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Sample records for morone saxatilis walbaum

  1. Experimental mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, David T.; Rhodes, M.W.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Kator, H.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis were infected intraperitoneally with approximately 105 Mycobacterium marinum, M. shottsii sp. nov., or M. gordonae. Infected fish were maintained in a flow-through freshwater system at 18 to 21??C, and were examined histologically and bacteriologically at 2, 4, 6, 8, 17, 26, 36 and 45 wk post-infection (p.i.). M. marinum caused acute peritonitis, followed by extensive granuloma development in the mesenteries, spleen and anterior kidney. Granulomas in these tissues underwent a temporal progression of distinct morphological stages, culminating in well-circumscribed lesions surrounded by normal or healing tissue. Mycobacteria were cultured in high numbers from splenic tissue at all times p.i. Standard Ziehl-Neelsen staining, however, did not demonstrate acid-fast rods in most early inflammatory foci and granulomas. Large numbers of acid-fast rods were present in granulomas beginning at 8 wk p.i. Between 26 and 45 wk p.i., reactivation of disease was observed in some fish, with disintegration of granulomas, renewed inflammation, and elevated splenic bacterial densities approaching 109 colony-forming units g-1. Infection with M. shottsii or M. gordonae did not produce severe pathology. Mild peritonitis was followed by granuloma formation in the mesenteries, but, with 1 exception, granulomas were not observed in the spleen or anterior kidney. M. shottsii and M. gordonae both established persistent infections in the spleen, but were present at densities at least 2 orders of magnitude less than M. marinum at all time points observed. Granulomas in the mesenteries of M. shottsii- and M. gordonae-infected fish resolved over time, and no reactivation of disease was observed.

  2. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is of great importance for fisheries and aquaculture in the US. To construct a linkage map of striped bass, 480 microsatellite markers were screened for polymorphism among three parents of two half-sib mapping families that shared a common dam. A total of 289 markers ...

  3. Transcriptome annotation and marker discovery in white bass (Morone chrysops) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Striped bass and white bass are the parental species of the hybrid striped bass (white bass, Morone chrysops X striped bass, M. saxatilis), which is a major U.S. aquaculture species. Currently, genomic resources for striped bass/white bass and its hybrid lag behind those of other aquaculture species...

  4. Transcriptome annotation and marker discovery in white bass (Morone chrysops) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin H; Fuller, S Adam; Peatman, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white bass (Morone chrysops) are the parental species of the hybrid striped bass, a major U.S. aquaculture species. Currently, genomic resources for striped bass, white bass, and their hybrid lag behind those of other aquaculture species. Current resources consist of a medium-density genetic linkage map and a well-annotated ovarian transcriptome. A well-annotated transcriptome from across striped bass and white bass tissues is needed to advance both broad-based RNA-seq studies of gene expression as well as aid in more targeted studies of important genes and pathways critical for reproductive physiology and immunity. Here, we carried out Illumina-based transcriptome sequencing and annotation in both species utilizing the trinity and trinotate packages. The assembled Moronid reference transcriptomes and identified SSRs and SNPs should advance ongoing studies of reproduction, physiology, and immunology in these species and provide markers for broodstock management and selection.

  5. Use of non-natal estuaries by migratory striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, M. E.; Finn, John T.; Ferry, K.H.; Deegan, Linda A.; Nelson, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    For most migratory fish, little is known about the location and size of foraging areas or how long individuals remain in foraging areas, even though these attributes may affect their growth, survival, and impact on local prey. We tested whether striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum), found in Massachusetts in summer, were migratory, how long they stayed in non-natal estuaries, whether observed spatial patterns differed from random model predictions, whether fish returned to the same area across multiple years, and whether fishing effort could explain recapture patterns. Anchor tags were attached to striped bass that were caught and released in Massachusetts in 1999 and 2000, and recaptured between 1999 and 2007. In fall, tagged striped bass were caught south of where they were released in summer, confirming that fish were coastal migrants. In the first summer, 77% and 100% of the recaptured fish in the Great Marsh and along the Massachusetts coast, respectively, were caught in the same place where they were released. About two thirds of all fish recaptured near where they were released were caught 2-7 years after tagging. Our study shows that smaller (400-500 mm total length) striped bass migrate hundreds of kilometers along the Atlantic Ocean coast, cease their mobile lifestyle in summer when they use a relatively localized area for foraging (<20 km2), and return to these same foraging areas in subsequent years.

  6. Ultrastructure of Mycobacterium marinum granuloma in striped bass Morone saxatilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging epizootic of mycobacteriosis currently threatens striped bass Morone saxatilis populations in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Several species of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium marinum, species resembling M. avium, M. gordonae, M. peregrinum, M. scrofulaceum and M. terrae, and the new species M. shottsii have been isolated from diseased and healthy bass. In this study, we describe the ultrastructure of developing M. marinum granulomas in experimentally infected bass over a period of 45 wk. The primary host response to injected mycobacteria was formation of large macrophage aggregations containing phagocytosed bacilli, M. marinum were always contained within phagosomes. Close association of lysosomes with mycobacterial phagosomes, as well as the presence of electron-opaque material within phagosomes, suggested phagolysosomal fusion. Development of granulomas involved epithelioid transformation of macrophages, followed by appearance of central necrosis. Desmosomes were present between mature epithelioid cells. The necrotic core region of M. marinum granulomas was separated from overlying epithelioid cells by several layers of flattened, electron-opaque spindle-shaped cells. These cells appeared to be formed by compression of epithelioid cells and, aside from a flattened nucleus, did not possess recognizable organelles. Following the development of well-defined, paucibacillary granulomas, secondary disease was observed. Recrudescence was marked by bacterial replication followed by disruption of granuloma architecture, including loss of epithelioid and spindle cell layers. In advanced recrudescent lesions, normal tissue was replaced by macrophages, fibroblasts, and other inflammatory leukocytes. Large numbers of mycobacteria were observed, both intracellular and suspended in cellular debris.

  7. Mycobacterium-Inducible Nramp in Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burge, E.J.; Gauthier, David T.; Ottinger, C.A.; Van Veld, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In mammals, the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 gene, Nramp1, plays a major role in resistance to mycobacterial infections. Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is currently experiencing an epizootic of mycobacteriosis that threatens the health of this ecologically and economically important species. In the present study, we characterized an Nramp gene in this species and obtained evidence that there is induction following Mycobacterium exposure. The striped bass Nramp gene (MsNramp) and a 554-amino-acid sequence contain all the signal features of the Nramp family, including a topology of 12 transmembrane domains (TM), the transport protein-specific binding-protein-dependent transport system inner membrane component signature, three N-linked glycosylation sites between TM 7 and TM 8, sites of casein kinase and protein kinase C phosphorylation in the amino and carboxy termini, and a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site between TM 6 and TM 7. Phylogenetic analysis most closely grouped MsNramp with other teleost Nramp genes and revealed high sequence similarity with mammalian Nramp2. MsNramp expression was present in all tissues assayed by reverse transcription-PCR. Within 1 day of injection of Mycobacterium marinum, MsNramp expression was highly induced (17-fold higher) in peritoneal exudate (PE) cells compared to the expression in controls. The levels of MsNramp were three- and sixfold higher on days 3 and 15, respectively. Injection of Mycobacterium shottsii resulted in two-, five-, and threefold increases in gene expression in PE cells over the time course. This report is the first report of induction of an Nramp gene by mycobacteria in a poikilothermic vertebrate.

  8. Assessment of Aquaflor (c), copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to assess different therapeutants against a mixed infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass (SB) (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male). Experiment 1 assessed the efficacy of copper sulfate (CuSO4), florfenicol-medicated...

  9. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  10. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the hree-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetic technologies in striped bass breeding programs, nearly 500 microsatellite markers were...

  11. Hypoxia affects performance traits and body composition of juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Performance traits and body composition of juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) in response to hypoxia were evaluated in replicate tanks maintained at constant dissolved oxygen concentrations that averaged 23.0 +/- 2.3%, 39.7 +/- 3.0%, and 105.5 +/- 9.5% dissolved oxygen sat...

  12. Mycobacterium shottsii sp. nov., a slowly growing species isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Kotob, S.; van Berkum, P.; Kaattari, I.; Vogelbein, W.; Quinn, F.; Floyd, M.M.; Butler, W.R.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Slowly growing, non-pigmented mycobacteria were isolated from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) during an epizootic of mycobacteriosis in the Chesapeake Bay. Growth characteristics, acid-fastness and results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were consistent with those of the genus Mycobacterium. A unique profile of biochemical reactions was observed among the 21 isolates. A single cluster of eight peaks identified by analysis of mycolic acids (HPLC) resembled those of reference patterns but differed in peak elution times from profiles of reference species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. One isolate (M175T) was placed within the slowly growing mycobacteria by analysis of aligned 16S rRNA gene sequences and was proximate in phylogeny to Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum. However, distinct nucleotide differences were detected in the 16S rRNA gene sequence among M175T, M. ulcerans and M. marinum (99.2% similarity). Isolate M175T could be differentiated from other slowly growing, non-pigmented mycobacteria by its inability to grow at 37??C, production of niacin and urease, absence of nitrate reductase and resistance to isoniazid (1 ??g ml-1), thiacetazone and thiophene-2-carboxylic hydrazide. Based upon these genetic and phenotypic differences, isolate M175T (= ATCC 700981T = NCTC 13215T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Mycobacterium shottsii sp. nov.

  13. Summer habitat selection by striped bass, Morone Saxatilis, in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, H.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Wilson, J.L.

    1980-02-01

    Summer habitat selection patterns of 18 adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Cherokee Reservoir were monitored with externally attached temperature-sensing acoustic or radio transmitters from June through September 1977. Mortalities of adult striped bass in this reservoir were hypothesized to be related to high summer temperatures and low dissolved oxygen (DO). The inhabited areas or refuges differed from noninhabited areas by maintaining temperatures less than or equal to 22 C and DO concentrations greater than 5 mg/liter. Total water hardness, pH, and water transparency were not significantly different among refuges and noninhabited areas. Movement of fish outside refuges occurred more frequently and for longer periods during June when the summer pattern of high temperatures and low DO was less severe. Fish experienced temperatures between 15 and 27 C with mean temperatures of individuals ranging from 18.5 to 22.0 C. Several tagged fish migrated outside the refuges and selected the lowest available temperature, generally near 21 C, even though DO concentrations at these temperatures were 3 mg/liter or less. Long-term survival of tagged and nontagged fish outside refuges was undetermined because no fish were tracked outside a refuge for more than 12 days without being lost. This study indicates that temperature strongly influences the behavior of striped bass and that adults of this species may have a thermal preferendum of approximately 21 C.

  14. Structure and specificity of a binary tandem domain F-lectin from striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    PubMed Central

    Bianchet, Mario A.; Odom, Eric W.; Vasta, Gerardo R.; Amzel, L. Mario

    2010-01-01

    Plasma of the striped bass (Morone saxatilis) contains a fucose-specific lectin (MsaFBP32) that consists of two F-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in tandem. The crystal structure of the complex of MsaFBP32 with l-fucose reported here shows a cylindrically-shaped 81 Å-long and 60 Å-wide trimer divided into two globular halves, one containing N-terminal CRDs and the other C-terminal CRDs. The resulting binding surfaces at the opposite ends of the cylindrical trimer have the potential to cross-link cell surface or humoral carbohydrate ligands. The N- and C-CRDs of MsaFBP32 exhibit significant structural differences, suggesting that they recognize different glycans. An analysis of the carbohydrate binding sites by computer modeling provides the structural basis for the observed specificity pattern of MsaFBP32 for simple carbohydrates, and suggests that the N-CRD recognizes more complex fucosylated-oligosaccharides and with a relatively higher avidity than the C-CRD. The modeling of MsaFBP32 complexed with fucosylated-glycans that are widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes rationalizes the observation that binary tandem CRD F-lectins function as opsonins by cross-linking “non-self” and “self” carbohydrate ligands, such as sugar structures displayed by microbial pathogens and glycans on the surface of phagocytic cells from the host. PMID:20561530

  15. Regional variation in the mechanical properties of the vertebral column during lateral bending in Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Nowroozi, B N; Brainerd, E L

    2012-10-07

    Unlike mammalian, disc-shaped intervertebral joints (IVJs), the IVJs in fishes are biconid structures, filled with fluid and thought to act as hydrostatic hinge joints during swimming. However, it remains unclear which IVJ structures are dominant in mechanical resistance to forces in fishes, and whether variation in these tissues might impact the function of the vertebral column along its length. Here, we measured the dynamic mechanical behaviour of IVJs from striped bass, Morone saxatilis. During lateral bending, angular stiffness was significantly lower in the caudal and cervical regions, relative to the abdominal region. The neutral zone, defined as the range of motion (ROM) at bending moments less than 0.001 Nm, was longer in the caudal relative to the abdominal IVJs. Hysteresis was 30-40% in all regions, suggesting that IVJs may play a role in energy dissipation during swimming. Cutting the vertical septum had no statistically significant effect, but cutting the encapsulating tissues caused a sharp decline in angular stiffness and a substantial increase in ROM and hysteresis. We conclude that stiffness decreases and ROM increases from cranial to caudal in striped bass, and that the encapsulating tissues play a prominent role in mechanical variation along the length of the vertebral column.

  16. Influence of nutritional state on the progression and severity of mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, John M; Rhodes, Matt R; Baya, Ana; Reimschuessel, Renate; Townsend, Howard; Harrell, Reginal M

    2009-12-03

    Challenge studies with Mycobacterium marinum clearly demonstrate that a poor diet affects the progression and severity of mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis. Fish (n = 512 total, wt = 65 +/- 15 g) were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) body weigth (BW) or a physiological saline solution (controls) and evaluated for 8 mo. Inoculated fish fed a low-ration diet (0.15% BW d(-1)) developed a severe, systemic infection characterized by a high bacterial load (>10(8) CFU g(-1) spleen) and poor granuloma formation, which commonly progressed to mortality by 6 wk. In contrast, inoculated fish fed an adequate ration diet (1% BW d(-1)) developed classic granulomatous inflammation of reduced severity and total body energy similar to that found in uninoculated controls (p > 0.05). After 4 wk, fish fed adequate rations maintained an equilibrium state throughout the study period, even though 10(6) CFU g(-1) spleen mycobacteria were consistently cultured. In a second study, reactivation of an acute inflammatory state was demonstrated by placing previously infected fish on reducing diets (0.073% BW d(-1)). In both studies, the energetic demand of this disease was only appreciable when associated with active, severe, inflammatory states. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the interaction of diet and mycobacteriosis in fish.

  17. Regional variation in the mechanical properties of the vertebral column during lateral bending in Morone saxatilis

    PubMed Central

    Nowroozi, B. N.; Brainerd, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike mammalian, disc-shaped intervertebral joints (IVJs), the IVJs in fishes are biconid structures, filled with fluid and thought to act as hydrostatic hinge joints during swimming. However, it remains unclear which IVJ structures are dominant in mechanical resistance to forces in fishes, and whether variation in these tissues might impact the function of the vertebral column along its length. Here, we measured the dynamic mechanical behaviour of IVJs from striped bass, Morone saxatilis. During lateral bending, angular stiffness was significantly lower in the caudal and cervical regions, relative to the abdominal region. The neutral zone, defined as the range of motion (ROM) at bending moments less than 0.001 Nm, was longer in the caudal relative to the abdominal IVJs. Hysteresis was 30–40% in all regions, suggesting that IVJs may play a role in energy dissipation during swimming. Cutting the vertical septum had no statistically significant effect, but cutting the encapsulating tissues caused a sharp decline in angular stiffness and a substantial increase in ROM and hysteresis. We conclude that stiffness decreases and ROM increases from cranial to caudal in striped bass, and that the encapsulating tissues play a prominent role in mechanical variation along the length of the vertebral column. PMID:22552920

  18. Structure and Specificity of a Binary Tandem Domain F-Lectin from Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchet, M.; Odom, E; Vasta, J; Amzel, M

    2010-01-01

    The plasma of the striped bass Morone saxatilis contains a fucose-specific lectin (MsaFBP32) that consists of two F-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in tandem. The crystal structure of the complex of MsaFBP32 with l-fucose reported here shows a cylindrical 81-A-long and 60-A-wide trimer divided into two globular halves: one containing N-terminal CRDs (N-CRDs) and the other containing C-terminal CRDs (C-CRDs). The resulting binding surfaces at the opposite ends of the cylindrical trimer have the potential to cross-link cell surface or humoral carbohydrate ligands. The N-CRDs and C-CRDs of MsaFBP32 exhibit significant structural differences, suggesting that they recognize different glycans. Analysis of the carbohydrate binding sites provides the structural basis for the observed specificity of MsaFBP32 for simple carbohydrates and suggests that the N-CRD recognizes more complex fucosylated oligosaccharides and with a relatively higher avidity than the C-CRD. Modeling of MsaFBP32 complexed with fucosylated glycans that are widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes rationalizes the observation that binary tandem CRD F-type lectins function as opsonins by cross-linking 'non-self' carbohydrate ligands and 'self' carbohydrate ligands, such as sugar structures displayed by microbial pathogens and glycans on the surface of phagocytic cells from the host.

  19. Toxicity of trace element and salinity mixtures to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Daphnia magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Burch, S.A.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hunn, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests with reconstituted water were conducted to investigate the relationship between water hardness, salinity, and a mixture of trace elements found in irrigation drain waters entering Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (SWMA), near Fallon, Nevada. The SWMA has been the site of many fish kills in recent years, and previous toxicity studies indicated that one drain water, Pintail Bay, was acutely toxic to organisms acclimated or cultured in fresh water or salt water. This toxicity could reflect both the ionic composition of this saline water and the presence of trace elements. The lowest water salinity tested with Daphnia magna was near the upper salinity tolerance of these organisms; therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the toxic effects of ion composition and those of trace elements. In toxicity tests conducted with striped bass (Morone saxatilis), we found that the extent to which salinity was lethal to striped bass depended on the ion composition of that salinity. Survival of striped bass increased as hardness increased. In addition, a trace element mixture was toxic to striped bass, even though the concentrations of individual elements were below expected acutely lethal concentrations. Although salinity is an important water quality characteristic, the ionic composition of the water must be considered when one assesses the hazard of irrigation drain waters to aquatic organisms.

  20. Characterization of photochromogenic Mycobacterium spp. from Chesapeake Bay striped bass Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Helenthal, A M; Rhodes, M W; Vogelbein, W K; Kator, H I

    2011-06-16

    A large diversity of Mycobacterium spp. has been isolated from striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay, USA. The new species M. shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are the dominant isolates, while the classical fish pathogen M. marinum is found much less frequently. M. fortuitum and M. chelonae, other Mycobacterium spp. known to commonly infect fishes, have not yet been aseptically isolated from striped bass within Chesapeake Bay. While M. pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii have been phenotypically and genotypically characterized, other less common mycobacterial isolates have not. In the present study, we describe 17 photochromogenic isolates from Chesapeake Bay striped bass using phenotypic characterization and multilocus sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB genes. Genetic characterization reveals that these isolates are related to widely divergent portions of the mycobacterial phylogeny; however, some interesting trends are observed, such as a majority of isolates (10/17) belonging to the M. simiae-related grouping. Five additional isolates were assigned to the slow-growing mycobacteria (including 2 identified as M. marinum), while 2 are clearly shown to belong genetically to the fast-growing mycobacteria.

  1. Regional variation in morphology of vertebral centra and intervertebral joints in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Nowroozi, B N; Harper, C J; De Kegel, B; Adriaens, D; Brainerd, E L

    2012-04-01

    The vertebral column of fishes has traditionally been divided into just two distinct regions, abdominal and caudal. Recently, however, developmental, morphological, and mechanical investigations have brought this traditional regionalization scheme into question. Alternative regionalization schema advocate the division of the abdominal vertebrae into cervical, abdominal, and in some cases, transitional regions. Here, we investigate regional variation at the level of the vertebrae and intervertebral joint (IVJ) tissues in the striped bass, Morone saxatilis. We use gross dissection, histology, and polarized light imaging to quantify vertebral height, width, length, IVJ length, IVJ tissue volume and cross-sectional area, and vertical septum fiber populations, and angles of insertion. Our results reveal regional differences between the first four (most rostral) abdominal vertebrae and IVJs and the next six abdominal vertebrae and IVJs, supporting the recognition of a distinct cervical region. We found significant variation in vertebral length, width, and height from cranial to caudal. In addition, we see a significant decline in the volume of notochordal cells and the cross-sectional area of the fibrous sheath from cranial to caudal. Further, polarized light imaging revealed four distinct fiber populations within the vertical septum in the cervical and abdominal regions in contrast with just one fiber population found in the caudal region. Measurement of the insertion angles of these fiber populations revealed significant differences between the cervical and abdominal regions. Differences in vertebral, IVJ, and vertical septum morphology all predict greater range of motion and decreased stiffness in the caudal region of the fish compared with the cervical and abdominal regions.

  2. Isolation and characterization of mycobacteria from striped bass Morone saxatilis from the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Kaattari, I.; Gauthier, D.; Vogelbein, W.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis of Chesapeake Bay, USA, was first diagnosed in 1997 based on the presence of granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacteria in skin and spleen. To confirm histopathology, bacteriological detection and identification of mycobacteria were begun using splenic tissue from fish with and without skin ulcerations. On the basis of initial studies using a variety of selective and nonselective media, decontamination, homogenization and incubation conditions, a simple and quantitative recovery method using aseptic necropsy of splenic tissue was developed. Optimal recovery was obtained by spread-plating homogenates on Middlebrook 7H10 agar with incubation for 3 mo at 23??C. Mycobacteria were recovered from 76% (n = 149/196) of fish examined. Mycobacterial densities exceeded 104 colony forming units??g tissue-1 in 38% of samples (n = 63/168) that were examined using a quantitative approach. The most frequently recovered mycobacterium, present in 57% (n = 109/192) of characterized samples, was the recently named new species Mycobacterium shottsii. Polyinfections of M. shottsii and other mycobacteria were observed in 25% of samples (n = 47/192) with densities of M. shottsii usually 1 or more orders of magnitude higher than co-isolate(s). Other mycobacteria recovered included isolates that, based on phenotypic traits, resembled M. interjectum, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai and M. triplex. M. marinum, commonly associated with fish mycobacteriosis and human disease, was recovered infrequently (3%, n = 6/192). The presence of multiple mycobacterial types occurring at high densities suggests that a variety of mycobacteria could be causative agents of mycobacteriosis in striped bass from the Chesapeake Bay. Striped bass is the major recreational fish species in the Chesapeake Bay, and the significance of the current epizootic to human health and the potential adverse effects on fish stocks are not known.

  3. Effects of hypothermic storage of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm on intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species formation, mitochondrial function, motility, and viability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of hypothermic 24 h storage of striped bass sperm cells (Morone saxatilis) on viability, intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i, mitochondrial membrane potential (''m), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation as determined by flow cytometry; motion activati...

  4. Bioaccumulation of PCB and the effects of supplemented diets in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of PCBs (Aroclor 1254) from contaminated water (1.0 0.1 ppB) and Artemia (1.0 0.1 ppB) was studied using striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae. After 10 and 20 days exposure, striped bass were transferred to PCB-free environments for depuration examination. Results showed that striped bass can significantly accumulate PCBs in either 10- or 20-day exposures. When fed contaminated water and Artemia together to striped bass resulted higher PCB body burdens than when fed either contaminated water or Artemia. Among these treatments, 1.0 ppB water and 1.0 ppB treated Artemia caused the highest PCB residues, 323.62 ppB and 647.90 ppB, in 10- and 20-day exposures, respectively. A diet containing 0.1 ppB PCB contaminated Artemia accounted for 10--27% of the total body burden in this experiment. The percent body burden due to dietary contaminants increased when striped bass were fed 1.0 ppB contaminated Artemia. This suggests that a higher feeding dose could elevate the percent contribution of the total PCB uptake in aquatic food chains. The percent of PCBs remaining in striped bass when transferred to PCB-free environments is less in the 20-day depuration period than in 10-day period. In an effort to culture this valuable fish species, experiments were conducted by adding protease, attractants and protein hydrolysates to striped bass diet for the purpose of elevating growth and survival of this fish species through feeding trials. No significant difference was found for the growth and survival between protease supplemented diet and basal diet (19.0%). The combination of sucrose, glutamic acid and glycine for the 0.5% supplemented diet produced a final fish weight close to values obtained by feeding the basal diet. Live Artemia nauplii diet fed to the larvae gave the best performance in both growth and survival.

  5. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Sixin; Rexroad, Caird E; Couch, Charlene R; Cordes, Jan F; Reece, Kimberly S; Sullivan, Craig V

    2012-04-01

    The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetics technologies in striped bass breeding programs, we previously developed nearly 500 microsatellite markers. The objectives of this study were to construct a microsatellite linkage map of striped bass and to examine conserved synteny between striped bass and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Of 480 microsatellite markers screened for polymorphism, 289 informative markers were identified and used to genotype two half-sib mapping families. Twenty-six linkage groups were assembled, and only two markers remain unlinked. The sex-averaged map spans 1,623.8 cM with an average marker density of 5.78 cM per marker. Among 287 striped bass microsatellite markers assigned to linkage groups, 169 (58.9%) showed homology to sequences on stickleback chromosomes or scaffolds. Comparison between the stickleback genome and the striped bass linkage map revealed conserved synteny between these two species. This is the first linkage map for any of the Morone species. This map will be useful for molecular mapping and marker-assisted selection of genes of interest in striped bass breeding programs. The conserved synteny between striped bass and stickleback will facilitate fine mapping of genome regions of interest and will serve as a new resource for comparative mapping with other Perciform fishes such as European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and tilapia (Oreochromis ssp.).

  6. Food and feeding habits of larval striped bass: an analysis of larval striped bass stomachs from 1976 Potomac Estuary collections. Potomac River fisheries program. Final report. [Morone saxatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Beaven, M.; Mihursky, J.

    1980-01-01

    The stomachs of 605 striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae collected from the Potomac River Estuary during the spring of 1976 were examined, and food organisms identified to species when possible. Copepods, cladocerans, and rotifers were the most abundant organisms found. Electivity indices indicated positive selection for the larger stages of copepods and cladocerans, and negative selection for copepod nauplii and most rotifer species, regardless of the size or stage of striped bass larvae.

  7. Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii sp. nov., a slowly growing chromogenic species isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; McNabb, A.; Deshayes, C.; Reyrat, J.-M.; Brown-Elliott, B. A.; Wallace, R.; Trott, K.A.; Parker, J.M.; Lifland, B.; Osterhout, G.; Kaattari, I.; Reece, K.; Vogelbein, W.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    A group of slowly growing photochromogenic mycobacteria was isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis) during an epizootic of mycobacteriosis. Growth characteristics, acid-fastness and 16S rRNA gene sequencing results were consistent with those of the genus Mycobacterium. Biochemical reactions, growth characteristics and mycolic acid profiles (HPLC) resembled those of Mycobacterium shottsii, a non-pigmented mycobacterium also isolated during the same epizootic. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, the gene encoding the exported repeated protein (erp) and the gene encoding the 65 kDa heat-shock protein (hsp65) and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene demonstrated that this group of isolates is unique. Insertion sequences associated with Mycobacterium ulcerans, IS2404 and IS2606, were detected by PCR. These isolates could be differentiated from other slowly growing pigmented mycobacteria by their inability to grow at 37 ??C, production of niacin and urease, absence of nitrate reductase, negative Tween 80 hydrolysis and resistance to isoniazid (1 ??g ml-1), p-nitrobenzoic acid, thiacetazone and thiophene-2-carboxylic hydrazide. On the basis of this polyphasic study, it is proposed that these isolates represent a novel species, Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii sp. nov. The type strain, L15T, has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection as ATCC BAA-883T and the National Collection of Type Cultures (UK) as NCTC 13318T. ?? 2005 IUMS.

  8. Transforming growth factor-beta response to mycobacterial infection in striped bass Morone saxatilis and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Howard, Kristina E; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Smith, Stephen A; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2003-10-15

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were experimentally infected with Mycobacterium marinum. Splenic mononuclear cell transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) mRNA was measured by reverse transcription quantitative-competitive PCR (RT-qcPCR). In histologic sections of liver and anterior kidney, the area of each section that was occupied by granulomas and the total area of each section were measured by computer-assisted image analysis and compared as a proportion (the granuloma proportion). Infected striped bass splenic mononuclear cell TGF-beta mRNA expression was significantly lower than uninfected controls, while for tilapia there was no significant difference between infected and control fish. Mycobacterial granuloma proportion of liver and anterior kidney sections was significantly greater for infected striped bass than tilapia. Three (of 10) infected tilapia with the most pronounced inflammatory response displayed a decrease in TGF-beta mRNA expression, similar to the overall striped bass response to mycobacterium challenge. Downregulation of TGF-beta and failure to modulate the immune response may be related to excessive inflammatory damage to organs observed in mycobacteria-sensitive fish species.

  9. Intestinal uptake of lipovitellin from brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) by larval inland silversides (Menidia beryllina) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Kishida, M; Johanning, K M; Bengtson, D A; Specker, J L

    1998-01-01

    Intestinal uptake of lipovitellin (LV) from brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in larval inland silversides (Menidia beryllina) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) was described using immunocytochemistry. Polyclonal antisera were raised against two subunits of LV (LV68 and LV190). When tested by immunocytochemistry, anti-LV68 showed cross-reactivity with some of the pancreatic cells especially in inland silversides. Therefore anti-LV190 was used to localize immunoreactive LV. Inland silversides at 14 days after hatching were fed Artemia nauplii and then sampled 4, 8, 12 hr after feeding. Similar experiments were carried out by using striped bass at 5 days and 15 days of age. They were sampled at 2, 4, 8, and 12 hr after feeding. Anterior enterocytes showed no evidence of uptake; however, the brush border of the cells of inland silversides reacted with the antiserum. Posterior enterocytes took up the LV and/or, possibly, their immunoreactive breakdown products. The pattern of uptake included accumulation in supranuclear vacuoles and digestion in supranuclear vacuoles, as suggested by the decay of the immunoreactivity over time. Thus, the posterior intestine of these larval fishes is the site of uptake and digestion of LV, an important nutritive component in the food of many larval fishes; this supports earlier findings using non-nutritive marker proteins.

  10. Mycobacteriosis-associated mortality in wild striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Latour, R J; Heisey, D M; Bonzek, C F; Gartland, J; Burge, E J; Vogelbein, W K

    2008-10-01

    The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is an economically and ecologically important finfish species along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States. Recent stock assessments in Chesapeake Bay (U.S.A.) indicate that non-fishing mortality in striped bass has increased since 1999, concomitant with very high (>50%) prevalence of visceral and dermal disease caused by Mycobacterium spp. Current fishery assessment models do not differentiate between disease and other components of non-fishing mortality (e.g., senescence, predation); therefore, disease impact on the striped bass population has not been established. Specific measurement of mortality associated with mycobacteriosis in wild striped bass is complicated because the disease is chronic and mortality is cryptic. Epidemiological models have been developed to estimate disease-associated mortality from cross-sectional prevalence data and have recently been generalized to represent disease processes more realistically. Here, we used this generalized approach to demonstrate disease-associated mortality in striped bass from Chesapeake Bay. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of cryptic mortality associated with a chronic infectious disease in a wild finfish. This finding has direct implications for management and stock assessment of striped bass, as it demonstrates population-level negative impacts of a chronic disease. Additionally, this research provides a framework by which disease-associated mortality may be specifically addressed within fisheries models for resource management.

  11. Ovary transcriptome profiling via artificial intelligence reveals a transcriptomic fingerprint predicting egg quality in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robert W; Reading, Benjamin J; Sullivan, Craig V

    2014-01-01

    Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233) representing <2% of the queried ovary transcriptome explained >90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold), with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1%) to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic "fingerprint". Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive

  12. Ovary Transcriptome Profiling via Artificial Intelligence Reveals a Transcriptomic Fingerprint Predicting Egg Quality in Striped Bass, Morone saxatilis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233) representing <2% of the queried ovary transcriptome explained >90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold), with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1%) to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic “fingerprint”. Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to

  13. Reconciling nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial marker estimates of population structure: breeding population structure of Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Brown, K M; Baltazar, G A; Hamilton, M B

    2005-06-01

    Comparative analyses of nuclear and organelle genetic markers may help delineate evolutionarily significant units or management units, although population differentiation estimates from multiple genomes can also conflict. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) are long-lived, highly migratory anadromous fish recently recovered from a severe decline in population size. Previous studies with protein, nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers produced discordant results, and it remains uncertain if the multiple tributaries within Chesapeake Bay constitute distinct management units. Here, 196 young-of-the-year (YOY) striped bass were sampled from Maryland's Choptank, Potomac and Nanticoke Rivers and the north end of Chesapeake Bay in 1999 and from Virginia's Mataponi and Rappahannock Rivers in 2001. A total of 10 microsatellite loci exhibited between two and 27 alleles per locus with observed heterozygosities between 0.255 and 0.893. The 10-locus estimate of R(ST) among the six tributaries was -0.0065 (95% confidence interval -0.0198 to 0.0018). All R(ST) and all but one theta estimates for pairs of populations were not significantly different from zero. Reanalysis of Chesapeake Bay striped bass mtDNA data from two previous studies estimated population differentiation between theta=-0.002 and 0.160, values generally similar to mtDNA population differentiation predicted from microsatellite R(ST) after adjusting for reduced effective population size and uniparental inheritance in organelle genomes. Based on mtDNA differentiation, breeding sex ratios or gene flow may have been slightly male biased in some years. The results reconcile conflicting past studies based on different types of genetic markers, supporting a single Chesapeake Bay management unit encompassing a panmictic striped bass breeding population.

  14. Aquatic Francisella-like bacterium associated with mortality of intensively cultured hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Ostland, V E; Stannard, J A; Creek, J J; Hedrick, R P; Ferguson, H W; Carlberg, J M; Westerman, M E

    2006-10-17

    The present study identifies an emerging disease associated with an aquatic Francisella-like bacterium that can cause mortality in hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis reared intensively in freshwater. Clinically affected fish were lethargic, had scattered haemorrhagic cutaneous lesions and diffuse gill pallor. The head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen and contained numerous interstitial granulomas; histological examination revealed small, pleomorphic Gram-negative coccobacilli within vacuolated cells. The bacterium could not be cultured from head kidney homogenates either with standard or enriched microbiological media or following inoculation of a Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE)-214 cell line. No amplification product was obtained from head kidney DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using Piscirickettsia salmonis-specific primers. PCR analysis of infected head kidney homogenate with primers designed for the eubacterial 16S rRNA produced a single amplicon. Phylogenetic analysis of this DNA sequence demonstrated that the sequence aligned most closely with members of the genus Francisella, identified from tilapia Oreochromis spp. in Taiwan and an aquatic Francisella species that was recently isolated from the three-line grunt Parapristipoma trilineatum in Japan. This Francisella-like disease was transmitted to naive hybrid striped bass fingerlings by intraperitoneal injection of tissue homogenates prepared from a natural outbreak. All fish developed gross and histological lesions identical to those from natural outbreaks. Intracellular Gram-negative bacteria were observed within the cytoplasm of cells (presumably macrophages) within the granulomas, but bacteria were not recovered. The 16S DNA sequence of the bacterium obtained from tissues of experimentally infected fish was identical to that obtained from the fish used as infected donor tissue.

  15. Assimilation and retention of selenium and other trace elements from crustacean food by juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baines, Stephen B.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Stewart, Robin

    2002-01-01

     Estimates of the assimilation and retention of trace elements from food by fish are useful for linking toxicity with the biogeochemical cycling of these elements through aquatic food webs. Here we use pulse-chase radiotracer techniques to estimate the assimilation and retention of Se and four trace metals, Ag, Am, Zn, and Cd, by 43- and 88-d-old juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, from crustacean food. Brine shrimp nauplii, Artemia franciscana, or adult copepods,Acartia tonsa, were fed radiolabeled diatoms and then fed to juvenile striped bass. Assimilation efficiencies (AEs ± SD) for 43-d-old fish were 18 ± 2%, 6 ± 1%, 23 ± 4%, 33 ± 3%, and 23 ± 2% for Ag, Am, Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively. For 88-d-old fish, the AEs were 28 ± 1%, 42 ± 5%, and 40 ± 5% for Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively. The higher AEs in the older fish may result from longer gut passage times for larger fish. The 44-d-old fish excreted 5 ± 0.8%, 4 ± 2.0%, 7 ± 0.3%, 9 ± 0.4%, and 1.3 ± 0.9% of the Ag, Am, Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively, they ingested from food per day, whereas the 88-d-old fish excreted 3 ± 1.0%, 8 ± 0.5%, and 3 ± 0.5% of the assimilated Cd, Se, and Zn per day, respectively. Predictions of steady state Se concentrations in juvenile striped bass tissues made using a biokinetic model and the measured AE and efflux rates ranged from 1.8 to 3.0 mg Se g-1dry wt for muscle tissue and 6.8 to 11.6 mg Se g-1 dry wt for gut tissue. These predictions agreed well with average values of 2.1 and 13 mg Se g-1 dry wt measured independently in North San Francisco Bay, where elevated Se concentrations are of concern. The model results imply that the planktonic food web, including juvenile striped bass, does not transfer Se as efficiently to top consumers as does the benthic food web.

  16. Disparate effects of constant and annually-cycling daylength and water temperature on reproductive maturation of striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.W.; Henderson-Arzapalo, A.; Sullivan, C.V.

    2005-01-01

    Adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) were exposed to various combinations of constant or anually-cycling daylength and water temperature. Constant conditions (15 h days, 18??C) were those normally experienced at spawning and cycling conditions simulated natural changes at Chesapeake Bay latitude. Females exposed to constant long (15 h) days and cycling water temperature (TEMPERATURE group) had blood plasma levels of sex steroids (testosterone [T] and estradiol-17?? [E2]) and vitellogenin (Vg), and profiles of oocyte growth, that were nearly identical to those of females held under a natural photothermal cycle (CONTROL group). Several fish from these two groups were induced to spawn fertile eggs. Females constantly exposed to warm water (18??C), with or without a natural photoperiod cycle (PHOTOPERIOD and STATIC groups, respectively), had diminished circulating levels of gonadal steroid hormones and Vg, impaired deposition of yolk granules in their ooplasm, and decreased oocyte growth, and they underwent premature ovarian atresia. Males exposed to cycling water temperature (CONTROL and TEMPERATURE groups) spermiated synchronously during the natural breeding season, at which time they also had had high plasma androgen (T and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]) levels. The timing of spermiation was highly asynchronous among males in groups of fish held constantly at 18??C (STATIC and PHOTOPERIOD groups) and this asynchrony was associated with diminished plasma androgen levels. Termination of spermiation by males exposed to cycling water temperature coincided with a sharp decline in levels of plasma androgens about a month after water temperature rose above 18??C. In contrast, most males held constantly at 18??C sustained intermediate levels of plasma androgens and spermiated until the end of the study in late July. The annual cycle of water temperature clearly plays a prominent role in the initiation, maintenance, and termination of the striped bass reproductive cycle. In

  17. Seasonal, locational and size variations in mercury and selenium levels in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2014-01-01

    We examined total mercury and selenium levels in muscle of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) collected from 2005 to 2008 from coastal New Jersey. Of primary interest was whether there were differences in mercury and selenium levels as a function of size and location, and whether the legal size limits increased the exposure of bass consumers to mercury. We obtained samples mainly from recreational anglers, but also by seine and trawl. For the entire sample (n = 178 individual fish), the mean (± standard error) for total mercury was 0.39 ± 0.02 μg/g (= 0.39 ppm, wet weight basis) with a maximum of 1.3 μg/g (= 1.3 ppm wet weight). Mean selenium level was 0.30 ± 0.01 μg/g (w/w) with a maximum of 0.9 μg/g). Angler-caught fish (n = 122) were constrained by legal size limits to exceed 61 cm (24 in.) and averaged 72.6 ± 1.3 cm long; total mercury averaged 0.48 ± 0.021 μg/g and selenium averaged 0.29 ± 0.01 μg/g. For comparable sizes, angler-caught fish had significantly higher mercury levels (0.3 vs 0.21 μg/g) than trawled fish. In both the total and angler-only samples, mercury was strongly correlated with length (Kendall tau = 0.37; p < 0.0001) and weight (0.38; p < 0.0001), but was not correlated with condition or with selenium. In the whole sample and all subsamples, total length yielded the highest r2 (up to 0.42) of any variable for both mercury and selenium concentrations. Trawled fish from Long Branch in August and Sandy Hook in October were the same size (68.9 vs 70.1 cm) and had the same mercury concentrations (0.22 vs 0.21 ppm), but different selenium levels (0.11 vs 0.28 ppm). The seined fish (all from Delaware Bay) had the same mercury concentration as the trawled fish from the Atlantic coast despite being smaller. Angler-caught fish from the North (Sandy Hook) were larger but had significantly lower mercury than fish from the South (mainly Cape May). Selenium levels were high in small fish, low in medium-sized fish, and increased again in larger

  18. Diversity in destinations, routes and timing of small adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis on their southward autumn migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, Martha E.; Finn, John T.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Savoy, Tom; Brundage, Harold M.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Almost three-quarters of the 46 young adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis that were acoustically tagged in Plum Island Estuary, Massachusetts, U.S.A., in the summer of 2006 were detected in one or more southern coastal arrays during their autumn migration. On the basis of the trajectories along which these M. saxatilis moved from feeding to overwintering areas, three migratory groups emerged. After leaving Plum Island Estuary, about half of the fish were detected only in a mid-latitude array, Long Island Sound. The other half of the tagged fish were detected during autumn and winter in a more southern array, the Delaware Estuary. This latter group of fish may have used two routes. Some travelled to the Delaware Estuary through Long Island Sound while other fish may have taken a second, more direct, coastal route that did not include Long Island Sound. Consequently, a seemingly homogeneous group of fish tagged at the same time in the same non-natal feeding location exhibited a diversity of southward movement patterns that could affect population-level processes. These three groups that differed in overwintering location and migration route could be movement contingents with migratory connectivity.

  19. Diversity in destinations, routes and timing of small adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis on their southward autumn migration.

    PubMed

    Mather, M E; Finn, J T; Pautzke, S M; Fox, D; Savoy, T; Brundage, H M; Deegan, L A; Muth, R M

    2010-12-01

    Almost three-quarters of the 46 young adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis that were acoustically tagged in Plum Island Estuary, Massachusetts, U.S.A., in the summer of 2006 were detected in one or more southern coastal arrays during their autumn migration. On the basis of the trajectories along which these M. saxatilis moved from feeding to overwintering areas, three migratory groups emerged. After leaving Plum Island Estuary, about half of the fish were detected only in a mid-latitude array, Long Island Sound. The other half of the tagged fish were detected during autumn and winter in a more southern array, the Delaware Estuary. This latter group of fish may have used two routes. Some travelled to the Delaware Estuary through Long Island Sound while other fish may have taken a second, more direct, coastal route that did not include Long Island Sound. Consequently, a seemingly homogeneous group of fish tagged at the same time in the same non-natal feeding location exhibited a diversity of southward movement patterns that could affect population-level processes. These three groups that differed in overwintering location and migration route could be movement contingents with migratory connectivity. Journal of Fish Biology © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. No claim to original US government works.

  20. Low prevalence of splenic mycobacteriosis in migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis from North Carolina and Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Matsche, Mark A; Overton, Anthony; Jacobs, John; Rhodes, Matt R; Rosemary, Kevin M

    2010-07-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a chronic bacterial disease causing an ongoing epizootic in striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. Prevalence of disease is high in pre-migratory fish, and multiple species of Mycobacterium spp. have been isolated. However, prevalence of mycobacteriosis in the coastal migratory population is unknown and is of concern to multiple coastal states, as disease-related mortality may impact the long-term health of the population. Histological examinations of spleens collected from fish caught by recreational anglers during the winter fishery in coastal North Carolina (2005-2006, n=249) and during the spring fishery in Chesapeake Bay (2006, n=120) indicated a low prevalence of mycobacteriosis (6.8% of all fish examined) in comparison to smaller, pre-migratory Chesapeake Bay fish. Genus-level PCR and subsequent sequencing of the 16-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed that all bacteria were phylogenetically related, but species is unknown. Location of survey, gender of fish, and total length of fish had no significant effect on prevalence of mycobacteriosis, parasitic granulomas, or the density of splenic granulomas (p > 0.05). These results may indicate that either granulomas resolve after Chesapeake Bay fish enter the coastal migratory population, or that there is disease-related mortality among pre-migratory Chesapeake Bay fish.

