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Sample records for moroccan ethnic minority

  1. Ethnic density is not associated with psychological distress in Turkish-Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch and Surinamese-Dutch ethnic minorities in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schrier, Agnes C; Peen, Jaap; de Wit, Matty A S; van Ameijden, Erik J C; Erdem, Ozcan; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Dekker, Jack J M; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2014-10-01

    Ethnic density, the proportion of people of the same ethnic group in the neighbourhood, has been identified as a protective factor with regard to mental health in ethnic minorities. Research on the putative intermediating factors, exposure to discrimination and improved social support, has not yielded conclusive evidence. We investigated the association between ethnic density and psychological well-being in three ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands. We also assessed whether a protective ethnic density effect is related to the degree to which each group experiences discrimination and social support at group level. Using multi-level linear regression modelling, we studied the influence of ethnic density at neighbourhood level on psychological distress, measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10), in 13,864 native Dutch, 1,206 Surinamese-Dutch, 978 Turkish-Dutch and 784 Moroccan-Dutch citizens of the four major cities in the Netherlands. Based on a nationwide survey among ethnic minorities on social integration, ethnic groups were ordered with respect to the intermediating factors. Ethnic density was not associated with psychological distress in any of the three ethnic minority groups. As a consequence, we found no support for either experiences of discrimination or for own-group social interactions at group level as intermediating factors. In all three ethnic minority groups, as well as in the native Dutch group, individual demographic and socio-economic factors emerged as the main explanations for individuals' mental well-being. These results suggest that individual demographic and socio-economic risk characteristics outweigh the influence of neighbourhood attributes on mental health.

  2. Methodological challenges in quality of life research among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority cancer patients: translation, recruitment and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Hoopman, Rianne; Terwee, Caroline B; Muller, Martin J; Ory, Ferko G; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-06-01

    The large population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants who moved to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s is now reaching an age at which the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer, rises sharply. To date, little attention has been paid to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these ethnic minority groups, primarily due to the paucity of well translated and validated measures, but also because of a range of methodological and logistical barriers. The primary objective of this paper is to describe the methodological challenges in conducting HRQOL research among these patient populations, based on experience gained in a project in which four widely used HRQOL questionnaires were translated into Turkish, Moroccan-Arabic and Tarifit, and administered to a sample of 90 Turkish and 79 Moroccan cancer patients in the Netherlands. Problems encountered in translating and administering the questionnaires included achieving semantic equivalence (use of loanwords), use of numerical rating scales, lengthy questions and response scales, and culturally sensitive and/or inappropriate questions. Privacy laws that prohibit hospitals from registering the ethnicity of patients hampered efficient identification of eligible patients. Recruiting patients to studies is often difficult due to low literacy levels, lack of familiarity with and distrust of research, concerns about immigration status, and inaccurate or missing contact information. This can lead to lower response rates than is the case with the population of Dutch cancer patients. Additional ethical issues that arise in such studies concern patients' problems with communicating with their health care providers, their lack of understanding of their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, and the potential role conflict experienced by bilingual research assistants who may wish or be asked to intervene on the patients' behalf. Practical approaches to resolving these issues are presented.

  3. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  4. Partner selection and divorce in ethnic minorities: distinguishing between two types of ethnic homogamous marriages.

    PubMed

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups.

  5. Ethnic differences in mental health among incarcerated youths: do Moroccan immigrant boys show less psychopathology than native Dutch boys?

    PubMed

    Veen, Violaine; Stevens, Gonneke; Doreleijers, Theo; van der Ende, Jan; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2010-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent among incarcerated youth. However, whereas ethnic minority youths are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, limited research is available on their mental health. In this study, differences in mental health problems between incarcerated adolescents of native Dutch and Moroccan origin, were examined. Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self-Report scores were compared between incarcerated adolescents of native Dutch and Moroccan origin. Their scores were also compared to those of native Dutch and Moroccan immigrant youths in the general, non-incarcerated population. Native Dutch incarcerated adolescents showed higher levels of various mental health problems than incarcerated adolescents with a Moroccan background. Compared to the general population, incarcerated youths showed higher levels of mental health problems, but this deviation was much larger for native Dutch than for Moroccan immigrant youths. These ethnic differences in mental health problems could not be explained by ethnic differences in socio-economic background and social desirable answering tendencies. Incarcerated youths of Moroccan origin show less psychopathology than incarcerated native Dutch youths, which might be explained by disparities in sentencing procedures.

  6. Ethnic differences in mental health among incarcerated youths: do Moroccan immigrant boys show less psychopathology than native Dutch boys?

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Gonneke; Doreleijers, Theo; van der Ende, Jan; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent among incarcerated youth. However, whereas ethnic minority youths are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, limited research is available on their mental health. In this study, differences in mental health problems between incarcerated adolescents of native Dutch and Moroccan origin, were examined. Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self-Report scores were compared between incarcerated adolescents of native Dutch and Moroccan origin. Their scores were also compared to those of native Dutch and Moroccan immigrant youths in the general, non-incarcerated population. Native Dutch incarcerated adolescents showed higher levels of various mental health problems than incarcerated adolescents with a Moroccan background. Compared to the general population, incarcerated youths showed higher levels of mental health problems, but this deviation was much larger for native Dutch than for Moroccan immigrant youths. These ethnic differences in mental health problems could not be explained by ethnic differences in socio-economic background and social desirable answering tendencies. Incarcerated youths of Moroccan origin show less psychopathology than incarcerated native Dutch youths, which might be explained by disparities in sentencing procedures. PMID:20449708

  7. Ethnic Minorities' Impression Management in the Interview: Helping or Hindering?

    PubMed

    Derous, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities' interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred 'entitlements' whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred 'opinion conformity' as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities' use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants' preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters' interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. The Politics of Arabic Language Education: Moroccan Immigrant Children's Language Socialization into Ethnic and Religious Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the…

  9. The Politics of Arabic Language Education: Moroccan Immigrant Children's Language Socialization into Ethnic and Religious Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the…

  10. Minority Adolescents in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Perceptions of Equal Treatment Buffer Threat Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…

  11. Minority Adolescents in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Perceptions of Equal Treatment Buffer Threat Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…

  12. The relationship between ethnic composition of the residential environment and self-reported health among Turks and Moroccans in Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M; Ikram, Umar Z; de Vos, Sjoerd; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-04-12

    Previous studies from the US and UK suggest that neighbourhood ethnic composition is associated with health, positive or negative, depending on the health outcome and ethnic group. We examined the association between neighbourhood ethnic composition and self-reported health in these groups in Amsterdam, and we aimed to explore whether there is spatial variation in this association. We used micro-scale data to describe the ethnic composition in buffers around the home location of 2701 Turks and 2661 Moroccans. Multilevel regression analysis was used to assess the association between three measures of ethnic composition (% co-ethnics, % other ethnic group, Herfindahl index) and three measures of self-reported health: self-rated health, Physical and Mental Component Score (PCS, MCS). We adjusted for socioeconomic position at individual and area level. We used geographically weighted regression and spatially stratified regression analyses to explore whether associations differed within Amsterdam. Ethnic heterogeneity and own ethnic density were not related to self-rated health for both ethnic groups. Higher density of Turks was associated with better self-rated health among Moroccans at all buffer sizes, with the most significant relations for small buffers. Higher heterogeneity was associated with lower scores on PCS and MCS among Turks (suggesting worse health). We found spatial variation in the association of the density of the other ethnic group with self-rated health of Moroccans and Turks. We found a positive association for both groups, spatially concentrated in the sub-district Geuzenveld. Our study showed that the association of ethnic composition with self-reported health among Turks and Moroccans in Amsterdam differed between the groups and reveals mainly at small spatial scales. Among both groups, an association of higher density of the other group with better self-rated health was found in a particular part of Amsterdam, which might be explained by the

  13. Injury mortality among ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stirbu, I; Kunst, A E; Bos, V; van Beeck, E F

    2006-03-01

    To prepare a comprehensive overview of ethnic differences in injury related mortality in the Netherlands and to determine the role of area income and urbanisation degree. Data for the period 1995-2000 were obtained from the population and cause of death registries. Injury related death rates were compared for persons from Turkish, Moroccans, Surinamese, and Antillean/Aruban origin with rates for the native Dutch population. Compared with the native Dutch population, all ethnic minorities combined had an increased mortality for all injuries together (RR = 1.29). Ethnic minorities experienced a significantly higher risk of death from pedestrian accidents (RR = 1.87), drowning (RR = 2.58), poisoning (RR = 1.76), fire and scalds (RR = 1.95), and homicide (RR = 3.24). Mortality for cyclists (RR = 0.53) and motorcycle drivers (RR = 0.47) was significantly lower among ethnic minorities compared with the native Dutch. Adjustment for area income and urbanisation decreased the mortality risk difference for most of the non-traffic injuries, but showed a difference in risk for car driver and passenger accidents (RR = 1.37). Compared with the native Dutch inhabitants, Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban population had a higher risk of total injury mortality (RR = 1.33 and 1.53 respectively), while Turkish and Moroccans had increased risk only for selected conditions. Inequalities in injury mortality were the highest among children and young adults, but persisted in the age group above 50 years old. Ethnic differences in injury mortality in the Netherlands strongly depended on type of injury, ethnic group, sex, and age. Policies should be aimed at the prevention of high risk injuries among the most vulnerable ages and ethnic groups.

  14. Prevalence, impact and cultural context of psychotic experiences among ethnic minority youth.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, M; van Domburgh, L; Hoek, H W; Susser, E; Doreleijers, T A H; Veling, W

    2015-02-01

    The risk for psychotic disorders is increased for many ethnic minority groups and may develop in early childhood. This study investigated whether the prevalence of psychotic experiences (PE) with high impact is higher among ethnic minority youth compared to majority youth and examined the significance of these PE. A school-based study assessed a large community sample of 1545 ethnic minority and majority children in The Netherlands (mean age 12.98 ± 1.81 years). The Dutch (n = 702, 45.4%), Moroccan-Dutch (n = 400, 25.9%) and Turkish-Dutch (n = 170, 11.0%) ethnic groups could be studied separately. Self-report questionnaires on PE, impact and cultural context were administered. Prevalence of PE with high impact was 3.1% in Dutch, 9.5% in Moroccan-Dutch and 7.1% in Turkish-Dutch youth. Compared to Dutch youth, odds ratios were 3.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-5.1] for Moroccan-Dutch youth and 2.2 (95% CI 1.1-4.6) for Turkish-Dutch youth. Differences were not explained by cultural or religious differences. The increased risk for psychotic disorders in ethnic minorities may already be detectable in childhood, since PE with high impact were more common among ethnic minority youth compared to majority youth. The additional measurement of impact of PE appears to be a valid approach to identify those children at risk to develop psychotic or other more common psychiatric disorders.

  15. Ethnic Attitudes of Minority Students and Their Contact with Majority Group Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2012-01-01

    Research on intergroup attitudes in children has focused on contact with out-group peers but neglected the role of adults. This cross-sectional self-report study examined the association between the ethnic attitudes of 174 minority (Turkish- and Moroccan-Dutch) preadolescents (ages 9-13) and the perceived interpersonal relationships with their…

  16. The Perception of Neighborhood Disorder in Flemish Belgium: Differences between Ethnic Majority and Minority Group Members and Bearing on Fear of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancluysen, Kris; Van Craen, Maarten; Ackaert, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The present research examines whether the perception of neighborhood disorder differs between ethnic majority and minority group members and whether perceived disorder has the same impact on fear of crime among ethnic minorities as among the majority group. To answer the research questions, data are used from a survey among persons of Moroccan,…

  17. The Perception of Neighborhood Disorder in Flemish Belgium: Differences between Ethnic Majority and Minority Group Members and Bearing on Fear of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancluysen, Kris; Van Craen, Maarten; Ackaert, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The present research examines whether the perception of neighborhood disorder differs between ethnic majority and minority group members and whether perceived disorder has the same impact on fear of crime among ethnic minorities as among the majority group. To answer the research questions, data are used from a survey among persons of Moroccan,…

  18. A Mosaic of America's Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellows, Donald Keith

    In this approach to an understanding of America's ethnic minorities, the most important concern is with the interaction between these various culture groups and the dominant, white society. Six of America's principal ethnic minorities have been considered: blacks, Mexicans, Indians, Chinese, Japanese, and Puerto Ricans. In each case the same…

  19. Factors associated with psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders in ethnic minority youth.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke; Veling, Wim

    2016-10-01

    While ethnic diversity is increasing in many countries, ethnic minority youth is less likely to be reached, effectively treated and retained by youth mental health care compared to majority youth. Improving understanding of factors associated with mental health problems within socially disadvantaged ethnic minority youth is important to tailor current preventive and treatment interventions to the needs of these youth. The aim of this study was to explore factors at child, family, school, peer, neighbourhood and ethnic minority group level associated with mental health problems in Moroccan-Dutch youth (n = 152, mean age 13.6 ± 1.9 years). Self-reported and teacher-reported questionnaire data on psychiatric symptoms and self-report interview data on psychiatric disorders were used to divide children into three levels of mental health problems: no symptoms, only psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric symptoms and/or disorders were associated with more psychopathic traits, a higher number of experienced trauma and children in the family, and more conflicts with parents, affiliation with delinquent peers, perceived discrimination and cultural mistrust. Psychiatric symptoms and/or disorders were also associated with less self-esteem, parental monitoring, affiliation with religion and orientation to Dutch or Moroccan culture, and a weaker ethnic identity. For youth growing up in a disadvantaged ethnic minority position, the most important factors were found at family (parent-child relationship and parenting practices) and ethnic minority group level (marginalization, discrimination and cultural mistrust). Preventive and treatment interventions for socially disadvantaged ethnic minority youth should be aimed at dealing with social disadvantage and discrimination, improving the parent-child relationship and parenting practices, and developing a positive (cultural) identity.

  20. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    PubMed

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Ethnic Minority Representation in Counselor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed chairpersons of 476 counselor education programs to determine ethnic minority representation among students and faculty. Compared to population statistics, Asian Americans were found to be underrepresented as both students and faculty. (JAC)

  2. Ethnic Minority Representation in Counselor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed chairpersons of 476 counselor education programs to determine ethnic minority representation among students and faculty. Compared to population statistics, Asian Americans were found to be underrepresented as both students and faculty. (JAC)

  3. Indochinese Refugees: An Emerging Ethnic Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Kenneth A.; Hendricks, Glenn L.

    This paper examines the extent to which educational and other institutions of the dominant society are shaping the ethnic self-identity of Indochinese refugees. It is argued that an institutionally-defined ethnic self-identity is being imposed on the Indochinese as a precondition for consideration as a minority group in United States society.…

  4. By whose standard? The affective implications of ethnic minorities' comparisons to ethnic minority and majority referents

    PubMed Central

    LEACH, COLIN WAYNE; SMITH, HEATHER J.

    2007-01-01

    In a ‘diary’ study, we examined the frequency and affective implications of 34 ethnic minority students' comparisons to other ethnic minorities or to members of a high-status ethnic majority (i.e., European-Americans). Participants made more frequent comparisons to ethnic majority than ethnic minority referents, although neither type of comparison tended to be perceived in terms of group membership (see also Smith & Leach, 2004). Comparisons to ethnic majority referents did not alter participants' positive affect even where they suggested poor future prospects in status-relevant domains. In contrast, comparisons to fellow ethnic minorities led to increased positive affect when they suggested a future prospect of improvement. We discuss the conceptual and practical implications of social comparison in the context of group status. PMID:17330149

  5. Ethnic Minority Human Resourcs in Psychology Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Esteban L., Comp.; And Others

    Minority members of the American Psychological Association (APA) who have expressed a desire to serve as professional resources are listed in this directory. Individuals are identified under one of four broad categories of ethnic minority groups: American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific American, Black/Afro American, and Hispanic. Within each…

  6. Ethnic Minority Dropout in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…

  7. Ethnic minority energy conference: report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The report of a 1977 energy conference sponsored by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People summarizes the basic concern that US energy policy was not addressing the importance of full employment or the impact of rising energy costs on the poor. Conference speakers spoke of the social and economic changes that are needed if minorities are to participate in the economics of the technological age. These include better educational opportunities and cooperation between civil rights groups and energy planners. Other topics were venture opportunities for minorities in energy-related fields and opportunities for minority advocacy and energy efficiency actions.

  8. Ethnic health care advisors: a good strategy to improve the access to health care and social welfare services for ethnic minorities?

    PubMed

    Hesselink, Arlette E; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Stronks, Karien

    2009-10-01

    Empirical studies indicate that ethnic minorities have limited access to health care and welfare services compared with the host population. To improve this access, ethnic health care (HC) advisors were introduced in four districts in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. HC advisors work for all health care and welfare services and their main task is to provide information on health care and welfare to individuals and groups and refer individuals to services. Action research was carried out over a period of 2 years to find out whether and how this function can contribute to improve access to services for ethnic minorities. Information was gathered by semi-structured interviews, analysing registration forms and reports, and attending meetings. The function's implementation and characteristics differed per district. The ethnicity of the health care advisors corresponded to the main ethnic groups in the district: Moroccan and Turkish (three districts) and sub-Sahara African and Surinamese (one district). HC advisors reached many ethnic inhabitants (n = 2,224) through individual contacts. Half of them were referred to health care and welfare services. In total, 576 group classes were given. These were mostly attended by Moroccan and Turkish females. Outreach activities and office hours at popular locations appeared to be important characteristics for actually reaching ethnic minorities. Furthermore, direct contact with a well-organized back office seems to be important. HC advisors were able to reach many ethnic minorities, provide information about the health care and welfare system, and refer them to services. Besides adapting the function to the local situation, some general aspects for success can be indicated: the ethnic background of the HC advisor should correspond to the main ethnic minority groups in the district, HC advisors need to conduct outreach work, there must be a well-organized back office to refer clients to, and there needs to be enough commitment among

  9. Ethnic Bilingual Education for Canada's Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, James Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Historical forces and factors affecting the development of Canada's bilingual programs for ethnic minorities include changing immigration policies, a decline in Anglo-conformism and growth in multiculturalism, fears about native language maintenance and second language learning, and language and cultural attitudes in second language learning. (MSE)

  10. Vocational Education for China's Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the current status and problems of vocational education for China's ethnic minorities. It concludes that these problems have both universal areas in common with China's overall education situation and individual characteristics; they also have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. The universal areas include the extrinsic…

  11. Vocational Education for China's Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the current status and problems of vocational education for China's ethnic minorities. It concludes that these problems have both universal areas in common with China's overall education situation and individual characteristics; they also have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. The universal areas include the extrinsic…

  12. Ethnic Identity of Minority No-Fee Preservice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shuhan; Li, Ling; Yalikunjiang, Aisige; Tao, Xunyu; Li, Quan; Gong, Siyuan

    2013-01-01

    This study used a questionnaire to survey ethnic identity among 329 ethnic minority no-fee preservice students at Southwest University. The results indicated that: (1) Ethnic minority no-fee students have a relatively strong sense of identity with both their ethnicity and the Chinese nation, and the correlation between the two is positive. Their…

  13. Underdiagnosis and Referral Bias of Autism in Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; El Bouk, Saloua; Boussaid, Wafaa; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined (1) the distribution of ethnic minorities among children referred to autism institutions and (2) referral bias in pediatric assessment of autism in ethnic minorities. It showed that compared to the known community prevalence, ethnic minorities were under-represented among 712 children referred to autism institutions. In…

  14. Meeting the needs of minority ethnic communities.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, E

    1996-01-01

    Concentrating on exotica and cultural differences merely allows commissioners and providers to ignore general health needs and blame the communities themselves when they receive poor quality services. We now have to move forward if we are to achieve an improvement in their health care. We are not talking of an insignificant minority, but nearly one in 10 of all children. Clearly real differences in health needs do exist, for example haemoglobinopathy associated illness; these need to be addressed and adequate provision made. It is in meeting the general needs of minority ethnic children that we face the greatest challenge. These are no different to those of the white ethnic majority. However, meeting them may require different--sometimes radically different--response strategies on behalf of both purchasers and providers of health care to children, supported by appropriate training, audit, and research. PMID:8787438

  15. [Mental health problems in ethnic minority groups].

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the specificity of mental health issues as experienced by ethnic minority groups' representatives. A substantial body of evidence clearly indicates the differences in incidence of psychosis, affective disorders and suicidal tendencies in members of minority groups compared to the rest of the population. Relevant statistical data will be presented and examined from both a biological and socio-cultural point of view. Hoffman's Social Deafferentation Hypothesis will be introduced as a possible explanation of high incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrants. Subsequently, socio-cultural factors will receive attention. Acculturation and identity issues will be taken into account with regards to the data suggesting that these are second generation immigrants that suffer from mental health disorders most. The fact of being discriminated against and being exposed to negative social messages regarding one's group of reference will also be taken into consideration. Moreover, ethnic minorities will be compared on this dimension with other groups discriminated against, such as women and sexual minorities.

  16. Ethnic Identity, Externalizing Problem Behaviour and the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem among Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Yagmur, Sengul; Stams, Geert Jan; de Haan, Mariette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between two aspects of ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity commitment-affirmation) and externalizing problem behaviour in Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents living in the Netherlands. A total number of 345 adolescents (115…

  17. Financial Education in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry; Scott, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. Design/methodology/approach: A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non-ethnic SMEs.…

  18. Counseling utilization by ethnic minority college students.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Lisa K; Draper, Matthew; Barón, Augustine

    2005-08-01

    Although multicultural awareness in counseling has risen substantially in the last decade, little research has examined counseling utilization and outcomes for ethnic minorities on university campuses. A sample of 1,166 African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Latino help-seeking university students from over 40 universities nationwide filled out the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ45) at the first and last therapy sessions. Caucasian students attended significantly more sessions than all other groups. Greatest distress was found at intake in Asian American students, followed by Latino, African American, and Caucasian students. All groups appeared to benefit from therapy, as noted by a decrease in symptomatology, but none of the groups met the criteria for clinically significant change for the OQ45. Implications for therapists working with minority clients are discussed.

  19. Ethnic Minorities with Diabetes Differ in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Diabetes-Distress

    PubMed Central

    Potter van Loon, Bert Jan; Torensma, Bart; Snoek, Frank J.; Honig, Adriaan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between ethnicity, diabetes-distress, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult outpatients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods. Diabetes-distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, PAID5), depressive and anxiety symptoms (Extended Kessler-10, EK10), and quality of life (Short-Form 12, SF12) were assessed in an ethnic diverse diabetes outpatient population of a teaching hospital in Amsterdam. Descent of one's parents and self-classified ethnicity were obtained to define ethnicity. HbA1c, clinical data, and socioeconomic status were derived from the medical charts. Based on established cut-offs for PAID5- and EK10-scores, emotional distress was dichotomized for the purpose of logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 1007 consecutive patients approached, 575 participated. Forty-nine percent were of non-Dutch ethnicity and 24.7% had type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-distress was reported by 12.5% of the native Dutch patients and by 22.0%, 34.5%, and 42.6% of the Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan patients, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9.4% in native Dutch patients and 20.4%, 34.5%, and 27.3% in the other groups mentioned. Diabetes-distress and Moroccan origin were significantly associated (OR = 3.60, p < .01) as well as depressive symptoms and Turkish origin (OR = 4.23, p = .04). Conclusions. Different ethnic minorities with diabetes vary in their vulnerability for emotional distress, warranting clinical attention. Future research should elucidate explanatory factors and opportunities for tailored interventions. PMID:28373992

  20. Case Finding and Medical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes among Different Ethnic Minority Groups: The HELIUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, Charles; Peters, Ron J.; Stronks, Karien; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanna K.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We included 4,541 Dutch, 3,032 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,109 African Surinamese, 2,323 Ghanaian, 3,591 Turkish, and 3,887 Moroccan participants (aged 18–70 y) from the HELIUS study. The prevalence of diabetes was analysed by sex, ethnicity, and 10-year age groups. Ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes were studied by logistic regression. Results. From the age of 31–40 years and older, the prevalence of diabetes was 3 to 12 times higher among ethnic minority groups than that among the Dutch host population. Awareness and medical treatment of diabetes were 2 to 5 times higher among ethnic minorities than that among Dutch. Among those medically treated, only 37–53% had HbA1c levels on target (≤7.0%); only Dutch men had HbA1c levels on target more often (67%). Conclusions. Our results suggest that the age limit for case finding among ethnic minority groups should be lower than that for the general population. Importantly, despite higher awareness and treatment among ethnic minorities, glycemic control was low, suggesting a need for increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of treatment in these groups. PMID:28154830

  1. Case Finding and Medical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes among Different Ethnic Minority Groups: The HELIUS Study.

    PubMed

    Snijder, Marieke B; Agyemang, Charles; Peters, Ron J; Stronks, Karien; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanna K; van Valkengoed, Irene G M

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We included 4,541 Dutch, 3,032 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,109 African Surinamese, 2,323 Ghanaian, 3,591 Turkish, and 3,887 Moroccan participants (aged 18-70 y) from the HELIUS study. The prevalence of diabetes was analysed by sex, ethnicity, and 10-year age groups. Ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes were studied by logistic regression. Results. From the age of 31-40 years and older, the prevalence of diabetes was 3 to 12 times higher among ethnic minority groups than that among the Dutch host population. Awareness and medical treatment of diabetes were 2 to 5 times higher among ethnic minorities than that among Dutch. Among those medically treated, only 37-53% had HbA1c levels on target (≤7.0%); only Dutch men had HbA1c levels on target more often (67%). Conclusions. Our results suggest that the age limit for case finding among ethnic minority groups should be lower than that for the general population. Importantly, despite higher awareness and treatment among ethnic minorities, glycemic control was low, suggesting a need for increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of treatment in these groups.

  2. Beliefs about Justification for Knowing When Ethnic Majority and Ethnic Minority Students Read Multiple Conflicting Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strømsø, Helge Ivar; Bråten, Ivar; Anmarkrud, Øistein; Ferguson, Leila E.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of justification for knowing beliefs in learning and comprehension when ethnic majority and ethnic minority students from the same school classes read five conflicting documents on the scientific issue of sun exposure and health. Results showed that the more ethnic minority students trusted scientific authorities and the less…

  3. The Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon; Osler, Audrey; Hill, John

    2005-01-01

    This article critically analyses the extent to which the Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant (EMAG) has been successful in meeting its core objective of raising the achievement of minority ethnic groups who are at risk of underachieving. The article provides an historical analysis of the Grant, sets the Grant within the context of the Labour…

  4. Ethnic and Minority Studies Review. Volume 1, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Norman, Ed.; Copps, Jane, Ed.

    1972-01-01

    This document is the first issue of the University of Wisconsin System "Ethnic and Minority Studies Review," which represents an effort to bring to the attention of the people of Wisconsin and elsewhere an awareness of the work that is being done in the area of ethnic and minority and women's studies, especially within Wisconsin, along with…

  5. Ethnic Minority Graduates: Differences by Degrees. Report 309.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, H.; And Others

    The employment outcomes and career progress of ethnic minority members who graduated from four United Kingdom universities in 1993 were compared to those of their white counterparts. A final matched sample of 272 graduates (half were members of ethnic minorities) was achieved by filtering an initial sample of 3,421 graduates. Additional data were…

  6. Relating Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Attitudes toward Treating Minority Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Mehta, Vivek

    2001-01-01

    The attitudes of medical students of Indian decent (N=150) toward treating minority clients and using alternative therapies were assessed in relationship to the students' ethnic identity, acculturation, and self-concept. Students with strong ethnic identity and acculturation were more likely to treat minority patients and use alternative…

  7. Irish Post-Primary Students' Attitudes towards Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tormey, Roland; Gleeson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The changing ethnic make-up of Irish society has impacted upon schools. Existing, largely qualitative studies have highlighted mixed attitudes towards ethnic minorities. Literature has also focused on the role of the state in articulating a discourse that shapes school-level responses to minorities. This paper critiques the idea of a unitary state…

  8. On Psychology of Ethnic Identity and Behavioral Tendency of Ethnic Minority College Students in Southwest China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Huiying; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Peifeng; Fan, Fenghui

    2008-01-01

    In China, ethnic identity refers to both one's own ethnic identity and the identity of the Chinese nation. It is of great significance not only to individuals' mental health and full play of psychological functions but also to ethnic solidarity and regional and national stability. On the whole, ethnic minority college students in the Southwestern…

  9. Methodological Challenges in Treatment Outcome Research With Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Anna S.; Chang, Doris F.; Okazaki, Sumie

    2015-01-01

    Treatment outcome research focused on ethnic minorities is critically needed to eliminate mental health disparities. Because the conduct of treatment outcome research with ethnic minorities is difficult and complex, we discuss key challenges and present some methodological options suited to provide answers to specific types of questions. We focus first on the randomized clinical trial (RCT) paradigm, reviewing specific challenges facing investigators conducting ethnically inclusive trials. We then highlight the promise of other methods of inquiry to expand the science on mental health treatment with ethnic minorities. PMID:21058823

  10. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Ethnic minorities' racial attitudes and contact experiences with white people.

    PubMed

    Shelton, J Nicole; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the relationship between ethnic minorities' racial attitudes and their intergroup contact experiences with White people. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors demonstrate that the more negative the racial attitudes held by ethnic minorities, the less positive their interactions are with White friends and roommates. With a daily report methodology, Study 2 revealed that ethnic minorities' racial attitudes predicted the decline in the quality of their intergroup contact experiences over a 3-week period. In Study 3, the authors examined a possible mechanism underlying the relationship between racial attitudes and intergroup contact, as well as the influence of ethnic minorities' racial attitudes on White participants' experiences in intergroup contact settings. The authors discuss the findings in terms of the importance of examining ethnic minorities' attitudes in research on intergroup relations. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. End-of-life care for ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Clark, David H

    2004-01-01

    Death and dying are profound events that bring into focus important ethical and medical questions for all patients, whatever their cultural background. For ethnic minority groups and their families, specific issues or barriers may arise related to culturally appropriate health care practices, cultural or religious differences, diverse health beliefs, and access to services for care and support during end-of-life conditions. National policy and local initiatives in both the United States and the United Kingdom support the development of services that address the care of ethnic minorities. This article examines end-of-life care for ethnic minority groups.

  13. [The prevalence of type 2-diabetes in ethnic minorities].

    PubMed

    Zander, Mette; Hansen, Caroline Raun; Koefoed, Birgitte Gade; Perrild, Hans

    2012-09-10

    In general, type 2 diabetes is more common among immigrants than among the inhabitants with a Western background. The higher prevalence among ethnic minorities is probably due to a complex correlation between genetic factors, diet, exercise, linguistic and cultural obstacles, low birthweight and high catch up weight as well as socio-economic factors. Ethnic minorities are heterogeneous, and individual initiatives within the different groups are needed. The evidence regarding the effect of initiatives targeted at ethnic minorities in Denmark is sparse. In future, clinically controlled studies in this field should be carried out.

  14. Healthcare consumption by ethnic minority people in their country of origin.

    PubMed

    Şekercan, Aydın; Lamkaddem, Majda; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2015-06-01

    Studies from the USA, New Zealand and Denmark suggest that many ethnic minority citizens obtain healthcare in their country of origin. Their reasons for doing so and the possible consequences remain unclear. We used data from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study to investigate the magnitude, types, self-reported reasons and determinants of past-year healthcare consumption in the country of origin by ethnic minority people living in the Netherlands. Individuals of African Surinamese (n = 2059), South-Asian Surinamese (n = 1915), Ghanaian (n = 1426), Moroccan (n = 1516) and Turkish (n = 2245) origin were included (recruited 2011-2013). We performed descriptive and stepwise logistic regression analyses. Respondents of Turkish origin reported the highest healthcare utilization in the country of origin (21.3%) compared with Moroccan (9.8%), Ghanaian (6.6%), African Surinamese (4.8%) and South-Asian Surinamese (3.0%) respondents. The main services used were outpatient clinics, pharmacies and health centres. The chief reported motivations were healthcare for illness, dissatisfaction with care in the residence country and seeking second opinions. Physical health status, cultural distance to the Dutch healthcare system and Turkish origin were all independently associated with healthcare use in countries of origin. Both health status and attitudes towards services in the countries of residence and origin are significantly associated with cross-border healthcare use. Further research is needed to clarify the reasons for the relatively high rates shown by Turkish respondents and to explore the consequences for health and for healthcare utilization in the country of residence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse is evolving, taking the complexity of the culture concept into account. In accordance with Danish health-political priorities, the most recent text analyzed in this study promotes an individualistic approach to both ethnic minority and Danish ethnic majority citizens.

  16. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  17. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  18. The Work-Study Interface: Similarities and Differences between Ethnic Minority and Ethnic Majority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; de Meijer, Lonneke A.; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2017-01-01

    Given the poorer academic outcomes of non-Western ethnic minority students compared to ethnic majority students, we investigated whether differences exist in work-study interface between ethnic groups. We tested a work-study interface model, in which the work-related factors work-study congruence, job control, job demands, work hours, job…

  19. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  20. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  1. [Depressive disorders in ethnic minorities in the doctor's office].

    PubMed

    Veling, Wim; Blom, Marc B J; Hoek, H Wijbrand

    2013-01-01

    Doctors often find the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders in non-Western ethnic minorities difficult. Not only do language and culture form barriers to understanding, the symptoms of these disorders can be expressed in unfamiliar ways. We describe three cases that illustrate how the clinical presentation of depression in ethnic minorities living in the Netherlands can differ from that of Dutch patients. While the core symptoms of depressive disorder are similar, ethnic minority patients exhibit somatic symptoms more frequently. On average, they also have more severe symptoms, more psychiatric comorbidity such as anxiety and psychosis; the illness is also more often complicated by a multitude of social problems. Improving the diagnosis and treatment of depression in ethnic minorities requires knowledge and the exploration of potential differences in symptom presentation and the patient's explanatory models of mental illness. Patients and physicians also need to discuss their mutual expectations, in order to reach a consensus about treatment goals.

  2. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Stanley J., Jr.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no "well-established" treatments were identified, "probably efficacious" or "possibly efficacious" treatments were found for ethnic minority…

  3. National and ethnic identity in the face of discrimination: ethnic minority and majority perspectives.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ludwin E; Phillips, Nia L; Sidanius, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination--via an item order manipulation--and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification.

  4. Ethnic Minorities and Women at the University of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque.

    Information on ethnic minorities and women at the University of New Mexico is presented. Specialized programs that emphasize recruitment and retention of minority and women students and the amount of money associated with each program are listed. A breakdown by race, nationality, and sex of the 1977 entering freshman class is presented, and a…

  5. Career Development and Vocational Behavior of Racial and Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L., Ed.

    This book is designed as a resource for graduate students learning about counseling or counselors and psychologists who provide career counseling to racial and ethnic minorities or who do research with minority groups. The book is divided into sections on "Theory and Research,""Assessment and Intervention," and "Future…

  6. Confronting Ourselves: The White and Racial/Ethnic-Minority Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing

    1993-01-01

    Responds to earlier article by Mio and Iwamasa (1993) on white researchers investigating ethnic-minority populations and other cross-cultural issues. Focuses on slow progress being made toward building bridges of trust and understanding. Asserts that, to move forward, both minority and majority researchers must make genuine and concerted effort to…

  7. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  8. Racial/Ethnic Minority Research in School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Margaret R. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed content of research published between 1975 and 1990 in "Journal of School Psychology,""Psychology in the Schools," and "School Psychology Review" in terms of racial/ethnic minority topics. In 225 studies containing minority information, African Americans were sampled most frequently, followed by Mexican Americans. Most samples were from…

  9. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  10. Minority (Ethnic) Studies in the Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer

    The paper offers recommendations for an ethnic studies curriculum at the elementary school level which would be interdisciplinary in nature and integrate the basic skills of reading, writing, and critical thinking. In the social studies, for example, concepts of cultural diversity and universality can be presented in simple form in the early…

  11. Negotiating candidacy: ethnic minority seniors' access to care.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    The 'Barriers to Access to Care for Ethnic Minority Seniors ' (BACEMS) study in Vancouver, British Columbia, found that immigrant families torn between changing values and the economic realities that accompany immigration cannot always provide optimal care for their elders. Ethnic minority seniors further identified language barriers, immigration status, and limited awareness of the roles of the health authority and of specific service providers as barriers to health care. The configuration and delivery of health services, and health-care providers' limited knowledge of the seniors' needs and confounded these problems. To explore the barriers to access, the BACEMS study relied primarily on focus group data collected from ethnic minority seniors and their families and from health and multicultural service providers. The applicability of the recently developed model of 'candidacy', which emphasises the dynamic, multi-dimensional and contingent character of health-care access to ethnic minority seniors, was assessed. The candidacy framework increased sensitivity to ethnic minority seniors' issues and enabled organisation of the data into manageable conceptual units, which facilitated translation into recommendations for action, and revealed gaps that pose questions for future research. It has the potential to make Canadian research on the topic more co-ordinated.

  12. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and the Metabolic Syndrome in Ethnic Minority Groups: The Healthy Life in an Urban Setting Study.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; Agyemang, Charles; Schene, Aart H; Peters, Ron J G; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome could be explained by perceived ethnic discrimination (PED). It is unclear whether PED is associated with the metabolic syndrome. We assessed this association and quantified the contribution of PED to the metabolic syndrome. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study collected in the Netherlands from 2011 to 2014. The population-based sample included South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Turkish, and Moroccan participants (aged 18 to 70 years). PED was measured using the Everyday Discrimination Scale. The metabolic syndrome was determined according to the harmonized definition of the International Diabetes Federation, American Heart Association, and others. Logistic regression was used for analysis. population-attributable fraction was used to calculate the contribution of PED. PED was positively associated with the metabolic syndrome in South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, and Moroccan participants (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.13 [0.99-1.30], 1.15 [1.00-1.32], and 1.19 [1.03-1.38], respectively) after adjusting for potential confounders and mediators. No significant association was observed among Ghanaian and Turkish participants. For the individual components, the associations were statistically significant for blood pressure, fasting glucose, and waist circumference among Surinamese participants. PED was associated with dyslipidemia in Moroccan participants. The population-attributable fractions were 5% for South-Asian Surinamese and Moroccan participants, and 7% for African Surinamese participants. We found a positive association of PED with the metabolic syndrome in some ethnic groups, with PED contributing around 5% to 7% to the metabolic syndrome among Surinamese and Moroccans. This suggests that PED might contribute to ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Perspectives on ageing, later life and ethnicity: ageing research in ethnic minority contexts.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Maria; Norris, Meriel

    2015-05-01

    This special issue focuses broadly upon questions and themes relating to the current conceptualisations, representations and use of 'ethnicity' (and ethnic minority experiences) within the field of social gerontology. An important aim of this special issue is to explore and address the issue of 'otherness' within the predominant existing frameworks for researching those who are ageing or considered aged, compounded by the particular constructions of their ethnicity and ethnic 'difference'. The range of theoretical, methodological and empirical papers included in this collection provide some critical insights into particular facets of the current research agendas, cultural understandings and empirical focus of ethnic minority ageing research. The main emphasis is on highlighting the ways in which ethnic cultural homogeneity and 'otherness' is often assumed in research involving older people from ethnic minority backgrounds, and how wider societal inequalities are concomitantly (re)produced, within (and through) research itself - for example, based on narrowly defined research agendas and questions; the assumed age and/or ethnic differences of researchers vis-à-vis their older research participants; the workings of the formalised ethical procedures and frameworks; and the conceptual and theoretical frameworks employed in the formulation of research questions and interpretation of data. We examine and challenge here the simplistic categorisations and distinctions often made in gerontological research based around research participants' ethnicity, age and ageing and assumed cultural differences. The papers presented in this collection reveal instead the actual complexity and fluidity of these concepts as well as the cultural dynamism and diversity of experiences within ethnic groups. Through an exploration of these issues, we address some of the gaps in existing knowledge and understandings as well as contribute to the newly emerging discussions surrounding the use of

  14. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. Serving Ethnic Minorities. Topical Paper 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcleroad, Fred F.; And Others

    Dedicated to the memory of Raymond E. Schultz, the essays in this monograph discuss the role of the community college in serving minority students. An introductory essay by Fred F. Harcleroad summarizes Schultz's contributions to community college education. John E. Roueche then discusses the provision of equal educational opportunity to…

  16. Ethnic minority participation in an East Midlands Sure Start.

    PubMed

    Avis, Mark; Chaudhary, Sarah

    2008-08-01

    This paper draws on evidence from a local Sure Start evaluation of low participation rates among ethnic minority families. It reflects national concerns regarding the low use of children's services among ethnic minority families. The evaluation aimed to improve understanding of the factors that affect families' participation in Sure Start services. A sample of 34 ethnic minority parents, six Sure Start outreach workers and four community workers from allied local agencies were interviewed in 2006. The interviews revealed an unexpected disparity between the views of the majority of the workers and those of local, Sure Start-eligible parents. The workers felt that the main factor discouraging participation was too little focus on multiculturalism. However, parents focused on practical barriers, concerns around age and the perceived indiscipline of some Sure Start families. Parents generally saw their own ethnic culture as being compatible with Sure Start values. While most workers viewed minority communities as having homogeneous needs, parents discussed the heterogeneity of' communities. .Ethnicity and cultural factors do not have a simple or straightforward impact on people's decisions over whether to access Sure Start services.

