechol oxidase; EC.1.14.18.1) directly in the carrier. This enzyme catalyses the oxidation of these catecholamines to the corresponding dopaquinone. Further, dopaquinone undergoes a rapid spontaneous auto-oxidation to leucodopachrome, which is in turn oxidized to dopachrome; this last compound has a strong absorption at 480 and 360 nm for L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively. For the optimum extraction conditions found the enzyme activity of the crude extract did not vary for at least 5 months when stored at 4 degrees C and decreased by only 4-5% during an 8 h working period at 25 degrees C. The results obtained for L-dopa and carbidopa by the proposed enzymatic FI method were in close agreement with the label values (r1 = 0.9699 and r2 = 0.9999) and also with those obtained using a pharmacopeial method (r3 = 0.9675). The throughput was 26 samples h-1, and 2.30 ml of crude extract were consumed in each determination, corresponding to only 72 mg of the original sweet potato root. The detection limit (three times the signal blank/slope) was 1.5 x 10(-5) and 2.0 x 10(-5) mol l-1 for L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively; the recovery of L-dopa and carbidopa from three samples ranged from 98.6 to 106.3% of the added amount.

  8. Development of a validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by ultra-violet detection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cuscuta species known as dodder, have been used in traditional medicine of eastern and southern Asian countries as liver and kidney tonic. Flavonoids are considered as the main biologically active constituents in Cuscuta plants especially in C. chinensis Lam. Objective In the present study, a fast, simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination and quantization of C. chinensis flavonols including hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol has been developed. Materials and methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase ACE 5 C18 with eluting at a flow rate of 1 ml/min using a gradient with O-phosphoric acid 0.25% : acetonitrile for 42 min. UV spectra were collected across the range of 200–900 nm, extracting 360 nm for the chromatograms. The method was validated according to linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ. Results The method was selective for determination of rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin and kampferol. The calibration graphs of flavonols were linear with r2 > 0.999. RSDs% of intra- and inter-day precisions were found 1.3&3.4 for rutin, 1.5&2.8 for hyperoside, 1.3&3.3 for isorhamnetin and 1.7 & 2.9 for kaempferol which were satisfactory. LODs and LOQs were calculated as 1.73 & 8.19 for rutin, 0.09 & 4.19 for hyperoside, 2.09 & 6.3 for isorhamnetin and 0.18 & 0.56 for kaempferol. The recovery averages of above-mentioned flavonols were 90.3%, 97.4%, 98.7% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion The simplicity of the method makes it highly valuable for quality control of C. chinensis according to quantization of flavonols. PMID:23352257

  9. Leaf morphological and physiological adaptations of a deciduous oak (Quercus faginea Lam.) to the Mediterranean climate: a comparison with a closely related temperate species (Quercus robur L.).

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Díaz-Espejo, Antonio; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    'White oaks'--one of the main groups of the genus Quercus L.--are represented in western Eurasia by the 'roburoid oaks', a deciduous and closely related genetic group that should have an Arcto-Tertiary origin under temperate-nemoral climates. Nowadays, roburoid oak species such as Quercus robur L. are still present in these temperate climates in Europe, but others are also present in southern Europe under Mediterranean-type climates, such as Quercus faginea Lam. We hypothesize the existence of a coordinated functional response at the whole-shoot scale in Q. faginea under Mediterranean conditions to adapt to more xeric habitats. The results reveal a clear morphological and physiological segregation between Q. robur and Q. faginea, which constitute two very contrasting functional types in response to climate dryness. The most outstanding divergence between the two species is the reduction in transpiring area in Q. faginea, which is the main trait imposed by the water deficit in Mediterranean-type climates. The reduction in leaf area ratio in Q. faginea should have a negative effect on carbon gain that is partially counteracted by a higher inherent photosynthetic ability of Q. faginea when compared with Q. robur, as a consequence of higher mesophyll conductance, higher maximum velocity of carboxylation and much higher stomatal conductance (gs). The extremely high gs of Q. faginea counteracts the expected reduction in gs imposed by the stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit, allowing this species to diminish water losses maintaining high net CO2 assimilation values along the vegetative period under nonlimiting soil water potential values. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Q. faginea can be regarded as an example of adaptation of a deciduous oak to Mediterranean-type climates.

  10. Leaf morphological and physiological adaptations of a deciduous oak (Quercus faginea Lam.) to the Mediterranean climate: a comparison with a closely related temperate species (Quercus robur L.)