  1. The effects of prebiotics on the digestive enzymes and gut histomorphology of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Anguiano, Maritza; Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Gatlin, Delbert M

    2013-02-28

    The effects of four prebiotics (fructo-oligosaccharide, Bio-MOS, transgalacto-oligosaccharide and GroBiotic-A) on digestive enzymes and intestinal morphology were studied in juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using two separate 8-week feeding trials. Red drum were fed experimental diets with the four prebiotics each individually supplemented at 1% and hybrid striped bass were fed diets supplemented with GroBiotic-A at 1 and 2%. Both trials were conducted with each diet fed to apparent satiation twice per d to three replicate groups of fifteen juvenile fish. For histomorphological analysis, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) samples from three randomly selected fish per tank were taken at 4 and 8 weeks for hybrid striped bass and at 8 weeks for red drum. For both trials, GIT samples from two randomly selected fish per tank were taken at 4 and 8 weeks and analysed for pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, aminopeptidase, α-amylase, lipase, and both acid and alkaline phosphatase activities. The results of the histological evaluation indicated that the inclusion of prebiotics was adequate to elicit structural changes in the GIT of both species. On the other hand, no significant changes in the enzyme activities were detected at week 8 in both species. However, there was a transient effect of Bio-MOS supplementation on the activities of aminopeptidase, α-amylase and alkaline phosphatase at week 4 in red drum only. Thus, previously observed improvements in nutrient digestibility by these fish in response to prebiotic supplementation appear to be mostly related to changes in GIT structure as opposed to the enhancement of digestive enzyme activity.

  2. Evolution of an MHC class Ia gene fragment in four North American Morone species.

    PubMed

    Liu, J-X; Ely, B

    2010-05-01

    A nucleotide sequence analysis of a fragment of a Morone MHC class Ia gene detected high levels of polymorphism in striped bass Morone saxatilis, white perch Morone americana and yellow bass Morone mississippiensis. Extremely low levels of MHC diversity, however, were detected in white bass Morone chrysops, suggesting the possibility of a severe population bottleneck for this species.

  3. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and tautog (Tautoga onitis) from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA).

    PubMed

    Piraino, Maria N; Taylor, David L

    2009-04-01

    We examined the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury in two marine finfish species, striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and tautog (Tautoga onitis), collected from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA). For each of these target fish, white muscle tissue was analyzed for total mercury (Hg) and results were evaluated relative to fish age, body size, and Hg content of preferred prey. Dietary and stable isotope analysis was also used to elucidate the effect of trophic processes on Hg concentrations in fish. The Hg content of muscle tissue was positively correlated with fish age and length for both species, although striped bass accumulated Hg faster than tautog. Accelerated Hg bioaccumulation in striped bass is consistent with its high trophic level (trophic level = 4.07) and Hg-enriched prey (forage fish and macrocrustaceans; mean Hg content = 0.03 mg Hg kg wet wt(-1)). In contrast, tautog maintain a lower trophic status (trophic level=3.51) and consume prey with lower Hg levels (mussels and crabs; mean Hg content = 0.02 mg Hg kg wet wt(-1)). Despite differences in Hg bioaccumulation between target fish, the mean Hg concentration of tautog exceeded levels in striped bass (0.24 and 0.16 mg Hg kg wet wt(-1), respectively) due to a disparity in age-at-catch between sampled groups (mean age of tautog and bass = 11.3 and 4.3 yr, respectively). Taking into account legal minimum catch lengths further revealed that 75.0% of legal-size striped bass (>70.2 cm TL; n = 4) and 44.8% of tautog (> 40.6 cm TL; n = 29) had Hg levels beyond the US EPA regulatory threshold of 0.3 mg Hg kg wet wt(-1). Moreover, Hg-length relationships suggest that each target fish meets this threshold near their minimum legal catch length. Our findings reiterate the value of species ecology to improve predictions of fish Hg and permit better management of human contamination by this important dietary source.

  4. First description of the gravid female of Philometra rubra (Leidy, 1856) (Nematoda: Philometridae), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of temperate basses Morone Spp. (Moronidae: Perciformes) in North America.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; de Buron, Isaure; Measures, Lena

    2013-06-01

    Gravid females of the little-known nematode species Philometra rubra ( Leidy, 1856 ) (Philometridae) are described from specimens from the abdominal cavity of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), in South Carolina and Canada. The specimens were studied with the use of light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is mainly characterized by the distribution and different sizes of cephalic papillae from the external circle, which is a unique feature compared to other philometrids. Other characteristic features are the shape of the posterior end of body, size and location of caudal projections, and the presence of a well-developed anterior esophageal inflation. The morphology of the male of P. rubra and the life cycle of this nematode are still unknown.

  5. Development and testing of a pedigree marking system using visible implant elastomer tags for selective improvement in Morone breeding programmes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development and testing of a visible implant elastomer (VIE) pedigree marking system was evaluated in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis, and white bass, Morone chrysops (Rafinesque). VIE tags were tested in sunshine bass fingerlings at one of six body locations (posterior to left or...

  6. Comparison of growth between Morone hybrids (palmetto & sunshine)in earthen ponds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Palmetto bass are produced by crossing the female striped bass, Morone saxatilis with the male white bass, M. chrysops; whereas, the sunshine bass is the reciprocal cross. The hybrid striped bass industry typically rears sunshine bass in earthen ponds, because of the ease of handling, availability,...

  7. Eustrongylides ignotus infecting commercial bass (Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male) and other fishes in the southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eustongylides ignotus are conspicuous as long, red, coiled nematodes located in the body cavity or embedded in the muscle of fish. They have a complex life cycle that involves aquatic birds as definitive hosts, oligochaetes as the first intermediate host, and usually fish as the second intermediate...

  8. Isolation of RNA from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spermatozoa: implications for teleost male fertility and beyond?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vertebrate sperm has been shown to provide more than paternal genomic material to the oocyte. For example, specific transcripts have been identified in bull sperm associated with fertility and with motility in boar sperm. Very little is currently known about functional, residual RNA in spermatozoa a...

  9. Effect of salinity on expression of branchial ion transporters in striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Madsen, Steffen Søndergaard; Borski, Russell John

    2004-12-01

    The time course of osmoregulatory adjustments and expressional changes of three key ion transporters in the gill were investigated in the striped bass during salinity acclimations. In three experiments, fish were transferred from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW), from SW to FW, and from 15-ppt brackish water (BW) to either FW or SW, respectively. Each transfer induced minor deflections in serum [Na+] and muscle water content, both being corrected rapidly (24 hr). Transfer from FW to SW increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and Na+,K+,2Cl- co-transporter expression after 3 days. Abundance of Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit mRNA and protein was unchanged. Changes in Na+,K+,2Cl- co-transporter protein were preceded by increased mRNA expression after 24 hr. Expression of V-type H+-ATPase mRNA decreased after 3 days. Transfer from SW to FW induced no change in expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPase. However, Na+,K+,2Cl- co-transporter mRNA and protein levels decreased after 24 hr and 7 days, respectively. Expression of H+-ATPase mRNA increased in response to FW after 7 days. In BW fish transferred to FW and SW, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was stimulated by both challenges, suggesting both a hyper- and a hypo-osmoregulatory response of the enzyme. Acclimation of striped bass to SW occurs on a rapid time scale. This seems partly to rely on the relative high abundance of gill Na+,K+-ATPase and Na+,K+,2Cl- co-transporter in FW fish. In a separate study, we found a smaller response to SW in expression of these ion transport proteins in striped bass when compared with the less euryhaline brown trout. In both FW and SW, NEM-sensitive gill H+-ATPase activity was negligible in striped bass and approximately 10-fold higher in brown trout. This suggests that in striped bass Na+-uptake in FW may rely more on a relatively high abundance/activity of Na+,K+-ATPase compared to trout, where H+-ATPase is critical for establishing a thermodynamically favorable gradient for Na+-uptake.

  10. Genetic population structure of US atlantic coastal striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Gauthier, David T; Audemard, Corinne A; Carlsson, Jeanette E L; Darden, Tanya L; Denson, Michael R; Reece, Kimberly S; Carlsson, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Genetic population structure of anadromous striped bass along the US Atlantic coast was analyzed using 14 neutral nuclear DNA microsatellites. Young-of-the-year and adult striped bass (n = 1114) were sampled from Hudson River, Delaware River, Chesapeake Bay, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Analyses indicated clear population structure with significant genetic differentiation between all regions. Global multilocus F ST was estimated at 0.028 (P < 0.001). Population structure followed an isolation-by-distance model and temporal sampling indicated a stable population structure more than 2 years at all locations. Significant structure was absent within Hudson River, whereas weak but significant genetic differences were observed between northern and southern samples in Chesapeake Bay. The largest and smallest effective striped bass population sizes were found in Chesapeake Bay and South Carolina, respectively. Coalescence analysis indicated that the highest historical gene flow has been between Chesapeake Bay and Hudson River populations, and that exchange has not been unidirectional. Bayesian analysis of contemporary migration indicated that Chesapeake Bay serves as a major source of migrants for Atlantic coastal regions from Albemarle Sound northward. In addition to examining population genetic structure, the data acquired during this project were capable of serving as a baseline for assigning fish with unknown origin to source region.

  11. Temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis: effects on adult striped bass Morone saxatilis metabolic performance.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dominique; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Fabrizio, Mary C; Gauthier, David T; Brill, Richard W

    2014-02-19

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial disease of fishes, is prevalent in adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay (USA). Although environmental factors may play a role in disease expression, the interaction between the disease and environmental stress remains unexplored. We therefore examined the individual and interactive effects of elevated temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis on the metabolism of wild-caught adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay using respirometry. Because the spleen is the primary target organ of mycobacteriosis in striped bass, we hypothesized that the disease interferes with the ability of fish to increase their hematocrit in the face of increasing oxygen demands. We determined standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate under normoxia (MMRN), critical oxygen saturation (S(crit)), and MMR under hypoxia (3 mg O(2) l-1: MMR(H)) for healthy and visibly diseased fish (i.e. exhibiting skin lesions indicative of mycobacteriosis). Measurements were taken at a temperature within the preferred thermal range (20°C) and at an elevated temperature (28°C) considered stressful to striped bass. In addition, we calculated aerobic scope (AS(N) = MMR(N) - SMR, AS(H) = MMR(H) - SMR) and factorial scope (FS(N) = MMR(N) SMR-1, FS(H) = MMR(H) SMR-1). SMR increased with increasing temperature, and hypoxia reduced MMR, AS, and FS. Mycobacteriosis alone did not affect either MMR(N) or MMR(H). However, elevated temperature affected the ability of diseased striped bass to tolerate hypoxia (S(crit)). Overall, our data indicate that striped bass performance under hypoxia is impaired, and that elevated water temperatures, hypoxia, and severe mycobacteriosis together reduce aerobic scope more than any of these stressors acting alone. We conclude that the scope for activity of diseased striped bass in warm hypoxic waters is significantly compromised.

  12. Historical presence (1975-1985) of mycobacteriosis in Chesapeake Bay striped bass Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, John M; Howard, Dorothy W; Rhodes, Matt R; Newman, Martin W; May, Eric B; Harrell, Reginal M

    2009-07-23

    A retrospective analysis of archived tissue blocks has revealed that mycobacteriosis was apparent in Chesapeake Bay striped bass as early as 1984. Of 37 cases available from the years 1975 to 1985, 2 fish were found positive based on histopathology and genus-specific PCR. Multi-gene sequencing places the bacteria from the 2 positive cases (1984 and 1985) within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis clade with closest resemblance to the recently described fish pathogen M. pseudoshottsii. Our data confirms that mycobacteriosis is not a new disease of Chesapeake Bay striped bass and underscores the value of archived tissues in epidemiological examinations.

  13. STABLE ISOPTOPE RATIOS IN ARCHIVED STRIPED BASS SCALES SUGGEST CHANGES IN TROPHIC STRUCTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon isotope ratios were measured in archived striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), scales to identify changes in the feeding behaviour of this species over time. Striped bass tissue and scale samples were collected from Rhode Island coastal waters during 1996 and ar...

  14. Conserved and variant molecular and functional features of multiple egg yolk precursor proteins (vitellogenins) in white perch (Morone americana) and other teleosts.

    PubMed

    Reading, Benjamin J; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Sawaguchi, Sayumi; Matsubara, Takahiro; Hara, Akihiko; Lively, Mark O; Sullivan, Craig V

    2009-01-01

    Three complete cDNAs encoding different forms of vitellogenin (Vtg) were isolated from a white perch (Morone americana) liver cDNA library and characterized with respect to immunobiochemical and functional features of the three Vtgs and their product yolk proteins (YPs) in this species and in the congeneric striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The two longest cDNAs encoded Vtgs with a complete suite of yolk protein domains that, based on comparisons with vtg sequences from other species, were categorized as VtgAa and VtgAb using the current nomenclature for multiple teleost Vtgs. The shorter cDNA encoded a Vtg that lacked a phosvitin domain, had a shortened C-terminus, and was categorized as VtgC. Mapping of peptide sequences from the purified Vtgs and their derived YPs to Vtg sequences deduced from the cDNAs definitively identified the white perch VtgAa, VtgAb, and VtgC proteins. Detailed comparisons of the primary structures of each Vtg with partial or complete sequences of Morone yolk proteins or of Vtgs from other fishes revealed conserved and variant structural elements of teleost Vtgs with functional significance, including, as examples, signal peptide cleavage sites, dimerization sites, cathepsin D protease recognition sites, and receptor-binding domains. These comparisons also yielded an interim revision of the classification scheme for multiple teleost Vtgs.

  15. Eustrongylides ignotus as a cause of mortality in commercially produced fish; Sunshine bass (Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male) and other fishes in the southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conspicuous long, red, coiled nematodes Eustongylides ignotus locate in the body cavity or embed in the muscle of fish. These nematodes have a complex life cycle that involve aquatic birds as definitive hosts, oligochaetes as the first intermediate host, and usually fish as the second intermediate ...

  16. Partial replacement of menhaden oil with Alaskan pollack viceral meal in striped bass Morone saxatilis and sunshine bass M. chrysops X M. saxatilis diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The recovery of waste by-products from the Alaskan fishery and use in fish feeds can potentially reduce pressure on fish harvested for animal feed applications. However, little data exist evaluating these by-products in moronid diets. Striped bass and sunshine bass growth, body composition, and imm...

  17. Kisspeptin Antagonists Reveal Kisspeptin 1 and Kisspeptin 2 Differential Regulation of Reproduction in the Teleost, Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Stubblefield, John David; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Millar, Robert Peter; Zohar, Yonathan

    2015-09-01

    The importance of kisspeptin in regulating vertebrate reproduction has been well established, but the exact mechanism continues to unfold. Unlike mammals, many lower vertebrates possess a dual kisspeptin system, Kiss1 and Kiss2. To decipher the roles of the kisspeptins in fish, we identified two potential kisspeptin antagonists, pep 234 and pep 359, by screening analogs for their ability to inactivate striped bass Kiss1 and Kiss2 receptors expressed in COS7 cells. Pep 234 (a mammalian KISS1 antagonist) antagonizes Kiss1r signaling activated by Kiss1 and Kiss2, and pep 359 (a novel analog) antagonizes Kiss2 activation of both receptors. In vitro studies using brain slices demonstrated that only Kiss2 can upregulate the expression of the hypophysiotropic gnrh1, which was subsequently diminished by pep 234 and pep 359. In primary pituitary cell cultures, the two antagonists revealed a complex network of putative endogenous and exogenous regulation by kisspeptin. While both kisspeptins stimulate Fsh expression and secretion, Kiss2 predominately induces Lh secretion. Pep 234 and 359 treatment of spawning males hindered sperm production. This effect was accompanied with decreased brain gnrh1 and gnrh2 mRNA levels and peptide content in the pituitary, and increased levels of pituitary Lh, probably due to attenuation of Lh release. Strikingly, the mRNA levels of arginine-vasotocin, the neurons of which in the preoptic area coexpress kiss2r, were dramatically reduced by the antagonists. Our results demonstrate differential actions of Kiss1 and Kiss2 systems along the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and interactions with other neuropeptides, and further reinforce the importance of kisspeptin in the execution of spawning.

  18. The dietary branched chain amino acid requirements of hybrid striped bass(Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The requirements for branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are unknown in hybrid striped bass and necessary for formulating efficient and nutritious diets. Moreover, the dietary balance among these three amino acids can substantially influence the performance of meat animals fed those diets. The diet...

  19. Biotelemetry study of spring and summer habitat selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1978. [Morone saxatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, B.A.; Coutant, C.C.

    1980-08-01

    Habitat selection of 31 adult striped bass was monitored by temperature sensing ultrasonic and radio transmitters in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, from March through October 1978. This study sought to corroborate summer data obtained by Waddle (1979) in 1977 and to examine mechanisms of habitat selection by observing establishment of the summer distribution. During the spring and early summer months the striped bass ranged throughout the study area in the downstream half of the reservoir. Fish stayed near the bottom at the preferred temperatures throughout the whole study, and no individuals were observed in open water. Movement rates of up to 2.6 km/day were estimated, and rates of 1 km/day were common in the spring. By late July they were apparently avoiding low dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations (<3 mg/l) near the bottom of the main reservoir and epilimnion temperatures greater than 22/sup 0/C, and they moved into cool, oxygenated spring or creek channels (refuges). Low movement rates of 0 to 25 m/day within these refuges occurred. The rates of the few migrations between refuges could not be estimated. Tagged fish moved out of the refuges 3 to 4 weeks after the fall overturn when reservoir temperatures approximated 22 to 24/sup 0/C.

  20. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF BREVETOXIN AND B-NAPHTHOFLAVONE ON XENOBIOTIC METABOLIZING ENZYMES IN STRIPED BASS (MORONE SAXATILIS). (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Estrogenic responses of larval sunshine bass (Morone saxatilis x M. Chrysops) exposed to New York City sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Julia R; Elskus, Adria A; Schlenk, Daniel; Ferguson, P Lee; Brownawell, Bruce J; McElroy, Anne E

    2002-01-01

    To determine the estrogenicity of effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) to larval fish, 2-day-old sunshine bass were exposed to effluents from three STPs serving New York City (NYC), varying in size and treatment level. Estrogenic response was evaluated by measuring vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor (ER) expression in cytosolic fractions of whole body homogenates. Concentrations of the presumptive endocrine disruptors in the effluents were also measured. VTG and ER levels in sewage-exposed fish were 3-5 times that observed in controls. Combined concentrations of estradiol and estrone ranged from 5 to 13 ng/l and nonylphenol-ethoxylate metabolites (NPEOs: 4-nonylphenol, and 1-, 2-, and 3-nonylphenol-ethoxylates) ranged from 180 to 470 microg/l in chlorinated effluent. Results indicate that both ER and VTG can be used as biomarkers for endocrine disruption in larval fish, and that 4-day exposure to sewage effluent is sufficient to elicit significant expression of these markers in sunshine bass larvae. The extremely higher concentrations of NPEOs found in effluent relative to hormones (approximately 40,000-fold) indicates that surfactant metabolites may be contributing significantly to the estrogenic effects observed.

  2. Multiple vitellogenins and product yolk proteins in striped bass, Morone saxatilis: molecular characterization and processing during oocyte growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Williams, V N; Reading, B J; Hiramatsu, N; Amano, H; Glassbrook, N; Hara, A; Sullivan, C V

    2014-04-01

    The multiple vitellogenin (Vtg) system of striped bass, a perciform species spawning nearly neutrally buoyant eggs in freshwater, was investigated. Vitellogenin cDNA cloning, Western blotting of yolk proteins (YPs) using Vtg and YP type-specific antisera, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of the YPs revealed the complex mechanisms of yolk formation and maturation in this species. It was discovered that striped bass possesses a tripartite Vtg system (VtgAa, VtgAb, and VtgC) in which all three forms of Vtg make a substantial contribution to the yolk. The production of Vtg-derived YPs is generally similar to that described for other perciforms. However, novel amino-terminal labeling of oocyte YPs prior to MS/MS identified multiple alternative sites for cleavage of these proteins from their parent Vtg, revealing a YP mixture far more complex than reported previously. This approach also revealed that the major YP product of each form of striped bass Vtg, lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH), undergoes limited degradation to smaller polypeptides during oocyte maturation, unlike the case in marine fishes spawning buoyant eggs in which LvHAa undergoes extensive proteolysis to osmotically active free amino acids. These differences likely reflect the lesser need for hydration of pelagic eggs spawned in freshwater. The detailed characterization of Vtgs and their proteolytic fate(s) during oocyte growth and maturation establishes striped bass as a freshwater model for investigating teleost multiple Vtg systems.

  3. Lysine optimization of a commercial fishmeal-free diet for hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substitution of fishmeal with alternate proteins in aquafeeds often results in dietary imbalances of firstlimiting essential amino acids (EAA) and poorer fish performance. This growth trial was undertaken to test the hypothesis that ideal protein theory accurately predicts first-limiting amino acids...

  4. Lysine optimization of a commercial fishmeal-free diet for hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substitution of fishmeal with alternate proteins in aquafeeds often results in dietary imbalances of first-limiting essential amino acids (EAA) and poorer fish performance. This 12-week growth trial was undertaken to test the hypothesis that ideal protein theory accurately predicts first-limiting am...

  5. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana)

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Justin; Loziuk, Philip L.; Muddiman, David C.; Daniels, Harry V.; Reading, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    The three white perch (Morone americana) vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC) were quantified accurately and precisely in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-, early-, mid-, and post-vitellogenic oocyte growth using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS). Western blotting generally mirrored the PC-IDMS results. By PC-IDMS, VtgC was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic ovary tissues and VtgAb was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic liver tissues however, neither protein was detected by western blotting in these respective tissues at this time point. Immunohistochemistry indicated that VtgC was present within pre-vitellogenic oocytes and localized to lipid droplets within vitellogenic oocytes. Affinity purification coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using highly purified VtgC as a bait protein revealed a single specific interacting protein (Y-box binding protein 2a-like [Ybx2a-like]) that eluted with suramin buffer and confirmed that VtgC does not bind the ovary vitellogenin receptors (LR8 and Lrp13). Western blotting for LR8 and Lrp13 showed that both receptors were expressed during vitellogenesis with LR8 and Lrp13 expression highest in early- and mid-vitellogenesis, respectively. The VtgAa within the ovary peaked during post-vitellogenesis, while VtgAb peaked during early-vitellogenesis in both white perch and the closely related striped bass (M. saxatilis). The VtgC was steadily accumulated by oocytes beginning during pre-vitellogenesis and continued until post-vitellogenesis and its composition varies widely between striped bass and white perch. In striped bass, the VtgC accounted for 26% of the vitellogenin-derived egg yolk, however in the white perch it comprised only 4%. Striped bass larvae have an extended developmental window and these larvae have yolk stores that may enable them to survive in the absence of food for twice as long as white perch after hatch. Thus, the VtgC may play an integral role in providing nutrients to late stage

  6. Cholangioma in white perch (Morone americana) from the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Bunton, T E; Baksi, S M

    1988-01-01

    Cholangiomas found in two of 21 wild-caught white perch (Morone americana) from the Chesapeake Bay are described. The two fish were part of a study investigating a condition of abnormal hepatic copper storage in this species. The tumors were superficial, solitary masses consisting of cuboidal to columnar cells in tubuloglandular arrangement. Mild to marked peribiliary inflammation and fibrosis was seen also. Environmental pollution, the condition of abnormal copper storage, peribiliary fibrosis, and/or parasites may have contributed to the development of these tumors.

  7. Inhibition of the Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle by moronic acid.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Rong; Hsieh, Yi-Chung; Chang, Yung-Fu; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Li-Kwan

    2010-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expresses two transcription factors, Rta and Zta, during the immediate-early stage of the lytic cycle to activate the transcription of viral lytic genes. Our immunoblotting and flow cytometry analyses find that moronic acid, found in galls of Rhus chinensis and Brazilian propolis, at 10microM inhibits the expression of Rta, Zta, and an EBV early protein, EA-D, after lytic induction with sodium butyrate. This study also finds that moronic acids inhibits the capacity of Rta to activate a promoter that contains an Rta-response element, indicating that moronic acid interferes with the function of Rta. On the other hand, moronic acid does not appear to influence with the transactivation function of Zta. Therefore, the lack of expression of Zta and EA-D after moronic acid treatment is attributable to the inhibition of the transactivation functions of Rta. Because the expression of Zta, EA-D and many EBV lytic genes depends on Rta, the treatment of P3HR1 cells with moronic acid substantially reduces the numbers of EBV particles produced by the cells after lytic induction. This study suggests that moronic acid is a new structural lead for anti-EBV drug development.

  8. Effect of contrasting agents on survival, performance, and condition of larval hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis in tanks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contrasting agents, either algae or inert soil, cause turbidity, which is important in the tank culture of larval cannibalistic fish. Optimization of turbidity is critical to successful tank culture of new larval fish, which should include 100 mg/L of sub 5 um particle size in the assessed range. ...

  9. Lysine supplementation of commercial fishmeal-free diet in hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis affects expression of growth related genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our recent results in hybrid striped bass (HSB) concluded that ideal protein theory accurately predicts first-limiting amino acids in commercial diet formulations if accurate amino acid availability data are used and that appropriate levels of supplemental lysine are needed in order to improve fish ...

  10. Effects of frozen and liquid hypothermic storage and extender type on calcium homeostasis in relation to viability and ATP content in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, H D; Welch, G R; Woods, L C

    2014-05-01

    The effect of hypothermic storage on striped bass sperm calcium homeostasis was determined by Fluo-3 flow cytometry. Calcium homeostasis was defined as the ability of cells to maintain a low concentration of intracellular free calcium as measured by Fluo-3 fluorescence. Sperm were stored frozen in striped bass extender (SBE) and Tris-NaCl medium (T350) modified with 50 mM glycine and 7.5% dimethylsulfoxide and in nonfrozen form diluted 1:3 (vol/vol) in SBE and T350 for 1, 24, and 48 hours at 4 °C in an oxygen atmosphere. Fluo-3 fluorescence was detected in less than 5% of fresh viable sperm cells indicating maintenance of calcium homeostasis. In contrast to sperm in fresh semen, frozen-thawed and nonfrozen sperm cells lost to a considerable extent the ability to maintain low intracellular free calcium even in the absence of exogenous calcium; positive Fluo-3 fluorescence was found in 26% and 39% of thawed sperm frozen in SBE- and T350-based freezing diluents, respectively, and increased (P < 0.05) to 67% during nonfrozen storage in SBE and T350 at 24 and 48 hours. Sperm viability measured by exclusion of propidium iodide by flow cytometry was 99% in fresh milt and maintained at 86% (P > 0.05) in SBE after 48 hours of nonfrozen storage but decreased (P < 0.05) to 55.7% after 48 hours in T350. Energy status in terms of ATP content, determined by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay, was higher (P < 0.05) in sperm frozen in SBE than in T350 during the first 5 minutes post-thaw and decreased to essentially zero by 15 minutes post-thaw and did not differ among nonfrozen storage treatments. In conclusion, sperm cells impervious to propidium iodide after frozen or nonfrozen storage were unable to maintain low intracellular calcium content. SBE is a better medium than T350 for frozen or nonfrozen storage of striped bass sperm. The inability to regulate intracellular calcium in striped bass sperm may be associated with poor activation of motility after 4 °C storage and cryopreservation.

  11. The Safety of AQUAFLOR (50% Florfenicol; Type A Medicated Article) Administered in feed to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial diseases are a major problem in aquaculture and account for significant losses of fish (Clarke and Scott 1989; Frerichs and Roberts 1989; Bjorndal 1990). Therefore, the use of antimicrobial therapy plays an important role in aquaculture (Klontz 1987; Alderman 1988). Florfenicol (FFC) is a...

  12. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediment and livers of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Cashman, J.R.; Nishioka, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made in 1992 of chlorinated organic compounds in sediments and in livers of striped bass from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. Samples of sediment and striped bass livers contained DDT (ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-) and its degradation products, DDD (ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-) and DDE (ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-); PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls); alpha and gamma chlordane, and cis and trans nonachlor. In addition, the livers of striped bass contained small concentrations of DCPA (dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate), a pre-emergent herbicide. Agricultural run-off from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, as well as atmospheric deposition, are probably responsible for a low chronic background of DDT in sediments throughout San Francisco Bay. Larger concentrations of DDT in sediment near Richmond in the Central Bay, and Coyote Creek in the South Bay may be derived from point sources. Ratios of pentachloro isomers of PCBs to hexachloro isomers in the South Bay sediments were different from those in the Central and North Bay, suggesting either differences in microbial activity in the sediments or different source inputs of PCBs. Concentrations of alpha chlordane in livers of striped bass were greater than those of gamma chlordane, which suggests a greater environmental stability and persistence of alpha chlordane. Trans nonachlor, a minor component of technical chlorodane, was present in greater concentrations than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor. Trans nonachlor is more resistant to metabolism than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor, and serves as an environmentally stable marker compound of chlordane contamination in the estuary. Chlorinated organic compounds have bioaccumulated in the livers of striped bass. These compounds may contribute to the decline of the striped bass in San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary.

  13. Effects of hypothermic storage of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm on intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species formation, mitochondrial function, motility, and viability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of hypothermic 24 h storage of striped bass sperm cells on viability, intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), mitochondrial membrane potential (D'm), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation (oxidation of hydroethidine to ethidium) as determined by flow cy...

  14. Effect of contrasting agents on survival, performance, and condition of larval hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis in tanks.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Turbidity is important in the tank culture of larval cannibalistic fish. The principal goal of these studies were to characterize the utility and feasibility of select contrasting agents, either algae or inert soil, at improving sunshine bass survival and uniformity of size at time of weaning to an ...

  15. Modification of fillet composition and evidence of differential fatty acid turnover in sunshine bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis following change in dietary lipid source.

    PubMed

    Lane, Ryan L; Trushenski, Jesse T; Kohler, Christopher C

    2006-11-01

    Marine oil-based finishing diets have been used to restore fillet FA profile in several "medium-fat" fleshed aquaculture species, and a simple dilution model describing FA turnover has been established to predict and tailor final fillet composition. We evaluated finishing diet efficacy and suitability of the dilution model to describe patterns of FA change in a lean-fleshed model, sunshine bass. Two practical diets (45% crude protein, 15% crude lipid) were formulated, respectively containing corn oil (CO) or menhaden oil (MO) as the primary lipid sources. Sunshine bass (age 1 [approximately 14 mo], 347 +/- 8.6 g, mean individual weight +/- SEM) were stocked in a recirculating system and fed the diets according to different feeding regimens during the final 28 wk of the production cycle. Control groups were fed the CO or the MO feeds exclusively; whereas, the remaining treatment groups were transitioned from the CO diet to the MO diet at 4-, 8-, or 12-wk intervals. Upon completion of the feeding trial, fish were harvested, and production performance and fillet composition were assessed. Replacing MO with CO as the primary lipid source in sunshine bass diets yielded fillets with distinctly different FA profiles; however, finishing with a MO-based diet offered significant compensation for CO-associated reductions in fillet long-chain highly unsaturated FA (LC-HUFA). Although complete restoration was not observed, we achieved significant augmentation of endogenous n-3 FA within 4 wk of feeding the MO diet, and observed a significant increase in LC-HUFA and a beneficial shift in n-3:n-6 FA ratio after 8 weeks. Simple dilution accurately predicted tissue composition for most FA; however, deviations from the model were noted, suggesting selective retention of n-3, PUFA, and LC-HUFA and preferential catabolism of saturates. We conclude marine oil-based finishing diets can rapidly augment beneficial FA levels in sunshine bass fillets; however, simple dilution models do not fully describe selective FA metabolism observed for this lean-fleshed fish.

  16. Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from marine and estuarine waters of New York State determined by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bush, B; Streeter, R W; Sloan, R J

    1990-01-01

    Edible filets of striped-bass samples (60) from the Hudson River estuary, the Atlantic shore of Long Island, and Long Island Sound were analyzed by high-resolution glass-capillary gas chromatography for 74 polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) compounds. The fish, a non-random subset of a larger sample, contained the following concentrations of total PCB residue (mean +/- the standard error of the mean). The corresponding mean values for the entire survey (N = 717) are given in parentheses: eastern Long Island Sound 1.8 +/- 0.4 (1.91 +/- 0.1) mg/kg; western Long Island Sound, 1.9 +/- 0.2 (2.51 +/- 0.1) mg/kg; eastern Atlantic shore, 3.0 +/- 0.5 (2.45 +/- 0.2) mg/kg; western Atlantic shore, 7.5 +/- 1.9 (3.04 +/- 0.2) mg/kg; Hudson River, 15 +/- 3 (6.19 +/- 0.4) mg/kg. All the samples contained PCB residues derived from Aroclors 1242, 1016, 1254, and 1260 but none of the residue present came from Aroclor 1221 as evidenced by the complete absence of 4-chlorobiphenyl from the fish. Fish from the Hudson River and the majority from the Atlantic shore of Long Island contained 2,2'- and 2,6-dichlorobiphenyls indicating recent exposure to Hudson River PCBs. On this basis, there was evidence that a subpopulation of fish was not exposed to the Hudson River PCB source. The detailed PCB congener make-up of the typical residue found in these fish differs from that found in the majority of human food-stuff in that it contains a proportionately large amount of mono- through tetra-chlorinated PCB. The mean concentration of the more toxicologically suspect congeners which are not readily degraded by mammals and birds (those with two 4-substituents) comprise less than 1 ppm in Long Island Sound fish.

  17. Blood plasma levels of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin in striped bass (morone saxatilis) exposed to 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-Tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Monosson, E.; Fleming, W.J.; Sullivan, C.V.

    1996-05-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) can impair reproductive processes in fish. Laboratory studies have demonstrated adverse effects in several different fish species. Evidence also exits for an association between exposure to PCBs and related compounds and impaired reproduction in wild fish. Although the mechanism of reproductive toxicity of PCBs is unclear, it appears that PCBs act of several different levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG). Because of their structural similarity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), planar PCB congengers (e.g. 3,3`,4,4`-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB)) are among the most toxic PCBs. Both TCB and dioxon are reproductive toxicants in fish. TCB exposure (via intraperitoneal injections) impaired maturation in adult female white perch (Monroe americana) and reduced egg deposition in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Larval or fry survival was also reduced following either maternal exposure to TCB for white perch or injections of TCB into fertilized eggs of rainbow trout. This study investigate the effects of exposure to TCB on reproductive processes in female striped bass. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Rapid colonization of new habitats in the Wadden Sea by the ovoviviparous Littorina saxatilis (Olivi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsen, U.

    1998-09-01

    The intertidal periwinkle Littorina saxatilis completely lacks larval dispersal and adult vagility is low. Although this suggests a low dispersal rate, L. saxatilis is frequently found in recently established habitats “exotic” to the Wadden Sea. Populations occur on man-made structures like dikes, breakwater and groynes, some of which are not older than several years. Furthermore, L. saxatilis is found on marsh grass Spartina anglica, introduced to the Wadden Sea in the 1920s and 1930s, as well as on mats of green macroalgae, which have become an abundant feature on the tidal flats since the late 1970s. Seagrass beds are likely to be the original habitat of L. saxatilis in the Wadden Sea. Since seagrass populations have dramatically declined over the last decades, colonization of new habitat types enabled L. saxatilis to maintain its Wadden Sea populations despite a changing environment. Colonizers can reach new habitats by means of passive transport, especially by rafting on macrophytes and by aerial dispersal attached to birds. In thew Wadden Sea, the ovoviviparously reproducing L. saxatilis has demonstrated its ability to successfully found new populations with only a few individuals. No reduction of genetic variablility (founder effect) was observed in recently established populations.

  19. Oxidative stress in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welker, T.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), were held in 8-11??C freshwater, starved for 3 days and subjected to a low-water stressor to determine the relationship between the general stress response and oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels (lipid hydroperoxides) were measured in kidney, liver and brain samples taken at the beginning of the experiment (0-h unstressed controls) and at 6, 24 and 48 h after application of a continuous low-water stressor. Tissue samples were also taken at 48 h from fish that had not been exposed to the stressor (48-h unstressed controls). Exposure to the low-water stressor affected LPO in kidney and brain tissues. In kidney, LPO decreased 6 h after imposition of the stressor; similar but less pronounced decreases also occurred in the liver and brain. At 48 h, LPO increased (in comparison with 6-h stressed tissues) in the kidney and brain. In comparison with 48-h unstressed controls, LPO levels were higher in the kidney and brain of stressed fish. Although preliminary, results suggest that stress can cause oxidative tissue damage in juvenile chinook salmon. Measures of oxidative stress have shown similar responses to stress in mammals; however, further research is needed to determine the extent of the stress-oxidative stress relationship and the underlying physiological mechanisms in fish.

  20. Phylogeographic analysis reveals a deep lineage split within North Atlantic Littorina saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Doellman, Meredith M; Trussell, Geoffrey C; Grahame, John W; Vollmer, Steve V

    2011-11-07

    Phylogeographic studies provide critical insight into the evolutionary histories of model organisms; yet, to date, range-wide data are lacking for the rough periwinkle Littorina saxatilis, a classic example of marine sympatric speciation. Here, we use mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data to demonstrate that L. saxatilis is not monophyletic for this marker, but is composed of two distinct mtDNA lineages (I and II) that are shared with sister species Littorina arcana and Littorina compressa. Bayesian coalescent dating and phylogeographic patterns indicate that both L. saxatilis lineages originated in the eastern North Atlantic, around the British Isles, at approximately 0.64 Ma. Both lineages are now distributed broadly across the eastern, central and western North Atlantic, and show strong phylogeographic structure among regions. The Iberian Peninsula is genetically distinct, suggesting prolonged isolation from northeastern North Atlantic populations. Western North Atlantic populations of L. saxatilis lineages I and II predate the last glacial maximum and have been isolated from eastern North Atlantic populations since that time. This identification of two distinct, broadly distributed mtDNA lineages further complicates observed patterns of repeated incipient ecological speciation in L. saxatilis, because the sympatric origins of distinct ecotype pairs on eastern North Atlantic shores may be confounded by admixture of divergent lineages.

  1. Phylogeographic analysis reveals a deep lineage split within North Atlantic Littorina saxatilis

    PubMed Central

    Doellman, Meredith M.; Trussell, Geoffrey C.; Grahame, John W.; Vollmer, Steve V.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies provide critical insight into the evolutionary histories of model organisms; yet, to date, range-wide data are lacking for the rough periwinkle Littorina saxatilis, a classic example of marine sympatric speciation. Here, we use mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data to demonstrate that L. saxatilis is not monophyletic for this marker, but is composed of two distinct mtDNA lineages (I and II) that are shared with sister species Littorina arcana and Littorina compressa. Bayesian coalescent dating and phylogeographic patterns indicate that both L. saxatilis lineages originated in the eastern North Atlantic, around the British Isles, at approximately 0.64 Ma. Both lineages are now distributed broadly across the eastern, central and western North Atlantic, and show strong phylogeographic structure among regions. The Iberian Peninsula is genetically distinct, suggesting prolonged isolation from northeastern North Atlantic populations. Western North Atlantic populations of L. saxatilis lineages I and II predate the last glacial maximum and have been isolated from eastern North Atlantic populations since that time. This identification of two distinct, broadly distributed mtDNA lineages further complicates observed patterns of repeated incipient ecological speciation in L. saxatilis, because the sympatric origins of distinct ecotype pairs on eastern North Atlantic shores may be confounded by admixture of divergent lineages. PMID:21429920

  2. Physiology and lipid metabolism of Littorina saxatilis infected with trematodes.

    PubMed

    Arakelova, Katherine S; Chebotareva, Marina A; Zabelinskii, Stanislav A

    2004-09-08

    Physiological and biochemical alterations in Littorina saxatilis infected with larval trematodes were investigated and compared with the metabolism of non-parasitized snails. Oxygen consumption rates of infected snails differed from those of non-infected controls in medium sized individuals (30 to 130 mg) but not in very large infected individuals (> 200 mg). Small snails (0.5 to 8.5 mg) were seldom infected by parasites, and this size-class consisted only of non-infected specimens. The specific oxygen consumption rate of infected snails was not dependent on their mass and remained constant over the size ranges investigated. Alterations in the snail metabolism appeared to be connected to injuries to digestive gland tissues caused by the parasites. The glycogen concentration and fatty acids of neutral lipids and phospholipids in the digestive gland were determined. Infected snails differed from uninfected snails in the complete absence of glycogen in digestive gland and had proportionally higher quantities of eicosenoic (20:1) acid in the total phospholipids. It remains unclear whether infection by trematodes activates enzymes in the snail's digestive gland to synthesize eicosenoic (20:1) acid, or whether the sporocysts themselves possess these enzymes. The role of phospholipid fatty acids in the regulation and maintenance of the parasite's metabolism is briefly considered. Biochemical alterations observed in the fatty acid composition may have an adaptive significance, by helping to stabilize the host-parasite system.

  3. An EST-based genome scan using 454 sequencing in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Galindo, J; Grahame, J W; Butlin, R K

    2010-09-01

    Genome scans have been used in the studies of ecological speciation to find genomic regions ('outlier loci') showing reduced gene flow between divergent populations/species. High-throughput sequencing ('454') offers new opportunities in this field via transcriptome sequencing. Divergent ecotypes of the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis represent a good example of incipient ecological speciation. We performed a 454-based genome scan between H and M ecotypes of L. saxatilis from the British Isles using cDNA of pooled individuals. Allele frequencies were calculated for 2454 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), within 572 contigs, and 7% of loci were detected as outliers. Functional annotation of the contigs containing outlier SNPs showed that they included shell matrix and muscle proteins (lithostathine, mucin, titin), proteins involved in energetic metabolism (arginine kinase, NADH dehydrogenase) and reverse transcriptases. Follow-up investigations into these proteins and unannotated outliers will be a promising route in the study of ecological speciation in L. saxatilis.

  4. [Inheritance of longitudinal shell bands in the snails Littorina obtusata and Littorina saxatilis (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)].

    PubMed

    Kozminskiĭ, E V

    2011-08-01

    The hypothesis of a monogenic inheritance of dark longitudinal bands on the shell in the gastropods Littorina obtusata and L. saxatilis was checked. One gene having two alleles proved to be responsible for the shell banding pattern in both of the species. The presence of bands was a dominant character in either case.

  5. Response of smooth rock skullcap (Scutellaria saxatilis), a globally rare plant, to fire

    Treesearch

    Cynthia D. Huebner; Kent. Karriker

    2015-01-01

    Scutellaria saxatilis Riddell (smooth rock skullcap or rock skullcap, hereafter abbreviated as SRS), a herbaceous perennial in the mint family, is a globally rare (G3) plant. In West Virginia, SRS is categorized as an S2 species (imperiled and at high risk of extinction due to a very restricted range, very few [

  6. The Bacteriophage HK97 gp15 Moron Element Encodes a Novel Superinfection Exclusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cumby, Nichole; Edwards, Aled M.; Davidson, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    A phage moron is a DNA element inserted between a pair of genes in one phage genome that are adjacent in other related phage genomes. Phage morons are commonly found within phage genomes, and in a number of cases, they have been shown to mediate phenotypic changes in the bacterial host. The temperate phage HK97 encodes a moron element, gp15, within its tail morphogenesis region that is absent in most closely related phages. We show that gp15 is actively expressed from the HK97 prophage and is responsible for providing the host cell with resistance to infection by phages HK97 and HK75, independent of repressor immunity. To identify the target(s) of this gp15-mediated resistance, we created a hybrid of HK97 and the related phage HK022. This hybrid phage revealed that the tail tube or tape measure proteins likely mediate the susceptibility of HK97 to inhibition by gp15. The N terminus of gp15 is predicted with high probability to contain a single membrane-spanning helix by several transmembrane prediction programs. Consistent with this putative membrane localization, gp15 acts to prevent the entry of phage DNA into the cytoplasm, acting in a manner reminiscent of those of several previously characterized superinfection exclusion proteins. The N terminus of gp15 and its phage homologues bear sequence similarity to YebO proteins, a family of proteins of unknown function found ubiquitously in enterobacteria. The divergence of their C termini suggests that phages have co-opted this bacterial protein and subverted its activity to their advantage. PMID:22797755

  7. Continuous exposure to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus during early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss(Walbaum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) were exposed continuously to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) at 0, 10, 1,000, or 100,000 pfu/L of water to estimate the effects of chronic IPNV exposure on early life stages. Fish density averaged 35 fish/L or 140 fish/L, with a tank flow rat...

  8. Continuous Exposure to Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) During Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) were exposed continuously to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) at 0, 10, 1,000, or 10,000 pfu/L of water to estimate the effects of chronic IPNV exposure on early life stages. Fish density averaged 35 fish/L (low) or 140 fish/L (high), and wate...