  17. Ethnic enclaves and middleman minorities: alternative strategies of immigrant adaptation?

    PubMed

    Cobas, J A

    1987-04-01

    This article examines 2 modes or strategies of immigrant adaptation: middleman minorities and ethnic enclaves. Although they have been discussed as if they were disjointed and mutually exclusive, the authors challenge this view. Middleman minorities 1) tend to be self-employed or to work for a coethnic, 2) are usually concentrated in small business, 3) tend to rely on the in-group for resources, and 4) fill a "status gap" in the receiving society. Ethnic enclaves depend on 3 features: 1) recent coethnic arrivals spend a tour of duty at the worst jobs, 2) coethnics provide ethnic entrepreneurs with consumer markets, 3) ethnic businesses rely on each other to supply their operating needs. Ethnic enclaves are concentrated and spatially identifiable. For this study, the authors collected data in a survey of the Cuban exile community of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The sample selection procedure yielded a total of 261 individuals, 220 of whom were interviewed. 10 predictions found in the middleman minority and ethnic enclave perspectives were checked against the researchers' data. 4 of these predictions are hld in common by both approaches: 1) eomployment in an ethnic enterprise increases subsequent chances of self-employment, 2) ethnic firms rely on the in-group for business resources, 3) coethnic workers represent an asset to the ethnic entrepreneur in that they occupy important positions requiring the employer's trust, and 4) there is business competition between locals and minority members. As predicted by the middleman strategy, Cuban businesses in Puerto Rico tend not to be immediately productive and there is no evidence of spatial concentration of these businesses. However, fitting the enclave approach, these firms do not dominate certain business lines, Cuban entrepreneurs do not appear to be sojourners, and they tend to have business backgrounds. The middleman perspective is supported in that some elements of the local elite favor Cuban exiles. Thus, there is no

  18. Ethnicity and Bicultural Considerations in Psychology: Meeting the Needs of Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dalmas A.; Henry, J. Marilyn

    This paper summarizes the history, philosophy, and recruitment methodology of the American Psychological Association (APA) Minority Fellowship Program. The aim of the program is participation by ethnic minorities in the development of psychology, both as a practicing art and as a science. The APA received a training grant to provide fellowship…

  19. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  20. Knowing and Understanding the Socially Disadvantaged Ethnic Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Staten W.

    This collection of essays deals with those ethnic minority groups which can be classified as being among the socially disadvantaged in America. Here, the socially disadvantaged are described as persons or groups whose chances for the complete maximization of their talents or potentials are limited by societal factors related to poverty and/or…

  1. Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

  2. Black and Minority Ethnic Leaders in England: A Portrait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek; Sood, Krishan

    2006-01-01

    Black and minority ethnic (BME) leaders are greatly under-represented in English schools compared with the number of BME pupils. This paper reports the findings from research with BME leaders in 2004-2005 and links them to insights from a systematic literature review. The paper shows that BME teachers experience many barriers in developing their…

  3. Bridging Identities among Ethnic Minority Youth in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Drost, Christopher

    This digest examines the nature of multiple identities among ethnic minority youth and how youth bridge conflicting messages about cultural ways of being. It discusses how the school environment contributes to student internalization of various identities. Culturally diverse students often face contrasting notions of self because they must…

  4. Deaf Ethnic Minorities: Have They a Double Liability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod-Gallinger, Janet

    In an effort to ascertain whether being deaf and also being a member of an ethnic minority group engenders dual disadvantages, the educational, labor force participation, occupations, earnings, and socioeconomic status of adults with deafness (n=6430) were compared by race. Comparisons were also done with racial groups in the general population.…

  5. A Multicultural Countryside?: Ethnic Minorities in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Bruce; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews previous social science knowledge about non-English speaking background (NESB) immigrant communities in rural Australia with the aim of systematising what has been a diverse and fragmented literature. We propose a number of unifying themes which suggest the outlines of an emerging social science of ethnic minorities in rural…

  6. Counseling Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss in brief six racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States, in order to demonstrate how selected cultural variables may intrude in the counseling relationship. American Indians present such problems as language difficulties, taciturnity, and suspiciousness. In working with Americans of African…

  7. Serving the Underserved: Giftedness among Ethnic Minority and Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Stephanie

    1995-01-01

    Properly serving the needs of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged gifted youth requires early identification, enrichment programs, parental involvement, and specialized teacher training. Primary teachers must be able to identify children exhibiting gifted behaviors not showing up in testing. Profiles San Diego and New Jersey programs…

  8. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  9. Votes and Policies: Ethnic Minorities and the General Election 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Muhammad

    Surveys were conducted to present a picture of the participation of ethnic minorities in British elections. The surveys measured voter registration, knowledge and attitudes about issues, voting patterns in the 1979 General Election, candidates' attitudes about issues (especially race relations issues), and activities and election success of…

  10. Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities in the History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The experience of immigrants and ethnic minorities in post-war Europe represents a significant silence in the history of education in Europe. Published research in the field on this theme is negligible in quantity, and is largely restricted to brief and narrative descriptions of policy changes that are organised around concepts of assimilation,…

  11. Knowing and Understanding the Socially Disadvantaged Ethnic Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Staten W.

    This collection of essays deals with those ethnic minority groups which can be classified as being among the socially disadvantaged in America. Here, the socially disadvantaged are described as persons or groups whose chances for the complete maximization of their talents or potentials are limited by societal factors related to poverty and/or…

  12. Minority Ethnic Television in Los Angeles: A Multicultural Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoloff, David L.

    1981-01-01

    The increase in the number of low-power television stations may have profound effects on the volatile nature of multicultural interactions in the United States. The author examines three stations and suggests ways in which television may be used in the education of minority ethnic audiences. (MW)

  13. Multicultural Hong Kong: Alternative New Media Representations of Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Liz; Nesterova, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities experience misrecognition, prejudice and discrimination in Hong Kong. In response to these challenges, multicultural education there aims to enable young people to recognize diversity in a more tolerant, open-minded way. Educators have been encouraged to not rely only on textbooks, but to include news and digital media…

  14. A Multicultural Countryside?: Ethnic Minorities in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Bruce; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews previous social science knowledge about non-English speaking background (NESB) immigrant communities in rural Australia with the aim of systematising what has been a diverse and fragmented literature. We propose a number of unifying themes which suggest the outlines of an emerging social science of ethnic minorities in rural…

  15. Impact of Racism on Ethnic Minority Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    A problem in ethnic minority mental health that can be solved in the foreseeable future is understanding how subtle and covert forms of racism affect psychological health of racial minorities. Although scientific psychology has generated a large body of literature on racial prejudice, stereotypes, intergroup attitudes, and racial bias and their often implicit and automatic nature, relatively little is known about the effects of these subtle racial bias on minority individuals. Following a selective review of recent developments in experimental psychology and multicultural psychology, I suggest some promising approaches and opportunities for future integration that would advance the field.

  16. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    PubMed Central

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Thorson, Anna; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a) quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b) qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a determinant of health, not

  17. Intragroup Contact and Anxiety Among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: Considering Ethnic Identity and School Diversity Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tiffany; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Everyday interactions with same-racial/ethnic others may confer positive benefits for adolescents, but the meaning of these interactions are likely influenced by individual differences and larger structural contexts. This study examined the situation-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and anxiety symptoms among a diverse sample of 306 racial/ethnic minority adolescents (Mage = 14 years; 66 % female), based on (1) individual differences in ethnic identity centrality and (2) developmental histories of transitions in diversity between elementary, middle, and high school. The results indicated that at the level of the situation, when adolescents interacted with more same-ethnic others, they reported fewer anxiety symptoms. Further, for adolescents who had experienced a transition in school diversity, the positive benefits of contact with same-ethnic others was only conferred for those who felt that their ethnicity was very important to them. The importance of examining individual differences within larger developmental histories to understand the everyday experiences of ethnic minority adolescents are discussed. PMID:24951944

  18. Why Ethnic Minority Children Are More Likely to Drop out of School: A Cultural Capital Perspective--Evidence from Ethnic Minority Rural Communities in the Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baicai, Sun; Jingjian, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Using the data from a large-scale survey in Gansu province, China, the article explores the issue of school attendance among ethnic minority children from the perspective of cultural capital. We find that the rate of school attendance among ethnic minority children is substantially lower than that among ethnic Han children, but that ethnic…

  19. Why Ethnic Minority Children Are More Likely to Drop out of School: A Cultural Capital Perspective--Evidence from Ethnic Minority Rural Communities in the Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baicai, Sun; Jingjian, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Using the data from a large-scale survey in Gansu province, China, the article explores the issue of school attendance among ethnic minority children from the perspective of cultural capital. We find that the rate of school attendance among ethnic minority children is substantially lower than that among ethnic Han children, but that ethnic…

  20. Mental Health Diagnostic Considerations in Racial/Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Liang, June; Matheson, Brittany E.; Douglas, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Misdiagnoses of racial/ethnic minority youth’s mental health problems can potentially contribute to inappropriate mental health care. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review that focuses on current theory and empirical research in an attempt to answer the following two questions: 1) What evidence exists that supports or contradicts the idea that racial/ethnic minority youth’s mental health problems are misdiagnosed? 2) What are the sources of misdiagnoses? Articles were reviewed from 1967 to 2014 using PsychINFO, PubMed, and GoogleScholar. Search terms included “race”, “ethnicity”, “minority”, “culture”, “children”, “youth”, “adolescents”, “mental health”, “psychopathology”, “diagnosis”, “misdiagnosis”, “miscategorization”, “underdiagnosis”, and “overdiagnosis”. Seventy-two articles and book chapters met criteria and were included in this review. Overall, evidence was found that supports the possibility of misdiagnosis of ethnic minority youth’s emotional and behavioral problems. However, the evidence is limited such that it cannot be determined whether racial/ethnic differences are due to differences in psychopathology, mental health biases, and/or inaccurate diagnoses. Cultural and contextual factors that may influence misdiagnosis as well as recommendations for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27346929

  1. Targeting interventions for ethnic minority and low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in childhood obesity prevalence by race and ethnicity and by socioeconomic status. They show how various environmental factors can have larger effects on disadvantaged and minority children than on their advantaged white peers-and thus contribute to disparities in obesity rates. The authors show, for example, that low-income and minority children watch more television than white, non-poor children and are potentially exposed to more commercials advertising high-calorie, low-nutrient food during an average hour of TV programming. They note that neighborhoods where low-income and minority children live typically have more fast-food restaurants and fewer vendors of healthful foods than do wealthier or predominantly white neighborhoods. They cite such obstacles to physical activity as unsafe streets, dilapidated parks, and lack of facilities. In the schools that low-income and minority children attend, however, they see opportunities to lead the way to effective obesity prevention. Finally, the authors examine several aspects of the home environment-breast-feeding, television viewing, and parental behaviors-that may contribute to childhood obesity but be amenable to change through targeted intervention. Kumanyika and Grier point out that policymakers aiming to prevent obesity can use many existing policy levers to reach ethnic minority and low-income children and families: Medicaid, the State Child Health Insurance Program, and federal nutrition "safety net" programs. Ultimately, winning the fight against childhood obesity in minority and low-income communities will depend on the nation's will to change the social and physical

  2. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  3. Ethnic matching of clients and clinicians and use of mental health services by ethnic minority clients.

    PubMed

    Ziguras, Stephen; Klimidis, Steven; Lewis, James; Stuart, Geoff

    2003-04-01

    Research in the United States has indicated that matching clients from a minority group with clinicians from the same ethnic background increases use of community mental health services and reduces use of emergency services. This study assessed the effects of matching clients from a non-English-speaking background with bilingual, bicultural clinicians in a mental health system in Australia that emphasizes community-based psychiatric case management. In an overall sample of 2,935 clients served in the western region of Melbourne from 1997 to 1999, ethnic minority clients from a non-English-speaking background who received services from a bilingual, bicultural case manager were compared with ethnic minority clients who did not receive such services and with clients from an English-speaking background. The clients' engagement with three types of services-community care teams, psychiatric crisis teams, and psychiatric inpatient services-was assessed. Compared with ethnic minority clients who were not matched with a bilingual clinician, those who were matched generally had a longer duration and greater frequency of contact with community care teams and a shorter duration and lower frequency of contact with crisis teams. Clients born in Vietnam who were matched with a bilingual clinician had a shorter annual mean length of hospital stay and a lower annual mean frequency of hospital admission than Australian-born clients. The benefits of matching clients with psychiatric case managers on the basis of ethnic background include a lower level of need for crisis intervention and, for clients from some ethnic groups, fewer inpatient interventions. These Australian results support findings of the effectiveness of client-clinician ethnic matching in the United States.

  4. Language and Ethnic Identity of Minorities in Post-Soviet Russia: The Buryat Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khilkhanova, Erzhen; Khilkhanov, Dorji

    2004-01-01

    While the global ethnic revival, starting in the late 1960s, resulted in minorities' movements to maintain their ethnic identity closely connected with the revitalization of minority languages, the other ethnic identity pattern in relation to language can be identified from the perspective of a rarely discussed minority group-the Buryats. This…

  5. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Huey, Stanley J.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no well-established treatments were identified, probably efficacious or possibly efficacious treatments were found for ethnic minority youth with anxiety-related problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, conduct problems, substance use problems, trauma-related syndromes, and other clinical problems. In addition, all studies met either Nathan and Gorman's (2002) Type 1 or Type 2 methodological criteria. A brief meta-analysis showed overall treatment effects of medium magnitude (d = .44). Effects were larger when EBTs were compared to no treatment (d = .58) or psychological placebos (d = .51) versus treatment as usual (d = .22). Youth ethnicity (African American, Latino, mixed/other minority), problem type, clinical severity, diagnostic status, and culture-responsive treatment status did not moderate treatment outcome. Most studies had low statistical power and poor representation of less acculturated youth. Few tests of cultural adaptation effects have been conducted in the literature and culturally validated outcome measures are mostly lacking. Recommendations for clinical practice and future research directions are provided. PMID:18444061

  6. Ethnic Minorities in the Inner City; The Ethnic Dimension in Urban Deprivation in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Crispin

    The aim of the investigation reported in this volume was to examine the social needs of ethnic minority residents of urban areas, determine the extent to which they are similar to or are different from those of their indigenous counterparts in these areas, and explore the implications of these similarities and differences for the regeneration of…

  7. Does intergenerational social mobility affect antagonistic attitudes towards ethnic minorities?

    PubMed

    Tolsma, Jochem; de Graaf, Nan Dirk; Quillian, Lincoln

    2009-06-01

    Up till now, no study satisfactorily addressed the effect of social mobility on antagonistic attitudes toward ethnic minorities. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of educational and class intergenerational mobility on ethnic stereotypes, ethnic threat, and opposition to ethnic intermarriage by using diagonal mobility models. We test several hypotheses derived from ethnic competition theory and socialization theory with data from the Social and Cultural Developments in The Netherlands surveys (SOCON, waves 1995, 2000, and 2005) and The Netherlands Kinship and Panel Study (NKPS, wave 2002). We find that the relative influence of social origin and social destination depends on the specific origin and destination combination. If one moves to a more tolerant social destination position, the influence of the social origin position is negligible. If on the other hand, one is socially mobile to a less tolerant social position, the impact of the origin on antagonistic attitudes is substantial and may even exceed the impact of the destination category. This confirms our hypothesis that adaptation to more tolerant norms is easier than adaptation to less tolerant norms. We find only meagre evidence for the hypothesis that downward mobility leads to frustration and consequently to more antagonistic attitudes.

  8. Perceptions of diverse educators regarding ethnic-minority deaf college students, role models, and diversity.

    PubMed

    Parasnis, Ila; Fischer, Susan D

    2005-01-01

    IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY, the researchers documented the perceptions of deaf and hearing ethnically diverse university faculty and staff regarding issues related to the education of ethnic-minority deaf college students. These experienced educators commented on the importance of ethnic-minority role models for deaf college students, the academic preparedness of ethnic-minority deaf students, these students' level of comfort on campus, and the success of institutional efforts to increase awareness regarding ethnic diversity. The insightful reflections of these diverse educators can be informative in improving the educational experience of ethnic-minority deaf students.

  9. Development of a computer-tailored nutrition and physical activity intervention for lower-educated women of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan origin using content matching and ethnic identity tailoring.

    PubMed

    Romeike, Kristina; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein; Oenema, Anke

    2016-09-02

    Unhealthy dietary and physical activity (PA) patterns are highly prevalent in most Western countries, especially among lower-educated and ethnic minority groups. Therefore, interventions to promote healthy eating and physical activity that can reach large numbers of lower-educated people are needed. When developing interventions, the ethnic diversity of the lower-educated population may be taken into account to make intervention material more appealing to the target group. This article describes the development and evaluation of two computer-tailored nutrition and physical activity interventions for lower-educated Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan women. One version is tailored to sociocognitive variables (traditional tailoring), while the other is additionally tailored to ethnic identity (EI-tailoring). Using intervention mapping, two evidence- and theory-based interventions were developed. In the traditional tailoring intervention, messages are tailored to health behavior, awareness of own behavior, attitude and self-efficacy. The behavior change techniques used to address these factors are: descriptive and evaluative feedback, arguments, modeling, goal setting, planning, barrier identification and advice on how to deal with barriers, stimulating resistance to social pressure, mobilization of social support (nontailored), active learning (nontailored) and iterative feedback. In the EI-tailoring intervention, the material is additionally tailored to ethnic identity (EI). This means that recipients who feel strongly attached to their ethnic background receive different intervention material than recipients with a weak attachment to their background. This includes, for instance, the use of more traditional colors, role models that match with their origin and advice messages that refer to their ethnicity of origin. Developing an intervention that matches the needs of this specific target population was challenging due to the little evidence regarding the determinants of

  10. The family-study interface and academic outcomes: differences and similarities between ethnic minority and ethnic majority students.

    PubMed

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph; Severiens, Sabine E

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigated possible differences in the family-study interface between ethnic minority and ethnic majority students as an explanation for the poorer study results of ethnic minority students compared with those of majority students. We used a model for family-study conflict and facilitation derived from family-work and work-study models. This model held true for the full sample and both non-Western ethnic minority students (N = 342) and ethnic majority students (N = 1314) separately at a major Dutch university. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that ethnic minority students reported less study effort and earned lower grades compared with ethnic majority students. Regarding the family-study interface, ethnic minority students reported more family-study conflict than did ethnic majority students. No differences were found between the 2 groups in family-study facilitation. Ethnic minority students participated more in family activities and were more involved with their family than ethnic majority students. Levels of experienced family support were equal for both groups of students. Students who received more family social support reported less conflict and more facilitation. This latter finding held more strongly for majority students, resulting in more study effort and higher grades for this group. The results demonstrated the explanatory power of the family-study conflict and facilitation model for both groups.

  11. Ethnic density, health care seeking behaviour and expected discrimination from health services among ethnic minority people in England.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Das-Munshi, Jayati

    2013-07-01

    The health of ethnic minority people is reported to be poorer in areas of lower ethnic density. Based on this literature, higher rates of health seeking behaviours would be expected among ethnic minorities resident in neighbourhoods of lower ethnic density. Should health seeking not increase in areas of lower ethnic density, a possible explanation might be that ethnic minority people resident in these neighbourhoods are not accessing services for fear of racial discrimination. The present study examined this hypothesis using two nationally-representative surveys from England. Health seeking behaviour did not vary by ethnic density. Lower ethnic density was associated with increased reports of expected discrimination from services, but also with increased satisfaction with services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Socioeconomic status and parenting in ethnic minority families: testing a minority family stress model.

    PubMed

    Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Yeniad, Nihal

    2013-12-01

    According to the family stress model (Conger & Donnellan, 2007), low socioeconomic status (SES) predicts less-than-optimal parenting through family stress. Minority families generally come from lower SES backgrounds than majority families, and may experience additional stressors associated with their minority status, such as acculturation stress. The primary goal of this study was to test a minority family stress model with a general family stress pathway, as well as a pathway specific to ethnic minority families. The sample consisted of 107 Turkish-Dutch mothers and their 5- to 6-year-old children, and positive parenting was observed during a 7-min problem-solving task. In addition, mothers reported their daily hassles, psychological distress, and acculturation stress. The relation between SES and positive parenting was partially mediated by both general maternal psychological stress and maternal acculturation stress. Our study contributes to the argument that stressors specific to minority status should be considered in addition to more general demographic and family stressors in understanding parenting behavior in ethnic minority families.

  13. Understanding suboptimal human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among ethnic minority girls.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A; Tsui, Jennifer; Chang, L Cindy; Marchand, Erica J; Taylor, Victoria M; Singhal, Rita

    2011-07-01

    The introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines represents a breakthrough in the primary prevention of cervical cancer. However, little is known about vaccination uptake and correlates among low-income, ethnic minority, and immigrant populations in the U.S. who may benefit most from the vaccine. Telephone interviews (N = 490) were conducted in six languages between January and November 2009 among mothers of vaccine-eligible girls (ages 9-18) using the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Office of Women's Health service referral hotline. HPV and vaccine awareness, knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and daughter's vaccine receipt were assessed. The sample consisted of low-income, uninsured, ethnic minority, and immigrant women. Only 29% of daughters initiated the vaccine and 11% received all three doses. No ethnic differences were observed in initiation or completion rates. Ethnic differences were observed in HPV awareness, perceived risk, and other vaccine-related beliefs. The strongest predictor of initiation was vaccine awareness (OR = 12.00). Daughter's age and reporting a younger acceptable age for vaccination were positively associated with initiation. Mothers of unvaccinated girls reported lacking information about the vaccine to make a decision (66%) and not knowing where they could obtain the vaccine (74%). Vaccination rates in this sample were lower than state and national estimates, and were associated with low levels of vaccine awareness. Interventions, including culturally targeted messaging, may be helpful for enhancing HPV-vaccine knowledge, modifying vaccine-related beliefs and increasing uptake. Our findings provide valuable guidance for developing interventions to address suboptimal HPV vaccination in high-risk groups. ©2011 AACR

  14. Social capital, ethnic density and mental health among ethnic minority people in England: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Becares, Laia; Nazroo, James

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic minority people have been suggested to be healthier when living in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. Explanations behind the ethnic density effect propose that positive health outcomes are partially attributed to the protective and buffering effects of increased social capital on health. In fact, a parallel literature has reported increased levels of social capital in areas of greater ethnic residential diversity, but to date, no study in England has explored whether increased social capital mediates the relationship between protective effects attributed to the residential concentration of ethnic minority groups and health. We employ a mixed-methods approach to examine the association between ethnicity, social capital and mental health. We analyse geocoded data from the 2004 Health Survey for England to examine the association between (1) ethnic residential concentration and health; (2) ethnic residential concentration and social capital; (3) social capital and health; and (4) the mediating effect of social capital on the association between the residential concentration of ethnic groups and health. To further add to our understanding of the processes involved, data from a qualitative study of quality older ethnic minority people were be used to examine accounts of the significance of place of residence to quality of life. The association between ethnic density and social capital varies depending on the level of measurement of social capital and differed across ethnic minority groups. Social capital was not found to mediate the association between ethnic density and health. Structural differences in the characteristics of the neighbourhoods where different ethnic groups reside are reflected in the accounts of their daily experiences, and we observed different narratives of neighbourhood experiences between Indian and Caribbean respondents. The use of mixed methods provides an important

  15. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted.

  16. Reactivity to social stress in ethnic minority men.

    PubMed

    Gevonden, Martin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; van Winkel, Ruud; Selten, Jean-Paul

    2016-12-30

    Repeated exposures to social exclusion, through a process of sensitization, may result in larger responses to experiences of social stress. The current study tested the hypothesis that healthy Moroccan-Dutch men respond stronger to social stress than Dutch controls 1) in daily life, and 2) in an experimental set-up. A general population sample of 50 Moroccan-Dutch and 50 Dutch young adult males were tested with 1) the Experience Sampling Method, a structured diary technique, assessing reactivity to social stress in daily life, and 2) an experimental exposure to social peer evaluation. No group differences were found in affective or psychotic reactivity to daily social stress. When exposed to a negative social evaluation in the lab, a blunted affective response was found in the Moroccan-Dutch compared to the Dutch group, whereas the psychotic response did not differ significantly between groups. In conclusion, healthy Moroccan-Dutch men are not more sensitive to social stress than healthy Dutch men. Instead, the blunted affective response of Moroccan-Dutch men to peer evaluation may signify habituation rather than sensitization.

  17. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities. NCES 2007-039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KewalRamani, Angelina; Gilbertson, Lauren; Fox, Mary Ann; Provasnik, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    "Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" examines the educational progress and challenges that racial and ethnic minorities face in the United States. This report shows that over time larger numbers of minorities have completed high school and continued their education in college. Despite these gains, progress…

  18. Cancer and ethnic minorities--the Department of Health's perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, V.

    1996-01-01

    With more than 160,000 deaths annually cancer is the second commonest cause of death in the UK. The little evidence available shows that black and minority ethnic people are experiencing an increase in cancer-related mortality. The Government's Health of the Nation report produced in 1993 by the Department of Health identifies key areas, including cancer, where improvements in mortality and morbidity could be achieved, and an essential element relates to the needs of black and minority ethnic people. It is, for example, now well recognised that in terms of screening, treatment and palliation, cancer services are not always accessible and sensitive to the needs of this section of the population. Beginning with a demographic backdrop this paper reviews the data on the occurrence of cancer and on access to services by this section of the population. Relevant initiatives funded by the Department of Health are highlighted and a summary of the information sources to enable health care purchasers and service providers to assess the needs of their local population has also been given. PMID:8782792

  19. California's racial and ethnic minorities more adversely affected by asthma.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-Ying; Babey, Susan H; Hastert, Theresa A; Brown, E Richard

    2007-02-01

    In California, nearly 2.8 million adults and children (8%) had active asthma in 2003. Of Californians with active asthma, 890,000 are children (ages 0-17) and 1.8 million are adults (age 18 and above). The prevalence of active asthma varies by racial and ethnic group, with racial and ethnic minority groups affected more adversely by asthma. They are more likely to go to the emergency department for asthma care, miss more school and work days because of asthma, and have poorer health status. They are also more likely to lack access to health care and to live in conditions associated with asthma exacerbations. Among California children, the prevalence of active asthma varies by racial and ethnic groups-with the highest prevalence among African Americans (17%) and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17%), followed by whites (10%), Latinos (7%) and Asians (7%; Exhibit 1). Among adults, American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest prevalence of active asthma (13%), followed by African Americans (10%), whites (9%), Asians (5%) and Latinos (5%). The National data similarly show that both African Americans and American Indians have higher current asthma prevalence rates than non- Hispanic whites.

  20. The role of health insurance in improving health services use by Thais and ethnic minority migrants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand, a universal coverage health care scheme for Thai citizens and a foreign worker health insurance program for registered foreign workers have been implemented since 2001. This study uses the 2000-2004 panel data of the Kanchanaburi Demographic Surveillance System to explore the role of health insurance in influencing the use of health care for Thai, Thai ethnic minority, and ethnic minority migrants from 2000 to 2004. The results show that health insurance plays a major role in improving the use of health care for ethnic groups, especially for Thai ethnic minorities. However, a gap still existed in 2004 between health insurance and health care use by ethnic minority migrants and by Thais. The results suggest that improving health insurance status for ethnic minority migrants should be encouraged to reduce the ethnic gap in the use of health care.

  1. Ethnic minority elders: are they neglected in published geriatric psychiatry literature?

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit; Doe, Prosper; Deverill, Ksenia

    2008-10-01

    The population size of the elderly from ethnic minority groups in many developing countries is rapidly increasing. The authors perceived a paucity of publications in the geriatric psychiatry literature pertaining to ethnic minority elders. A study examining the proportion of research publications pertaining to ethnic minority elders in two leading geriatric psychiatry journals, International Psychogeriatrics and International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, was undertaken. The main findings were: (1) overall only 7.6% of the publications examined ethnic minority elders; (2) only 5.1% of publications were exclusively of ethnic minority elderly groups; and, (3) only 2.5% of publications included ethnic minority elderly groups in their overall sample. Findings from studies, such as epidemiological studies of risk factors for mental disorders in old age and randomized controlled studies of treatment interventions, which exclude ethnic minority elders, cannot be assumed to apply to these groups. Researchers, research institutions, funding organizations and policy-makers should acknowledge the rising numbers of ethnic minority elders and recognize the importance of using ethnic minority-specific research data in the planning of culturally sensitive services and mental health promotion programs.

  2. Researching mental health in minority ethnic communities: reflections on recruitment.

    PubMed

    Rugkåsa, Jorun; Canvin, Krysia

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reflect on the recruitment of research participants to two related studies of experiences of mental health problems in Black and minority ethnic communities in the United Kingdom. A total of 65 people were recruited via three main strategies: the employment of bicultural recruiters, intensive information sharing about the studies, and work through local community groups. Three main issues seemed to affect recruitment: gatekeepers' attitudes, the (non)payment of participants, and reciprocal arrangements with local community groups. The type of strategy employed resulted in recruits with differing characteristics (although our sample was too small to draw generalizable conclusions). We conclude that to ensure that research participation is accessible to all, researchers must employ flexible recruitment methods that permit adaptation to specific needs arising out of health status, level of involvement with services, culture, and socioeconomic status. Systematic research into this part of the research process is needed.

  3. Diabetes in migrants and ethnic minorities in a changing World

    PubMed Central

    Montesi, Luca; Caletti, Maria Turchese; Marchesini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    On a worldwide scale, the total number of migrants exceeds 200 million and is not expected to reduce, fuelled by the economic crisis, terrorism and wars, generating increasing clinical and administrative problems to National Health Systems. Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), and specifically diabetes, are on the front-line, due to the high number of cases at risk, duration and cost of diseases, and availability of effective measures of prevention and treatment. We reviewed the documents of International Agencies on migration and performed a PubMed search of existing literature, focusing on the differences in the prevalence of diabetes between migrants and native people, the prevalence of NCD in migrants vs rates in the countries of origin, diabetes convergence, risk of diabetes progression and standard of care in migrants. Even in universalistic healthcare systems, differences in socioeconomic status and barriers generated by the present culture of biomedicine make high-risk ethnic minorities under-treated and not protected against inequalities. Underutilization of drugs and primary care services in specific ethnic groups are far from being money-saving, and might produce higher hospitalization rates due to disease progression and complications. Efforts should be made to favor screening and treatment programs, to adapt education programs to specific cultures, and to develop community partnerships. PMID:26862371

  4. Do Attitudes toward School Influence the Underachievement of Turkish and Moroccan Minority Students in Flanders? The Attitude-Achievement Paradox Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'hondt, Fanny; Van Praag, Lore; Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    While many ethnic minority students underachieve compared with their ethnic majority peers, they often hold very positive school attitudes. Mickelson (1990) explained this attitude-achievement paradox by the existence of a double set of attitudes. Abstract attitudes reflect the dominant ideas about schooling, while concrete attitudes refer to a…

  5. Do Attitudes toward School Influence the Underachievement of Turkish and Moroccan Minority Students in Flanders? The Attitude-Achievement Paradox Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'hondt, Fanny; Van Praag, Lore; Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    While many ethnic minority students underachieve compared with their ethnic majority peers, they often hold very positive school attitudes. Mickelson (1990) explained this attitude-achievement paradox by the existence of a double set of attitudes. Abstract attitudes reflect the dominant ideas about schooling, while concrete attitudes refer to a…

  6. "Skinny is prettier and normal: I want to be normal"-Perceived body image of non-Western ethnic minority children in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Te Poel, Fam; Pepping, Rian; Konijn, Elly A; Spekman, Marloes L C

    2017-03-01

    While the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among children of some non-Western ethnic minorities than among their Caucasian counterparts, their body image is understudied. The current study examined the body image of Dutch children of non-Western ethnic minorities (i.e., Surinamese, Antillean, Moroccan, and Turkish). Sociocultural influences from school, media and home environments and their perceptions of overweight prevention programs were taken into account. Fifty-two non-Western ethnic minority children (aged 8-12 years) participated in semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Results showed that the children generally underestimated their current body size, which was often overweight, and preferred thin and 'normal' body sizes. Results further revealed important insights into culturally determined themes, relating to perceived preferences in media, peers, parents, and teachers, nutritional habits, and children's beliefs about school-based health interventions. We conclude that targeting culturally sensitive awareness about actual body size and healthy body images seems paramount in future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethnicity and children's diets: the practices and perceptions of mothers in two minority ethnic groups in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-10-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Enhance Ideological Political Education Work for Ethnic Minority Students and Build up Harmonious Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To accelerate the development of the ethnic minority regions and cultivate ethnic minority talent, the state has successively implemented policies of setting up the Tibet Class and the Xinjiang Class in institutions of higher learning in China's interior regions ("neidi"), enabling some of the finest young students among the ethnic…

  9. Minority Rights and Majority Rule: Ethnic Tolerance in Romania and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Mary E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of data from national surveys of majority ethnic groups in Romania and Bulgaria examined the effects on tolerance toward minority groups of education, community ethnic composition, urbanism, age, gender, perceived threat to national security from the minority group's homeland, democratic values, and prevailing political ideology. Contains…

  10. The New Paradigm of Ethnic Minority Educational Research: Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Dong-ge; Huang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research and quantitative research have their own advantages, so mixed use both to improve scientific research. Too many Chinese Ethnic Minority Educational Research in qualitative research, and few use quantitative research, leading the results with many subjective factors. The reason is that selecting ethnic minority educational…

  11. Linguistic and Cultural Effects on the Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students: Some Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2016-01-01

    Established literature suggests that language problems lead to lower attainment levels in those subjects that are more language dependent. Also, language has been suggested as a main driver of ethnic minority attainment. We use an original dataset of 2,020 secondary school students to show that ethnic minority students in Cyprus underperform…

  12. Linguistic and Cultural Effects on the Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students: Some Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2016-01-01

    Established literature suggests that language problems lead to lower attainment levels in those subjects that are more language dependent. Also, language has been suggested as a main driver of ethnic minority attainment. We use an original dataset of 2,020 secondary school students to show that ethnic minority students in Cyprus underperform…

  13. Enhance Ideological Political Education Work for Ethnic Minority Students and Build up Harmonious Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To accelerate the development of the ethnic minority regions and cultivate ethnic minority talent, the state has successively implemented policies of setting up the Tibet Class and the Xinjiang Class in institutions of higher learning in China's interior regions ("neidi"), enabling some of the finest young students among the ethnic…

  14. Ethnic Composition of School Classes, Majority-Minority Friendships, and Adolescents' Intergroup Attitudes in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority…

  15. Division 45: The Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Eduardo; Lau, Michael Y.; Ballesteros, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article covers the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Psychology, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association (APA) in understanding the relationship of ethnic minority psychological associations with Division 17. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling…

  16. The Use of Role Models to Improve Engagement of Ethnic Minority Students in Secondary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butt, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an enquiry into whether role models in science have an effect on ethnic minority engagement and aspirations. It discusses whether incorporating scientists from across the globe into lessons could have a positive impact on ethnic minority and white pupils. Pupils at a Sheffield school were introduced to scientists from across…

  17. Supporting Minority Ethnic Children and Adolescents with Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Difficulties in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The author addresses the mental health needs of ethnic minority children and young people in the United Kingdom and the services that are provided to support them. The author discusses the complex and distinctive pattern of ethnic minority distribution in the United Kingdom, along with a consideration of what is known about the mental health of…

  18. Double Jeopardy: The Children of Ethnic Minorities. Innocenti Occasional Papers. Child Rights Series, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavenhagen, Rodolfo

    This paper examines the state of current research on ethnic minorities and their children and discusses areas in which further study is needed so that effective policy guidelines may be developed within the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. A number of examples of ethnic minority situations are presented to…

  19. Ethnic Composition of School Classes, Majority-Minority Friendships, and Adolescents' Intergroup Attitudes in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority…

  20. Reforming Lao Teacher Education to Include Females and Ethnic Minorities--Exploring Possibilities and Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Britt-Marie; Chounlamany, Kongsy; Khounphilaphanh, Bounchanh; Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article explores possibilities and constraints for the inclusion of female and ethnic minority students in Lao education in order to provide education for all. Females and ethnic minorities have traditionally been disadvantaged in Lao education and reforms for the inclusion of these groups are therefore welcome. The article provides rich…

  1. The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Succession in Ethnic Minority Family Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed G.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Matlay, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible…

  2. Predicting Intention to Remain in College among Ethnic Minority and Nonminority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Reisen, Carol A.; Beil, Cheryl; Caplan, Robert D.

    1997-01-01

    Tests for equivalence models predicting ethnic minority and nonminority students' intentions to remain enrolled in college. Reports similarities and differences in the models for predicting commitment for ethnic minority and nonminority students. Notes limitations to the inferences that can be drawn from the study due to its methodology. (DSK)

  3. Residential Segregation and Birth Weight among Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are often residentially segregated from whites in urban settings, a fact which has important health consequences. Research on the relationship between residential segregation and health outcomes lacks national-level investigation of racial and ethnic minority groups other than African Americans. I use multilevel…

  4. Education of Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland: A Review of Research. SCRE Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powney, Janet; McPake, Joanna; Hall, Stuart; Lyall, Lindsay

    This review examines research done and information made available regarding the education of minority ethnic groups in Scotland. Compilers of the review used and commented on available statistical information and Scottish studies relevant to minority ethnic groups and their education at all levels. The intent of the review was to determine whether…

  5. Equal Opportunities or Affirmative Action? The Induction of Minority Ethnic Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basit, Tehmina N.; McNamara, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Currently in the UK there is much pressure to increase the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority teachers, not only to respond to the continuing shortage, but to develop a teaching force that reflects the diversity in the UK population and provides role models for ethnic minority students. There is, however, little research on how ethnic…

  6. The Effects of Student Characteristics on Teachers' Judgment Accuracy: Disentangling Ethnicity, Minority Status, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Johanna; Südkamp, Anna; Möller, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' judgments of students' academic achievement are not only affected by the achievement themselves but also by several other characteristics such as ethnicity, gender, and minority status. In real-life classrooms, achievement and further characteristics are often confounded. We disentangled achievement, ethnicity and minority status and…

  7. The Use of Role Models to Improve Engagement of Ethnic Minority Students in Secondary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butt, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an enquiry into whether role models in science have an effect on ethnic minority engagement and aspirations. It discusses whether incorporating scientists from across the globe into lessons could have a positive impact on ethnic minority and white pupils. Pupils at a Sheffield school were introduced to scientists from across…

  8. Division 45: The Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Eduardo; Lau, Michael Y.; Ballesteros, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article covers the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Psychology, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association (APA) in understanding the relationship of ethnic minority psychological associations with Division 17. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling…

  9. Double Jeopardy: The Children of Ethnic Minorities. Innocenti Occasional Papers. Child Rights Series, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavenhagen, Rodolfo

    This paper examines the state of current research on ethnic minorities and their children and discusses areas in which further study is needed so that effective policy guidelines may be developed within the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. A number of examples of ethnic minority situations are presented to…

  10. Residential Segregation and Birth Weight among Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are often residentially segregated from whites in urban settings, a fact which has important health consequences. Research on the relationship between residential segregation and health outcomes lacks national-level investigation of racial and ethnic minority groups other than African Americans. I use multilevel…

  11. Exploratory Investigation of Drivers of Attainment in Ethnic Minority Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkin, Lara A.; Koutsoubou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that ethnic minority learners in further education in England either under-achieve or are under-represented because they face various inhibitors connected to their ethnicity. Motivators may be in place, however, which increase attainment specifically for some ethnic groups. This exploratory study intends to examine what works and…

  12. Depressive symptoms among immigrants and ethnic minorities: a population based study in 23 European countries.

    PubMed

    Missinne, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2012-01-01

    European studies about ethnic inequalities in depressive symptoms are scarce, show inconclusive results and are complicated by the discussion of what constitute (im)migrant and ethnic minority groups. Moreover, comparisons across countries are hampered by a lack of comparable measures of depressive symptoms. This study aims to assess the prevalence and determinants of depressive symptoms among immigrants, ethnic minorities and natives in 23 European countries. Multilevel analyses are performed using data from the third wave of the European Social Survey (ESS-3). This dataset comprises information about 36,970 respondents, aged 21 years or older, of whom 13.3% immigrants and 6.2% ethnic minorities. Depressive symptoms were assessed with an 8-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Main determinants are immigrant status, socio-economic conditions and the experience of ethnic discrimination in the host country. The results show that immigrants and ethnic minorities do experience more depressive symptoms than natives in an essential part of the countries. Moreover, socio-economic conditions and the experience of ethnic discrimination are important risk factors. Immigrant status seems irrelevant, once the other risk factors are accounted for. Finally, immigrant and ethnic minority groups do not consist of the same individuals and therefore have different prevalence rates of depressive symptoms. The prevalence rates of depressive symptoms are higher for immigrant and ethnic minority groups in a substantial part of the European countries. A clear definition is indispensable for developing policies that address the right-targeted population.

  13. Use and Preference of Advice on Small Children's Food: Differences Between Parents From Ethnic Minority, Ethnic Majority, and Mixed Households.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers' peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households with ethnic minority status were more likely to find the advice obtained in this way incompatible with their family eating habits. Although existing dietary health communication strategies delivered by public health nurses appear to work well in all household types, parents from minority households seem to experience dilemmas. These may be related to their cultural and generational status at the time of receiving the advice. Adjustments to current communication strategies on young children's food are suggested.

  14. Ethnicity and the experience of work: job stress and satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Miller, G V F; Travers, C J

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of a nationwide investigation into the mental well-being and job satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. Data were collected via a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The sample, totalling 208 participants was derived from the National Union of Teachers (NUT) database of minority ethnic teachers and an advertisement in the NUT's Teacher magazine. Univariate analysis of the results revealed that this group of teachers, as compared with other groups were experiencing poorer mental health and lower job satisfaction. Multivariate analysis revealed four reliable factors regarding the 'sources of stress' these minority ethnic teachers perceived they were experiencing. They are the 'hierarchy and culture of the school', workload', 'cultural barriers', and the 'lack of status and promotion'. Some minority ethnic teachers reported that ethnic discrimination on a daily basis or at least several times per week was a contributory factor in their experience of stress. Many of the teachers believed they worked within an institutionally racist environment. Multiple regression analysis discovered that 'total stress', 'total self-esteem', 'working conditions job satisfaction' and 'total discrimination' were the major predictors of mental ill-health in the minority ethnic teachers. Job dissatisfaction was predicted by 'total discrimination', 'workload', 'total general health', 'resolution strategy', and the 'lack of status and promotion'.