    PubMed Central

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Díaz-Espejo, Antonio; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-01-01

    ‘White oaks’—one of the main groups of the genus Quercus L.—are represented in western Eurasia by the ‘roburoid oaks’, a deciduous and closely related genetic group that should have an Arcto-Tertiary origin under temperate-nemoral climates. Nowadays, roburoid oak species such as Quercus robur L. are still present in these temperate climates in Europe, but others are also present in southern Europe under Mediterranean-type climates, such as Quercus faginea Lam. We hypothesize the existence of a coordinated functional response at the whole-shoot scale in Q. faginea under Mediterranean conditions to adapt to more xeric habitats. The results reveal a clear morphological and physiological segregation between Q. robur and Q. faginea, which constitute two very contrasting functional types in response to climate dryness. The most outstanding divergence between the two species is the reduction in transpiring area in Q. faginea, which is the main trait imposed by the water deficit in Mediterranean-type climates. The reduction in leaf area ratio in Q. faginea should have a negative effect on carbon gain that is partially counteracted by a higher inherent photosynthetic ability of Q. faginea when compared with Q. robur, as a consequence of higher mesophyll conductance, higher maximum velocity of carboxylation and much higher stomatal conductance (gs). The extremely high gs of Q. faginea counteracts the expected reduction in gs imposed by the stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit, allowing this species to diminish water losses maintaining high net CO2 assimilation values along the vegetative period under nonlimiting soil water potential values. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Q. faginea can be regarded as an example of adaptation of a deciduous oak to Mediterranean-type climates. PMID:26496958

  11. Phosphorus status and microbial community of paddy soil with the growth of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) under different phosphorus fertilizer treatments*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hai-chao; Wang, Guang-huo

    2009-01-01

    Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was grown in paddy soil in pots under different phosphorus (P) fertilizer treatments to investigate changes of P fractions and microbial community of the soil. The treatments included Kunyang phosphate rock (KPR) applications at 50 mg P/kg (KPR50) and 250 mg P/kg (KPR250), mono-calcium phosphate (MCP) application at 50 mg P/kg (MCP50), and the control without P application. The results showed that KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications significantly increased the dry weight of the ryegrass by 13%, 38%, and 55%, and increased P uptake by 19%, 135%, and 324%, respectively. Compared with MCP50, the relative effectiveness of KPR50 and KPR250 treatments in ryegrass production was about 23% and 68%, respectively. After one season of ryegrass growth, the KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications increased soil-available P by 13.4%, 26.8%, and 55.2%, respectively. More than 80% of the applied KPR-P remained as HCl-P fraction in the soil. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that the total and bacterial PLFAs were significantly higher in the soils with KPR250 and MCP50 treatments compared with KPR50 and control. The latter had no significant difference in the total or bacterial PLFAs. The KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 treatments increased fungal PLFA by 69%, 103%, and 69%, respectively. Both the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis of the PLFA data suggest that P treatments altered the microbial community composition of the soils, and that P availability might be an important contributor to the changes in the microbial community structure during the ryegrass growth in the paddy soils. PMID:19817001

  12. A new MADS-box gene (IbMADS10) from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is involved in the accumulation of anthocyanin.

    PubMed

    Lalusin, Antonio G; Nishita, Koichi; Kim, Sung-Hyung; Ohta, Masaru; Fujimura, Tatsuhito

    2006-01-01

    A new MADS-box gene designated as IbMADS10 was cloned and its expression was characterized from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Beniazuma. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene indicated high homology with members of the MADS-box family of transcription factors. IbMADS10 shares high amino acid sequence similarity with the DEFH28 of Antirrhinum majus (64%) and with BpMADS4 of Betula pendula (61%) of the SQUA subfamily. Southern blot analysis revealed that the IbMADS10 is present in one or low copy number in the sweet potato genome. The gene is specifically expressed in the pigmented tissues such as in the flower bud, in the pink and in red roots, and hence, it was speculated that the IbMADS10 gene might be correlated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in sweet potato. RNA blot expression of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes encoding for CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFTG carried out in the tissues where the IbMADS10 gene was expressed revealed similar transcript levels in all tissues where the IbMADS10 gene is highly expressed, indicating that the IbMADS10 gene is highly correlated with the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Another important aspect is the pigmented phenotypes of transgenic calli that ectopically express the IbMADS10 gene, thereby supporting its involvement in the developmental regulation of pigment formation. Tissue printing result further strengthens the hypothesis that the IbMADS10 gene is indeed involved in anthocyanin pigmentation in sweet potato. As the purpose of the IbMADS10 gene is pigmentation, its function, therefore, resembles that of the transparent testa (tt) genes of Arabidopsis.