  9. Effect of methanol leaf extract of Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f (fabaceae) on renal function

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Fatima Ismail; Abdulkadir Umar, Zezi; Umar Habib, Danmalam; Abdullahi Hamza, Yaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dalbegia saxatilis (D.saxatilis) is used as a decoction in traditional medicine for ailments such as cough, small pox, skin lesions, bronchial ailments and toothache. This study is aimed at evaluating the toxic effect of methanol leaf extract of D.saxatilis on renal function. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into four groups of five: control animals (group 1) received distilled water 1 ml/kg while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given graded doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively) daily for 28 days. Body weight changes were estimated by weighing the rats twice weekly using digital weighing balance. After 28 days, blood samples were obtained for evaluation of renal indices and the kidney was used for histopathology. Data were analysed using one–way and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS version 20. Results: Significant weight increase in all groups were observed (p<0.05). Significant reduction in electrolytes concentration was observed following treatment with extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) (p<0.05). Histopathological findings of the kidney revealed massive necrosis of the glomerulus with tubular distortion and lymphocyte hyperplasia at 250 and 500 mg/kg while intense glomerular and tubular necrosis was observed at 1000 mg/kg of the extract. Conclusion: Since different doses of the extract caused reduction in electrolyte concentration and damage to the kidney it is suggested that prolonged administration of the extract is associated with increased risk of kidney toxicity. PMID:28078240

  10. Exclusion of copper from altered hepatocytes in white perch (Morone americana) with hepatic copper storage.

    PubMed

    Bunton, T E

    1995-01-01

    Iron is excluded from foci of hepatocellular alteration in carcinogenesis of rodents and some fish. Among white perch (Morone americana), there is a condition of hepatic copper storage in which copper-loaded livers are produced naturally. In a group of fish collected from the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland (USA), from September to December 1990, we observed hepatic lesions which excluded copper similar to the phenomenon of iron exclusion, in a white perch with over 3,600 micrograms/g wet weight hepatic copper. The lesions were of two types: one with cells morphologically different from normal hepatocytes and which had diminished to absolute exclusion of copper with the copper specific histochemical stain rubeinic acid, and a second with cells morphologically similar to normal hepatocytes which had only a partial exclusion of copper. Although the exact cause and nature of the lesions was not determined, intrinsic copper toxicity, environmental pollution, or a combination of these factors may have contributed to their development.

  11. Study of two seismic series in Moron de la Frontera (Seville, SW of Spain) in 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, E.; Stich, D.; Vidal, F.

    2009-04-01

    During the year 2007 two seismic sequences occurred in the proximity of Moron de la Frontera town (Seville, SW of Spain), a region where several important local and regional earthquakes have historically occurred. The first sequence, with more than 150 earthquakes (m ≤ 3.5), began early in January, and later, from June to September 2007, a new series of about 300 earthquakes (m ≤ 4.5) took place in the same location. A spatio-temporal characterization of these seismic sequences has been performed through two different approaches: a master event relative location of the events and a statistical analysis through Principal Component Methodology. The results obtained for each series are excellently in line with the trends indicated by the nodal planes of the focal mechanisms calculated for the greater earthquakes of the series.

  12. Comparative mitogenomic analysis of three species of periwinkles: Littorina fabalis, L.obtusata and L. saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Marques, João P; Sotelo, Graciela; Larsson, Tomas; Johannesson, Kerstin; Panova, Marina; Faria, Rui

    2016-11-17

    The flat periwinkles, Littorina fabalis and L.obtusata, offer an interesting system for local adaptation and ecological speciation studies. In order to provide genomic resources for these species, we sequenced their mitogenomes together with that of the rough periwinkle L.saxatilis by means of next-generation sequencing technologies. The three mitogenomes present the typical repertoire of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a putative control region. Although the latter could not be fully recovered in flat periwinkles using short-reads due to a highly repetitive fragment, in L.saxatilis this problem was overcome with additional long-reads and we were able to assemble the complete mitogenome. Both gene order and nucleotide composition are similar between the three species as well as compared to other Littorinimorpha. A large variance in divergence was observed across mitochondrial regions, with six- to ten-fold difference between the highest and the lowest divergence rates. Based on nucleotide changes on the whole molecule and assuming a molecular clock, L.fabalis and L. obtusata started to diverge around 0.8 Mya (0.4-1.1 Mya). The evolution of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes in the three Littorina species appears mainly influenced by purifying selection as revealed by phylogenetic tests based on dN/dS ratios that did not detect any evidence for positive selection, although some caution is required given the limited power of the dataset and the implemented approaches.

  13. [PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ADAPTIVE MECHANISMS TO SALINITY STRESS IN MARINE GASTROPODS LITTORINA SAXATILIS].

    PubMed

    Muraeva, O A; Maltseva, A L; Mikhailova, N A; Granovitch, A I

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most important abiotic environmental factors affecting marine animals. If salinity deviate from optimum, adaptive mechanisms switch on to maintain organism's physiological activity. In this study, the reaction of the snails Littorina saxatilis from natural habitats and in response to experimental salinity decreasing was analyzed on proteomic level. The isolation of all snails inside their shells and gradually declining mortality was observed under acute experimental salinity decrease (down to 10 per hundred). Proteomic changes were evaluated in the surviving experimental mollusks compared to control individual using differential 2D gel-electrophoresis (DIGE) and subsequent LC-MS/MS-identification of proteins. Approximately 10% of analyzed proteins underwent up- or down regulation during the experiment. Proteins of folding, antioxidant response, intercellular matrix, cell adhesion, cell signaling and metabolic enzymes were identified among them. Proteome changes observed in experimental hypoosmotic stress partially reproduced in the proteomes of mollusks that live in conditions of natural freshening (estuaries). Possible mechanisms involved in the adaptation process of L. saxatilis individuals to hypo-osmotic stress are discussed.

  14. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation.

  15. Elevated female fecundity as a possible compensatory mechanism in response to trematode infestation in populations of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi).

    PubMed

    Granovitch, A I; Yagunova, E B; Maximovich, A N; Sokolova, I M

    2009-07-15

    Co-evolution between parasites and their hosts may lead to changes in the life-history traits of the host that promote sustainability of their populations despite parasite pressure. Such changes are expected to be especially pronounced in the host-parasite systems where parasites cause complete castration of their hosts. We have studied populations of the rough periwinkle, Littorina saxatilis, infested by castrating trematode species, in order to determine whether high infestation levels are associated with a compensatory increase in host fecundity. To test this hypothesis, we determined female fecundity in populations with trematode prevalence spanning from <1% to 30-75%, and followed long-term changes in female fecundity and trematode infestation in two heavily infested populations of L. saxatilis. The broad-scale geographic analysis of populations with different trematode burdens showed that fecundity of uninfected females is significantly higher in highly infested L. saxatilis populations than in those with low trematode burdens. This is also supported by a comparison of fecundity in two pairs of geographically adjacent populations with contrasting trematode levels, revealing higher fecundity of uninfected females in heavily infested populations. Higher fecundity could be explained by the larger size of uninfected females in some heavily infested populations but not in others. Long-term (15-20 years) intra-population analysis performed in two heavily infested L. saxatilis populations showed that female fecundity increased in parallel with a long-term increase in trematode prevalence from 20% to >75% in one population, but remained high and relatively stable in the second population, reflecting its consistently high trematode prevalence (40-65%). These data support the hypothesis that an increase in female fecundity may be a population compensation mechanism in response to heavy trematode infestation in L. saxatilis and suggest the possible involvement of both

  16. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  17. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  18. The relationship between hatching rate and number of embryos of the brood pouch in Littorina saxatilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde-Padín, P.; Carballo, M.; Caballero, A.; Rolán-Alvarez, E.

    2008-10-01

    Littorina saxatilis is an ovoviviparous organism in which shelled embryos can be directly observed in nearly all mature females captured in the wild. This characteristic has been used a number of times as an indirect estimate for fecundity of natural populations. However, there is no experimental corroboration that the number of embryos within a female brood pouch is actually related to the rate of hatching per unit of time, a more realistic estimate of female fecundity. In order to make this corroboration we estimated the correlation between the number of embryos in the brood pouch and the hatching rate of isolated females grown in the laboratory. We also compared the hatching rates of females from two sympatric ecotypes (RB and SU) of this species, which differ significantly in the number of embryos. We found a high agreement between hatching rate and number of embryos, concluding that the latter is a good proxy for fecundity.

  19. Selection on outlier loci and their association with adaptive phenotypes in Littorina saxatilis contact zones.

    PubMed

    Hollander, J; Galindo, J; Butlin, R K

    2015-02-01

    A fundamental issue in speciation research is to evaluate phenotypic variation and the genomics driving the evolution of reproductive isolation between sister taxa. Above all, hybrid zones are excellent study systems for researchers to examine the association of genetic differentiation, phenotypic variation and the strength of selection. We investigated two contact zones in the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis and utilized landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis together with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to assess phenotypic and genomic divergence between ecotypes under divergent selection. From genetic markers, we calculated the cline width, linkage disequilibrium and the average effective selection on a locus. Additionally, we conducted an association analysis linking the outlier loci and phenotypic variation between ecotypes and show that a proportion of outlier loci are associated with key adaptive phenotypic traits.

  20. Do the same genes underlie parallel phenotypic divergence in different Littorina saxatilis populations?

    PubMed

    Westram, A M; Galindo, J; Alm Rosenblad, M; Grahame, J W; Panova, M; Butlin, R K

    2014-09-01

    Parallel patterns of adaptive divergence and speciation are cited as powerful evidence for the role of selection driving these processes. However, it is often not clear whether parallel phenotypic divergence is underlain by parallel genetic changes. Here, we asked about the genetic basis of parallel divergence in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis, which has repeatedly evolved coexisting ecotypes adapted to either crab predation or wave action. We sequenced the transcriptome of snails of both ecotypes from three distant geographical locations (Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom) and mapped the reads to the L. saxatilis reference genome. We identified genomic regions potentially under divergent selection between ecotypes within each country, using an outlier approach based on F(ST) values calculated per locus. In line with previous studies indicating that gene reuse is generally common, we expected to find extensive sharing of outlier loci due to recent shared ancestry and gene flow between at least two of the locations in our study system. Contrary to our expectations, we found that most outliers were country specific, suggesting that much of the genetic basis of divergence is not shared among locations. However, we did find that more outliers were shared than expected by chance and that differentiation of shared outliers is often generated by the same SNPs. We discuss two mechanisms potentially explaining the limited amount of sharing we observed. First, a polygenic basis of divergent traits might allow for multiple distinct molecular mechanisms generating the same phenotypic patterns. Second, additional, location-specific axes of selection that we did not focus on in this study may produce distinct patterns of genetic divergence within each site.

  1. Compartment proteomics analysis of white perch (Morone americana) ovary using support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Justin; Nepomuceno, Angelito; Schaff, Jennifer E; Muddiman, David C; Daniels, Harry V; Reading, Benjamin J

    2014-03-07

    Compartment proteomics enable broad characterization of target tissues. We employed a simple fractionation method and filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) to characterize the cytosolic and membrane fractions of white perch ovary tissues by semiquantitative tandem mass spectrometry using label-free quantitation based on normalized spectral counts. FASP depletes both low-molecular-weight and high-molecular-weight substances that could interfere with protein digestion and subsequent peptide separation and detection. Membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to characterize due to their amphipathic nature and association with lipids. The simple fractionation we employed effectively revealed an abundance of proteins from mitochondria and other membrane-bounded organelles. We further demonstrate that support vector machines (SVMs) offer categorical classification of proteomics data superior to that of parametric statistical methods such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). Specifically, SVMs were able to perfectly (100% correct) classify samples as either membrane or cytosolic fraction during cross-validation based on the expression of 242 proteins with the highest ANOVA p-values (i.e., those that were not significant for enrichment in either fraction). The white perch ovary cytosolic and membrane proteomes and transcriptome presented in this study can support future investigations into oogenesis and early embryogenesis of white perch and other members of the genus Morone.

  2. Effects of freezing on white perch Morone americana (Gmelin, 1789): Implications for multivariate morphometrics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that duration of freezing differentially affects whole-body morphometrics of a derived teleost. Whole-body morphometrics are frequently analyzed to test hypotheses of different species, or stocks within a species, of fishes. Specimens used for morphometric analyses are typically fixed or preserved prior to analysis, yet little research has been done on how fixation or preservation methods or duration of preservation of specimens might affect outcomes of multivariate statistical analyses of differences in shape. To determine whether whole-body morphometrics changed as a result of freezing, 23 whole-body morphometrics of age-1 white perch (Morone americana) from western Lake Erie (n = 211) were analyzed immediately after capture, after being held on ice overnight, and after freezing for 100 or 200 days. Discriminant function analysis revealed that all four groups differed significantly from one another (P < 0.0001). The first canonical axis reflected long-axis morphometrics, where there was a clear pattern of positive translation along this axis with duration of preservation. Re-classification analysis demonstrated fish were typically assigned to their original preservation class except for fish frozen 100 days, which assigned mostly to frozen 200 days. Morphometric comparisons using frozen fish must be done on fish frozen for identical periods of time to avoid biases related to the length of time they were frozen. Similar experiments should be conducted on other species and also using formalin- and alcohol-preserved specimens.

  3. Anadromous alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, as prey for white perch, Morone americana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J.R.; Mink, L.H.

    2002-01-01

    The reintroduction of anadromous alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, to their historic habitats in the inland waters of the United States and Canada, has prompted concerns about possible interactions with a popular sport fish, white perch, Morone americana. Both species are now widely distributed in northeastern North America. Diets of white perch in Lake George, Maine, U.S.A., where alewives were absent, were monitored and compared with those of white perch populations that were sympatric with anadromous alewives in two coastal Maine lakes, Biscay Pond and North Pond. In the presence of introduced alewives, the diet of adult white perch became almost exclusively juvenile alewives by late summer in ponds where both species were present. White perch that were sympatric with alewives were more piscivorus than were Lake George white perch, which primarily consumed Cladocera. Not only were alewives the principal prey item in the diet of white perch in Biscay and North ponds, but adult alewives were largely cannibalistic by August. Thus, success of reintroducing anadromous alewives in waters containing white perch may be negatively impacted by predation as well as cannibalism.

  4. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  5. A review of mycobacteriosis in marine fish.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J M; Stine, C B; Baya, A M; Kent, M L

    2009-02-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a serious and often lethal disease of fish, affecting a wide range of species globally both in culture and wild settings. Caused by several species of the genus Mycobacterium, the disease has received considerable attention in recent years because of the discovery of new species in piscine hosts, epizootics in wild fisheries, and the ability of a few species to infect humans. The impact of this disease in aquaculture and the aquaria trade has been well reported and there is currently no widely accepted cure other than depopulation and facility disinfection. However, the impact on wild fisheries is poorly understood and may relate to species-specific interactions (host-pathogen) and possibly environmental stressors. In this review, much of what is known about mycobacteriosis in marine fish is summarized with particular attention to an epizootic in striped bass, Morone saxatilis, (Walbaum), in Chesapeake Bay, USA.

  6. [A search for null alleles at the microsatellite locus of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta Walbaum)].

    PubMed

    Kordicheva, S Iu; Rubtsova, G A; Shitova, M V; Shaĭkhaev, G O; Afanas'ev, K I; Zhivotovskiĭ, L A

    2010-08-01

    Population studies with the use of microsatellite markers face a problem of null alleles, i.e., the absence of a PCR product, caused by the mutations in the microsatellite flanking regions, which serve as the sites of primer hybridization. In this case, the microsatellite primer associated with such mutation is not amplified, leading to false homozygosity in heterozygous individuals. This, in turn, results in biased population genetic estimates, including the excess of homozygotes at microsatellite loci. Analysis of the population structure of a Pacific salmon species, chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta Walbaum), revealed the presence of null alleles at the Oke3 microsatellite locus in the population samples, in which an excess of homozygotes was observed. The analysis was performed using different combinations of modified primers chosen to match the Oke3 locus. The use of these primers enabled identification of true heterozygotes among those individuals, which were previously diagnosed as homozygotes with the use of standard primers. Removal of null alleles eliminated the excess homozygotes in the chum salmon samples described. In addition to the exclusion of false homozygosity, the use of modified primers makes it possible to introduce polymorphic primer variants associated with certain microsatellite alleles into population studies.

  7. Cytokine expression in leucocytes and gut cells of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, induced by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Austin, Brian

    2006-12-15

    Understanding how the various host cells respond to probiotic bacteria in vitro may provide important insight into elaborate immune responses triggered by beneficial bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed pattern of the mRNA expression of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta) in head kidney (HK) leucocytes and gut cells isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) after co-culturing with live probiotics. HK leucocytes and gut cells adjusted to 5 x 10(6) and 2 x 10(6) ml(-1), respectively, in L-15 medium containing 25% decomplemented FCS and 300 mg l(-1) L-glutamine were co-cultured with Carnobacterium maltaromaticum B26 and C. divergens B33 at an multiplicity of infection of 25 for 6 and 12 h. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using SYBR Green I was employed to determine the mRNA expression of studied genes. Although neither probiotic strains significantly induced mRNA of the cytokines in gut cells, expression ratios of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha of HK cells were significantly higher, suggesting that these bacteria can stimulate innate immunity in rainbow trout.

  8. Epitheliocystis in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum) is associated with a β-proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Contador, E; Methner, P; Ryerse, I; Huber, P; Lillie, B N; Frasca, S; Lumsden, J S

    2016-03-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum) raised for stocking experienced yearly (2011-13) winter epizootics of epitheliocystis. Affected fish were dispersed on the bottom of the tank, had decreased feed and fright response, and mortality often reached 40%. Peak mortality occurred within 3 weeks of the appearance of clinical signs, and outbreaks typically lasted 6 weeks. Affected fish had no gross lesions but histologically had branchial epithelial necrosis and lamellar hyperplasia, with small to large numbers of scattered epithelial cells containing 10- to 20-μm inclusions. A longitudinal study was undertaken of one annual outbreak, and lamellar hyperplasia was most closely associated with mortality. The number of inclusions was statistically greater (P < 0.05) before and during peak mortality, but inclusions were present in low numbers before clinical signs occurred. Results of histochemical staining, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy supported the presence of a β-proteobacteria rather than a Chlamydiales bacterium within inclusions. PCR primers to identify Chlamydiales did not give consistent results. However, the use of universal 16S rDNA bacterial primers in conjunction with laser capture microdissection of inclusions demonstrated that a β-proteobacteria was consistently associated with affected gills and is more likely the cause of the disease in lake trout. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Parasites and hepatic lesions among pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), during early seawater residence.

    PubMed

    Saksida, S M; Marty, G D; Jones, S R M; Manchester, H A; Diamond, C L; Bidulka, J; St-Hilaire, S

    2012-02-01

    Juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), in the Broughton Archipelago region of western Canada were surveyed over 2 years for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi), gross and microscopic lesions and evidence of infections with viruses and bacteria. The 1071 fish examined had an approximate ocean residence time no longer than 3 months. A high prevalence of degenerative liver lesions, renal myxosporean parasites and a low prevalence of skin lesions and sea lice were observed. No indications of viral or bacterial diseases were detected in either year. The monthly prevalence of sea lice in 2007 (18-51%) was higher than in 2008 (1-26%), and the infestation density exceeded the lethal threshold in only two fish. Degenerative hepatic lesions and renal myxosporean parasites occurred in approximately 40% of the pink salmon examined in June of both years, and the peak monthly prevalence of hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was greater in 2007 (32%, in May) than in 2008 (12%, in June). Logistic regression analysis found skin lesions and hepatocellular hydropic degeneration significantly associated with sea lice. Most parasites and lesions occurred during both years, but the prevalence was often higher in 2007. Fish weight was 35% less in June 2007 than in June 2008, but condition factor was not different. Further research is required to monitor inter-annual variations and aetiology of the liver lesions and to assess their potential role on pink salmon survival.

  10. Puffy skin disease (PSD) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): a case definition.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, C E; Nolan, E T; Feist, S W; Crumlish, M; Richards, R H; Williams, C F

    2015-07-01

    Puffy skin disease (PSD) is a disease that causes skin pathology in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Incidence of PSD in UK fish farms and fisheries has increased sharply in the last decade, with growing concern from both industry sectors. This paper provides the first comprehensive case definition of PSD, combining clinical and pathological observations of diseased rainbow trout from both fish farms and fisheries. The defining features of PSD, as summarized in the case definition, were focal lateral flank skin lesions that appeared as cutaneous swelling with pigment loss and petechiae. These were associated with lethargy, poor body condition, inappetance and low level mortality. Epidermal hyperplasia and spongiosis, oedema of the dermis stratum spongiosum and a mild diffuse inflammatory cellularity were typical in histopathology of skin. A specific pathogen or aetiology was not identified. Prevalence and severity of skin lesions was greatest during late summer and autumn, with the highest prevalence being 95%. Atypical lesions seen in winter and spring were suggestive of clinical resolution. PSD holds important implications for both trout aquaculture and still water trout fisheries. This case definition will aid future diagnosis, help avoid confusion with other skin conditions and promote prompt and consistent reporting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Inhibition of fish pathogens by the microbiota from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) and rearing environment.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Nahuelquín, Yanina; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M

    2015-04-01

    This work reports the isolation and taxonomic identification of the cultivable total microbiota (TM) and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) and rearing environment from selected stages of the life-cycle, and the evaluation of the LAB antimicrobial activity against the main fish pathogens. TM and LAB isolates were randomly selected and identified by 16S rRNA and/or superoxide dismutase gene sequencing. Although a great diversity in the TM was observed, Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonadaceae were clearly prevalent, while the genus Lactococcus was the predominant LAB. From a total of 1620 randomly selected LAB, 1159 isolates (71.5%) showed antimicrobial activity. From these, 248 isolates (21.4%) selected for their activity against, at least, four fish pathogens, were taxonomically identified, being Lactococcus lactis the most common species (164 isolates, 66.1%). Interestingly, 88 isolates (35.5%), including 55 L. lactis isolates, exerted activity against four strains of the rainbow trout pathogen Lactococcus garvieae. Our results demonstrate that rainbow trout and rearing environment are potential sources for the isolation of LAB, mainly lactococci, active against L. garvieae and other fish pathogens. Moreover, this is the first study describing the cultivable TM and LAB from rainbow trout intestine and rearing environment along the fish life-cycle. The host-derived LAB active against fish pathogens comprise potential candidates as probiotics in rainbow trout farming as an alternative or complementary strategy to antibiotics and vaccines for disease prevention.

  12. Glacial history of the North Atlantic marine snail, Littorina saxatilis, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages.

    PubMed

    Panova, Marina; Blakeslee, April M H; Miller, A Whitman; Mäkinen, Tuuli; Ruiz, Gregory M; Johannesson, Kerstin; André, Carl

    2011-03-11

    The North Atlantic intertidal gastropod, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographic regions and has become a model for studies of local adaptation; yet a comprehensive analysis of the species' phylogeography is lacking. Here, we examine phylogeographic patterns of the species' populations in the North Atlantic and one remote Mediterranean population using sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (607 bp). We found that, as opposed to many other rocky intertidal species, L. saxatilis has likely had a long and continuous history in the Northwest Atlantic, including survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM), possibly in two refugia. In the Northeast Atlantic, several areas likely harboured refugial populations that recolonized different parts of this region after glacial retreat, resulting in strong population structure. However, the outlying monomorphic Venetian population is likely a recent anthropogenic introduction from northern Europe and not a remnant of an earlier wider distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, our detailed phylogeography of L. saxatilis adds an important piece to the understanding of Pleistocene history in North Atlantic marine biota as well as being the first study to describe the species' evolutionary history in its natural range. The latter contribution is noteworthy because the snail has recently become an important model species for understanding evolutionary processes of speciation; thus our work provides integral information for such endeavours.

  13. Glacial History of the North Atlantic Marine Snail, Littorina saxatilis, Inferred from Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Panova, Marina; Blakeslee, April M. H.; Miller, A. Whitman; Mäkinen, Tuuli; Ruiz, Gregory M.; Johannesson, Kerstin; André, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The North Atlantic intertidal gastropod, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographic regions and has become a model for studies of local adaptation; yet a comprehensive analysis of the species' phylogeography is lacking. Here, we examine phylogeographic patterns of the species' populations in the North Atlantic and one remote Mediterranean population using sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (607 bp). We found that, as opposed to many other rocky intertidal species, L. saxatilis has likely had a long and continuous history in the Northwest Atlantic, including survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM), possibly in two refugia. In the Northeast Atlantic, several areas likely harboured refugial populations that recolonized different parts of this region after glacial retreat, resulting in strong population structure. However, the outlying monomorphic Venetian population is likely a recent anthropogenic introduction from northern Europe and not a remnant of an earlier wider distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, our detailed phylogeography of L. saxatilis adds an important piece to the understanding of Pleistocene history in North Atlantic marine biota as well as being the first study to describe the species' evolutionary history in its natural range. The latter contribution is noteworthy because the snail has recently become an important model species for understanding evolutionary processes of speciation; thus our work provides integral information for such endeavours. PMID:21412417

  14. A potential species-specific molecular marker suggests interspecific hybridization between sibling species Littorina arcana and L. saxatilis (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda) in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, Natalia A; Gracheva, Yulia A; Backeljau, Thierry; Granovitch, Andrey I

    2009-12-01

    Three sister species of rough periwinkles, viz. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792), L. arcana (Hannaford Ellis 1978) and L. compressa (Jeffreys 1865) from the Barents Sea (Russia), the White Sea (Russia) and the Norwegian Sea (Norway) were studied. The identification of two sibling species L. saxatilis and L. arcana is often difficult as both species have extremely similar shell morphology and reproductive systems. Only mature females can be unambiguously distinguished, with a jelly gland present in female L. arcana, but which is replaced by a brood pouch containing developing embryos in L. saxatilis. No clear-cut diagnostic features have been found to discriminate between males or juveniles of the two species. The very first diagnostic DNA marker (DNA fragment A2.8, 271 bp length) for L. arcana and L. saxatilis separation was developed. The marker was derived from apparently species-specific L. arcana DNA fragments obtained via Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This fragment was cloned and sequenced, whereupon specific primers were designed and the amplification was surveyed in a large number of morphologically well-identified females of both species. Subsequently, the specific DNA marker was used for the identification of male L. arcana and partners in copulating pairs. In this way, we obtained evidence of possible interspecific hybridization between the sibling species L. arcana and L. saxatilis living in sympatry in natural populations: the presence of A2.8 fragment in 12% of morphologically well identified L. saxatilis females and its absence in 14% of morphologically well identified L. arcana females. The A2.8 fragment never amplified in L. saxatilis from sites without L. arcana. The A2.8 fragment did not amplify in L. compressa, not even in microsympatric populations, and we did not observe interspecific copulations between L. arcana and L. compressa.

  15. Shared and nonshared genomic divergence in parallel ecotypes of Littorina saxatilis at a local scale.

    PubMed

    Ravinet, Mark; Westram, Anja; Johannesson, Kerstin; Butlin, Roger; André, Carl; Panova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Parallel speciation occurs when selection drives repeated, independent adaptive divergence that reduces gene flow between ecotypes. Classical examples show parallel speciation originating from shared genomic variation, but this does not seem to be the case in the rough periwinkle (Littorina saxatilis) that has evolved considerable phenotypic diversity across Europe, including several distinct ecotypes. Small 'wave' ecotype snails inhabit exposed rocks and experience strong wave action, while thick-shelled, 'crab' ecotype snails are larger and experience crab predation on less exposed shores. Crab and wave ecotypes appear to have arisen in parallel, and recent evidence suggests only marginal sharing of molecular variation linked to evolution of similar ecotypes in different parts of Europe. However, the extent of genomic sharing is expected to increase with gene flow and more recent common ancestry. To test this, we used de novo RAD-sequencing to quantify the extent of shared genomic divergence associated with phenotypic similarities amongst ecotype pairs on three close islands (<10 km distance) connected by weak gene flow (Nm ~ 0.03) and with recent common ancestry (<10 000 years). After accounting for technical issues, including a large proportion of null alleles due to a large effective population size, we found ~8-28% of positive outliers were shared between two islands and ~2-9% were shared amongst all three islands. This low level of sharing suggests that parallel phenotypic divergence in this system is not matched by shared genomic divergence despite a high probability of gene flow and standing genetic variation.

  16. The evolutionary forces maintaining a wild polymorphism of Littorina saxatilis: model selection by computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Figueroa, A; Cruz, F; Carvajal-Rodríguez, A; Rolán-Alvarez, E; Caballero, A

    2005-01-01

    Two rocky shore ecotypes of Littorina saxatilis from north-west Spain live at different shore levels and habitats and have developed an incomplete reproductive isolation through size assortative mating. The system is regarded as an example of sympatric ecological speciation. Several experiments have indicated that different evolutionary forces (migration, assortative mating and habitat-dependent selection) play a role in maintaining the polymorphism. However, an assessment of the combined contributions of these forces supporting the observed pattern in the wild is absent. A model selection procedure using computer simulations was used to investigate the contribution of the different evolutionary forces towards the maintenance of the polymorphism. The agreement between alternative models and experimental estimates for a number of parameters was quantified by a least square method. The results of the analysis show that the fittest evolutionary model for the observed polymorphism is characterized by a high gene flow, intermediate-high reproductive isolation between ecotypes, and a moderate to strong selection against the nonresident ecotypes on each shore level. In addition, a substantial number of additive loci contributing to the selected trait and a narrow hybrid definition with respect to the phenotype are scenarios that better explain the polymorphism, whereas the ecotype fitnesses at the mid-shore, the level of phenotypic plasticity, and environmental effects are not key parameters.

  17. High levels of multiple paternity in Littorina saxatilis: hedging the bets?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Tuuli; Panova, Marina; André, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The mating system of a species can have great effects on its genetic structure and evolution. We studied the extent of multiple paternity in a gastropod with internal fertilization, the intertidal snail Littorina saxatilis. Paternal genotype reconstruction based on microsatellite markers was performed on the offspring of wild, naturally fertilized females from 2 populations. The numbers of males contributing to the offspring per female were among the highest detected in invertebrates so far, with the exception of social insects. No reproductive skew in favor of males that were genetically more distant from the females was detected, and the pattern of fertilization appeared random. The result fits a hypothesis of indiscriminate mating, with genetic bet hedging as the most likely explanation. Bet hedging may have evolved as a form of inbreeding avoidance, if the snails are not able to recognize relatives. However, nutritional benefits from sperm or sexual conflict with males are additional possibilities that remain to be assessed in this species. Whatever the causes, such high levels of multiple paternity are remarkable and are likely to have a large impact on population structure and dynamics in a species in which migration between populations is spurious.

  18. Adaptation to a steep environmental gradient and an associated barrier to gene exchange in Littorina saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Grahame, John W; Wilding, Craig S; Butlin, Roger K

    2006-02-01

    Steep environmental gradients offer important opportunities to study the interaction between natural selection and gene flow. Allele frequency clines are expected to form at loci under selection, but unlinked neutral alleles may pass easily across these clines unless a generalized barrier evolves. Here we consider the distribution of forms of the intertidal gastropod Littorina saxatilis, analyzing shell shape and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci on two rocky shores in Britain. On the basis of previous work, the AFLP loci were divided into differentiated and undifferentiated groups. On both shores, we have shown a sharp cline in allele frequencies between the two morphs for differentiated AFLP loci. This is coincident with a habitat transition on the shore where the two habitats (cliff and boulder field) are immediately contiguous. The allele frequency clines coincide with a cline in shell morphology. In the middle of the cline, linkage disequilibrium for the differentiated loci rises in accordance with expectation. The clines are extremely narrow relative to dispersal, probably as a result of both strong selection and habitat choice. An increase in F(ST) for undifferentiated AFLPs between morphs, relative to within-morph comparisons, is consistent with there being a general barrier to gene flow across the contact zone. These features are consistent either with an episode of allopatric divergence followed by secondary contact or with primary, nonallopatric divergence. Further data will be needed to distinguish between these alternatives.

  19. [Trematode distribution in Littorina saxatilis populations can support the reproductive potential of the host: "toilers" and "idlers" among female periwinkles].

    PubMed

    Granovich, A I; Iagunova, E B; Sokolova, I M

    2012-01-01

    Co-evolution between parasites and their hosts can involve adaptations on the individual and population levels likely to be especially prominent in the systems where parasites have a direct strong impact on the hosts fitness, as is the case with castrating trematodes and their gastropod hosts. We studied populations of the rough periwinkles Littorina saxatilis in the White Sea infested by castrating trematodes to determine whether spatial and temporal variations in the trematode prevalence affect the demographic structure of the host population. Sex, age, reproductive status and infestation of L. saxatilis from 19 populations with different trematode burdens (from < 1 % to 30-50%); in two of these 19 populations (RI and KLN) a long-term monitoring over the period of 15-20 years was also performed. These analyses showed that (1) the average age of gravid females did not correlate with the trematode prevalence of the population, (2) the ratio was skewed towards females, (3) the trematode prevalence in females tended to be higher than in males, (4) the proportion of the non-infested gravid females of the younger ages classes (2-4 years) did not correlate with trematode prevalence of the population. The proportion of young non-infested females that were not reproducing ("idlers") decreased significantly with increasing infestation prevalence when compared among different populations of L. saxatilis, but remained relatively stable within two heavily infested populations RI and KLN despite the year-to-year fluctuations of the infestation prevalence. Thus, a demographic mechanism to compensate for the parasite pressure in L. saxatilis populations may involve the maintenance of a relatively constant proportion of uninfected gravid female ("toilers") at the expense of uninfected, but not reproducing females of fertile age ("idlers"); the latter can be viewed a reproductive reserve of the population tapped into under the conditions of high infestation prevalence. This

  20. Puffy Skin Disease Is an Emerging Transmissible Condition in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Irene; Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; van Aerle, Ronny; Paley, Richard K.; Peeler, Edmund J.; Green, Matthew; Rimmer, Georgina S. E.; Savage, Jacqueline; Joiner, Claire L.; Bayley, Amanda E.; Mewett, Jason; Hulland, Jonathan; Feist, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    The transmission of puffy skin disease (PSD) to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum was tested in the laboratory by conducting co-habitation challenges with puffy skin (PS)-affected fish (Trojans) collected from the field. Two separate challenges were conducted using Trojans sourced from two different sites and diploid (first trial) or triploid (second trial) naïve fish. PSD-specific clinical signs were observed in both groups of naïve fish, with 66% of the fish sampled during the challenges showing signs of varying severity. The first clinical features of PSD were presented as white oval skin patches on one or both flanks 15–21 days post-challenge (dpc). The extent of the lesions ranged from 10 to 90% of the body surface, depending on the severity of the lesion. Both the severity and number of affected fish increased during the challenge. Macroscopically, oedema of the skin and multifocal petechial haemorrhaging were observed towards the end of the trials. Abnormal fish behaviour consisting of “flashing” and excessive mucous production was noted from 15 dpc onwards. Fish with severe PSD lesions also displayed inappetence and associated emaciation. Rodlet cells were observed in 41% of the fresh skin scrapes analysed from the second trial. Histologically epidermal oedema was observed in 31% of the naive fish showing gross pathology, with additional 12% displaying epidermal hyperplasia, mostly observed at the end of the challenge. Other concomitant features of the PSD lesions in challenged fish were epithelial erosion and sloughing, and occasionally mild or focal inflammation. No consistent pathology of internal organs was observed. The parasites Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Ichthyobodo necator were observed in skin samples of a proportion of naïve challenged fish and in Trojans but not in control fish. The presence of these and other known fish pathogens in the skin of PSD-fish was confirmed by high-throughput sequencing analysis. In summary, we

  1. Selection for upper thermal tolerance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongqi; Snow, Michael; Lawrence, Craig S; Church, Anthony R; Narum, Shawn R; Devlin, Robert H; Farrell, Anthony P

    2015-03-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) in southern Western Australia have undergone passive selection for over 19 generations to survive high water temperatures. Based on the conceptual model of 'oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance', we measured critical thermal maximum (CTmax), maximum heart rate (fH,max) and aerobic scope to test the hypothesis that these rainbow trout can maintain aerobic scope at high temperatures through a robust cardiac performance supporting oxygen delivery. Across five family groups CTmax averaged 29.0±0.02°C. Aerobic scope was maximized at 15.8±0.3°C (Topt), while the upper pejus temperature (Tpej, set at 90% of maximum aerobic scope) was 19.9±0.3°C. Although aerobic scope decreased at temperatures above Topt, the value at 25°C remained well over 40% of the maximum. Furthermore, pharmacologically stimulated fH,max increased with temperature, reaching a peak value between 23.5±0.4 and 24.0±0.4°C (Tmax) for three family groups. The Arrhenius breakpoint temperature (TAB) for fH,max was 20.3±0.3 to 20.7±0.4°C, while the average Q10 breakpoint temperature (TQB, when the incremental Q10<1.6) for fH,max was 21.6±0.2 to 22.0±0.4°C. Collectively, fH,max progressively became less temperature dependent beyond 20°C (TAB and TQB), which coincides with the upper Tpej for aerobic scope. Although upper thermal performance indices for both aerobic scope and fH,max were compared among family groups in this population, appreciable differences were not evident. Compared with other populations of rainbow trout, the present assessment is consistent with the prediction that this strain has undergone selection and shows the ability to tolerate higher water temperatures. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Pauciconfibula subsolana n. sp. (Monogenea: Microcotylidae) from Morone americana (Perciformes: Percichthyidae) collected in fresh water in New Brunswick, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, L A; Beverley-Burton, M; McAlpine, D F

    1991-12-01

    Pauciconfibula subsolana n. sp. (Monogenea: Microcotylidae) is proposed for parasites found on the inner surface of the operculum of Morone americana collected in the freshwater reaches of the Saint John River, near Mactaquac, New Brunswick. Pauciconfibula subsolana is differentiated from other species in the genus by the 2 posterolateral clamp sclerites, each of which is composed of 2 distinct sections, and by the absence of appendages on the eggs. An amended generic diagnosis is provided for Pauciconfibula. Pseudoaspinatrium Mamaev, 1986, is considered a junior synonym of Pauciconfibula Dillon and Hargis, 1965, and the species previously assigned to Pseudoaspinatrium are transferred to Pauciconfibula as Pauciconfibula euzeti (Ktari, 1971) n. comb., Pauciconfibula gallieni (Euzet and Ktari, 1971) n. comb., and Pauciconfibula pogoniae (MacCallum, 1913) n. comb.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of saxthrombin, a thrombin-like enzyme from Gloydius saxatilis venom

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenqing; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xiaoping; Teng, Maikun Niu, Liwen

    2007-08-01

    The thrombin-like enzyme saxthrombin has been purified from G. saxatilis snake venom. Crystallization conditions were found and a data set was obtained to 1.43 Å. The snake-venom thrombin-like enzymes (SVTLEs) are a class of serine proteinases that show fibrinogen-clotting and esterolytic activities. Most TLEs convert fibrinogen to fibrin by releasing either fibrinopeptide A or fibrinopeptide B and cannot activate factor XIII. The enzymes hydrolyze fibrinogen to produce non-cross-linked fibrins, which are susceptible to the lytic action of plasmin. Because of these physiological properties, TLEs have important medical applications in myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and thrombotic diseases. Here, a three-step chromatography procedure was used to purify saxthrombin (AAP20638) from Gloydius saxatilis venom to homogeneity. Its molecular weight is about 30 kDa as estimated by SDS–PAGE. A saxthrombin crystal was obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to a resolution limit of 1.43 Å. The crystal belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 97.23, b = 52.21, c = 50.10 Å, β = 96.72°, and the Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) was calculated to be 2.13 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} with one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  4. Heat production in Littorina saxatilis Olivi and Littorina neritoides L. (gastropoda: Prosobranchia) during an experimental exposure to air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Inge

    1990-06-01

    The adaptation of littorinid molluscs to prolonged aerial exposure was investigated by the determination of heat production. Littorina saxatilis, inhabiting the upper eulittoral, reached a maximum metabolic activity during submersion (heat production: 3.26×10-3J s-1 (gadw)-1. On the first three days of desiccation, the heat production was continuously reduced to 40% of the submersed value. A prolonged aerial exposure was lethal for this species. In the supralittoral L. neritoides, three stages of energy metabolism could be observed: An intermediate heat production during submersion (1.97×10-3Js-1 (gadw)-1), an increased metabolism during the first hour of aerial exposure (heat production 204% of submersed value), and a minimal metabolism (39% of the submersed value and 19% of maximum value) during the following days and weeks of desiccation. Recovery depended on water salinity; L. saxatilis proved to be less euryhaline than L. neritoides. Thus, the metabolic adaptations correlate with the level of littoral habitat; inactivity combined with a drastically reduced energy consumption is a metabolically economic way to survive in periodically dry environments.

  5. Hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass to acute and chronic hypoxic insult

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis), white bass (Morone chrysops), and their hybrid are an important group of recreational and farmed species in the United States. Regardless of habitat, it is not uncommon for fish of the genus Morone to encounter and cope with conditions of scarce oxygen availability....

  6. [Combined effect of environmental temperature and trematodes on fatty acids composition of lipids of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792) (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S; Chebotareva, M A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A

    2004-01-01

    An effect of environmental temperatures and invasion by helminthes larvae on fatty acids composition of digestive gland lipids of marine littoral gastropod Littorina saxatilis from White Sea and Barents Sea was investigated. We have compared gastropods from boreal and subarctic populations. It was found that gastropods from waters of lower temperature have increased omega3/omega6 fatty acids ratio. However, saturation index of individual membrane phospholipids was not affected. Also, content of eicosenoic acid (20:1) in individual phospholipids was not affected by temperature. Invasion increases the omega3/omega6 ratio of common lipids but not the omega3/omega6 ratio of common and individual phospholipids with the exception of phosphatidilcholine of cold water mollusks from Barents Sea that had this ratio doubled. In contrast to temperature, invasion affects the content of eicosenoic acid that was increased in the investigated organs. Adaptability of these effects is discussed regarding parasite-host system.

  7. In vitro and in silico PTP-1B inhibition and in vivo antidiabetic activity of semisynthetic moronic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cerón-Romero, Litzia; Paoli, Paolo; Camici, Guido; Flores-Morales, Virginia; Rios, María Yolanda; Ramírez-Espinosa, Juan J; Hidalgo-Figueroa, Sergio; Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel; Estrada-Soto, Samuel

    2016-04-15

    Six derivatives (1-6) of moronic acid were semi-synthesized and their in vitro protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B) inhibition activity assessed. Derivatives 2 (IC50=10.8 ± 0.5 μM) and 6 (IC50=7.5 ± 0.1 μM) displayed the most potent inhibitory activity. Therefore, they (50mg/Kg) were tested for their antidiabetic effect in vivo using a non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus rat model. The results indicated that they decrease plasma glucose levels during all the experiment (p <0.05). Docking analysis of 2 and 6 with PTP-1B orthosteric site A and allosteric site B, showed that 2 had polar and Van der Waals interactions in both sites with Val49, Gln262, Met258, Phe182, Ala217, Ile219 and Gly259, displaying more affinity for site A. Compound 6 showed polar interaction with Gln262 and Van der Waals with Val49, Ile219, Gly259, Arg254, Ala27, Phe52, Met258, Asp48 and Phe182, suggesting that the potential binding site is localized in site B, close to the catalytic site A. Therefore, derivatives 2 and 6 have potential for the development of antidiabetic agents.

  8. Environmental factors regulating the recruitment of walleye Sander vitreus and white bass Morone chrysops in irrigation reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Koupal, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors that regulate fish recruitment is essential for effective management of fisheries. Generally, first-year survival, and therefore recruitment, is inherently less consistent in systems with high intra- and interannual variability. Irrigation reservoirs display sporadic patterns of annual drawdown, which can pose a substantial challenge to recruitment of fishes. We developed species-specific models using an 18-year data set compiled from state and federal agencies to investigate variables that regulate the recruitment of walleye Sander vitreus and white bass Morone chrysops in irrigation reservoirs in south-west Nebraska, USA. The candidate model set for walleye included only abiotic variables (water-level elevation, minimum daily air temperature during winter prior to hatching, annual precipitation, spring warming rate and May reservoir discharge), and the candidate model set for white bass included primarily biotic variables (catch per unit effort (CPUE) of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, CPUE of age-0 walleye, CPUE of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and CPUE of age-3 and older white bass), each of which had a greater relative importance than the single abiotic variable (minimum daily air temperature during winter after hatching). Our findings improve the understanding of the recruitment of fishes in irrigation reservoirs and the relative roles of abiotic and biotic factors.

  9. Effects of oil-contaminated prey on the feeding, growth, and related energetics on pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry were exposed to oil contaminated prey (OCP) in a series of experiments to determine the effect of oil exposure via the diet on the ability of pink fry to survive. Brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii were contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil and fed to the fish. Feeding rates were measured for 10 days using OCP and for 5 days using uncontaminated prey (post-exposure period). In a separate experiment, fry growth was measured over a 50 day period. In another experiment, fry oxygen consumption, food absorption and utilization, and ammonia excretion was measured to determine the effects of OCP on fry metabolic activity. Results indicate that exposure to OCP can reduce fry growth primarily by reducing food intake, but additional nutrition is lost from the non-absorption of ingested food. Reductions in growth could decrease fry survival, and thereby reduce the number of returning adult pink salmon.

  10. Continuous exposure to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus during early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Bebak, J; McAllister, P E

    2009-02-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), were exposed continuously to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) at 0, 10(1), 10(3) or 10(5) plaque forming units (pfu) L(-1) of water to estimate the effects of chronic IPNV exposure on early life stages. Fish density averaged 35 fish L(-1) (low density) or 140 fish L(-1) (high density), and the tank flow rate was 250 mL(-1) min. Virus exposure began at 6 days before hatch and continued until fish were 44 days old. Cumulative per cent mortality, analysis of survival and hazard functions, and discrete-time event analysis were used to explore the patterns of survival and mortality. In eggs and fish exposed to IPNV, mortality significantly greater than in the 0 pfu L(-1) exposure did not occur until IPNV concentration was 10(5) pfu L(-1) at low fish density and 10(3) pfu IPNV L(-1) at high fish density. These results suggest that in the natural aquatic environment, where rainbow trout densities are likely to be considerably lower than in this study, mortality resulting from infection with IPNV will very likely not occur when ambient concentrations of virus are < or =10(3) pfu IPNV L(-1). In aquaculture rearing units, trout density is likely to be as high or higher than the densities used in this study. Therefore, continuous inputs of virus at concentrations greater than 10(1) pfu L(-1) may result in IPN epidemics in aquaculture facilities.