  15. Ethnicity, Forms of Capital, and Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert W. J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Using Bourdieu's theory of cultural capital, which explains how social class influences transmission of educational inequality, this article questions the extent to which various forms of capital also apply to ethnic minorities. Discusses a study of Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan students, which found that there was no mediating effect…

  16. Minority stress, ethnic identity, and depression among Latino/a college students.

    PubMed

    Arbona, Consuelo; Jimenez, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine among Latino/a college students the extent to which dimensions of minority stress related to ethnic group membership (college climate, academic achievement, ethnic discrimination, and intra-ethnic pressure stress) were uniquely associated with depression symptoms when general college stress was taken into account. The study also examined if ethnic identity moderated the relation of minority stress to depression symptoms. Participants were 309 Latino/a undergraduate students (53% women; 69% of Mexican descent) enrolled in a diverse, major research, urban, public university in the southwestern United States. Findings revealed that minority stress in the areas of academic concerns and negative perceptions of the campus climate contributed unique variance to depression symptoms when controlling for gender and students' general college stress. Ethnic identity did not moderate the relation of any of the minority stress dimensions to depression. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Counselling Ethnic Minorities: Does It Require Special Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shack, Sybil

    1978-01-01

    Ethnicity is an important part of Canadian life. There is no magic formula for counseling "ethnic" students. Ethnic differences create some problems, but add spice and color to Canadian classrooms. Knowledge, understanding, sensitivity, acceptance, and mutual trust help to dissipate the problems. (Author)

  18. Counselling Ethnic Minorities: Does It Require Special Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shack, Sybil

    1978-01-01

    Ethnicity is an important part of Canadian life. There is no magic formula for counseling "ethnic" students. Ethnic differences create some problems, but add spice and color to Canadian classrooms. Knowledge, understanding, sensitivity, acceptance, and mutual trust help to dissipate the problems. (Author)

  19. How Does Ethnic and Non-Ethnic Victimization by Peers and by Teachers Relate to the School Belongingness of Ethnic Minority Students in Flanders, Belgium? An Explorative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2015-01-01

    School belongingness has proven its positive effect on a wide range of outcomes that lead to school success. However, the factors that influence school belongingness received little research attention. Hence, the goal of this study is to explore the impact of ethnic victimization on ethnic minority students' school belongingness. Hereto, we…

  20. Integration versus segregation: ethnic minorities and urban politics in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Van Grunsven, L

    1992-01-01

    The population of Singapore is very heterogenous. The main groups distinguished are the Chinese, the Malays, the Indians, and others. Since the end of the 1950s these groups have remained stable: Chinese make up 76%, Malays 15%, Indians 6%, and others 3% of the total population. In the mid-1960s almost 25% of the Chinese were working in commerce as opposed to only 10% of the Malays. More than 50% of Malays held low-paying jobs in services compared to less than 30% of the Chinese. The backward position of the Malays during the 1960s was reinforced by residential location in the peripheries. In the 1950s and 1960s the city center was exclusively inhabited by the Chinese. Malays were living in small clusters across the city and in 1 large cluster in the eastern part of the city. The ruling People's Action Party government during the 1960s adopted the New Economic Policy which granted economic and social privileges to the Malays. In 1969 the decision was made to disperse the Malay community across the city. In the early 1960s the state launched a large-scale public housing program through the newly created Housing and Development Board (H.D.B.). Between 1970 and 1982 Malay households living in H.D.B. apartments increased from 23% to 77%. Between 1970 and 1980 substantial declustering of the malay community and desegregation of the ethnic groups had occurred. In 24 areas out of 51 subdivisions of Singapore the Malay quotient decreased between 1970 and 1980. In 1980 the location quotient for Malay settlement areas was significantly lower (varying between 0.07 and 2.18) than the highest quotient in 1970 (varying between 0.06 and 3.7). During the 1980s the economic participation of the Malays increased steadily, they became gradually incorporated into industry, and increasingly moved upward within the public housing sector. Between 1980 and 1990 the Malay households living in H.D.B. dwellings increased from 72% to 97%. Notwithstanding residential integration, ethnic

  1. Changing psychology: history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues.

    PubMed

    Comas-Díaz, Lillian

    2009-10-01

    The history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (American Psychological Association Division 45) for its first 20 years are reviewed. The legitimization of the ethnic minority scholarship within organized psychology is chronicled, highlighting the central role of advocacy and activism. Multiculturalism is presented as a paradigm for the globalization of the United States. It is concluded that ethnic minority psychology has changed the field and equips us for the challenges of the internationalization of the world. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Ethnic Experience and Politics of Ethnicity in a Globalized Environment: Insights into the Perspectives and Experiences of the Ukrainian Minority Youth in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the question of ethnic place/identity negotiation, as well as ethnic minority experiences shaped by globalization processes in the post-1989 national and (East) European space. Using a cultural lens, this qualitative study first examines how the place and positioning of ethnic minorities are defined in the context of the…

  3. Parental Ethnic-Racial Socialization and Social Attitudes Among Ethnic-Racial Minority and White American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Tran, Alisia G T T; Mintert, Jeffrey S; Jew, Gilbert B

    2016-08-15

    This article utilizes moderated mediation analyses to explore whether the relations between parental ethnic-racial socialization (PERS) dimensions and social attitudes differ across ethnic-racial minority (n = 128) and White (n = 131) college-going emerging adults. We examined social dominance orientation (SDO) as an index of antiegalitarian intergroup attitudes and attitudes toward interpersonal harmony as an index of interpersonal attitudes. We tested whether there were ethnic-racial variations in mediation models in which each type of PERS dimension was expected to be linked to greater antiegalitarian attitudes (greater SDO), which, in turn, was predicted to be associated with less prosocial attitudes (lower harmony enhancement). Results indicated that more frequent cultural socialization and preparation for bias were linked to greater SDO for the White sample, but not for the ethnic-minority sample. Moderation results were nonsignificant for promotion of mistrust, with results indicating a positive link to SDO, regardless of racial-ethnic status. Moderated mediation analyses further revealed indirect effects of cultural socialization and preparation for bias on interpersonal attitudes through SDO for the White sample, but not for the ethnic-minority sample. Specifically, greater cultural socialization and preparation for bias each were linked to greater SDO, which, in turn, was associated with less positive perceptions of the value of maintaining interpersonal harmony for White respondents. Practical applications, including social justice implications, of the results and possibilities for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Cross-ethnic friendships, perceived discrimination, and their effects on ethnic activism over time: a longitudinal investigation of three ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Tropp, Linda R; Hawi, Diala R; Van Laar, Colette; Levin, Shana

    2012-06-01

    This research examines cross-ethnic friendships as a predictor of perceived discrimination and support for ethnic activism over time among African American, Latino American, and Asian American undergraduate participants from a multi-year, longitudinal study conducted in the United States. Our research builds on prior cross-sectional research by testing effects longitudinally and examining how relationships among these variables may differ across ethnic minority groups. Results indicate that, over time, greater friendships with Whites predict both lower perceptions of discrimination and less support for ethnic activism among African Americans and Latino Americans, but not among Asian Americans. Implications of these findings for future research on inter-group contact, minority-majority relations, and ethnic group differences in status are discussed.

  5. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention Among Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as structural or policy interventions, have the potential to impact the HIV epidemic at a population level, and thus reduce the HIV health disparities that exist among ethnic minority youth and other segments of the U.S. population. This article calls for a paradigm shift to develop, evaluate, and disseminate interventions that target upstream/macro-level factors or that, at a minimum, integrate both a macro and individual level perspective. The article also discusses the challenges in developing and evaluating such interventions. Psychologists and other behavioral scientists can play a critical role in reducing the impact of HIV on ethnic minority youth by integrating macro-level approaches to future HIV prevention strategies. PMID:23688095

  6. INCREASING CULTURALLY COMPETENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES FOR ETHNIC MINORITY POPULATIONS: A CALL TO ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Saez, Pedro; Manly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural considerations in neuropsychology; current disparities germane to practice; and challenges to the provision of services to racial/ethnic minority clients. We provide a call to action for neuropsychologists and related organizations to advance multiculturalism and diversity within the field by increasing multicultural awareness and knowledge, multicultural education and training, multicultural neuropsychological research, and the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services to racial/ethnic minority clients. Lastly, we discuss strategies for increasing the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services, and offer several resources to meet these goals. PMID:20373222

  7. Ethnic Minorities and Achievements: The Black Hole in Science Ranks. Part 2: Post-16 Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasekoala, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the overrepresentation of ethnic minority postsecondary students into the arts and humanities instead of science and technical coursework and its impact on employability. The factors that impact this trend are highlighted. (GR)

  8. Crime and mental disorders among native Dutch and ethnic minority juvenile defendants in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vinkers, David J; Duits, Nils

    2011-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of mental disorders and the recommendations regarding criminal responsibility and treatment in pre-trial mental health evaluations requested by Dutch juvenile courts for youths between the ages of 12 to 17. Youths of native Dutch (n=2694) and of ethnic minority background (n=1393) were compared. The prevalence of mental disorders was similar for both groups (76.8% versus 74.4%). Criminal responsibility in native Dutch youth was more often considered 'diminished' or 'strongly diminished' than in ethnic minority youth. Admission to a juvenile institution was more often recommended for ethnic minority juveniles than for native Dutch juveniles. It remains unclear from our data whether these differences reflect a false stereotype of ethnic minority populations as being more dangerous and threatening.

  9. Ethnic Minorities and Achievements: The Black Hole in Science Ranks. Part 2: Post-16 Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasekoala, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the overrepresentation of ethnic minority postsecondary students into the arts and humanities instead of science and technical coursework and its impact on employability. The factors that impact this trend are highlighted. (GR)

  10. Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project): design and methods.

    PubMed

    Elford, Jonathan; McKeown, Eamonn; Doerner, Rita; Nelson, Simon; Low, Nicola; Anderson, Jane

    2010-07-14

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i) sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii) their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii) disclosure of sexuality; (iv) use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v) the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention) are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM.The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i) ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii) a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii) NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv) sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America.Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email.Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and the Terrence Higgins Trust (THT) CHAPS

  11. Body Dissatisfaction and Physical Development among Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishina, Adrienne; Ammon, Natalie Y.; Bellmore, Amy D.; Graham, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the association between body dissatisfaction and adjustment, and the role physical development plays in this association, in an ethnically diverse sample of over 1100 urban, ninth grade boys and girls (M age = 14). More similarities than differences were found across ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Latino,…

  12. The Association of Ethnic Minority Density with Late Entry into Antenatal Care in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Posthumus, Anke G.; Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Denktaş, Semiha

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, non-Western ethnic minority women make their first antenatal visit later than native Dutch women. Timely entry into antenatal care is important as it provides the opportunity for prenatal screening and the detection of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study we explored whether women's timely entry is influenced by their neighborhood. Moreover, we assessed whether ethnic minority density (the proportion of ethnic minorities in a neighborhood) influences Western and non-Western ethnic minority women's chances of timely entry into care differently. We hypothesized that ethnic minority density has a protective effect against non-Western women's late entry into care. Data on time of entry into care and other individual-level characteristics were obtained from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry (2000-2008; 97% of all pregnancies). We derived neighborhood-level data from three other national databases. We included 1,137,741 pregnancies of women who started care under supervision of a community midwife in 3422 neighborhoods. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood-level determinants with entry into antenatal care before and after 14 weeks of gestation. We found that neighborhood characteristics influence timely entry above and beyond individual characteristics. Ethnic minority density was associated with a higher risk of late entry into antenatal care. However, our analysis showed that for non-Western women, living in high ethnic minority density areas is less detrimental to their risk of late entry than for Western women. This means that a higher proportion of ethnic minority residents has a protective effect on non-Western women's chances of timely entry into care. Our results suggest that strategies to improve timely entry into care could seek to create change at the neighborhood level in order to target individuals likely of entering care too late. PMID:25856150

  13. The association of ethnic minority density with late entry into antenatal care in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Posthumus, Anke G; Schölmerich, Vera L N; Steegers, Eric A P; Kawachi, Ichiro; Denktaş, Semiha

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, non-Western ethnic minority women make their first antenatal visit later than native Dutch women. Timely entry into antenatal care is important as it provides the opportunity for prenatal screening and the detection of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study we explored whether women's timely entry is influenced by their neighborhood. Moreover, we assessed whether ethnic minority density (the proportion of ethnic minorities in a neighborhood) influences Western and non-Western ethnic minority women's chances of timely entry into care differently. We hypothesized that ethnic minority density has a protective effect against non-Western women's late entry into care. Data on time of entry into care and other individual-level characteristics were obtained from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry (2000-2008; 97% of all pregnancies). We derived neighborhood-level data from three other national databases. We included 1,137,741 pregnancies of women who started care under supervision of a community midwife in 3422 neighborhoods. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood-level determinants with entry into antenatal care before and after 14 weeks of gestation. We found that neighborhood characteristics influence timely entry above and beyond individual characteristics. Ethnic minority density was associated with a higher risk of late entry into antenatal care. However, our analysis showed that for non-Western women, living in high ethnic minority density areas is less detrimental to their risk of late entry than for Western women. This means that a higher proportion of ethnic minority residents has a protective effect on non-Western women's chances of timely entry into care. Our results suggest that strategies to improve timely entry into care could seek to create change at the neighborhood level in order to target individuals likely of entering care too late.

  14. End-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Amanda; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Purandare, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the relationship between ethnic minority status and provision of end-of-life care for people with dementia. It included all empirical research on people with dementia or severe cognitive impairment or their caregivers and with ethnic minority people as a subgroup in examining an outcome involving end-of-life care processes or attitudes toward end-of-life care. Two authors independently rated quality of included studies; 20 studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the review: 19 quantitative and one qualitative. All articles were based in the United States, with African American, Hispanic, and Asian groups being the ethnic minorities. Artificial nutrition and other life-sustaining treatments were more frequent and decisions to withhold treatment less common in African American and Asian groups. The qualitative evidence, albeit limited, found that attitudes toward end-of-life care were more similar than different between different ethnic groups. Differences in hospice usage patterns were less consistent and potentially influenced by factors such as study setting and dementia severity. Caregivers' experiences differed between ethnic groups, whereas levels of strain experienced were similar. Disparities in end-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups appear to exist and may be due to the double disadvantage of dementia and ethnic minority status. Further research is needed in other western multicultural countries, with a focus on prospective qualitative studies to understand the underlying reasons for these differences, not just their occurrence.

  15. Academic and Career Expectations of Ethnic Minority Youth in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Francis; Lai, Beatrice P. Y.; Wu, Anise M. S.; Ku, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Based on social-cognitive career theory (SCCT), we explore how ethnic identity, parental occupation, efficacy in learning Chinese, and learning experience relate to ethnic minority adolescents' academic and career expectations. The participants are 632 Southeast Asian adolescents in Hong Kong. In accordance with SCCT, structural equation modeling…

  16. Vocational Education and Training in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to investigate the provision of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses (SEMBs) operating in the West Midlands region of the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative approach is employed, involving in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 66 owner/managers of small ethnic minority…

  17. The Mediators of Minority Ethnic Underperformance in Final Medical School Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Katherine; McManus, I. Chris; Potts, Henry W. W.; Dacre, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background: UK-trained medical students and doctors from minority ethnic groups underperform academically. It is unclear why this problem exists, which makes it dif?cult to know how to address it. Aim: To investigate whether demographic and psychological factors mediate the relationship between ethnicity and ?nal examination scores. Sample: Two…

  18. Academic and Career Expectations of Ethnic Minority Youth in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Francis; Lai, Beatrice P. Y.; Wu, Anise M. S.; Ku, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Based on social-cognitive career theory (SCCT), we explore how ethnic identity, parental occupation, efficacy in learning Chinese, and learning experience relate to ethnic minority adolescents' academic and career expectations. The participants are 632 Southeast Asian adolescents in Hong Kong. In accordance with SCCT, structural equation modeling…

  19. Playing the "Race" Card? Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible for…

  20. Researching Ethnic Minority Students in a Chinese Context: Mixed Methods Design for Cross Cultural Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry J.; Hue, Ming Tak

    2011-01-01

    Research on and with ethnic minority students is characterised by a growing international literature that privileges "liberal multiculturalism" as a lens through which to understand their experiences, yet ethnic diversity is constructed and responded to in many societies that are not underpinned by liberal democratic values. In this…

  1. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

  2. Minority Ethnic Students and Science Participation: A Qualitative Mapping of Achievement, Aspiration, Interest and Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Billy

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, the "leaky pipeline" metaphor has been used to describe the relationship between ethnicity and science participation. Fewer minority ethnic students continue with science in post-compulsory education, and little is known about the ways in which they participate and identify with science, particularly in the secondary school…

  3. Ethnic Minorities, Language Diversity, and Educational Implications: A Case Study on the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of the Dutch situation looks at how growing immigrant numbers and resulting second language groups have prompted a rethinking of traditional concepts of education. First, ethnic population trends across national boundaries in Western Europe are examined and basic statistics on ethnic minorities in the Netherlands are presented. The…

  4. The Mediators of Minority Ethnic Underperformance in Final Medical School Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Katherine; McManus, I. Chris; Potts, Henry W. W.; Dacre, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background: UK-trained medical students and doctors from minority ethnic groups underperform academically. It is unclear why this problem exists, which makes it dif?cult to know how to address it. Aim: To investigate whether demographic and psychological factors mediate the relationship between ethnicity and ?nal examination scores. Sample: Two…

  5. Education of Ethnic Minority Children in Denmark: Monocultural Hegemony and Counter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…

  6. Minority Ethnic Students and Science Participation: A Qualitative Mapping of Achievement, Aspiration, Interest and Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Billy

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, the "leaky pipeline" metaphor has been used to describe the relationship between ethnicity and science participation. Fewer minority ethnic students continue with science in post-compulsory education, and little is known about the ways in which they participate and identify with science, particularly in the secondary school…

  7. Playing the "Race" Card? Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible for…

  8. Teachers' and Parental Attribution for School Performance of Ethnic Majority and Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; de Haan, Mariette

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether teachers' and parental attributions for children's school performance differ depending on the ethnic background of the child. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, real-life attributions within 54 teacher-parent conversations (15 ethnic majority; 39 minority) were examined. The results indicated that,…

  9. Education of Ethnic Minority Children in Denmark: Monocultural Hegemony and Counter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…

  10. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

  11. The Impact of Immigrants on Long-Lasting Ethnic Minorities in Japanese Schools: Globalisation from Below

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okano, Kaori

    2006-01-01

    While the myth of ethnic and linguistic homogeneity prevails, Japan has always been a multiethnic and multilingual entity. The existence of ethnic minorities remained relatively invisible, and their activism to maintain their identities was not widely acknowledged in the public discourse. However, the influx of immigrants since the mid-1980s as a…

  12. Ethnicity, Education and Empowerment: Identity Construction among Minority Students in Southwestern China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    1998-01-01

    Eight percent of the population of the People's Republic of China is comprised of ethnic minority people, people with cultures (particularly languages and religions) that are distinct from the majority (or Han) Chinese. Ethnic students in China and elsewhere face considerable obstacles to getting a good education. A tiny percentage of Chinese…

  13. The Impact of Immigrants on Long-Lasting Ethnic Minorities in Japanese Schools: Globalisation from Below

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okano, Kaori

    2006-01-01

    While the myth of ethnic and linguistic homogeneity prevails, Japan has always been a multiethnic and multilingual entity. The existence of ethnic minorities remained relatively invisible, and their activism to maintain their identities was not widely acknowledged in the public discourse. However, the influx of immigrants since the mid-1980s as a…

  14. Minority ethnicity patient satisfaction and experience: results of the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey in England

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, Richard J; Ferguson, Jamie; Møller, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to explore the differential patient satisfaction reported by patients with cancer who are from ethnic minority backgrounds, examining patient-reported experience of interacting with medical and nursing staff. Setting As a secondary analysis, we collated data collected over two consecutive annual rounds of the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey (NCPES) from September 2012 to November 2013. Participants There were 138 878 responses from 155 hospital trusts across the National Health Service in England, representing a response rate of 63.9% based on the total identified cohort of patients receiving cancer care over those 2 years. Outcomes We used the results of the annual survey, which sought to assess overall patient satisfaction along with patient experience of interacting with clinical nurse specialists, hospital doctors and ward nurses. Results Ethnic minority patients reported lower satisfaction and less positive experiences of care overall. While some of this difference appeared related to demographic and socioeconomic variation, ethnic minority patients remained less positive than those in the White British group, after statistical adjustment. Ethnic minority patients also reported lower confidence in, and less understanding of, healthcare professionals, including clinical nurse specialists, doctors and ward nurses. Conclusions Given the diversity of the British population, as well as the clustering of ethnic minority patients in certain urban areas, a better understanding of the expectations and additional needs of ethnic minority patients is required to improve their experience of and satisfaction with cancer care. PMID:27354083

  15. Intelligence Testing and Minority Students: Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues. Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.; Suzuki, Lisa A.

    This book examines intelligence assessment among ethnic minority children. Part 1, "Foundations," includes: (1) "Historical Issues" (e.g., emergence of intelligence testing in Europe and ideology of the intelligence testing movement); and (2) "Multicultural Perspective of Intelligence: Theory and Measurement Issues"…

  16. Intelligence Testing and Minority Students: Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues. Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.; Suzuki, Lisa A.

    This book examines intelligence assessment among ethnic minority children. Part 1, "Foundations," includes: (1) "Historical Issues" (e.g., emergence of intelligence testing in Europe and ideology of the intelligence testing movement); and (2) "Multicultural Perspective of Intelligence: Theory and Measurement Issues"…

  17. The Status of Former CSWE Ethnic Minority Doctoral Fellows in Social Work Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiele, Jerome H.; Francis, E. Aracelis

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 90 former Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) Ethnic Minority Doctoral Fellows found Hispanic Americans were most likely to be full, tenured professors, and that more males than females were tenured, most who applied had been awarded promotion and tenure, scholarly productivity was attributed to a minority of respondents, and…

  18. A Theoretical Study on English Teaching in Chinese Ethnic Minority Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Huang

    2013-01-01

    From an investigation about the factors influencing the trilingual education in Chinese ethnic minority regions, the author find out that the minority students are incompetent in English learning. Inappropriate teaching strategies, learning materials as well as language policy hinder the development of teaching and learning progress in those…

  19. Mental Health and Suicidality Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Sexual Minority Youths

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Russell, Stephen; Hughes, Tonda; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Methods. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the current study. The total sample was n = 72 691. Results. Compared with heterosexual peers, sexual minorities reported higher odds of feeling sad; suicidal ideation, planning and attempts; suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse, and self-harm. Among sexual minorities, compared with White youths, Asian and Black youths had lower odds of many outcomes, whereas American Native/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Multiracial youths had higher odds. Conclusions. Although in general, sexual minority youths were at heightened risk for suicidal outcomes, risk varied based on sex and on race/ethnicity. More research is needed to better understand the manner in which sex and race/ethnicity intersect among sexual minorities to influence risk and protective factors, and ultimately, mental health outcomes. PMID:24825217

  20. Mental health and suicidality among racially/ethnically diverse sexual minority youths.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Wendy B; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Russell, Stephen; Hughes, Tonda; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-06-01

    We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the current study. The total sample was n = 72,691. Compared with heterosexual peers, sexual minorities reported higher odds of feeling sad; suicidal ideation, planning and attempts; suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse, and self-harm. Among sexual minorities, compared with White youths, Asian and Black youths had lower odds of many outcomes, whereas American Native/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Multiracial youths had higher odds. Although in general, sexual minority youths were at heightened risk for suicidal outcomes, risk varied based on sex and on race/ethnicity. More research is needed to better understand the manner in which sex and race/ethnicity intersect among sexual minorities to influence risk and protective factors, and ultimately, mental health outcomes.

  1. Ethnic Minority Languages versus Frisian in Dutch Primary Schools: A Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus

    1989-01-01

    Compares the position of ethnic minority languages versus Frisian in Dutch primary schools, and considers the roles of legislation, educational models, minority language usage, language attitudes, pressure groups, teacher quality, instructional materials, and the serious lack of basic research data on the acquisition, use, shift, and loss of…

  2. Ethnic Minority Perspectives on the Evaluation of Early Childhood Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhine, W. Ray

    Issues presented at a symposium on ethnic minority perspectives and evaluation of early childhood education are presented. Two presentations are summarized. The first, "Evaluation Research and the Education of Oppressed Minority Group Members," by Edward J. Barnes, emphasizes that the evaluation of education programs must include a look at the…

  3. Suicidal ideation in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in Utrecht, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, D D; Smit, J H; van Balkom, A J L M; van Ameijden, E; Saharso, S

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and explored the vulnerability to suicidal ideation across several ethnic minority versus ethnic majority adolescents in the city of Utrecht in The Netherlands. Exploratory analyses were conducted on a dataset obtained from the Municipal Health Services in Utrecht. We examined whether ethnic minority adolescents are at risk for suicidal ideation because of a family background of migration, social-economic position and certain family factors, which influence psychological constellations. We found that levels of suicidal ideation among adolescents of Turkish background were significantly higher than in both majority and other minority adolescents, The Turkish adolescents at risk for suicidal ideation reported that they do not enjoy being at home with their families. Psychological factors, in particular lack of self-pride and the idea of not becoming successful in life, appeared to be important, as well as feelings of loneliness. Suicidal ideation was not found equally across all ethnic minority groups. A history of migration, ethnic minority status, or low socioeconomic status were not sufficient to explain the variation across ethnicities. Our results suggest that specific social-cultural factors, contextualized in the individual and located in the family environment, are relevant in explaining the disproportionate rates for Turkish adolescents in Utrecht.

  4. Conceptualizing Culturally Infused Engagement and Its Measurement for Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Children and Families

    PubMed Central

    Pottick, Kathleen J.; Chen, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Despite the central role culture plays in racial and ethnic disparities in mental health among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families, existing measures of engagement in mental health services have failed to integrate culturally specific factors that shape these families' engagement with mental health services. To illustrate this gap, the authors systematically review 119 existing instruments that measure the multi-dimensional and developmental process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review is anchored in a new integrated conceptualization of engagement, the culturally infused engagement model. The review assesses culturally relevant cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral mechanisms of engagement from the stages of problem recognition and help seeking to treatment participation that can help illuminate the gaps. Existing measures examined four central domains pertinent to the process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families: (a) expressions of mental distress and illness, (b) causal explanations of mental distress and illness, (c) beliefs about mental distress and illness, and (d) beliefs and experiences of seeking help. The findings highlight the variety of tools that are used to measure behavioral and attitudinal dimensions of engagement, showing the limitations of their application for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review proposes directions for promising research methodologies to help intervention scientists and clinicians improve engagement and service delivery and reduce disparities among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families at large, and recommends practical applications for training, program planning, and policymaking. PMID:28275923

  5. Conceptualizing Culturally Infused Engagement and Its Measurement for Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Children and Families.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Miwa; Pottick, Kathleen J; Chen, Yun

    2017-03-08

    Despite the central role culture plays in racial and ethnic disparities in mental health among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families, existing measures of engagement in mental health services have failed to integrate culturally specific factors that shape these families' engagement with mental health services. To illustrate this gap, the authors systematically review 119 existing instruments that measure the multi-dimensional and developmental process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review is anchored in a new integrated conceptualization of engagement, the culturally infused engagement model. The review assesses culturally relevant cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral mechanisms of engagement from the stages of problem recognition and help seeking to treatment participation that can help illuminate the gaps. Existing measures examined four central domains pertinent to the process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families: (a) expressions of mental distress and illness, (b) causal explanations of mental distress and illness, (c) beliefs about mental distress and illness, and (d) beliefs and experiences of seeking help. The findings highlight the variety of tools that are used to measure behavioral and attitudinal dimensions of engagement, showing the limitations of their application for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review proposes directions for promising research methodologies to help intervention scientists and clinicians improve engagement and service delivery and reduce disparities among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families at large, and recommends practical applications for training, program planning, and policymaking.

  6. Attitudes to colorectal cancer screening among ethnic minority groups in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Kathryn A; Solarin, Ijeoma; Power, Emily; Atkin, Wendy; Wardle, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Background Colorectal screening by Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) is under evaluation in the UK. Evidence from existing cancer screening programmes indicates lower participation among minority ethnic groups than the white-British population. To ensure equality of access, it is important to understand attitudes towards screening in all ethnic groups so that barriers to screening acceptance can be addressed. Methods Open- and closed-ended questions on knowledge about colorectal cancer and attitudes to FS screening were added to Ethnibus™ – a monthly, nationwide survey of the main ethnic minority communities living in the UK (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, and Chinese). Interviews (n = 875) were conducted, face-to-face, by multilingual field-workers, including 125 interviews with white-British adults. Results All respondents showed a notable lack of knowledge about causes of colorectal cancer, which was more pronounced in ethnic minority than white-British adults. Interest in FS screening was uniformly high (>60%), with more than 90% of those interested saying it would provide 'peace of mind'. The most frequently cited barrier to screening 'in your community' was embarrassment, particularly among ethnic minority groups. Conclusion Educational materials should recognise that non-white groups may be less knowledgeable about colorectal cancer. The findings of the current study suggest that embarrassment may be a greater deterrent to participation to FS screening among ethnic minority groups, but this result requires exploration in further research. PMID:18221519

  7. Conducting HIV Research in Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities: Building a Successful Interdisciplinary Research Team

    PubMed Central

    Polanco, Frinny R.; Dominguez, Dinora C.; Grady, Christine; Stoll, Pamela; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, JoAnn M.; Miranda-Acevedo, Robert; Morgan, Marcela; Aizvera, Jeasmine; Purdie, Lori; Koziol, Deloris; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V.

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection occurs in disproportionately high rates among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, making it imperative that individuals from these groups be included in research studies. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to recruit HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans into clinical trials, but a skilled interdisciplinary team that includes researchers with racial and ethnic diversity can help. This article describes a successful approach for building an interdisciplinary team that values the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials and that has the skills to work with these groups. The success of the Adelante (a Spanish word meaning forward) Team can be attributed to team members who actively participate in decision-making, are empowered, and function in a cohesive manner. Successful research teams build relationships with research participants in order to increase the probability that racial and ethnic minorities will enroll and participate fully in research. PMID:21277228

  8. Conducting HIV research in racial and ethnic minority communities: building a successful interdisciplinary research team.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Frinny R; Dominguez, Dinora C; Grady, Christine; Stoll, Pamela; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, Joann M; Miranda-Acevedo, Robert; Morgan, Marcela; Aizvera, Jeasmine; Purdie, Lori; Koziol, Deloris; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection occurs in disproportionately high rates among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, making it imperative that individuals from these groups be included in research studies. However, it is often difficult to recruit HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans in clinical trials, but a skilled interdisciplinary team that includes researchers with racial and ethnic diversity can help. This article describes a successful approach for building an interdisciplinary team that values the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials and has the skills to work with these groups. The success of the Adelante (a Spanish word meaning forward) Team can be attributed to team members who actively participate in decision-making, are empowered, and function in a cohesive manner. Successful research teams build relationships with research participants to increase the probability that racial and ethnic minorities will enroll and participate fully in research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Raising the "glass ceiling" for ethnic minority women in health care management.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Johnston, G

    1999-01-01

    Ethnic minority women are well represented in the work force and in the health care system in general, but do not have a similar level of representation in the management sector. This paper explores three strategies for schools of health administration to consider to lessen the effect of a "glass ceiling" that may be encountered by ethnic minority women aspiring to positions of leadership in health services agencies. These strategies are advancing affirmative action, valuing ethnic women in health administration education, and investigating diversity management. Inherent in each of the three strategies is the need for acknowledgment and more open discussion of the "glass ceiling." Problem-solving in relation to the potential for systemic discrimination adversely affecting ethnic minority women in senior health care management positions, and greater study of the three strategies using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies is also needed.

  10. Projections of the ethnic minority populations of the United Kingdom 2006-2056.

    PubMed

    Coleman, David

    2010-01-01

    The ethnic minority populations in the UK are growing substantially through immigration, a youthful age structure, and in some cases relatively high fertility. Their diverse demographic and socioeconomic characteristics have attracted considerable academic and policy attention, especially insofar as those distinctive characteristics have persisted in the generations born in the UK. No official projections of the UK ethnic populations have been published since 1979. This article provides projections to 2056 and beyond of 12 ethnic groups. Given overall net immigration and vital rates as assumed in the office for National Statistics 2008-based Principal Projection, and the ethnic characteristics estimated here, the ethnic minority populations (including the Other White) would increase from 13 percent of the UK population in 2006 to 28 percent by 2031 and 44 percent by 2056, and to about half the 0-4 age group in 2056. Alternative projections assume various lower levels of immigration. Possible implications of projected changes are discussed.

  11. Intimate Partner Violence and its Health Impact on Ethnic Minority Women [corrected].

    PubMed

    Stockman, Jamila K; Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient-provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors.

  12. Variations in hospitalization rates for asthma among black and minority ethnic communities.

    PubMed

    Gilthorpe, M S; Lay-Yee, R; Wilson, R C; Walters, S; Griffiths, R K; Bedi, R

    1998-04-01

    In response to the introduction of ethnic monitoring within the U.K. hospital inpatient data set, this study investigates the variations in secondary healthcare utilization by Black and minority ethnic communities whose cause of admission is related to asthma. The study examines all residents of the West Midlands: over 5 million people, of whom 8.5% are from Black and minority ethnic groups. A retrospective study of 15,921 asthma-related hospital admissions, from 1 April 1995 to 31 March 1996, was carried out. Age-standardized admission rates were higher in all Black and minority ethnic groups studied than in the White group. There were elevated rates in Black children aged 5-14 years, and particular differences were observed for Indian and Bangladeshi men and women aged 65 years or over. Emergency admissions to hospital for asthma were strongly associated with patients' socioeconomic background but this was largely observed for Black and minority ethnic groups that also generally experience high levels of deprivation. The findings support previous studies which suggest that hospital utilization rates for asthma among people from Black and minority ethnic groups are high compared with the White group, despite little evidence in measured prevalence. This study suggests that ethnic background is more important in asthma admissions than deprivation, which raises serious concerns on the appropriateness and quality of asthma care for these patient groups within our society. Future studies need to examine pathways to care, that is the health-seeking behaviour of Black and minority ethnic groups, the type of treatment received at the primary care level and referral patterns to secondary care.

  13. Perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms: the buffering effects of ethnic identity, religion and ethnic social network.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; de Wit, Matty A S; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-05-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) is positively associated with depressive symptoms in ethnic minority groups in Western countries. Psychosocial factors may buffer against the health impact of PED, but evidence is lacking from Europe. We assessed whether ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network act as buffers in different ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Baseline data were used from the HEalthy Living In a Urban Setting study collected from January 2011 to June 2014. The random sample included 2501 South-Asian Surinamese, 2292 African Surinamese, 1877 Ghanaians, 2626 Turks, and 2484 Moroccans aged 18-70 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. PED was measured with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Ethnic identity was assessed using the Psychological Acculturation Scale. Practicing religion was determined. Ethnic social network was assessed with the number of same-ethnic friends and amount of leisure time spent with same-ethnic people. PED was positively associated with depressive symptoms in all groups. The association was weaker among (a) those with strong ethnic identity in African Surinamese and Ghanaians, (b) those practicing religion among African Surinamese and Moroccans, (c) those with many same-ethnic friends in South-Asian Surinamese, Ghanaians, and Turks, and (d) those who spend leisure time with same-ethnic people among African Surinamese and Turks. Ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network weakened the association between PED and depressive symptoms, but the effects differed by ethnic minority group. These findings suggest that ethnic minority groups employ different resources to cope with PED.

  14. Panel V: Adaptive Health Behaviors Among Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Shirley P.; Angel, Ronald; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Liu, William; Schinke, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Race, ethnicity, and cultural attitudes and practices are among the variables that influence health behaviors, including adaptive health behaviors. The following discussions highlight the important role of social conditions in shaping health behaviors and the central role of family in promoting health across the Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and African American ethnic groups. Factors that may lead to health-damaging behaviors are also discussed. The need for additional research that identifies correlations among physiological, social, and behavioral factors and health behaviors, as well as underlying mechanisms, is called for. PMID:8654341

  15. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  16. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  17. Maladjustment in statistical minorities within ethnically unbalanced classrooms.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, K; Gregory, W L; Stephan, W G

    1990-10-01

    Ascertained if being a member of a statistical minority influences children's adjustment in school, as measured by the AML, a teacher-administered adjustment rating scale. Teachers from a southwest school district evaluated elementary students on aggressive, acting-out behaviors, moody-internalized behaviors, and learning difficulties. Analyses conducted on 376 students revealed significant effects of statistical minority status on certain dimensions of adjustment ratings for both Hispanic and Anglo students. Hispanic students in the statistical minority received poorer ratings on the moodiness dimension of the AML than nonminority Hispanic students. Anglo students in the statistical minority received poorer ratings on the aggression dimension of the AML than nonminority Anglo students. These results were interpreted in terms of cultural differences in coping with statistical minority status. Traits commonly exhibited within a culture may intensify and be perceived as maladaptive when stress resulting from being a minority occurs. Implications of the finding that statistical minority status within the school environment influences adjustment are discussed.

  18. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination by Teachers and Ethnic Minority Students' Academic Futility: Can Parents Prepare Their Youth for Better or for Worse?

    PubMed

    D'hondt, Fanny; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A J

    2016-06-01

    This study focuses on the interplay of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers, parents' ethnic socialization practices, and ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. Since discrimination creates barriers beyond control of the individual, the first research goal is to examine the association of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers with ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. The second research goal is to focus on the role of perceived parental ethnic socialization (e.g., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) to get a better understanding of the interaction between family level factors and the potentially negative consequences of ethnic teacher discrimination. A multilevel analysis on 1181 ethnic minority students (50.6 % girls; mean age = 15.5), originating from migration, in 53 secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium) shows that the frequent perception of ethnic discrimination by teachers is associated with stronger feelings of academic futility, and if these students also received high levels of parents' ethnic socialization, they perceive even stronger feelings of futility. The group of ethnic minority students, who perceive frequent ethnic teacher discrimination, is a group at risk, and parents' ethnic socialization does not seem able to change this.

  19. Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account

  20. Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations

    PubMed Central

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Boehm-Smith, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and it is now cited along with obesity as a global epidemic. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence of diabetes within the US, with racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes and its complications. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors influence the development and course of diabetes at multiple levels, including genetic, individual, familial, community and national. From an ecodevelopmental perspective, cultural variables assessed at one level (e.g., family level dietary practices) may interact with other types of variables examined at other levels (e.g., the availability of healthy foods within a low-income neighborhood), thus prompting the need for a clear analysis of these systemic relationships as they may increase risks for disease. Therefore, the need exists for models that aid in “mapping out” these relationships. A more explicit conceptualization of such multi-level relationships would aid in the design of culturally relevant interventions that aim to maximize effectiveness when applied with Latinos and other racial/ethnic minority groups. This paper presents an expanded ecodevelopmental model intended to serve as a tool to aid in the design of multi-level diabetes prevention interventions for application with racial/ethnic minority populations. This discussion focuses primarily on risk factors and prevention intervention in Latino populations, although with implications for other racial/ethnic minority populations that are also at high risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:19101788

  1. Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations.

    PubMed

    Castro, Felipe González; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Boehm-Smith, Edna

    2009-02-01

    Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and it is now cited along with obesity as a global epidemic. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence of diabetes within the US, with racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes and its complications. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors influence the development and course of diabetes at multiple levels, including genetic, individual, familial, community and national. From an ecodevelopmental perspective, cultural variables assessed at one level (e.g., family level dietary practices) may interact with other types of variables examined at other levels (e.g., the availability of healthy foods within a low-income neighborhood), thus prompting the need for a clear analysis of these systemic relationships as they may increase risks for disease. Therefore, the need exists for models that aid in "mapping out" these relationships. A more explicit conceptualization of such multi-level relationships would aid in the design of culturally relevant interventions that aim to maximize effectiveness when applied with Latinos and other racial/ethnic minority groups. This paper presents an expanded ecodevelopmental model intended to serve as a tool to aid in the design of multi-level diabetes prevention interventions for application with racial/ethnic minority populations. This discussion focuses primarily on risk factors and prevention intervention in Latino populations, although with implications for other racial/ethnic minority populations that are also at high risk for type 2 diabetes.

  2. Minority Ethnic Students and Science Participation: a Qualitative Mapping of Achievement, Aspiration, Interest and Capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Billy

    2016-02-01

    In the UK, the `leaky pipeline' metaphor has been used to describe the relationship between ethnicity and science participation. Fewer minority ethnic students continue with science in post-compulsory education, and little is known about the ways in which they participate and identify with science, particularly in the secondary school context. Drawing on an exploratory study of 46 interviews and 22 h of classroom observations with British students (aged 11-14) from Black Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Indian and Chinese ethnic backgrounds, this paper identified five `types' of science participation among minority ethnic students. The five types of science participation emerged from an analysis of students' science achievement, science aspiration, science interest and science capital. The characteristics of the five types are as follows: Science adverse students have no aspirations towards science and lacked interest, achievement and capital in science. Science intrinsic students have high science aspirations, interest and capital but low science attainment. Students who are science intermediate have some aspirations, interest and capital in science, with average science grades. Science extrinsic students achieve highly in science, have some science capital but lacked science aspirations and/or interest. Science prominent students are high science achievers with science aspirations, high levels of interest and capital in science. The findings highlight that minority ethnic students participate in science in diverse ways. Policy implications are suggested for each type as this paper provides empirical evidence to counter against public (and even some academic) discourses of minority ethnic students as a homogeneous group.