  13. Preparative separation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) from fermented Camellia oleifera Abel cake by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) encapsulation using pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Song, Guanglei; Li, Xiuping; Du, Jiasu; Wang, Jingbo

    2014-03-01

    This paper concentrates on the separation of three conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers (trans-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA) by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) encapsulation using countercurrent chromatography from Camellia oleifera Abel cake fermented by lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus sp. LL-ZSDS001. The elution sequence of the CLA isomers, the mixing zones and mechanism of separation are discussed. The separation of 305.9mg of the crude sample yielded three isomeric compounds: 91.3mg of trans-9,trans-11 CLA, 84.1mg of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 79.7mg of cis-9,trans-11 CLA at high purities of 98%, 94% and 96%, respectively.

  14. In vitro analysis on bactericidal screening and antioxidant potentiality of leaf and root extracts of Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. An ethnobotanical plant

    PubMed Central

    Nusaiba, Saiba Abdul Wahab; Murugan, Kumaraswamy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Natural products of plant origin are potential source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidative agents. Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. (T. siliquosa). A medicinal herb used by local tribals for treating various ailments. The present study aims at the phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis, in vitro antibacterial activity and antioxidant potentiality of root and leaf extracts of T. siliquosa. Methods Hot continuous Soxhlet extraction, GC-MS analysis, antibacterial analysis by disc diffusion, microdilution assay and antioxidant potentialities by hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging. The data was statistically analyzed. Results Phytochemical screening of the ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of leaf and root revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins and saponin. The extract revealed a pool of phytochemicals by comparison with authentic standards from spectral library. Both the extracts has shown their broad spectrum of inhibition against the selected bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia compared with standard antibiotic drug streptomycin. The extracts showed antioxidant activity by scavenging of free radicals such as hydroxyl and nitric oxide. The IC50 values of the ethyl acetate extracts leaf and root and standard in this assay were 167.5±0.67, 99.4±1.2, 192±2.5 µg/mL respectively. Similarly those methanolic extracts of leaf and root were 269.5±0.89 and 289.1±2.66 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts also caused a moderate dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide with an IC50 range 65.5±1.55 to 148 ±3.09 µg/mL. The inhibitory activities were found to be dose dependent. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that ethyl acetate and methanol extract of leaf and root of T. siliquosa are potential source of natural antioxidants and bactericidal nature. It is essential that research should continue to isolate and purify

  15. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rattanasena, Paweena

    2012-09-15

    The vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Thailand have been suggested as rich sources of beneficial phytochemicals. In this study, vegetables and fruits native to the Northeast region of Thailand were evaluated for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. For vegetables, the extracts of Limnophila aromatica (Lamk.) Merr. (extracted by 80% ethanol) and Sauropus androgynus (Linn.) Merr. (extracted by distilled water) were found to have significant levels of antioxidant activities measured by DPPH scavenging (IC5o at 4.92+/-0.01 and 4.71+/-0.01 mg mL-1, respectively) and FRAP antioxidant assays (74.38+/-0.25 and 74.00+/-0.04 mmol FeSO4 g-' of dry weight of vegetable, respectively) and also total phenolic compounds (10.96+/-0.02 and 10.34+/-0.01 mg gallic acid eq g-1 of dry weight of vegetable). For fruits, the extracts derived from Terminalia chebula Retz. when using distilled water and 80% ethanol as solvents were shown to have significantly high levels of DPPH scavenging (IC50 at 3.73+/-0.01 and 3.81+/-0.01 mg mL-1, respectively), FRAP antioxidant activities (80.85+/-0.10 and 65.93+/-0.11 mmol FeSO4 g-1of dry weight of fruit, respectively) and total phenolic compounds (13.10+/-0.06 and 10.66+/-0.02 mg gallic acid eq g-1 of dry weight of fruit, respectively). The antibacterial assays showed that Moringa oleifera Lam., Limnophila aromatica (Lamk.) Merr., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. that were extracted using 80% ethanol as solvent were found to have antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Straphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Propionibacterium acnes. The results in this study may be useful for future application of edible plants that are native to Thailand to be used as cosmetic or therapqutic products.