  11. Impacts of chloramine-T treatment on antioxidant enzyme activities and genotoxicity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Boran, H; Altinok, I

    2014-05-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) were exposed to therapeutic, and higher concentrations of chloramine-T (Cl-T) to assess the effects of this chemical on the antioxidant enzyme system and genetic structure. Red blood cells acetylcholinesterase, ∆-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, paraoxonase and liver glutathione S-transferase activity were increased at 10 and 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T-exposed fish, while they were decreased at 30 mg L(-1) Cl-T-exposed fish. On the other hand, liver catalase activity and liver protein levels increased at 10 mg L(-1) and decreased at 20 and 30 mg L(-1) concentrations of Cl-T. Liver super-oxide dismutase activity decreased at 10 mg L(-1) and 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T and increased at 30 mg L(-1) of Cl-T. Compared to control, comet assay indicated that Cl-T did not cause significant DNA damage to red blood cells of the fish. Results indicate that 10 or 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T can be safely used to prevent or treat external parasitic and bacterial infection of rainbow trout. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Differences in Ichthyophonus prevalence and infection severity between upper Yukon River and Tanana River chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.

    2006-01-01

    Two genetically distinct populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), were simultaneously sampled at the confluence of the Yukon and Tanana rivers in 2003. Upper Yukon-Canadian fish had significantly higher infection prevalence as well as more severe infections (higher parasite density in heart tissue) than the lower Yukon-Tanana River fish. Both populations had migrated the same distance from the mouth of the Yukon River at the time of sampling but had significantly different distances remaining to swim before reaching their respective spawning grounds. Multiple working hypotheses are proposed to explain the differences between the two stocks: (1) the two genetically distinct populations have different inherent resistance to infection, (2) genetically influenced differences in feeding behaviour resulted in temporal and/or spatial differences in exposure, (3) physiological differences resulting from different degrees of sexual maturity influenced the course of disease, and (4) the most severely infected Tanana River fish either died en route or fatigued and were unable to complete their migration to the Tanana River, thus leaving a population of apparently healthier fish. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. [Infection of the mollusc Littorina saxatilis with parthenites of trematodes and their impact on a shell form: analysis of populations inhabiting the littoral coast of the White Sea].

    PubMed

    Kaliberdina, M V; Granovich, A I

    2003-01-01

    12 rocky shore populations of Littorina saxatilis from three islands of Chupa Inlet (Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea) were examined for infection with trematodes. Morphometric characters (6 indexes of the shell and aperture shape) of molluscs were investigated for all these populations. Exposed and sheltered sites were considered at every island and high and low littoral samples were fulfilled at every site. Seven species of trematodes, Podocotyle atomon, Cryptocotyle lingua, Renicola sp., Himasthla sp., Microphallus piriformes, M. pygmaeus, M. pseudopygmaeus, were found. Uneven distribution of trematodes was confirmed by log-linear analysis. Sheltered populations of L. saxatilis have the greater infection prevalence than exposed ones. This is due to the heavy infection with M. piriformes and M. pygmaeus. The prevalences by these trematodes are up to 52.97% and 27.16% respectively in sheltered populations of the host. The prevalence of M. piriformes tend to be higher at the upper shore level of sheltered sites. In a contrast, the prevalence of M. pygmaeus is significantly higher at the low part of such sites. Factor analysis shows a significant association of the indices of L. saxatilis shell shape with three factors. The first one is associated with the "elongation" of a shell and reveals L. saxatilis from the exposed rocky shore to be more elongated than the molluscs from sheltered sites. The second one is connected with the "aperture shape" index. There is an association of this factor with the shore level position of samples. The third factor reflects the affect of trematodes on the shell shape. The molluscs infected with M. piriformes show "elongated" shell shape and relatively smaller aperture. Shall peculiarities of the hosts infected with M. piriformes and M. pygmaeus are somewhat different. The results of the factor analysis is justified by the series of analysis of variances on the values of shell indices (MANOVA) according to the factors "exposure", "shore

  14. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  15. Population genetic structure and connectivity in the widespread coral-reef fish Abudefduf saxatilis: the role of historic and contemporary factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeros, Victor Julio; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla

    2017-09-01

    We assessed geographic patterns of genetic variation and connectivity in the widely distributed coral-reef fish Abudefduf saxatilis at different temporal scales. We sequenced two mitochondrial regions (cytochrome b and control region) and genotyped 12 microsatellite loci in a total of 296 individuals collected from 14 reefs in two biogeographic provinces in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean and from three provinces within the Caribbean Sea. We used phylogeography, population genetics and coalescent methods to assess the potential effects of climatic oscillations in the Pleistocene and contemporary oceanographic barriers on the population genetic structure and connectivity of the species. Sequence analyses indicated high genetic diversity and a lack of genetic differentiation throughout the Caribbean and between the two biogeographic provinces. Different lines of evidence depicted demographic expansions of A. saxatilis populations dated to the Pleistocene. The microsatellites exhibited high genetic diversity, and no genetic differentiation was detected within the Caribbean; however, these markers identified a genetic discontinuity between the two western Atlantic biogeographic provinces. Migration estimates revealed gene flow across the Amazon-Orinoco Plume, suggesting that genetic divergence may be promoted by differential environmental conditions on either side of the barrier. The climatic oscillations of the Pleistocene, together with oceanographic barriers and the dispersal potential of the species, constitute important factors determining the geographic patterns of genetic variation in A. saxatilis.

  16. Endocrine disruption and altered gonadal development in white perch (Morone americana) from the lower Great Lakes region.

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Balch, Gordon C; Kiparissis, Yiannis; Niimi, Arthur J; Sherry, Jim; Tinson, Cheryl; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2004-01-01

    High prevalences of gonadal intersex have been observed in wild fish populations in areas affected by domestic and industrial effluents. For this study, fish were collected in 1998 from the Cootes Paradise region of Hamilton Harbour in western Lake Ontario, Canada, to determine whether gonadal abnormalities, including intersex, were present in young of the year (YOY) fish. No gonadal abnormalities were observed in goldfish (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), brown bullhead (Ictalurus ameiurus), pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). However, intersex gonads were observed in 8 of 16 male white perch (Morone americana) examined in this survey. Subsequently, in 1999 and 2000 white perch estimated to be YOY to approximately 2 years of age were collected from Cootes Paradise and from two other sites in the lower Great Lakes region. Gonadal intersex was observed in male white perch collected from the Bay of Quinte (22-44%) and Lake St. Clair (45%), although the prevalence and the extent of the intersex condition were lower relative to the 83% prevalence in white perch collected in Cootes Paradise. Intersex was not observed in hatchery-reared white perch or in white perch collected from an uncontaminated reference site (i.e., Deal Lake) in the United States. An analysis of plasma collected in the spring of 2002 from male adult white perch in Cootes Paradise revealed high concentrations of vitellogenin, ranging from 49 to 1,711 microg/mL. These observations indicate that male white perch are exposed to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting substances that may be responsible for the induction of gonadal intersex. PMID:15175179

  17. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Gyrodactylus salmonis (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) isolates collected in Mexico from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; Paladini, Giuseppe; Freeman, Mark A; García-Vásquez, Adriana; Shinn, Andrew P

    2012-05-25

    Gyrodactylus salmonis (Yin et Sproston, 1948) isolates collected from feral rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) in Veracruz, southeastern Mexico are described. Morphological and molecular variation of these isolates to G. salmonis collected in Canada and the U.S.A. is characterised. Morphologically, the marginal hook sickles of Mexican isolates of G. salmonis closely resemble those of Canadian specimens - their shaft and hook regions align closely with one another; only features of the sickle base and a prominent bridge to the toe permit their separation. The 18S sequence determined from the Mexican specimens was identical to two variable regions of SSU rDNA obtained from a Canadian population of G. salmonis. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (spanning ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) of Mexican isolates of G. salmonis are identical to ITS sequences of an American population of G. salmonis and to Gyrodactylus salvelini Kuusela, Ziętara et Lumme, 2008 from Finland. Analyses of the ribosomal RNA gene of Mexican isolates of G. salmonis show 98-99% similarity to those of Gyrodactylus gobiensis Gläser, 1974, Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957, and Gyrodactylus rutilensis Gläser, 1974. Mexican and American isolates of G. salmonis are 98% identical, as assessed by sequencing the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Oncorhynchus mykiss is one of the most widely-dispersed fish species in the world and has been shown to be an important vector for parasite/disease transmission. Considering that Mexican isolates of G. salmonis were collected well outside the native distribution range of all salmonid fish, we discuss the possibility that the parasites were translocated with their host through the aquacultural trade. In addition, this study includes a morphological review of Gyrodactylus species collected from rainbow trout and from other salmonid fish of the genus Oncorhynchus which occur throughout North America.

  18. Testing alternative models for sexual isolation in natural populations of Littorina saxatilis: indirect support for by-product ecological speciation?

    PubMed

    Cruz, R; Carballo, M; Conde-Padín, P; Rolán-Alvarez, E

    2004-03-01

    Two ecotypes of the rough periwinkle Littorina saxatilis occur at different shore levels, showing assortative mating for size and partial reproductive isolation when they meet at the mid-shore. This system represents a putative case of incomplete speciation in sympatry. Two processes contribute to the assortative mating: morph-specific microhabitat aggregation and mate choice. The estimation of mate choice coefficients in nature and a simulation of the aggregation effects on sexual isolation were used to disentangle these processes as well as to test alternative mechanisms of mate choice. Mate choice significantly increased the frequency of within-morph pairs and significantly decreased the frequency of between-morph pairs, whereas those pairs including at least one hybrid morph mated randomly. These results allow us to reject a discriminant mate choice and support a model of evolution of sexual isolation as a side-effect of size-assortative mating in a context of divergent natural selection for size in the population. This mechanism is more compatible with a model of incomplete by-product ecological speciation, as suggested by previous evidence.

  19. [Changes produced by trematode larvae in the phospholipid fatty acid composition of digestive gland of the mollusc Littorina saxatilis].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S; Chebotareva, M A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Shukoliukova, E P

    2007-01-01

    Lipids of the digestive gland of the mollusc Littorina saxatilis from the White and Barents Seas were studied. Changes of its biochemical composition are discussed in the connection with different temperature of the habitat and with infestation with trematode larvae. Comparative analysis of the fatty acid (FA) composition of each of phospholipids in intact molluscs has revealed essential differences. Phosphatidylcholine and monophosphatidylinositol (MPI) FA did not differ in the omega 3/omega 6 ratio, which is due to their tolerance to the temperature factor, whereas more unsaturated phospholipids--phosphatidylethanolamine (FEA), its plasmalogen form (pFEA), and phosphatidylserine--differed 1.5-2 times in the studied molluscs. Predominance of omega 3 acids in the Borents Sea molluscs undoubtedly is due to the lower habitat temperatures, as it provides a higher fluidity of membrane phospholipids. Infestation affected to the greatest degree the quantitative FA composition in pFEA and MPI. At infestation, out of all considered phospholipids, only in MPI there was revealed a threefold decrease of the content of eikosenoic acid C20 : 1, whereas in all other phospholipids, in the contrary, it increased. Monophosphatidylinositols also differed essentially from other phospholipids by the saturated FA amount, which changed the unsaturation index of these phospholipids. Since the functional significance of this minor phospholipid is determined by its participation in the so-called phosphatidylinositol system of the hormonal signal transduction, it seems interesting to elucidate whether an increase of this membrane phospholipid saturation at invasion affects the reflex connection between signals from receptors located in a parasite and enzymatic processes.

  20. Historical Biogeography of the Marine Snail Littorina saxatilis Inferred from Haplotype and Shell Morphology Evolution in NW Spain

    PubMed Central

    Tirado, Terencia; Saura, María; Rolán-Alvarez, Emilio; Quesada, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The marine snail Littorina saxatilis exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographical regions and represents an excellent model for assessing local adaptation. Previous studies support the hypothesis of parallel evolution in sympatry of two morphologically different ecotypes (named as RB and SU) that co-inhabit different habitats from Galician rocky shores (NW Spain), and which are interrupted by sheltered areas inhabited by a different morph never studied before (named as SRB). Here, we use morphological and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data to test hypotheses on the origin and diversification of SRB snails and to assess their evolutionary relationships with RB and SU ecotypes. Our results show that the SRB morph displays the largest size and shell elongation and the smallest relative shell aperture, representing an extreme type of the RB vs. SU polymorphism, which has been linked to adaptation to sheltered ecological factors. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the SRB morph shares ancestry with RB and SU ecotypes, rejecting the hypothesis that the SRB morph marks relict populations from which these ecotypes evolved in Galician coasts. Our data support that genetic differentiation among SRB, RB and SU morphs results from a general pattern of restricted gene flow and isolation by distance linked to the colonization of Galician coasts by two independent mtDNA lineages, rather than from a random fragmentation of the initial distributional range. Therefore, the confinement of distinct lineages to specific geographical areas denote evident limits to the distances these snails can disperse. Morphological analysis indicates no association between mtDNA lineage and a specific morphotype, and suggests the independent gain of convergent morphological patterns within each mtDNA lineage in populations occupying contrasting habitats following the colonization of Galician coasts. PMID:27513934

  1. Historical Biogeography of the Marine Snail Littorina saxatilis Inferred from Haplotype and Shell Morphology Evolution in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Tirado, Terencia; Saura, María; Rolán-Alvarez, Emilio; Quesada, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The marine snail Littorina saxatilis exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographical regions and represents an excellent model for assessing local adaptation. Previous studies support the hypothesis of parallel evolution in sympatry of two morphologically different ecotypes (named as RB and SU) that co-inhabit different habitats from Galician rocky shores (NW Spain), and which are interrupted by sheltered areas inhabited by a different morph never studied before (named as SRB). Here, we use morphological and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data to test hypotheses on the origin and diversification of SRB snails and to assess their evolutionary relationships with RB and SU ecotypes. Our results show that the SRB morph displays the largest size and shell elongation and the smallest relative shell aperture, representing an extreme type of the RB vs. SU polymorphism, which has been linked to adaptation to sheltered ecological factors. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the SRB morph shares ancestry with RB and SU ecotypes, rejecting the hypothesis that the SRB morph marks relict populations from which these ecotypes evolved in Galician coasts. Our data support that genetic differentiation among SRB, RB and SU morphs results from a general pattern of restricted gene flow and isolation by distance linked to the colonization of Galician coasts by two independent mtDNA lineages, rather than from a random fragmentation of the initial distributional range. Therefore, the confinement of distinct lineages to specific geographical areas denote evident limits to the distances these snails can disperse. Morphological analysis indicates no association between mtDNA lineage and a specific morphotype, and suggests the independent gain of convergent morphological patterns within each mtDNA lineage in populations occupying contrasting habitats following the colonization of Galician coasts.

  2. Evaluation of Enterococcus spp. from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), feed, and rearing environment against fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    The use of lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin as probiotics constitutes an alternative strategy to the antibiotic treatment for disease control in aquaculture. Enterococci are currently used as probiotics in human and animal health. In this study, we evaluated the safety of 64 enterococci isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), feed and rearing environment, and their antimicrobial activity against 9 fish pathogens. The 64 enterococcal isolates were identified to the species level by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using specific primers for the different enterococcal species, and confirmed by superoxide dismutase gene sequencing. Enterococcus faecium and E. hirae were the most common species (42.2 and 35.9%, respectively). A total of 48 isolates (75%) showed phenotypic resistance to at least 1 antibiotic determined by a disk-diffusion method, and 25 isolates (39.1%) harbored at least 1 antibiotic resistance gene [erm(B), tet(M), tet(S), tet(K), tet(L), tet(T), vanC2, and aad(E)], detected by PCR. One (1.6%) isolate produced gelatinase and none produced hemolysin, using a plate assay. The virulence genes gelE (46.9%), efaAfs (17.2%), agg (1.6%), and hyl (1.6%) were detected by PCR. A total of 48 isolates (75%) exerted antimicrobial activity against 1 or more of the tested fish pathogens, using a stab-on-agar test. From these isolates, 21 (43.8%) harbored at least 1 bacteriocin-encoding gene (entP, entL50A and entL50B, hirJM79, entSE-K4, entQ and entA), detected by PCR. None of the enterococci showed bile deconjugation and mucin degradation abilities. A total of 17 enterococcal isolates (26.6%) that did not harbor any antibiotic resistance or virulence factor were considered safe for application as probiotics, including 6 isolates (35.3%) that showed antimicrobial activity against at least 1 fish pathogen and harbored at least 1 bacteriocin-encoding gene. Rainbow trout, feed, and rearing environment constitute an appropriate source for the

  3. Effect of treatment of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) eggs with 1,3;1,6-β-D-glucans on their development and susceptibility to Saprolegnia infection.

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, M; Balabanova, L; Elyakova, L; Rasskazov, V; Zvyagintseva, T

    2014-01-01

    The effects of six 1,3;1,6-β-D-glucooligo- and polysaccharides with different structures (ranging from 1 to 10 kDa in molecular mass and containing 10-25% of β-1,6-linked glucose residues) from brown algae, Saccharina cichorioides, on development of the chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum), were evaluated. Exposure of chum salmon eggs to 1,3;1,6-β-D-glucans with a molecular mass of more than 2 kDa increased the survival of embryos and juveniles and their resistance to Saprolegnia infection by up to 2.5-fold, leading to a weight gain in juveniles of 40-55% compared with The control chum salmons. The 1,3;1,6-β-D-glucans with molecular mass of 6-8 kDa and used at a at concentration of 0.5 mg mL(-1) rendered the best stimulative effect.

  4. Antimicrobial peptide CAP18 and its effect on Yersinia ruckeri infections in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): comparing administration by injection and oral routes.

    PubMed

    Chettri, J K; Mehrdana, F; Hansen, E B; Ebbensgaard, A; Overgaard, M T; Lauritsen, A H; Dalsgaard, I; Buchmann, K

    2017-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide CAP18 has been demonstrated to have a strong in vitro bactericidal effect on Yersinia ruckeri, but its activity in vivo has not been described. In this work, we investigated whether CAP18 protects rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) against enteric red mouth disease caused by this pathogen either following i.p. injection or by oral administration (in feed). It was found that injection of CAP18 into juvenile rainbow trout before exposure to Y. ruckeri was associated with lowered mortality compared to non-medicated fish although it was less effective than the conventional antibiotic oxolinic acid. Oral administration of CAP18 to trout did not prevent infection. The proteolytic effect of secretions on the peptide CAP18 in the fish gastrointestinal tract is suggested to account for the inferior effect of oral administration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Plasma cortisol and sex steroid levels in Great Lakes coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) in relation to fecundity and egg survival.

    PubMed

    Morrison, P F; Leatherland, J F; Sonstegard, R A

    1985-01-01

    Plasma 11-ketotestosterone and cortisol levels in spawning male and female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) collected from a Lake Erie (Pennsylvania) stock were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than in stocks of coho salmon at a comparable stage of sexual development collected from Lakes Ontario (two stocks) or Michigan. Plasma testosterone levels in female coho salmon from Lake Erie were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than in females from Lake Ontario or Lake Michigan stocks. There were no significant differences in plasma testosterone levels in the males, or 17 beta-estradiol levels in male or female salmon of the four stocks sampled from the three study lakes. This apparent dysfunction in androgen and cortisol secretion in the Lake Erie stock is correlated with and may account for the low fecundity and poor expression of secondary sexual characteristics in that stock.

  6. Taxonomy and host-specificity of Gyrodactylus aideni n. sp. and G. pleuronecti (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum) in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mullen, A J; Cone, D K; Easy, R; Burt, M D B

    2010-11-01

    Wild and cultured winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum) from Passamaquoddy Bay were surveyed for species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832. Two species were found: G. pleuronecti Cone, 1981 and G. aideni n. sp, both members of Malmberg's 'groenlandicus group'. Although the hard parts in the haptor are very similar in the two species, hamuli of G. aideni are consistently shorter than those of G. pleuronecti. The two species differed by 35 base pairs in the ITS 1, 5.8 and ITS 2 region. A BLAST search identified a variety of species of Gyrodactylus from marine fishes in the Atlantic Ocean as closest matches, indicating the 'groenlandicus group' is part of a major marine lineage within Gyrodactylus (sensu lato) that has successfully radiated among coastal percid, pleuronectid, cottid and anarhichadid fishes. Exposure experiments suggested that winter flounder is the primary host of both species of parasites and that three other pleuronectid species in the bay may potentially serve only as occasional transport hosts.

  7. 50 CFR 600.1400 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Alosa alabamae Striped bass: Morone saxatilis Rainbow smelt: Osmerus mordax Atlantic salmon: Salmo salar Chinook, or king, salmon: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Coho, or silver, salmon: Oncorhynchus kisutch Pink salmon: Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Sockeye salmon: Oncorhynchus nerka Chum salmon: Oncorhynchus...

  8. 50 CFR 600.1400 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Alosa alabamae Striped bass: Morone saxatilis Rainbow smelt: Osmerus mordax Atlantic salmon: Salmo salar Chinook, or king, salmon: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Coho, or silver, salmon: Oncorhynchus kisutch Pink salmon: Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Sockeye salmon: Oncorhynchus nerka Chum salmon: Oncorhynchus...

  9. 50 CFR 600.1400 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: Alosa alabamae Striped bass: Morone saxatilis Rainbow smelt: Osmerus mordax Atlantic salmon: Salmo salar Chinook, or king, salmon: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Coho, or silver, salmon: Oncorhynchus kisutch Pink salmon: Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Sockeye salmon: Oncorhynchus nerka Chum salmon: Oncorhynchus...

  10. 50 CFR 600.1400 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Alosa alabamae Striped bass: Morone saxatilis Rainbow smelt: Osmerus mordax Atlantic salmon: Salmo salar Chinook, or king, salmon: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Coho, or silver, salmon: Oncorhynchus kisutch Pink salmon: Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Sockeye salmon: Oncorhynchus nerka Chum salmon: Oncorhynchus...

  11. [Modification of the structure of penial glands in males of the intertidal molluscs Littorina saxatilis and L. obtusata under the influence of the infestation by trematode parthenites].

    PubMed

    Ganzha, E V; Granovich, A I

    2008-01-01

    Sporocycts of the "pygmaeus" microphallides (Microphallus piriformes) are localized in hepatopancreas and gonads of Littorina molluscs causing total parasitic castration. A histological study of penial glands in Littorina saxatilis and L. obtusata males infested with trematodes M. piriformes has been made. Copulatory organs of noninfested molluscs, molluscs after recent contamination (with not completely formed daughter sporocysts), and molluscs containing mature metacercariae inside daughter sporocysts were examined. Based on the data obtained, probable dynamics of the histological structure of infested glandular apparatus was established. It was shown, that the trematode infestation have an influence on the muscular and secretory parts of penial glands. The wall of the penial gland muscular capsule becomes more fine in infested L. saxatilis. On the contrary, this wall is vastly thicker in infested L. obtusata, as compared with noninfested individuals. Glandular cells of the molluscs' penial glands decreases the amount of granular secret in both species. In L. obtusata the number of secretory cells is shown to be reduced up to their total disappearance. The above pathological changes probably prevent normal function of penial glands.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2016-05-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  13. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2017-03-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  14. Hepatic gene expression analysis between low and high growing hybrid striped bass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hybrid striped bass (HSB), produced from a cross between white bass (Morone chrysops) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) represent a significant market for US aquaculture. One of the major constraints to an increase in production and profitability of producers arises from the variation in growth o...

  15. [The influence of the degree of infestation with trematode parthenites on the structure of penial glands in the mollusks Littorina saxatilis of different age].

    PubMed

    Ganzha, E V; Starunova, Z I

    2011-01-01

    Histological and confocal microscopy studies of the structure of penial glands in the Littorina saxatilis males were carried out. The examined mollusks belong to two age groups and were at different stages of spontaneous infection with a trematode from the pygmaeus species group (Microphallus piriformes). Based on comparative analysis of microscopic sections of copulative organs in infested and non-infested mollusks, data on the modifications in histological structure ofpenial glands were obtained. From these data we can suggest that the infestation have an influence on all parts of the gland. Decrease of secret production and reduction of muscular capsule (down to its disappearance) were observed. We suppose that changes in the penial glands structure prevent their normal functioning. In the mollusks infested on reaching the sexual maturity, gradual reduction of distal part of reproductive system was observed, while in the mollusks infested before the sexual maturity, development of ancillary part of reproductive system was blocked.

  16. Testing the thermal-niche oxygen-squeeze hypothesis for estuarine striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Richard T.; Secor, D.H.; Wingate, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many stratified coastal ecosystems, conceptual and bioenergetics models predict seasonal reduction in quality and quantity of fish habitat due to high temperatures and hypoxia. We tested these predictions using acoustic telemetry of 2 to 4 kg striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum) and high-resolution spatial water quality sampling in the Patuxent River, a sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay, during 2008 and 2009. Striped bass avoided hypoxic (dissolved oxygen ≤2 mg·l−1) subpycnocline waters, but frequently occupied habitats with high temperatures (>25 °C) in the summer months, as cooler habitats were typically not available. Using traditional concepts of the seasonal thermal-niche oxygen-squeeze, most of the Patuxent estuary would beconsidered unsuitable habitat for adult striped bass during summer. Application of a bioenergetics model revealed that habitats selected by striped bass during summer would support positive growth rates assuming fish could feed at one-half ofmaximum consumption. Occupancy of the estuary during summer by striped bass in this study was likely facilitated by sufficient prey and innate tolerance of high temperatures by sub-adult fish of the size range that we tagged. Our results help extend the thermalniche oxygen-squeeze hypothesis to native populations of striped bass in semi-enclosed coastal systems. Tolerance of for supraoptimal temperatures in our study supports recent suggestions by others that the thermal-niche concept for striped bass should be revised to include warmer temperatures.

  17. US Atlantic coast striped bass: Issues with a recovered population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), is an anadromous species naturally occurring along the US Atlantic coast, which historically supported valuable commercial and recreational fisheries. In response to a near order-of-magnitude decline in landings, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission enacted a management plan in 1981 protecting fish until they could spawn at least once. By 1989, recruitment increased in natal rivers and regulations were relaxed, permitting limited fisheries by 1990. By 1995, the stock was declared fully recovered. Since the recovery, concern has increased over the health of the stocks. In the 1990s, fish in poor physical condition with dermal lesions became common in Chesapeake Bay. Pathogens of most concern in cultures from fish include the genus Mycobacterium. Coincident with declines in fish health were changes in diets, declines of preferred prey, and reduced growth and condition. Theories were suggested linking declines in condition to reductions in forage base or pathogens. Diets have changed since the 1950s and while many Chesapeake fish are infected with mycobacteria, it is still not known how or if these factors are linked. The highest priorities for research were considered to be: linking numerous local and regional studies to provide a coast-wide perspective; continuation of investigations linking population health to the prey-base; determination of the cause-effect of mycobacteria infections; and formulation of management options.

  18. Atlantic coast feeding habits of striped bass: A synthesis supporting a coast-wide understanding of trophic biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, J. F.; Overton, A.S.; Ferry, K.H.; Mather, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The recent increase in the Atlantic coast population of striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), prompted managers to re-evaluate their predatory impact. Published and unpublished diet data for striped bass on the Atlantic Coast of North America were examined for geographical, ontogenetic and seasonal patterns in the diet and to assess diet for this species. Diets of young-of-the-year (YOY) striped bass were similar across the Upper Atlantic (UPATL), Chesapeake and Delaware Bays (CBDEL) and North Carolina (NCARO) areas of the Atlantic coast where either fish or mysid shrimp dominate the diet. For age one and older striped bass, cluster analysis partitioned diets based on predominance of either Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe), characteristic of striped bass from the CBDEL and NCARO regions, or non-menhaden fishes or invertebrates, characteristic of fish from the UPATL, in the diet. The predominance of invertebrates in the diets of striped bass in the UPATL region can be attributed to the absence of several important species groups in Northern waters, particularly sciaenid fishes, and to the sporadic occurrences of Atlantic menhaden to UPATL waters. In all regions, across most seasons and in most size classes of striped bass, the clupeiod fishes; menhaden, anchovies (Anchoa spp.) and river herrings (Alosa spp,) and Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., dominated the diets of striped bass above the first year of life.

  19. Influence of nearshore structure on growth and diets of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and white perch (Morone americana) in Mexico Bay, Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danehy, Robert J.; Ringler, Neil H.; Gannon, John E.

    1991-01-01

    The growth diets of 969 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and white perch (Morone americana) caught at 3.3 and 7.0 m depths were compared between two cobble/rubble shoals and two featureless sand sites in Mexico Bay, eastern Lake Ontario during 1981. The growth rate of both species was significantly greater for individuals captured over the cobble/rubble shoals. Females of both species were faster growing than the males, although only significantly so in the white perch. The seasonal diet and breadth of diet (H′) of yellow perch and white perch were not substantially different with respect to substrate type. Diet overlap between substrate types was also equivalent for each species. Benthic invertebrates, primarilyGammarus spp., were the major prey of both species at all sites. Alewife eggs were the most important item for the white perch in mid-summer, and alewife juveniles were important to both species in the fall. Differences in growth patterns between cobble/rubble shoals and sand sites illustrate a subtle effect of habitat on these species.

  20. Monitoring of the in-river migration of smolts from two groups of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with different profiles of Renibacterium salmoninarum infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, R.J.; Elliott, D.G.; Achord, S.

    1993-01-01

    Broodstock segregation based on the measurement of maternal Renibacterium salmoninarum infection levels by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the membrane filtration-fluorescent antibody technique (MF-FAT) was previously shown to affect the prevalence and levels of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in progeny of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), during hatchery rearing. Subgroups of fish from that study were marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and monitored by PIT-tag detectors during the first 342km of their migration to the Pacific Ocean. Differences in the recovery of tagged fish were significant (P≤ 0·01) at each detection point and became more pronounced as the fish moved downstream. Cumulative recoveries of fish from the low-BKD group and the high-BKD group, respectively, were 31% and 28% after 116km, 44% and 37% after 176km, and 51% and 42% after 342km. There were no apparent differences in the migration timing of the two groups to the first detection point. The data suggested that in-river survival was higher in the progeny group from parents that had low R. salmoninarum infection levels or tested negative for R. salmoninarum (low-BKD group) than in the group female parents with high infection levels (high-BKD group).

  1. Microencapsulation of a putative probiotic Enterobacter species, C6-6, to protect rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), against bacterial coldwater disease.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, B; Cain, K D; Nowak, B F; Bridle, A R

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), which has a major impact on salmonid aquaculture globally. An Enterobacter species, C6-6, isolated from the gut of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), has been identified as a potential probiotic species providing protection against BCWD. This study examined the effects of alginate microencapsulation on the protective efficacy of C6-6 against BCWD in vivo when administered to rainbow trout fry orally or by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Viable C6-6 bacteria were microencapsulated successfully, and this process (microencapsulation) did not significantly deteriorate its protective properties as compared to the administration of non-microencapsulated C6-6 bacteria. Both oral and IP delivery of C6-6 achieved significantly better protection than control treatments that did not contain C6-6 bacteria. The highest relative percent survival (RPS) resulted from IP delivery (71.4%) and was significantly greater than the highest oral RPS (38.6%). Successful intestinal colonization was not critical to protective effects of C6-6. The study showed that C6-6 administration, with or without encapsulation, was a viable choice for protecting fry from BCWD especially when administered intraperitoneally.

  2. Toxic effects in C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice following consumption of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated Great Lakes coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum).

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, G B; Leatherland, J F; Sonstegard, R A

    1987-01-01

    Diets containing coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) from the Pacific Ocean or from Lakes Erie, Michigan, and Ontario [containing a gradation from low to high of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, (HAHs)] were fed to C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice. Following a 4-month dietary exposure to Lake Ontario salmon, both strains of mice demonstrated hepatomegaly. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (ERR) enzyme levels were elevated in livers of C57B1/6 mice fed diets of salmon from all of the Great Lakes studied, with exceptionally high levels detected in C57B1/6 mice fed Lake Ontario salmon. Induction of ERR enzyme levels was detected in DBA/2 mice only following dietary exposure to Lake Ontario salmon. Serum levels of L-thyroxine (T4) and triiodo-L-thryonine (T3) were suppressed in C57B1/6 mice following consumption of Lake Ontario coho salmon, but T3 and T4 levels remained unchanged in DBA/2 mice. In general, pathobiological effects correlated with both dietary HAH exposure level and Ah receptor status. PMID:3691436

  3. Infection of gill and kidney of Fraser River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), by Parvicapsula minibicornis and its effect on host physiology.

    PubMed

    Bradford, M J; Lovy, J; Patterson, D A

    2010-09-01

    Adult sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), migrating upstream in the Fraser River, British Columbia, are exposed to the myxozoan parasite Parvicapsula minibicornis when they enter the river from the ocean. Infections are initially localized in the kidney but have recently been associated with branchitis in one population. Adult fish from five locations in the watershed were sampled to determine whether branchitis was widespread. P. minibicornis infections in kidney glomeruli were prevalent in all samples except for a sample of fish that had just entered the Fraser River from the ocean. For fish captured in spawning streams, parasites were observed in the renal tubules and gill, and branchitis was observed in 70% of fish. Plasma osmolality was negatively correlated with the number of parasites in the kidney tubules, which we hypothesize to be caused by the breach of glomerular membranes as the parasite leaves the fish. Plasma lactate values increased with increasing levels of pathology in gills. These findings support the hypothesis that P. minibicornis impacts the physiology of migrating fish, which may in turn affect the likelihood that adults will be able to migrate and spawn successfully.

  4. Effects of selenium dietary enhancement on hatchery-reared coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), when compared with wild coho: hepatic enzymes and seawater adaptation evaluated.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felton, S.P.; Landolt, M.L.; Grace, R.; Palmisano, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Hatchery-reared coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), were fed elevated levels of selenium (as Na2SeO3) to raise eviscerated body burdens to the level measured in wild counterparts. The goal was to find a dietary concentration that would achieve the desired effect without causing damage to growth and normal development. To measure some indices of health, the detoxifying enzymes chosen were hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD). Eviscerated body selenium (Se) concentration, GSH-Px and SOD levels were measured during and at the end of the 9 month freshwater feeding trial. Selenium retention and enzyme activity were also measured during 6 months’residence in sea water (SW). Selenium supplements were added to a commercial ration to give final concentrations of 1.1, 8.6, 11.1, 13.6 μg g-1 Se in the four respective diets. The results indicated that a dietary concentration of 8.6 μg g-1selenium was capable of inducing eviscerated body burdens similar to those found in wild fish. The elevated selenium levels persisted throughout the freshwater (FW) rearing phase, but declined when the fish were fed an unsupplemented ration upon SW entry. Superoxide dismutase levels did not increase above control levels. Glutathione peroxidase levels increased in fish fed the supplemented diets. GSH-Px activity declined in the higher supplemented dietary groups when all groups were reduced to the control group level of 1.1 μg g-1. Cumulative mortality in SW was 20% in fish fed either the 1.1 or the 8.6 μg g-1 Se diets. The 8.6 μg g-1 Se supplemented diets did produce healthy coho, comparable to their wild counterparts.

  5. Genetic differentiation and estimation of effective population size and migration rates in two sympatric ecotypes of the marine snail Littorina saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J; Galindo, J; Fernández, B; Pérez-Figueroa, A; Caballero, A; Rolán-Alvarez, E

    2005-01-01

    On exposed rocky shores in Galicia (northwest Spain), a striking polymorphism exists between two ecotypes (RB and SU) of Littorina saxatilis that occupy different levels of the intertidal zone and exhibit an incomplete reproductive isolation. The setting has been suggested to represent ongoing sympatric speciation by ecological adaptation of the two ecotypes to their respective habitats. In this article we address whether or not the ecotypes have developed their own population structures in response to the rigors of their corresponding environments and life histories. We analyzed four to five allozymic loci from three surveys of the same sites, spanning a 14-year period. An experimental design including three localities with two transects per locality and three shore levels allowed studying temporal and spatial population structure and estimation of effective population sizes (N(e)), neighborhood sizes (N(n)), and migration rates (m). Genetic differentiation was significantly lower in RB populations (theta(ST) = 0.067) than in SU ones (theta(ST) = 0.124). Mean estimates of N(e), N(n), and m did not differ significantly between ecotypes, but local ecotype differences in migration between the two closest localities (larger migration rates in RB than in SU populations) could explain the pattern in population differentiation.

  6. Comparing geographical genetic differentiation between candidate and noncandidate loci for adaptation strengthens support for parallel ecological divergence in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Galindo, J; Morán, P; Rolán-Alvarez, E

    2009-03-01

    The Galician sympatric ecotypes of Littorina saxatilis have been proposed as a model system for studying parallel ecological speciation. Such a model system makes a clear prediction: candidate loci (for divergent adaptation) should present a higher level of geographical differentiation than noncandidate (neutral) loci. We used 2356 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and four microsatellite loci to identify candidate loci for ecological adaptation using the F(ST) outlier method. Three per cent of the studied AFLP loci were identified as candidate loci associated with adaptation, after multitest adjustments, thus contributing to ecotype differentiation (candidate loci were not detected within ecotypes). Candidate and noncandidate loci were analysed separately at four different F(ST) partitions: differences between ecotypes (overall and local), differences between localities and micro-geographical differences within ecotypes. The magnitude of F(ST) differed between candidate and noncandidate loci for all partitions except in the case of micro-geographical differentiation within ecotypes, and the microsatellites (putatively neutral) showed an identical pattern to noncandidate loci. Thus, variation in candidate loci is determined partially independent by divergent natural selection (in addition to stochastic forces) at each locality, while noncandidate loci are exclusively driven by stochastic forces. These results support the evolutionary history described for these particular populations, considered to be a clear example of incomplete sympatric ecological speciation.

  7. Fish community dynamics in northeastern Lake Ontario with emphasis on the growth and reproductive success of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and white perch (Morone americana), 1978 to1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Burnett, John A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Fishes were assessed in Guffin, Chaumount, and Black River bays in northeastern Lake Ontario with a 7.9-m (headrope) bottom trawl during late September and early October, 1978 to 1997. Fish density declined in the early 1990s with sharp declines in abundance of spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), and johnny darter (Etheostoma nigrum) occurring in 1993 to 1995. Rising numbers of piscivores, walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), increased predation pressure, presumably acting in concert with oligotrophication to lower fish density, particularly after 1991 when large numbers of adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) no longer migrated to the northeast basin in spring. Annual mortality of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from age 2 to 5 rose from 33% in 1980–83 to 65% in 1992–95 and was positively related to piscivore numbers (P = 0.01, r = 0.96, n = 5). Annual mortality of yellow perch from age 0 to 2 also peaked in 1992–95. Abundance of yellow perch YOY in fall varied 40 fold and was not related to water warming in spring (P = 0.45, r = −0.19, n = 18) but was negatively related to the abundance of adult alewives in spring (P = 0.04, r = −0.49, n = 18). Although yellow perch produced moderate to strong year classes each year during 1991–95, stock size failed to increase because of rapidly accelerating mortality. Fully 85% of the variation in mean length of yellow perch YOY was explained by a multiple regression model which included YOY abundance, mean total phosphorus, and cumulative degree days > 13.5°C (P < 0.01, n = 15). Abundance of white perch (Morone americana) YOY varied nearly 200 fold and was not related to water warming or spring alewife abundance (P > 0.15). Variation in mean length of white perch YOY was related to cumulative degree days > 15°C (P < 0.01, r = 0.69).

  8. Comparative analysis of flavonoid profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the berries of Juniperus communis L. var. communis and Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pall. from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Natalizia; Trovato, Ada; Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Marino, Andreana; Bellinghieri, Valentina; La Barbera, Tommaso M; Güvenç, Ayşegül; Taviano, Maria F

    2009-08-12

    The present study was designed to define and compare the flavonoid composition and the biological potential of berries methanol extracts of Juniperus communis L. var. communis (Jcc) and Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis. Pall. (Jcs) from Turkey. Total polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteau method) were 3-fold higher in Jcc (59.17 +/- 1.65 mg GAE/g extract) than in Jcs (17.64 +/- 0.09 mg GAE/g extract). Flavonoid and biflavonoid content, evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis, was higher in Jcc (25947 +/- 0.86 and 4346 +/- 3.95 microg/g extract) than in Jcs (5387 +/- 34.88 and 1944 +/- 26.88 microg/g extract). The HPLC analysis of Jcc allowed the separation of 16 flavonoids; hypolaetin-7-pentoside and quercetin-hexoside are the main compounds. Moreover, gossypetin-hexoside-pentoside and gossypetin-hexoside were identified for the first time in Jcc berries. In Jcs eight flavonoids were identified: quercetin-hexoside and isoscutellarein-8-O-hexoside are the most abundant compounds. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined using different methods; Jcc was found to be more active than Jcs in the DPPH test (IC(50) of 0.63 +/- 0.09 mg/mL and 1.84 +/- 0.10 mg/mL) in reducing power assay (12.82 +/- 0.10 ASE/mL and 64.14 +/- 1.20 ASE/mL), and in TBA assay (IC(50) of 4.44 +/- 0.70 microg/mL and 120.07 +/- 3.60 microg/mL). By contrast, Jcs exhibited more elevated Fe(2+) chelating ability than Jcc. The extracts were also studied for their antimicrobial potential, displaying antimicrobial capacity only against Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. The effect of chitosan-based edible film and high hydrostatic pressure process on the microbiological and chemical quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) fillets during cold storage (4±1°C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günlü, Ali; Sipahioğlu, Sinem; Alpas, Hami

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the changes in the chemical and microbiological quality of fresh rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) fillets during storage at 4±1°C as a result of chitosan-based edible film coating, vacuum packaging and high pressure application processes. Chemical (pH, total volatile basic nitrogen and thiobarbituric acid index) and microbiological (total mesophilic and total psychrophilic microorganism) shelf life analyses were carried out in 4-day intervals for samples that were vacuum packaged (C), subjected to high pressure after vacuum packaging (high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)), vacuum packaged after being wrapped by chitosan-based film (CFW) and subjected to high pressure after vacuum packaging and being wrapped by chitosan-based film (HHP+CFW ). According to the chemical and microbiological shelf life analysis results of rainbow trout fillets, shelf life increases of 4 days in HHP group samples, 8 days in CFW group samples and 24 days in HHP+CFW group samples were provided in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, it was determined that high pressure and wrapping with chitosan-based film had protective effect both chemically and microbiologically and that the most effective protection was obtained when both methods were used together.

  10. Differences in habitat selection of male and female megrim ( Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis, Walbaum) to the west of Ireland. A result of differences in life-history strategies between the sexes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerritsen, H. D.; McGrath, D.; Lordan, C.; Harlay, X.

    2010-11-01

    The sex ratio in the catches of megrim ( Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis, Walbaum) varied systematically with depth on three independent trawl survey series off the west coast of Ireland. Female megrim dominated the shallow catches, while males were more common in catches from deeper waters. The size difference between the sexes alone cannot explain this pattern because it remained evident when fish length was taken into account. Therefore size-specific habitat preferences or size-selective fishing mortality cannot fully explain the observed trend in the sex ratio of megrim. Female megrim grow to a larger size, at a faster rate than males and it is likely that their differences in habitat preferences are related to this. Shallower waters are warmer during the growing season and are likely to provide better conditions for fast growth. An understanding of the mechanisms behind these patterns is an important consideration in the management and conservation of this fish stock, which might be particularly vulnerable because the commercial landings are to a large extent dominated by female megrim.

  11. Purified deoxynivalenol or feed restriction reduces mortality in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with experimental bacterial coldwater disease but biologically relevant concentrations of deoxynivalenol do not impair the growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Ryerse, I A; Hooft, J M; Bureau, D P; Hayes, M A; Lumsden, J S

    2015-09-01

    Diets containing deoxynivalenol (DON) were fed to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) for 4 weeks followed by experimental infection (intraperitoneal) with Flavobacterium psychrophilum (4.1 × 10(6) colony-forming units [CFU] mL(-1) ). Mortality of rainbow trout fed either 6.4 mg kg(-1) DON or trout pair-fed the control diet was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in comparison with trout fed the control diet to apparent satiation (<0.1 mg kg(-1) DON). In a second experiment, trout were fed one of three experimental diets; a control diet, a diet produced with corn naturally contaminated with DON (3.3 mg kg(-1) DON) or a diet containing purified DON (3.8 mg kg(-1) ); however, these fish were not experimentally infected. The presence of DON resulted in significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in feed intake as well as weight gain after 4 weeks. Respiratory burst of head-kidney leucocytes isolated from rainbow trout fed diets containing purified DON (3.8 mg kg(-1) ) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at 35 day post-exposure compared with controls. The antimicrobial activity of DON was examined by subjecting F. psychrophilum in vitro to serial dilutions of the chemical. Complete inhibition occurred at a concentration of 75 mg L(-1) DON, but no effect was observed below this concentration (0-30 mg L(-1) ).