  3. Higher Education Access and Equality among Ethnic Minorities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    Market reform, financial decentralization, and economic globalization in recent years have greatly accentuated China's social and regional inequalities. These inequalities stem from many factors, including the rise of an urban middle class, a change in the status of women, a resurgence of ethnic identities, an increase in rural-to-urban migration,…

  4. A Review of Tobacco Use Treatments in U.S. Ethnic Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Okuyemi, Kolawole; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States. Among racial and ethnic minorities, disparities in tobacco use, knowledge of health risks and treatment resources, access to and utilization of treatment contribute to a disproportionate disease burden from tobacco use. Furthermore, racial and ethnic minorities have been under-represented within tobacco treatment studies. Purpose/Objective This paper provides a review of published studies examining tobacco treatment interventions among ethnic and minority populations in the United States. Study Design/Methods Literature searches were used to identify smoking cessation interventions involving racial/ethnic minority populations. Identified studies were published between 1985 and 2009 involving African American, Latino, Native American, Asian or Pacific Islander smokers. Studies included in the review a) targeted one or more ethnic minority group or had at least 10 percent of study participants from ethnic minority groups and b) reported abstinence outcomes. Results Sixty-four studies were included in this review. Of studies meeting inclusion criteria, 28 included a primary focus on African Americans, 10 focused on Latinos, 4 focused on Native Americans, and 3 focused on Asian American smokers. An additional 19 studies reported samples including participants from more than one minority group. Sample inclusion criteria, intervention content and duration, follow-up, abstinence assessment, and limitations of these studies were reviewed. Conclusions Individuals from racial and ethnic minority populations are interested in stopping smoking and willing to participate in treatment research. Variations in the content of treatment intervention and study design produced a range of abstinence outcomes across studies. Additional research is needed for all groups, including African American smokers, and special attention is warranted for Latino, Native American, and Asian groups

  5. Meta-analysis of operative mortality and complications in patients from minority ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Bloo, G J A; Hesselink, G J; Oron, A; Emond, E J J M; Damen, J; Dekkers, W J M; Westert, G; Wolff, A P; Calsbeek, H; Wollersheim, H C

    2014-10-01

    Insight into the effects of ethnic disparities on patients' perioperative safety is necessary for the development of tailored improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to review the literature on safety differences between patients from minority ethnic groups and those from the ethnic majority undergoing surgery. PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and Embase were searched using predefined inclusion criteria for available studies from January 1990 to January 2013. After quality assessment, the study data were organized on the basis of outcome, statistical significance and the direction of the observed effects. Relative risks for mortality were calculated. After screening 3105 studies, 26 studies were identified. Nine of these 26 studies showed statistically significant higher mortality rates for patients from minority ethnic groups. Meta-analysis demonstrated a greater risk of mortality for these patients compared with patients from the Caucasian majority in studies performed both in North America (risk ratio 1·22, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·05 to 1·42) and outside (risk ratio 2·25, 1·40 to 3·62). For patients from minority groups, the length of hospital or intensive care unit stay was significantly longer in five studies, and complication rates were significantly higher in ten. Methods used to identify patient ethnicity were not described in 14 studies. Patients from minority ethnic groups, in North America and elsewhere, have an increased risk of perioperative death and complications. More insight is needed into the causes of ethnic disparities to pursue safer perioperative care for patients of minority ethnicity. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  7. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  8. HIV testing policies for migrants and ethnic minorities in EU/EFTA Member States

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Susana; Caro-Murillo, Ana M.; Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Azcoaga-Lorenzo, Amaya; Belza, Maria J.; Rivero-Montesdeoca, Yaiza; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the context of an European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) research project, our objective was to describe current recommendations regarding HIV testing and counselling targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in the European Union/European Economic Area/European Free Trade Association (EU/EEA/EFTA) Member States. Methods: An on-line survey was conducted among 31 EU/EEA/EFTA Member States. The survey inquired on the existence of specific HIV testing and counselling recommendations or policies for migrants and/or ethnic minorities and the year of their publication. Additionally, we performed a review of national recommendations, guidelines or any other policy documents retrieved from an Internet search through the different countries’ competent bodies. Results: Twenty-nine (94%) country representatives responded the survey, and 28 documents from 27 countries were identified. National guidelines on HIV testing are heterogeneous and tailored, according to the epidemiological situation. Twenty-two countries identify migrants and four countries identify ethnic minorities as particularly vulnerable to HIV. Sixteen countries explicitly recommend offering an HIV test to migrants/ethnic minorities. Guidelines especially target people originating from HIV endemic countries, and benefits of HIV early detection are highlighted. HIV testing is not mandatory in any country, but some countries overtly facilitate this practice. Conclusion: Benefits of HIV testing in migrants and ethnic minorities, at both individual and community levels are recognized by many countries. In spite of this, not all countries identify the need to test these groups. PMID:23921295

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life of Food-Insecure Ethnic Minority Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gany, Francesca; Leng, Jennifer; Ramirez, Julia; Phillips, Serena; Aragones, Abraham; Roberts, Nicole; Mujawar, Mohammed Imran; Costas-Muñiz, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The association between food insecurity and health-related quality of life (QOL) of racial/ethnic minority patients with cancer has not been examined. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between food insecurity and health-related QOL reported by racial/ethnic minority patients with cancer. Methods: A consecutive sample of 1,390 underserved ethnic minority patients receiving cancer care in 10 cancer clinics and hospitals in New York City participated in this study. Health-related QOL was measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and food security was assessed by the US Department of Agriculture Core Food Security Module. Results: Of the 1,390 patients, 581 (41.8%) were classified as food secure, 571 (41.1%) with low food security, and 238 (17.1%) with very low food security. Health-related QOL decreased with each lower food security level. Patient self-reported physical, functional, social, and emotional well-being subscale scores decrease significantly with increasing food insecurity. After controlling for demographic and medical-related factors, the decreases in QOL, physical, functional, social and emotional well-being scores with increasing food insecurity remained significant. Conclusion: Food insecurity was associated with lower QOL in this sample of underserved racial/ethnic minority patients with cancer. Underserved ethnic minority patients diagnosed with cancer are a vulnerable patient population, at significant risk for inadequate food access and the related lower QOL. PMID:26286100

  10. Minority acculturation and peer rejection: Costs of acculturation misfit with peer-group norms.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Laura; Meeussen, Loes; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-09-01

    How do minority adolescents' personal acculturation preferences and peer norms of acculturation affect their social inclusion in school? Turkish and Moroccan minority adolescents (N = 681) reported their preferences for heritage culture maintenance, mainstream culture adoption, and their experiences of peer rejection as a key indicator of adjustment problems. Additionally, we aggregated peer acculturation norms of maintenance and adoption within ethnically diverse classrooms (N = 230 in 50 Belgian schools), distinguishing between co-ethnic (Turkish or Moroccan classmates only, N = 681) and cross-ethnic norms (also including N = 1,930 other classmates). Cross-ethnic peer-group norms (of adoption and maintenance) and co-ethnic norms (of maintenance, marginally) predicted minority experiences of peer rejection (controlling for ethnic composition). Moreover, misfit of minorities' own acculturation preferences with both cross-ethnic and co-ethnic peer-group norms was harmful. When cross-ethnic norms stressed adoption, 'integrationist' minority youth - who combined culture adoption with maintenance - experienced most peer rejection. Yet, when co-ethnic peers stressed maintenance, 'assimilationist' minority youth experienced most rejection. In conclusion, acculturation misfit with peer-group norms is a risk factor for minority inclusion in ethnically diverse environments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Cranial computed tomography use among children with minor blunt head trauma: association with race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Natale, JoAnne E; Joseph, Jill G; Rogers, Alexander J; Mahajan, Prashant; Cooper, Arthur; Wisner, David H; Miskin, Michelle L; Hoyle, John D; Atabaki, Shireen M; Dayan, Peter S; Holmes, James F; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2012-08-01

    To determine if patient race/ethnicity is independently associated with cranial computed tomography (CT) use among children with minor blunt head trauma. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. Pediatric research network of 25 North American emergency departments. In total, 42 412 children younger than 18 years were seen within 24 hours of minor blunt head trauma. Of these, 39 717 were of documented white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, or Hispanic race/ethnicity. Using a previously validated clinical prediction rule, we classified each child's risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury to describe injury severity. Because no meaningful differences in cranial CT rates were observed between children of black non-Hispanic race/ethnicity vs Hispanic race/ethnicity, we combined these 2 groups. Cranial CT use in the emergency department, stratified by race/ethnicity. In total, 13 793 children (34.7%) underwent cranial CT. The odds of undergoing cranial CT among children with minor blunt head trauma who were at higher risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury did not differ by race/ethnicity. In adjusted analyses, children of black non-Hispanic or Hispanic race/ethnicity had lower odds of undergoing cranial CT among those who were at intermediate risk (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.96) or lowest risk (odds ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.65-0.80) for clinically important traumatic brain injury. Regardless of risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury, parental anxiety and request was commonly cited by physicians as an important influence for ordering cranial CT in children of white non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. Disparities may arise from the overuse of cranial CT among patients of nonminority races/ethnicities. Further studies should focus on explaining how medically irrelevant factors, such as patient race/ethnicity, can affect physician decision making, resulting in exposure of children to unnecessary health care risks.

  12. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, problem behaviors, and mental health among minority urban youth.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Amy L; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Staras, Stephanie A S; O'Mara, Ryan J; Livingston, Melvin D; Komro, Kelli A

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceived frequency and intensity of racial/ethnic discrimination and associations with high-risk behaviors/conditions among adolescents. With surveys from 2490 racial/ethnic minority adolescents primarily with low socioeconomic status, we used regression analysis to examine associations between racial/ethnic discrimination and behavioral health outcomes (alcohol use, marijuana use, physical aggression, delinquency, victimization, depression, suicidal ideation, and sexual behaviors). Most adolescents (73%) experienced racial/ethnic discrimination and 42% of experiences were 'somewhat-' or 'very disturbing.' Adolescents reporting frequent and disturbing racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk of all measured behaviors, except alcohol and marijuana use. Adolescents who experienced any racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk for victimization and depression. Regardless of intensity, adolescents who experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at least occasionally were more likely to report greater physical aggression, delinquency, suicidal ideation, younger age at first oral sex, unprotected sex during last intercourse, and more lifetime sexual partners. Most adolescents had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination due to their race/ethnicity. Even occasional experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination likely contribute to maladaptive behavioral and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Prevention and coping strategies are important targets for intervention.

  13. Barriers to racial/ethnic minority application and competition for NIH research funding.

    PubMed Central

    Shavers, Vickie L.; Fagan, Pebbles; Lawrence, Deirdre; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; McDonald, Paige; Browne, Doris; McLinden, Dan; Christian, Michaele; Trimble, Edward

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the need to increase the pool of racial/ethnic minority investigators, racial/ethnic minority representation among National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded investigators remains low. Racial/ethnic minority investigators bring unique perspectives and experiences that enhance the potential for understanding factors that underlie racial/ethnic variation in health and health status. Identification of barriers to successful minority competition for NIH funding and suggestions for strategies to overcome them were obtained from a concept mapping project and a meeting of minority investigators and investigators at minority-serving institutions. METHODS: Concept mapping, a mixed-methods planning approach that integrates common data collection processes with multivariate statistical analyses, was used in this exploratory project. The concept mapping approach generated a series of related "concept maps" that were used for data interpretation and meeting discussions. RESULTS: Barriers to minority investigator competition for NIH funding identified by concept mapping participants include: (1) inadequate research infrastructure, training and development; (2) barriers to development as independent researchers; (3) inadequate mentoring; (4) insensitivity, misperceptions and miscommunication about the specific needs of investigators involved in research with minority communities; (5) institutional bias in NIH policies; (6) unfair competitive environment; (7) lack of institutional support; (8) lack of support for research topics/methods relevant to research with minority communities; and (9) social, cultural and environmental barriers. DISCUSSION: Data from both the concept mapping and the meeting discussions suggest the need to use a multilevel approach to increase minority representation among funded NIH investigators. Specifically, the NIH should use strategies that overcome barriers at the home institution, within NIH and at the investigator

  14. Depression Interventions among Racial and Ethnic Minority Older Adults: A Systematic Review across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Dahlia; Aranda, María P.

    2012-01-01

    While there is strong evidence in support of geriatric depression treatments, much less is available with regard to older U.S. racial and ethnic minorities. The objectives of this review are to identify and appraise depression treatment studies tested with samples of U.S. racial and ethnic minority older adults. We include an appraisal of sociocultural adaptations made to the depression treatments in studies meeting our final criteria. Systematic search methods were utilized to identify research published between 1990 and 2010 that describe depression treatment outcomes for older adults by racial/ethnic group, or for samples of older adults that are primarily (i.e., >50%) racial/ethnic minorities. Twenty-three unduplicated articles included older adults and seven met all inclusion criteria. Favorable depression treatment effects were observed for older minorities across five studies based on diverse settings and varying levels of sociocultural adaptations. The effectiveness of depression care remains mixed although collaborative or integrated care shows promise for African Americans and Latinos. The degree to which the findings generalize to non-English-speaking, low acculturated, and low income older persons, and to other older minority groups (i.e., Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indian and Alaska Natives) remains unclear. Given the high disease burden among older minorities with depression, it is imperative to provide timely, accessible, and effective depression treatments. Increasing their participation in behavioral health research should be a national priority. PMID:22828202

  15. Depression interventions among racial and ethnic minority older adults: a systematic review across 20 years.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Dahlia; Aranda, María P

    2012-11-01

    While there is strong evidence in support of geriatric depression treatments, much less is available with regard to older U.S. racial and ethnic minorities. The objectives of this review are to identify and appraise depression treatment studies tested with samples of U.S. racial and ethnic minority older adults. We include an appraisal of sociocultural adaptations made to the depression treatments in studies meeting our final criteria. Systematic search methods were utilized to identify research published between 1990 and 2010 that describe depression treatment outcomes for older adults by racial/ethnic group, or for samples of older adults who are primarily (i.e., >50%) racial/ethnic minorities. Twenty-three unduplicated articles included older adults and seven met all inclusion criteria. Favorable depression treatment effects were observed for older minorities across five studies that took place in different types of settings and with varying levels of sociocultural adaptations. The effectiveness of depression care remains mixed, although collaborative or integrated care shows promise for African Americans and Latinos. The degree to which the findings generalize to non-English-speaking, low acculturated, and low-income older persons, and to other older minority groups (i.e., Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indian and Alaska Natives), remains unclear. Given the high disease burden among older minorities with depression, it is imperative to provide timely, accessible, and effective depression treatments. Increasing their participation in behavioral health research should be a national priority.

  16. Perceived Prejudice and the Mental Health of Chinese Ethnic Minority College Students: The Chain Mediating Effect of Ethnic Identity and Hope

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jin; Yang, Liping

    2017-01-01

    As a multinational country incorporating 56 officially recognized ethnic groups, China is concerned with the mental health of members of minority ethnic groups, with an increasing focus on supporting Chinese ethnic minority college students. Nevertheless, in daily life, members of minority ethnic groups in China often perceive prejudice, which may in turn negatively influence their mental health, with respect to relative levels of ethnic identity and hope. To examine the mediating effects of ethnic identity and hope on the relationship between perceived prejudice and the mental health of Chinese ethnic minority college students, 665 students (18–26 years old; 207 males, 458 females; the proportion of participants is 95.38%) from nine colleges in the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region and Yunnan and Guizhou provinces of China took part in our study, each completing adapted versions of a perceived prejudice scale, a multiethnic identity measure, an adult dispositional hope scale, and a general health questionnaire. Analysis of the results reveals that perceived prejudice negatively influences mental health through both ethnic identity and hope in Chinese ethnic minority college students. The total mediation effect was 54.9%. Perceived prejudice was found to negatively predict ethnic identity and hope, suggesting that perceived prejudice brings about a negative reconstruction of ethnic identity and hope mechanisms within the study's Chinese cultural context. The relationship between perceived prejudice and mental health was fully mediated by hope and the chain of ethnic identity and hope. Ethnic identity partially mediated the relationship between perceived prejudice and hope. The relationship between perceived prejudice and mental health mediated by ethnic identity was not significant, which suggests that the rejection–identification model cannot be applied to Chinese ethnic minority college students. This paper concludes by considering the limitations of our study

  17. Role of ethnicity in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake: a cross-sectional study of girls from ethnic minority groups attending London schools

    PubMed Central

    Rockliffe, Lauren; Waller, Jo; Marlow, Laura A V; Forster, Alice S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that girls from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination than white British girls; however, the specific ethnic minority groups that have lower uptake have not been identified. This study aimed to examine the relationship between school-level uptake and ethnicity as well as uptake and other ethnicity-related factors, to understand which specific groups are less likely to receive the vaccination. Methods Aggregated uptake rates from 195 schools were obtained for each of the three recommended vaccine doses from 2008 to 2010. Census data at the lower super output area (LSOA) level for the postcode of each school were also obtained, describing the ethnic breakdown of the resident population (ethnicity, language spoken, religion, proficiency in English and duration of residency in the UK). These were used as proxy measures of the ethnic make-up of the schools. The most prevalent non-majority group for each ethnicity and ethnicity-related factor was assigned to each school. Analyses explored differences in uptake by ethnicity and ethnicity-related factors. Results No significant differences in vaccination uptake were found by ethnicity or ethnicity-related factors, although descriptive differences were apparent. Schools in areas where black ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently low rates of uptake for all doses. Schools in areas where some Asian ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently high rates of uptake for all doses. There was evidence of variability in mean uptake rates for ethnicities within ‘black’ and ‘Asian’ ethnic groups. Conclusions Future research would benefit from focusing on specific ethnicities rather than broad ethnic categories. Replication of this study with a larger sample and using complete individual-level data, collected on a national level, would provide a clearer indication

  18. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    PubMed

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n = 7,601,785) between 1997 and 2007. Cox Proportional Hazard Models were used to estimate sex disparities in AMI incidence within the Dutch majority population and within ethnic minority groups, stratified by age (30-54, 55-64, ≥65 years). AMI incidence was higher in men than in women in all groups under study. Compared with the majority population (hazard ratio (HR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.21-2.25), sex disparities were similar among minorities originating from the immediate surrounding countries (Belgium, Germany), whereas they were greater in most other minority groups. Most pronounced results were found among minorities from Morocco (HR: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.48-4.88), South Asia (HR: 3.92; 95% CI: 2.45-6.26) and Turkey (HR: 3.98; 95% CI: 3.51-4.51). Sex disparity differences were predominantly evident in those below 55 years of age, and were mainly provoked by a higher AMI incidence in ethnic minority men compared with men belonging to the Dutch majority population. Sex disparities in AMI incidence clearly varied between ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population. Health prevention strategies may first target at a reduction of AMI incidence in young ethnic minority men, especially those originating from Turkey and South Asia. Furthermore, an increase in AMI incidence in their female counterparts should be prevented. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  20. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  1. Multiple pathways to identification: exploring the multidimensionality of academic identity formation in ethnic minority males.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jamaal S

    2014-04-01

    Empirical trends denote the academic underachievement of ethnic minority males across various academic domains. Identity-based explanations for this persistent phenomenon describe ethnic minority males as disidentified with academics, alienated, and oppositional. The present work interrogates these theoretical explanations and empirically substantiates a multidimensional lens for discussing academic identity formation within 330 African American and Latino early-adolescent males. Both hierarchical and iterative person-centered methods were utilized and reveal 5 distinct profiles derived from 6 dimensions of academic identity. These profiles predict self-reported classroom grades, mastery orientation, and self-handicapping in meaningful and varied ways. The results demonstrate multiple pathways to motivation and achievement, challenging previous oversimplified stereotypes of marginalized males. This exploratory study triangulates unique interpersonal and intrapersonal attributes for promoting healthy identity development and academic achievement among ethnic minority adolescent males.

  2. Barriers to cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Laura A V; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority women are less likely to attend cervical screening. Aim To explore self-perceived barriers to cervical screening attendance among ethnic minority women compared to white British women. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Community groups in ethnically diverse London boroughs. Methods Interviews were carried out with 43 women from a range of ethnic minority backgrounds (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, Black British, Black other, White other) and 11 White British women. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework analysis. Results Fifteen women had delayed screening/had never been screened. Ethnic minority women felt that there was a lack of awareness about cervical cancer in their community, and several did not recognise the terms ‘cervical screening’ or ‘smear test’. Barriers to cervical screening raised by all women were emotional (fear, embarrassment, shame), practical (lack of time) and cognitive (low perceived risk, absence of symptoms). Emotional barriers seemed to be more prominent among Asian women. Low perceived risk of cervical cancer was influenced by beliefs about having sex outside of marriage and some women felt a diagnosis of cervical cancer might be considered shameful. Negative experiences were well remembered by all women and could be a barrier to repeat attendance. Conclusions Emotional barriers (fear, embarrassment and anticipated shame) and low perceived risk might contribute to explaining lower cervical screening coverage for some ethnic groups. Interventions to improve knowledge and understanding of cervical cancer are needed in ethnic minority communities, and investment in training for health professionals may improve experiences and encourage repeat attendance for all women. PMID:25583124

  3. Expanding our borders: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology's special issue on immigration.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nadine; Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Zárate, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    Introduces the current special issue of the journal, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. This special issue focuses on the topic of immigration and highlights the important within group differences often overlooked when immigrants are conceptualized as a homogeneous group. The articles in this journal consider a variety of microsystems, such as educational settings, ethnic and gay communities, and communities with anti-immigration laws.

  4. Exposure to American culture is associated with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder among ethnic minority women

    PubMed Central

    Pilver, Corey E.; Kasl, Stanislav; Desai, Rani; Levy, Becca R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ethnic minorities in America will achieve majority by 2042, and due to their younger age distribution, will represent the largest proportion of women at risk for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). Research has not addressed ethnic minority women’s vulnerabilities to PMDD. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between acculturation and PMDD. Methods An analysis of acculturation and PMDD among 3,856 English-speaking, pre-menopausal Asian, Latina, and Black women from the National Latino and Asian American Survey and the National Survey of American Life. Results The lifetime prevalence of PMDD was 3.3%. Nativity status, duration of residence, and age at immigration were significantly associated with PMDD. Foreign-born women (OR=0.38; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=0.21–0.68)and immigrants arriving to the US after age six (OR=0.33, 95% CI=0.18, 0.62) were less likely to have PMDD, compared to US-born women, and US-born women/immigrants who arrived before age six, respectively. The likelihood of PMDD increased as the duration of residence in the US lengthened. Limitations The diagnosis of PMDD was provisional due to retrospective symptom reporting. Statements of causality could not be made because the study was cross-sectional. Conclusions A substantial percentage of ethnic minority women suffer from PMDD in their lifetimes. Exposure to American culture appeared to elevate ethnic minority women’s likelihood for PMDD. The stressors that are associated with ethnic minority life in America—discrimination, poverty, pressures to assimilate, etc.—may contribute to ethnic minority women’s vulnerability to PMDD, and clinicians should be sensitive to the special risks in this population. PMID:21055829

  5. The Association of Neighborhood Social Capital and Ethnic (Minority) Density with Pregnancy Outcomes in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Erdem, Özcan; Borsboom, Gerard; Ghorashi, Halleh; Groenewegen, Peter; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Denktaş, Semiha

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal morbidity rates are relatively high in the Netherlands, and significant inequalities in perinatal morbidity and mortality can be found across neighborhoods. In socioeconomically deprived areas, ‘Western’ women are particularly at risk for adverse birth outcomes. Almost all studies to date have explained the disparities in terms of individual determinants of birth outcomes. This study examines the influence of neighborhood contextual characteristics on birth weight (adjusted for gestational age) and preterm birth. We focused on the influence of neighborhood social capital – measured as informal socializing and social connections between neighbors – as well as ethnic (minority) density. Methods Data on birth weight and prematurity were obtained from the Perinatal Registration Netherlands 2000–2008 dataset, containing 97% of all pregnancies. Neighborhood-level measurements were obtained from three different sources, comprising both survey and registration data. We included 3.422 neighborhoods and 1.527.565 pregnancies for the birth weight analysis and 1.549.285 pregnancies for the premature birth analysis. Linear and logistic multilevel regression was performed to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood level variables with birth weight and preterm birth. Results We found modest but significant neighborhood effects on birth weight and preterm births. The effect of ethnic (minority) density was stronger than that of neighborhood social capital. Moreover, ethnic (minority) density was associated with higher birth weight for infants of non-Western ethnic minority women compared to Western women (15 grams; 95% CI: 12,4/17,5) as well as reduced risk for prematurity (OR 0.97; CI 0,95/0,99). Conclusions Our results indicate that neighborhood contexts are associated with birth weight and preterm birth in the Netherlands. Moreover, ethnic (minority) density seems to be a protective factor for non-Western ethnic minority women, but

  6. Overcoming barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities to mental health research: a typology of recruitment strategies.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Waquas; Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Woodham, Adrine; Allen, Gill; Bower, Peter

    2015-05-02

    The ethnic minority population in developed countries is increasing over time. These groups are at higher risk of mental illness and demonstrate lower participation in research. Published evidence suggests that multiple factors like stigma, lack of trust, differences in explanatory models, logistical issues and lack of culturally aware researchers act as barriers to ethnic minority recruitment into mental health research. To reduce inequalities in participation, there is a need to devise innovative and culturally sensitive recruitment strategies. It is important that researchers share their experience of employing these strategies so that ethnic minority participation can be facilitated. We previously published a systematic review of barriers to recruiting ethnic minority participants into mental health research. The nine papers included in our prior review formed the basis for developing a typology of barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities into mental health research. This typology identified 33 barriers, described under five themes. We further extracted data on the strategies used to overcome these recruitment barriers, as described in the included studies. The strategies employed by the authors could be matched to all but two barriers (psychopathology/substance misuse and limited resource availability). There was evidence that multiple strategies were employed, and that these depended upon the population, clinical set-up and resources available. This typology of strategies to overcome barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities provides guidance on achieving higher rates of recruitment. It is important that researchers plan to deploy these strategies well in advance of initiating recruitment. Whilst adopting these strategies, the authors have not been able to quantify the positive impact of these strategies on recruitment. The typology should encourage researchers to employ these strategies in future research, refine them further and quantitatively evaluate their

  7. Lifelong Learning for Social Inclusion of Ethnic Minorities in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruatona, Tonic

    2015-01-01

    In spite of its overall economic success, most citizens living in the remote areas of Botswana face poverty and are unemployed. The article argues that minority communities in remote areas are excluded because education programs use unfamiliar languages and de-contextualized curricula, there is no national qualifications framework to sufficiently…

  8. Educating Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam: Policies and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    Teacher education programs in Vietnam, like their counterparts in most multicultural societies, struggle to address the issues of access, equity, and excellence. The nation's minority groups, about 13 percent of the population, traditionally have not gained admission to educational opportunities on a par with members of the majority group,…

  9. Ethnic Minorities in American Labor Markets. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    The document presents an analysis of the economic status of certain minority groups in the United States. The groups include Blacks, American Indians, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos. Specifically, the document examines differences in female labor supply, female occupational status, and male earnings among the…

  10. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Caler, Kyle R; Vargas Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Nower, Lia

    2017-01-01

    A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341) to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394), Black (n = 261), or Asian/other (n = 177). Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  11. Educational Provision for Ethnic Minority Groups in Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines effect of Nicaragua's 1979 revolution on education, especially for minority Miskito Indians. Summarizes history of Indian culture in region. Suggests Sandinista government began emphasizing bilingual, bicultural education in 1982-83, sparked by deteriorating economic situation. Concludes multicultural education program, while hindered by…

  12. Educating Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam: Policies and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    Teacher education programs in Vietnam, like their counterparts in most multicultural societies, struggle to address the issues of access, equity, and excellence. The nation's minority groups, about 13 percent of the population, traditionally have not gained admission to educational opportunities on a par with members of the majority group,…

  13. Lifelong Learning for Social Inclusion of Ethnic Minorities in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruatona, Tonic

    2015-01-01

    In spite of its overall economic success, most citizens living in the remote areas of Botswana face poverty and are unemployed. The article argues that minority communities in remote areas are excluded because education programs use unfamiliar languages and de-contextualized curricula, there is no national qualifications framework to sufficiently…

  14. β-globin gene cluster haplotypes in ethnic minority populations of southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Liu, Hongxian; Huang, Kai; Lin, Keqin; Huang, Xiaoqin; Chu, Jiayou; Ma, Shaohui; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2017-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationships among ethnic minority populations of southwest China were investigated using seven polymorphic restriction enzyme sites in the β-globin gene cluster. The haplotypes of 1392 chromosomes from ten ethnic populations living in southwest China were determined. Linkage equilibrium and recombination hotspot were found between the 5′ sites and 3′ sites of the β-globin gene cluster. 5′ haplotypes 2 (+−−−), 6 (−++−+), 9 (−++++) and 3′ haplotype FW3 (−+) were the predominant haplotypes. Notably, haplotype 9 frequency was significantly high in the southwest populations, indicating their difference with other Chinese. The interpopulation differentiation of southwest Chinese minority populations is less than those in populations of northern China and other continents. Phylogenetic analysis shows that populations sharing same ethnic origin or language clustered to each other, indicating current β-globin cluster diversity in the Chinese populations reflects their ethnic origin and linguistic affiliations to a great extent. This study characterizes β-globin gene cluster haplotypes in southwest Chinese minorities for the first time, and reveals the genetic variability and affinity of these populations using β-globin cluster haplotype frequencies. The results suggest that ethnic origin plays an important role in shaping variations of the β-globin gene cluster in the southwestern ethnic populations of China. PMID:28205625

  15. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention with racial and ethnic minority women.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Greenfield, Brenna L; Bowen, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in the treatment of addiction have been acknowledged for several years, yet little is known about which empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders are more or less effective in treating racial and ethnic minority clients. The current study was a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial of two evidence-based treatments, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) and relapse prevention (RP), as part of a residential addiction treatment program for women referred by the criminal justice system (n=70). At 15-week follow-up, regression analyses found that racial and ethnic minority women in MBRP, compared to non-Hispanic and racial and ethnic minority women in RP, reported significantly fewer drug use days (d=.31) and lower addiction severity (d=.65), based on the Addiction Severity Index. Although the small sample size is a limitation, the results suggest that MBRP may be more efficacious than traditional treatments for racial and ethnic minority women. © 2013.

  16. The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung Hye; Han, Dong Woon; Yoo, Eun Kyung; Kim, Woon-Yong

    2014-03-19

    Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population.

  17. Health-related quality of life of infants from ethnic minority groups: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Flink, Ilse J E; Beirens, Tinneke M J; Looman, Caspar; Landgraf, Jeanne M; Tiemeier, Henning; Mol, Henriette A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-04-01

    To assess whether the health-related quality of life of infants from ethnic minority groups differs from the health-related quality of life of native Dutch infants and to evaluate whether infant health and family characteristics explain the potential differences. We included 4,506 infants participating in the Generation R Study, a longitudinal birth cohort. When the child was 12 months, parents completed the Infant Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire (ITQOL); ITQOL scale scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Influence of infant health and family characteristics on ITQOL scale scores were evaluated using multivariate regression models. Infants from ethnic minority groups presented significantly lower ITQOL scale scores compared to the Dutch subgroup (e.g., Temperament and Moods scale: median score of Turkish subgroup, 70.8 (IQR, 15.3); median score of Dutch subgroup, 80.6 (IQR, 13.9; P < 0.001)). Infant health and family characteristics mediated an important part of the association between the ethnic minority status and infant health-related quality of life. However, these factors could not fully explain all the differences in the ITQOL scale scores. Parent-reported health-related quality of life is lower in infants from ethnic minority groups compared to native Dutch infants, which could partly be explained by infant health and by family characteristics.

  18. Cumulative Effect of Racial Discrimination on the Mental Health of Ethnic Minorities in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Stephanie; Nazroo, James; Bécares, Laia

    2016-07-01

    To examine the longitudinal association between cumulative exposure to racial discrimination and changes in the mental health of ethnic minority people. We used data from 4 waves (2009-2013) of the UK Household Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal household panel survey of approximately 40 000 households, including an ethnic minority boost sample of approximately 4000 households. Ethnic minority people who reported exposure to racial discrimination at 1 time point had 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental component scores 1.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.31, -0.56) points lower than did those who reported no exposure to racial discrimination, whereas those who had been exposed to 2 or more domains of racial discrimination, at 2 different time points, had SF-12 mental component scores 8.26 (95% CI = -13.33, -3.18) points lower than did those who reported no experiences of racial discrimination. Controlling for racial discrimination and other socioeconomic factors reduced ethnic inequalities in mental health. Cumulative exposure to racial discrimination has incremental negative long-term effects on the mental health of ethnic minority people in the United Kingdom. Studies that examine exposure to racial discrimination at 1 point in time may underestimate the contribution of racism to poor health.

  19. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels.

  20. HPV vaccination among ethnic minorities in the UK: knowledge, acceptability and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, L A V

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers a unique opportunity for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Studies suggest that knowledge and attitudes about the vaccine are likely to influence uptake. One limitation of most studies assessing HPV vaccine knowledge, attitudes and acceptability is their under representation of ethnic minorities. It is important to ensure that our understanding of HPV knowledge and attitudes include all ethnic groups in the UK. This article reviews research that has considered knowledge, acceptability and attitudes about HPV and the HPV vaccine among ethnic minorities in the UK. Methods: Articles in Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO (January 2000–March 2010) were searched. Results: A total of 17 UK-based papers examined knowledge, attitudes or acceptability related to HPV vaccination in the ‘lay' population (parents, adolescents or the general population as opposed to health professionals) and reported findings by ethnicity. Conclusion: Findings seem to suggest lower awareness of HPV and lower acceptability of the vaccination, which could be important if they are reflected in uptake. More research is needed with ethnic minority groups, particularly in the context of the vaccination programme. PMID:21829204

  1. Diabetes susceptibility in ethnic minority groups from Turkey, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Pakistan compared with Norwegians - the association with adiposity is strongest for ethnic minority women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The difference in diabetes susceptibility by ethnic background is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the association between adiposity and diabetes in four ethnic minority groups compared with Norwegians, and take into account confounding by socioeconomic position. Methods Data from questionnaires, physical examinations and serum samples were analysed for 30-to 60-year-olds from population-based cross-sectional surveys of Norwegians and four immigrant groups, comprising 4110 subjects born in Norway (n = 1871), Turkey (n = 387), Vietnam (n = 553), Sri Lanka (n = 879) and Pakistan (n = 420). Known and screening-detected diabetes cases were identified. The adiposity measures BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were categorized into levels of adiposity. Gender-specific logistic regression models were applied to estimate the risk of diabetes for the ethnic minority groups adjusted for adiposity and income-generating work, years of education and body height used as a proxy for childhood socioeconomic position. Results The age standardized diabetes prevalence differed significantly between the ethnic groups (women/men): Pakistan: 26.4% (95% CI 20.1-32.7)/20.0% (14.9-25.2); Sri Lanka: 22.5% (18.1-26.9)/20.7% (17.3-24.2), Turkey: 11.9% (7.2-16.7)/12.0% (7.6-16.4), Vietnam: 8.1% (5.1-11.2)/10.4% (6.6-14.1) and Norway: 2.7% (1.8-3.7)/6.4% (4.6-8.1). The prevalence increased more in the minority groups than in Norwegians with increasing levels of BMI, WHR and waist circumference, and most for women. Highly significant ethnic differences in the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes were found for both genders in all categories of all adiposity measures (p < 0.001). The Odds Ratio (OR) for diabetes adjusted for age, WHR, body height, education and income-generating work with Norwegians as reference was 2.9 (1.30-6.36) for Turkish, 2.7 (1.29-5.76) for Vietnamese, 8.0 (4.19-15.14) for Sri Lankan and 8.3 (4.37-15.58) for Pakistani

  2. Capitalizing on Mobile Technology to Support Healthy Eating in Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Pernal, Wendy; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Shiyko, Mariya; Intille, Stephen; Franko, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a mobile technology-based intervention to support healthy eating among ethnic minority female students. Participants: Forty-three African American and Hispanic female students participated in a 3-week intervention between January and May 2013. Methods: Participants photographed their meals using their smart…

  3. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  4. Barriers to Clinical Trial Enrollment in Racial and Ethnic Minority Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Lauren M.; Penner, Louis A.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Heath, Elisabeth; Gwede, Clement K.; Eggly, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical trials that study cancer are essential for testing the safety and effectiveness of promising treatments, but most people with cancer never enroll in a clinical trial — a challenge exemplified in racial and ethnic minorities. Underenrollment of racial and ethnic minorities reduces the generalizability of research findings and represents a disparity in access to high-quality health care. Methods Using a multilevel model as a framework, potential barriers to trial enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities were identified at system, individual, and interpersonal levels. Exactly how each level directly or indirectly contributes to doctor–patient communication was also reviewed. Selected examples of implemented interventions are included to help address these barriers. We then propose our own evidence-based intervention addressing barriers at the individual and interpersonal levels. Results Barriers to enrolling a diverse population of patients in clinical trials are complex and multilevel. Interventions focused at each level have been relatively successful, but multilevel interventions have the greatest potential for success. Conclusion To increase the enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials, future interventions should address barriers at multiple levels. PMID:27842322

  5. Mentoring Matters: Racial Ethnic Minority Undergraduates' Cultural Fit, Mentorship, and College and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Besson, Doriane; Clark Harvey, Le Ondra

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which cultural fit (cultural congruity in combination with perception of the university environment) and the dimensional noncognitive processes of mentoring predicted college satisfaction and life satisfaction for 238 racial and ethnic minority undergraduates from two university contexts. Group differences as well…

  6. "They Know where to Find Us...." Service Providers' Views on Early Support and Minority Ethnic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Bogusia; Young, Alys; Bolton, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine the views of multi-professional service providers on the provision of Early Support for disabled children 0-3 years old from minority ethnic communities. We begin with a description of national policies relevant to this field and of Early Support before describing a national evaluation of its impact. We discuss findings…

  7. [Comparing ethnic structures and government policies affecting minorities in South Tyrol (Alto Adige) and Burgenland].

    PubMed

    Munz, R

    1991-01-01

    The ethnic minorities of lands that became parts of Italy, Germany, Hungary, and Austria after World War I are discussed in terms of their assimilation and legal and political rights in the various countries. Particular attention is given to South Tyrol and Burgenland. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  8. Factors Affecting Ethnic Minority Students' Attainment in Secondary Schools in Cyprus: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; West, Mel; Muijs, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study in Cyprus aiming to gain insight into the factors responsible for the low attainment of ethnic minority students observed in earlier studies. Teachers from different schools and cities on the island participated in a focus group discussion. Identified factors related to the child, parents, home environment, teachers,…

  9. Training Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in a White Man's Program: Don't Get Bucked off!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcus, Carolyn G.; Crowley, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This is a narrative journey of a Blackfeet woman as she learned to help ethnic minority students navigate graduate training. The talk reflects the holistic, contextual, and interdependent characteristics of Native American culture blended with the culture of the West. Insights from working with horses are included because they have much to teach…

  10. Special Issue: Racial and Ethnic Minority Students' Success in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Palmer, Robert T.; Davis, Ryan J.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph provides educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners with an overview of existing knowledge regarding factors that influence success among racial and ethnic minority students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) circuit. To accomplish this task, the authors reviewed more than four hundred…

  11. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  12. A "Both-And" Perspective between the Society of Counseling Psychology and Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…

  13. Examining the Ethnic Minority Student Experience at Predominantly White Institutions: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lee; Castellanos, Jeanett; Cole, Darnell

    2002-01-01

    Conducted four focus groups to explore the college student experience of ethnic minorities (African American, Asian-Pacific American, Chicano/Latino, and Native American) in a predominantly White institution of higher education. Findings in terms of student voices and perspectives were grouped into six main categories: general campus climate,…

  14. Public Library Provision for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities--Where Are We in 2009?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, John

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses developments in public library provision for Black and minority ethnic [BME] communities in the UK since the publication in 1969 of the results of research into the needs of "Indian and Pakistani communities". It includes a brief discussion of some major societal issues, and then sets public library services in this…

  15. Handbook for National Unions of Students on Students with a Migrant or Ethnic Minority Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maoláin, Aengus Ó.; Popescu, Cristi; Bergan, Gabriela; Sallinen, Jyri; Savola, Pauliina; de Bruijn, Simone; Dalen, Svea; Servant, Thibaut; Grønne, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This handbook has been written by the European Student's Union's Ethnic Minorities Working Group (EMWG) based on the work it conducted from its establishment at ESU's Board Meeting 57 in 2009 until its expiration at the Board Meeting 64 in 2013. The work was undertaken by representatives from ESU's members SAMOK (Finland), NUSUK (UK), LSVb (the…

  16. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  17. Special Education and Minority Ethnic Young People in England: Continuing Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In countries that have developed special education (SE) provision, whether in segregated settings or "included" in mainstream, racial, ethnic and immigrant minorities continue to be disproportionately represented. Explanations for placement in SE programmes continue to centre round assumptions of deficiencies in student abilities to…

  18. "Peer Social Capital" and Networks of Migrants and Minority Ethnic Youth in England and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jørgensen, Clara Helene Rübner

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses friendships and peer groups of migrant and minority ethnic youth in schools in England and Spain, and critically considers them in relation to existing notions of "peer social capital" and bridging (heterogeneous) and bonding (homogeneous) peer networks. The article argues for an extended understanding of peer…

  19. Research Ethics for Mental Health Science Involving Ethnic Minority Children and Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Celia B.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Boyce, Cheryl; Duster, Troy; Frank, Deborah A.; Grisso, Thomas; Levine, Robert J.; Macklin, Ruth; Spencer, Margaret Beale; Takanishi, Ruby; Trimble, Joseph E.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes key recommendations resulting from a meeting of national leaders in bioethics, multicultural research, and ethnic minority mental health. The recommendations focus on applying a cultural perspective to the evaluation of research risks and benefits; developing and implementing respectful informed consent procedures; developing and…

  20. Training Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in a White Man's Program: Don't Get Bucked off!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcus, Carolyn G.; Crowley, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This is a narrative journey of a Blackfeet woman as she learned to help ethnic minority students navigate graduate training. The talk reflects the holistic, contextual, and interdependent characteristics of Native American culture blended with the culture of the West. Insights from working with horses are included because they have much to teach…

  1. Differentiated Instruction in Developmental Mathematics Classes and Achievement of Ethnic Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Otis D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    National educational assessment organizations present statistical information that an achievement gap exists between White students and students of color. This achievement gap closely relates to students representing lower SES conditions. This study examined the lack of achievement for ethnic minorities in the field of mathematics using an…

  2. Mentoring Matters: Racial Ethnic Minority Undergraduates' Cultural Fit, Mentorship, and College and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Besson, Doriane; Clark Harvey, Le Ondra

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which cultural fit (cultural congruity in combination with perception of the university environment) and the dimensional noncognitive processes of mentoring predicted college satisfaction and life satisfaction for 238 racial and ethnic minority undergraduates from two university contexts. Group differences as well…

  3. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  4. Mentoring Ethnic Minority, Pre-Doctoral Students: An Analysis of Key Mentor Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Anne W.

    2008-01-01

    This article present results from a qualitative study that examined mentor practices with four ethnic minority proteges interested in applying to doctoral programs in psychology. Some of the mentor practices identified were expected and consistent with the research literature. Other findings were unanticipated but significant. In particular,…

  5. Prevalence of overweight and malnutrition among ethnic minority children and adolescents in China, 1991-2010.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sifan; Zhao, Chunhua; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-Peng; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-11-24

    This study aimed to determine the trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and malnutrition in a large Chinese ethnic minority population from 1991 to 2010. In the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health from 1991 to 2010, multistage stratified sampling was conducted in the series of cross-sectional studies. Participants were 7-18-year-old students randomly selected by sex and region, and included Han and 26 ethnic minorities. During the survey period, the overall prevalence of overweight increased from 5.8% to 13.5%, and malnutrition trend increased from 3.6% to 4.1% in ethnic minority children and adolescents. Moreover, Korean and Mongol children were more likely than Han children to be obese (Korean: RR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.48-1.56; Mongol: RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.20-1.28). Among these minorities, the Dongxiang and Li children were more likely to be malnourished (Li: RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.37-1.57; Dongxiang: RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.34-1.58). Shui, Khalkhas, Lisu, and Monguor children were less likely to be overweight and malnourished compared with the Hans. The prevalence of overweight among ethnicities increased yearly while that for malnutrition has fluctuated over the past few decades.