  16. Traditional leafy vegetables in Senegal: diversity and medicinal uses.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Gueye; Meissa, Diouf

    2007-06-10

    Six administrative regions of Senegal were investigated. Forty species of vegetable leaves which are traditionally consumed in Senegal have been inventoried. All species are members of twenty-one families the most numerous of which are Amaranthaceae Juss., Malvaceae Juss., Moraceae Link., the Papilionaceae Giseke and Tiliaceae Juss. The species are subdivided into three groups: cultivated leafy vegetables, plants gathered annually, perennial sub-ligneous and ligneous species. The gathered species represent 67.5% of the inventory, 40.7% of which is ligneous. Cultivated species account for 32.5% of the inventory. The species are consumed for their medicinal properties, nutritive value and eating habits linked to specific ethnic traditions. During the drought years, with the scarcity of main food (millet, mays) consumption of leafy vegetables is high. All species reported except Sesuvium portulacastrum L. are consumed like vegetable herbs. The species of Hibiscus are eaten in spinach and condiment form while Sesuvium portulacastrum L is cooked in salad. Of the forty species examined, eleven are widely consumed. Within the entire study area, Hibiscus sabdariffa predominates among species consumed, followed by Moringa oleifera Lam. and Senna obtusifolia Link. A high consumption level of some species like amarante, Corchorus tridens L., Corchorus aestuans L., Leptadenia hastata Decne. and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is confined to certain areas. In addition to their consumption as vegetables, the medicinal uses of 57.5% of these is of primary importance. The most commonly exploited parts are, respectively, leaf (40%), roots (20%), and bark (13.3%). Among the numerous pathologies treated, abscess, constipation, and rheumatism are predominant followed by aphrodisiac uses. The Amaranthus spp. L., Leptadenia hastata Decne., Senna obtusifolia Link., Adansonia digitata L. and Tamarindus indica L. are species with multiple medicinal uses.

  17. 4(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate, a bioactive phytochemical that attenuates secondary damage in an experimental model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    4(α-l-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (glucomoringin isothiocyanate; GMG-ITC) is released from the precursor 4(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin; GMG) by myrosinase (β-thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147) catalyzed hydrolysis. GMG is an uncommon member of the glucosinolate group as it presents a unique characteristic consisting in a second glycosidic residue within the side chain. It is a typical glucosinolate found in large amounts in the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam., the most widely distributed plant of the Moringaceae family. GMG was purified from seed-cake of M. oleifera and was hydrolyzed by myrosinase at neutral pH in order to form the corresponding GMG-ITC. This bioactive phytochemical can play a key role in counteracting the inflammatory response connected to the oxidative-related mechanisms as well as in the control of the neuronal cell death process, preserving spinal cord tissues after injury in mice. Spinal cord trauma was induced in mice by the application of vascular clips (force of 24g) for 1 min., via four-level T5-T8 after laminectomy. In particular, the purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes occurring in the spinal cord after ip treatment with bioactive GMG-ITC produced 15 min before use from myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of GMG (10mg/kg body weight+5 μl Myr mouse/day). The following parameters, such as histological damage, distribution of reticular fibers in connective tissue, nuclear factor (NF)-κB translocation and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκB-α) degradation, expression of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthases (iNOS), as well as apoptosis, were evaluated. In conclusion, our results show a protective effect of bioactive GMG-ITC on the secondary damage, following spinal cord injury, through an antioxidant mechanism of neuroprotection. Therefore, the bioactive phytochemical GMG-ITC freshly produced before use by myrosinase

  18. The in-capillary DPPH-capillary electrophoresis-the diode array detector combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode for screening and quantifying major antioxidants in Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Tian, Ji; Li, Jin; Azietaku, John Teye; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2016-07-01

    An in-capillary 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-CE-the DAD (in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD) combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode has been developed to screen and quantify the active antioxidant components of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. The operation parameters were optimized with regard to the pH and concentration of buffer solution, SDS, β-CDs, organic modifier, as well as separation voltage and temperature. Six antioxidants including chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, and astragalin were screened and the total antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully evaluated based on the decreased peak area of DPPH by the established DPPH-CE-DAD method. Sensitivity was enhanced under reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode and 10- to 31-fold of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity for each analyte was attained. The results demonstrated that the newly established in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD method combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode could integrate sample concentration, the oxidizing reaction, separation, and detection into one capillary to fully automate the system. It was considered a suitable technique for the separation, screening, and determination of trace antioxidants in natural products.

  19. Analysis of sphingolipids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Bartke, Nana; Fischbeck, Anne; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2006-12-01

    Ceramides and glucocerebrosides of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were analyzed using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Ceramides and glucocerebrosides containing the three different long-chain bases 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)), 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)), and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)) acylated to saturated and unsaturated hydroxy- and nonhydroxy fatty acids with 16-26 carbon atoms were detected. For ceramides and glucocerebrosides 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)) was found as the major long-chain base, with lesser amounts of 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)) and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)). 2-(Alpha-)hydroxypalmitic acid (C16:0h) was the major fatt