  12. Hybrid striped bass National Breeding Program: Research towards genetic improvement of a non-model species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry at present relies almost totally on wild broodstock for annual production of larvae and fingerlings, and industry efforts to domesticate the parent species of the HSB (white bass: WB, Morone chrysops; striped bass: SB, M. saxatilis) have been fairly lim...

  13. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  14. Egg saprolegniasis in a commercial sunshine bass hatchery: Control regime developed using copper sulfate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  15. Evaluation of growth, nutrient retention, health, and resistance to bacterial challenge in sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the effects of meals made from new strains of soybeans with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on hybrid striped bass ("Sunshine bass", Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) nutrient availability, growth rates, nutrient retention, gut histology, non-specific immune respo...

  16. The effects of menhaden oil, flaxseed oil and a dairy-yeast prebiotic on growth , health , feed conversion , survival , critical maximum temperature, and body composition of sunshine bass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with juvenile "sunshine bass" female Morone chrysops x male M. saxatilis using four diets containing two levels of a dairy-yeast prebiotic (0 or 2%) and either menhaden fish oil or flaxseed oil as a lipid source. The objective was to determine the main and inte...

  17. Hybrid striped bass national breeding program: research towards genetic improvement of a non-model species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry at present relies almost totally on wild broodstock for annual production of larvae and fingerlings, and industry efforts to domesticate the parent species of the HSB (white bass: WB, Morone chrysops; striped bass: SB, M. saxatilis) have been fairly lim...

  18. Does the dye Aquashade reduce pond production of sunshine bass fingerlings?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rooted macrophytes make harvesting fingerling sunshine bass Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis difficult because they tangle in the seines and increase fish stress. Aquashade(c), a dye, is used to reduce macrophyte growth. Fingerling culturists are reluctant to use it because it may reduce phytoplank...

  19. Rearing sunshine bass using diets formulated for summer water temperatures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated water temperatures are common in hybrid striped bass or Sunshine bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) production ponds during summer months in the southern US. Median daily water temperatures often exceed 30 C from June through September. This experiment was conducted to extend and re...

  20. Use of diets formulated for summer water temperatures in pond production of hybrid striped bass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated water temperatures are common in hybrid striped bass or Sunshine bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) production ponds during summer months in the southern US. Median daily water temperatures often exceed 30 C from June through September. This experiment was conducted to extend and re...

  1. Comparative cost analysis of hybrid striped bass fingerling production in ponds and tanks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Year-round production of hybrid striped bass (female white bass Morone chrysops×male striped bass M. saxatilis) fingerlings would allow food fish growers to sell their product throughout the year, which would improve the consistency of market supply and cash flow for the farm. However, pond producti...

  2. The Relationship Between Acoustic Target Strength and Body Length for Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    salar), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus...55: 2492-2502. Clay, A., and M. Castonguay. 1996. In situ target strengths of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus

  3. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on growth of fingerling hybrid striped bass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in production ponds is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher DO concentrations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis; HSB) f...

  4. Nisin Z Production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris WA2-67 of Aquatic Origin as a Defense Mechanism to Protect Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) Against Lactococcus garvieae.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol; Cintas, Luis M

    2015-12-01

    Probiotics represent an alternative to chemotherapy and vaccination to control fish diseases, including lactococcosis caused by Lactococcus garvieae. The aims of this study were (i) to determine the in vitro probiotic properties of three bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris of aquatic origin, (ii) to evaluate in vivo the ability of L. cremoris WA2-67 to protect rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) against infection by L. garvieae, and (iii) to demonstrate the role of nisin Z (NisZ) production as an anti-infective mechanism. The three L. cremoris strains survived in freshwater at 18 °C for 7 days, withstood exposure to pH 3.0 and 10 % (v/v) rainbow trout bile, and showed different cell surface hydrophobicity (37.93-58.52 %). The wild-type NisZ-producer L. cremoris WA2-67 and its non-bacteriocinogenic mutant L. cremoris WA2-67 ∆nisZ were administered orally (10(6) CFU/g) to rainbow trout for 21 days and, subsequently, fish were challenged with L. garvieae CLG4 by the cohabitation method. The fish fed with the bacteriocinogenic strain L. cremoris WA2-67 reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the mortality (20 %) compared to the fish treated with its non-bacteriocinogenic knockout isogenic mutant (50 %) and the control (72.5 %). We demonstrated the effectiveness of L. cremoris WA2-67 to protect rainbow trout against infection with the invasive pathogen L. garvieae and the relevance of NisZ production as an anti-infective mechanism. This is the first report demonstrating the effective in vivo role of LAB bacteriocin (NisZ) production as a mechanism to protect fish against bacterial infection. Our results suggest that the wild-type NisZ-producer strain L. cremoris WA2-67 could be used in fish farming to prevent lactococcosis in rainbow trout.

  5. A phylogeny of the temperate seabasses (Moronidae) characterized by a translocation of the mt-nd6 gene.

    PubMed

    Williams, E P; Peer, A C; Miller, T J; Secor, D H; Place, A R

    2012-01-01

    The entire mitochondrial genome of the striped bass Morone saxatilis was sequenced together with the mitochondrial (mt) control regions of the white bass Morone chrysops, white perch Morone americana, yellow bass Morone mississippiensis, spotted seabass Dicentrarchus punctatus, European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax and the Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus. The resultant 17 580 base pair circular genome of M. saxatilis contains 38 genes (13 proteins, 23 transfer RNAs and two ribosomal RNAs) and a control region bordered by the proline and phenylalanine mitochondrial tRNAs. Gene arrangement was similar to other vertebrates, except that the mt-nd6 gene was found within the control region rather than the canonical position between the mt-nd5 and mt-cyb genes. This translocation was found in all the Morone and Dicentrarchus species studied without functional copies or pseudogenes in the ancestral position. In L. japonicus, the mt-nd6 gene was found in the canonical position without evidence of an mt-nd6 gene in the control region. A Bayesian analysis of these and published mt-nd6 sequences from 45 other Perciformes grouped the Morone and Dicentrarchus species monophyletically with a probability of 1·00 with respect to L. japonicus and all other perciforms, and placed the Dicentrarchus species in the basal position. These data reinforce current placement of L. japonicus outside the Moronidae and provide a clear evolutionary character to define this family. The phylogeny of the Moronidae presented here also supports the hypothesis of an anadromous common ancestor to this family that gave rise to the North American estuarine and freshwater species. A series of tandem repeats previously reported in M. saxatilis was found in the control region of all Morone species between the mt-nd6 and mt-rnr1 genes, but not in either Dicentrarchus species, which reinforces the continued use of these two separate genera.

  6. Moron AB, Moron, Spain. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-05-12

    9go 90.1 26 $ h 49o.j 9-oS1 > 000 _ g.’l9. 9., . 7, 9 8 ./* 97.8, 99-4r 9706 97.l 9 1 .97 97o 97 l 9000 9I1I 7 200 * d 990*7 978 Qg,7 99.I 9So 9i.f 991...OISBIVA,7 99 ,6 26 a 7 I S I1I+ UaF 9TAC .,,, 0"-4S 1 ).’ ’mv0u20, 19~r. . , 9#9194 7 94 8 9 q 9: i . ) o Bo ... I ; CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY...S4000 𔃺 5 9.7 V759P7 9!77 99.7 98.77 1.7 91.7 > 3000 94- 8 91 978 99.8 95’" 99,8 9 a, 8 9798 97-. 98,P 92,- 98;8 97-5 98 - > 2000 , b s9 I 9 󈧗 l 9P

  7. Feeding activity and spawning time of striped bass in the Colorado River Inlet, Lake Powell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persons, William R.; Bulkly, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Striped bass, Morone saxatilis, from Lake Powell, Utah spawned in or near the mixing zone of the reservoir and the Colorado River in 1980 and 1981. The fish did not move through Cataract Canyon rapids just above the reservoir in either year. Of 321 adult striped bass stomachs examined, 30% contained food and 28% contained threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense. No stomachs contained native threatened or endangered Colorado River fishes.

  8. Draft Genome Sequences for Seven Streptococcus parauberis Isolates from Wild Fish in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Haines, Ashley; Nebergall, Emily; Besong, Elvira; Council, Kimaya; Lambert, Onaysha; Gauthier, David

    2016-08-18

    Streptococcus parauberis is a pathogen of cattle and fish, closely related Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus iniae We report the genomes of seven S. parauberis strains recovered from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay. The availability of these genomes will allow comparative genomic analysis of Chesapeake Bay S. parauberis strains versus S. parauberis cultured from other animal hosts and geographic regions. Copyright © 2016 Haines et al.

  9. Hemidystonia - hemiatrophy syndrome in Domenico Morone's Madonna with child.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella; Lazzeri, Davide; Albury, William R; Weisz, George M

    2016-11-01

    The authors present an image of the Madonna and Child painted by one of the less well-known Italian artists of the Renaissance. The appearance of the child in this work raises the question of whether his obvious physical deformities were deliberately portrayed as an empathic gesture toward children with disabilities. Various retrospective diagnoses of the child's condition are enumerated, one of which is considered more probable.

  10. Onset of barotrauma injuries related to number of pile driving strike exposures in hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Casper, Brandon M; Halvorsen, Michele B; Carlson, Thomas J; Popper, Arthur N

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies exploring injury response to pile driving in fishes presented exposure paradigms (>900 strikes) that emulated circumstances where fish would not leave an area being ensonified. Those studies did not, however, address the question of how many strikes are needed before injuries appear. Thus, the number of strikes paired with a constant single strike sound exposure level (SELss) that can cause injuries is not yet clear. In order to examine this question, hybrid striped bass (white bass Morone chrysops × striped bass Morone saxatilis) were exposed to 8-384 strikes in three different SELss treatments that generated different cumulative sound exposure level values. The treatment with the highest SELss values caused swim bladder injuries in fish exposed to as few as eight pile strikes. These results have important implications for pile driving operations where SELss values meet or exceed the exposure levels used in this study.

  11. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  12. Benzocaine as an anesthetic for striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, Philip A.; Lemm, Carol A.; Woods, L. Curry

    1991-01-01

    Benzocaine was tested as an anesthetic on juvenile and mature adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis ). Concentrations of 55 mg/L at 22 degree C to 80 mg/L at 11 degree C effectively anesthetized fish in about 3 min. Recovery was more rapid as temperature increased. Fish survived concentrations of twice the effective concentration and exposure times up to 60 min at the effective concentration. Striped bass required higher concentrations for anesthetization than had been previously demonstrated for salmonid fishes, but safety margins for both concentration and exposure time were wider than for the salmonids.

  13. Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from mummichog, stickleback, striped bass and brown trout in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Gagné, N; Mackinnon, A-M; Boston, L; Souter, B; Cook-Versloot, M; Griffiths, S; Olivier, G

    2007-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from mortalities occurring in populations of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus, brown trout, Salmo trutta, and striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The isolated viral strains produced a cytopathic effect on the epithelioma papillosum cyprini cell line. Serum neutralization indicated the virus was VHSV and sequencing identified the rhabdovirus isolates as the North American strain of VHSV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates are closely related and form a distinguishable subgroup of North American type VHSV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of VHSV in mummichog and striped bass.

  14. Teratological hermaphroditism in the chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1957-01-01

    The anomalous condition of hermaphroditism appears to be no less rare in fish than in other normally dioecious animals. Previous records of bisexuality' in the Pacific salmons, Oncorhynchus spp., are few in number despite the intensive study accorded this group. Rutter (1902) reported the condition in two king salmon (O. tshawytscha); Crawford (1927) reported the condition in a silver salmon (O. kisutch); and Gibbs (1956) described a bisexual steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and briefly noted another instance of hermaphroditism in the king salmon. We wish to record an example of this anomaly in the chum salmon (O. keta).

  15. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48 h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  16. Striped bass, temperature, and dissolved oxygen: a speculative hypothesis for environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis has a paradoxical record of distribution and abundance, including population declines in coastal waters and variable success of freshwater introductions. This record is analyzed for consistency with a hypothesis that striped bass are squeezed between their thermal and dissolved oxygen preferences or requirements. A commonality among diverse field and laboratory observations supports an inherent thermal niche for the species that changes to lower temperatures as fish age. This shift can cause local conditions, especially warm surface strata and deoxygenated deep water, to be incompatible with the success of large fish. Crowding due to temperature preferences alone or coupled with avoidance of low oxygen concentrations can lead to pathology and overfishing, which may contribute to population declines. Through a mixture of evidence and conjecture, the thermal niche-dissolved oxygen hypothesis is proposed as a unified perspective of the habitat requirements of the species that can aid in its study and management. 139 references, 12 figures.

  17. Common relationships among proximate composition components in fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between the various body proximate components and dry matter content were examined for five species of fishes, representing anadromous, marine and freshwater species: chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix and striped bass Morone saxatilis. The dry matter content or per cent dry mass of these fishes can be used to reliably predict the per cent composition of the other components. Therefore, with validation it is possible to estimate fat, protein and ash content of fishes from per cent dry mass information, reducing the need for costly and time-consuming laboratory proximate analysis. This approach coupled with new methods of non-lethal estimation of per cent dry mass, such as from bioelectrical impedance analysis, can provide non-destructive measurements of proximate composition of fishes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  18. Toxicity of water from three South Carolina rivers to larval striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, Susan E.; Bulak, James S.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of water from three rivers in the Santee-Cooper drainage of South Carolina was evaluated in a series of on-site studies with larval striped bass Morone saxatilis. Mortality and swimming behavior were assessed daily for larvae exposed to serial dilutions of water collected from the Santee, Congaree, and Wateree rivers. After 96 h, cumulative mortality was 90% in the Wateree River, and a dose–response pattern was evident in serial dilutions of the water. Larvae exposed to water from the Santee and Congaree rivers swam lethargically, but no appreciable mortality was observed. Acutely toxic concentrations of inorganic contaminants were not detected in the rivers; however, pentachloroanisole, a methylated by-product of pentachlorophenol, was twice as high in the Wateree River as it was in the other two rivers. Phenolic compounds may have contributed to larval mortality in the Wateree River and to lethargic activity of larvae in the Santee and Congaree rivers.

  19. Evaluation of an electronic fry counter with striped bass embryos and larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemarie, D.P.; Weller, D.A.; Theisen, D.D.; Woods, L. Curry

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated an electronic fry counter (Jensorter, Inc., model FC-2) for accuracy. precision, and effects on embryo hatchability and larval survival of striped bass Morone saxatilis. Hatching success of embryos and 96-h survival of 5-d larvae passed through the counter did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) from controls. Mean electronic counts of embryos and larvae differed from hand counts by -5.2% and -9.7%, respectively. Precision was estimated by the coefficient of variation of repeated counts and ranged as high as 4.43% for embryos and 8.62% for larvae. Site- and species-specific factors may have increased variability that re suited in the reduced levels of accuracy and precision. The advantages of greatly increased speed of counting and ease of use, as well as potentially better performance under other conditions, warrant further evaluation of this counter with other species and water supplies.

  20. Apparent genetic homogeneity of spawning striped bass in the upper Chesapeak Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Sidell, B.D.; Otto, R.G.; Powers, D.A. Karweit, M.; Smith, J.

    1980-01-01

    The possible existence of genetically distinct populations of spawning striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the river systems of the upper Chesapeake Bay was investigated by a biochemical genetic approach. Samples of blood and liver from adult fish were obtained during the 1976 spawning runs from the Rappanhannock (Virginia), Potomac, Choptank, Sassafras, Bohemia, and Elk rivers (Maryland), and Maryland waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Samples were analyzed for frequency of occurrence of a polymorphic liver enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and variable serum proteins which were not correlated with age or sex. Multivariate and Bayesian analyses of these data indicate apparent genetic homogeneity of spawning bass within the upper Chesapeake Bay. If natal stream homing occurs, a sufficient number of wanderers may provide significant gene flow among river systems. The results suggest that long-term management of the fishery need not be totally on the basis of separate river units.

  1. Toxic materials, fishing, and environmental variation: simulated effects on striped bass population trends

    SciTech Connect

    Goodyear, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    Decreased survival of larval striped bass Morone saxatilis resulting from toxic chemicals in the environment and decreased survival of adults caused by fishing both are suspected as agents contributing to the decline in the Chesapeake Bay stock since the mid-1970s. The relative power of each type of mortality to cause population declines was evaluated with simulation techniques. Equivalent levels of added mortality induced qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar trends in population simulations for all conditions examined except if strong density-dependent mortality preceded the contaminant toxicity. In this case the contaminant effect caused a greater reduction in yield, but the population did not tend toward extinction. The results indicate that the observed downward trend in the Chesapeake Bay population can be halted or reversed by a reduction in fishing mortality, even if contaminant toxicity is the proximate cause for the decline. 28 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  2. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Mycobacteriosis in fishes: a review.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, David T; Rhodes, Martha W

    2009-04-01

    Mycobacterium species have long been recognised as a significant source of morbidity and mortality in finfish aquaculture, as well as in wild finfishes. Mycobacteria infecting fishes also include zoonotic pathogens that can cause protracted illness, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Several basic aspects of mycobacterial pathobiology in aquatic animals remain poorly understood, although a number of important recent developments have been made, especially with respect to identification of novel Mycobacterium spp. infecting fishes and a new group of mycobacteria closely related to the human pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. This review will encompass important aspects of mycobacterial disease in fishes, discuss recent research including studies of mycobacteriosis in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) of Chesapeake Bay, USA, and suggest directions for future work.

  4. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. The authors determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222), metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degrees C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin.

  5. White bass Morone chrysops is less susceptible than its hybrid to experimental infection with Flavobacterium columnare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hybrid striped bass (HSB) and white bass (WB) were evaluated for their susceptibility to Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease, in three fundamental studies. In the first experiment, we determined whether columnaris disease could be developed by experimental challenge ...

  6. Chronic exogenous kisspeptin administration accelerates gonadal development in basses of the genus Morone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study assesses the effects of chronic administration of peptides to fish, termed kisspeptins, which are the products of the KISS1 and KISS2 genes, and have been shown to control the development of puberty in animals. Using ecologically and commercially important species (white bass, Mor...

  7. [Respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondria of bass (Morone labrax) and their dependence on temperature].

    PubMed

    Ventrella, V; Pagliarani, A; Trigari, G; Borgatti, A R

    1982-12-15

    In the present paper the respiratory function in bass liver mitochondria is studied over the temperature range 6-34 degrees C. The respiratory rate in state 3 and state 4 at the temperatures examined agrees with data from poikiloterms reported elsewhere by other investigators ICR and ADP/O values with glutamate and succinate as substrates are considered and their variations as a function of the experimental temperature are discussed. ICR shows a maximum at 20 degrees C which approximatively corresponds with the temperature of the seawater where these fishes were bred. On the contrary ADP/O ratio does not show any meaningful variation.

  8. [Arrhenius diagrams of respiratory enzymes of liver mitochondria from bass (Morone labrax)].

    PubMed

    Borgatti, A R; Trigari, G; Pagliarani, A; Ventrella, V

    1982-12-15

    Arrhenius plot of glutamate, succinate and ascorbate+TMPD oxidation in bass liver mitochondria show a break at different temperatures. Above the break activation energies (Ea) of the three enzymes. Above the break activation energies (Ea) of the three enzymes examined are similar and comparable with literature data in poikilotermic and homeothermic animals. Below the break the Ea are again comparable with poikiloterm and homeotherm ones except for succinate-oxidase whose Ea is surprisingly higher. The data are suggested to be due to the features of the enzymes or to the microenvironmental physical state.

  9. Sizes of prey consumed by two pelagic predators in US reservoirs: Implications for quantifying biomass of available prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennerline, D.E.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis and hybrid bass M. saxatilis x M. chrysops have been stocked to establish fisheries in many US reservoirs, but success has been limited by a poor understanding of relations between prey biomass and predator growth and survival. To define sizes of prey that are morphologically available, we developed predictive relationships between predator length, mouth dimensions, and expected maximum prey size; predictions were then validated using published data on sizes of clupeid prey (Dorosoma spp.) in five US reservoirs. Further, we compared the biomass of prey considered available to predators using two forms of a length-based consumption model - a previously published AP/P ratio and a revised model based on our results. Predictions of maximum prey size using predator GW were consistent with observed prey sizes in US reservoirs. Length of consumed Dorosoma was significantly, but weakly, correlated with predator length in four of the five reservoirs (r2 = 0.006-0.336, P 150 mm TL) were abundant. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Effects of exposure to pile driving sounds on fish inner ear tissues.

    PubMed

    Casper, Brandon M; Smith, Michael E; Halvorsen, Michele B; Sun, Huifang; Carlson, Thomas J; Popper, Arthur N

    2013-10-01

    Impulsive pile driving sound can cause injury to fishes, but no studies to date have examined whether such injuries include damage to sensory hair cells in the ear. Possible effects on hair cells were tested using a specially designed wave tube to expose two species, hybrid striped bass (white bass Morone chrysops × striped bass Morone saxatilis) and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), to pile driving sounds. Fish were exposed to 960 pile driving strikes at one of three treatment levels: 216, 213, or 210dB re 1 μPa(2)·s cumulative Sound Exposure Level. Both hybrid striped bass and tilapia exhibited barotraumas such as swim bladder ruptures, herniations, and hematomas to several organs. Hybrid striped bass exposed to the highest sound level had significant numbers of damaged hair cells, while no damage was found when fish were exposed at lower sound levels. Considerable hair cell damage was found in only one out of 11 tilapia specimens exposed at the highest sound level. Results suggest that impulsive sounds such as from pile driving may have a more significant effect on the swim bladders and surrounding organs than on the inner ears of fishes, at least at the sound exposure levels used in this study. © 2013.

  11. Responses of hybrid striped bass to waterborne and dietary copper in freshwater and saltwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bielmyer, G.K.; Gatlin, D.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.; Klaine, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms of copper toxicity and consequences of exposure vary due to uptake route and ionoregulatory status. The goal of this research was to develop a model fish system to assess the influence of different Cu exposure routes (waterborne or dietary) on bioavailability, uptake, and effects in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops??Morone saxatilis) acclimated to fresh- or saltwater. Initially, hybrid striped bass were exposed to dietary Cu concentrations of 571, 785, and 1013 ??g Cu/g, along with a control (??? 5 ??g Cu/g), for 14 days in saltwater. Intestinal and liver Cu accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in fish exposed to increasing levels of dietary Cu. Chronic (42 days) experiments were then conducted to determine sub-lethal effects of aqueous, dietary, and combined aqueous and dietary Cu exposures to both freshwater- and saltwater-acclimated hybrid striped bass. Growth and Cu accumulation in the gill, intestine, and liver were measured. Although no significant effects were observed in fish exposed to waterborne Cu, those exposed through the diet accumulated significant liver and intestinal Cu but showed no significant change in growth. Overall, these results suggest that at the levels tested, exposure to elevated waterborne Cu did not cause significant long-term tissue Cu accumulation, whereas dietary Cu exposure caused significant liver and intestinal Cu accumulation in hybrid striped bass which was comparable in both freshwater and saltwater (15 g/L). ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific.

  13. Evaluating the trophic transfer of cadmium, polonium, and methylmercury in an estuarine food chain.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Teresa; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2008-05-01

    We examined the transfer of Cd, methylmercury (MeHg), and Po in an estuarine food chain (from phytoplankton to zooplankton [Daphnia pulex] to killifish [Fundulus heteroclitus] and, finally, to juvenile striped bass [Morone saxatilis]) to better understand both the extent to which these elements may biomagnify and the underlying mechanisms governing this biomagnification. Among the phytoplankton examined (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Chlamdomonas reinhardtii), metal uptake was rapid, and volume concentration factors for all metals reached values between 10(4) and 10(5). The resulting assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals in all animals were highest for MeHg, with values greater than 76%. The AEs of Cd were 21 to 33% in D. pulex, 1 to 16% in F. heteroclitus, and 38 to 56% in M. saxatilis. Polonium AEs were 69 to 87% in D. pulex, 25 to 41% in F. heteroclitus, and 9 to 21% in M. saxatilis. Loss rate constants (ke) of metals in D. pulex ranged from 0.04/d for MeHg to 0.39/d for Po; metal ke values for F. heteroclitus ranged from 0.01 to 0.02/d. Using a kinetic model, we showed that the trophic transfer factor, defined as the ratio of metal concentration in predatory animals to metal concentration in prey organisms, was greater than unity for all three metals in D. pulex feeding on phytoplankton, suggesting that these metals may be biomagnified at this trophic step. In killifish feeding on D. pulex, the trophic transfer factor was consistently greater than one for MeHg, consistently less than one for Cd, and from 0.1 to 1.4 for Po, suggesting that both MeHg and Po have the potential to biomagnify at this trophic step.

  14. [Allozyme diversity and genetic divergence of the dolly varden Salvelinus malma Walbaum from the Kuril islands].

    PubMed

    Omel'chenko, V T; Salmenkova, E A; Shed'ko, S V

    2002-09-01

    Genetic variation was studied in the southern subspecies of the Asian Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma krascheninnikovi from the Kuril Islands. Thirty-six genetic loci controlling 19 enzyme systems were analyzed in 13 Dolly Varden populations from the Shumshu, Paramushir, Onekotan, Rasshua, Simushir, Urup, Iturup, and Kunashir islands. In the studied populations, the proportion of polymorphic loci was 35 to 85% and the mean heterozygosity was 0.104 to 0.173; populations from the Kunashir Island were characterized by maximum heterozygosity. In the island populations examined, significant inter-population heterogeneity of allele frequencies was found for all studied population pairs. For the total population of all islands, the inter-population diversity (GST = 0.188) was comparable to this parameter for the total population from the Kunashir Island (GST = 0.170). Genetic distances between populations did not correlate with the corresponding geographical distances, which indicates the lack of a pronounced gene exchange between the island populations. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling based on genetic distances did not reveal clear groups among the studied populations but indicated greater similarity within the Iturup-Simushir-Urup-Paramushir group and a greater genetic divergence of the Kunashir, Onekotan, Rasshua, and especially Shumshu populations. In the Shumshu population, allele frequencies indicate the admixture of genes of the northern Dolly Varden. The observed pattern of genetic differentiation was probably caused largely by genetic drift under the conditions of a limited gene flow because of homing (which is typical of the Dolly Varden) and the presence of isolated nonanadromous populations. The population-genetic analysis of the Dolly Varden from the Kuril Islands does not give grounds to distinguish any other isolated Dolly Varden species in this region than S. malma, which is represented by the southern form S. m. krascheninnikovi with an admixture of the northern form S. m. malma in the Shumshu Island.

  15. Effects of temperature on Renibacterium salmoninarum infection and transmission potential in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; McKibben, Constance L.; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Elliott, Diane G.; Winton, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a significant pathogen of salmonids and the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Water temperature affects the replication rate of pathogens and the function of the fish immune system to influence the progression of disease. In addition, rapid shifts in temperature may serve as stressors that reduce host resistance. This study evaluated the effect of shifts in water temperature on established R. salmoninarum infections. We challenged Chinook salmon with R. salmoninarum at 12°C for 2 weeks and then divided the fish into three temperature groups (8, 12 and 15°C). Fish in the 8°C group had significantly higher R. salmoninarum-specific mortality, kidney R. salmoninarum loads and bacterial shedding rates relative to the fish held at 12 or 15°C. There was a trend towards suppressed bacterial load and shedding in the 15°C group, but the results were not significant. Bacterial load was a significant predictor of shedding for the 8 and 12°C groups but not for the 15°C group. Overall, our results showed little effect of temperature stress on the progress of infection, but do support the conclusion that cooler water temperatures contribute to infection progression and increased transmission potential in Chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum.

  16. Biochemical and physiological characteristics of semen of sex-reversed female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Nynca, Joanna; Kuźmiński, Henryk; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Hliwa, Piotr; Dobosz, Stefan; Liszewska, Ewa; Karol, Halina; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    This works studies the biochemical (protein concentration, osmolality, antitrypsin activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity) and physiological characteristics (sperm motility characteristics) of semen of sex-reversed female rainbow trout (n=42) obtained with the application of 11β-hydroksyandrostendione for sex reversal. All data were arbitrarily divided into three classes depending on the percentage of sperm motility: I XX<25%; II XX 25-50% and III XX>50%. The average percentage of sperm motility was 18±7% n=12 (group I XX); 42±6% n=15 (group II XX) and 65±12% n=15 for group III XX, respectively) to link the values of semen parameters to the maturation stage of semen. Semen from 12 normal males of the same age was used as a reference group. Sperm concentration as well as protein concentration, osmolality, antitrypsin activity, and lactate dehydrogenase activity in seminal plasma of sex-reversed females were higher compared with the values obtained for normal male rainbow trout. The values of these parameters declined with the increasing percentage of sperm motility toward values established for normal males. The fertilization success of semen (3×10(6) spermatozoa/egg) of sex-reversed females was very high (above 90%) for both the percentage of eyed embryos and hatched larvae and was related to sperm motility classes. Correlations between the quality parameters of sex-reversed females semen corresponded to those established previously for the semen of normal male rainbow trout. Antitrypsin activity, lactate dehydrogenase, protein concentration, and osmolality were found to be characteristic of seminal plasma of sex-reversed females. The maturity of sex-reversed female spermatozoa seems to be associated with the decline in the values of those parameters toward the values characteristic for seminal plasma of normal males.

  17. Relationships between growth and disease resistance in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Overturf, K; LaPatra, S; Towner, R; Campbell, N; Narum, S

    2010-04-01

    Rainbow trout from 23 families were evaluated for growth and resistance to the bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum and infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) caused by IHN virus. Average family weights were between 161 and 263 g with an average of 225 g at 213 days post-fertilization with specific growth rates ranging from 2.37 to 2.88. Per cent survival of fish challenged with F. psychrophilum was between 18% and 100%, while for those challenged with IHNV, the range was between 12% and 93%. Significant positive correlations were found for end body weight and resistance to IHN (P < 0.05) and for early body weight and resistance to BCWD (P < 0.1). However, no significant correlations were detected between resistance to both pathogens or disease resistance and overall genetic diversity or diversity within the major histocompatibility locus.

  18. Analysis of the cycle of reproduction of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792) off the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Amenzoui, Khadija; Ferhan-Tachinante, Fatima; Yahyaoui, Ahmed; Kifani, Souad; Mesfioui, Abdel Hakim

    2006-11-01

    This work focuses on aspects of reproductive biology of Sardina pilchardus from the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The mean values of batch fecundity estimated for the species is 23150(+/-1301) oocytes for a mean size of 19.5(+/-0.49) cm, the mean relative fecundity being 346(+/-7.34) oocytes per gram of female without ovary. Batch fecundity increases with total length and body weight without ovary. Sizes at first sexual maturity (L50) are reached for males and females at 15.8(+/-0.29) cm and 15.8(+/-0.35) cm, respectively. The spawning period for the population extends between October and July and the spawning peak occurs from October to February. However, the small sardines (14.5-17 cm) in their first reproduction spawn between November and June, whereas larger fish (17.5-25 cm) spawn between October and July. The factor of condition (K) increased in summer during the sexual resting phase. It is weak in winter during the period of reproduction. Regarding, the sex ratio, there was no significant difference in the number of males and females.

  19. Skeletal anomaly monitoring in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) reared under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Boglione, Clara; Pulcini, Domitilla; Scardi, Michele; Palamara, Elisa; Russo, Tommaso; Cataudella, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of skeletal anomalies could be used as an indicator of the "quality" of rearing conditions as these anomalies are thought to result from the inability of homeostatic mechanisms to compensate for environmentally-induced stress and/or altered genetic factors. Identification of rearing conditions that lower the rate of anomalies can be an important step toward profitable aquaculture as malformed market-size fish have to be discarded, thus reducing fish farmers' profits. In this study, the occurrence of skeletal anomalies in adult rainbow trout grown under intensive and organic conditions was monitored. As organic aquaculture animal production is in its early stages, organic broodstock is not available in sufficient quantities. Non-organic juveniles could, therefore, be used for on-growing purposes in organic aquaculture production cycle. Thus, the adult fish analysed in this study experienced intensive conditions during juvenile rearing. Significant differences in the pattern of anomalies were detected between organically and intensively-ongrown specimens, although the occurrence of severe, commercially important anomalies, affecting 2-12.5% of individuals, was comparable in the two systems. Thus, organic aquaculture needs to be improved in order to significantly reduce the incidence of severe anomalies in rainbow trout.

  20. Immunization of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) with a crude lipopolysaccharide extract from Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control methods for Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the etiologic agent of bacterial coldwater disease (CWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome, are limited and oftentimes ineffective; hence, research efforts have focused on vaccine development. This study tested the hypothesis that a crude lipopolysacch...

  1. Embryonic developmental progression in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) (Walbaum, 1792) and its relation to lake temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Jeffrey D.; Walker, Glenn K.; Adams, Jean V.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; Edsall, Carol C.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental progression of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) embryos was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. From this examination, key developmental stages were described in detail. The key developmental stages were then applied to individual lake trout egg lots incubated in constant temperatures of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10°C. We used Belehradek's, Thermodynamic, and Power models, and also developed the Zero model to determine stage specific developmental rates of lake trout eggs for each background temperature. From the models, hatch dates and staging were predicted for temperature regimes from Lake Superior (1990–91) and Lake Huron (1996–97). Based on the existing lake temperature data and the observed spawning dates, the Zero and the Power models predict that post peak spawning may contribute significantly to overall recruitment success for these years.

  2. An immune-complex glomerulonephritis of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Lumsden, J S; Russell, S; Huber, P; Wybourne, B A; Ostland, V E; Minamikawa, M; Ferguson, H W

    2008-12-01

    Chinook salmon from New Zealand were shown to have a generalized membranous glomerulonephritis that was most severe in large fish. Marked thickening of the glomerular basement membrane was the most consistent lesion, with the presence of an electron-dense deposit beneath the capillary endothelium.Severely affected glomeruli also had expansion of the mesangium and loss of capillaries,synechiae of the visceral and parietal epithelium and mild fibrosis of Bowmans capsule. Chinook salmon from British Columbia, Canada with bacterial kidney disease caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum had similar histological lesions. They also had thickened glomerular basement membranes that were recognized by rabbit antiserum to rainbow trout immunoglobulin. This was true only when frozen sections of kidney were used and not formalin-fixed tissue. An attempt to experimentally produce a glomerulopathy in rainbow trout by repeated immunization with killed R. salmoninarum was not successful. Case records from the Fish Pathology Laboratory at the University of Guelph over a 10-year period revealed that a range of species were diagnosed with glomerulopathies similar to those seen in Chinook salmon. The majority of these cases were determined to have chronic inflammatory disease. This report has identified the presence of immunoglobulin within thickened basement membranes of Chinook salmon with glomerulonephritis and supports the existence of type III hypersensitivity in fish.

  3. Compensatory growth response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum following short starvation periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azodi, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Eisa; Farhadian, Omidvar; Mahboobi-Soofiani, Nasrollah; Morshedi, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    This sixty-day study was performed to determine the effects of short-term starvation and re-feeding cycles on growth, feeding performances and body composition of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three hundred trout fingerlings with an average initial weight of 17.5±0.06 g were randomly distributed in 15 circular fiberglass tanks. The fish were exposed to 5 different feeding regimes; control: continuously fed twice daily to apparent satiation; T1: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 2 days; T2: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 4 days; T3: starved for 3 days and re-fed for 12 days; T4: starved for 4 days and re-fed for 16 days. At the end of the experiment, growth performance, feed utilization, whole body ash and moisture contents were not significantly ( P>0.05) different among the treatments. However, whole body protein content in T3 was significantly higher than other treatments ( P<0.05). A significant difference in whole body fat content was observed between T3 and the control group at the end of the experiment ( P<0.05). In conclusion this experiment suggests that feeding schedules involving starvation (1-4 days) and re-feeding cycles are a promising feed management tool for rainbow trout culture.

  4. Probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus influences the blood profile in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, A; Kiron, V; Satoh, S; Watanabe, T

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports the effect of feeding probiotic diets on blood profiles in rainbow trout. Two experiments were performed: in the first, fish of average weight 75 g were offered either a commercial feed or the same incorporated with 10(9) CFU g(-1) of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus for 30 days; in the second study performed for a similar duration, fish of average weight 126 g were offered formulated diets that either contained the same bacteria in heat-killed or freeze-dried form (nearly 10(11) CFU g(-1)), or the basal diet without the bacteria. Blood samples were collected at different times after commencement of probiotic feeding to determine the total cholesterol, triglyceride contents, the plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, plasma protein and hematocrit value. The plasma cholesterol significantly increased upon probiotic feeding in the first experiment. A significant elevation (P<0.05) of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride and alkaline phosphatase activity level was found in the freeze-dried probiotic fed groups at 20 and 30 days postfeeding. This was concomitant with the increased plasma protein and hematocrit values in FD group at 20 and 30 days. Likewise, the heat-killed probiotic fed group registered significantly high values of triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase activity, and plasma protein compared to the control diet fed groups after 20 days of feeding. Thus, alterations in the blood profiles could serve as supplementary information when examining the benefits of probiotics for fish.

  5. Skeletal Anomaly Monitoring in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) Reared under Different Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Boglione, Clara; Pulcini, Domitilla; Scardi, Michele; Palamara, Elisa; Russo, Tommaso; Cataudella, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of skeletal anomalies could be used as an indicator of the “quality” of rearing conditions as these anomalies are thought to result from the inability of homeostatic mechanisms to compensate for environmentally-induced stress and/or altered genetic factors. Identification of rearing conditions that lower the rate of anomalies can be an important step toward profitable aquaculture as malformed market-size fish have to be discarded, thus reducing fish farmers’ profits. In this study, the occurrence of skeletal anomalies in adult rainbow trout grown under intensive and organic conditions was monitored. As organic aquaculture animal production is in its early stages, organic broodstock is not available in sufficient quantities. Non-organic juveniles could, therefore, be used for on-growing purposes in organic aquaculture production cycle. Thus, the adult fish analysed in this study experienced intensive conditions during juvenile rearing. Significant differences in the pattern of anomalies were detected between organically and intensively-ongrown specimens, although the occurrence of severe, commercially important anomalies, affecting 2–12.5% of individuals, was comparable in the two systems. Thus, organic aquaculture needs to be improved in order to significantly reduce the incidence of severe anomalies in rainbow trout. PMID:24809347

  6. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, an emerging pathogen in Danish rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), mariculture.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, K; Skall, H F; Lassen-Nielsen, A M; Bjerrum, L; Olesen, N J

    2009-05-01

    A selection of 16 field isolates of Photobacterium damselae from marine rainbow trout farms in Denmark was subjected to phenotypic and genotypic characterization and pathogenicity to fish. All isolates belonged to the subspecies damselae, being positive for haemolysis, motility and urease. There were considerable differences in haemolytic properties, some isolates presenting a broad zone of haemolysis and others only a narrow zone. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed a high diversity indicating that P. damselae subsp. damselae is an opportunistic, not clonal pathogen in Danish marine rainbow trout. Virulence of the strains to rainbow trout was highly variable with LD(50) values ranging from 3.9 x 10(3) to 1.5 x 10(8) cfu at 20 degrees C. The virulence was significantly higher at 20 degrees C than at 13 degrees C. The strains with the strongest haemolytic properties were the most virulent suggesting a strong involvement of haemolysin in the pathogenesis. The pathological changes were consistent with a bacterial septicaemia and the haemorrhages were more pronounced than for most other bacterial infections.

  7. Cellular components of probiotics control Yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Abbass, A; Sharifuzzaman, S M; Austin, B

    2010-01-01

    Subcellular components of the probiotics Aeromonas sobria GC2 and Bacillus subtilis JB-1, when administered to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, conferred protection against a new biogroup of Yersinia ruckeri. Thus, intraperitoneal or intramuscular injection of rainbow trout with cell wall proteins (CWPs), outer membrane proteins (OMPs), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), whole cell proteins (WCPs) and live cells followed by challenge on day 8 with Y. ruckeri led to 80-100% survival compared with 10% survival in the controls. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles of WCPs and OMPs from GC2 had 10 and 5 variable protein bands in comparison to 11 and 5 bands in the WCPs and CWPs from JB-1. Proteomic analyses were employed following SDS-PAGE to categorize one dominant protein of 104.7 kDa from the CWPs of JB-1 and equated it with 'Bacillus spp. endoglucanase' with a Mascot score >69. These results point to the potential of using cellular components of probiotics for protection of fish against bacterial diseases.

  8. An experimental vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila can induce protection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPatra, S.E.; Plant, K.P.; Alcorn, S.; Ostland, V.; Winton, J.

    2010-01-01

    A candidate vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was developed using a bacterial lysate. To test the strength of protection, A. hydrophila challenge models were compared using injection into both the intraperitoneal (IP) cavity and the dorsal sinus (DS) with selected doses of live bacteria washed in saline or left untreated. Unlike the IP route, injection into the DS with either saline washed or unwashed cells resulted in consistent cumulative mortality and a dose response that could be used to establish a standard challenge having an LD50 of approximately 3 × 107 colony forming units per fish. Survivors of the challenge suffered significantly lower mortality upon re-challenge than naïve fish, suggesting a high level of acquired resistance was elicited by infection. Passive immunization using serum from hyper-immunized fish also resulted in significantly reduced mortality indicating protection can be transferred and that some portion of resistance may be antibody mediated. Vaccination of groups of rainbow trout with A. hydrophila lysate resulted in significant protection against a high challenge dose but only when injected along with Freund’s complete adjuvant. At a low challenge dose, mortality in all groups was low, but the bacterial lysate alone appeared to offer some protection.

  9. Isolation of RNA striped bass Monrone saxatilis spermatozoa: Implications for teleost male fertility and beyond?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vertebrate sperm has been shown to provide more than paternal genomic material to the oocyte. For example, specific transcripts have been identified in bull sperm associated with fertility and with motility in boar sperm. Very little is currently known about functional, residual RNA in spermatozoa a...

  10. Hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops) to acute and chronic hypoxic insult

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hypoxia is a state of oxygen deficiency that can lead to impairment of organismal function or in extreme cases, death. Irrespective of their environment, at some point in their life cycle farmed fish will likely experience varying degrees of hypoxia, particularly during summer months. The temperat...

  11. White bass (Morone chrysops) preferentially retain n-3 PUFA in ova when fed prepared diets with varying FA content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the fatty acid composition of broodstock white bass ova fed one of the following commercial diets for four and eight weeks prior to sampling: Zeigler BassBrood-45/15, Bio-Oregon BioBrood™-48/20, Cargill AquaFeed™-45/12, Cargill AquaFeed™-48/18, Skretting Extruded Steelhead-45/16, and Sk...

  12. Measurement of in vitro leucocyte mitogenesis in fish: ELISA based detection of the thymidine analogue 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, David T.; Cartwright, Deborah D.; Densmore, Christine L.; Blazer, Vicki; Ottinger, Christopher A.

    2003-01-01

    In this study we present a method for the measurement of in vitro mitogenesis in fish leucocytes that is based on the incorporation of the thymidine analogue 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) into the DNA of replicating cells, followed by ELISA-based detection. This technique, adapted from methods developed for mammalian cells, operates on a similar biological principle to 3H-thymidine incorporation, but circumvents the logistical and safety issues inherent with the radioactive label. Because it directly measures DNA proliferation, the assay has advantages over other colorimetric methods that may be strongly influenced by leucocyte metabolic status. Using BrdU incorporation followed by ELISA, we evaluate the responsiveness of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss [Walbaum]) leucocytes to the mammalian T-cell mitogen Concanavalin A (Con A) as well as the differential response of white perch (Morone americana [Gmelin]) leucocytes to Con A and pokeweed mitogen. Specific considerations intrinsic to the assay system are discussed, including the implications of utilising enzyme-based detection.

  13. Effect of fasting on body composition and responses to stress in sunshine bass.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kenneth B; Gaylord, T Gibson

    2011-01-01

    The integrated responses of the hormonal regulation of growth and stress in sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X Morone saxatilis) as regulated by feed deprivation were investigated. Groups of fish were fed 1.5% of the body weight per day or offered no feed for 4weeks. Another group of fish was not fed for 3weeks and feed was offered during the fourth week. Fish in each group were sampled immediately before or after a 15-min low water confinement stressor after each week of the experiment. Liver mass and liver glycogen content were decreased after one week of fasting and remained low until the end of the study. However, both recovered after a week of refeeding. Intraperitoneal fat was significantly lower after two weeks of fasting and did not recover after a week of refeeding. None of these components were affected by confinement stress. Plasma glucose in unstressed fish was generally unaffected by fasting or refeeding; however, plasma glucose increased after confinement stress in fed but not in fasted fish. The cortisol stress response was unaltered by fasting and remained robust. Plasma IGF-I generally decreased in fasted fish but was not significantly lower than fed fish until the fourth week. A week of refeeding did not restore plasma IGF-I concentrations. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were higher in confinement stressed fed fish after two and four weeks but were unchanged in the fourth week. There was no change in the plasma IGF-I concentrations in fasted or refed fish due to the stress. Liver weight and liver glycogen were essentially depleted after 2weeks of fasting. The reduction of liver glycogen greatly reduced the glucose response to stress; however, the cortisol stress response was maintained for at least four weeks of fasting. Intraperitoneal fat was decreased very little after 4weeks of fasting. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were reduced only after 3weeks of fasting.