  6. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  7. Racial/Ethnic Minority Vocational Research: A Content and Trend Analysis across 36 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Berkel, LaVerne A.; Nilsson, Johanna E.; Ojeda, Lizette; Jordan, Shiloh E.; Lynn, Ginger L.; Leal, Veronica M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined 281 racial/ethnic minority (REM) career-related studies published in the "Journal of Vocational Behavior," "The Career Development Quarterly (CDQ)," the "Journal of Career Assessment (JCA)," and the "Journal of Career Development" between 1969 and 2004. Publication trends, article content and type, samples, and leading author…

  8. Research Ethics for Mental Health Science Involving Ethnic Minority Children and Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Celia B.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Boyce, Cheryl; Duster, Troy; Frank, Deborah A.; Grisso, Thomas; Levine, Robert J.; Macklin, Ruth; Spencer, Margaret Beale; Takanishi, Ruby; Trimble, Joseph E.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes key recommendations resulting from a meeting of national leaders in bioethics, multicultural research, and ethnic minority mental health. The recommendations focus on applying a cultural perspective to the evaluation of research risks and benefits; developing and implementing respectful informed consent procedures; developing and…

  9. Reduced Psychological Distress in Racial and Ethnic Minority Students Practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Charles; Nidich, Sanford; Colbert, Robert; Hagelin, John; Grayshield, Lisa; Oviedo-Lim, Dynah; Nidich, Randi; Rainforth, Maxwell; Jones, Chris; Gerace, Denise

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing literature describing the stressful nature of students' school experience. Previous research has found that racial and ethnic minority groups are particularly subject to high levels of stress due to exposure to violence, pressures due to acculturation, and the schooling process. This is the first study to evaluate effects of the…

  10. Protective Mechanisms for Depression among Racial/Ethnic Minority Youth: Empirical Findings, Issues, and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sarah M; Wallander, Jan L; Cameron, Linda

    2015-12-01

    We (1) review empirical studies that report findings regarding putative protective mechanisms when exposed to risk of depression in African American and Hispanic adolescents; (2) identify key protective mechanisms for different risk contexts that garner empirical support; (3) synthesize the mechanisms identified as protective against depression among racial/ethnic minority adolescents; and (4) discuss improved methods for advancing understanding of resilience against depression in minority youth. The studies were selected from PsycINFO searches that met the following inclusion criteria: participants between 12 and 21 years of age, inclusions of racial/ethnic minority members, examining protection through an interaction with a risk factor, and outcome measures of depression, depressed mood, or depressive symptomatology. We found 39 eligible studies; 13 of which included multiple racial/ethnic groups. The following were supported as protective mechanisms, at least preliminarily, for at least one racial/ethnic group and in at least one risk context: employment, extracurricular activities, father-adolescent closeness, familism, maternal support, attending predominately minority schools, neighborhood composition, non-parent support, parental inductive reasoning, religiosity, self-esteem, social activities, and positive early teacher relationships. To investigate protective mechanisms more comprehensively and accurately across individual, social, and community levels of influence, we recommend incorporating multilevel modeling or multilevel growth curve analyses and large diverse samples.

  11. Removing the Barriers: Raising Achievement Levels for Minority Ethnic Pupils. Exploring Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This resource kit, which can be used with an accompanying videotape and written materials, shows how three English secondary schools have succeeded in raising the achievement of their ethnic minority students by increasing expectations of what each student is capable of, valuing diversity, working in partnership with parents, and encouraging…

  12. Sociological Perspectives on Ethnic Minority Teachers in China: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    2016-01-01

    Improving the quality of education has been a central goal of the People's Republic of China since its founding in 1949. Particular concern has been focused on ethnic minority areas where educational quality lags behind that of other regions. Since 1986 the State Education Commission has been working toward the implementation of nine years of…

  13. Relationships between Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and Counseling Psychology: Three New Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of…

  14. Training racial and ethnic minority students for careers in public health sciences.

    PubMed

    Duffus, Wayne A; Trawick, Cynthia; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Tola, Jigsa; Truman, Benedict I; Dean, Hazel D

    2014-11-01

    A workforce that resembles the society it serves is likely to be more effective in improving health equity for racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented in the U.S. public health professions. Project Imhotep is operated by Morehouse College with funding and technical assistance from CDC. Imhotep trains racial and ethnic minority students for entry into graduate and professional training programs for careers in the public health sciences. The curriculum focuses on biostatistics, epidemiology, and occupational safety and health with practical training in statistical data analysis, scientific writing, and oral presentation skills. To describe the Imhotep program and highlight some of its outcomes. Data were collected every year by self-administered questionnaire or follow-up telephone and e-mail interviews of students who participated in Imhotep during 1982-2010 and were followed through December 2013. Findings demonstrated that 100% of the 481 trained students earned bachelor's degrees; 73.2% earned graduate degrees (53% earned master's degrees, 11.1% earned medical degrees, and 7.3% earned other doctoral degrees); and 60% entered public health careers. The Imhotep program has improved the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among public health professionals in the U.S. A diverse workforce involving Imhotep graduates could augment the pool of pubic health professionals who make strategic and tactical decisions around program design and resource allocation that impact health in the most affected communities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Ethnic Majority/Minority Status: Children's Interactions and Affective Responses to Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrary, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of classroom ethnic majority/minority status on third-, fifth-, and seventh-grade children's responses (N=118)while listening to and discussing the music of a Latin salsa artist, African-American rhythm and blues artist, and a European-American folk artist. Investigates the students' artist and music preferences. (CMK)

  16. Gifted Ethnic Minority Students and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.; Woo, Hongryun; Bang, Na Mi

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis exploring ethnic minority students enrolled in gifted/advanced programs with an emphasis on their academic achievement outcomes. A comprehensive search based on the Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis checklist, was performed to retrieve articles within a 30-year time period (1983-2014), which…

  17. Effective Counseling for Racial/Ethnic Minority Clients: Examining Changes Using a Practice Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Graceffo, James M.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that counseling decreases students' academic distress. These findings, however, are based primarily on European American students. This study explored the impact of counseling on academic distress for treatment-seeking racial/ethnic minority college students using the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological…

  18. Access to Higher Education of 25 Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province, South Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2010-01-01

    The level of development of higher education (HE) is an important indicator to measure the development of the social economy and the civilization of a region or country. In this article, we compare the distribution of the freshmen of ethnic minorities (EMs) with the distribution of EMs over the population, based on a sample of 1 464 freshmen from…

  19. Race, Ethnicity, and College Success: Examining the Continued Significance of the Minority-Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Stella M.; Park, Toby J.

    2013-01-01

    The minority-serving institution (MSI) sector has grown considerably since the 1980s, yet we have less empirical information about what currently influences students to enroll in and complete college at these institutions in comparison to their non-MSI counterparts. We evaluate student postsecondary outcomes by race and ethnicity in Texas's large…

  20. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  1. Sociological Perspectives on Ethnic Minority Teachers in China: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    2016-01-01

    Improving the quality of education has been a central goal of the People's Republic of China since its founding in 1949. Particular concern has been focused on ethnic minority areas where educational quality lags behind that of other regions. Since 1986 the State Education Commission has been working toward the implementation of nine years of…

  2. Prevalence of overweight and malnutrition among ethnic minority children and adolescents in China, 1991–2010

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Sifan; Zhao, Chunhua; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-peng; Pan, Chen-wei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and malnutrition in a large Chinese ethnic minority population from 1991 to 2010. In the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health from 1991 to 2010, multistage stratified sampling was conducted in the series of cross-sectional studies. Participants were 7–18-year-old students randomly selected by sex and region, and included Han and 26 ethnic minorities. During the survey period, the overall prevalence of overweight increased from 5.8% to 13.5%, and malnutrition trend increased from 3.6% to 4.1% in ethnic minority children and adolescents. Moreover, Korean and Mongol children were more likely than Han children to be obese (Korean: RR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.48–1.56; Mongol: RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.20–1.28). Among these minorities, the Dongxiang and Li children were more likely to be malnourished (Li: RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.37–1.57; Dongxiang: RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.34–1.58). Shui, Khalkhas, Lisu, and Monguor children were less likely to be overweight and malnourished compared with the Hans. The prevalence of overweight among ethnicities increased yearly while that for malnutrition has fluctuated over the past few decades. PMID:27881845

  3. Racial/Ethnic Minority Vocational Research: A Content and Trend Analysis across 36 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Berkel, LaVerne A.; Nilsson, Johanna E.; Ojeda, Lizette; Jordan, Shiloh E.; Lynn, Ginger L.; Leal, Veronica M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined 281 racial/ethnic minority (REM) career-related studies published in the "Journal of Vocational Behavior," "The Career Development Quarterly (CDQ)," the "Journal of Career Assessment (JCA)," and the "Journal of Career Development" between 1969 and 2004. Publication trends, article content and type, samples, and leading author…

  4. Research, Practice, and Ethnic Minorities: Applications of and Comments on "New Scholarship on Women."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Melba J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Responds to "new scholarship on women" perspective presented in previous article by Greiner. Delineates areas of fit and areas of misfit while applying the perspective to ethnic minorities. Examines six basic tenets of perspective as they relate to research or to practice, drawing examples from and about Hispanic populations. (NB)

  5. A "Both-And" Perspective between the Society of Counseling Psychology and Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…

  6. Ethical Principles and Standards: A Racial-Ethnic Minority Research Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, J. Manuel; Thompson, Chalmer E.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses American Psychological Association's (APA, 1990) "Ethical Principles" and American Association for Counseling and Development's (AACD, 1988) "Ethical Standards" as they relate to racial-ethnic minorities. Contends that philosophical premises that underlie these principles and standards reflect solely majority culture…

  7. Gifted Ethnic Minority Students and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.; Woo, Hongryun; Bang, Na Mi

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis exploring ethnic minority students enrolled in gifted/advanced programs with an emphasis on their academic achievement outcomes. A comprehensive search based on the Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis checklist, was performed to retrieve articles within a 30-year time period (1983-2014), which…

  8. Stress, Self-Esteem, Hope, Optimism, and Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affect…

  9. Our Common Commitment. Enhancing Ethnic Minority Integration and Achievement in Arizona's Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Board of Regents, Phoenix.

    A report and recommendations of the Arizona Board of Regents' Ad Hoc Committee on University Access and Retention focuses on the enhancement of ethnic minority integration and achievement in Arizona's universities. Eight sections cover: introduction (the challenge for Arizona's universities); House Bill 2108; early outreach (linkages and…

  10. Capitalizing on Mobile Technology to Support Healthy Eating in Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Pernal, Wendy; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Shiyko, Mariya; Intille, Stephen; Franko, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a mobile technology-based intervention to support healthy eating among ethnic minority female students. Participants: Forty-three African American and Hispanic female students participated in a 3-week intervention between January and May 2013. Methods: Participants photographed their meals using their smart…

  11. Working with Culture: Psychotherapeutic Interventions with Ethnic Minority Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Luis A., Ed.; Koss-Chioino, Joan D., Ed.

    This book presents essays concerning culturally responsive psychotherapeutic interventions for specific problems commonly experienced by ethnic-minority youth. Each essay offers case examples, along with a clinical how-to approach for dealing with problems such as cross-racial foster care, gang involvement, child abuse, and substance abuse. Essays…

  12. Older and Wiser. A Study of Educational Provision for Black and Ethnic Minority Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Stella

    This publication is the outcome of the Older and Wiser Project that assessed projects' work with elderly black clients. The first part defines who the black elderly are and provides an overview of the black elderly in Britain using data from the 1991 Census. A chart breaks down ethnic minority groups by age. Population pyramids that provide an…

  13. The Stranger within My Gate: Ethnic Minorities and School Policy in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, Frederick M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper outlines a heuristic framework for understanding basic patterns in the efforts of nation-states to achieve some degree of integration of ethnic minorities to the dominant culture. Four case studies, from Britain, Sweden, and the Netherlands, illuminate the basic typology: Assimilation, Cultural Pluralism, Socialized Isolation,…

  14. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  15. Effective Counseling for Racial/Ethnic Minority Clients: Examining Changes Using a Practice Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Graceffo, James M.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that counseling decreases students' academic distress. These findings, however, are based primarily on European American students. This study explored the impact of counseling on academic distress for treatment-seeking racial/ethnic minority college students using the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological…

  16. Ethnic Majority/Minority Status: Children's Interactions and Affective Responses to Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrary, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of classroom ethnic majority/minority status on third-, fifth-, and seventh-grade children's responses (N=118)while listening to and discussing the music of a Latin salsa artist, African-American rhythm and blues artist, and a European-American folk artist. Investigates the students' artist and music preferences. (CMK)

  17. Stress, Self-Esteem, Hope, Optimism, and Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affect…

  18. The Importance of Minority Teachers to the Racial and Ethnic Integration of American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1989-01-01

    Racial and ethnic separation and isolation can be countered through significantly increasing the number of minority teachers. Students learn important societal lessons through the example of cooperative interracial and interethnic relationships among teachers. Discusses implications for teacher education, recruitment, assignment, and retention,…

  19. Reduced Psychological Distress in Racial and Ethnic Minority Students Practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Charles; Nidich, Sanford; Colbert, Robert; Hagelin, John; Grayshield, Lisa; Oviedo-Lim, Dynah; Nidich, Randi; Rainforth, Maxwell; Jones, Chris; Gerace, Denise

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing literature describing the stressful nature of students' school experience. Previous research has found that racial and ethnic minority groups are particularly subject to high levels of stress due to exposure to violence, pressures due to acculturation, and the schooling process. This is the first study to evaluate effects of the…

  20. Toward Culturally Centered Integrative Care for Addressing Mental Health Disparities among Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Kisha; McGregor, Brian; Thandi, Poonam; Fresh, Edith; Sheats, Kameron; Belton, Allyson; Mattox, Gail; Satcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, recognition and treatment of mental illness and its co-morbidities still remain a significant public health problem in the United States. Ethnic minorities are identified as a population that is vulnerable to mental health disparities and face unique challenges pertaining to mental health care. Psychiatric illness is associated with great physical, emotional, functional, and societal burden. The primary health care setting may be a promising venue for screening, assessment, and treatment of mental illnesses for ethnic minority populations. We propose a comprehensive, innovative, culturally centered integrated care model to address the complexities within the health care system, from the individual level, that includes provider and patient factors, to the system level, which include practice culture and system functionality issues. Our multi-disciplinary investigative team acknowledges the importance of providing culturally tailored integrative healthcare to holistically concentrate on physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral problems among ethnic minorities in a primary care setting. It is our intention that the proposed model will be useful for health practitioners, contribute to the reduction of mental health disparities, and promote better mental health and well-being for ethnic minority individuals, families, and communities. PMID:25383991

  1. Interactive Whole Language E-Story for Early Literacy Development in Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phadung, Muneeroh; Suksakulchai, Surachai; Kaewprapan, Wacheerapan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using an interactive e-story for early literacy instruction on word recognition, story comprehension and story application. The study was conducted in two classrooms in the southern border provinces of Thailand with ethnic minority children at the kindergarten level. The samples consisted of 60 children who…

  2. Interactive Whole Language E-Story for Early Literacy Development in Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phadung, Muneeroh; Suksakulchai, Surachai; Kaewprapan, Wacheerapan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using an interactive e-story for early literacy instruction on word recognition, story comprehension and story application. The study was conducted in two classrooms in the southern border provinces of Thailand with ethnic minority children at the kindergarten level. The samples consisted of 60 children who…

  3. Admissions to Higher Education: Are There Biases against or in Favour of Ethnic Minorities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittoes, Mark; Thompson, John

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors comment on Tariq Modood's "Ethnicity, Muslims and higher education in Britain," which asserted that higher education had been a major success story for non-White minorities and argued that, if encouraged, Islam could be an influence on young Muslim men and women to take up educational opportunities that would…

  4. Access to Higher Education of 25 Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province, South Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2010-01-01

    The level of development of higher education (HE) is an important indicator to measure the development of the social economy and the civilization of a region or country. In this article, we compare the distribution of the freshmen of ethnic minorities (EMs) with the distribution of EMs over the population, based on a sample of 1 464 freshmen from…

  5. Equal Access of Ethnic Minority Students to Different Types of Higher Education Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we focus on answering the question "Is there equal access to different types of higher education institutions (HEIs) for ethnic minority (EM) students in Yunnan Province (China), and what explanation might be found for any differences?" In order to answer this question, we rely on the education attainment theory, and a…

  6. A Blessing with a Curse: Model Minority Ethnic Students and the Construction of Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Billy

    2015-01-01

    While concerns around minority ethnic students and underachievement have attracted considerable attention in educational research, such as in England, few studies have examined those who excel, except as reference to justify the equity of the established system. This paper explores the educational success of British Chinese and Indian students,…

  7. Special Issue: Racial and Ethnic Minority Students' Success in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Palmer, Robert T.; Davis, Ryan J.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph provides educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners with an overview of existing knowledge regarding factors that influence success among racial and ethnic minority students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) circuit. To accomplish this task, the authors reviewed more than four hundred…

  8. Racial/Ethnic Minority-Specific Instrumentation in Counseling Research: A Review, Critique, and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabnani, Haresh B.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews eight instruments specifically conceptualized and developed for use in racial/ethnic minority-focused psychological research: Cultural Mistrust Inventory, African Self-Consciousness Scale, Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory-Revised, Modern Racism Scale, Value Orientation Scale, Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, Racial…

  9. Parent Training among Ethnic Minorities: Parenting Practices as Mediators of Change in Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorknes, Ragnhild; Kjobli, John; Manger, Terje; Jakobsen, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined parenting practices as mediators of changes in child conduct problems in ethnic minority families participating in Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO). The participants included 96 Somali and Pakistani immigrant mothers and their children living in Norway. The families were randomized to PMTO or a waiting-list…

  10. A Blessing with a Curse: Model Minority Ethnic Students and the Construction of Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Billy

    2015-01-01

    While concerns around minority ethnic students and underachievement have attracted considerable attention in educational research, such as in England, few studies have examined those who excel, except as reference to justify the equity of the established system. This paper explores the educational success of British Chinese and Indian students,…

  11. "We Raised It with the Head": The Educational Practices of Minority Ethnic, Middle-Class Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from a small-scale empirical exploration of the views, experiences and educational practices of middle-class minority ethnic families in the United Kingdom. It draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 36 parents, pupils and "young professionals". Analyses consider to what extent generic class…

  12. Relationships between Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and Counseling Psychology: Three New Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of…

  13. Psychological Disidentification with the Academic Domain Among Ethnic Minority Adolescents in The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, M.; Thijs, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Among ethnic minority group adolescents, experiences with discrimination and prejudice in school settings are thought to lead to a defensive detachment of the self from the school domain. That is, these adolescents may disengage their self-feelings from their academic performances causing the academic self to become a less important…

  14. "We Raised It with the Head": The Educational Practices of Minority Ethnic, Middle-Class Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from a small-scale empirical exploration of the views, experiences and educational practices of middle-class minority ethnic families in the United Kingdom. It draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 36 parents, pupils and "young professionals". Analyses consider to what extent generic class…

  15. Reflections on ethnic minority psychology: learning from our past so the present informs our future.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Anderson J

    2009-10-01

    Commentary on progress and reflections of conversations that undergirded the advancement of ethnic minority psychology are presented by the author as a perspective of an Elder. Articles in this special issue are considered in terms of the themes that emerged from their narratives on the history of ethnic psychological associations, Division 45, the Minority Fellowship Program, and governance's response to multicultural issues within the American Psychological Association. Themes in the history of African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians are discussed in terms of the centrality of culture, history, and pride in resilience, treatment in U.S. history, representation in literature, and its implications for training, research and practice, challenges for ethnic psychological associations, and tensions in transition to a multicultural psychology movement. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Relation Between Racial Discrimination, Social Class, and Health Among Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James Y.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored associations between racism, social class, and health among ethnic minority people in England and Wales. Methods. We conducted a series of regression analyses on cross-sectional data from the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities to explore the relation between different indicators of racism and health and household occupational class. Results. Marked independent associations existed between reported experience of racism and perceptions of Britain as a “racist society,” household social class, age, sex, and various mental and physical health indicators. These associations showed reasonable consistency across the different ethnic groups. Conclusions. The different ways in which racism may manifest itself (as interpersonal violence, institutional discrimination, or socioeconomic disadvantage) all have independent detrimental effects on health, regardless of the health indicator used. PMID:11919063

  17. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention among Ethnic Minority Youth: State of the Science, Opportunities, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as…

  18. Ethnic minority groups in regional and local labour markets in Britain: a review of data sources and associated issues.

    PubMed

    Green, A E; Owen, D W

    1995-12-01

    "This paper outlines the context of, and discusses the need for, local information on the demographic patterns and labour market experience of ethnic minority groups in many parts of Britain. The specific focus is on the identification and assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of particular data sources providing spatially disaggregated information on the economic position of ethnic minority groups."

  19. The Impact of a National-Goal-Driven Higher Education Policy on an Ethnic Minority Serving Institution in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothey, Rebecca A.; Hu, Diya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Project 985 at Minzu University of China, an ethnic minority serving university in China. As a university established specifically for the education of ethnic minorities, the paper examines in what ways the implementation of a policy uniformly mandated to serve national higher education goals by China's…

  20. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  1. Teachers' Multicultural Awareness and the Ethnic Identity of Minority Students: An Individual Case Study of a Hani Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qunhui, Ou; Na, Du

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the role of teachers' multicultural awareness in promoting minority students' ethnic identity by considering the situation in one particular middle school. A case study of a Hani student is presented to show how teachers' multicultural awareness affects ethnic identity and the academic achievement of minority students. This…

  2. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  3. Ethnic minority children’s active commuting to school and association with physical activity and pedestrian safety behaviors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Children's active commuting to school, i.e. walking or cycling to school, was associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, although studies among ethnic minorities are sparse. Among a low-income, ethnic minority sample of fourth grade students from eight public schools, we examine...

  4. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  5. The Power of Knowledge: A Critical Analysis of the Depiction of Ethnic Minorities in China's Elementary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting

    2015-01-01

    This study critically analyzes knowledge about: (1) ethnic minority groups; (2) the dominant Han group; and (3) the interaction between ethnic minorities and Han presented in three types of elementary textbooks used in China. The analysis reveals that the knowledge about and the values and beliefs of the Han people are overwhelmingly dominant in…

  6. General Self-Esteem of Adolescents from Ethnic Minorities in the Netherlands and the Reflected Appraisal Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    1988-01-01

    Examined lack of differences in general self-esteem between adolescents of ethnic minorities and Dutch adolescents, focusing on reflected appraisal process. Found significant relationship between general self-esteem and perceived evaluation of family members (and no such relationship with nonfamily members) for ethnic minority adolescents;…

  7. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  8. A Preliminary Discussion on Several Forms of Alternate Location Schooling in Ethnic Minority Education and the Problems Therein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba, Zhanlong

    2010-01-01

    "Alternate location schooling" ("yidi banxue"), a special measure adopted in China to advance ethnic minority education and especially basic education, adheres to the principle of providing focused educational support in Tibet and Xinjiang and giving consideration to education in ethnic minority regions nationwide. Since the…

  9. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention among Ethnic Minority Youth: State of the Science, Opportunities, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as…

  10. The Impact of a National-Goal-Driven Higher Education Policy on an Ethnic Minority Serving Institution in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothey, Rebecca A.; Hu, Diya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Project 985 at Minzu University of China, an ethnic minority serving university in China. As a university established specifically for the education of ethnic minorities, the paper examines in what ways the implementation of a policy uniformly mandated to serve national higher education goals by China's…

  11. A Preliminary Discussion on Several Forms of Alternate Location Schooling in Ethnic Minority Education and the Problems Therein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba, Zhanlong

    2010-01-01

    "Alternate location schooling" ("yidi banxue"), a special measure adopted in China to advance ethnic minority education and especially basic education, adheres to the principle of providing focused educational support in Tibet and Xinjiang and giving consideration to education in ethnic minority regions nationwide. Since the…

  12. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  13. Ethnic minorities' paranoia and self-preservative work behaviors in response to perceived ethnic discrimination, with collective self-esteem as a buffer.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dejun Tony

    2016-07-01

    The present research examines (a) how ethnic minorities' paranoia mediates the relations between perceived ethnic discrimination and 2 forms of self-preservative work behaviors and (b) how ethnic minorities' collective self-esteem moderates the relation between perceived ethnic discrimination and paranoia. Two field studies focusing on 2 ethnic minority groups (Asian and Latino/Hispanic Americans), respectively, rendered empirical support to the focal mechanisms, which appeared robust even when perceived ethnic acceptance, psychological needs satisfaction, and neuroticism were simultaneously accounted for. Specifically, paranoia mediated the relations between perceived ethnic discrimination and voice and between perceived ethnic discrimination and workplace withdrawal. Collective self-esteem attenuated the relation between perceived ethnic discrimination and paranoia. These key findings shed light on the emotional and behavioral implications of perceived ethnic discrimination in the workplace and highlight collective self-esteem as a critical factor that attenuates the negative emotional consequence of perceived ethnic discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Promoting Academic Persistence among Racial/Ethnic Minority and European American Freshman and Sophomore Undergraduates: Implications for College Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing persistence decisions among 346 racial/ethnic minority and 813 European American freshman and sophomore undergraduates were explored. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in centrality and public regard of racial/ethnic identity. Perceptions of the university environment and self-beliefs predicted persistence…

  15. Promoting Academic Persistence among Racial/Ethnic Minority and European American Freshman and Sophomore Undergraduates: Implications for College Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing persistence decisions among 346 racial/ethnic minority and 813 European American freshman and sophomore undergraduates were explored. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in centrality and public regard of racial/ethnic identity. Perceptions of the university environment and self-beliefs predicted persistence…

  16. Health disparities in colorectal cancer among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Oman, Matthew; Patel, Aatish M.; Vega, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    In the 2010 Census, just over one-third of the United States (US) population identified themselves as being something other than being non-Hispanic white alone. This group has increased in size from 86.9 million in 2000 to 111.9 million in 2010, representing an increase of 29 percent over the ten year period. Per the American Cancer Society, racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to develop cancer and die from it when compared to the general population of the United States. This is particularly true for colorectal cancer (CRC). The primary aim of this review is to highlight the disparities in CRC among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Despite overall rates of CRC decreasing nationally and within certain racial and ethnic minorities in the US, there continue to be disparities in incidence and mortality when compared to non-Hispanic whites. The disparities in CRC incidence and mortality are related to certain areas of deficiency such as knowledge of family history, access to care obstacles, impact of migration on CRC and paucity of clinical data. These areas of deficiency limit understanding of CRC’s impact in these groups and when developing interventions to close the disparity gap. Even with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Healthcare Act, disparities in CRC screening will continue to exist until specific interventions are implemented in the context of each of racial and ethnic group. Racial and ethnic minorities cannot be viewed as one monolithic group, rather as different segments since there are variations in incidence and mortality based on natural history of CRC development impacted by gender, ethnicity group, nationality, access, as well as migration and socioeconomic status. Progress has been made overall, but there is much work to be done. PMID:27034811

  17. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in an ethnic minority group in Central Vietnam: implications to health burden and relationship between two ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga Thi; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Van Nguyen, Hoa; Phan, Hoa Thi Thuy; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2017-07-01

    Thalassemia is a genetic condition that can result in long and expensive treatments, and severe thalassemia may lead to death if left untreated. Couples contributing two genes for thalassemia place their children at particular risk for severe thalassemia. Gene frequency of thalassemia varies in Vietnam, but presents remarkably high levels among some ethnic minority groups. Limited information about thalassemia frequency makes prevention and control of thalassemia difficult. This study aimed to determine gene frequency of certain types of thalassemia among 390 women of reproductive age of the Ta-Oi ethnic minority. Hemoglobin and DNA analyses were carried out to diagnose thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies. Of the total participants, 56.1% (95% CI = 51.1-61.1) carried thalassemia genes. A remarkably high frequency of hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) of 23.8% (95% CI = 19.7-28.4) was noted. The frequency of α(+)-thalassemia (-3.7 kb deletion) was 26.4% (95% CI = 22.1-31.1), while hemoglobin E (Hb E) and hemoglobin Paksé (Hb Ps) were identified at frequencies of 14.6 (95% CI = 11.2-18.5) and 2.6% (95% CI = 1.4-5.0), respectively. Further analysis of α-globin gene haplotype revealed the same Hb CS haplotype (+ - M + + -) as of the Co-Tu minority, a neighboring minority of the Ta-Oi, indicating that these two minorities may share the same ancestors. This information will be helpful for further studies in population genetics, as well as the development prevention and control program in the region.

  18. The Role of Ethnic Identity on Self-Esteem for Ethnic Minority Youth: A Brief Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2012-01-01

    "Who am I?" "How do I fit in with others around me?" "How do I feel about my ethnicity?" Understanding the answers to these complex questions is part of a process that many individuals revisit throughout the course of their lives. This process becomes particularly salient during adolescence when youth gain the…

  19. The Role of Ethnic Identity on Self-Esteem for Ethnic Minority Youth: A Brief Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2012-01-01

    "Who am I?" "How do I fit in with others around me?" "How do I feel about my ethnicity?" Understanding the answers to these complex questions is part of a process that many individuals revisit throughout the course of their lives. This process becomes particularly salient during adolescence when youth gain the…

  20. Examining differential treatment effects for depression in racial and ethnic minority women: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine effectiveness of depression treatment in racial and ethnic minority women. REVIEW METHODS: Inclusion criteria: 1) the study examined treatment of depression among racial and ethnic minority women age > 17, 2) data analysis was separated by race and ethnicity, and 3) the study was conducted in the United States. Interventions considered were: psychotropic medications, psychotherapy (including cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal therapy and any type of psychotherapy adapted for minority populations) and any type of psychotherapy combined with case management or a religious focus. Individual and group psychotherapy were eligible. Each study was critically reviewed to identify treatment effectiveness specific to racial and ethnic minority women. RESULTS: Ten published studies met the inclusion criteria (racial and ethnic minority participants n = 2,136). Seven of these were randomized clinical trials, one was a retrospective cohort study, one was a case series, and the remaining one had an indeterminate study design. Participants' age ranged from 18-74 years, with a higher proportion > 40 years. Most were low income. Differences in treatment responses between African-American, Latino and white women were found. Adapted models of care, including quality improvement and collaborative care, were found to be more effective than usual care and community referral in treating depression. Although medication and psychotherapy were both effective in treating depression, low-income women generally needed case management to address other social issues. CONCLUSION: Adapted models that allow patients to select the treatment of their choice (medication or psychotherapy or a combination) while providing outreach and other supportive services (case management, childcare and transportation) appear to result in optimal clinical benefits. PMID:17393951

  1. Testing a model of minority identity achievement, identity affirmation, and psychological well-being among ethnic minority and sexual minority individuals.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Negin; Fingerhut, Adam; Peplau, Letitia A; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one's identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one's social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one's minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group, which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. [The Use of Telemedicine Interventions to Improve Hypertension Management Among Racial Ethnic Minorities: A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Wen; Lai, Wei-Shu

    2016-08-01

    Racial ethnic minorities are one of the fastest growing populations in Taiwan. In recent years, there has been an increase in literature addressing the efficacy of home blood-pressure (BP) management that uses telemedicine interventions in general healthcare and community settings. However, no study or systematic literature review has yet assessed the effectiveness of using telemedicine HTN interventions in Taiwan's indigenous, new-immigrant, and other minority populations. The purpose of the present paper is to review the current literature on the use of telemedicine interventions to assist HTN management among racial ethnic minorities. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for full-text articles that were published between January 2000 and December 2015 using the following databases: PubMed, WEB of Science, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature), PsycINFO, Science Direct, ProQuest, Medline, Cochrane Library, National Dissertations and Theses, and airiti Library. The search used the following key search terms both alone and in combination: hypertension, blood pressure, management, telemedicine, telehealth, ehealth, and digital health. The studies were thoroughly assessed under the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). A total of 6 articles met the criteria for using keywords related to racial ethnic minority populations and were used in the present review. Findings of this systematic review show that telemedicine interventions significantly improve HTN management. The intervention that combined home telemonitoring with culturally competent nurse counseling calls was identified as the best intervention for reducing BP. As the current literature on this topic is limited to African-Americans, more research is necessary to validate our findings. Future studies should target racial ethnic minorities in Taiwan in order to better understand how to provide culturally appropriate

  3. Multi-ethnic minority nurses' knowledge and practice of genetics and genomics.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Bernice; Calzone, Kathleen A; Jenkins, Jean; Paniagua, Carmen; Rivera, Reynaldo; Hong, Oi Saeng; Spruill, Ida; Bonham, Vence

    2014-07-01

    Exploratory studies establishing how well nurses have integrated genomics into practice have demonstrated there remains opportunity for education. However, little is known about educational gaps in multi-ethnic minority nurse populations. The purpose of this study was to determine minority nurses' beliefs, practices, and competency in integrating genetics-genomics information into practice using an online survey tool. A cross-sectional survey with registered nurses (RNs) from the participating National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Organizations (NCEMNA). Two phases were used: Phase one had a sample of 27 nurses who determined the feasibility of an online approach to survey completion and need for tool revision. Phase two was a main survey with 389 participants who completed the revised survey. The survey ascertained the genomic knowledge, beliefs, and practice of a sample of multi-ethnic minority nurses who were members of associations comprising the NCEMNA. The survey was administered online. Descriptive survey responses were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Categorical responses in which comparisons were analyzed used chi square tests. About 40% of the respondents held a master's degree (39%) and 42% worked in direct patient care. The majority of respondents (79%) reported that education in genomics was important. Ninety-five percent agreed or strongly agreed that family health history could identify at-risk families, 85% reported knowing how to complete a second- and third-generation family history, and 63% felt family history was important to nursing. Conversely, 50% of the respondents felt that their understanding of the genetics of common disease was fair or poor, supported by 54% incorrectly reporting they thought heart disease and diabetes are caused by a single gene variant. Only 30% reported taking a genetics course since licensure, and 94% reported interest in learning more about genomics. Eighty-four percent believed that their ethnic

  4. Multi-Ethnic Minority Nurses’ Knowledge and Practice of Genetics and Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Bernice; Calzone, Kathleen A.; Jenkins, Jean; Paniagua, Carmen; Rivera, Reynaldo; Hong, Oi Saeng; Spruill, Ida; Bonham, Vence

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Exploratory studies establishing how well nurses have integrated genomics into practice have demonstrated there remains opportunity for education. However, little is known about educational gaps in multi-ethnic minority nurse populations. The purpose of this study was to determine minority nurses’ beliefs, practices, and competency in integrating genetics-genomics information into practice using an online survey tool. Design A cross-sectional survey with registered nurses (RNs) from the participating National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Organizations (NCEMNA). Two phases were used: Phase one had a sample of 27 nurses who determined the feasibility of an online approach to survey completion and need for tool revision. Phase two was a main survey with 389 participants who completed the revised survey. The survey ascertained the genomic knowledge, beliefs, and practice of a sample of multi-ethnic minority nurses who were members of associations comprising the NCEMNA. Methods The survey was administered online. Descriptive survey responses were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Categorical responses in which comparisons were analyzed used chi square tests. Findings About 40% of the respondents held a master’s degree (39%) and 42% worked in direct patient care. The majority of respondents (79%) reported that education in genomics was important. Ninety-five percent agreed or strongly agreed that family health history could identify at-risk families, 85% reported knowing how to complete a second- and third-generation family history, and 63% felt family history was important to nursing. Conversely, 50% of the respondents felt that their understanding of the genetics of common disease was fair or poor, supported by 54% incorrectly reporting they thought heart disease and diabetes are caused by a single gene variant. Only 30% reported taking a genetics course since licensure, and 94% reported interest in learning more about genomics. Eighty

  5. Patient-reported frequency of acral surface inspection during skin examination in white and ethnic minority patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Monica S; Chiu, Melvin W

    2014-08-01

    Acral lentiginous melanomas compose a higher proportion of melanomas and have a higher mortality in ethnic minorities than in whites. Early detection by acral surface inspection during skin examinations may lead to improved acral lentiginous melanoma outcomes. This study compared patient-reported frequencies of acral skin examinations in ethnic and white populations. Written surveys were collected from 1040 dermatology clinic patients. More whites reported performing self-skin examinations than ethnic minorities (P < .01), but there was no difference in the rates of hand (P = .7) or foot (P = .87) inspection during self-skin examination between whites and ethnic minorities. More whites (77.5%) than ethnic minorities (38.9%) reported having undergone a full-body skin examination (FBSE) from a health care provider (P < .01). During their most recent FBSE by a health care provider, more whites than ethnic minorities reported having their hands examined (P = .02), but there was no difference in reported hand inspection (P = .06) at any previous FBSE or foot inspection at any (P = .07) or the most recent (P = .59) FBSE between whites and ethnic minorities. Single-center study using a new unvalidated survey is a limitation. Whites were found to more frequently report self-skin examination and FBSE than ethnic minorities, but significant differences in reported acral examinations were not detected. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The global challenge of type 2 diabetes and the strategies for response in ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, Flavio

    2010-09-01

    Ethnic minorities living in high-income countries usually exhibit a greater risk of developing diabetes along with higher morbidity and mortality rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to improve glycaemic control in ethnic minority groups. Results of major controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included in the review. Only 1/47 studies addressing diet and exercise interventions reported details on the ethnicity of the studied population. Self-management education was successful if associated with increased self-efficacy; delivered over a longer period; of high intensity; culturally tailored; and when using community educators. Strategies adopted in community-gathering places, family-based, multifaceted, and those tackling the social context were likely to be more effective. A positive relationship was found between social support and self-management behaviour as well as quality of life, but there is little evidence about the impact of organizational changes within health-care services on diabetes control. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence on effective strategies for response to diabetes in ethnic minorities. Also, there is a need to take into account diabetes beliefs and communication difficulties, as well as potential protective factors. Globally, many health-care systems are inadequately equipped to improve diabetes prevention and disease outcomes in these communities.

  7. Educating ethnic minority students for the nursing workforce: facilitators and barriers to success.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Jocelyn; Duty, Susan

    2010-07-01

    The number of ethnic minorities graduating from nursing programs does not meet the number of ethnic minority nurses that are needed for patient care. In order to identify the facilitators and barriers to success, a survey was sent to current students and to those who graduated within 2 years. There were 314 responses, which was an overall response rate of 39.6%. Among the 4 facilitator factors, only the general academic support factor was perceived as more helpful by African-American students (p = 0.001). Among the 5 barrier factors, African-American students and Other Ethnic Minority students perceived program workload and pace (African-Americans p < 0.005; Other multicultural groups p < 0.02), computer access (African-Americans p < 0.05; Other multicultural groups p < 0.05) and technology competence (African-Americans p < 0.02) to be barriers. Any student, regardless of ethnicity, who worked at a job 13 to 40 hours a week, perceived family and financial concerns as a barrier. Results indicated that curriculum content should include technology basics and testing for competence. Financial support for students must be expanded through loans and scholarships so workload and pace become more manageable.

  8. The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. Methods The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Results Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population. PMID:24641983

  9. End-of-Life Care for People With Cancer From Ethnic Minority Groups: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, Melissa A; Dement, Fritz; Gold, Heather T

    2016-04-01

    Ethnic/racial minorities encounter disparities in healthcare, which may carry into end-of-life (EOL) care. Advanced cancer, highly prevalent and morbid, presents with worsening symptoms, heightening the need for supportive and EOL care. To conduct a systematic review examining ethnic/racial disparities in EOL care for cancer patients. We searched four electronic databases for all original research examining EOL care use, preferences, and beliefs for cancer patients from ethnic/racial minority groups. Twenty-five studies were included: 20 quantitative and five qualitative. All had a full-text English language article and focused on the ethnic/racial minority groups of African Americans, Hispanics Americans, or Asian Americans. Key themes included EOL decision making processes, family involvement, provider communication, religion and spirituality, and patient preferences. Hospice was the most studied EOL care, and was most used among Whites, followed by use among Hispanics, and least used by African and Asian Americans. African Americans perceived a greater need for hospice, yet more frequently had inadequate knowledge. African Americans preferred aggressive treatment, yet EOL care provided was often inconsistent with preferences. Hispanics and African Americans less often documented advance care plans, citing religious coping and spirituality as factors. EOL care differences among ethnic/racial minority cancer patients were found in the processes, preferences, and beliefs regarding their care. Further steps are needed to explore the exact causes of differences, yet possible explanations include religious or cultural differences, caregiver respect for patient autonomy, access barriers, and knowledge of EOL care options. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Cancer fear and fatalism among ethnic minority women in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Vrinten, Charlotte; Wardle, Jane; Marlow, Laura AV

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer fear and fatalism are believed to be higher in ethnic minorities and may contribute to lower engagement with cancer prevention and early detection. We explored the levels of cancer fear and fatalism in six ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and examined the contribution of acculturation and general fatalism. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 720 White British, Caribbean, African, Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi women (120 of each) was conducted. Three items assessed cancer fear and two cancer fatalism. Acculturation was assessed using (self-reported) migration status, ability to speak English, and understanding of health leaflets; general fatalism with a standard measure. Results: Relative to White British women, African and Indian women were more fearful of cancer, Bangladeshi women less fearful, and Pakistani and Caribbean women were similar to White British women. Cancer fatalism was higher in all the ethnic minority groups compared with White British women. Less acculturated women were less likely to worry (ORs 0.21–0.45, all P<0.05) or feel particularly afraid (ORs 0.11–0.31, all P<0.05) but more likely to feel uncomfortable about cancer (ORs 1.97–3.03, all P<0.05). Lower acculturation (ORs 4.30–17.27, P<0.05) and general fatalism (OR 2.29, P<0.05) were associated with the belief that cancer is predetermined. Conclusions: In general, cancer fear and fatalism are more prevalent among ethnic minority than White British women and even more so in less acculturated ethnic minorities. This may affect their participation in cancer prevention and early detection. PMID:26867159

  11. Cancer fear and fatalism among ethnic minority women in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Vrinten, Charlotte; Wardle, Jane; Marlow, Laura Av

    2016-03-01

    Cancer fear and fatalism are believed to be higher in ethnic minorities and may contribute to lower engagement with cancer prevention and early detection. We explored the levels of cancer fear and fatalism in six ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and examined the contribution of acculturation and general fatalism. A cross-sectional survey of 720 White British, Caribbean, African, Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi women (120 of each) was conducted. Three items assessed cancer fear and two cancer fatalism. Acculturation was assessed using (self-reported) migration status, ability to speak English, and understanding of health leaflets; general fatalism with a standard measure. Relative to White British women, African and Indian women were more fearful of cancer, Bangladeshi women less fearful, and Pakistani and Caribbean women were similar to White British women. Cancer fatalism was higher in all the ethnic minority groups compared with White British women. Less acculturated women were less likely to worry (ORs 0.21-0.45, all P<0.05) or feel particularly afraid (ORs 0.11-0.31, all P<0.05) but more likely to feel uncomfortable about cancer (ORs 1.97-3.03, all P<0.05). Lower acculturation (ORs 4.30-17.27, P<0.05) and general fatalism (OR 2.29, P<0.05) were associated with the belief that cancer is predetermined. In general, cancer fear and fatalism are more prevalent among ethnic minority than White British women and even more so in less acculturated ethnic minorities. This may affect their participation in cancer prevention and early detection.