  14. Depletion of the chloramine-T marker residue, para-toluenesulfonamide, from skin-on fillet tissue of hybrid striped bass, rainbow trout, and yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Stehly, G.R.; Greseth, Shari L.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Waterborne exposure to n-sodium-n-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T) is an effective treatment for controlling fish mortalities caused by bacterial gill disease (BGD). Currently, data are being generated to gain United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the use of chloramine-T in aquaculture. As part of the data required for an approval, depletion of the chloramine-T marker residue (para-toluenesulfonamide [p-TSA]) from the edible fillet tissue of exposed fish must be determined. Hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis??Morone chrysops; mean weight 357 g), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; mean weight 457 g), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens; mean weight 144 g) were exposed to 20 mg/l of chloramine-T for 60 min on 4 consecutive days (the most aggressive treatment expected for approved use in the United States). Groups of fish (n=15 or 19) were sampled immediately after the last treatment and periodically through 48 or 168 h after the treatment phase. Duplicate subsamples of skin-on fillet tissue from each fish were analyzed for p-TSA. Mean p-TSA concentrations in fillet tissue from fish sampled immediately after the last treatment were 142 ng/g (hybrid striped bass), 97 ng/g (rainbow trout), and 150 ng/g (yellow perch). Mean p-TSA concentrations at terminal sample times were 94 (168 h; hybrid striped bass), 74 (48 h; rainbow trout), and 35 ng/g (168 h; yellow perch). The half-lives of p-TSA in fillet tissue from fish near or at market size were 11.4 (hybrid striped bass), 4.3 (rainbow trout), and 3.2 days (yellow perch).

  15. Multiple vitellogenins and product yolk proteins in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Molecular characterization, quantification in plasma, liver and ovary, and maturational proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Prat, Francisco; Ibáñez, A Jose; Köksoy, Sadi; Amano, Haruna; Sullivan, Craig V

    2016-01-01

    Three complete vitellogenin (Vtg) polypeptides of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an acanthomorph teleost spawning pelagic eggs in seawater, were deduced from cDNA and identified as VtgAa, VtgAb and VtgC based on current Vtg nomenclature and phylogeny. Label free quantitative mass spectrometry verified the presence of the three sea bass Vtgs or their product yolk proteins (YPs) in liver, plasma and ovary of postvitellogenic females. As evidenced by normalized spectral counts, VtgAb-derived protein was 2- to 5-fold more abundant, depending on sample type, than for VtgAa, while VtgC-derived protein was less abundant, albeit only 3-fold lower than for VtgAb in the ovary. Western blotting with Vtg type-specific antisera raised against corresponding gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) lipovitellins (Lvs) detected all three types of sea bass Vtg in the blood plasma of gravid females and/or estrogenized males and showed that all three forms of sea bass Lv undergo limited partial degradation during oocyte maturation. The comparatively high levels of VtgC-derived YPs in fully-grown oocytes and the maturational proteolysis of all three types of Lv differ from what has been reported for other teleosts spawning pelagic eggs in seawater but are similar to recent findings for two species of North American Moronidae, the striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white perch (Morone americana), which spawn pelagic and demersal eggs, respectively in fresh water. Together with the high Vtg sequence homologies and virtually identical structural features of each type of Vtg between species, these findings indicate that the moronid multiple Vtg systems do not substantially vary with reproductive environment.

  16. [Differentiation of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta Walbaum populations as revealed with microsatellite and allozyme markers: a comparison].

    PubMed

    Rubtsoba, G A; Afanas'ev, K I; Malinina, T V; Shitova, M V; Rakitskaia, T A; Prokhorovskaia, V D; Zhivotovskiĭ, L A

    2008-07-01

    The character and extent of population differentiation in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from Sakhalin and Iturup were comparatively studied with 10 microsatellite and 12 allozyme markers. It was demonstrated with the example of allozyme polymorphism at the EstD locus that the effect of an individual locus with one major allele is capable of distorting the total picture of population differentiation. Multiallelic microsatellites were more efficient in revealing the genetic structure of chum salmon populations at the levels of differences between regional populations and between the stocks of individual rivers of the same region.

  17. [Extension of a set of microsatellite markers for more precise identification of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta Walbaum)].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, P K; Rubtsova, G A; Shitova, M V; Shaĭkhaev, E G; Zhivotovskiĭ, L A

    2011-11-01

    A set often microsatellite loci enabling fairly accurate identification of the chum salmon individuals from geographically distant groups was designed at the Laboratory of Genetic Identification, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences. However, identification of the individuals from closely located basins performed using these loci was not sufficiently precise. The present study was focused on the improvement of the resolution of the method through increasing the number microsatellite loci used. In this study, typing of additional microsatellite loci of chum salmon and evaluation of the change of the degree of identification with the increase of the number ofmicrosatellite loci used is described. It was shown that the identification accuracy permanently increased with the increase of the number of microsatellite markers used.

  18. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Yersinia ruckeri isolates from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1792) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Onuk, Ertan Emek; Ciftci, Alper; Findik, Arzu; Ciftci, Gülay; Altun, Soner; Balta, Fikri; Ozer, Selmin; Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Yersinia (Y) ruckeri strains, the causative agent of Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), by antibiotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns of whole cell proteins. For this aim, a total of 97 Y ruckeri isolates were analyzed. The isolates were distinguished into ten antibiotypes and six phenotypes according to their resistance properties and whole cell protein profiles, respectively. Also, a glycoprotein band of approximately 25.5 kDa was observed in all Y ruckeri strains tested. In all strains, six different RAPD types were observed. In conclusion, Y ruckeri strains isolated from rainbow trout of fish farms in Turkey showed variation according to their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and the use of these three typing techniques in double and triple combinations could be more useful for discriminating the strains.

  19. Biochemical and molecular heterogeneity among isolates of Yersinia ruckeri from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) in North West Germany.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yidan; Runge, Martin; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Schwarz, Stefan; Jung, Arne; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2013-10-21

    Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, is one of the most important infectious diseases in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture in Europe. More recently, non-motile vaccine resistant isolates appear to have evolved and are causing disease problems throughout Europe, including Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation of biochemical and molecular characteristics of Y. ruckeri isolates collected in north west Germany as a basis for strain differentiation. The isolates originated mainly from rainbow trout and were characterised by biochemical profiling, 16S rDNA sequencing, repetitive sequence-based PCRs, including (GTG)5-PCR, BOX-PCR, ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 83 isolates were characterised, including 48 isolates collected during a field study in north west Germany. All isolates were confirmed as Y. ruckeri by the API 20E system. Five isolates were additionally confirmed as Y. ruckeri by Y. ruckeri-specific PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. Only 17 isolates hydrolyzed Tween 80/20. Sixty-six isolates (79.5%) were non-motile. Two different patterns were obtained by REP-PCR, five patterns by ERIC-PCR, four patterns by (GTG)5-PCR and three patterns by BOX-PCR. NotI-directed PFGE resulted in 17 patterns that differed from each other by 25-29 fragments. Isolates from the field study clustered together as PFGE type C. According to the results of API 20E, repetitive sequence-based PCRs and PFGE, these isolates could be subdivided into 27 different groups. The detailed molecular and phenotypic characterisation scheme developed in this study could be used to help trace the dissemination of Y. ruckeri isolates, and thus may represent part of improved disease monitoring plans in the future.

  20. Effects of temperature on disease progression and swimming stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Sanders, G.; Winton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were infected with Ichthyophonus sp. and held at 10 ??C, 15 ??C and 20 ??C for 28 days to monitor mortality and disease progression. Infected fish demonstrated more rapid onset of disease, higher parasite load, more severe host tissue reaction and reduced mean-day-to-death at higher temperature. In a second experiment, Ichthyophonus-infected fish were reared at 15 ??C for 16 weeks then subjected to forced swimming at 10 ??C, 15 ??C and 20 ??C. Stamina improved significantly with increased temperature in uninfected fish; however, this was not observed for infected fish. The difference in performance between infected and uninfected fish became significant at 15 ??C (P = 0.02) and highly significant at 20 ??C (P = 0.005). These results have implications for changes in the ecology of fish diseases in the face of global warming and demonstrate the effects of higher temperature on the progression and severity of ichthyophoniasis as well as on swimming stamina, a critical fitness trait of salmonids. This study helps explain field observations showing the recent emergence of clinical ichthyophoniasis in Yukon River Chinook salmon later in their spawning migration when water temperatures were high, as well as the apparent failure of a substantial percentage of infected fish to successfully reach their natal spawning areas. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus genogroup-specific virulence mechanisms in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), from Redfish Lake, Idaho.

    PubMed

    Purcell, M K; Garver, K A; Conway, C; Elliott, D G; Kurath, G

    2009-07-01

    Characterization of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) field isolates from North America has established three main genogroups (U, M and L) that differ in host-specific virulence. In sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, the U genogroup is highly virulent, whereas the M genogroup is nearly non-pathogenic. In this study, we sought to characterize the virus-host dynamics that contribute to genogroup-specific virulence in a captive stock of sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake in Idaho. Juvenile sockeye salmon were challenged by immersion and injection with either a representative U or M viral strain and sampled periodically until 14 days post-infection (p.i.). Fish challenged with each strain had positive viral titre by day 3, regardless of challenge route, but the fish exposed to the M genogroup virus had significantly lower virus titres than fish exposed to the U genogroup virus. Gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to simultaneously assess viral load and host interferon (IFN) response in the anterior kidney. Viral load was significantly higher in the U-challenged fish relative to M-challenged fish. Both viruses induced expression of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but expression was usually significantly lower in the M-challenged group, particularly at later time points (7 and 14 days p.i.). However, ISG expression was comparable with 3 days post-immersion challenge despite a significant difference in viral load. Our data indicated that the M genogroup virus entered the host, replicated and spread in the sockeye salmon tissues, but to a lesser extent than the U genogroup. Both virus types induced a host IFN response, but the high virulence strain (U) continued to replicate in the presence of this response, whereas the low virulence strain (M) was cleared below detectable levels. We hypothesize that high virulence is associated with early in vivo replication allowing the virus to achieve a threshold level, which the host innate immune system cannot control.

  2. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus genogroup-specific virulence mechanisms in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), from Redfish Lake, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, M.K.; Garver, K.A.; Conway, C.; Elliott, D.G.; Kurath, G.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) field isolates from North America has established three main genogroups (U, M and L) that differ in host-specific virulence. In sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, the U genogroup is highly virulent, whereas the M genogroup is nearly non-pathogenic. In this study, we sought to characterize the virus-host dynamics that contribute to genogroup-specific virulence in a captive stock of sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake in Idaho. Juvenile sockeye salmon were challenged by immersion and injection with either a representative U or M viral strain and sampled periodically until 14 days post-infection (p.i.). Fish challenged with each strain had positive viral titre by day 3, regardless of challenge route, but the fish exposed to the M genogroup virus had significantly lower virus titres than fish exposed to the U genogroup virus. Gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to simultaneously assess viral load and host interferon (IFN) response in the anterior kidney. Viral load was significantly higher in the U-challenged fish relative to M-challenged fish. Both viruses induced expression of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but expression was usually significantly lower in the M-challenged group, particularly at later time points (7 and 14 days p.i.). However, ISG expression was comparable with 3 days post-immersion challenge despite a significant difference in viral load. Our data indicated that the M genogroup virus entered the host, replicated and spread in the sockeye salmon tissues, but to a lesser extent than the U genogroup. Both virus types induced a host IFN response, but the high virulence strain (U) continued to replicate in the presence of this response, whereas the low virulence strain (M) was cleared below detectable levels. We hypothesize that high virulence is associated with early in vivo replication allowing the virus to achieve a threshold level, which the host innate immune system cannot control. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. A TEMPERATE REEF FISH TAUTOGLABRUS ADSPERSUS, (WALBAUM) AS A POTENTIAL MODEL SPECIES FOR LABORATORY STUDIES EVALUATING EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In ecostoxicological testing, there are few studies that report on reproductive output (egg production) of marine or estuarine fish. Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) were studied as a potential model species to evaluate the impact of pollutants with estrogenic activity on reprodu...

  4. Yersinia ruckeri lipopolysaccharide is necessary and sufficient for eliciting a protective immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Welch, Timothy J; LaPatra, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, has been controlled successfully using immersion-applied bacterin vaccines for several decades. While the host response to vaccination and the mechanism of protection of this vaccine have been elucidated, the bacterial components eliciting protection have remained unclear. Here we show that highly purified serotype O1 Y. ruckeri lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is sufficient to induce a protective response to experimental challenge in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Dose response experiments demonstrated that Y. ruckeri LPS at doses of 1 ng/fish and above resulted in essentially complete protection and doses as low as 0.01 ng/fish (1.38 ng/kg) resulted in significant protection, thus demonstrating the extremely high potency of this immunogen. Analysis of the Y. ruckeri genome identified a cluster of putative O-antigen biosynthetic genes specific to serotype O1 strains. This cluster primarily consisted of genes encoding proteins predicted to function in the biosynthesis of legionamic acid, a nonulosonic acid known to be part of the O-polysaccharide repeat of O1 Y. ruckeri. Mutation of the nab2 gene, a nonulosonic acid biosynthesis gene (nab gene), resulted in production of severely truncated forms of LPS. Vaccination with bacterin vaccines derived from the nab2 mutant and its wild type parent strain demonstrated that LPS is a required component of the whole-cell bacterin vaccine and suggests that LPS is the only cellular component contributing to the protective response elicited by this vaccine. We speculate that the exceptionally high potency of Y. ruckeri LPS accounts for the unusual success of this vaccine when delivered by immersion. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effects of ascorbic acid enrichment by immersion of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) eggs and embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falahatkar, B.; Dabrowski, K.; Arslan, M.; Rinchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of different forms and concentrations of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and different enrichment times (24 and 48 h post ovulation) on egg, embryo and alevin ascorbate concentrations and survival of rainbow trout (enrichment was at the ova stage). In experiments 1 and 2, fertilized eggs were immersed in water containing ascorbate at 0 (control), 100, 1000 mg L-1 l-ascorbic acid (AA) and 2000 mg L -1 l-ascorbyl monophosphate (AP). In experiment 3, 0 (control), 500 and 1000 mg L-1 AA neutralized (N) with NaOH, 1000 mg L-1 AA non-neutralized (NN), 1000 and 2000 mg L-1 AP immersions were used. The mean total ascorbic acid (TAA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) concentrations were measured before fertilization, at 3 and 24 h after fertilization, at the eyed stage, and in hatched alevins. We observed significant differences in TAA concentration at different immersion levels at 3 and 24 h after fertilization. Survival decreased significantly depending on the level of vitamin C, pH of the solutions and immersion time. We suggest that when broodstock rainbow trout do not have enough vitamin C in their ovaries, immersion of eggs in 1000 mg L-1 of neutralized AA may be useful. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Genetic improvement of feed conversion ratio via indirect selection against lipid deposition in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Kause, Antti; Kiessling, Anders; Martin, Samuel A M; Houlihan, Dominic; Ruohonen, Kari

    2016-11-01

    In farmed fish, selective breeding for feed conversion ratio (FCR) may be possible via indirectly selecting for easily-measured indicator traits correlated with FCR. We tested the hypothesis that rainbow trout with low lipid% have genetically better FCR, and that lipid% may be genetically related to retention efficiency of macronutrients, making lipid% a useful indicator trait. A quantitative genetic analysis was used to quantify the benefit of replacing feed intake in a selection index with one of three lipid traits: body lipid%, muscle lipid% or viscera% weight of total body weight (reflecting visceral lipid). The index theory calculations showed that simultaneous selection for weight gain and against feed intake (direct selection to improve FCR) increased the expected genetic response in FCR by 1·50-fold compared with the sole selection for growth. Replacing feed intake in the selection index with body lipid%, muscle lipid% or viscera% increased genetic response in FCR by 1·29-, 1·49- and 1·02-fold, respectively, compared with the sole selection for growth. Consequently, indirect selection for weight gain and against muscle lipid% was almost as effective as direct selection for FCR. Fish with genetically low body and muscle lipid% were more efficient in turning ingested protein into protein weight gain. Both physiological and genetic mechanisms promote the hypothesis that low-lipid% fish are more efficient. These results highlight that in breeding programmes of rainbow trout, control of lipid deposition improves not only FCR but also protein-retention efficiency. This improves resource efficiency of aquaculture and reduces nutrient load to the environment.

  7. Development of a reproducible challenge model to investigate the virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes columnaris disease and has significant economic impacts on aquaculture production worldwide. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that there is genetic diversity among F. columnare isolates. A review of the published literature that...

  8. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) mince.

    PubMed

    Kocatepe, Demet; Turan, Hülya; Altan, Can Okan; Keskin, Irfan; Ceylan, Asuman

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the effect of different concentrations of CO2/N2 gases on chemical/sensorial stability, color properties (L*, a*, and b* values), and microbiological properties of trout mince stored at 3 ± 1℃. The gas mixtures were used as follows; 60%CO2 + 40%N2 (B), 75%CO2 + 25%N2 (C), 40%CO2 + 60%N2 (D). Control samples (A) were packed under atmospheric air. Analyses were carried out on the 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th, 20th, 24th and 28th days of storage. Among three modified atmosphere gas compositions, the best preservation method and most suitable gas concentration for trout mince were found in group C including 75% CO2 The inconsumable day of trout mince packed with air (control) and MAPs (Modified Atmosphere Packaging) (group B, C, and D) were 12th, 16th, 24th, and 16th days, respectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. GH and IGF-I induction by passive immunization of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum using a somatostatin 14 antibody

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inhibition of the growth axis by somatostatin was studied in juvenile rainbow trout using passive immunization with a previously isolated somatostatin antibody (antiSS-14). Upon subcutaneously injection of laying hens (Gallus domesticus) with conjugated somatostatin-14 (SS-14), the antiSS-14 was iso...

  10. beta-naphthoflavone induction of CYP1A in brain of juvenile lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Rees, Christopher B; Wu, Hong; Yun, Sang-Seon; Li, Weiming

    2004-04-01

    Many environmental pollutants induce expression of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A subfamily of genes. We integrated cellular and molecular biological techniques to examine the effects of beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) exposure in lake trout brain CYP1A distribution and dynamics. Over a 32-day time-course, real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) results showed that CYP1A mRNA induction in response to BNF exposure occurred rapidly and continued to rise in the BNF-treated lake trout after 4 h, with a peak at or after 2 days. Messenger RNA levels fell after 4 days, and this trend continued after 16 days of exposure. In situ hybridization indicated that CYP1A mRNA was universally elevated in the brain of BNF-exposed fish and was mainly expressed in the endothelia and occasionally in the glial cells. CYP1A immunoreactivity was induced in the olfactory bulb and valvula cerebelli of BNF-treated fish. Other brain areas showed constitutive CYP1A immunoreactivity in both control and BNF-treated fish. Some BNF-treated fish contained multifocal hemorrhages in the brain tissue, and these fish had overall depressed CYP1A immunoreactivity in the brain. The relationship between transcriptional and translational effects of BNF exposure in the brain of juvenile lake trout is discussed.

  11. Pathogenicity of Mexican isolates of Aeromonas sp. in immersion experimentally-infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792).

    PubMed

    Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Ortega-Santana, César; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; de Oca-Mira, Dany Montes; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2017-05-01

    Ten species of Aeromonas have been previously identified in farmed rainbow trout from Mexico. The aim of the current study was to investigate the pathogenicity of 10 Aeromonas isolates belonging to 10 different Aeromonas species in immersion experimentally-infected rainbow trout fry. Isolates of A. bestiarum, A. hydrophila, A. salmonicida, and A. veronii produced significant mortality (8.8%, 12.2%, 18.8%, and 8.8%, respectively). Isolates of A. caviae and A. sobria produced no significantly mortality (3.3% and 1.1%, respectively). No mortality was recorded in fish infected with A. allosaccharophila, A. lusitana, A. media, or A. popoffii. Microscopic lesions and bacterial reisolation were registered in liver of fish infected with the ten different Aeromonas isolates. Our results suggest that all Aeromonas species included in the study have the ability to colonize the liver. The results have confirmed that species A. bestiarum, A. hydrophila, A. salmonicida, and A. veronii affected fish as elsewhere reported. In conclusion, the variation in pathogenicity of Aeromonas isolates included in the study, emphasizes the importance of active, on-going monitoring of Aeromonas in the Mexican rainbow trout farming.

  12. Factors influencing in vitro respiratory burst assays with head kidney leucocytes from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Chettri, J K; Holten-Andersen, L; Buchmann, K

    2010-07-01

    Abstract Head kidney leucocytes are central elements in a number of in vivo and in vitro assays elucidating innate and adaptive immune mechanisms in teleosts following stimulation with various antigens. These systems are sensitive to several factors affecting the outcome of the assays. The present work describes the importance of temperature, cell concentration, exposure time and immune-modulatory molecules on the respiratory burst activity (RBA) of rainbow trout head kidney leucocytes in vitro. Some variation in RBA was observed among individual fish. However, use of cells pooled from four individuals produced satisfactory results following exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, zymosan and beta-glucan. Temperature was shown to have a significant effect on production of reactive radicals as illustrated by a high activity in cells maintained at 15-20 degrees C and a reduced activity at temperature extremes (1, 4 and 30 degrees C). Highest activity was found at a cell concentration of 1 x 10(7) cells mL(-1). Reactivity showed a clear decline when cells were exposed for more than 4 h. Moreover, incubation of cells with inhibitory substances viz., DiMePE2, cortisol and superoxide dismutase decreased the RBA. It is concluded that several biotic and abiotic factors should be taken into account when conducting RBA assays with head kidney leucocytes for elucidation of rainbow trout immune responses.

  13. Biochemical and molecular heterogeneity among isolates of Yersinia ruckeri from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) in north west Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, is one of the most important infectious diseases in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture in Europe. More recently, non-motile vaccine resistant isolates appear to have evolved and are causing disease problems throughout Europe, including Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation of biochemical and molecular characteristics of Y. ruckeri isolates collected in north west Germany as a basis for strain differentiation. The isolates originated mainly from rainbow trout and were characterised by biochemical profiling, 16S rDNA sequencing, repetitive sequence-based PCRs, including (GTG)5-PCR, BOX-PCR, ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results In total, 83 isolates were characterised, including 48 isolates collected during a field study in north west Germany. All isolates were confirmed as Y. ruckeri by the API 20E system. Five isolates were additionally confirmed as Y. ruckeri by Y. ruckeri-specific PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. Only 17 isolates hydrolyzed Tween 80/20. Sixty-six isolates (79.5%) were non-motile. Two different patterns were obtained by REP-PCR, five patterns by ERIC-PCR, four patterns by (GTG)5-PCR and three patterns by BOX-PCR. NotI-directed PFGE resulted in 17 patterns that differed from each other by 25–29 fragments. Isolates from the field study clustered together as PFGE type C. According to the results of API 20E, repetitive sequence-based PCRs and PFGE, these isolates could be subdivided into 27 different groups. Conclusions The detailed molecular and phenotypic characterisation scheme developed in this study could be used to help trace the dissemination of Y. ruckeri isolates, and thus may represent part of improved disease monitoring plans in the future. PMID:24144165

  14. The first report of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) on Italian cultured stocks of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Paladini, Giuseppe; Gustinelli, Andrea; Fioravanti, Maria L; Hansen, Haakon; Shinn, Andrew P

    2009-11-12

    The monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 is considered one of the most important parasites of wild salmonids in the European Community due to the heavy ecological and economical damage it has inflicted on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr populations. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is susceptible to G. salaris and can act as a suitable carrier host and, consequently, its trade in EU territory is restricted in relation to the status of "recognized free" zones. Despite the economic importance of rainbow trout farming in Italy, information on the Italian gyrodactylid fauna is lacking and prior to this study, G. salaris had not been officially reported. During a routine health examination of farmed rainbow trout stock throughout Central and Northern Italy in 2004-2005, five fish farms were found to be infected with G. salaris alongside three other gyrodactylids. Morphological and molecular characterisation confirmed the presence of G. salaris, Gyrodactylus teuchis Lautraite, Blanc, Thiery, Daniel et Vigneulle, 1999 and Gyrodactylus derjavinoides Malmberg, Collins, Cunningham et Jalali, 2007, while Gyrodactylus truttae Gläser, 1974 was identified by morphological analysis only. The findings from this study extend the distribution of G. salaris within Europe and highlight the importance of the rainbow trout trade in its dissemination.

  15. Yersinia ruckeri lipopolysaccharide is necessary and sufficient for eliciting a protective immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, has been controlled successfully using immersion-applied bacterin vaccines for several decades. While the host response to vaccination and the mechanism of protection of this vaccine have been elucidated, the bacterial components eliciting ...

  16. A New PCR-Based Method Shows That Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) Consume Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum))

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jackie L.; Fitzgerald, Sean P.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species. PMID:24454797

  17. A new PCR-based method shows that blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) consume winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum)).

    PubMed

    Collier, Jackie L; Fitzgerald, Sean P; Hice, Lyndie A; Frisk, Michael G; McElroy, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species.

  18. Population Genetic Patterns of Threatened European Mudminnow (Umbra krameri Walbaum, 1792) in a Fragmented Landscape: Implications for Conservation Management

    PubMed Central

    Takács, Péter; Erős, Tibor; Specziár, András; Sály, Péter; Vitál, Zoltán; Ferincz, Árpád; Molnár, Tamás; Szabolcsi, Zoltán; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2015-01-01

    The European mudminnow (Umbra krameri) is a Middle Danubian endemic fish species, which is characterised by isolated populations living mainly in artificial habitats in the centre of its range, in the Carpathian Basin. For their long term preservation, reliable information is needed about the structure of stocks and the level of isolation. The recent distribution pattern, and the population genetic structure within and among regions were investigated to designate the Evolutionary Significant, Conservation and Management Units (ESUs, CUs, MUs) and to explore the conservation biological value of the shrinking populations. In total, eight microsatellite loci were studied in 404 specimens originating from eight regions. The results revealed a pronounced population structure, where strictly limited gene flow was detected among regions, as well as various strengths of connections within regions. Following the results of hierarchical structure analyses, two ESUs were supposed in the Carpathian Basin, corresponding to the Danube and Tisza catchments. Our results recommend designating the borders of CUs in an 80–90km range and 16 clusters should be set up as MUs for the 33 investigated populations. How these genetic findings can be used to better allocate conservation resources for the long term maintenance of the metapopulation structure of this threathened endemic fish is discussed. PMID:26393510

  19. Population Genetic Patterns of Threatened European Mudminnow (Umbra krameri Walbaum, 1792) in a Fragmented Landscape: Implications for Conservation Management.

    PubMed

    Takács, Péter; Erős, Tibor; Specziár, András; Sály, Péter; Vitál, Zoltán; Ferincz, Árpád; Molnár, Tamás; Szabolcsi, Zoltán; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2015-01-01

    The European mudminnow (Umbra krameri) is a Middle Danubian endemic fish species, which is characterised by isolated populations living mainly in artificial habitats in the centre of its range, in the Carpathian Basin. For their long term preservation, reliable information is needed about the structure of stocks and the level of isolation. The recent distribution pattern, and the population genetic structure within and among regions were investigated to designate the Evolutionary Significant, Conservation and Management Units (ESUs, CUs, MUs) and to explore the conservation biological value of the shrinking populations. In total, eight microsatellite loci were studied in 404 specimens originating from eight regions. The results revealed a pronounced population structure, where strictly limited gene flow was detected among regions, as well as various strengths of connections within regions. Following the results of hierarchical structure analyses, two ESUs were supposed in the Carpathian Basin, corresponding to the Danube and Tisza catchments. Our results recommend designating the borders of CUs in an 80-90km range and 16 clusters should be set up as MUs for the 33 investigated populations. How these genetic findings can be used to better allocate conservation resources for the long term maintenance of the metapopulation structure of this threathened endemic fish is discussed.

  20. High density culture of white bass X striped bass fingerlings in raceways using power plant heated effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.M.; Burton, G.L.; Schweinforth, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    White bass (Morone chrysops) X striped bass (M. saxatilis) hybrids weighing 1691/lb were initially stocked in five 24 ft/sup 3/ floating screen cages for 20 days. Hybrids averaging one inch in total length and 361 fish/lb were released in four 614 ft/sup 3/ concrete raceways. Two stocking densities, 2.6 and 5.1 fish/ft/sup 3/, were evaluated in the 94-day study using a flow rate of 300 gpm/raceway. Water temperatures averaged 79/sup 0/F and water quality was adequate throughout the production period. Fish were hand fed to satiation daily. Columnaris and Aeromonas hydrophila caused the most serious disease problems. Gas supersaturation was suspect in high mortality levels during cage culture of hybrid bass fry. Cannibalism may have been responsible for unaccountable losses prior to raceway stocking and at harvest. The study yielded 5773 hybrids weighing 658 lb. The high density treatment showed greater weight gain, average weight, average length and percent survival as well as improved food conversion. Results suggest that higher stocking densities and periodic grading may increase production and suppress cannibalism. 10 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  1. What happens in an estuary doesn't stay there: patterns of biotic connectivity resulting from long term ecological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, Martha E.; Finn, John T.; Kennedy, Christina G.; Deegan, Linda A.; Smith, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    The paucity of data on migratory connections and an incomplete understanding of how mobile organisms use geographically separate areas have been obstacles to understanding coastal dynamics. Research on acoustically tagged striped bass (Morone saxatilis) at the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) Long Term Ecological Research site, Massachusetts, documents intriguing patterns of biotic connectivity (i.e., long-distance migration between geographically distinct areas). First, the striped bass tagged at PIE migrated southward along the coast using different routes. Second, these tagged fish exhibited strong fidelity and specificity to PIE. For example, across multiple years, tagged striped bass resided in PIE waters for an average of 1.5-2.5 months per year (means: 51-72 days; range 2-122 days), left this estuary in fall, then returned in subsequent years. Third, this specificity and fidelity connected PIE to other locations. The fish exported nutrients and energy to at least three other coastal locations through biomass added as growth. These results demonstrate that what happens in an individual estuary can affect other estuaries. Striped bass that use tightly connected routes to feed in specific estuaries should have greater across-system impacts than fish that are equally likely to go anywhere. Consequently, variations in when, where, and how fish migrate can alter across-estuary impacts.

  2. Mortality of Palmetto bass following catch-and-release angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.J.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2013-01-01

    Palmetto bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis x White Bass M. chrysops) have been stocked into reservoirs in the southeastern USA since the late 1960s and have gained widespread acceptance as a sport fish. These fisheries are growing in popularity and catch-and-release (CR) fishing is commonplace; however, there is a dearth of information on CR mortality of palmetto bass. We experimentally angled palmetto bass (n = 56; >373-mm TL) in a Tennessee reservoir using traditional angling gear in water temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 32 °C. Ultrasonic transmitters equipped with floats were externally attached to fish, which were released immediately and tracked multiple times within 10 d of release. Mortality was negligible (3.6%) in fall and spring at cool water temperatures but was high (39.3%) in summer when water temperatures exceeded 26 °C. The best logistic regression model based on Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes scores relied on water temperature alone to predict CR mortality of palmetto bass; there was little support for other models that included all possible combinations of the six other predictor variables we tested. Palmetto bass in our study experienced lower CR mortality than Striped Bass in other systems, but CR mortality rates for palmetto bass that approach or exceed 40% during summer are still problematic if the goal is to maintain fishing quality.

  3. Distribution of spawning activity by anadromous fishes in an atlantic slope drainage after removal of a low-head dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, S.M.; Hightower, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    In 1998, the Quaker Neck Dam was removed from the Neuse River near Goldsboro, North Carolina, restoring access to more than 120 km of potential main-stem spawning habitat and 1,488 km of potential tributary spawning habitat to anadromous fishes. We used plankton sampling and standardized electrofishing to examine the extent to which anadromous fishes utilized this restored spawning habitat in 2003 and 2004. Evidence of spawning activity was detected upstream of the former dam site for three anadromous species: American shad Alosa sapidissima, hickory shad A. mediocris, and striped bass Morone saxatilis. The percentages of eggs and larvae collected in the restored upstream habitat were greater in 2003, when spring flows were high, than in 2004. River reaches where spawning occurred were estimated from egg stage and water velocity data. Spawning of American shad and striped bass occurred primarily in main-stem river reaches that were further upstream during the year of higher spring flows. Hickory shad generally spawned in downstream reaches and in tributaries above and below the former dam site. These results demonstrate that anadromous fishes will take advantage of upper basin spawning habitat restored through dam removal as long as instream flows are adequate to facilitate upstream migration.

  4. Determination of PCBs and total lipids in edible fish and crab tissue using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gavlor, M.; Hale, R.; Smith, C.; Thames, J.; Mothershead, R.

    1995-12-31

    An offline supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method has been developed to determine PCB congeners and total tissue lipid content in edible fish and crab tissues collected from several river systems in Virginia. The method is rapid and safe, requiring only 40 minutes per sample and uses nonorganic solvents for total lipid extraction and only 1.5 mL isooctane for PCB extraction. The SFE approach compares favorably with soxhlet extraction, ASE and column elution. Over 800 fish and crab tissue samples were analyzed successfully, thus demonstrating the robustness of the method. Total lipid values obtained using SFE showed considerable spatial and interspecies variability ranging from 1.8% in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) to 36.4% in striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Total PCB concentrations also varied greatly by site and species. These ranged from below the quantitation limit (1.0 {micro}1 g/kg) to 9,910 {micro}g/kg on a dry weight basis using GCELCD. Dominant PCB congeners detected were in good agreement with those reported by other researchers. Mean total PCB concentrations did not correlate well with total tissue lipid content.

  5. Immunological discrimination of Atlantic striped bass stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schill, W.B.; Dorazio, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Stocks of Atlantic striped bass Morone saxatilis that were assumed to be geographically isolated during spawning showed strong antigenic differences in blood serum albumin. A discriminant function was estimated from the immunologic responses of northern (Canadian and Hudson River) and southern (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River) stocks to two reference antisera. The function correctly classified 92% of the northern and 95% of the southern fish in the training set. Cross-validation revealed similar percentages of correct classification for fish that were of known origin but not used to estimate the discriminant function. Monte Carlo experiments were used to evaluate the ability of the discriminant function to predict the relative contribution of northern fish in samples of various size and stock composition. Averages of predicted proportions of northern fish in the samples agreed well with actual proportions. Coefficients of variation (100 × SD/mean) in the predicted proportions ranged from 1.5 to 36% for samples of 50–400 fish that contained at least 10% northern stock. In samples that contained only 2% northern stock, however, at least 1,600 fish were required to achieve similar levels of precision.

  6. Sport fishery potential of power plant cooling ponds: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heidinger, R.C.; Lewis, W.M.

    1986-10-01

    This research was undertaken to determine if cooling ponds could serve as habitat for several coolwater fish species and also to evaluate the potential use of cooling ponds as nursery areas for receiving waters. The work was conducted on two cooling ponds in northern Illinois. Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), striped bass (Morone saxatilis) fingerlings, and adult threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) were stocked into both cooling ponds. The hybrids between the striped bass and white bass (M. chrysops) had been previously stocked into Collins Pond. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) fingerlings and larval striped bass and walleye were stocked in Dresden Pond. Several sampling techniques including seining, electrofishing, and rotenoning were used to monitor growth and survival of stocked species. In addition, escapement of stocked and indigenous species was monitored at the Dresden Pond spillway. Walleye, muskellunge, striped bass and hybrid striped bass exhibited excellent growth in Collins Pond as did smallmouth bass in Dresden Pond. One of the primary differences between an open system (such as Dresden Pond) and a closed system (such as Collins Pond) is the potential that the open system has to serve as a fish nursery area for receiving waters. The stocking of ''coolwater'' species in a closed type system such as Collins Pond is an effective way to control and maintain selected sport species. Dresden Pond was not open to public fishing during this study, but Collins Pond developed an excellent sport fishery as a result of these stockings.

  7. Effects of feeding ration on larval swimming speed and responsiveness to predator attacks: Implications for cohort survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chick, J.H.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to examine the effects of feeding ration on the routine swimming speed of larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and their responsiveness to simulated-predator attacks. Striped bass were reared in low (7 prey ?? L-1), medium (354 prey ?? L-1), or high (740 prey ?? L-1) prey treatments from age 4 to 14 days posthatch. Larvae reared in the low-prey treatment had slower routine swimming speeds and shorter reactive distances and were less responsive to simulated-predator attacks. These differences were most pronounced after age 10 and appeared to be an effect of deteriorating larval condition rather than an effect of size. Simulation models were constructed for two potential fish predators, Alosa aestivalis and Pomoxis nigromaculatus, to examine how variation in growth rate, swimming speed, and responsiveness to predator attacks might influence mortality rate. Our simulations predicted that cohort mortality rate would decrease with increasing larval growth rates, even though faster routine swimming speed and growth rate increased encounter rates with predators. The influence of larval growth rate and responsiveness on mortality rate varied between the two predators, but cohorts experiencing no growth always had the greatest mortality rate.

  8. Seasonal use of a New England estuary by foraging contingents of migratory striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, Martha E.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Finn, John T.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Using acoustic telemetry on migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis in Plum Island Estuary (PIE), Massachusetts, we found that striped bass (335–634 mm total length) tagged in the spring and summer of 2005 (n = 14) and 2006 (n = 46) stayed in the estuary for an average of 66.0 d in 2005 and 72.2 d in 2006. Striped bass spent the most time in two specific reaches: middle Plum Island Sound and lower Rowley River. In both years, three different use-groups of striped bass were observed in PIE. Short-term visitors (n = 24) stayed in the estuary only briefly (range = 5–20 d). Two groups of seasonal residents stayed for more than 30 d, either in the Rowley River (n = 14) or in Plum Island Sound (n = 22). Within PIE, the two seasonal-resident use-groups may be foraging contingents that learn how to feed efficiently in specific parts of the estuary. These distinct within-estuary use patterns could have different implications for striped bass condition and prey impact.

  9. Effects of antenna placement and antibiotic treatment on loss of simulated transmitters and mortality in hybrid striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isely, J.J.; Young, S.P.; Jones, T.A.; Schaffler, James J.

    2002-01-01

    We compared the effects of two antenna placements (trailing and nontrailing) and antibiotic treatments (treated and nontreated) on mortality and transmitter loss in hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis ?? M. chrysops (364 ?? 28 mm total length, 645 ?? 129 g [mean ?? SD]) implanted with simulated transmitters and held in the laboratory for 90 d. Although antibiotic treatment significantly increased the time to first mortality in fish surgically implanted with simulated transmitters (by an average of 14 d), we did not detect an effect on cumulative mortality. We also did not detect an effect of antenna type on the time to first mortality, but cumulative mortality was higher in the trailing antenna groups (50%) than in the nontrailing antenna groups (12%). Three transmitters were expelled during the study, all from trailing-antenna treatment groups, indicating a significant effect of antenna placement on the level of transmitter expulsion. Antibiotic treatment appears to be effective in preventing initial postsurgical infection; however, the antenna may serve as a continuous source of irritation and route of infection into the body cavity. The potential for infection and mortality in experimental animals must be weighed against the improved performance of transmitters with trailing antennas.

  10. Analysis of pelagic species decline in the upper San Francisco Estuary using multivariate autoregressive modeling (MAR)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac Nally, Ralph; Thomson, James R.; Kimmerer, Wim J.; Feyrer, Frederick; Newman, Ken B.; Sih, Andy; Bennett, William A.; Brown, Larry; Fleishman, Erica; Culberson, Steven D.; Castillo, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    Four species of pelagic fish of particular management concern in the upper San Francisco Estuary, California, USA, have declined precipitously since ca. 2002: delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus), longfin smelt (Spirinchus thaleichthys), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense). The estuary has been monitored since the late 1960s with extensive collection of data on the fishes, their pelagic prey, phytoplankton biomass, invasive species, and physical factors. We used multivariate autoregressive (MAR) modeling to discern the main factors responsible for the declines. An expert-elicited model was built to describe the system. Fifty-four relationships were built into the model, only one of which was of uncertain direction a priori. Twenty-eight of the proposed relationships were strongly supported by or consistent with the data, while 26 were close to zero (not supported by the data but not contrary to expectations). The position of the 2‰ isohaline (a measure of the physical response of the estuary to freshwater flow) and increased water clarity over the period of analyses were two factors affecting multiple declining taxa (including fishes and the fishes' main zooplankton prey). Our results were relatively robust with respect to the form of stock–recruitment model used and to inclusion of subsidiary covariates but may be enhanced by using detailed state–space models that describe more fully the life-history dynamics of the declining species.

  11. Osmoregulatory actions of the GH/IGF axis in non-salmonid teleosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonid fishes provided the first findings on the influence of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis on osmoregulation in teleost fishes. Recent studies on non-salmonid species, however, indicate that this physiological action of the GH/IGF-I axis is not restricted to salmonids or anadromous fishes. GH-producing cells in the pituitary of fish acclimated to different salinities show different degrees of activation depending on the species studied. Plasma GH levels either increase or do not change after transfer of fish from freshwater to seawater. Treatment with GH or IGF-I increases salinity tolerance and/or increases gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). As in salmonids, a positive interaction between GH and cortisol for improving hypoosmoregulatory capacity has been described in tilapia (O. mossambicus). Research on the osmoregulatory role of the GH/IGF-I axis is derived from a small number of teleost species. The study of more species with different osmoregulary patterns will be necessary to fully clarify the osmoregulatory role of GH/IGF-I axis in fish. The available data does suggest, however, that the influence of the GH/IGF-I axis on osmoregulation may be a common feature of euryhalinity in teleosts. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.

  12. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  13. Importance of mechanics and kinematics in determining the stiffness contribution of the vertebral column during body-caudal-fin swimming in fishes.

    PubMed

    Nowroozi, Bryan N; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2014-02-01

    Whole-body stiffness in fishes has important consequences for swimming mode, speed and efficiency, but the contribution of vertebral column stiffness to whole-body stiffness is unclear. In our opinion, this lack of clarity is due in part to the lack of studies that have measured both in vitro mechanical properties of the vertebral column as well as in vivo vertebral kinematics in the same species. Some lack of clarity may also come from real variation in the mechanical role of the vertebral column across species. Previous studies, based on either mechanics or kinematics alone, suggest species-specific variation in vertebral column locomotor function that ranges from highly stiff regimes that contribute greatly to whole-body stiffness, and potentially act as a spring, to highly compliant regimes that only prohibit excessive flexion of the intervertebral joints. We review data collected in combined investigations of both mechanics and kinematics of three species, Myxine glutinosa, Acipenser transmontanus, and Morone saxatilis, to illustrate how mechanical testing within the context of the in vivo kinematics more clearly distinguishes the role of the vertebral column in each species. In addition, we identify species for which kinematic data are available, but mechanical data are lacking. We encourage further investigation of these species to fill these mechanical data gaps. Finally, we hope these future combined analyses will identify certain morphological, mechanical, or kinematic parameters that might be associated with certain vertebral column functional regimes with respect to body stiffness.

  14. Tag-based estimates of annual fishing mortality of a mixed atlantic coastal stock of striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, S.A.; Smith, D.R.; Laney, R.W.; Tipton, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Tag-based estimates of annual survival and fishing mortality rates supplement annual stock assessments of migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis in the interjurisdictional fishery along the Atlantic coast. We estimated a 17-year time series of annual survival and fishing mortality (F) rates for striped bass (>711 mm) tagged during winter trawl studies (1988-2004) off the coasts of North Carolina and Virginia. The geographic and temporal distributions of tag recoveries were consistent with published patterns of striped bass migration and indicated that this southern overwintering aggregate of striped bass is composed of mixed stocks. Incremental increases in bias-adjusted annual fishing mortality rates (from 0.00-0.26) and decreases in the proportion of fish released alive (from 0.762-0.198) coincided with periods of regulatory change during the 17-year time frame. Our estimates of F fall below the current management triggers and should be considered along with other estimates of F within the striped bass management process.

  15. Francisella infections in farmed and wild aquatic organisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 10 years or so, infections caused by bacteria belonging to a particular branch of the genus Francisella have become increasingly recognised in farmed fish and molluscs worldwide. While the increasing incidence of diagnoses may in part be due to the development and widespread availability of molecular detection techniques, the domestication of new organisms has undoubtedly instigated emergence of clinical disease in some species. Francisellosis in fish develops in a similar fashion independent of host species and is commonly characterised by the presence of multi-organ granuloma and high morbidity, with varying associated mortality levels. A number of fish species are affected including Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua; tilapia, Oreochromis sp.; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis and three-lined grunt, Parapristipoma trilinineatum. The disease is highly infectious and often prevalent in affected stocks. Most, if not all strains isolated from teleost fish belong to either F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis in warm water fish species or Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis in coldwater fish species. The disease is quite readily diagnosed following histological examination and identification of the aetiological bacterium by culture on cysteine rich media or PCR. The available evidence may indicate a degree of host specificity for the various Francisella strains, although this area requires further study. No effective vaccine is currently available. Investigation of the virulence mechanisms and host response shows similarity to those known from Francisella tularensis infection in mammals. However, no evidence exists for zoonotic potential amongst the fish pathogenic Francisella. PMID:21385413

  16. Influence of nitrite and chloride concentrations on survival and hematological profiles of striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Mazik, P.M.; Parker, N.C. ); Hinman, M.L.; Winkelmann, D.A.; Klaine, S.J.; Simco, B.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The 24-h median lethal concentration of nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) for striped bass Morone saxatilis was 163 mg/L in static toxicity tests. Exogenous chloride ions increased the tolerance of the fish for NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}; CaCl{sub 2} was more than twice as effective as NaCl. Plasma NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, cortisol, and methemoglobin were correlated positively with environmental NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}. Plasma NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and methemoglobin were correlated negatively with environmental Cl{sup {minus}}, but cortisol was not reduced by the presence of environmental Cl{sup {minus}}. Striped bass maintained NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} in the plasma (0-45 mg NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/L) at concentrations below those in the environment (0-250 mg NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/L). However, striped bass were sensitive to NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} that entered the plasma; methemoglobin levels greater than 60% and plasma NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} levels greater than 70 mg/L resulted in significant mortalities.

  17. Survey of fishes and environmental conditions in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of fishery resources in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore. During February/March, May, August, and November 1999, fish were sampled with floating variable-mesh gill nets and small minnow traps from as many as 14 sites in the lagoon. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total ammonia(NH3 + NH4+), salinity, turbidity, water depth, and bottom substrate composition were also measured at each site. A total of 2,656 fish represented by eight species was captured during the study. Gill nets captured Sacramento perch, Archoplites interruptus; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi; prickly sculpin, Cottus asper, silver surfperch, Hyperprosopon ellipticum; longfin smelt, Spirinchus thaleichthys; and striped bass, Morone saxatilis; whereas minnow traps captured Sacramento perch; prickly sculpin; and threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Cluster analysis (Ward's minimum variance method of fish catch statistics identified two major species assemblages-the first dominated by Sacramento perch and, to a lesser extent, by largemouth bass, and the second dominated by Pacific herring and threespine stickleback. Simple discriminant analysis of environmental variables indicated that salinity contributed the most towards separating the two assemblages.

  18. Age-at-maturity estimates for Atlantic coast female striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlinsky, David L.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; O'Brien, John F.; Specker, Jennifer L.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the percentage of mature female striped bass Morone saxatilis present in each age-class during annual coastal feeding migration. Migratory striped bass (N = 302) were sampled in coastal Rhode Island waters during spring (May-June) and fall (September-November) from 1985 to 1987. Stocks were identified by analysis of morphometric characters and isoelectric focusing of eye-lens proteins. Histological sections of ovarian tissue were used to categorize maturity state. Fish were considered mature if a class of oocytes measuring at least 150 μm and containing cytoplasmic inclusions was found in the ovarian sections. All females whose age at next potential spawning was 7 and older were mature. Our empirical observations indicated that 12% of fish in age-class 4, 34% of fish in age-class 5, and 77% of fish in age-class 6 were mature. The estimate of the proportion of mature fish in age-class 5 differs significantly from that of Merriman (1941), who also examined coastal migrants. No significant differences were found in maturity estimates of fish from stocks of different origin.

  19. Impacts of treated municipal wastewaters on early life stages of fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, P. ); Weis, J.S. ); Greenberg, A. )

    1988-09-01

    The Hudson-Raritan Estuary is a typical urban estuary that receives a tremendous burden of pollutants from many point- and non-point sources. Treated municipal wastewater (TMW) accounts for about 13% of the freshwater input, 90% of point-source volume and >98% of point-source pollutants. Most sources of TMW have a substantial industrial input, so the effluents include organics and heavy metals. While secondary treatment substantially reduces TMW toxicity, chlorination of the effluent restores the toxicity by producing oxidized and chlorinated compounds not previously present. The authors are attempting to assess the biological impacts of such effluents. They report here results to date of laboratory analyses of realistic dilutions of such secondarily-treated and chlorinated TMW. They have targeted three species of fish common to the Hudson-Raritan Estuary, the winter flounder (Pseudopleuonectes americanus), the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and the striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The estuary is a spawning area for the first two species and a significant overwintering area for the third, a protected species. Because the early life stages of fish are especially sensitive, they are focusing on development and growth.

  20. Individual-based model of young-of-the-year striped bass population dynamics. II. Factors affecting recruitment in the Potomac River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. ); Rose, K.A. ); Rutherford, E.S.; Houde, E.D. )

    1993-05-01

    An individual-based model of the population dynamics of young-of-the-year striped bass Morone saxatilis in the Potomac River, Maryland, was used to test the hypothesis that historically high recruitment variability can be explained by changes in environmental and biological factors that result in relatively small changes in growth and mortality rates of striped bass larvae. The four factors examined were (1) size distribution of female parents, (2) zooplankton prey density during the development of striped bass larvae, (3) density of completing larval white perch M. americana, and (4) temperature during larval development. Simulation results suggest that variations in female size and in prey for larvae alone could cause 10-fold variability in recruitment. But no single factor alone caused changes in vital rates of age-0 fish that could account for the 145-fold variability in the Potomac River index of juvenile recruitment. However, combined positive or negative effects of two or more factors resulted in more than a 150-fold simulated recruitment variability, suggesting that combinations of factors can account for the high observed annual variability in striped bass recruitment success. Higher cumulative mortality of feeding larvae and younger life stages than of juveniles was common to all simulations. supporting the contention that striped bass year-class strength is determined prior to metamorphosis. 76 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. The use of Monte Carlo analysis for exposure assessment of an estuarine food web

    SciTech Connect

    Iannuzzi, T.J.; Shear, N.M.; Harrington, N.W.; Henning, M.H.

    1995-12-31

    Despite apparent agreement within the scientific community that probabilistic methods of analysis offer substantially more informative exposure predictions than those offered by the traditional point estimate approach, few risk assessments conducted or approved by state and federal regulatory agencies have used probabilistic methods. Among the likely deterrents to application of probabilistic methods to ecological risk assessment is the absence of ``standard`` data distributions that are considered applicable to most conditions for a given ecological receptor. Indeed, point estimates of ecological exposure factor values for a limited number of wildlife receptors have only recently been published. The Monte Carlo method of probabilistic modeling has received increasing support as a promising technique for characterizing uncertainty and variation in estimates of exposure to environmental contaminants. An evaluation of literature on the behavior, physiology, and ecology of estuarine organisms was conducted in order to identify those variables that most strongly influence uptake of xenobiotic chemicals from sediments, water and food sources. The ranges, central tendencies, and distributions of several key parameter values for polychaetes (Nereis sp.), mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in east coast estuaries were identified. Understanding the variation in such factors, which include feeding rate, growth rate, feeding range, excretion rate, respiration rate, body weight, lipid content, food assimilation efficiency, and chemical assimilation efficiency, is critical to the understanding the mechanisms that control the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals in aquatic organisms, and to the ability to estimate bioaccumulation from chemical exposures in the aquatic environment.

  2. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Terry D.; Marking, Leif L.; Howe, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. We determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222) , metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degree C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin. We also determined the effects of selected levels of water temperature, hardness, and pH on the toxicity of chloramine-T, formalin, malachite green, and Roccal. There were no differences in toxicity for any of the chemicals at any water quality variable tested except for chloramine-T, which was about 25 times more toxic in soft, acid water than in soft, alkaline water. Our data show that the striped bass is as sensitive to fishery chemicals as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but is generally less resistant than bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

  3. Effect of outflow on spring and summertime distribution and abundance of larval and juvenile fishes in the upper San Francisco Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dege, M.; Brown, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed data on spring and summertime larval and juvenile fish distribution and abundance in the upper San Francisco Estuary (SFE), California between 1995 and 2001. The upper SFE includes the tidal freshwater areas of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta downstream to the euryhaline environment of San Pablo Bay. The sampling period included years with a variety of outflow conditions. Fifty taxa were collected using a larval tow net. Two common native species, delta smelt Hypomesus transpacifucus and longfin smelt Spirinchus thaleichthys, and four common alien taxa, striped bass Morone saxatilis, threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, gobies of the genus Tridentiger, and yellowfin goby Acanthogobins flavimanus, were selected for detailed analysis. Outflow conditions had a strong influence on the geographic distribution of most of the species, but distribution with respect to the 2 psu isohaline (X2) was not affected. The distribution patterns of delta smelt, longfin smelt, and striped bass were consistent with larvae moving from upstream freshwater spawning areas to down-stream estuarine rearing areas. There were no obvious relationships of outflow with annual abundance indices. Our results support the idea of using X2 as an organizing principle in understanding the ecology of larval fishes in the upper SFE. Additional years of sampling will likely lead to additional insights into the early life history of upper SFE fishes. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2004.

  4. Osmoregulatory actions of the GH/IGF axis in non-salmonid teleosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonid fishes provided the first findings on the influence of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis on osmoregulation in teleost fishes. Recent studies on non-salmonid species, however, indicate that this physiological action of the GH/IGF-I axis is not restricted to salmonids or anadromous fishes. GH-producing cells in the pituitary of fish acclimated to different salinities show different degrees of activation depending on the species studied. Plasma GH levels either increase or do not change after transfer of fish from freshwater to seawater. Treatment with GH or IGF-I increases salinity tolerance and/or increases gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromisniloticus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). As in salmonids, a positive interaction between GH and cortisol for improving hypoosmoregulatory capacity has been described in tilapia (O. mossambicus). Research on the osmoregulatory role of the GH/IGF-I axis is derived from a small number of teleost species. The study of more species with different osmoregulary patterns will be necessary to fully clarify the osmoregulatory role of GH/IGF-I axis in fish. The available data does suggest, however, that the influence of the GH/IGF-I axis on osmoregulation may be a common feature of euryhalinity in teleosts.

  5. Modeling the effects of potential salinity shifts on the recovery of striped bass in the Savannah River estuary, Georgia-South Carolina, United States.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Thomas R; Peterson, James T

    2008-05-01

    Increased salinity in spawning and nursery grounds in the Savannah River estuary was cited as the primary cause of a 97% decrease in adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and a concomitant 96% decrease in striped bass egg production. Restoration efforts focused on environmental remediation and stock enhancement have resulted in restored salinity patterns and increased egg and adult abundances. However, future water needs or harbor development may preclude further recovery by reducing freshwater inflow or increasing salinity intrusion. To assess the effect of potential changes in the salinity regime, we developed models relating discharge, tidal phase, and salinity to striped bass egg and early larval survival and re-cast these in a quantitative Bayesian belief network. The model indicated that a small upstream shift (< or =1.67 km) in the salinity regime would have the least impact on striped bass early life history survival, whereas shifts >1.67 km would have progressively larger impacts, with a 8.33-km shift potentially reducing our estimated survival probability by >28%. Such an impact could have cumulative and long-term detrimental effects on the recovery of the Savannah River striped bass population. The available salinity data were collected during average and low flows, so our model represents some typical and some extreme conditions during a striped bass spawning season. Our model is a relatively simplistic, "first-order" attempt at evaluating potential effects of changes in the Savannah River estuarine salinity regime and points to areas of concern and potential future research.

  6. Fish lesions in the Chesapeake Bay: Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates and other etiologies.

    PubMed

    Kane, A S; Oldach, D; Reimschuessel, R

    1998-05-01

    Ulcerative lesions and mass mortalities of Atlantic estuarine fish, particularly menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), have been associated with exposure to Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates and their toxins. We collected fish from the Chicamacomico River, Maryland, and observed solitary ulcerative lesions on the majority of menhaden sampled. One striped bass (Morone saxatilis) had an area of reddening around the base of the dorsal fin. Bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were externally nonremarkable. Histologically ulcerative menhaden lesions demonstrated marked chronic inflammatory infiltrate in large areas of exposed necrotic muscle. The ulcers contained granulomata with fungal hyphae in the necrotic tissue. Gram negative rod-shaped bacteria were also observed in the lesions, a common finding in ulcers of aquatic organisms. Our data suggest that typical ulcerative lesions observed on fish from areas of Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellate blooms are reflective of dermatosis, which may be related to a variety of individual or combined environmental stressors. Exposure to dinoflagellate toxin)s) potentially represents one such stressor. The role of Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellate toxin in fish primary lesion development is currently under investigation.

  7. Quantitative PCR assay for Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and Mycobacterium shottsii and application to environmental samples and fishes from the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Reece, K S; Xiao, J; Rhodes, M W; Kator, H I; Latour, R J; Bonzek, C F; Hoenig, J M; Vogelbein, W K

    2010-09-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay are currently experiencing a very high prevalence of mycobacteriosis associated with newly described Mycobacterium species, Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii. The ecology of these mycobacteria outside the striped bass host is currently unknown. In this work, we developed quantitative real-time PCR assays for M. pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii and applied these assays to DNA extracts from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment samples, as well as to tissues from two dominant prey of striped bass, Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) and bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli). Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii was found to be ubiquitous in water samples from the main stem of the Chesapeake Bay and was also present in water and sediments from the Rappahannock River, Virginia. M. pseudoshottsii was also detected in menhaden and anchovy tissues. In contrast, M. shottsii was not detected in water, sediment, or prey fish tissues. In conjunction with its nonpigmented phenotype, which is frequently found in obligately pathogenic mycobacteria of humans, this pattern of occurrence suggests that M. shottsii may be an obligate pathogen of striped bass.

  8. Quantitative PCR Assay for Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and Mycobacterium shottsii and Application to Environmental Samples and Fishes from the Chesapeake Bay▿

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, D. T.; Reece, K. S.; Xiao, J.; Rhodes, M. W.; Kator, H. I.; Latour, R. J.; Bonzek, C. F.; Hoenig, J. M.; Vogelbein, W. K.

    2010-01-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay are currently experiencing a very high prevalence of mycobacteriosis associated with newly described Mycobacterium species, Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii. The ecology of these mycobacteria outside the striped bass host is currently unknown. In this work, we developed quantitative real-time PCR assays for M. pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii and applied these assays to DNA extracts from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment samples, as well as to tissues from two dominant prey of striped bass, Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) and bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli). Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii was found to be ubiquitous in water samples from the main stem of the Chesapeake Bay and was also present in water and sediments from the Rappahannock River, Virginia. M. pseudoshottsii was also detected in menhaden and anchovy tissues. In contrast, M. shottsii was not detected in water, sediment, or prey fish tissues. In conjunction with its nonpigmented phenotype, which is frequently found in obligately pathogenic mycobacteria of humans, this pattern of occurrence suggests that M. shottsii may be an obligate pathogen of striped bass. PMID:20656856

  9. Swimming performance of upstream migrant fishes in open-channel flow: A new approach to predicting passage through velocity barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, A.; Castro-Santos, T.; Noreika, J.; Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to traverse barriers of high-velocity flow limits the distributions of many diadromous and other migratory fish species, yet very few data exist that quantify this ability. We provide a detailed analysis of sprint swimming ability of six migratory fish species (American shad (Alosa sapidissima), alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni)) against controlled water velocities of 1.5-4.5 m??s-1 in a large, open-channel flume. Performance was strictly voluntary: no coercive incentives were used to motivate fish to sprint. We used these data to generate models of maximum distance traversed, taking into account effects of flow velocity, body length, and temperature. Although the maximum distance traversed decreased with increasing velocity, the magnitude of this effect varied among species. Other covariate effects were likewise variable, with divergent effects of temperature and nonuniform length effects. These effects do not account for all of the variability in performance, however, and behavioral traits may account for observed interspecific differences. We propose the models be used to develop criteria for fish passage structures, culverts, and breached dams.

  10. Biotransformation and detoxication of molinate (Ordram) in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Bioconcentration, deputation, and biotransformation of molinate were compared in common carp (cyprinus carpio), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and white sturgeon (acipenser transmontanus) using a flow-through metabolism system. When compared to static conditions, flowing water improved oxygenation, decreased chemical volatilization and remetabolism, and run through a macroreticular resin, improved waste-product collection. Metabolite analysis employed gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography. Exposure to 100 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ (ring-/sup 14/C)molinate for 24 h resulted in bioconcentration factors of 30.5 (carp), 25.3 (bass), and 19.7 (sturgeon); differences were not significant (all, P > 0.05). /sup 14/C depuration by common carp was significantly slower than that by either striped bass or white sturgeon (both, P < 0.01). All three species oxidized molinate to a number of products and hydrolyzed, or conjugated with glutathione (GSH), the sulfoxide or sulfone, ultimately producing the mercapturic acid; carp and sturgeon also formed a D-glucuronic acid conjugate. Common carp were significantly less capable of sulfoxidation and GSH conjugation than either striped bass (P < 0.05) or white sturgeon (P < 0.01). Therefore, the selective toxicity of molinate in carp may be due to less efficient depuration and metabolic deactivation.

  11. Maryland striped bass: recruitment declining below replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Goodyear, C.P.; Cohen, J.E.; Christensen, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical technique was developed to examined interrelationships among first-year survival rates, adult fecundity, and adult survival of striped bass Morone saxatilis based on indices of year-class strength. Application of this technique to striped bass in Maryland waters of the Chesapeake Bay provided evidence for reduced survival in the life cycle. If adult fecundity and survival have remained constant, first-year survival declined significantly from 1969 to 1983, and averaged less than that needed for replacement for the last 10 years. Treatment of the individual spawning grounds separately indicated that the downward trend in survival for the pooled data was the result of declines in the upper bay and, to a lesser extent, in the Choptank River. Alternatively, if first-year survival and adult fecundity were assumed to have remained constant, an annual decline of about 1.9% in adult survival would have been required to produce the observed trend in the pooled year-class data. This would be consistent with increased fishing mortality and implies declining recruitment because of declining stock size. Continuing declines in first-year or adult survival would eliminate the Maryland striped bass stock and the fishery it supports. Conversely, an increase in adult survival could offset of the unknown factor or factors responsible for the apparent decline in first-year survival. 25 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  12. Nested polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii in striped bass.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Vogelbein, W K; Rhodes, M W; Reece, K S

    2008-12-01

    Wild striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay are experiencing a high prevalence of mycobacteriosis, which produces granulomatous lesions of the skin and visceral organs. Culture-based studies have indicated that the newly described species Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are the dominant isolates from diseased fish. The classical fish pathogen M. marinum is also found, albeit at much lower frequencies. Both M. shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are extremely slow-growing on standard selective media, and up to 12 months may be required for isolation and characterization. Epidemiological studies of mycobacteriosis in Chesapeake Bay would therefore benefit from rapid molecular assays with which to detect these species in fish. In this paper, we describe the development of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays capable of detecting M. shottsii, M. pseudoshottsii, and, in most instances, coinfections thereof in striped bass tissues. In addition, PCR-RFLP assays were designed to detect M. marinum and other as-yet-undescribed Mycobacterium spp. present in Chesapeake Bay striped bass. Comparison of these molecular assays with culture-based techniques using splenic tissue from wild striped bass yielded generally concordant results and demonstrated the applicability of these techniques to the study of wild fish.

  13. Environmental Distribution and Seasonal Prevalence of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Southern Louisiana

    PubMed Central

    Hennigan, Caroline E.; Myers, Leann

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is an emerging environmental pathogen that causes debilitating, ulcerative disease in humans and other vertebrates. The majority of human cases occur in tropical and temperate regions of Africa and Australia, and outbreaks of piscine mycobacteriosis caused by M. ulcerans have been reported in disparate geographic locations spanning the globe. While exposure to a natural body of water is the most common risk factor for human infection, the environmental distribution of M. ulcerans in aquatic habitats has not been extensively studied. Although no human cases have been reported in the United States, a strain of M. ulcerans has been identified as the cause of a piscine mycobacteriosis in Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) within the Chesapeake Bay. Infected fish exhibit bright red ventral and lateral dermal lesions. We observed a possible outbreak causing similar lesions on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in wetlands of southern Louisiana and detected M. ulcerans-specific genetic markers in lesion samples from these fish. Based on these findings, we studied the geographic and seasonal prevalence of these markers across southern Louisiana. M. ulcerans was detected in each of the nine areas sampled across the state. M. ulcerans prevalence was significantly lower in the fall samples, and the low prevalence coincided with decreased nutrient levels and an increase in water temperature. To our knowledge, this is the first study of M. ulcerans biomarkers in the southern United States. PMID:23396345

  14. Species differences in contaminants in fish on and adjacent to the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Campbell, Kym Rouse

    2004-10-01

    Risks to humans and other organisms from consuming fish have become a national concern in the USA. In this paper, we examine the concentrations of 137Cs, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium in three species of fish from two river reaches adjacent to the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. We were interested in whether there were species and locational differences in radiocesium and metal concentrations and whether concentrations were sufficiently high to pose a potential health risk to humans or other receptors. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) were significantly larger than white bass (M. chrysops), and crappie (Pomoxis spp.) were the smallest fish. Lead was significantly lower in striped bass, mercury was significantly higher in striped bass, and selenium was significantly higher in white bass compared to the other species. There were no other species differences in contaminants. White bass, the only species that was sufficiently abundant for a comparison, had significantly higher concentrations of cadmium, lead, and selenium in fillets from the Clinch River and significantly higher concentrations of mercury in fillets from Poplar Creek. The low concentrations of most contaminants in fish from the Clinch River do not appear to present a risk to humans or other consumers, although mercury concentrations in striped bass ranged as high as 0.79 ppm, well above the 0.5-ppm action level for human consumption of some US states.

  15. Establishment of a fish community in the hayden-rhodes and salt-gila aqueducts, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, G.

    1996-01-01

    Fish populations were studied in the Central Arizona Project's canal system during the first 4 years of aqueduct operation (1986-1989). Ichthyoplankton entering the canal from Lake Havasu averaged 1 larva/m3 during April-June 1987 and 1988. Larval fish densities increased significantly in downstream samples, substantiating diver observations that fish were spawning in the canal system. Of the 16 fish species collected, 14 were assumed to have originated from Lake Havasu and 2 were introduced by anglers from their bait buckets. Initially, the fish community was dominated numerically by threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense (>88%), centrarchids (< 10%), cyprinids (<2%), and striped bass Morone saxatilis (<1%). However, as annual water diversions increased from 13 x 108 m3 in 1986 to 9.4 x 108 m3 in 1989, community composition shifted from clupeids to centrarchids (70%). Fish densities dropped from an estimated 1,260 fish/ha in 1986 to 17 fish/ha in 1989, and biomass dropped from 116 to 73 kg/ha. Declines were attributed to higher operational velocities, associated scour, deprivation, and predation. Although initial populations adjusted downward to planned operational conditions, the fish community continued to represent a potentially valuable, but as yet unused, resource.

  16. Distribution and migration of adult striped bass in Lake Whitney, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farquhar, B.W.; Gutreuter, S.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty adult (3.2a??8.6 kg) striped bass Morone saxatilis were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked for up to 475 d in 9,510-hectare Lake Whitney, a Texas reservoir, to determine seasonal distribution, migration patterns, and water temperatures occupied. Striped bass distribution in summer was limited to an area near the dam, where they survived temperatures as high as 29.0A?C. Tagged fish generally were found in the coolest water available (27.0a??29.0A?C) that contained adequate dissolved oxygen (>4.0 mg/L) in summer and occupied the warmest water (7.4a??8.8A?C) in winter. For the rest of the year, the fish were distributed throughout available water temperatures. Beginning in autumn, most striped bass moved up the reservoir to and into the main tributaries and remained there until spring, when they returned to the main reservoir. No spawning run up main tributaries was observed in either of the two study years, possibly due to low inflows. Individual fish displayed a preference for certain areas to which they returned yearly.

  17. F-type lectin from the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): purification, cDNA cloning, tissue expression and localization, and opsonic activity.

    PubMed

    Salerno, G; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Benenati, G; Vizzini, A; Vazzana, M; Vasta, G R; Cammarata, M

    2009-08-01

    Recently described biochemical and structural aspects of fucose-binding lectins from the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) led to the identification of a novel lectin family ("F-type" lectins) characterized by a unique sequence motif and a characteristic structural fold. The F-type fold is shared not only with other members of this lectin family, but also with apparently unrelated proteins ranging from prokaryotes to vertebrates. Here we describe the purification, biochemical and molecular properties, and the opsonic activity of an F-type lectin (DlFBL) isolated from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) serum. DlFBL exhibits two tandemly arranged carbohydrate-recognition domains that display the F-type sequence motif. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that DlFBL is specifically expressed and localized in hepatocytes and intestinal cells. Exposure of formalin-killed Escherichia coli to DlFBL enhanced their phagocytosis by D. labrax peritoneal macrophages relative to the unexposed controls, suggesting that DlFBL may function as an opsonin in plasma and intestinal mucus.

  18. Correlation of transforming growth factor-β messenger RNA (TGF-β mRNA) expression with cellular immunoassays in Triamcinolone-treated captive hybrid striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, Craig A.; Ottinger, Christopher A.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S.

    2000-01-01

    Assessing fish immune status with molecular markers has been hampered by a lack of specific reagents. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method (reverse transcription quantitative–competitive PCR, RT-qcPCR) for measuring transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) transcription from a broad range of teleost fish has recently been developed. The quantitative PCR now permits monitoring production of this important immunosuppressive cytokine in response to immunomodulating agents and conditions. We examined anterior kidney and spleen mononuclear cells from hybrid striped bass (female striped bass Morone saxatilis× male white bass M. chrysops) for production of TGF-β messenger RNA (mRNA) in response to administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone. We also compared TGF-β transcription with anterior kidney macrophage bactericidal activity and splenic lymphocyte blastogenesis. Anterior kidney mononuclear cell TGF-β mRNA levels decreased, whereas bactericidal activity increased. Spleen TGF-β mRNA levels did not change significantly, and splenic lymphocyte pokeweed mitogen stimulation index increased in triamcinolone-treated fish. Since triamcinolone is used therapeutically as a suppressive immunomodulator, the enhanced immune functions indicated by the cellular immunoassays were unexpected; however, the inverse response of TGF-β production and macrophage bactericidal activity was consistent with the known relationship between TGF-β and macrophage activation in mammals. Induced immunomodulation in hybrid striped bass was detectable by both traditional cellular immunoassays and the new RT-qcPCR for TGF-β.

  19. Maturation and fecundity of a stock-enhanced population of striped bass in the Savannah River Estuary, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Will, T.A.; Reinert, T.R.; Jennings, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The striped bass Morone saxatilis population in the Savannah River (south-eastern U.S.A.) collapsed in the 1980s, and recent efforts to restore the population have resulted in increased catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of striped bass in the Savannah River Estuary (SRE). The abundance of eggs and larvae, however, remain well below historic levels. The primary cause of the population decline was remedied, and environmental conditions seem suitable for striped bass spawning. Regression analysis of data derived from ultrasonic imaging of 31 striped bass resulted in a statistical model that predicted ovary volume well (r2=0.95). The enumeration of oocytes from ovarian tissue samples and the prediction of ovary volume allowed fecundity to be estimated without sacrificing the fish. Oocyte maturation in Savannah River striped bass seemed to progress normally, with oocytes developing to final stages of maturity in larger fish (>750 mm LT). Additionally, fecundity estimates were comparable to a neighbouring striped bass population. The environmental cues needed to trigger development and release of striped bass oocytes into the SRE appeared to be present. If most of the striped bass females in the SRE are still young (<7 years), the ability to produce large numbers of eggs will be limited. As these young fish mature, egg production probably will increase and the density of striped bass eggs eventually will approach historic levels, provided suitable habitat and water quality are maintained. ?? 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Efficacy of bath treatments of formalin and copper sulfate on cultured white bass, Morone chrysops, concurrently infected by Onchocleidus mimus and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Treatment efficacy of repeated 1 h baths of formalin (100 mg/L) or copper sulfate (CuSO4) (2.1 mg/L) were evaluated against concurrent infections of Onchocleidus mimus (Mueller, 1936; Monogenoidea: Ancyrocephalidae) and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet, 1876; Hymenostomatida: Ichthyopththiriida...

  1. Structure-activity relationships of piscidin 4, a piscine antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Park, N G; Silphaduang, U; Moon, H S; Seo, J-K; Corrales, J; Noga, E J

    2011-04-26

    Piscidin 4, an antimicrobial peptide recently isolated from mast cells of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops female × Morone saxatilis male), is unusual in that it is twice as long (44 amino acids) as the typical members of the piscidin family. We previously showed that native piscidin 4 had a modified amino acid at position 20, but synthetic piscidin 4 (having an unmodified Trp at position 20) had similar potent activity against a number of both human and fish bacterial pathogens. In this study, the structure and membrane topology of synthetic piscidin 4 were examined using liposomes as model bilayers. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that it had a disordered structure in aqueous solution and folded to form a relatively weak α-helical structure in both membrane-mimetic trifluoroethanol solutions and liposome suspensions. Fluorescence data (piscidin 4 embedded in liposomes) and leakage experiments indicated that piscidin 4 interacted strongly with the hydrophobic part of the liposome. Binding of piscidin 4 to liposomes induced significant blue shifts of the emission spectra of the single Trp residue (Trp20). Quenching of Trp20 by water-soluble quencher (either acrylamide or I-) indicated that the fluorescence of Trp20 decreased more in the presence of liposomes than in buffer solution, thus revealing that Trp20 is less accessible to the quenchers in the presence of liposomes. The relative leakage abilities of piscidin 4 (1 μM) with liposomes were in the following order: DPPC (100%)≥EYPC (94%)>DPPC/DPPG (65%)>EYPC/EYPG (0%). This high activity against DPPC and EYPC liposomes was contrary to our data suggesting that piscidin 4 has a much weaker tendency to form an α-helix than other piscidins, such as piscidin 1. However, the structural similarity of protozoan membranes to EYPC liposomes might explain our discovery of the potent activity of piscidin 4 against the important skin/gill parasite ich (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis), but its negligible hemolytic

  2. Effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine on fish brain serotonin and predation behavior.

    PubMed

    Bisesi, Joseph H; Bridges, William; Klaine, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Antidepressants that enter receiving waters through final treated wastewater effluent have exhibited relatively low acute toxicity in traditional fish tests at currently measured concentrations. However, the psychotropic mode of action of these compounds warrants examination of the behavioral effects these chemicals may have on aquatic organisms. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine causes decreased brain serotonin levels in fish and results in a decreased ability to capture prey. Another antidepressant, venlafaxine, has been found at low μg/L concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of venlafaxine on fish predation behavior and determine if this effect was correlated with changes in brain neurotransmitter concentrations. The predator prey bioassay used hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) as the predator and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as prey. Bass were exposed to venlafaxine (0-500 μg/L) for a period of 6 days and then allowed to recover for 6 days. During both exposure and recovery, bass were fed four minnows every third day. The time to capture the minnows was quantified and compared among treatments to determine if there was an effect on predation behavior. Brain tissue was analyzed for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, to determine the relationship between exposure concentration, brain monoamine levels, and predation behavior. Results indicated that venlafaxine exposures increased time to capture prey 1 and 2 by day 6 for the 250 and 500 μg/L treatments. Time to capture prey 3 was increased for all venlafaxine treatments by day 6. Venlafaxine caused a statistically significant decrease in brain serotonin concentrations that initially decreased in a dose dependent manner before reaching a steady state by the end of exposures for all treatments. No significant, dose-dependent changes in dopamine or

  3. Effect of β-Mannanase and α-Galactosidase Supplementation to Soybean Meal Based Diets on Growth, Feed Efficiency and Nutrient Digestibility of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    PubMed Central

    Yiğit, Nalan Ozgur; Koca, Seval Bahadir; Didinen, Behire Isıl; Diler, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with 87 g rainbow trout to evaluate the effects on growth performances, feed efficiency and nutrient digestibility of adding β-mannanase and α-galactosidase enzymes, solely or in combination. Seven diets were prepared by adding β-mannanase, α-galactosidase and mixed enzyme at two different levels (1 g/kg and 2 g/kg) to control diet (without enzyme) including soybean meal. Mixed enzymes (1 g/kg, 2 g/kg) were prepared by adding β-mannanase and α-galactosidase at the same doses (0.5+0.5 g/kg and 1+1 g/kg). At the end of the experiment, addition of β-mannanase, α-galactosidase and mixed enzyme to diet containing 44% soybean meal had no significant effects on growth performance and gain:feed (p>0.05). In addition, adding β-mannanase, α-galactosidase and mixed enzyme in different rations to trout diets had no affect on nutrient digestibility and body composition (p>0.05). PMID:25050005

  4. Cloning and characterization of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 gene from chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum, 1792).

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeong-Nam; Ham, Seung Hyub; Lee, Seung Il; Jin, Hyung-Joo; Ueda, Hiroshi; Jin, Deuk-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the information about molecular and expression characterization of NR1 gene in chum salmon for the first time. The complete NR1 subunit showed a large open-reading frame of 2844 bp in the total length of 3193 bp, and this cDNA contained a coding region encoding 948 amino acids and a stop codon. The organization of the NR1 subunit of chum salmon were similar of most other fishes, except C' terminal. The expression of NR1 subunit was to show higher in the natal river near to the hatchery than near to the coast. We expect that the information reported herein may facilitate further investigations on the relationship between memory factors of natal rivers and homing mechanisms in Salmonidae.

  5. [The genetic structure of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta Walbaum) populations inferred from the nucleotide variation of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene].

    PubMed

    Bachevskaia, L T; Pereverzeva, V A; Malinina, T V

    2011-11-01

    The nucleotide sequences of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene were determined in 12 chum salmon populations from the Russian Far East. The level of genetic diversity in the chum salmon populations from the Iturup Island, northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, and Anadyr' River was found to be higher than in the populations from Kamchatka and Sakhalin, which may be related to the history of their origin and dispersal. The proportions of intrapopulation genetic variability (F(ct)) and interpopulation genetic variability within the groups (F(sc)) account for 90.87 and 0.9%, respectively, and the intergroup component (F(st)) comprises 8.23%. The predominance of one haplotype, B1, which is common for all populations studied, and a low share of intergroup variability suggest the beginning of colonization by the species of the given region from a common source (group of founders) and a relatively recent time of divergence of the chum salmon populations from the region examined.

  6. [Patterns of genetic diversity in population complexes of Pacific chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta Walbaum, from Asia and Northern America, inferred from allozyme polymorphism data].

    PubMed

    Savin, V A; Varnavskaia, N V; Shaporev, R A

    2009-06-01

    Based on the data of Russian and foreign researchers, a database, consisting of 100 allozyme-coding loci examined in 288 chum salmon populations from Asia and Northern America, was constructed. Using G-test, genetic heterogeneity of Asian population samples of chum salmon was evaluated. Correlations between the frequencies of major alleles and geographic latitude of the mouths of native rivers were estimated. Using the methods of Nei and Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, for different local chum salmon stock groups the genetic distances at the number of polymorphic enzyme loci were determined. Analysis of these distances made it possible to evaluate the patterns of genetic diversity in regional population groups from the Russian Far East, Japan, and North America. The proportions of genetic variation at each hierarchical level, identified in accordance with the geographical positions of the populations, were estimated through partitioning of variation in Asian populations into within and between-population components. It was demonstrated that intraspecific genetic structure of chum salmon corresponded geographic subdivision into regional population groups.

  7. [The variation in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) mitochondrial DNA and its connection with the paleogeographic events in the Northwest Pacific].

    PubMed

    Poliakova, N E; Semina, A V; Brykov, V A

    2006-10-01

    The results of examining mtDNA variation in populations of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from the rivers of the basins of the seas of Japan and Okhotsk and in the chum salmon seasonal races of the Amur River are presented. A significant level of polymorphism between the majority of the populations studied was detected. The groups of chum salmon from the Japan and Okhotsk Seas displayed the most pronounced differences. Analysis of genetic variation demonstrated that periodic paleontologic and climatic changes in the past of this region were the most probable factor that caused the divergence of these populations. The advances and retreats of glaciers and the accompanying regressions and transgressions of the ocean level caused isolation of chum salmon in the refugia belonging hypothetically to the paleo-Suifun and paleo-Amur regions. These population groups diverged presumably 350-450 thousand years ago. Differences between the seasonal races of the Amur chum salmon are insignificant, and their emergence dates back to the period of the last Wisconsin glaciation. Probably, the main isolation factor now is the genetically determined time of spawning.

  8. [Polymorphism of the cytochrome b gene fragment of mitochondrial DNA of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) from the Ola River (northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk)].

    PubMed

    Bachevskaia, L T; Pereverzeva, V V

    2010-01-01

    Sequencing of 395 bp long fragments of cytochrome b gene occupying the 15396-15790 bp positions of mtDNA, the data on the structure and variability of the studied region in chum salmon from the Ola River (northern coast of the Sea of Okhtosk) were obtained for the first time. Nine haplotype variants and four protein modifications were obtained. The medial net was built reflecting the variability and phylogenetic relationships of haplotypes in the gene pool of the studied population of the chum salmon from the Ola River. Comparative analysis of the published and original data showed that the Ola chum salmon differs from the Canadian salmon ninth genotypically (in structure of cytochrome b gene) and in the amino acid sequence of the studied site of the enzyme.

  9. Modes of transmission of Glugea plecoglossi (Microspora) via the skin and digestive tract in an experimental infection model using rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Lee, S-J; Yokoyama, H; Ogawa, K

    2004-08-01

    Glugea plecoglossi (Microspora) is a significant cause of economic loss in cultured ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, in Japan, due to the unsightly appearance of infected fish harbouring xenomas in the body cavity. Modes of transmission of G. plecoglossi via the skin and digestive tract were studied in an experimental infection model using rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Combined with Uvitex 2B and in situ hybridization (ISH) assays, the early development of G. plecoglossi was successfully traced. Following a bath exposure of fish Uvitex 2B-labelled G. plecoglossi spores were observed to attach to microscopic injuries (trypan blue-positive sites) of fish skin, after which ISH-positive sporoplasms were found to invade the epidermis as early as 5 min post-infection (PI), migrating rapidly to the subdermis. It was also shown that G. plecoglossi entering via the skin does not spread into the internal organs but develops into subdermal xenomas. After rainbow trout were exposed to G. plecoglossi spores by oral intubation, spores germinated in the intestinal lumen, followed by penetration of sporoplasms into the gut mucosal epithelium 5 min PI. In vitro trials determining stimulation factors (fish mucus, changes in pH, digestive enzymes) for the extrusion of the polar tube were inconclusive. The present study indicates that skin wounds and the gut epithelium can be portals of entry of G. plecoglossi and that natural infection in fish seems to occur perorally rather than via the skin.

  10. A comparative molecular study of the presence of "Candidatus arthromitus" in the digestive system of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), healthy and affected with rainbow trout gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Del-Pozo, J; Turnbull, J; Ferguson, H; Crumlish, M

    2010-03-01

    Observations were made using histopathological techniques in conjunction with a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for the specific detection of "Candidatus arthromitus" on DNA extracted from wax-embedded tissues and fresh digestive contents of rainbow trout. Samples positive for "Candidatus arthromitus" DNA included fish with rainbow trout gastroenteritis (RTGE), clinically normal cohabiting fish, and apparently healthy controls from RTGE positive and RTGE negative sites. The results obtained from the PCR were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. "Candidatus arthromitus" DNA was found in distal intestine as well as in sections of pyloric caeca, suggesting that both these locations are appropriate for molecular detection of "Candidatus arthromitus" DNA in trout. Furthermore, rainbow trout fry distal intestinal samples from two different hatcheries where RTGE had not been reported were also positive. Differences in "Candidatus arthromitus" DNA detection between paraffin wax-embedded and fresh digestive content samples from the same fish suggested that it may be predominantly epithelium-associated in healthy trout. Parallel histopathological observations indicated that pyloric caeca are the preferred site for visualizing segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) in trout with RTGE. The results of this study showed that the presence of SFB was not invariably associated with clinical disease and that more information is required to understand the role of these organisms.

  11. Antigenic and cross-protection studies of biotype 1 and biotype 2 isolates of Yersinia ruckeri in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Tinsley, J W; Lyndon, A R; Austin, B

    2011-07-01

    The study investigated antigen characteristics of biotype (bt) 1 and bt 2 isolates of Yersinia ruckeri. The cell surface characteristics of Y. ruckeri were compared for their antigenic characteristics using polyclonal antibodies that revealed that both biotypes had a homogenous whole-cell protein antigenic profile. Notable differences in the antigenic properties were observed in the lipopolysaccharide profile of both biotypes. Two iron-regulated outer membrane proteins (IROMP) of c.90 and 100 kDa were shown to be major specific antigens. The results demonstrate for the first time differences in antigens between bt 1 and bt 2 isolates of serotype O1 isolates of Y. ruckeri. The protection induced in rainbow trout by a commercial monovalent, and bivalent inactivated vaccine was tested with the outcome that the ability of isolates to cause mortality in vaccinated fish varied with geographical location. In this context, vaccination studies suggested that the O antigen was the dominant immunogenic molecule involved in protection against the disease. The O antigen of Y. ruckeri was the dominant immunogenic molecule involved in the protection of rainbow trout against enteric redmouth disease. There are distinct phenotypic and antigenic differences in Y. ruckeri bt 1 and bt 2 with O antigen recognized as the dominant immunogenic molecule. The data have significance in explaining the lack of success of the earlier monovalent vaccine and demonstrate the effectiveness of the newer bivalent vaccine. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. What goes around comes around: an investigation of resistance to proliferative kidney disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) following experimental re-exposure.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C; Segner, H; Wahli, T

    2017-04-21

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss surviving proliferative kidney disease (PKD) are reported not to develop the disease upon re-exposure. However, the mechanisms involved in the immune response to re-exposure are unknown. We examined disease susceptibility and the immune response of naive 1+ rainbow trout when first exposed to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in comparison with that of 1+ rainbow trout re-exposed to T. bryosalmonae. PKD pathogenesis, parasite burden and transcriptional signatures of the host immune response were assessed at 10, 25 and 40 d.p.e (days post-exposure). In addition, we evaluated the presence of IgM+ B cells in the blood and the posterior kidney. The exposure of 1+ rainbow trout to T. bryosalmonae for the first time resulted in 100% infection prevalence, high parasite burdens and severe clinical PKD, while re-exposed fish were either able to avoid reinfection completely or mount an earlier and more efficient adaptive-type immune response. This response was characterized by a greater amount of IgM+ B cells in the blood and elevated mRNA levels of secretory IgM in the posterior kidney which minimized pathogen burden and kidney inflammation. Our findings suggest that rainbow trout is able to develop immune protection against T. bryosalmonae. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of dietary α-tocopherol + ascorbic acid, selenium, and iron on oxidative stress in sub-yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welker, T.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    A three-variable central composite design coupled with surface-response analysis was used to examine the effects of dietary ??-tocopherol + ascorbic acid (TOCAA), selenium (Se), and iron (Fe) on indices of oxidative stress in juvenile spring Chinook salmon. Each dietary factor was tested at five levels for a total of fifteen dietary combinations (diets). Oxidative damage in liver and kidney (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls) and erythrocytes (erythrocyte resistance to peroxidative lysis, ERPL) was determined after feeding experimental diets for 16 (early December) and 28 (early March) weeks. Only TOCAA influenced oxidative stress in this study, with most measures of oxidative damage decreasing (liver lipid peroxidation in December and March; ERPL in December; liver protein carbonyl in March) with increasing levels of TOCAA. We also observed a TOCAA-stimulated increase in susceptibility of erythrocytes to peroxidative lysis in March at the highest levels of TOCAA. The data suggest that under most circumstances a progressive decrease in oxidative stress occurs as dietary TOCAA increases, but higher TOCAA concentrations can stimulate oxidative damage in some situations. Higher levels of TOCAA in the diet were required in March than in December to achieve comparable levels of protection against oxidative damage, which may have been due to physiological changes associated with the parr-smolt transformation. Erythrocytes appeared to be more sensitive to variation in dietary levels of TOCAA than liver and kidney tissues. Using the March ERPL assay results as a baseline, a TOCAA level of approximately 350-600 mg/kg diet would provide adequate protection against lipid peroxidation under most circumstances in juvenile Chinook salmon. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  14. [Effects of the dietary incorporation of carotenoid pigments on gonad development and oocyte maturity in females of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1972)].

    PubMed

    de la Mora, Genoveva Ingle; Arredondo-Figueroa, J L; Barriga-Sosa, Irene de los Angeles; Bazán-Arias, J; Vernon-Carter, J

    2004-06-01

    Four groups of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) each with 60 females with an average body weight of 467 g were submitted to an aleatory assay in order to compare the efficiency of four diets containing different concentrations of carotenoid pigments, and to determine if pigment concentration and source had an influence on female gonad development and oocyte maturity. The first diet was the non-pigmented control (C). The second diet contained 100 mg kg(-1) of Carophyll Pink (CR). The third and fourth diets contained 200 (RC200) and 250 (RC250) mg kg(-1) of saponified red chili oleoresin, respectively. The results indicated significant differences (p < or = 0.05) between C and RC250, with respect to the gonado-somatic index (IGS), average gonad weight (PG) and average diameter of oocyte (DO), with CR250 showing higher IGS, PG and DO values. Treatments CR and CR200 presented similar values. At the end of the experimental period, only 10% of oocytes were mature in the RC250 diet.

  15. Pro-inflammatory caspase-1 activation during the immune response in cells from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum 1792) challenged with pathogen-associated molecular patterns.