  12. Psychological disidentification with the academic domain among ethnic minority adolescents in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2004-03-01

    Among ethnic minority group adolescents, experiences with discrimination and prejudice in school settings are thought to lead to a defensive detachment of the self from the school domain. That is, these adolescents may disengage their self-feelings from their academic performances causing the academic self to become a less important part of global self-worth. However, there is limited empirical evidence for this assumption and the existing research is on African American students. To examine among ethnic minority adolescents in the Netherlands the hypothesis that under conditions of perceived discrimination minority group members tend to psychologically disengage their self-feelings from educational performance. Study 1 was conducted among 161 Turkish students between 13 and 16 years of age. The sample in Study 2 consisted of 112 Turkish participants of 11 and 12 years of age. Two questionnaire studies were conducted and participants responded to questions on perceived academic performance, academic self-esteem, global self-worth and perceived discrimination in school. In both studies, academic self-esteem mediated the relationship between perceived educational performance and feelings of global self-worth. More importantly, perceived discrimination in school moderated the relationship between academic self-esteem and global self-worth. Discrimination did not moderate the relationship between academic performance and academic self-esteem. The results indicate that for ethnic minorities perceived discrimination in school can lead to psychological disidentification from the academic domain whereby global self-worth is less based on performances and competencies in the academic domain.

  13. Stress Buffering Effects of Oxytocin on HIV Status in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Erin M.; Antoni, Michael H.; Lopez, Corina; Mendez, Armando J.; Szeto, Angela; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy; Kumar, Mahendra; Schneiderman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Background Elevated perceptions of psychosocial stress and stressful life events are linked to faster disease progression in individuals living with HIV and these associations may be stronger for women from ethnic minority populations. Levels of neurohormones such as oxytocin (OT), cortisol, and norepinephrine (NE) have been shown to influence the effects of psychosocial stress in different populations. Understanding how intrinsic neuroendocrine substances moderate the effects of stressors in minority women living with HIV (WLWH) may pave the way for interventions to improve disease management. Methods We examined circulating levels of plasma OT as a moderator of the effects of stress on disease status (viral load, CD4+ cell count) in 71 low-income ethnic minority WLWH. Results At low levels of OT, there was an inverse association between stress and CD4+ cell counts. Counter-intuitively, at high levels of OT there was a positive association between stress and CD4+ cell counts. This pattern was unrelated to women’s viral load. Other neuroendocrine hormones known to down-regulate the immune system (cortisol, norepinephrine) did not mediate the effects of OT and stress on immune status. Conclusions OT may have stress buffering effects on some immune parameters and possibly health status in low income ethnic minority WLWH reporting elevated stress. PMID:21215526

  14. Conducting an assessment of health needs and resources in a racial/ethnic minority community.

    PubMed

    Lillie-Blanton, M; Hoffman, S C

    1995-04-01

    This article examines strategies and methodologic issues for researchers to consider when conducting community-based research within a racial/ethnic minority community. Members of minority communities have considerable skepticism about the health care system and researchers who work under its auspices. To facilitate quality research, it is necessary to build a mutually beneficial partnership between the community and researchers. Suggested strategies for accomplishing this goal, such as seeking out information on the social and political forces shaping the community and developing the community's capacity to undertake research of this type, are described. Methodologic issues include the importance of community input in defining the minority population group and its leadership, the benefits and limitations of conducting comparative analysis, and the need for measurement tools and techniques that are culturally and socially appropriate. Minority and nonminority researchers must make a concerted effort to gain knowledge of and respect for a community whose culture, values, and beliefs may differ from their own.

  15. Generalized anxiety disorder in racial and ethnic minorities: a case of nativity and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Chavez-Yenter, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Minorities comprise more than one third of the U.S., and research on the correlates and causes of depression, anxiety, and other mental illnesses have yielded mixed results in minority groups necessitating an understanding of causes and correlates of health. Thus, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between minority status, contextual factors, and lifetime Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Logistic regression models were implemented, comparing immigrants to their American-born counterparts as well as to American-born Whites. Foreign-born Afro-Caribbeans exhibited lower rates of lifetime GAD. A lower percentage of foreign-born minorities met the criteria for GAD as compared to their American-born counterparts, and all racial and ethnic groups met the criteria for lifetime GAD at a lower rate as compared to American-born Whites. By using theory proactively and including contextual factors, this multi-faceted approach to health disparities research yielded findings which both supported historic beliefs but created opportunities for supplemental research looking at immigrants and GAD. Key findings were that health lifestyle choices and exposure to discrimination significantly affected the chance of having GAD. Nativity was protective; however, its effect was ameliorated by exposure to discrimination or engagement in alcohol abuse. Thus, this study offers practical insight into environmental factors for clinicians caring for racial and ethnic minorities diagnosed with GAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematic Review of Interventions for Racial/Ethnic-Minority Pregnant Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Yukiko; Cassey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Large disparities exist in smoking rates during pregnancy by racial/ethnic status. Aims The current review examined controlled studies that predominantly included racial/ethnic-minority pregnant smokers for providing smoking cessation treatment. Methods Two authors independently conducted the literature searches in the standard databases using a combination of the keywords with minority, pregnancy, smoking, and cessation identifiers. Results The searches identified nine articles that met the inclusion criteria. Only two studies exclusively targeted specific minority groups. Most of them provided some form of brief smoking cessation counseling, with two combining with incentives and one combining with pharmacotherapy. Two studies provided intensive cognitive interventions. Pregnant smokers of American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic subgroups, and Asian or Pacific Islander are under-studied. Conclusions Future studies to treat minority pregnant smokers could target under-studied minority groups and may need to directly and intensely target smoking behavior, address cultural and psychosocial issues in an individualized and comprehensive manner, and analyze cost-benefit of an intervention. PMID:26925170

  17. Moroccan Children and Arabic in Spanish Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Bernabe Lopez; Molina, Laura Mijares

    This paper discusses classical Arabic as a minority language for Moroccan children in Spanish schools. It highlights programs of "education des langues et cultures d'origine" (ELCO), which specifically target these students. ELCO is the only public program in Spain recognizing Arabic as an immigrant minority language. Intercultural…

  18. An exploration of young ethnic minority males' beliefs about romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer L; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic minority males experience a disproportionate prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Few studies have explored the beliefs that frame romantic relationships in which sexual behavior occurs. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of romantic relationships for young ethnic minority men who partner with adolescent women with high-risk sexual histories and the beliefs about romantic relationships that underlie these relationship choices. A phenomenologic approach was used. Two semi-structured interviews were completed with six Mexican American and two African American young adult males 19 to 26 years of age. Participants struggled to balance a desire to maintain physical and psychological closeness with partners with a desire to distance from partners in the face of unmet psychological needs. Recognition of how males struggle to balance getting needs met in romantic relationships will be necessary for the provision of culturally relevant care for males and their partners.

  19. Payoffs of Participatory Action Research: Racial and Ethnic Minorities with Disabilities Reflect on their Research Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Oden, Kristin; Hernandez, Brigida; Hidalgo, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    The disability community has experienced a long history of segregation and exclusion. With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, discriminatory attitudes and behaviors would no longer be tolerated under law. In recent decades, disability researchers have also experienced a shift in how research projects are designed and conducted, with participatory action research (PAR) playing a prominent role. This paper provides an overview of these shifts and presents a qualitative study that explored the extent to which racial and ethnic minorities with disabilities were empowered by a PAR project that aimed to increase the physical accessibility of their communities. Content analysis of individual interviews revealed the following main themes: (1) increased knowledge of disability rights; (2) increased sense of independence; and (3) increased desire to advocate. Implications of this study include the important role that PAR may play in empowering racial and ethnic minorities with disabilities. PMID:20668640

  20. Payoffs of Participatory Action Research: Racial and Ethnic Minorities with Disabilities Reflect on their Research Experiences.

    PubMed

    Oden, Kristin; Hernandez, Brigida; Hidalgo, Marco A

    2010-01-01

    The disability community has experienced a long history of segregation and exclusion. With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, discriminatory attitudes and behaviors would no longer be tolerated under law. In recent decades, disability researchers have also experienced a shift in how research projects are designed and conducted, with participatory action research (PAR) playing a prominent role. This paper provides an overview of these shifts and presents a qualitative study that explored the extent to which racial and ethnic minorities with disabilities were empowered by a PAR project that aimed to increase the physical accessibility of their communities. Content analysis of individual interviews revealed the following main themes: (1) increased knowledge of disability rights; (2) increased sense of independence; and (3) increased desire to advocate. Implications of this study include the important role that PAR may play in empowering racial and ethnic minorities with disabilities.

  1. Capitalizing on mobile technology to support healthy eating in ethnic minority college students.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Pernal, Wendy; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Shiyko, Mariya; Intille, Stephen; Franko, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of a mobile technology-based intervention to support healthy eating among ethnic minority female students. Forty-three African American and Hispanic female students participated in a 3-week intervention between January and May 2013. Participants photographed their meals using their smart phone camera and received motivational text messages 3 times a day. At baseline, postintervention, and 10 weeks after the intervention, participants reported on fruit, vegetable, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Participants were also weighed at baseline. Among participants with body mass index (BMI) ≥25, fruit and vegetable consumption increased with time (p < .01). Among participants with BMI <21, consumption of fruit decreased (p < .05), whereas the consumption of vegetables remained stable. No effects were found for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Mobile technology-based interventions could facilitate healthy eating among female ethnic minority college students, particularly those with higher BMI.

  2. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  3. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  4. Why are there so few ethnic minority speech and language therapists?

    PubMed

    Stapleford, J; Todd, C

    1998-01-01

    This report summarises the outcome of a pilot study to investigate the recruitment of ethnic minority students to speech and language therapy, physiotherapy and dietetics courses. The study also sought to identify factors contributing to the low representation of these students on the named courses through interviews and questionnaires to careers advisors, school students and course admissions tutors. Recommendations for changes in practice are made.

  5. Under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in vascular surgery randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hoel, Andrew W; Kayssi, Ahmed; Brahmanandam, Soma; Belkin, Michael; Conte, Michael S; Nguyen, Louis L

    2009-08-01

    Gender and ethnicity are factors affecting the incidence and severity of vascular disease as well as subsequent treatment outcomes. Although well studied in other fields, balanced enrollment of patients with relevant demographic characteristics in vascular surgery randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is not well known. This study describes the reporting of gender and ethnicity data in vascular surgery RCTs and analyzes whether these studies adequately represent our diverse patient population. We conducted a retrospective review of United States-based RCTs from 1983 through 2007 for three broadly defined vascular procedures: aortic aneurysm repair (AAR), carotid revascularization (CR), and lower extremity revascularization (LER). Included studies were examined for gender and ethnicity data, study parameters, funding source, and geographic region. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was analyzed to obtain group-specific procedure frequency as an estimate of procedure frequency in the general population. We reviewed 77 studies, and 52 met our inclusion criteria. Only 85% reported gender, and 21% reported ethnicity. Reporting of ethnicity was strongly associated with larger (>280 participants), multicenter, government-funded trials (P < .001 for all). Women are disproportionately under-represented in RCTs for all procedure categories (AAR, 9.0% vs 21.5%; CR, 30.0% vs 42.9%; LER, 22.4% vs 41.3%). Minorities are under-represented in AAR studies (6.0% vs 10.7%) and CR studies (6.9% vs 9.5%) but are over-represented in LER studies (26.0% vs 21.8%, P < .001 for all). Minority ethnicity and female gender are under-reported and under-represented in vascular surgery RCTs, particularly in small, non-government-funded and single-center trials. The generalizability of some trial results may not be applicable to these populations. Greater effort to enroll a balanced study population in RCTs may yield more broadly applicable results.

  6. Prevalence of dementia and depression among elderly people in black and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    McCracken, C F; Boneham, M A; Copeland, J R; Williams, K E; Wilson, K; Scott, A; McKibbin, P; Cleave, N

    1997-09-01

    This study was designed to identify all elderly people of ethnic minorities living in a defined geographical area in inner-city Liverpool and to identify psychiatric morbidity and barriers to use of services. This paper reports the prevalence of dementia and depression. A survey of the community was carried out using the Geriatric Mental State Examination, AGECAT and ethnically matched interviewers. The sampling frame consisted of Family Health Services Authority lists as a basis, with additional information from community lists, 'snow-balling' and a door-to-door survey. 418 people were interviewed, with a high percentage (55%) of young elderly (65-74) men. The prevalence of dementia ranged from 2 to 9% and of depression from 5 to 19%, and there were no significant differences in levels between English-speaking ethnic groups and the indigenous population. Higher levels of dementia were found among non-English-speaking groups. A complete enumeration of the elderly in ethnic minority groups is best achieved by using several different methods. Diagnosis of dementia may be misleading among those who do not speak the dominant language.

  7. Institutional Variation in the Promotion of Racial/Ethnic Minority Faculty at US Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Ciarleglio, Maria M.; Sandoval-Schaefer, Teresa; Elumn, Johanna; Castillo-Page, Laura; Peduzzi, Peter; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We compared faculty promotion rates by race/ethnicity across US academic medical centers. Methods. We used the Association of American Medical College's 1983 through 2000 faculty roster data to estimate median institution-specific promotion rates for assistant professor to associate professor and for associate professor to full professor. In unadjusted analyses, we compared medians for Hispanic and Black with White faculty using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. We compared institution-specific promotion rates between racial/ethnic groups with data stratified by institutional characteristic (institution size, proportion racial/ethnic minority faculty, and proportion women faculty) using the χ2 test. Our sample included 128 academic medical centers and 88 432 unique faculty. Results. The median institution-specific promotion rates for White, Hispanic, and Black faculty, respectively, were 30.2%, 23.5%, and 18.8% (P < .01) from assistant to associate professor and 31.5%, 25.0%, and 16.7% (P < .01) from associate to full professor. Conclusions. At most academic medical centers, promotion rates for Hispanic and Black were lower than those for White faculty. Equitable faculty promotion rates may reflect institutional climates that support the successful development of racial/ethnic minority trainees, ultimately improving healthcare access and quality for all patients. PMID:22420820

  8. A systematic review of culturally sensitive cancer prevention resources for ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Friedman, Daniela B

    2006-01-01

    Cancer prevention educational resources intended for members of ethnically diverse populations should be tailored to the specific cancer knowledge and beliefs of individual ethnic groups. Culturally sensitive printed materials on cancer prevention have been proposed in the literature. 1) To explore definitions of the term cultural sensitivity (CS) and their application to the development and testing of cancer prevention education materials for ethnic minority groups; and 2) to assess the use of instruments or scales used to measure the CS of cancer information resources. A list of articles explicitly on the CS of cancer prevention education materials was assembled by searching the databases of PubMed, CancerLit, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts for articles published between 1994-2004. Ten studies that met inclusion criteria were included in this review. Most articles included breast cancer resources (90%) and targeted African American populations (70%). Few studies defined the term CS (n=4). Only three studies employed instruments to evaluate the CS of printed cancer information resources, and none of them explicitly listed standard measures of validity or reliability. Best practice definitions and guidelines for culturally sensitive cancer prevention education need to be established. Ethnic minority individuals' cancer-related knowledge and beliefs must be incorporated into all printed cancer education efforts.

  9. Assessing the disparity in spatial access to hospital care in ethnic minority region in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuli; Pan, Jay

    2016-08-17

    There is a great disparity in spatial accessibility to hospital care between ethnic minority and non-minority regions in China. Being one of the basic social demands, spatial access to hospital care in minority regions draws increasing attention in China in recent years. We performed this study to have a better understanding of spatial access to hospital care in ethnic minority region in China, and to guide the allocation of government investment in the future. Sichuan Province, southwest of China was selected as a sample to examine the difference in hospital access between ethnic minority and non-minority region in China. We applied the shortest path analysis and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method under ArcGIS 9.3 environment. In Sichuan, healthcare access in ethnic minority region is worse than in non-minority region in terms of time to hospital and the value of spatial accessibility. There is relatively greater inequality in access to doctors and health professionals than in access to hospital beds. In ethnic minority region, the balance between primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, as well as between public and private hospitals, is less even, compared with the non-minority region. The disparity within ethnic minority region is larger than in non-minority region. The combination of shortest path analysis and E2SFCA method is superior to the traditional county ratio method in assessing spatial access to healthcare. Compared to the non-minority region, ethnic minority region rely more heavily on government investment to provide healthcare. In ethnic minority region, the current distribution of primary, secondary and tertiary hospitals is inappropriate, and there is an urgent shortage of healthcare personnel. We therefore recommend that the government use preferential policies to encourage more social capital investment in ethnic minority region, use government investment as a supplement to build a more equitable healthcare market

  10. Mentoring ethnic minority counseling and clinical psychology students: A multicultural, ecological, and relational model.

    PubMed

    Chan, Anne W; Yeh, Christine J; Krumboltz, John D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to understand the role of race and culture in successful mentoring relationships in graduate school. We examined the practices of 9 faculty mentors working with 15 ethnic minority doctoral students in counseling and clinical psychology. Grounded theory was used to discern unifying patterns and to formulate a theory of multicultural mentoring. Five overall themes significant to multicultural mentoring emerged: (a) career support and guidance tailored for ethnic minorities, (b) relationality between mentors and protégés, (c) significance of contexts, (d) interconnections across contexts, and (e) multidirectionality of interactions between contexts. The 5 themes combined to form a multicultural, ecological, and relational model of mentoring. Our findings suggest that mentoring ethnic minority students can be successful, productive, and satisfying for both mentors and protégés when mentors possess the necessary skills, time, commitment, and multicultural competencies. Implications for doctoral programs in counseling and clinical psychology are discussed, along with recommendations for future research directions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. GPs' interactional styles in consultations with Dutch and ethnic minority patients.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Barbara C; Meeuwesen, Ludwien; Harmsen, Hans A M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine interactional styles of general practitioners (GPs) in consultations with Dutch patients as compared to ethnic minority patients, from the perspective of level of mutual understanding between patient and GP. Data of 103 transcripts of video-registered medical interviews were analyzed to assess GPs' communication styles in terms of involvement, detachment, shared decision-making and patient-centeredness. Surveys were used to collect data on patients' characteristics and mutual understanding. Results show that overall, GPs communicate less adequately with ethnic minority patients than with Dutch patients; they involve them less in decision-making and check their understanding of what has been discussed less often. Intercultural consultations are thus markedly distinguishable from intracultural consultations by a lack of adequate communicative behavior by GPs. As every patient has a moral and legal right to make informed decisions, it is concluded that GPs should check more often whether their ethnic minority patients have understood what has been said during the medical consultation.

  12. Just Good Developmental Science: Trust, Identity, and Responsibility in Ethnic Minority Recruitment and Retention.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Camacho, Tissyana C; Guillaume, Casta

    2016-01-01

    Given the noted difficulty of recruiting and retaining ethnic and racial minority populations into various kinds of research endeavors (e.g., basic, prevention, intervention, health), they remain underrepresented and thus underserved by the research community as compared to other US groups. As developmental scientists, we often ask questions that imply longitudinal research designs, and thus, issues of attentiveness and responsiveness are paramount to the successful engagement (i.e., recruitment) and sustainability (i.e., retention) of our research with ethnic/racial minority samples. The goal of this chapter is to advance an ongoing dialogue about much of the work researchers of ethnic/racial minority child and youth development do in order to effectually recruit and retain youth and families but that is not often obvious to colleagues and readers of the final products. We frame our discussion with three key broadly significant themes: the role of trust, researcher identity and insider/outsider status, and responsibility. Perhaps most importantly, throughout the chapter, we provide concrete examples of the ways in which developmental scientists are transforming potential recruitment and retention challenges into opportunities in their own research programs. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual discourses and strategies among minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Cense, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the way minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands evaluate their sexual experiences, how they frame these experiences in different sexual discourses and how they deal with conflicts between different sexual discourses, both at home and in Dutch society. During 46 narrative interviews, Dutch young people (aged 12-22 years) from different minority ethnic communities shared their sexual histories and their dreams for the future relating to love and sexuality. Different sexual discourses can be identified in the language they used to describe their ideas and their experiences. Young people grow up with a variety of discourses but actively re-shape them according to circumstances and need. In many cases, young people experience a conflict between the discourses of the home and those that are prevalent more generally in Dutch society. Young people's ways of negotiating these contradictory discourses comprise four main strategies: (1) conforming to parents' values, (2) breaking up with parents, (3) leading a double life and (4) integrating competing discourses. By bringing together different sexual discourses and acknowledging diverse strategies, sexual health policies can become more effective in promoting sexual health for minority ethnic youth. Findings from the study add fuel to debate on understanding (sexual) agency among young people, exhibiting the social 'embeddedness' of individual agency.

  14. Barriers to continuity in the pathway toward occupational engagement among ethnic minorities with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Pooremamali, Parvin; Morville, Anne-Le; Eklund, Mona

    2017-07-01

    Ethnic minorities have particular needs and difficulties in terms of support for meaningful occupations, lack of access to and use of occupation-based rehabilitation services. They are not established in the labour market and are seldom in paid employment. This study aimed to investigate how mentally ill ethnic minority clients experience, feel and think about participation in occupation-based rehabilitation, and potential barriers they might encounter. Nine participants experiencing mental illness and receiving occupation-based rehabilitation were interviewed. Grounded theory methods were used in order to collect and analyze data. One core category, "barriers for a continuous path towards enriched and meaningful occupation" described the participants' experiences of a variety of barriers related to personal, occupational and system factors that hindered participation in occupation-based rehabilitation and influenced their need for occupational development and growth. The core category was composed of; personal-related barriers, occupational-related barriers, and system-related barriers as well as six related sub-categories. These barriers interacted continually across time and space in ways that increased the participants' sense of occupational deprivation and alienation. The findings also suggested that the issues of paid employment for ethnic minorities with mental illness should feature on the agenda of local, regional and state politicians and professionals involved in occupational rehabilitation.

  15. Instruments Measuring Externalizing Mental Health Problems in Immigrant Ethnic Minority Youths: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties

    PubMed Central

    Paalman, Carmen H.; Terwee, Caroline B.; Jansma, Elise P.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about reliability and validity of instruments measuring externalizing mental health problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths. Aims To provide an overview of studies on measurement properties of instruments measuring these problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths, their methodological quality and results. Methods A systematic review of the literature in MEDLINE, EMbase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library was performed. Evaluation of methodological quality of studies found was done by using the ‘COSMIN-checklist’. Full text, original articles, published in English after 1990 were included. Articles had to concern the development or evaluation of the measurement properties of self-reported, parent-reported and/or teacher- or clinician-reported questionnaires assessing or screening externalizing mental health problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths. Specific results of analyses on (an) immigrant ethnic minority group had to be given. Results Twenty-nine studies evaluating 18 instruments met our criteria. Most studies concerned instruments with known validity in Western populations, tested mainly in African Americans. Considering methodological quality, inequivalences between ethnicities were found, self-reports seemed to perform better, and administration of an instrument influenced reliability and validity. Conclusion It seems that the majority of instruments for assessing externalizing problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths is currently not sufficiently validated. Further evaluating existing instruments is crucial to accurately assess and interpreted externalizing problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths. PMID:23704892

  16. Emotional problems in preadolescents in Norway: the role of gender, ethnic minority status, and home- and school-related hassles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background "The gender gap" refers to a lifelong higher rate of emotional problems in girls, as compared to boys, that appears during adolescence. The gender gap is a well-replicated finding among older adolescents and is assumed to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. However, these cross-cultural studies have not investigated the gender gap in ethnic minorities but sampled ethnic majority adolescents in different countries. Some studies that investigated the gender gap across ethnic groups indirectly (by presenting emotional problem scores stratified by gender and ethnic group) indicate that the gender gap is less prominent or even absent among minorities. The aims of this study were to assess whether the gender gap is found in both majority and minority preadolescents, and to investigate whether a possible (gender and ethnic) group difference can be accounted for by differences in home or school hassles. Methods Participants were 902 preadolescent students (aged 10 to 12) from two cities in Norway. We collected self-report measures of emotional problems and home and school hassles. Using mediated moderation analysis we tested whether the interaction effect between gender and ethnic minority background on emotional problems was mediated by home or school hassles. Results The gender gap in emotional problems was restricted to ethnic majority preadolescents. School hassles but not home hassles accounted in part for this effect. Conclusions The absence of the gender gap among minority as opposed to majority preadolescents may indicate that social circumstances may postpone or hamper the emergence and magnitude of the gender gap in ethnic minority preadolescents. In this study, school hassles partly accounted for the combined gender and ethnic group differences on emotional problems. This indicates that school hassles may play a role in the higher levels of emotional problems in preadolescent minority boys and consequently the absence of a gender gap found in our minority

  17. Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial and ethnic minority college students' stigma associated with seeking psychological help: Examining psychocultural correlates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking psychological help (Obasi & Leong, 2009; Vogel, Wade, & Haake, 2006). For racial and ethnic minorities, the hindering effects of self-stigma and perceived stigmatization by others on treatment seeking may further be compounded by their relationships with their own ethnic groups, with other ethnic groups, and with the dominant society. This study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test a model that explored the effects of psychological distress and psychocultural variables (i.e., ethnic identity, other-group orientation, perceived discrimination) on perceived stigmatization by others and self-stigma for seeking psychological help, controlling for past use of counseling/psychotherapy. The sample consisted of 260 African American, 166 Asian American, and 183 Latino American students. SEM multigroup analyses indicated measurement invariance, but partial structural invariance, across racial/ethnic groups. Across all 3 groups, higher levels of psychological distress and perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, respectively, predicted higher levels of perceived stigmatization by others for seeking psychological help, which, in turn, predicted greater self-stigma for seeking psychological help. Higher levels of other-group orientation predicted lower levels of self-stigma of seeking psychological help across groups. Higher levels of ethnic identity predicted lower levels of self-stigma of seeking psychological help only for African Americans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Emergence of pregnancy-related listeriosis amongst ethnic minorities in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Mook, P; Grant, K A; Little, C L; Kafatos, G; Gillespie, I A

    2010-07-08

    Listeriosis is a rare but severe food-borne disease that predominantly affects pregnant women, the unborn, newborns, the elderly and immunocompromised people. Following a large outbreak in the 1980s, specific food safety advice was provided to pregnant women and the immunocompromised in the United Kingdom. Following two coincident yet unconnected cases of pregnancy-related listeriosis in eastern European women in 2008, a review of the role of ethnicity in pregnancy-related listeriosis in England and Wales was undertaken in 2009. Cases reported to the national listeriosis surveillance scheme were classified as 'ethnic', belonging to an ethnic minority, or 'non-ethnic' based on their name, and trends were examined. Between 2001 and 2008, 1,510 cases of listeriosis were reported in England and Wales and, of these, 12% were pregnancy-related cases. The proportion of pregnancy-related cases classified as ethnic increased significantly from 16.7% to 57.9% (chi-square test for trend p=0.002). The reported incidence among the ethnic population was higher than that among the non-ethnic population in 2006, 2007 and 2008 (Relative Risk: 2.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 5.29; 3.82, 1.82 to 8.03; 4.33, 1.74 to 10.77, respectively). This effect was also shown when analysing data from January to September 2009, using extrapolated live births as denominator. Increased immigration and/or economic migration in recent years appear to have altered the population at risk of pregnancy-related listeriosis in England and Wales. These changes need to be taken into account in order to target risk communication strategies appropriately.

  20. Perception of racial discrimination and psychopathology across three U.S. ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the United States, we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees among the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups.

  1. Perception of Racial Discrimination and Psychopathology Across Three U.S. Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the U.S., we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees amongst the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups. PMID:21967527

  2. Barriers influencing the success of racial and ethnic minority students in nursing programs.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Janelle

    2005-04-01

    Racial and ethnic minority students have high attrition rates in nursing school. This article describes a qualitative study that explored 15 minority nursing students' experiences while enrolled in a predominantly White nursing program. In-depth interviews were conducted and eight themes emerged: loneliness and isolation, differentness, absence of acknowledgment of individuality from teachers, peers' lack of understanding and knowledge about cultural differences, lack of support from teachers, coping with insensitivity and discrimination, determination to build a better future, and overcoming obstacles. This article provides a voice for minority nursing students whose experiences have not been heard. By understanding these students' experiences and perspectives, nursing educators may be better able to meet their educational needs and increase graduation rates.

  3. Social inequalities in later life: the socio-economic position of older people from ethnic minority groups in Britain.

    PubMed

    Evandrou, M

    2000-01-01

    There are now nearly a quarter of a million individuals aged 60 years or over belonging to ethnic minority groups living in Britain. As the ethnic minority groups in Britain continue to age, information regarding their circumstances in later life will be of increasing importance for the development of appropriate services and policy. This article uses data from the General Household Survey (1991-96) to investigate the household living arrangements, lifestyle, socio-economic status, economic resources and experience of multiple deprivation in later life amongst older people from ethnic minority groups in Britain. The findings indicate that there are significant differences both between and within ethnic minority groups in access to material and social resources, which need to be taken into account by policy makers and planners.

  4. [Current situation and comparison of age at menarche in 26 ethnic minority groups in Chinese girls in 2010].

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Pei-jin; Ma, Jun

    2014-06-18

    To analyze the current situation of age at menarche (AAM) in Chinese ethnic minority girls aged 9-18 years, and compare the AAM with that of Chinese Han girls from the same province or autonomous region. Probit analyses were used to calculate the AAM in various ethnic minority groups of Chinese girls who participated in 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance. The sample size of ethnic minority girls was 31 711, and the ethnic minorities were Mongolian, Hui, Tibetan, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Zhuang, Buyi, Korean, Dong, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Kazak, Dai, Li, Lisu, Wa, Shui, Dongxiang, Naxi, Kirgiz, Tu, Qiang and Sala. The local Han girls to compare with the AAM were also surveyed in 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance. In the 13-year-old group, the percentage of menarche in Sala was the lowest (32.17%), while that in Korean was the highest (93.23%). At the age of 18, 99.60% ethnic minority girls appeared menstruating. The AAM of the top 3 ethnic minority groups were Korean (11.79 years), Mongolian (12.44 years) and Zhuang (12.52 years); and the last 3 ethnic minority groups were Dongxiang (14.36 years), Sala (14.32 years) and Shui (14.02 years). The AAM in Korean was 0.93 years earlier than that of the Han girls from Jilin province; the AAM in Mongolian was 0.14 years earlier than that of the Han girls from Neimenggu autonomous region; the AAM in Naxi and Qiang was close to that of the Han girls in the same province (region) (P>0.05); and the AAM in Hui, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Zhuang, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Kazak, Dai, Li, Lisu, Wa, Shui, Dongxiang, Kirgiz, Tu, and Sala was later than that of the Han girls in the same province (region). The cluster analysis indicated that the 26 ethnic minority groups could be classified as three groups: Korean were classified into the earlier age group of AAM; Dongxiang, Sala, Uighur, Yi and Shui belonged to the later age group of AAM; and the other 20 ethnic minority groups were into the middle

  5. Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students.

    PubMed

    Fleschler Peskin, Melissa; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Tortolero, Susan R

    2013-06-01

    Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population.

  6. Loneliness and ethnic minority elders in Great Britain: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Victor, Christina R; Burholt, Vanessa; Martin, Wendy

    2012-03-01

    Loneliness, which describes the deficit between an individuals' expectation of the quality and/or quantity of social relationships and the actuality, is associated with poor quality of life, negative health outcomes and, in some cases, increased use of statutory services. Within Great Britain few studies have examined the prevalence of loneliness amongst older people from ethnic minorities. In this exploratory study we consider the prevalence of loneliness amongst older people, those aged 65 years and over, from the key minority groups growing old in Britain (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, African Caribbean, and Chinese) and draw explicit comparisons for these groups with the prevalence of loneliness reported for the general population and with older people in their countries of origin. We use two data sources: the Ethnicity and Loneliness Survey, a study of 300 minority elders aged 65+ living in the community, provides our prevalence estimates and secondary analysis of a study of 169 South Asian elders (aged 65+) undertaken in Birmingham to validate our prevalence rates for the Indian and Bangladeshi populations. We identified very high rates of reported loneliness, ranging from 24% to 50% amongst for those elders originating from China, Africa, the Caribbean, Pakistan and Bangladesh whilst those from India approximated to the norms of 8-10% for Britain. These results suggest that it is feasible to research loneliness amongst minority communities in Britain; that the levels of loneliness are, with the exception of the Indian population, very much higher than for the general population but are broadly comparable with rates of loneliness reported for older people in their countries of origin. There is a rich research agenda to be developed in extending our understanding of loneliness in later life amongst the increasingly culturally and ethnically diverse older population of Great Britain.

  7. Learning Disabilities Empirical Research on Ethnic Minority Students: An Analysis of 22 Years of Studies Published in Selected Refereed Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study analyzed 2,378 empirical articles on ethnic minority students published in two learning disability and two special education journals over a 22-year period (1972-94). Studies focused on assessment and testing, sensory-perceptual processing, and placement issues. The majority also compared ethnic groups, used quantitative approaches, and…

  8. Learning Disabilities Empirical Research on Ethnic Minority Students: An Analysis of 22 Years of Studies Published in Selected Refereed Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study analyzed 2,378 empirical articles on ethnic minority students published in two learning disability and two special education journals over a 22-year period (1972-94). Studies focused on assessment and testing, sensory-perceptual processing, and placement issues. The majority also compared ethnic groups, used quantitative approaches, and…

  9. Predicting the Grades of Low-Income--Ethnic-Minority Students from Teacher-Student Discrepancies in Reported Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Kristin Emilia; Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of students' motivation and students' reports of their motivation on math and English grades and to identify possible gender and ethnic differences. Participants included 215 low-income, ethnic-minority students and their teachers in academically…

  10. Achieving Ethnic Minority Students’ Inclusion: A Flemish School’s Discursive Practices Countering the Quasi-Market Pressure to Exclude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanoni, Patrizia; Mampaey, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify how ethnically diverse schools can discursively maintain a good reputation. Reputation allows attracting the mixed student population necessary to achieve inclusion or closing the gap between the attainment of ethnic majority and minority students. In semi-market educational systems where students are free…

  11. Achieving Ethnic Minority Students’ Inclusion: A Flemish School’s Discursive Practices Countering the Quasi-Market Pressure to Exclude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanoni, Patrizia; Mampaey, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify how ethnically diverse schools can discursively maintain a good reputation. Reputation allows attracting the mixed student population necessary to achieve inclusion or closing the gap between the attainment of ethnic majority and minority students. In semi-market educational systems where students are free…

  12. The Generic and Rhetorical Structures of Expositions in English by Chinese Ethnic Minorities: A Perspective from Intracultural Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianxin

    2008-01-01

    This contrastive study is concerned with relations between rhetoric and ethnicity in second language (L2) writing. It investigates the influence of Chinese rhetoric on expository writing in English by three groups: the majority Chinese Han group, and two ethnic minorities, Tibetan and Mongolian. Relying on a contrastive text analysis of 30…

  13. Predicting the Grades of Low-Income--Ethnic-Minority Students from Teacher-Student Discrepancies in Reported Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Kristin Emilia; Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of students' motivation and students' reports of their motivation on math and English grades and to identify possible gender and ethnic differences. Participants included 215 low-income, ethnic-minority students and their teachers in academically…

  14. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions.

    PubMed

    Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol

    2017-06-09

    Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and

  15. Ethnic Minority Status and Body Image Dissatisfaction: A Scoping Review of the Child and Adolescent Literature.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Melissa; Couturier, Jennifer; Georgiades, Katholiki; Wahoush, Olive; Jack, Susan M

    2015-10-01

    To systematically summarize the literature examining ethnic minority status and body image dissatisfaction (BID) among children and adolescents living in Canada and the United States. Literature was identified by entering search terms into six electronic databases and through an electronic hand search of key research journals. Eligible sources were those published between 1946 and November 2012, conducted within Canada or the United States, included ethnic minority children or adolescents (<19 years), and measured BID through self-report. Synthesis of the sources followed the principles of thematic and content analysis (Vaismoradi et al. in Nurs Health Sci 15:398-405, 2013). A total of 33 sources were included in our scoping synthesis; spanning from 1991 to 2011. No results emerged from Canada. Evidence from the United States is equivocal. The literature is plagued by inconsistent nomenclature and inadequate attention to issues of measurement, sex and gender. A more robust evidence-base requires advanced methods to examine the intersection of ethnicity, sex and gender on BID among children and adolescents.

  16. Role of relatives of ethnic minority patients in patient safety in hospital care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    van Rosse, Floor; Suurmond, Jeanine; Wagner, Cordula; de Bruijne, Martine; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective Relatives of ethnic minority patients often play an important role in the care process during hospitalisation. Our objective was to analyse the role of these relatives in relation to the safety of patients during hospital care. Setting Four large urban hospitals with an ethnic diverse patient population. Participants On hospital admission of ethnic minority patients, 20 cases were purposively sampled in which relatives were observed to play a role in the care process. Outcome measures We used documents (patient records) and added eight cases with qualitative interviews with healthcare providers, patients and/or their relatives to investigate the relation between the role of relatives and patient safety. An inductive approach followed by selective coding was used to analyse the data. Results Besides giving social support, family members took on themselves the role of the interpreter, the role of substitutes of the patient and the role of care provider. The taking over of these roles can have positive and negative effects on patient safety. Conclusions When family members take over various roles during hospitalisation of a relative, this can lead to a safety risk and a safety protection for the patient involved. Although healthcare providers should not hand over their responsibilities to the relatives of patients, optimising collaboration with relatives who are willing to take part in the care process may improve patient safety. PMID:27056588

  17. Do arterial stiffness and wave reflection underlie cardiovascular risk in ethnic minorities?

    PubMed

    Faconti, Luca; Nanino, Elisa; Mills, Charlotte E; Cruickshank, Kennedy J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that remarkable differences in cardiovascular risk between ethnic groups cannot be fully explained by traditional risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes or dislipidemia measured in midlife. Therefore, the underlying pathophysiology leading to this "excess risk" in ethnic minority groups is still poorly understood, and one way to address this issue is to shift the focus from "risk" to examine target organs, particularly blood vessels and their arterial properties more directly. In fact, structural and functional changes of the vascular system may be identifiable at very early stages of life when traditional factors are not yet developed. Arterial stiffening, measured as aortic pulse wave velocity, and wave reflection parameters, especially augmentation index, seem to be an important pathophysiological mechanism for the development of cardiovascular disease and predict mortality independent of other risk factors. However, data regarding these arterial indices in ethnic minorities are relatively rare and the heterogeneity between populations, techniques and statistical methods make it difficult to fully understand their role.

  18. Under-representation of minority ethnic groups in cardiovascular research: a semi-structured interview study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paramjit S; Plumridge, Gill; Khunti, Kamlesh; Greenfield, Sheila

    2013-04-01

    Minority ethnic groups are often excluded from research, and the reasons for this are complex. This study aimed to explore why minority ethnic groups do not participate in research, and how their participation can be increased. Ninety-one interviews were undertaken with people who either had (n = 48) or had not (n = 43) responded to the invitation to take part in a community heart failure screening study. These were split across four ethnic groups (African Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani) and between men and women. Participants were interviewed once, face-to-face, either in English or with an interpreter if they wished. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. The main reason for participating in the screening study was for a health/heart check. Many participants either had not understood that it was research or had not known what this meant. Most people who did not participate had not remembered receiving the invitation or had been unavailable at the time. Few participants, including those who had and those who had not participated in the screening study, had any understanding of the objectives and nature of research. Once this had been briefly explained to them, many described altruistic reasons for why they would participate in research in the future. We have shown that South Asians and Black African-Caribbean communities are willing to take part in research as long as they are approached directly and the reasons for the research and potential benefits are explained clearly to them.

  19. How scholarly nursing literature addresses health disparities for racial/ethnic minority men.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Constance

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review conceptual/theoretical and review/agenda setting nursing literature on the health care of racial/ethnic minority men [specifically African American/Black, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian/Alaskan Native and Asian/Pacific Islander men] in one of the four targeted areas of health disparities. CINAHL and MEDLINE computer databases were searched from 1983 to the present using a combination of manual and computer-based methods to identify the nursing literature that included any racial/ethnic men in the sample and addressed at least one of the four areas of health disparities targeted by Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that affect adults: heart disease, malignant neoplasms (cancer), diabetes mellitus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS. This review provides an overview of health disparities experienced by racial/ethnic minority men in the targeted areas and of the types of conceptual and agenda-setting articles published in scholarly nursing literature in those targeted areas.

  20. Role of relatives of ethnic minority patients in patient safety in hospital care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    van Rosse, Floor; Suurmond, Jeanine; Wagner, Cordula; de Bruijne, Martine; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2016-04-07

    Relatives of ethnic minority patients often play an important role in the care process during hospitalisation. Our objective was to analyse the role of these relatives in relation to the safety of patients during hospital care. Four large urban hospitals with an ethnic diverse patient population. On hospital admission of ethnic minority patients, 20 cases were purposively sampled in which relatives were observed to play a role in the care process. We used documents (patient records) and added eight cases with qualitative interviews with healthcare providers, patients and/or their relatives to investigate the relation between the role of relatives and patient safety. An inductive approach followed by selective coding was used to analyse the data. Besides giving social support, family members took on themselves the role of the interpreter, the role of substitutes of the patient and the role of care provider. The taking over of these roles can have positive and negative effects on patient safety. When family members take over various roles during hospitalisation of a relative, this can lead to a safety risk and a safety protection for the patient involved. Although healthcare providers should not hand over their responsibilities to the relatives of patients, optimising collaboration with relatives who are willing to take part in the care process may improve patient safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Performance of racial and ethnic minority-serving hospitals on delivery-related indicators.

    PubMed

    Creanga, Andreea A; Bateman, Brian T; Mhyre, Jill M; Kuklina, Elena; Shilkrut, Alexander; Callaghan, William M

    2014-12-01

    We sought to explore how racial/ethnic minority-serving hospitals perform on 15 delivery-related indicators, and examine whether indicators vary by race/ethnicity within the same type of hospitals. We used 2008 through 2011 linked State Inpatient Database and American Hospital Association data from 7 states, and designated hospitals with >50% of deliveries to non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women as white-, black-, and Hispanic-serving, respectively. We calculated indicator rates per 1000 deliveries by hospital type and, separately, for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women within each hospital type. We fitted multivariate Poisson regression models to examine associations between delivery-related indicators and patient and hospital characteristics by hospital type. White-serving hospitals offer obstetric care to an older and wealthier population than black- or Hispanic-serving hospitals. Rates of the most prevalent indicators examined (complicated vaginal delivery, complicated cesarean delivery, obstetric trauma) were lowest in Hispanic-serving hospitals. Generally, indicator rates were similar in Hispanic- and white-serving hospitals. Black-serving hospitals performed worse than other hospitals on 12 of 15 indicators. Indicator rates varied greatly by race/ethnicity in white- and Hispanic-serving hospitals, with non-Hispanic blacks having 1.19-3.27 and 1.15-2.68 times higher rates than non-Hispanic whites, respectively, for 11 of 15 indicators. Conversely, there were few indicator rate differences by race/ethnicity in black-serving hospitals, suggesting an overall lower performance of these hospitals compared to white- and Hispanic-serving hospitals. We found considerable differences in delivery-related indicators by hospital type and patients' race/ethnicity. Obstetric care quality measures are needed to track racial/ethnic disparities at the facility and population levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of New York City Children from Different Ethnic Minority Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Vangeepuram, N; Mervish, N; Galvez, MP; Brenner, B; Wolff, MS

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine racial/ethnic differences in diet and physical activity behaviors in ethnic minority New York City children. Methods Cross-sectional data from a community-based study of 486 6–8 year old children were used. Race/ethnicity was derived using caregiver report of child’s race and Hispanic ancestry. Dietary intake was obtained by 24-hour diet recalls using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and caregiver interviews. We compared diet and activity measures across racial/ethnic subgroups using Chi Square and ANOVA tests. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, BMI, and caregiver education (with breastfeeding history and total energy intake included in diet models). Results Participants (n=486) were categorized as Mexican (29.4%), Dominican (8.4%), Puerto Rican (20.6%), other/mixed Hispanic (14.0%) or non-Hispanic Black (27.6%). Obesity rates were lower in non-Hispanic Blacks (18%) than in Hispanics (31%). Mexicans had the lowest obesity prevalence among Hispanic subgroups (25%) and Dominicans had the highest (39%). There were differences in mean daily servings of food groups with Mexicans having healthier diets and Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks having less healthy diets. Sedentary time was lower in Mexicans than in other groups in adjusted models. Examination of additional models including home language did not show significant differences in the estimates. Conclusion Diet and activity behaviors varied across racial/ethnic subgroups. Specifically, Mexican children had healthier diets, the least amount of sedentary time and the lowest rates of obesity among the Hispanic subgroups examined. Targeted interventions in ethnic subgroups may be warranted to address specific behaviors. PMID:22985985

  3. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Libraries Serving the General Public. Round Table on Library Service to Ethnic and Linguistic Minorities. Papers. the General Public. Round Table on Library Service to Ethnic and Linguistic Minorities. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library services to ethnic and linguistic minorities which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "On Serving the Older Polyglot: The Role of the Public Libraries in the United States" (Sylva N. Manoogian, United States); (2) "Minority Language Selection and Acquisition…

  4. Metabolic syndrome between two ethnic minority groups (Circassians and Chechens) and the original inhabitants of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Dajani, Rana; Khader, Yousef S; Hakooz, Nancy; Fatahalla, Raja; Quadan, Farouk

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide and exhibits variation among ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components between two ethnic groups (Circassians and Chechens) in Jordan and the original inhabitants of Jordan. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study of Circassian (n = 436), Chechen (n = 355), and Jordanian (n = 3234) population aged 18 years and older. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Age-standardized prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was Jordanians 38.0 %, Circassians 32.0 %, and Chechens 33.7 %. Compared to Jordanians, both minority groups had lower means of body mass index, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. The means of high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were significantly higher among Circassians compared to Jordanians and Chechens. The odds of BMI defined by overweight and obesity and diabetes were less common among Circassians and Chechens compared to Jordanians. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components is relatively high in the three ethnic groups compared to world. Variation in components between groups may relate to ethnicity. Therefore, a community-based integrated approach is needed that would include behavioral, social changes that would lead to the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  6. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually non-existent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a non-probability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self-identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women’s health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782

  7. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually nonexistent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a nonprobability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self- identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the Internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women's health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25 years. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color.

  8. Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Meghna; Bhopal, Raj

    2006-01-01

    Background Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. Methods and Findings We found the literature using Medline (1966–2005), Embase (1980–2001), Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues; Internet searches; and RB's personal files. A total of 72 studies were included, 39 starting after 1975. Decision-making on inclusion and exclusion of racial/ethnic groups, the conceptual basis of race/ethnicity, and methods of classification of racial/ethnic groups were rarely explicit. Few publications provided details on the racial/ethnic composition of the study setting or sample, and 39 gave no description. Several studies were located in small towns or in occupational settings, where ethnic minority populations are underrepresented. Studies on general populations usually had too few participants for analysis by race/ethnicity. Eight studies were explicitly on Caucasians/whites, and two excluded ethnic minority groups from the whole or part of the study on the basis of language or birthplace criteria. Ten studies were designed to compare white and nonwhite populations, while five studies focused on one nonwhite racial/ethnic group; all 15 of these were performed in the US. Conclusions There is a shortage of information from cardiovascular cohort studies on racial/ethnic minority populations, although this has recently changed in the US. There is, particularly in Europe, an inequity resulting from a lack of research data in nonwhite populations. Urgent action is now required in Europe to address this disparity. PMID:16379500

  9. Attitudes to cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority groups in Britain: cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic identity salience as protective factors.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.

  10. Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in northern Vietnam: a stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2012-10-01

    Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned for future RHSP. A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government and from four administrative levels (village, commune, district and province). The study villages represented four ethnic minority groups including lowland and highland communities. Stakeholders' roles, responsibilities and promotion methods were outlined, and implementation constraints and opportunities were identified and analysed using thematic content analysis. Effective RHSP in Vietnam is severely constrained despite supporting policies and a multi-sectorial and multi-level framework. Four main barriers for effective implementation of RHSP were identified: (1) weak inter-sectorial collaborations; (2) constraints faced by frontline promoters; (3) almost exclusive information-based and passive promotion methods applied; and (4) context unadjusted promotion strategies across ethnic groups, including a limited focus on socio-economic differences, language barriers and gender roles in the target groups. Highland communities were identified as least targeted and clearly in need of more intensive and effective RHSP. It is recommended that the Vietnamese government gives priority to increasing capacities of and collaboration among stakeholders implementing RHSP activities. This should focus on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the

  11. Utilizing Ethnic-Specific Differences in Minor Allele Frequency to Recategorize Reported Pathogenic Deafness Variants

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, A. Eliot; Eppsteiner, Robert W.; Booth, Kevin T.; Ephraim, Sean S.; Gurrola, José; Simpson, Allen; Black-Ziegelbein, E. Ann; Joshi, Swati; Ravi, Harini; Giuffre, Angelica C.; Happe, Scott; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Azaiez, Hela; Bayazit, Yildirim A.; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.; Gazquez, Irene; Tamayo, Marta L.; Gelvez, Nancy Y.; Leal, Greizy Lopez; Jalas, Chaim; Ekstein, Josef; Yang, Tao; Usami, Shin-ichi; Kahrizi, Kimia; Bazazzadegan, Niloofar; Najmabadi, Hossein; Scheetz, Todd E.; Braun, Terry A.; Casavant, Thomas L.; LeProust, Emily M.; Smith, Richard J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic-specific differences in minor allele frequency impact variant categorization for genetic screening of nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) and other genetic disorders. We sought to evaluate all previously reported pathogenic NSHL variants in the context of a large number of controls from ethnically distinct populations sequenced with orthogonal massively parallel sequencing methods. We used HGMD, ClinVar, and dbSNP to generate a comprehensive list of reported pathogenic NSHL variants and re-evaluated these variants in the context of 8,595 individuals from 12 populations and 6 ethnically distinct major human evolutionary phylogenetic groups from three sources (Exome Variant Server, 1000 Genomes project, and a control set of individuals created for this study, the OtoDB). Of the 2,197 reported pathogenic deafness variants, 325 (14.8%) were present in at least one of the 8,595 controls, indicating a minor allele frequency (MAF) >0.00006. MAFs ranged as high as 0.72, a level incompatible with pathogenicity for a fully penetrant disease like NSHL. Based on these data, we established MAF thresholds of 0.005 for autosomal-recessive variants (excluding specific variants in GJB2) and 0.0005 for autosomal-dominant variants. Using these thresholds, we recategorized 93 (4.2%) of reported pathogenic variants as benign. Our data show that evaluation of reported pathogenic deafness variants using variant MAFs from multiple distinct ethnicities and sequenced by orthogonal methods provides a powerful filter for determining pathogenicity. The proposed MAF thresholds will facilitate clinical interpretation of variants identified in genetic testing for NSHL. All data are publicly available to facilitate interpretation of genetic variants causing deafness. PMID:25262649

  12. Understanding sub-optimal HPV vaccine uptake among ethnic minority girls

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth; Tsui, Jennifer; Chang, L. Cindy; Marchand, Erica; Taylor, Victoria M.; Singhal, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Background The introduction of HPV vaccines represents a breakthrough in the primary prevention of cervical cancer. However, little is known about vaccination uptake and correlates among U.S. low-income, ethnic minority and immigrant populations who may benefit most from the vaccine. Methods Telephone interviews (N=490) were conducted in six languages between January and November 2009 among mothers of vaccine-eligible girls (ages 9–18) using the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Office of Women’s Health service referral hotline. HPV and vaccine awareness, knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and daughter’s vaccine receipt were assessed. Results The sample consisted of low-income, uninsured, ethnic minority and immigrant women. Only 29% of daughters initiated the vaccine and 11% received all three doses. No ethnic differences were observed in initiation or completion rates. Ethnic differences were observed in HPV awareness, perceived risk, and other immunization related beliefs. The strongest predictor of initiation was vaccine awareness (OR=12.00). Daughter’s age and reporting a younger acceptable age for vaccination were positively associated with initiation. Mothers of unvaccinated girls reported lacking information about the vaccine to make a decision (66%) and not knowing where they could obtain the vaccine (74%). Conclusion Vaccination rates in this sample were lower than state and national estimates, and were associated with low levels of vaccine awareness. Interventions, including culturally targeted messaging, may be helpful for enhancing HPV vaccine knowledge, modifying vaccine-related beliefs and increasing uptake. Impact Our findings provide valuable guidance for developing interventions to address sub-optimal HPV vaccination in high risk groups. PMID:21602307

  13. Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged…

  14. Strategies for Managing Racism and Homophobia among U.S. Ethnic and Racial Minority Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Han, Chong-suk; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition that experiences of social discrimination can lead to poor physical and mental health outcomes for members of minority groups, little is known about how U.S. ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) manage their experiences of racism and homophobia. We conducted six focus group discussions (n = 50) and 35…

  15. Dealing with Cultural Diversity: The Endorsement of Societal Models among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2007-01-01

    The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in favor of the mosaic model and less in favor of…

  16. Dealing with Cultural Diversity: The Endorsement of Societal Models among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2007-01-01

    The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in favor of the mosaic model and less in favor of…

  17. Ethnic and Academic Identities: A Cultural Practice Perspective on Emerging Tensions and Their Management in the Lives of Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; Saxe, Geoffrey B.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that minority group youth often manage tensions between ethnic and academic identities as they are positioned in relation to cultural practices within and outside of school. Recommends a three-strand framework to understand these emerging tensions and their management in the lives of minority youth: positioning in face-to-face…

  18. Retention in Depression Treatment among Ethnic and Racial Minority Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Lisa R.; Alegria, Margarita; Gao, Shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Premature discontinuation of psychiatric treatment among ethnic-racial minorities is a persistent concern. Prior research on identifying factors associated with ethnic-racial disparities in depression treatment has been limited by the scarcity of national samples with adequate representation of minority groups and especially non-English speakers. In this article we aim to identify variations in the likelihood of retention in depression treatment among ethnic-racial minority groups in the US as compared to non-Latino whites. Secondly, we aim to identify factors which are related to treatment retention. Methods We use data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) to examine differences and correlates of depression treatment retention among a representative sample (n=564) of non-Latino whites, Latinos, African American and Asian respondents with last 12 month depressive disorder and who report receiving formal mental health treatment in the last year. We define retention as attending at least four visits or remaining in treatment over a 12 month period. Results Being seen by a mental health specialist as opposed to being seen by a generalist and having received medication are correlates of treatment retention for the entire sample. However, after adjusting for demographics, clinical factors including number of co-occurring psychiatric disorders and level of disability, African Americans are significantly less likely to be retained in depression treatment as compared to non-Latino whites. Conclusions Availability of specialized mental health services or comparable treatment within primary care could improve treatment retention. Low retention suggests persistent problems in the delivery of depression treatment for African Americans. PMID:20336808

  19. UK-born ethnic minority women and their experiences of feeding their newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Twamley, Katherine; Puthussery, Shuby; Harding, Seeromanie; Baron, Maurina; Macfarlane, Alison

    2011-10-01

    to explore the factors that impact on UK-born ethnic minority women's experiences of and decisions around feeding their infant. in-depth semi-structured interviews. 34 UK-born women of Black African, Black Caribbean, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian and Irish parentage and 30 health-care professionals. women and health-care professionals were recruited primarily from hospitals serving large numbers of ethnic minority women in London and Birmingham. despite being aware of the benefits of exclusive breast feeding, many women chose to feed their infant with formula. The main barriers to breast feeding were the perceived difficulties of breast feeding, a family preference for formula feed, and embarrassment about breast feeding in front of others. Reports from women of South Asian parentage, particularly those who lived with an extended family, suggested that their intentions to breast feed were compromised by the context of their family life. The lack of privacy in these households and grandparental pressure appeared to be key issues. Unlike other participants, Irish women reported an intention to feed their infant with formula before giving birth. The key facilitators to breast feeding were the self-confidence and determination of women and the supportive role of health-care professionals. these findings point to common but also culturally specific mechanisms that may hinder both the initiation and maintenance of breast feeding in UK-born ethnic minority women. They signal potential benefits from the inclusion of family members in breast-feeding support programmes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Duration of U.S. residence and suicidality among racial/ethnic minority immigrants.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Cohen, Steven A; Mezuk, Briana

    2015-02-01

    The immigration experience embodies a range of factors including different cultural norms and expectations, which may be particularly important for groups who become racial/ethnic minorities when they migrate to the U.S. However, little is known about the correlates of mental health indicators among these groups. The primary and secondary aims were to determine the association between duration of U.S. residence and suicidality, and 12-month mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, respectively, among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. Data were obtained from the National Survey of American Life and the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between duration of US residence, and suicidality and 12-month psychopathology. Among Afro-Caribbeans, there was a modest positive association between duration of U.S. residence and 12-month psychopathology (P linear trend = 0.016). Among Asians there was a modest positive association between duration of US residence and suicidal ideation and attempts (P linear trend = 0.018, 0.063, respectively). Among Latinos, there was a positive association between duration of US residence, and suicidal ideation, attempts and 12-month psychopathology (P linear trend = 0.001, 0.012, 0.002, respectively). Latinos who had been in the U.S. for >20 years had 2.6 times greater likelihood of suicidal ideation relative to those who had been in the U.S. for <5 years (95% CI 1.01-6.78). The association between duration of US residence and suicidality and psychopathology varies across racial/ethnic minority groups. The results for Latino immigrants are broadly consistent with the goal-striving or acculturation stress hypothesis.

  1. Duration of US residence and suicidality among racial/ethnic minority immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Cohen, Steven A.; Mezuk, Briana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The immigration experience embodies a range of factors including different cultural norms and expectations, which may be particularly important for groups who become racial/ethnic minorities when they migrate to the US. However, little is known about the correlates of mental health indicators among these groups. The primary and secondary aims were to determine the association between duration of US residence and suicidality, and 12-month mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, respectively, among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. Methods Data were obtained from the National Survey of American Life and the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between duration of US residence, and suicidality and 12-month psychopathology. Results Among Afro-Caribbeans, there was a modest positive association between duration of US residence and 12-month psychopathology (Plinear trend = 0.016). Among Asians there was a modest positive association between duration of US residence and suicidal ideation and attempts (Plinear trend = 0.018, 0.063, respectively). Among Latinos, there was a positive association between duration of US residence, and suicidal ideation, attempts and 12-month psychopathology (Plinear trend = 0.001, 0.012, 0.002, respectively). Latinos who had been in the US for >20 years had 2.6 times greater likelihood of suicidal ideation relative to those who had been in the US for <5 years (95 % CI 1.01–6.78). Conclusions The association between duration of US residence and suicidality and psychopathology varies across racial/ethnic minority groups. The results for Latino immigrants are broadly consistent with the goal-striving or acculturation stress hypothesis. PMID:25108531

  2. Accessibility and use of touchscreens by black and ethnic minority groups in the three cities project.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jean; Jackson, Margot

    2005-08-01

    The public are being encouraged by Government, at a national level, to take a greater role in the management of their health and healthcare but information to support this is not always accessible to black and ethnic minority group members who do not speak or read English. This study looks at the feasibility of providing health-related information in a multilanguage format through a touchscreen kiosk. Three touchscreen kiosks were programmed with information on 10 health topics translated into five languages: Chinese, Bengali, Gujarati, Urdu and Mirpuri Punjabi. Information was provided orally and in written format. Over an 18-month period the touchscreens were rotated between settings including health centres and libraries, located in deprived areas of Leicester, Sheffield and Nottingham. Information was logged on each individual user with respect to language used, topic selected, age group and gender of user. A number of users were invited to complete a short questionnaire about their use and ease of use of the touchscreen. Touchscreens were accessed by 2,456 people across all ages, 53% of whom were male. Urdu and Gujarati were the most frequently accessed languages (37 and 38%, respectively) and Bengali used least (9%). There was some variation in use by setting. Most of the 508 people questioned who had used the touchscreen found it easy to use. Ease of use was related to home computer use and to being younger in age. The five most popular topics accessed by 12% or more users were stress, diabetes, blood pressure, healthy eating and exercise. Topic choice varied by language used by males but not by females. Touchscreens providing health information in ethnic minority languages can be successfully accessed by black and ethnic minority groups, particularly those living in deprived areas. Touchscreens proved acceptable to, and were used by, the targeted audience.

  3. Folk and biological perceptions of dementia among Asian ethnic minorities in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Rika; Goebert, Deborah; Ahmed, Iqbal; Lu, Brett

    2015-06-01

    To study if Asian ethnic groups in Hawaii today maintain folk-based beliefs about dementia, have inadequate biomedical understanding of dementia, and differ among each other regarding perceptions of dementia. The study adapts and expands a 2004 survey of ethnic groups on perceptions of Alzheimer disease demonstrating that ethnic minority groups hold more folk perceptions and less biomedical perceptions of dementia than Caucasians. This study surveys particular ethnic minority family members of elders admitted to four long-term care and inpatient facilities in Hawaii. Seventy-one family members completed surveys, including 23 Chinese, 18 Filipino, and 30 Japanese participants. Elders may or may not have had the diagnosis of dementia, though an estimated half of elders in all four facilities already held the diagnosis of dementia. Findings indicated that Japanese and Chinese respondents in this study held perceptions about dementia that were more consistent with current biomedical understanding compared with their Filipino counterparts (mean differences/percent correct for Japanese: 57%, Chinese: 56% versus Filipino: 38%; F = 6.39, df = 2,55, p = 0.003). Filipino respondents were less likely than Japanese and Chinese respondents to report that persons with dementia can develop physical and mental problems-97% of Japanese participants and 82% of Chinese participants responded correctly compared with 63% of Filipino participants (Fisher's Exact test p = 0.009). With regard to folk beliefs about dementia, variation occurred with no consistent trend among the groups. Low levels of biomedical understanding of dementia were reflected by all three subgroups of Asians living in Hawaii with less prominence of folk beliefs compared with prior studies of ethnic minority perceptions. Education did not predict variability in dementia perceptions among the groups. Lower levels of acculturation, suggested by primary home language other than English, may correlate with a perception

  4. Cultural influences on the process of conducting psychotherapy: personal reflections of an ethnic minority psychologist.

    PubMed

    Nezu, Arthur M

    2010-06-01

    I was asked to reflect how being a member of an ethnically diverse minority group, that is, Japanese American, may have influenced my clinical practice as a psychologist and psychotherapist. I first define the various facets of my "diversity status," followed by an offering of reflections on how being a member of this group impacted both myself as a therapist and my clients. I conclude with several general recommendations geared to enhance a positive therapeutic alliance and client outcome. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Multicultural mental health services: projects for minority ethnic communities in England.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Suman

    2005-09-01

    Black and minority ethnic (BME) communities form 7.8% of the total population of the U.K. Many of these communities face a variety of disadvantages when they access, or are forced to access, statutory mental health services under the National Health Service. Efforts have been made to address these problems by developing projects both within statutory mental health services and in the non-governmental ('voluntary') sector. This article describes some of these projects located in England, drawing out the themes and models that underlie their approaches, and discusses the lessons that can be learned from the U.K. experience.

  6. Conducting research with racial/ethnic minorities: methodological lessons from the NIDA Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Burlew, A Kathleen; Weekes, Jerren C; Montgomery, La'Trice; Feaster, Daniel J; Robbins, Michael S; Rosa, Carmen L; Ruglass, Lesia M; Venner, Kamilla L; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2011-09-01

    Multiple studies in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN) demonstrate strategies for conducting effective substance abuse treatment research with racial/ethnic minorities (REMs). The objectives of this article are to describe lessons learned within the CTN to (1) enhance recruitment, retention, and other outcomes; (2) assess measurement equivalence; and (3) use data analytic plans that yield more information. This article includes background information and examples from multiple CTN studies on inclusion, measurement, and data analysis. Seven recommendations are included for conducting more effective research on REMs.

  7. The Moderating Role of Centrality on Associations between Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Ethnic Minority College Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Lee, Richard M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Castillo, Linda G.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A.; Huynh, Que-Lam; Brown, Elissa J.; Caraway, S. Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis,…

  8. X-chromosomal polymorphism data for the ethnic minority of Polish Tatars and the religious minority of Old Believers residing in northeastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Pepinski, Witold; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Skawronska, Malgorzata; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Janica, Jerzy; Berent, Jaroslaw; Soltyszewski, Ireneusz

    2007-06-01

    Population samples of 420 unrelated individuals of the ethnic minority of Polish Tatars and the religious minority of Old Believers residing in northeastern Poland were tested for four X-chromosomal STR frequencies by multiplex PCR and subsequent automated fluorescent detection (ABI 310) using a commercially available kit Mentype Argus X-UL. Kinship tests revealed a typical X-linked inheritance with no mutation. Significant differences in allele frequency distributions confirm previous findings regarding genetic variation among ethnic groups residing in northeastern Poland.

  9. Ethnic identity, perceived support, and depressive symptoms among racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2015-01-01

    Although racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents compose a rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population, few studies have examined the role of contextual factors in mental health among these youth. The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms, the relationship between perceived social support and depressive symptoms, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors (ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status) and depressive symptoms, among a culturally diverse group of adolescents. In addition, the potential moderating role of nativity status (U.S. born vs. foreign born) was examined in these associations. Participants were 9th and 10th graders (N = 341; 141 foreign born and 200 U.S. born, from Asian, Latino(a), and Afro-Caribbean backgrounds), attending an urban high school. Consistent with previous research, ethnic identity was negatively associated with depressive symptomatology in the overall sample. Nativity status did not moderate the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms. Among the sociodemographic factors examined, only gender was associated with depressive symptoms, with girls reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms compared with boys. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the degree of depressive symptomatology between U.S.-born and foreign-born adolescents, and perceived social support was not associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The findings suggest the importance of gender and ethnic identity in mental health and, more broadly, the complexity of social location in mental health outcomes among U.S.-born and foreign-born immigrant-origin adolescents. Implications for research and interventions with immigrant-origin adolescents are discussed.

  10. Organizational implementation of evidence-based substance abuse treatment in racial and ethnic minority communities.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; He, Amy; Kim, Ahraemi; Aarons, Gregory A

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated organizational factors associated with the implementation of contingency management treatment (CMT) and medication-assisted treatment (MAT) in substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs serving racial and ethnic minority communities. Analysis of cross-sectional data collected in 2010-2011 from a random sample of 148 publicly funded SAT programs showed that accepting private insurance was positively associated with CMT and MAT implementation, whereas larger programs were associated with greater implementation of MAT. Supervisorial openness to and expectations about implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) and attributes for change were strongly associated with CMT, whereas the interactions between openness to EBPs and programs that accept private insurance and that are governed by parent organizations were positively associated with MAT. These external expectations and managerial attitudes supported the implementation of psychosocial and pharmacotherapy treatments in SAT. Implications for improving standards of care in minority communities are discussed.

  11. Treating ethnic minority adults with anxiety disorders: current status and future recommendations.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michele M; Mitchell, Frances E; Sbrocco, Tracy

    2012-05-01

    The past three decades have witnessed an increase in the number of empirical investigations examining the phenomenology of anxiety and related conditions. There has also been an increase in efforts to understand differences that may exist between ethnic groups in the expression of the anxiety disorders. In addition, there is now substantial evidence that a variety of treatment approaches (most notably behavioral and cognitive behavioral) are efficacious in remediating anxiety. However, there continues to be comparatively few treatment outcome studies investigating the efficacy of anxiety treatments among minority populations. In this paper, we review the extant treatment outcome research for African American, Hispanic/Latino[a] American, Asian American, and Native Americans suffering with one of the anxiety disorders. We discuss some of the specific problems with the research in this area, and then provide specific recommendations for conducting treatment outcome research with minority populations in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Treating ethnic minority adults with anxiety disorders: Current status and future recommendations☆

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michele M; Mitchell, Frances E.; Sbrocco, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The past three decades have witnessed an increase in the number of empirical investigations examining the phenomenology of anxiety and related conditions. There has also been an increase in efforts to understand differences that may exist between ethnic groups in the expression of the anxiety disorders. In addition, there is now substantial evidence that a variety of treatment approaches (most notably behavioral and cognitive behavioral) are efficacious in remediating anxiety. However, there continues to be comparatively few treatment outcome studies investigating the efficacy of anxiety treatments among minority populations. In this paper, we review the extant treatment outcome research for African American, Hispanic/Latino[a] American, Asian American, and Native Americans suffering with one of the anxiety disorders. We discuss some of the specific problems with the research in this area, and then provide specific recommendations for conducting treatment outcome research with minority populations in the future. PMID:22417877

  13. Shared decision-making for cancer care among racial and ethnic minorities: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Javid, Sara H; Haozous, Emily A; Alvord, Lori Arviso; Flum, David R; Morris, Arden M

    2013-12-01

    To assess decision-making for cancer treatment among racial/ethnic minority patients, we systematically reviewed and synthesized evidence from studies of "shared decision-making," "cancer," and "minority groups," using PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and EMBASE. We identified significant themes that we compared across studies, refined, and organized into a conceptual model. Five major themes emerged: treatment decision-making, patient factors, family and important others, community, and provider factors. Thematic data overlapped categories, indicating that individuals' preferences for medical decision-making cannot be authentically examined outside the context of family and community. The shared decision-making model should be expanded beyond the traditional patient-physician dyad to include other important stakeholders in the cancer treatment decision process, such as family or community leaders.

  14. Organizational Implementation of Evidence-Based Substance Abuse Treatment in Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities

    PubMed Central

    He, Amy; Kim, Ahraemi; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated organizational factors associated with the implementation of contingency management treatment (CMT) and medication-assisted treatment (MAT) in substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs serving racial and ethnic minority communities. Analysis of cross-sectional data collected in 2010–2011 from a random sample of 148 publicly funded SAT programs showed that accepting private insurance was positively associated with CMT and MAT implementation, whereas larger programs were associated with greater implementation of MAT. Supervisorial openness to and expectations about implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) and attributes for change were strongly associated with CMT, whereas the interactions between openness to EBPs and programs that accept private insurance and that are governed by parent organizations were positively associated with MAT. These external expectations and managerial attitudes supported the implementation of psychosocial and pharmacotherapy treatments in SAT. Implications for improving standards of care in minority communities are discussed. PMID:24046236

  15. Ethnic Minorities and Coronary Heart Disease: an Update and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J. Adam; Alvarez, Manrique

    2016-01-01

    Heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Overall, heart disease accounts for about 1 in 4 deaths with coronary heart disease (CHD) being responsible for over 370,000 deaths per year. It has frequently and repeatedly been shown that some minority groups in the USA have higher rates of traditional CHD risk factors, different rates of treatment with revascularization procedures, and excess morbidity and mortality from CHD when compared to the non-Hispanic white population. Numerous investigations have been made into the causes of these disparities. This review aims to highlight the recent literature which examines CHD in ethnic minorities and future directions in research and care. PMID:26792015

  16. Shared Decision-Making for Cancer Care Among Racial and Ethnic Minorities: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Erin L.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Javid, Sara H.; Haozous, Emily A.; Alvord, Lori Arviso; Flum, David R.

    2013-01-01

    To assess decision-making for cancer treatment among racial/ethnic minority patients, we systematically reviewed and synthesized evidence from studies of “shared decision-making,” “cancer,” and “minority groups,” using PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and EMBASE. We identified significant themes that we compared across studies, refined, and organized into a conceptual model. Five major themes emerged: treatment decision-making, patient factors, family and important others, community, and provider factors. Thematic data overlapped categories, indicating that individuals’ preferences for medical decision-making cannot be authentically examined outside the context of family and community. The shared decision-making model should be expanded beyond the traditional patient–physician dyad to include other important stakeholders in the cancer treatment decision process, such as family or community leaders. PMID:24134353

  17. A review of research on smoking behavior in three demographic groups of veterans: women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minorities.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Esan, Hannah; Hunt, Marcia G; Hoff, Rani A

    2016-05-01

    Veterans comprise a large segment of the U.S. population and smoke at high rates. One significant way to reduce healthcare costs and improve the health of veterans is to reduce smoking-related illnesses for smokers who have high smoking rates and/or face disproportionate smoking consequences (e.g. women, racial/ethnic minorities, sexual orientation minorities). We reviewed published studies of smoking behavior in three demographic subgroups of veterans - women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minorities - to synthesize current knowledge and identify areas in need of more research. A MEDLINE search identified papers on smoking and veterans published through 31 December 2014. Twenty-five studies were identified that focused on gender (n = 17), race/ethnicity (n = 6), or sexual orientation (n = 2). Female and sexual orientation minority veterans reported higher rates of smoking than non-veteran women and sexual orientation majority veterans, respectively. Veterans appeared to be offered VA smoking cessation services equally by gender and race. Few studies examined smoking behavior by race/ethnicity or sexual orientation. Little information was identified examining the outcomes of specific smoking treatments for any group. There is a need for more research on all aspects of smoking and quit behavior for women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minority veterans. The high rates of smoking by these groups of veterans suggest that they may benefit from motivational interventions aimed at increasing quit attempts and longer and more intense treatments to maximize outcomes. Learning more about these veterans can help reduce costs for those who experience greater consequences of smoking.

  18. A longitudinal examination of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth: The roles of attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity.

    PubMed

    Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal relationship of perceived peer or adult discrimination and depressive symptoms in a sample of African American and Latino high school students (n = 155). African American and Latino youth who experienced increases in perceived peer discrimination also reported greater depressive symptoms over time, but positive ethnic/racial affect buffered the longitudinal association. Emotional reactivity also served as a significant moderator but only of the baseline association between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Thus, perceived ethnic/racial discrimination appears to play a significant role in the development of depressive symptoms for ethnic minority youth, especially those who start high school with lower levels of positive ethnic/racial affect. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  20. Integrating cross-cultural psychology research methods into ethnic minority psychology.

    PubMed

    Leong, Frederick T L; Leung, Kwok; Cheung, Fanny M

    2010-10-01

    Multicultural psychology has 2 related but often disconnected streams, namely cross-cultural psychology and racial and ethnic minority psychology (Hall & Maramba, 2001). We propose that advances in both fields will be facilitated if there is greater cross-fertilization, especially in methodological approaches given that proponents in both fields are interested in studying and understanding the role and impact of culture on human behavior. To facilitate this cross-fertilization, we present 3 methodological approaches that would be of value in racial and ethnic minority psychology. First, we present an overview of the importance of and the approaches to evaluating and establishing measurement equivalence. Second, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of conceptual equivalence in light of indigenous approaches, cultural manipulation, and multilevel analysis. Third, we present a combined etic-emic approach to cross-cultural personality research as illustrated by the Cross-Cultural Personality Assessment Inventory developed by Fanny Cheung and her colleagues. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Sexual risk behavior and STI health literacy among ethnic minority adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 14-18 years of age were included in the study. Assessments of sexual risk behavior and STI/HIV knowledge among these adolescent women described Mexican-American women as at higher risk of STI, pregnancy, substance use and abuse with lower levels of STI/HIV knowledge, previous HIV testing and perceptions of risk than African-American women. A focus on Mexican-American adolescent women with histories of STI and abuse is indicated for translation of community-based health promotion interventions for amelioration of potential adverse sexual health outcomes among ethnic minority adolescent women.

  2. Barriers and Strategies for Recruitment of Racial and Ethnic Minorities: Perspectives from Neurological Clinical Research Coordinators.

    PubMed

    Haley, Sean J; Southwick, Lauren E; Parikh, Nina S; Rivera, Jazmin; Farrar-Edwards, Dorothy; Boden-Albala, Bernadette

    2017-02-07

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard within evidence-based research. Low participant accrual rates, especially of underrepresented groups (e.g., racial-ethnic minorities), may jeopardize clinical studies' viability and strength of findings. Research has begun to unweave clinical trial mechanics, including the roles of clinical research coordinators, to improve trial participation rates. Two semi-structured focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of 29 clinical research coordinators (CRCs) at consecutive international stroke conferences in 2013 and 2014 to gain in-depth understanding of coordinator-level barriers to racial-ethnic minority recruitment and retention into neurological trials. Coded transcripts were used to create themes to define concepts, identify associations, summarize findings, and posit explanations. Barriers related to translation, literacy, family composition, and severity of medical diagnosis were identified. Potential strategies included a focus on developing personal relationships with patients, community and patient education, centralized clinical trial administrative systems, and competency focused training and education for CRCs. Patient level barriers to clinical trial recruitment are well documented. Less is known about barriers facing CRCs. Further identification of how and when barriers manifest and the effectiveness of strategies to improve CRCs recruitment efforts is warranted.

  3. Prevalence and Impact of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Among an Ethnic Minority Population.

    PubMed

    Hellemans, Sabine; Loeys, Tom; Buysse, Ann; De Smet, Olivia

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the prevalence of lifetime experiences of physical and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) among members of the Turkish ethnic minority population in Flanders. In addition, this study explored how lifetime IPV victimization affects ethnic minority victims' current mental, relational, and sexual well-being. Using a population-based representative sample, data from 392 adult Turkish women and men were investigated. Lifetime experiences of physical violence were reported by 14.3% of the Turkish respondents, while 66.0% reported at least one incidence of psychological abuse. Women were much more likely than men to report physical IPV victimization, but no gender differences were found for psychological IPV. With regard to the impact of IPV, it was found that lifetime IPV experiences do not appear to affect victims' current mental health. However, higher levels of physical and/or psychological IPV victimization were related to increased levels of relationship dissatisfaction, anxious and avoidant attachment orientations, sexual dissatisfaction, sexual dysfunction (with distress), and to decreased levels of sexual communication. These adverse relational and sexual outcomes of IPV victimization were mainly present among women but were also, to a lesser degree, relevant for men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. HIV/AIDS among minority races and ethnicities in the United States, 1999-2003.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Hazel D.; Steele, C. Brooke; Satcher, Anna J.; Nakashima, Allyn K.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During June 1981 to June 1982, 37% of more than 400 cases of AIDS reported to the CDC were in minority races and ethnicities. In 2003, 72% of the estimated 43,171 cases of AIDS diagnosed in the 50 states; District of Columbia; and U.S. dependencies, possessions and free nations were in minority races and ethnicities. METHODS: We analyzed HIV/AIDS data for 2000-2003 reported by the 32 states that have had confidential name-based reporting of HIV infection since 1999. For analysis of AIDS data, we used data for 1999-2003 reported by the 50 states and the District of Columbia. HIV/AIDS and AIDS data were statistically adjusted for reporting delays and redistribution of cases initially reported without risk factors. RESULTS: For all years, the numbers of HIV/AIDS and AIDS diagnoses were consistently higher among non-Hispanic blacks than among other races and ethnicities. In the 32 states with HIV reporting, the HIV/AIDS diagnosis rate in 2003 was 74 per 100,000 for blacks, 25 per 100,000 for Hispanics, 11 per 100,000 for American Indians/Alaska Natives, nine per 100,000 for whites, and seven per 100,000 for Asians/Pacific Islanders. The rates for persons living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2003 were highest for blacks (765 per 100,000) and Hispanics (220 per 100,000). In the 50 states and the District of Columbia, AIDS diagnosis rates in 2003 were 58 per 100,000 for blacks, 20 per 100,000 for Hispanics, eight per 100,000 for American Indians/Alaska Natives, and four per 100,000 for Asians/Pacific Islanders. CONCLUSION: HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects minority races and ethnicities in the United States. To reduce rates of HIV/AIDS in these populations, effective and culturally appropriate prevention interventions must be developed and implemented. PMID:16080451

  5. Perceptions and experiences of perinatal mental disorders in rural, predominantly ethnic minority communities in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Daniel; Nguyen, Liem T; Murphy, Jill; Lee, Younji Angie; Tran, Nhu K; Wiljer, David

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary research has suggested that perinatal mental disorders (PMDs), including post-partum depression, are prevalent in Vietnam. However the extent to which these disorders are recognized at the community level remains largely undocumented in the literature. PMDs have also never been investigated within Vietnam's significant ethnic minority populations, who are known to bear a greater burden of maternal and infant health challenges than the ethnic majority. To investigate knowledge and perceptions of PMDs and their treatments at the community level in a rural, predominantly ethnic minority region of northern Vietnam. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted on the topic of common PMDs. Participant groups were primary health workers (PHWs) working at local community health centers, and pregnant or postpartum women enrolled in a program for maternal and infant health that was not mental health related. Interviews included vignette scenarios that asked respondents to interpret cases of women experiencing PMDs, as well as open-ended questions about mental disorders and their treatments. Twelve PHWs and 14 perinatal women completed the study. Major themes that emerged from the interviews included (1) Family relationships impact psychological well-being, (2) Nutrition contributes to perinatal mental health, (3) Both traditional and western medicine play roles in perinatal health, (4) There was a lack of personal experience with women experiencing PMDs, (5) Descriptions of mental health symptoms focused on behaviours, and (6) Community care is the primary mental health support. PHWs reported having almost never treated a woman with a PMD. However, anecdotal evidence from the women interviewed suggests that there are incidents of mental disorders during the perinatal period that go largely unaddressed. Willingness to present to primary care appears to be high, and presents an opportunity to address this need by training PHWs in effective screening

  6. Health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke places a significant burden to all affected individuals, but it is perhaps more significant amongst members of black, minority and ethnic communities, who may experience poorer awareness of stroke symptoms than the general population. Recently, several initiatives tried to improve public awareness that symptoms of stroke need to be treated as a medical emergency. However, ethnic communities present cultural barriers, requiring tailored health promotion interventions, whose effectiveness remains uncertain. Our systematic review aimed to identify relevant published evidence, synthesize the main study components and identify evidence of the effectiveness of the interventions. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched for journal articles on health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities, published in English between 1995 and 2012. Search results were collaboratively assessed by the authors; included studies were analysed to identify their main characteristics, and a thematic analysis of their content was conducted. No meta-analysis was performed, due to the heterogeneity of results. Results Eighteen studies were included, reporting 15 interventions conducted in the US, for African-Americans or Hispanics; populations sizes differed between interventions. Interventions were mostly carried out in community settings with different educational techniques, focussing on experiential methods. Health professionals usually organized the programs, delivered by nurses, other health professionals or volunteers. The few theory-based interventions focussed on individual-level behavioural change. Practical cultural adaptation strategies were not linked to specific theoretical frameworks. Interventions widely differed as for target populations, settings, delivery methods, contents and professional roles involved. All study designs were quantitative, and the emerging evidence of effectiveness was inconclusive

  7. Health Insurance Disparities Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Same-Sex Relationships: An Intersectional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined disparities in health insurance coverage for racial/ethnic minorities in same-sex relationships. Methods. We used data from the 2009 to 2011 American Community Survey on nonelderly adults (aged 25–64 years) in same-sex (n = 32 744), married opposite-sex (n = 2 866 636), and unmarried opposite-sex (n = 268 298) relationships. We used multinomial logistic regression models to compare differences in the primary source of health insurance while controlling for key demographic and socioeconomic factors. Results. Adults of all races/ethnicities in same-sex relationships were less likely than were White adults in married opposite-sex relationships to report having employer-sponsored health insurance. Hispanic men, Black women, and American Indian/Alaska Native women in same-sex relationships were much less likely to have employer-sponsored health insurance than were their White counterparts in married opposite-sex relationships and their White counterparts in same-sex relationships. Conclusions. Differences in coverage by relationship type and race/ethnicity may worsen over time as states follow different paths to implementing health care reform and same-sex marriage. PMID:25880954

  8. Health insurance disparities among racial/ethnic minorities in same-sex relationships: an intersectional approach.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Ortiz, Kasim

    2015-06-01

    We examined disparities in health insurance coverage for racial/ethnic minorities in same-sex relationships. We used data from the 2009 to 2011 American Community Survey on nonelderly adults (aged 25-64 years) in same-sex (n = 32 744), married opposite-sex (n = 2 866 636), and unmarried opposite-sex (n = 268 298) relationships. We used multinomial logistic regression models to compare differences in the primary source of health insurance while controlling for key demographic and socioeconomic factors. Adults of all races/ethnicities in same-sex relationships were less likely than were White adults in married opposite-sex relationships to report having employer-sponsored health insurance. Hispanic men, Black women, and American Indian/Alaska Native women in same-sex relationships were much less likely to have employer-sponsored health insurance than were their White counterparts in married opposite-sex relationships and their White counterparts in same-sex relationships. Differences in coverage by relationship type and race/ethnicity may worsen over time as states follow different paths to implementing health care reform and same-sex marriage.

  9. HIV risk behaviours among immigrant and ethnic minority gay and bisexual men in North America and Europe: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathaniel M; Wilson, Kathi

    2017-04-01

    HIV surveillance systems show that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV in North American and European countries. Within the MSM category, HIV prevalence is often elevated among ethnic minority (i.e., Latino, Asian, and Black) MSM, many of whom are also foreign-born immigrants. Little research has focused specifically on foreign-born populations, though studies that provide data on the nativity of their samples offer an opportunity to investigate the potential role of transnational migration in informing HIV risk among ethnic minority MSM. This systematic review of ethnic minority MSM studies where the nativity of the sample is known provides a robust alternative to single studies measuring individual-level predictors of HIV risk behaviour. In this review, HIV prevalence, unprotected sex, drug use, and HIV testing are analysed in relation to the ethnicity, nativity, and location of the samples included. The results, which include high rates of HIV, unprotected sex, and stimulant use in foreign-born Latino samples and high rates of alcohol and club drug use in majority foreign-born Asian Pacific Islander (API) samples, provide baseline evidence for the theory of migration and HIV risk as syndemics within ethnic minority populations in North American and European countries. The findings also suggest that further research on the contextual factors influencing HIV risk among ethnic minority MSM groups and especially immigrants within these groups is needed. These factors include ethnic networks, individual post-migration transitions, and the gay communities and substance use cultures in specific destination cities. Further comparative work may also reveal how risk pathways differ across ethnic groups.

  10. Statistical Effects of Religious Participation and Marriage on Substance Use and Abuse in Racial and Ethnic Minorities.

    PubMed

    Hearld, Kristine Ria; Badham, Amy; Budhwani, Henna

    2016-11-29

    Substance use and abuse, which includes alcohol use, alcohol dependence, drug use, and drug dependence, inflicts a substantial toll on Americans. Although studies have demonstrated the protective effect of social support, such as religious participation and via marriage, understanding their influence on racial and ethnic minorities is limited. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the impact of social support on substance use and abuse in racial and ethnic minorities. The Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, a repository of race, ethnicity, and mental health data, was leveraged to develop four models using multivariate analysis, specifically logistic regression to estimate the probability of meeting the criteria for substance use and abuse. Racial and ethnic minorities were found to have lower rates of substance use and abuse compared to Whites, and foreign-born individuals were consistently less likely to use or abuse substances compared to American-born minorities. Mental health conditions were highly associated with substance use and abuse, and social support by way of religious participation and marriage was protective against substance use and abuse. In racial and ethnic minorities, nativity and social support were protective against substance use and abuse; however, these protective factors did not completely eliminate risk. Thus, although race and ethnicity are important to understanding health outcomes and health behaviors, such as substance use and abuse, it is the intersection of multiple factors, representing internal and external forces, which may be more informative and offer a more comprehensive picture of the landscape influencing drug and alcohol use and dependence. Targeted interventions should consider leveraging religious spaces and bilingual materials when attempting to reach racial and ethnic minorities.

  11. The influence of parental smoking and family type on saliva cotinine in UK ethnic minority children: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom, there has been an increase in cigarette smoking in ethnic minority adults since the 1970s; in some groups levels are now similar to that of White British people. We aimed to examine the determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke in ethnic minority children. We hypothesised that exposure to secondhand smoke in children will vary across ethnic groups, but that the correlates of exposure would be similar to that of Whites. Methods The Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health sample comprises 3468 White United Kingdom and ethnic minority (Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi) pupils aged 11-13 yrs. Outcome was saliva cotinine concentration. Explanatory variables collected by self-complete questionnaire included ethnicity, child reported household smoking and socio-economic circumstances. Data were analysed using linear regression models with a random intercept function. Results Ethnic minority children had lower saliva cotinine than Whites, partly explained by less smoking among parents. White and Black Caribbean children had higher cotinine levels if they lived in a household with a maternal smoker only, than with a paternal smoker only. Living in a lone compared to a dual parent household was associated with increased cotinine concentration of 45% (95%CI 5, 99%) in Whites, 27% (95%CI 5,53%) in Black Caribbeans and 21% (95%CI 1, 45%) in Black Africans after adjusting for household smoking status. Material disadvantage was a significant correlate only for White children (40% (95%CI 1, 94%) increase in cotinine in least compared to most advantaged group). Conclusions Ethnic minority children were less exposed to secondhand smoke than Whites, but the variations within groups were similarly patterned. These findings suggest that it is important not to be complacent about low smoking prevalence in some minority groups. PMID:20482885

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol misuse among women: Effects of ethnic minority stressors

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Sherry; Kernic, Mary A.; Qiu, Qian; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between adult onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and subsequent alcohol use outcomes (frequent heavy drinking, alcohol abuse, and alcohol dependence) in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic U.S. women, and whether this relationship was moderated by ethnic minority stressors (discrimination and acculturation) Methods The study sample was drawn from two waves of the National Epidemiologic Surveys of Alcohol and Related Conditions, employing time-dependent data to conduct multiple extended Cox regression Results Women with PTSD were over 50% more likely than those without PTSD to develop alcohol dependence (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR] 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15, 2.08). Hispanic and Black women were at lower risk of most alcohol outcomes than White women. In race/ethnic specific analyses, however, PTSD only predicted alcohol abuse among Hispanic women (aHR 3.02; CI 1.33, 6.84). Higher acculturation was positively associated with all alcohol outcomes among Hispanic women and discrimination was associated with AUD among Hispanic and Black women. Acculturation and discrimination modified the effect of PTSD on AUD among Hispanic women: PTSD predicted alcohol dependence among those with low acculturation (aHR 10.2; CI 1.27, 81.80) and alcohol abuse among those without reported discrimination (aHR 6.39; CI 2.76, 16.49) Conclusions PTSD may influence the development of hazardous drinking, especially among Hispanic women. The influence of PTSD on alcohol outcomes is most apparent, however, when ethnic minority stressors are not present. PMID:26266627

  13. Genetic profile characterization and population study of 21 autosomal STR in Chinese Kazak ethnic minority group.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Shen, Chun-Mei; Liu, Wen-Juan; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Pu, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yan-Li; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Jing, Hang; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2014-02-01

    Short tandem repeat loci have been recognized as useful tools in the routine forensic application and in recent decades, more and more new short tandem repeat (STR) loci have been constantly discovered, studied, and applied in forensic caseworks. In this study, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms of 21 STR loci in the Kazak ethnic minority as well as the genetic relationships between the Kazak ethnic minority and other populations. Allelic frequencies of 21 STR loci were obtained from 114 unrelated healthy Kazak individuals in the Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region of China. We observed a total of 159 alleles in the group with the allelic diversity values ranging from 0.0044 to 0.5088. The highest polymorphism was found at D19S433 locus and the lowest was found at D1S1627. Statistical analysis of the generated data indicated no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibriums at all 21 STR loci. In order to estimate the population differentiation, allelic frequencies of all STR loci of the Kazak were compared with those of other neighboring populations using analysis of molecular variance method. Statistically significant differences were found between the studied population and other populations at 2-7 STR loci. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed based on allelic frequencies of the 21 STR loci and phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Kazak has a close genetic relationship with the Uigur ethnic group. The present results may provide useful information for forensic sciences and population genetics studies, and can also increase our understanding of the genetic background of this group. The present findings showed that all the 21 STR loci are highly genetically polymorphic in the Kazak group, which provided valuable population genetic data for the genetic information study, forensic human individual identification, and paternity tests.

  14. Exploring the experience of facilitating self-management with minority ethnic stroke survivors: a qualitative study of therapists' perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Fiona; Kilbride, Cherry; Victor, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The utility of self-management with people from minority ethnic backgrounds has been questioned, resulting in the development of culturally specific tools. Yet, the use of stroke specific self-management programmes is underexplored in these high risk groups. This article presents the experience of stroke therapists in using a stroke specific self-management programme with stroke survivors from minority ethnic backgrounds. Methods: 26 stroke therapists with experience of using the self-management programme with stroke survivors from minority ethnic backgrounds participated in semi-structured interviews. These were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results: Three themes were identified. One questioned perceived differences in stroke survivors interaction with self-management based on ethnicity. The other themes contrasted with this view demonstrating two areas in which ethnic and cultural attributes were deemed to influence the self-management process both positively and negatively. Aspects of knowledge of health, illness and recovery, religion, family and the professionals themselves are highlighted. Conclusions: This study indicates that ethnicity should not be considered a limitation to the use of an individualized stroke specific self-management programme. However, it highlights potential facilitators and barriers, many of which relate to the capacity of the professional to effectively navigate cultural and ethnic differences. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke therapists suggest that ethnicity should not be considered a barrier to successful engagement with a stroke specific self-management programme. Health, illness and recovery beliefs along with religion and the specific role of the family do however need to be considered to maximize the effectiveness of the programme. A number of the facilitators and barriers identified are not unique to stroke survivors from ethnic minority communities, nor shared by all. The

  15. Receptivity to protobacco media and its impact on cigarette smoking among ethnic minority youth in California.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Cruz, Tess Boley; Schuster, Darleen V; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, Carl Anderson

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents from different ethnic groups show different cigarette smoking prevalence rates, suggesting potential differences in receptivity to and influences from protobacco media. Understanding these differences will be helpful in tailoring smoking prevention and cessation programs for diverse adolescent populations in the United States. Data from cross-sectional surveys of 20,332 randomly sampled California boys and girls, 12-17 years of age, were analyzed. Results indicate that receptivity to protobacco media was lower among African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics than among White youth. There was a consistent dose-response relationship between receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking across ethnic groups. Having a cigarette brand preference was associated with the highest risk for cigarette smoking, having a favorite tobacco ad showed the lowest risk, while having received or being willing to use tobacco promotional items was associated with a moderate risk. After controlling for 13 covariates, the odds ratio for receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking was significant for Whites (RR = 1.38, p < 0.01) and Hispanics (RR = 1.46, p < 0.01), but not for African American (RR = 1.05, p > 0.05) and Asian American (RR = 1.17, p > 0.05) youth. African American, Asian American, and Hispanic adolescents have a lower level of receptivity to protobacco media than do Whites. The association between media receptivity and 30-day cigarette smoking exists for all four ethnic groups without controlling for other smoking predictor variables, but only for Hispanics and Whites when other variables are controlled. Protecting adolescents from protobacco advertising influences is an important element in tobacco control among ethnic minority youth.

  16. Meeting challenges related to the dietary assessment of ethnic minority populations.

    PubMed

    Garduño-Diaz, S D; Husain, W; Ashkanani, F; Khokhar, S

    2014-08-01

    Migrants from the Indian subcontinent comprise the largest minority group in the UK. With the process of migration come alterations in lifestyle and eating habits. The present study aimed to disseminate the valuable information, experiences and challenges faced by researchers who conduct studies with ethnic minority groups in the area of diet and nutritional surveys, with an emphasis on migrant South Asians. The findings reported are the result of research carried out during 2008-2012, involving 1100 face-to-face dietary recalls conducted in the UK among South Asian children (aged 1.5-11 years; n = 300) and adults (≥30 years; n = 100). Factors to consider when planning and carrying out diet and nutrition survey studies among migrant South Asians were identified and include the employment of culture-specific tools, visual aid reinforcement and the involvement of key community members and translators to facilitate recruitment and data collection. One of the best practices found when working with minority groups was the use of incentives and tangible benefits to reward study participants. It was also found that constant communication and follow-up of the study participants improved the quality of the data and the likelihood of maintaining links with community members for future studies. From the results of in-house studies and a revision of practices reported in earlier literature, two 24-h face-to-face dietary recalls are recommended as the optimal method for the dietary assessment of migrant South Asians. To complement this assessment, ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaires such as that developed and successfully implemented among South Asians in the present study must be employed. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. The association between parental perception of neighborhood safety and asthma diagnosis in ethnic minority urban children.

    PubMed

    Vangeepuram, N; Galvez, M P; Teitelbaum, S L; Brenner, B; Wolff, M S

    2012-10-01

    Low-income populations, minorities, and children living in inner cities have high rates of asthma. Recent studies have emphasized the role of psychosocial stress in development of asthma. Residence in unsafe neighborhoods is one potential source of increased stress. The study objective was to examine the association between parental perception of neighborhood safety and asthma diagnosis among inner city, minority children. Cross-sectional data from a community-based study of 6-8-year-old New York City children were used. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician-diagnosed asthma and at least one asthma-related symptom. Parental perceptions of neighborhood safety were assessed with a questionnaire. Associations between perceived neighborhood safety and asthma were examined using chi-squared tests. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were then performed. Five hundred four children were included with 79% female, 26.5% non-Hispanic Black, and 73.5% Hispanic. Asthma was present in 23.8% of children. There was an inverse association between feeling safe walking in the neighborhood and asthma with 45.7% of parents of asthmatic children reporting they felt safe compared to 60.9% of parents of non-asthmatic children (p = 0.006). Fewer parents of asthmatic children than of non-asthmatic children reported that their neighborhood was safe from crime (21.7% versus 33.9%, p = 0.018). In multivariate analyses adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, gender, socioeconomic status, number of smokers in the home and breastfeeding history, parents reporting feeling unsafe walking in the neighborhood were more likely to have a child diagnosed with asthma (OR = 1.89, 95%CI 1.13-3.14). Psychosocial stressors such as living in unsafe neighborhoods may be associated with asthma diagnosis in urban ethnic minority children. Addressing the increased asthma burden in certain communities may require interventions to decrease urban stressors.

  18. 'Foreigners', 'ethnic minorities', and 'non-Western allochtoons': an analysis of the development of 'ethnicity' in health policy in the Netherlands from 1970 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Helberg-Proctor, Alana; Meershoek, Agnes; Krumeich, Anja; Horstman, Klasien

    2017-01-31

    The Netherlands, because of the sustained and systematic attention it paid to migrant and minority health issues during the last quarter of the twentieth century, has been depicted as being progressive in its approach to healthcare for migrants and minorities. Recently, however, these progressive policies have changed, reflecting a trend towards problematising issues of integration in order to focus on the responsibilities that migrants and ethnic minorities bear in terms of their health. This article explores these shifts and specifically the development of particular categories of ethnicity, and examines the wider consequences that have arisen as a result. The analysis presented here entailed a qualitative content analysis of health policies for migrants and ethnic minorities from 1970 to 2015, and examined various documents and materials produced by the institutions and organisations responsible for implementing these healthcare policies during the period from 1970 to 2015. Four distinct periods of political discourse related to health policy for migrants and ethnic minorities were identified. These periods of political discourse were found to shape the manner in which ethnicity and various categories and representation of foreigners, later ethnic minorities, and at present non-Western allochtoons are constructed in health policy and the implantation practices that follow. At present, in the Netherlands the term allochtoon is used to describe people who are considered of foreign heritage, and its antonym autochtoon is used for those who are considered native to the Netherlands. We discuss the scientific reproduction and even geneticisation of these politically produced categories of autochtoon, Western allochtoon, and non-Western allochtoon-a phenomenon that occurs when politically produced categories are prescribed or taken up by other health sectors. The categories of autochtoon, Western allochtoon, and non-Western allochtoon in the health sciences and the

  19. Issues in educating health professionals to meet the diverse needs of patients and other service users from ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Chevannes, Mel

    2002-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to undertake training needs analysis among a multi-professional group for the purpose of improving care for ethnic minority patients and other service users. Evidence from the literature identifies that some of the explanations advanced for the failure of health professionals to meet the needs of ethnic minorities include lack of understanding of cultural diversities, racism, racial stereotyping, lack of knowledge, exclusivity, and ethnocentrism. While these issues have been addressed in different countries, little work has been carried out to examine these from the perspective of health professionals caring for ethnic minorities. This study is therefore an attempt to find out what health professionals know about caring for patients and other service users from minority ethnic groups and their perception of training needs in this area of work. A pre- and post-training design phase structured the qualitative approach. A purposive sample of individuals working across five health service organizations located in a multi-racial city yielded a multi-professional group of participants. Views of 22 participants were obtained by semi-structured interviews at a pretraining phase. Training needs of health professionals drew on Walklin's (1992) six stages used to structure data collection, data analysis and delivery of training. The post-training phase used questionnaires to evaluate immediate learning that based on a 4-week period of reflection and applied to practice. The questionnaires were complemented by a facilitator-lead focus group. The majority of the participants confirmed that no attention was given in their initial education to the health care needs of minority ethnic groups. Instead, participants engaged in self-initiated learning to improve their knowledge and understanding. The issue of communication was viewed with dissatisfaction and seen as affecting the sufficiency of caring for these patients. All participants rated meeting

  20. Disparities in type 2 diabetes prevalence among ethnic minority groups resident in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Karlijn A C; Freitas-Da-Silva, Deivisson; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Beune, Erik J A J; Modesti, Pietro A; Stronks, Karien; Zafarmand, Mohammad H; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Many ethnic minorities in Europe have a higher type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence than their host European populations. The risk size differs between ethnic groups, but the extent of the differences in the various ethnic minority groups has not yet been systematically quantified. We conducted a meta-analysis of published data on T2D in various ethnic minority populations resident in Europe compared to their host European populations. We systematically searched MEDLINE (using PUBMED) and EMBASE for papers on T2D prevalence in ethnic minorities in Europe published between 1994 and 2014. The ethnic minority groups were classified into five population groups by geographical origin: South Asian (SA), Sub-Saharan African (SSA), Middle Eastern and North African (MENA), South and Central American (SCA), and Western Pacific (WP). Pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty articles were included in the analysis. Compared with the host populations, SA origin populations had the highest odds for T2D (3.7, 95 % CI 2.7-5.1), followed by MENA (2.7, 95 % CI 1.8-3.9), SSA (2.6, 95 % CI 2.0-3.5), WP (2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.1), and lastly SCA (1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6). Odds ratios were in all ethnic minority populations higher for women than for men except for SCA. Among SA subgroups, compared with Europeans, Bangladeshi had the highest odds ratio of 6.2 (95 % CI 3.9-9.8), followed by Pakistani (5.4, 95 % CI 3.2-9.3) and Indians (4.1, 95 % CI 3.0-5.7). The risk of T2D among ethnic minority groups living in Europe compared to Europeans varies by geographical origin of the group: three to five times higher among SA, two to four times higher among MENA, and two to three times higher among SSA origin. Future research and policy initiatives on T2D among ethnic minority groups should take the interethnic differences into account.

  1. Infant care practices related to cot death in Turkish and Moroccan families in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Sleuwen, B E; L'Hoir, M; Engelberts, A; Westers, P; Schulpen, T

    2003-01-01

    From 1979 to 1993 Turkish infants had a significantly higher cot death risk compared to Dutch infants. In contrast Moroccan infants had a risk of cot death that was approximately three times lower compared to Dutch infants during the same period. This study shows that these differences have disappeared, while differences still exist in infant care practices between these ethnic groups. At 28 well-baby clinics, questionnaires were distributed for this sample selection. The response was 82%. Data were collected on 55 Turkish, 54 Moroccan, and 210 Dutch families. Less than 7% of these three ethnic groups still placed infants in the prone position. Moroccan mothers hardly smoked. Turkish people used pillows and Moroccan people used soft mattresses more often. Moroccan families practised swaddling more widely. Length of maternal residence influenced some care giving practices. As a result of this study, subgroup specific intervention campaigns for safe sleeping can be developed for Turkish and Moroccan families. PMID:12937097

  2. Mental Health Disparities, Treatment Engagement, and Attrition Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities with Severe Mental Illness: A Review.

    PubMed

    Maura, Jessica; Weisman de Mamani, Amy

    2017-09-12

    Mounting evidence indicates that there are mental health disparities in the United States that disadvantage racial/ethnic minorities in medical and mental health settings. Less is known, however, about how these findings apply to a particularly vulnerable population, individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this paper is to (1) provide a critical review of the literature on racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care among individuals with SMI; (2) identify factors which may contribute to the observed disparities; and (3) generate recommendations on how best to address these disparities. Specifically, this article provides an in-depth review of sociocultural factors that may contribute to differences in treatment engagement and rates of attrition from treatment among racial/ethnic minorities with SMI who present at medical and mental health facilities. This review is followed by a discussion of specific strategies that may promote engagement in mental health services and therefore reduce racial/ethnic disparities in SMI.

  3. Increased Likelihood of Missed Appointments ("No Shows") for Racial/Ethnic Minorities in a Safety Net Health System.

    PubMed

    Shimotsu, Scott; Roehrl, Anne; McCarty, Maribet; Vickery, Katherine; Guzman-Corrales, Laura; Linzer, Mark; Garrett, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Missed appointments have been linked to adverse outcomes known to affect racial/ethnic minorities. However, the association of missed appointments with race/ethnicity has not been determined. We sought to determine the relationships between race/ethnicity and missed appointments by performing a cross-sectional study of 161 350 patients in a safety net health system. Several race/ethnicity categories were significantly associated with missed appointment rates, including Hispanic/Latino patients, American Indian/Alaskan Native patients, and Black/African American patients, as compared with White non-Hispanic patients. Other significant predictors included Mexico as country of origin, medical complexity, and major mental illness. We recommend additional research to determine which interventions best reduce missed appointments for minority populations in order to improve the care of vulnerable patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Development and validation of EMP-3: an instrument to measure physician's attitudes toward ethnic minority patients.

    PubMed

    De Maesschalck, Stephanie; Willems, Sara; De Maeseneer, Jan; Deveugele, Myriam

    2010-04-01

    The growing diversity of patient populations challenges health care providers. Physicians' attitudes and perceptions toward cultural diversity in health care could be partly contributing to difficulties in communication between physicians and ethnic minority patients. To evaluate these attitudes and perceptions, an instrument was developed and validated. A preliminary version of the instrument was developed through literature research and expert consultation and completed by 112 family physicians. Factor analysis was performed and reliability and construct validity tested. The instrument revealed three factors that were interpreted as: (1) physicians' task perception and ideas on cultural differences in health and health care, (2) physicians' attitudes toward physician-patient communication with minority patients, and (3) physicians' perception of minority patients' needs in communication. Moderate but significant correlations were found between factors of the EMP-3 and practice organization, practice location, and physicians' gender. Several factors of the Jefferson Empathy Scale, the Patient Practitioner Orientation Scale, and the Health Beliefs and Attitude Scale related to the first two factors of the EMP-3. This instrument, designed specifically to measure physicians' attitudes toward cultural diversity, showed moderate validity and reliability results. Further adaptations and evaluation could be useful.

  5. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  6. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures.

  7. Perspectives on child diarrhoea management and health service use among ethnic minority caregivers in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, primary government health services are now accessible for the whole population including ethnic minority groups (EMGs) living in rural and mountainous areas. However, little is known about EMGs' own perspectives on illness treatment and use of health services. This study investigates treatment seeking strategies for child diarrhoea among ethnic minority caregivers in Northern Vietnam in order to suggest improvements to health services for EMGs and other vulnerable groups. Methods The study obtained qualitative data from eight months of field work among four EMGs in lowland and highland villages in the Northern Lao Cai province. Triangulation of methods included in-depth interviews with 43 caregivers of pre-school children (six years and below) who had a case of diarrhoea during the past month, three focus group discussions (FGDs) with men, and two weeks of observations at two Communal Health Stations (CHGs). Data was content-analyzed by ordering data into empirically and theoretically inspired themes and sub-categories assisted by the software NVivo8. Results This study identified several obstacles for EMG caregivers seeking health services, including: gender roles, long travelling distances for highland villagers, concerns about the indirect costs of treatment and a reluctance to use government health facilities due to feelings of being treated disrespectfully by health staff. However, ethnic minority caregivers all recognized the danger signs of child diarrhoea and actively sought simultaneous treatment in different health care systems and home-based care. Treatments were selected by matching the perceived cause and severity of the disease with the 'compatibility' of different treatments to the child. Conclusions In order to improve EMGs' use of government health services it is necessary to improve the communication skills of health staff and to acknowledge both EMGs' explanatory disease models and the significant socio-economic constraints

  8. [Prevalence of hypertension among "three minority ethnic groups" residents in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region].

    PubMed

    Xingsheng, Zhao; Yanling, Liu; Lusha, E; Haiyan, Jiang; Haixia, Yu

    2015-08-01

    To survey the current situation of hypertension among "three minority ethnic groups" in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Hypertension epidemiological survey among Three Minority Ethnic Groups and Han nationality aged ≥ 18 years was performed from June to December 2010. The prevalence rate of hypertension among the surveyed population was 29. 4% (630/2 146) ( standardized prevalence was 34.6%). The prevalence rate of hypertension in male was 33. 8% (359/1 062) ( standardized prevalence was 39.9%), and the prevalence rate in female was 25.0% (271/1 084) (standardized prevalence was 26.6%) and the prevalence rate in male was higher than in female (P < 0.01). The prevalence rate of hypertension for the Oroqen nationality, Ewenki nationality and Daur nationality was 33.8% (92/272), 32.4% (170/524), and 30.2% (174/576) respectively (standardized prevalence was 33.7%, 33.1%, and 31.3%), and which was significantly higher than in the Han nationality (25.1% (194/774), P < 0.01) (standardized prevalence was 25.8%). The awareness, treatment and control rate of hypertension in the Oroqen nationality residents was 64.1% (59/92), 56.5% (52/92), 27.2% (25/92) (standardized rate was 63.5%, 56.8% and 27.4%), and 60.0% (102/170), 53.5% (91/170), 24.1% (41/170) ( standardized rate was 62.9%, 56.7%, 26.6%) in the Ewenki nationality residents, and 59.2% (103/174), 54.0% (94/174), 20.7% (36/174) (standardized rate was 50.3%, 54.7%, 21.4%) in the Daur nationality residents, and 65.0% (126/194), 57.7% (112/194), 27.3% (53/194) (standardized rate was 63.3%, 56.5%, 27.1%) in the Han nationality residents. Awareness rate, treatment rate and control rate were similar among different nationalities (all P > 0.05). The prevalence rate of hypertension among " three minority ethnic groups" residents in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is high and comprehensive prevention and therapy strategies are warranted to reduce the hypertension burden in these residents.

  9. Utilization of services provided by village based ethnic minority midwives in mountainous villages of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Duong Thi Thuy; Bui, Ha Thi Thu; Le, Thi Minh; Duong, Duc Minh; Luu, Hong Thi; Dinh, Tuan Anh; Mirzoev, Tolib

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Since 2011, the Vietnam’s Ministry of Health implemented the ethnic minority midwives (EMMs) scheme in order to increase the utilization of maternal health services by women from ethnic minorities and those living in hard-to-reach mountainous areas. This paper analyzes the utilization of antenatal, delivery, and postpartum care provided by EMMs and reports the key determinants of utilization of EMM services as perceived by service users. Methods A structured questionnaire was administered in 2015 to all mothers (n=320) who gave birth to a live-born during a 1-year period in 31 villages which had EMM in two provinces, Dien Bien and Kon Tum. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the association between all potential factors and the use of services provided by EMMs. Results We found that EMMs provided more antenatal care and postnatal care as compared with delivery services, which corresponded to their job descriptions. The results also showed that utilization of antenatal care provided by EMMs was lower than that of postnatal care. The proportion of those who never heard about EMM was high (24%). Among the mothers who knew about EMM services, 33.4% had antenatal checkups, 20.1% were attended during home deliveries, and 57.3% had postnatal visits by an EMM. Key factors that determined the use of EMM services included knowledge of the location of EMM’s house, being aware about EMMs by health workers, trust in services provided by EMMs, and perception that many others mothers in a village also knew about EMM services. Conclusion EMM seems to be an important mechanism to ensure assistance during home births and postnatal care for ethnic minority groups, who are often resistant to attend health facilities. Building trust and engaging with communities are the key facilitators to increase the utilization of services provided by EMMs. Communication campaigns to raise awareness about EMMs and to promote their services in the village

  10. Culturally appropriate health education for type 2 diabetes mellitus in ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Kamila; Robles, Yolanda; Cannings-John, Rebecca; Edwards, Adrian Gk

    2008-07-16

    Ethnic minority groups in upper-middle and high income countries tend to be socio-economically disadvantaged and to have higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes than the majority population. To assess the effectiveness of culturally appropriate diabetes health education on important outcome measures in type 2 diabetes. We searched the The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, SIGLE and reference lists of articles. We also contacted authors in the field and handsearched commonly encountered journals. RCTs of culturally appropriate diabetes health education for people over 16 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus from named ethnic minority groups resident in upper-middle or high income countries. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Where there were disagreements in selection of papers for inclusion, all four authors discussed the studies. We contacted study authors for additional information when data appeared to be missing or needed clarification. Eleven trials involving 1603 people were included, with ten trials providing suitable data for entry into meta-analysis. Glycaemic control (HbA1c), showed an improvement following culturally appropriate health education at three months (weight mean difference (WMD) - 0.3%, 95% CI -0.6 to -0.01), and at six months (WMD -0.6%, 95% CI -0.9 to -0.4), compared with control groups who received 'usual care'. This effect was not significant at 12 months post intervention (WMD -0.1%, 95% CI -0.4 to 0.2). Knowledge scores also improved in the intervention groups at three months (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.7), six months (SMD 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.7) and twelve months (SMD 0.4, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.6) post intervention. Other outcome measures both clinical (such as lipid levels, and blood pressure) and patient centred (quality of life measures, attitude scores and measures of patient empowerment and self-efficacy) showed no significant improvement compared with

  11. Sociocultural influences on heart failure self-care among an ethnic minority black population.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; McCarthy, Margaret M; Howe, Alexandra; Schipper, Judith; Katz, Stuart M

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) places a disproportionate burden on ethnic minority populations, including blacks, who have the highest risk of developing HF and experience poorer outcomes. Self-care, which encompasses adherence to diet, medication, and symptom management, can significantly improve outcomes. However, HF self-care is notoriously poor in ethnic minority black populations. Because culture is central to the development of self-care, we sought to describe the self-care practices and sociocultural influences of self-care in an ethnic minority black population with HF. In this mixed-methods study, 30 black patients with HF (mean [SD] age, 59.63 [15] years; 67% New York Heart Association class III) participated in interviews about self-care, cultural beliefs, and social support and completed standardized instruments measuring self-care and social support. Thematic content analysis revealed themes about sociocultural influences of self-care. Qualitative and quantitative data were integrated in the final analytic phase. Self-care was very poor (standardized mean [SD] Self-care of Heart Failure Index [SCHFI] maintenance, 60.05 [18.12]; SCHFI management, 51.19 [18.98]; SCHFI confidence, 62.64 [8.16]). The overarching qualitative theme was that self-care is influenced by cultural beliefs, including the meaning ascribed to HF, and by social norms. The common belief that HF was inevitable ("all my people have bad hearts") or attributed to "stress" influenced daily self-care. Spirituality was also linked to self-care ("the doctor may order it but I pray on it"). Cultural beliefs supported some self-care behaviors like medication adherence. Difficulty reconciling cultural preferences (favorite foods) with the salt-restricted diet was evident. The significant relationship of social support and self-care (r = 0.451, P = .01) was explicated by the qualitative data. Social norms interfered with willingness to access social support, and "selectivity" in whom individuals confided led

  12. The influence of early-life conditions on cardiovascular disease later in life among ethnic minority populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bijker, Rimke; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The reasons for the high prevalence of CVD in ethnic minority groups are not fully understood. Recently, the importance of early-life developmental factors and their impact on CVDs in adulthood is increasingly being recognised, but little is known about this among ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the current paper aimed to fill this knowledge gap by reviewing the available literature to assess the influence of early-life conditions on CVDs and its risk factors in ethnic minority populations residing in Western countries. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE between 1989 and 2014. In total, 1418 studies were identified of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Six studies investigated the relationship between early-life anthropometrics and CVD risk factors of which all except one found significant associations between the assessed anthropometric measures and CVD risk factors. Seven studies evaluated the influence of childhood socio-economic status (SES) on CVD and risk factors of which five found significant associations between childhood SES measures and CVD risk factors. Five studies investigated the relationship between other early-life conditions including early-life nutrition, physical development, and childhood psychosocial conditions, and CVD risk factors. Four of these studies found significant associations between the assessed childhood conditions and CVD risk factors. This review reinforces the importance of early-life conditions on adult CVD in ethnic minority groups. Improvement of early-life conditions among ethnic minority groups may contribute to reducing CVD risk in these populations.

  13. Differences in characteristics of US hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers by proportion of racial or ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Schwake, Christopher J; Eapen, Mary; Lee, Stephanie J; Freytes, César O; Giralt, Sergio A; Navarro, Willis H; Rizzo, J Douglas; van Besien, Koen; Loberiza, Fausto R

    2005-12-01

    Racial or ethnic minorities with leukemia who receive HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) are reported to have worse survival when compared with whites. Characteristics of US HSCT centers according to the proportion of ethnic minorities who undergo transplantation were compared to explore systematic differences among centers; the association with 100-day mortality was evaluated to determine whether center factors may explain the observed discrepant survival among ethnic minorities. One hundred sixteen US transplantation centers that performed HLA-identical sibling transplantations for leukemia were analyzed. We compared physician and health care provider staffing, transplantation unit procedure and resources, and medical center organization according to the volume procedure ratio of ethnic minorities who underwent transplantation and also according to the ratio of Hispanics who underwent transplantation. Centers that performed transplantation in a higher proportion of ethnic minorities were more likely to perform fewer transplantations per year, to have fewer devoted transplant beds, to be in an urban setting, to have a lower physician to patient volume ratio, and to follow up survivors 1 year after transplantation. Centers that performed transplantation in a higher proportion of Hispanics were more likely to perform fewer transplantations per year and to have fewer devoted transplantation beds, were less likely to perform outpatient transplantations, were more likely to be in an urban setting, and were less likely to have posttransplantation immunization protocols. Observed differences in center factors were not associated with 100-day mortality after adjustment for disease severity. Our results suggest that the inferior survival reported in ethnic minorities after HSCT may not be readily explained by center effects.

  14. Ethnic Minorities’ Impression Management in the Interview: Helping or Hindering?

    PubMed Central

    Derous, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities’ interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred ‘entitlements’ whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred ‘opinion conformity’ as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities’ use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants’ preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters’ interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:28203211

  15. Substance use and experienced stigmatization among ethnic minority men who have sex with men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steve; Ayala, George; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented deleterious effects of racism among ethnic minorities and of homophobia among men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about the impact of multiple forms of stigmatization on ethnic minority MSM. This study examined substance use by African American, Asian/Pacific Islander and Latino MSM, and the associations of experienced racism and homophobia from various sources with polydrug use and stimulant drug use. Experienced racism within the general community was associated with higher levels of use; other forms of discrimination were either not associated with polydrug or stimulant use or had more complex relationships with use. Implications for further research and interventions are discussed.

  16. Cultural diversity and the mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities: some implications for service provision.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Alison; Avan, Ghizala; Macintosh, Sherry Bien

    2012-07-01

    Previous research on mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities has identified limited service responses and the need to consider mistreatment as an issue not only for individuals but also for families, communities, and institutions. The impact of cultural factors on understandings, experiences, and remedies for mistreatment has been debated. Drawing on empirical research in the United Kingdom involving service providers and ethnically-diverse community members, the article explores implications of cultural variation for service provision. Clear gaps exist between service provision and people experiencing mistreatment due to structural and contextual factors; cultural factors have a relatively minor impact.

  17. Racial and Ethnic Minorities at Increased Risk for Gastric Cancer in a Regional US Population Study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Elizabeth; Duan, Lewei; Wu, Bechien U

    2017-04-01

    Limited data are available on risk factors for gastric cancer in the United States. We aimed to characterize risk for gastric cancer based on race/ethnicity and additional established risk factors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2014 from an integrated health care system in Southern California to assess incidence of gastric cancer by race/ethnicity. We then conducted an age- and sex-matched case-cohort study to evaluate additional risk factors: Helicobacter pylori infection, tobacco use, family history, obesity, language, and socioeconomic status. Subgroup analysis was performed for language and socioeconomic status by race/ethnicity. The incidence of gastric cancer in the reference (non-Hispanic white) population was 8.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7-8.7) cases per 100,000 person-years. Incidence values for Asians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic black persons were higher: 12.7 (95% CI, 11.1-14.3), 12.7 (95% CI, 11.7-13.7), and 11.8 (95% CI, 10.3-13.2) cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively (all P < .0001). In logistic regression analysis, we found race/ethnicity to be an independent risk factor for gastric cancer; the odds ratio (OR) for non-Hispanic black persons was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.22-1.72; P < .0001), the OR for Hispanics was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.22-1.57; P < .0001), and the OR for Asians was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.28-1.81; P < .0001), compared with the non-Hispanic white population. Other independent risk factors included infection with H pylori (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 3.8-5.7), smoking history (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6), and family history of gastric cancer (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.6-4.4) (all P < .0001). Non-English language was a significant risk factor for gastric cancer in Asians (P = .05). Higher annual median income was associated with reduced risk (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95; P = .0004). In a population study in Southern California, we found racial/ethnic minorities to have a 40%-50% increase in risk of gastric cancer compared with the non

  18. The Cultural Ecogram: A Tool for Enhancing Culturally Anchored Shared Understanding in the Treatment of Ethnic Minority Families

    PubMed Central

    YASUI, MIWA

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic and racial disparities in mental health care continue to exist, highlighting the increasing concern within the realm of clinical practice as to how clinicians are to effectively integrate the central role of culture and context into the treatment delivery process for culturally diverse children and families. The current paper presents the Cultural Ecogram, - a clinical engagement tool designed to facilitate the development of a culturally anchored shared understanding – as one method that may facilitate clinician-client shared understanding on the client’s cultural, ethnic and racial context central to the effective implementation of treatments with ethnic minority children and families. PMID:26273233

  19. Ethnic Minority Children's Active Commuting to School and Association with Physical Activity and Pedestrian Safety Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A; Uscanga, Doris K; Nguyen, Nga; Hanfling, Marcus J

    2010-09-30

    BACKGROUND: Children's active commuting to school, i.e. walking or cycling to school, was associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, although studies among ethnic minorities are sparse. OBJECTIVES: Among a low-income, ethnic minority sample of fourth grade students from eight public schools, we examined (1) correlates of active commuting to school and (2) the relationship between active commuting to school and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements from a sample of participants (n=149) aged 9-12 years from a walk to school intervention study in Houston, Texas. The primary outcome was the weekly rate of active commuting to school. Daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, measured by accelerometers, was a secondary outcome. Child self-efficacy (alpha=0.75), parent self-efficacy (alpha=0.88), and parent outcome expectations (alpha=0.78) were independent variables. Participant characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, distance from home to school, acculturation, and BMI percentile) were independent sociodemographic variables. We used mixed-model regression analyses to account for clustering by school and a stepwise procedure with backward elimination of non-significant interactions and covariates to identify significant moderators and predictors. School-level observations of student pedestrians were assessed and compared using chi-square tests of independence. RESULTS: Among our sample, which was 61.7% Latino, the overall rate of active commuting to school was 43%. In the mixed model for active commuting to school, parent self-efficacy (std. beta = 0.18, p=0.018) and age (std. beta = 0.18, p=0.018) were positively related. Latino students had lower rates of active commuting to school than non-Latinos ( 16.5%, p=0.040). Distance from home to school was inversely related to active commuting to school (std. beta = 0.29, p<0.001). In the mixed model for moderate

  20. A process evaluation: Does recruitment for an exercise program through ethnically specific channels and key figures contribute to its reach and receptivity in ethnic minority mothers?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority women from low-income countries who live in high-income countries are more physically inactive than ethnic majority women in those countries. At the same time, they can be harder to reach with health promotion programs. Targeting recruitment channels and execution to ethnic groups could increase reach and receptivity to program participation. We explored using ethnically specific channels and key figures to reach Ghanaian, Antillean, and Surinamese mothers with an invitation for an exercise program, and subsequently, to determine the mothers’ receptivity and participation. Methods We conducted a mixed methods process evaluation in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. To recruit mothers, we employed ethnically specific community organizations and ethnically matched key figures as recruiters over Dutch health educators. Reach and participation were measured using reply cards and the attendance records from the exercise programs. Observations were made of the recruitment process. We interviewed 14 key figures and 32 mothers to respond to the recruitment channel and recruiter used. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Results Recruitment through ethnically specific community channels was successful among Ghanaian mothers, but less so among Antillean and Surinamese mothers. The more close-knit an ethnic community was, retaining their own culture and having poorer comprehension of the Dutch language, the more likely we were to reach mothers through ethnically specific organizations. Furthermore, we found that using ethnically matched recruiters resulted in higher receptivity to the program and, among the Ghanaian mothers in particular, in greater participation. This was because the ethnically matched recruiter was a familiar, trusted person, a translator, and a motivator who was enthusiastic, encouraging, and able to adapt her message (targeting/tailoring). Using a health expert was preferred in order to increase the credibility and