    PubMed

    Rojas, V; Camus-Guerra, H; Guzmán, F; Mercado, L

    2015-11-01

    In response to pathogens, the higher vertebrate innate immune system activates pro-inflammatory caspase-1 which is responsible for the processing and secretion of several important cytokines involved in the host's defence against infection. To date, caspase-1 has been described in few teleost fish, and its activity has been demonstrated through substrate cleavage and inhibition by pharmacological agents. In this study, the detection of the active form of caspase-1 during the immune response in salmonid fish is described, where two antibodies were produced. These antibodies differentially recognize the structural epitopes of the inactive pro-caspase-1 and the processed active form of the caspase. Firstly, caspase-1 activation was demonstrated in vitro by ELISA, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry in rainbow trout macrophages exposed to different pathogen-associated molecular patterns plus the pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. This activity was clearly abrogated by a caspase inhibitor and seems to be unrelated to IL-1β secretion. Caspase-1 activation was then validated in vivo in gill cells from fish challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida. These results represent the first demonstration of caspase-1 activation in salmonids, and the first evidence of the putative regulatory role which this protease plays in inflammatory response in this fish group, as described for some other teleosts and mammals.

  16. Establishment of a comprehensive reference transcriptome for vertebral bone tissue to study the impacts of nutritional phosphorus deficiency in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Le Luyer, J; Deschamps, M-H; Proulx, E; Poirier Stewart, N; Joly Beauparlant, C; Droit, A; Robert, C; Vandenberg, G W

    2014-10-31

    Reducing dietary phosphorus (P) is a common approach to reduce effluent P outputs. The potential resulting P-deficiency is known to negatively impact fish bone condition and might result in vertebral deformities. To date, no large-scale study involving deep sequencing of the bone transcriptome has been conducted in salmonids and vertebral molecular changes remain poorly described. This study aims to provide the first comprehensive vertebral transcriptome for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to allow functional and quantitative expression studies. Fish weighing 60.8±1.6g, were fed for 27weeks using two practical diets having 0.29% (deficient) and 0.45% (sufficient) available phosphorus (P), respectively. Deep sequencing was conducted using HiSeq2000 Illumina 100 paired-end technology from pooled P-deficient and P-sufficient fish and individuals displaying vertebral deformities. Over 140 million trimmed paired-end reads were assembled de novo with Trinity and resulted in 679,869 transcripts with a mean length of 542.5bp. From these sequences, 340,747 matched with referenced ESTs from rainbow trout. Furthermore, 141,909 and 117,564 sequences were functionally annotated against Nr and Uniprot databases, respectively. Interestingly, we observed putative homologue sequences for most of the key components involved in bone formation and turnover in mammals.

  17. Whole body net ion fluxes, plasma electrolyte concentrations and haematology during a Loma salmonae infection in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Powell, M D; Speare, D J; Becker, J A

    2006-12-01

    Loma salmonae infections of salmonids culminate in the development of branchial xenomas and subsequent focal hyperplasia of the lamellar or filament epithelium following xenoma rupture and spore release. The effects of this acute branchial disruption upon net ionic flux rates and plasma electrolyte concentrations were determined in juvenile rainbow trout given an experimental oral exposure to L. salmonae. Mean numbers of branchial xenomas peaked at week 5 post-exposure (PE), which coincided with a reduction in the specific growth rate, although there were no significant differences in mass, length or condition of Loma-exposed fish compared with unexposed controls. Following exposure, negative net whole body Na(+) and K(+) fluxes decreased, whereas net Cl(-) fluxes remained unchanged compared with non-exposed control fish. At week 3 PE during the initial branchial xenoma formation stage, there was a significant negative whole body net K(+) flux in Loma-exposed trout compared with other points during the exposure and subsequent infection. Additionally, Loma-exposed fish had marginally elevated plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations, whilst K(+) levels remained unchanged, compared with control fish. Although there was a progressive decrease in leucocrit, haematocrit remained unchanged over the course of the Loma exposure and subsequent infection. These results suggest that ionic compensation can occur at the gills during the development of xenomas during exposure to L. salmonae and the resultant infection, therefore allowing defence of plasma electrolyte concentrations, unlike the acute ionic disturbances seen with some other parasitic diseases.

  18. Vertical transmission of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum): isolation of virus from dead eggs and fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The control of epizootics of infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IIHN) virus in salmonid fishes is presently based on examination and certification of adult brood fish to prevent the introduction of virus-infected eggs into hatcheries (Canadian Fisherics and Marine Service 1976; McDaniel 1979). This strategy is based on the assumption that the virus is vertically transmitted in association with the gametes. However, evidence for vertical transmission of lHN virus is circumstantial, based mostly on the appearance of the disease outside the enzootic area (the west coast of North America) in fish hatched from eggs obtained from within that area (Plumb 1972; Holway & Smith 1973; Wolf, Quimby, Pettijohn & Landolt 1973, Sano, Nishimura, Okamoto, Yamazaki, Hanada & Watanabe 1977. Carlisle, Schat & Elston 1979). An indirect demonstration of vertical transmission was made by placing known virus-free fish in the water above and below raceways containing fish that suffered an IEEN epizootic in an cffort to climinate waterborne virus as a source of infection (Wingficid & Chan 1970). The fish placed below the raceway developed IHN, due to waterborne virus released from the affected fish in the raceway, but the fish placed above the raceway failed to develop IHN. These results suggested that the source of infection of the fish in the raceway was not the water supply, although it is possible that the virus was no longer present in the water supply at the time the sentinel fish were exposed to the water.

  19. Negligible risk associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from an infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) endemic area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPatra, S.E.; Batts, W.N.; Overturf, K.; Jones, G.N.; Shewmaker, W.D.; Winton, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the risk of transmission of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from an area where the virus is endemic, 240 freshly eviscerated fish (225-500 g) exhibiting spinal curvature or spinal compression types of deformities were tested for IHNV by virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Commercially produced rainbow trout, approximately 1-year-old, that exhibited spinal deformities were considered to have had a high likelihood of having survived an outbreak of IHN. Serological analysis of fish exhibiting spinal curvature or spinal compression types of deformities for anti-IHNV antibodies resulted, in 71 and 50% of the serum samples, respectively, with detectable neutralization activity suggesting previous infection with IHNV. A portion of the skin and muscle in the area of the deformity was collected, as well as brain tissue from each commercially processed fish. Tissue homogenates were tested for IHNV using the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line pretreated with polyethylene glycol and the chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line using standard methods. Nested, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR for the detection of IHNV used the central 1231 bp portion of the glycoprotein (G) challenge studies and is suggested as a mechanism responsible for virus clearance. These results provide scientific information that can be used to assess the risk associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout from an IHNV endemic area.

  20. Influence of gonadotropic hormone-releasing hormone analog (GnRH-A) on plasma sex steroid profiles and milt production in male winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Harmin, S A; Crim, L W

    1993-03-01

    The effects of gonadotropic hormone-releasing hormone analog (GnRH-A) treatment on the onset and duration of increases in plasma sex steroids and milt production (milt volume and number of spermatozoa) were investigated in prespawning male winter flounder. After treatment of maturing males during the winter with a single injection of either 20 or 200 μg/kg [D-Ala(6), Pro(9)-NHEt]LHRH (GnRH-A), plasma levels of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were increased within 12h and the steroid hormone levels remained elevated for long periods lasting several days. The androgenic steroid response of males was delayed after the administration of a lower dose of GnRH-A (2 μg/kg). Although a single GnRH-A injection in December or January advanced the onset of spermiation in some males, only small amounts (<50 μl) of milt could be collected. By March, all males were in spermiating condition following GnRH-A treatment; however, significant increases in sperm production, particularly increases in milt volume, occurred in fish twice treated with GnRH-A.

  1. Nonspecific immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) in relation to different status of vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Puangkaew, J; Kiron, V; Somamoto, T; Okamoto, N; Satoh, S; Takeuchi, T; Watanabe, T

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of dietary vitamin E (VE) on modulation of immune responses when supplied with two levels of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Six semipurified diets were prepared containing three levels of dietary VE (0, 100 or 1000 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) diet) and n-3 HUFA either at 20 or 48% of dietary lipid provided from fish oil or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrated fish oil respectively. The diets were fed to rainbow trout (100 g initial mean weight) for 15 weeks. The VE, vitamin C (VC) content in plasma and tissues and the nonspecific immune responses, both humoral (alternative complement activity, total immunoglobulin) and cellular (phagocytosis, nonspecific cytotoxicity) were examined. VE contents in the kidney reflected the dietary input but were lower in fish fed 48% n-3 HUFA diets, and could have impaired some of immune responses compared to fish fed 20% n-3 HUFA. VC contents in kidney followed the same pattern as VE. Both humoral and cellular immune functions deteriorated in fish fed VE deficient diets whereas improvement in most of the parameters corresponded to its supplementation. However, the higher dose of dietary VE did not substantially enhance the responses assayed compared to the 100 mg dose. Besides clearly indicating the role of VE in maintaining the immune functions in fish in relation to dietary n-3 HUFA, this study has revealed that optimum health benefits could be achieved when VE is maintained slightly above the levels generally recommended for normal growth.

  2. Non-adjuvanted flagellin elicits a non-specific protective immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) towards bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Scott, Callum J W; Austin, Brian; Austin, Dawn A; Morris, Peter C

    2013-07-11

    Enteric redmouth disease, caused by Yersinia ruckeri, may result in high mortalities in farmed salmonids. Prophylaxis has been achieved with an immersion vaccine comprised of inactivated serovar 1 biotype 1 (motile) Y. ruckeri cultures. However, there has been a growing number of enteric redmouth outbreaks in vaccinated livestock associated with serovar 1 biotype 2 (non-motile) Y. ruckeri strains which do not produce flagellin. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the protective role of flagellin in enteric redmouth vaccines. Results showed that flagellin in the inactivated whole-cell vaccine were not the main immunoprotective molecule in eliciting a protective immune response towards infection. However, use of non-adjuvanted flagellin as a sub-unit vaccine, both in the native and recombinant form, resulted in a potent non-specific protective function towards challenge with biotype 1 (flagellin-producing) and biotype 2 (flagellin-devoid) Y. ruckeri. This vaccine can also protect rainbow trout against other microbial fish pathogens, for example Aeromonas salmonicida. Thus non-adjuvanted flagellin may have potential as a non-specific vaccine for fish towards bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from an estuarine environment for application in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) farming.

    PubMed

    Sica, María Gabriela; Brugnoni, Lorena Inés; Marucci, Patricia Liliana; Cubitto, María Amelia

    2012-05-01

    Bacterial attachment to fish surfaces and the capacity to compete with pathogens for adhesion sites are essential characteristics in order to select a candidate probiotic for aquaculture. Twelve lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fish and sediments from Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina, were examined for in vitro adhesion to rainbow trout mucus, cell surface properties and competitive exclusion against two salmonid pathogens, Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida. In order to assess their survival through the digestive tract, pH and rainbow trout bile tolerance were evaluated. All LAB strains survived for 1.5 h incubation in 10% rainbow trout bile. Most of the strains survived 1.5 h at pH 3.0 and three of them showed a reduction of viable counts lower than 2 logarithms, with respect to control (pH 6.5). Only a few strains showed tolerate pH 2.0. All the strains were able to attach to rainbow trout skin mucus (10(4)-10(6) cells/cm(2)), to glass (10(4)-10(5) cells/cm(2)) and to stainless steel (10(3)-10(4) cells/cm(2)). Sixty percent of LAB strains were capable of competing with and successfully excluding Y. ruckeri and all strains were able to displace it. Against A. salmonicida, 75% of LAB strains competed successfully, 50% were capable of displacing and 60% excluded this pathogen. Our data suggest the potential of these strains as anti-infective agents for use in rainbow trout culture. This study is the first report on the probiotic potential of LAB strains isolated from an estuarine environment from Argentina.

  4. Tissue-specific effects of acute aluminium exposure on the radiation-induced bystander effect in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard W; Seymour, Colin B; Moccia, Richard D; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2015-01-01

    To investigate if aluminium (Al) modifies the rainbow trout response to radiation exposure and/or the induction of a radiation-induced bystander effect. Rainbow trout were exposed to 100 or 200 μg l(-1) Al (for 3 h), a 0.5 Gy X-ray dose or Al followed immediately by irradiation. The exposed fish were then swum with completely untreated bystander fish. A human reporter cell clonogenic assay was used to determine whether Al exposure modified the effects of irradiation on the skin and gills from directly exposed fish and also the radiation-induced bystander effect in untreated fish. Al exposure did not modify the response to direct irradiation by the skin, or the gill. Al did not modify the bystander effect in the skin. However Al did modify the bystander effect in the gill. Gills of bystander fish swum with fish exposed to 200 μg l(-1) Al, followed by irradiation, caused a greater reduction in HPV-G cell survival than was caused by irradiation only. Interestingly Al exposure only also caused a bystander effect (reduced HPV-G survival) in the gill. This study shows that, in a multiple stressor scenario, the communication of radiation-induced stress signals is modified on a tissue-specific basis by acute Al exposure. Aside from the implications this has for radiological protection this response may also have potential for environmental monitoring where detection of the bystander effect could act as an indicator of radiation exposure when direct exposure responses are not evident.

  5. Antigen-binding cells in the peripheral blood of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka Walbaum, induced by immersion or intraperitoneal injection of Vibrio languilarum bacterin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1981-01-01

    We used an immunocytoadherence assay to monitor the response of antigen-binding cells (ABC) in the peripheral blood of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, after immersion in, or intraperitoneal injection of, Vibrio anguillarum LS 1–74 bacterin. Both methods initiated an elevated ABC response in less than one day; this response persisted one week longer in the injected than in the immersed fish.

  6. Assessing the impact of swimming exercise and the relative susceptibility of rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum) and atlantic salmon salmo salar L. following injection challenge with weissella ceti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    All-female rainbow trout and mixed-sex Atlantic salmon (approximately 200 g and 120 g initial weight, respectively) were maintained in small circular tanks in a flow-through system under study conditions for a period of five months. The four tank populations consisted of rainbow trout exposed to ei...

  7. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol + ascorbic acid, selenium, and iron on oxidative stress in sub-yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Welker, T L; Congleton, J L

    2009-02-01

    A three-variable central composite design coupled with surface-response analysis was used to examine the effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol + ascorbic acid (TOCAA), selenium (Se), and iron (Fe) on indices of oxidative stress in juvenile spring Chinook salmon. Each dietary factor was tested at five levels for a total of fifteen dietary combinations (diets). Oxidative damage in liver and kidney (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls) and erythrocytes (erythrocyte resistance to peroxidative lysis, ERPL) was determined after feeding experimental diets for 16 (early December) and 28 (early March) weeks. Only TOCAA influenced oxidative stress in this study, with most measures of oxidative damage decreasing (liver lipid peroxidation in December and March; ERPL in December; liver protein carbonyl in March) with increasing levels of TOCAA. We also observed a TOCAA-stimulated increase in susceptibility of erythrocytes to peroxidative lysis in March at the highest levels of TOCAA. The data suggest that under most circumstances a progressive decrease in oxidative stress occurs as dietary TOCAA increases, but higher TOCAA concentrations can stimulate oxidative damage in some situations. Higher levels of TOCAA in the diet were required in March than in December to achieve comparable levels of protection against oxidative damage, which may have been due to physiological changes associated with the parr-smolt transformation. Erythrocytes appeared to be more sensitive to variation in dietary levels of TOCAA than liver and kidney tissues. Using the March ERPL assay results as a baseline, a TOCAA level of approximately 350-600 mg/kg diet would provide adequate protection against lipid peroxidation under most circumstances in juvenile Chinook salmon.

  8. A statistical analysis of the distribution of a larval nematode (Anisakis sp.) in the musculature of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta - Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novotny, A.J.

    1960-01-01

    The one factor which probably contributes the greatest effect on distributional patterns of Anisakis within chum salmon musculature is the total intensity of infection (or population density of Anisakis) in each fish.

  9. COMPARATIVE VITELLOGENIC RESPONSES IN THREE TELEOST SPECIES: EXTRAPOLATION TO IN SITU FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) was compared among three teleostean species to determine their relative sensitivity of exposure to 17b-estradiol (E2). Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), sunshine bass (Morone saxatalis x Morone chrysops) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ...

  10. COMPARATIVE VITELLOGENIC RESPONSES IN THREE TELEOST SPECIES: EXTRAPOLATION TO IN SITU FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) was compared among three teleostean species to determine their relative sensitivity of exposure to 17b-estradiol (E2). Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), sunshine bass (Morone saxatalis x Morone chrysops) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ...

  11. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Atlantic silverside

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, C.W.; Neves, R.J.; Pardue, G.B.

    1983-10-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia) is an important link in estuarine food webs as an opportunistic omnivore and as forage for large piscivores such as striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). Many times the Atlantic silverside is the most abundant fish species encountered in estuaries and tributaries. They mature at age 1 and spawn in the intertidal zone of estuaries from March to June in the mid-Atlantic region. Few 2-year-old fish are ever encountered, so the Atlantic silverside is basically a short-lived species. Most spawning occurs at high tide during new or full moon phases. Eggs are adhesive and are found attached to submerged vegetation. Larvae, juveniles, and adults generally inhabit similar areas. Sex is determined in larval development 32 to 46 days after hatching, and is a function of parental genotype and water temperature regime during the critical period. Fisheries for this species are not documented. Eggs can tolerate water temperatures between 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/C, and larvae need temperatures above 15/sup 0/C for survival. Larvae tolerate relatively acute temperature increases. Upper lethal temperatures for juveniles and adults range from 30.5/sup 0/ to 33.8/sup 0/C, depending on acclimation temperature. Salinities of 20 ppt or lower significantly delay hatching and affect larval survival. Juveniles and adults tolerate the full range of naturally occurring salinities (i.e., freshwater to at least 37.8 ppt). 57 references, 2 figures.

  12. Puncture resistance of the scaled skin from striped bass: collective mechanisms and inspiration for new flexible armor designs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Deju; Szewciw, Lawrence; Vernerey, Franck; Barthelat, Francois

    2013-08-01

    The structure and mechanics of fish scales display unusual and attractive features which could inspire new protective materials and systems. This natural material is therefore attracting attention over the past few years, and recent work demonstrated the remarkable performance of individual fish scales. A puncture event as would occur from a predator's attack however involves more than one scale, and in this article we therefore investigate collective mechanisms occurring within the scaled skin of a fish in the event of a predator's attack. We first demonstrate that in striped bass (Morone saxatilis), the scales increase by four to five times the force required to puncture the skin. We show that individual scales from striped bass provide a remarkable barrier against sharp puncture, regardless of the stiffness of the substrate. The scalation pattern in striped bass is such that three scales overlap at any point on the surface of the fish, which we show effectively multiplies the puncture force by three. We determined that the friction between scales is negligible and therefore it does not contribute to increasing puncture force. Likewise, we found that the local arrangement of the scales had little effect on the puncture performance. Interestingly, because the scales are several orders of magnitude stiffer than the substrate, indenting a few isolated scales results in "sinking" of the scales into the substrate. The high local deflections and strain within the soft tissue may then result in blunt injury before the sharp indenter penetrates the scales. Stereo-imaging and image correlation performed around a puncture site in fish reveal that the surrounding scales collectively contribute to redistributing the puncture force over large volume, limiting local deflections and strains in the soft tissues. The structure and mechanisms of natural fish scales therefore offer an effective protection against several types of threat, and may inspire novel versatile protective

  13. Predictability of littoral-zone fish communities through ontogeny in Lake Texoma, Oklahoma-Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleton, M.A.; Ramirez, R.; Hargrave, C.W.; Gido, K.B.; Masoner, J.R.; Schnell, G.D.; Matthews, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    We sampled larval, juvenile and adult fishes from littoral-zone areas of a large reservoir (Lake Texoma, Oklahoma-Texas) (1) to characterize environmental factors that influenced fish community structure, (2) to examine how consistent fish-environment relationships were through ontogeny (i.e., larval vs. juvenile and adult), and (3) to measure the concordance of larval communities sampled during spring to juvenile and adult communities sampled at the same sites later in the year. Larval, juvenile and adult fish communities were dominated by Atherinidae (mainly inland silverside, Menidia beryllina) and Moronidae (mainly juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis) and were consistently structured along a gradient of site exposure to prevailing winds and waves. Larval, juvenile and adult communities along this gradient varied from atherinids and moronids at highly exposed sites to mostly centrarchids (primarily Lepomis and Micropterus spp.) at protected sites. Secondarily, zooplankton densities, water clarity, and land-use characteristics were related to fish community structure. Rank correlation analyses and Mantel tests indicated that the spatial consistency and predictability of fish communities was high as larval fishes sampled during spring were concordant with juvenile and adult fishes sampled at the same sites during summer and fall in terms of abundance, richness, and community structure. We propose that the high predictability and spatial consistency of littoral-zone fishes in Lake Texoma was a function of relatively simple communities (dominated by 1-2 species) that were structured by factors, such as site exposure to winds and waves, that varied little through time. ?? Springer 2005.

  14. Comparative visual function in four piscivorous fishes inhabiting Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Horodysky, Andrij Z; Brill, Richard W; Warrant, Eric J; Musick, John A; Latour, Robert J

    2010-05-01

    Maintaining optimal visual performance is a difficult task in photodynamic coastal and estuarine waters because of the unavoidable tradeoffs between luminous sensitivity and spatial and temporal resolution, yet the visual systems of coastal piscivores remain understudied despite differences in their ecomorphology and microhabitat use. We therefore used electroretinographic techniques to describe the light sensitivities, temporal properties and spectral sensitivities of the visual systems of four piscivorous fishes common to coastal and estuarine waters of the western North Atlantic: striped bass (Morone saxatilis), bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Benthic summer flounder exhibited higher luminous sensitivity and broader dynamic range than the three pelagic foragers. The former were at the more sensitive end of an emerging continuum for coastal fishes. By contrast, pelagic species were comparatively less sensitive, but showed larger day-night differences, consistent with their use of diel light-variant photic habitats. Flicker fusion frequency experiments revealed significant interspecific differences at maximum intensities that correlated with lifestyle and habitat. Spectral responses of most species spanned 400-610 nm, with significant day-night differences in striped bass and bluefish. Anadromous striped bass additionally responded to longer wavelengths, similar to many freshwater fishes. Collectively, these results suggest that pelagic piscivores are well adapted to bright photoclimates, which may be at odds with the modern state of eutrified coastal and estuarine waters that they utilize. Recent anthropogenic degradation of water quality in coastal environments, at a pace faster than the evolution of visual systems, may impede visually foraging piscivores, change selected prey, and eventually restructure ecosystems.

  15. Problems of stock definition in estimating relative contributions of Atlantic striped bass to the coastal fishery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldman, John R.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1994-01-01

    Stock contribution studies of mixed-stock fisheries rely on the application of classification algorithms to samples of unknown origin. Although the performance of these algorithms can be assessed, there are no guidelines regarding decisions about including minor stocks, pooling stocks into regional groups, or sampling discrete substocks to adequately characterize a stock. We examined these questions for striped bass Morone saxatilis of the U.S. Atlantic coast by applying linear discriminant functions to meristic and morphometric data from fish collected from spawning areas. Some of our samples were from the Hudson and Roanoke rivers and four tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. We also collected fish of mixed-stock origin from the Atlantic Ocean near Montauk, New York. Inclusion of the minor stock from the Roanoke River in the classification algorithm decreased the correct-classification rate, whereas grouping of the Roanoke River and Chesapeake Bay stock into a regional (''southern'') group increased the overall resolution. The increased resolution was offset by our inability to obtain separate contribution estimates of the groups that were pooled. Although multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences among Chesapeake Bay substocks, increasing the number of substocks in the discriminant analysis decreased the overall correct-classification rate. Although the inclusion of one, two, three, or four substocks in the classification algorithm did not greatly affect the overall correct-classification rates, the specific combination of substocks significantly affected the relative contribution estimates derived from the mixed-stock sample. Future studies of this kind must balance the costs and benefits of including minor stocks and would profit from examination of the variation in discriminant characters among all Chesapeake Bay substocks.

  16. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  17. Selenium and other elements in juvenile striped bass from the San Joaquin Valley and San Francisco Estuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Palawski, Donald U.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of selenium and other trace elements were determined in 55 whole body samples of juvenile anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Joaquin Valley and San Francisco Estuary, California. The fish (≤1 yr old—the predominant life stage in the San Joaquin Valley) were collected in September–December 1986 from 19 sites in the Valley and 3 sites in the Estuary, and analyzed for the following elements: aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), boron (B), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), magnesium (Mg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). When compared to concentrations in whole freshwater fish measured by surveys from other waters, a few samples contained higher levels, of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se. The median concentrations of Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se, and Sr also differed significantly (P⩽0.05) among sites. However, only Se concentrations were highest (up to 7.9 μg/g dry weight) in samples from Valley sites exposed to agricultural subsurface (tile) drainwater; concentrations were lower in samples collected elsewhere. Water quality variables—especially those strongly influenced by tile drainwater (conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, and total hardness)—were also significantly correlated (P⩽0.05) with Se concentrations in fish. Selenium concentrations in striped bass from the Estuary were only one-fourth to one-half the concentrations measured in the most contaminated fish from the San Joaquin River.

  18. Fishing along the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar reservoir adjacent to the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee: behavior, knowledge and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Rouse Campbell, Kym; Dickey, Richard J; Sexton, Richard; Burger, Joanna

    2002-11-01

    Catching and eating fish is usually viewed as a fun, healthy and safe activity. However, with continuing increases in fish consumption advisories due to the contamination of our environment, anglers have to decide whether or not to eat the fish they catch. The Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir is under a fish consumption advisory because of elevated PCB concentrations in striped bass (Morone saxatilis), catfish (Ictalurus spp.) and sauger (Stizostedion canadense) due in part from contaminants released from the US Department of Energy's (USDOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in East Tennessee. To obtain information about the demographics, fishing behavior, knowledge, fish consumption and risk perception of anglers, a survey was conducted of 202 people actively fishing either on land or by boat along the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir adjacent to the ORR from Melton Hill Dam to the Poplar Creek confluence or on Poplar Creek within ORR boundaries from mid-March to early November 2001. Even though 81% of people interviewed knew about the fish consumption advisories for the study area, 48% of them thought the fish were safe to eat, while 38% ate the fish that they caught from the study area. Approximately 36% of anglers who had knowledge of the fish consumption warnings ate fish from the study area. Providing confirmation that people fish for many reasons, 35% of anglers interviewed did not eat fish at all. The majority of anglers interviewed knew about the fish consumption advisories because of the signs posted throughout the study area. However, few people knew the correct fish advisories. Significantly fewer blacks had knowledge of the fish consumption warnings than whites. Information resulting from this study could be used to design a program with the objective of reaching the people who may be most at risk from eating fish caught from the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir.

  19. Habitat use by striped bass in relation to seasonal changes in water quality in a southern reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffler, James J.; Isely, J.J.; Hayes, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    Adult striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 61; 597-914 mm total length) were captured by hook and line throughout Lake Murray, South Carolina, and by electrofishing in the Greenwood Dam tailrace and upper Saluda River above Lake Murray, implanted with temperature-sensitive radio transmitters, and tracked biweekly. During late winter-early spring, striped bass were concentrated in the upstream portions of the reservoir. By midsummer, they were primarily located in the lower embayment of the reservoir, but several fish remained in the tailrace of the upstream dam as well as in a thermal refuge in the Saluda River. After the reservoir began to cool in fall, fish dispersed from the lower embayment and moved upstream toward the headwaters of the reservoir, where they had been captured the previous spring. Several fish returned to locations within 10 m of their original capture locations. Mean movement rates were lowest in winter and summer and highest in spring and fall. Low movement rates in summer were associated with a severe reduction of suitable habitat. In addition to the standard biweekly sampling, a 7.5-km2 section of the lower embayment of Lake Murray was searched every 2 h over a continuous 48-h period from 10 to 12 August 2000. During this period, striped bass were observed to use the same areas on a seasonal basis as they did on a diel basis. However, mean hourly rates of movement were greater than the movement rates calculated for the normal 2-week interval between samples. Changes in location between biweekly samples may not indicate displacement but rather only randomly chosen locations in normal use areas.

  20. Zooplankton variability and larval striped bass foraging: Evaluating potential match/mismatch regulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chick, J.H.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    We quantified temporal and spatial variability of zooplankton in three potential nursery sites (river, transition zone, lake) for larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Lake Marion, South Carolina, during April and May 1993-1995. In two of three years, microzooplankton (rotifers and copepod nauplii) density was significantly greater in the lake site than in the river or transition zone. Macrozooplankton (>200 ??m) composition varied among the three sites in all years with adult copepods and cladocerans dominant at the lake, and juvenile Corbicula fluminea dominant at the river and transition zone. Laboratory feeding experiments, simulating both among-site (site treatments) and within-site (density treatments) variability, were conducted in 1995 to quantify the effects of the observed zooplankton variability on foraging success of larval striped bass. A greater proportion of larvae fed in the lake than in the river or transition-zone treatments across all density treatments: mean (x), 10x and 100x. Larvae also ingested significantly more dry mass of prey in the lake treatment in both the mean and 10x density treatments. Field zooplankton and laboratory feeding data suggest that both spatial and temporal variability of zooplankton influence larval striped bass foraging. Prey density levels that supported successful foraging in our feeding experiments occurred in the lake during late April and May in 1994 and 1995 but were never observed in the river or transition zone. Because the rivers flowing into Lake Marion are regulated, it may be possible to devise flow management schemes that facilitate larval transport to the lake and thereby increase the proportion of larvae matched to suitable prey resources.

  1. Diel behavior of adult striped bass using tailwater habitat as summer refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    General patterns of summer diel distribution and movement were identified for adult striped bass Morone saxatilis using tailwater habitat influenced by the diel operation cycle of a hydroelectric dam during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Striped bass distribution within the tailwater was similar during each diel-tracking event and across both summers. The majority of fish remained within the tailwater the entire summer; however, some made periodic excursions to and from the tailwater throughout the summer. Further, most striped bass were located within 0.5 km of Richard B. Russell Dam during all stages of operation on all occasions - probably because of the constant availability of optimal habitat during all three stages of operation on all diel-tracking events. The diel cycle of dam operation, which included pumped storage during each summer, did not degrade tailwater habitat below optimal conditions, according to summer habitat suitability index values for inland adult striped bass. Movement was significantly higher during hydroelectric generation operations than during no-generation and pumped storage periods in summer 2003; this difference was not apparent during summer 2004. Mean absolute movement peaked during hydroelectric generation on six of eight diel-tracking events. During both summers, movement was directed up-reservoir during no-generation and generation periods and down-reservoir during pumped storage. Mean total daily movement rates ranged from 0.59 to 4.04 km/d and were greater than those previously estimated from bimonthly sampling for this population. Total daily movement rate peaked during the first tracking event each summer and then declined as summer progressed. These findings suggest that hydroelectric discharges affect adult striped bass behavior, but the effects are not adverse as long as habitat is not degraded by hydroelectric facility operations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  2. A Diverse Family of Host-Defense Peptides (Piscidins) Exhibit Specialized Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Protozoal Activities in Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Katherine R.; Noga, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional antibiotics and other chemical-based drugs are currently one of the most common methods used to control disease-related mortality in animal agriculture. Use of the innate immune system to decrease disease related mortalities is a novel alternative to conventional drugs. One component of the innate immune system is the host-defense peptides, also known as antimicrobial peptides. Host-defense peptides are typically small, amphipathic, α-helical peptides with a broad-spectrum of action against viral, bacterial, fungal, and/or protozoal pathogens. Piscidins are host-defense peptides first discovered in the hybrid striped bass (white bass, Morone chrysops, x striped bass, M. saxatilis). In this paper we identify four new piscidin isoforms in the hybrid striped bass and describe their tissue distributions. We also determine the progenitor species of origin of each piscidin (orthology) and propose a revised nomenclature for this newly described piscidin family based on a three class system. The Class I piscidins (22 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 1 and piscidin 3) show broad-spectrum activity against bacteria and ciliated protozoans, while the Class III piscidins (55 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 6 and striped bass piscidin 7) primarily show anti-protozoal activity. The Class II piscidins (44–46 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 4 and white bass piscidin 5) have a level of activity against bacteria and protozoans intermediate to Classes I and III. Knowledge of piscidin function and activity may help in the future development of disease-resistant lines of striped bass and white bass that could be used to produce superior hybrids for aquaculture. PMID:27552222

  3. Distributions of key exposure factors controlling the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals in an estuarine food web

    SciTech Connect

    Iannuzzi, T.J.; Harrington, N.W.; Shear, N.M.; Curry, C.L.; Carlson-Lynch, H.; Henning, M.H.; Su, S.H.; Rabbe, D.E.

    1996-11-01

    A critical evaluation of literature on the behavior, physiology, and ecology of common estuarine organisms was conducted in an attempt to develop probabilistic distributions for those variables that influence the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals from sediments, water, and food sources. The ranges, central tendencies, and distributions of several key parameter values were identified for dominant organisms from various trophic levels, including the polychaete Nereis virens, mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The exposure factors of interest included ingestion rate for various food sources, growth rate, respiration rate, excretion rate, body weight, wet/dry weight ratio, lipid content, chemical assimilation efficiency, and food assimilation efficiency. These exposure factors are critical to the execution of mechanistic food web models, which, when properly calibrated, can be used to estimate tissue concentrations of nonionic chemicals in aquatic organisms based on knowledge of the bioenergetics and feeding interactions within a food web and the sediment and water concentrations of chemicals. In this article the authors describe the use of distributions for various exposure factors in the context of a mechanistic bioaccumulation model that is amenable to probabilistic analyses for multiple organisms within a food web. A case study is provided which compares the estimated versus measured concentrations of five polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in a representative food web from the tidal portion of the Passaic River, New Jersey, USA. The results suggest that the model is accurate within an order of magnitude or less in estimating the bioaccumulation of PCBs in this food web without calibration. The results of a model sensitivity analysis suggest that the input parameters which most influence the output of the model are both chemical and organism specific.

  4. The nonlinear flexural response of a whole teleost fish: Contribution of scales and skin.

    PubMed

    Szewciw, Lawrence; Zhu, Deju; Barthelat, Francois

    2017-06-13

    The scaled skin of fish is an intricate system that provides mechanical protection against hard and sharp puncture, while maintaining the high flexural compliance required for unhindered locomotion. This unusual combination of local hardness and global compliance makes fish skin an interesting model for bioinspired protective systems. In this work we investigate the flexural response of whole teleost fish, and how scales may affect global flexural stiffness. A bending moment is imposed on the entire body of a striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Imaging is used to measure local curvature, to generate moment-curvature curves as function of position along the entire axis of the fish. We find that the flexural stiffness is the highest in the thick middle portion of the fish, and lowest in the caudal and rostral ends. The flexural response is nonlinear, with an initial soft response followed by significant stiffening at larger flexural deformations. Low flexural stiffness at low curvatures promotes efficient swimming, while higher stiffness at high curvatures enables a possible tendon effect, where the mechanical energy at the end of a stroke is stored in the form of strain energy in the fish skin. To assess the contribution of the scales to stiffening we performed flexural tests with and without scales, following a careful protocol to take in account tissue degradation and the effects of temperature. Our findings suggest that scales do not substantially increase the whole body flexural stiffness of teleost fish over ranges of deformations which are typical of swimming and maneuvering. Teleost scales are thin and relatively flexible, so they can accommodate large flexural deformations. This finding is in contrast to the bulkier ganoid scales which were shown in previous reports to have a profound impact of global flexural deformations and swimming in fish like gar or Polypterus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  6. Modeling the effects of potential salinity shifts on the recovery of striped bass in the Savannah River estuary, Georgia-South Carolina, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, T.R.; Peterson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Increased salinity in spawning and nursery grounds in the Savannah River estuary was cited as the primary cause of a 97% decrease in adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and a concomitant 96% decrease in striped bass egg production. Restoration efforts focused on environmental remediation and stock enhancement have resulted in restored salinity patterns and increased egg and adult abundances. However, future water needs or harbor development may preclude further recovery by reducing freshwater inflow or increasing salinity intrusion. To assess the effect of potential changes in the salinity regime, we developed models relating discharge, tidal phase, and salinity to striped bass egg and early larval survival and re-cast these in a quantitative Bayesian belief network. The model indicated that a small upstream shift (???1.67 km) in the salinity regime would have the least impact on striped bass early life history survival, whereas shifts >1.67 km would have progressively larger impacts, with a 8.33-km shift potentially reducing our estimated survival probability by >28%. Such an impact could have cumulative and long-term detrimental effects on the recovery of the Savannah River striped bass population. The available salinity data were collected during average and low flows, so our model represents some typical and some extreme conditions during a striped bass spawning season. Our model is a relatively simplistic, "first-order" attempt at evaluating potential effects of changes in the Savannah River estuarine salinity regime and points to areas of concern and potential future research. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Toxicity of agricultural subsurface drainwater from the San Joaquin Valley, California to juvenile chinook salmon and striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Jennings, Mark R.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (40-50 mm total length, TL) and striped bass Morone saxatilis (30-40 mm TL) were exposed to serial dilutions (100, 50, 25, and 12.5%) of agricultural subsurface drainwater (WWD), reconstituted drainwater (RWWD), and reconstituted seawater (IO). Agricultural subsurface drainwater contained naturally elevated concentrations of major ions (such as sodium and sulfate) and trace elements (especially boron and selenium), RWWD contained concentrations of major ions that mimicked those in WWD but trace elements were not elevated, and IO contained concentrations of total dissolved salt that were similar to those in WWD and RWWD but chloride replaced sulfate as the dominant anion. After 28 d of static exposure, over 75% of the chinook salmon in 100% WWD had died, whereas none had died in other dilutions and water types. Growth of chinook salmon in WWD and RWWD, but not in IO, exhibited dilution responses. All striped bass died in 100% WWD within 23 d, whereas 19 of 20 striped bass had died in 100% RWWD after 28 d. In contrast, none died in 100% IO. Growth of striped bass was impaired only in WWD. Fish in WWD accumulated as much as 200 μg/g (dry-weight basis) of boron, whereas fish in control water accumulated less than 3.1 μg/g. Although potentially toxic concentrations of selenium occurred in WWD (geometric means, 158-218 μg/L), chinook salmon and striped bass exposed to this water type accumulated 5.7 μg Se/g or less. These findings indicate that WWD was toxic to chinook salmon and striped bass. Judging from available data, the toxicity of WWD was due primarily to high concentrations of major ions present in atypical ratios, to high concentrations of sulfate, or to both. High concentrations of boron and selenium also may have contributed to the toxicity of WWD, but their effects were not clearly delineated.

  8. Selenium and other elements in juvenile striped bass from the San Joaquin Valley and San Francisco Estuary, California.

    PubMed

    Saiki, M K; Palawski, D U

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of selenium and other trace elements were determined in 55 whole body samples of juvenile anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Joaquin Valley and San Francisco Estuary, California. The fish (≤1 yr old-the predominant life stage in the San Joaquin Valley) were collected in September-December 1986 from 19 sites in the Valley and 3 sites in the Estuary, and analyzed for the following elements: aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), boron (B), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), magnesium (Mg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). When compared to concentrations in whole freshwater fish measured by surveys from other waters, a few samples contained higher levels, of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se. The median concentrations of Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se, and Sr also differed significantly (P[Symbol: see text]0.05) among sites. However, only Se concentrations were highest (up to 7.9 μg/g dry weight) in samples from Valley sites exposed to agricultural subsurface (tile) drainwater; concentrations were lower in samples collected elsewhere. Water quality variables-especially those strongly influenced by tile drainwater (conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, and total hardness)-were also significantly correlated (P[Symbol: see text]0.05) with Se concentrations in fish. Selenium concentrations in striped bass from the Estuary were only one-fourth to one-half the concentrations measured in the most contaminated fish from the San Joaquin River.

  9. Impact of disease on the survival of three commercially fished species.

    PubMed

    Hoenig, John M; Groner, Maya L; Smith, Matthew W; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Taylor, David M; Landers, Donald F; Swenarton, John T; Gauthier, David T; Sadler, Philip; Matsche, Mark A; Haines, Ashley N; Small, Hamish J; Pradel, Roger; Choquet, Rémi; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-01

    Recent increases in emergent infectious diseases have raised concerns about the sustainability of some marine species. The complexity and expense of studying diseases in marine systems often dictate that conservation and management decisions are made without quantitative data on population-level impacts of disease. Mark-recapture is a powerful, underutilized, tool for calculating impacts of disease on population size and structure, even in the absence of etiological information. We applied logistic regression models to mark-recapture data to obtain estimates of disease-associated mortality rates in three commercially important marine species: snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in Newfoundland, Canada, that experience sporadic epizootics of bitter crab disease; striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay, USA, that experience chronic dermal and visceral mycobacteriosis; and American lobster (Homarus americanus) in the Southern New England stock, that experience chronic epizootic shell disease. All three diseases decreased survival of diseased hosts. Survival of diseased adult male crabs was 1% (0.003-0.022, 95% CI) that of uninfected crabs indicating nearly complete mortality of infected crabs in this life stage. Survival of moderately and severely diseased striped bass (which comprised 15% and 11% of the population, respectively) was 84% (70-100%, 95% CI), and 54% (42-68%, 95% CI) that of healthy striped bass. The disease-adjusted yearly natural mortality rate for striped bass was 0.29, nearly double the previously accepted value, which did not include disease. Survival of moderately and severely diseased lobsters was 30% (15-60%, 95% CI) that of healthy lobsters and survival of mildly diseased lobsters was 45% (27-75%, 95% CI) that of healthy lobsters. High disease mortality in ovigerous females may explain the poor recruitment and rapid declines observed in this population. Stock assessments should account for disease-related mortality when resource

  10. Evidence that potential fish predators elicit the production of carapace vibrations by the American lobster.

    PubMed

    Ward, Daniel; Morison, Françoise; Morrissey, Elizabeth; Jenks, Kyle; Watson, Winsor H

    2011-08-01

    American lobsters (Homarus americanus) will on rare occasions produce sounds by vibrating their dorsal carapace. Although this behavior can be elicited in the laboratory by handling lobsters, the stimulus that triggers the production of sounds in the lobster's natural habitat is not known. We investigated the influence of two fish that are known to prey on lobsters, cod (Gadus morhua) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis), on the production of sounds by American lobsters. In addition, we examined the response of the same fish to the sounds the lobsters produced. Although solitary lobsters spontaneously produced sounds at a low rate of 1.2 ± 0.23 sound events per 30 min, the presence of a single cod or striped bass led to an increase in the rate of sound production (cod: 51.1 ± 13.1 events per 30 min; striped bass: 17.0 ± 7.0 events per 30 min). Most (74.6 ± 6.6%) of the 292 sound events recorded occurred when a fish came within 0.5 m of a lobster, but a fish did not have to come into contact with a lobster to elicit sounds. Immediately following the production of a sound by a lobster, fish turned and swam away significantly faster than when they encountered a lobster that did not make a sound. Moreover, after striped bass (but not cod) experienced a number of these sound events, they subsequently tended to avoid swimming close to the lobsters. These data, taken together, suggest that sound production by American lobsters may serve to deter potential fish predators.

  11. Effects of salinity on striped bass eggs and larvae from the Savannah River, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Operation of a tide gate installed in the Savannah River by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to reduce dredging activities increased salinities upstream in important spawning habitat for striped bass Morone saxatilis. To assess the effects of salinity on survival and growth of striped bass at early life stages, newly fertilized eggs and 48-h-posthatch were exposed to serial dilutions of seawater, with salinities ranging from 0 to 33 permill (g/L) in increments of 3 permill in addition, older larvae (5-d posthatch) were exposed to salinities of 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 permill. Eggs were exposed until 24 h posthatch, 48-h-posthatch larvae were exposed for 10 d, and 5-d-posthatch larvae were exposed for 6 d. Eggs died within 24 h in salinities greater than 18 permill. Both survival and total length of larvae hatched from eggs exposed to salinities of 15 permill or higher were reduced. Percent mortality and mean total lengths of newly hatched larvae followed the same pattern for each of three sets of salinity regimes (i.e., changes in salinities over time) that striped bass eggs might encounter during passage downstream in the Savannah River. Hardening eggs in freshwater did not increase survival or length of hatched larvae over that shown by eggs hardened in saline water. The 5-d-posthatch larvae were less sensitive to salinity than the 48-h-posthatch larvae. Survival of larvae was negatively con-elated with both salinity and exposure time. For 48-h-posthatch larvae, the 10-d LC50 (the salinity lethal to 50% of the test fish within 10 d) was 10 permill. Probabilities of survival for larval striped bass exposed to different salinities for different amounts of time can be estimated from curves generated from models of survival analysis. Salinities judged to be critical to Savannah River striped bass eggs and larvae are those greater than 9 permill.

  12. Striped bass stocks and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Sloan, Ronald J.; O'Brien, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Harvest restrictions on striped bass Morone saxatilis fisheries in Atlantic coastal states were relaxed in 1990, but consistent, coastwide regulations of the harvest have been difficult to implement because of the mixed-stock nature of the fisheries and the recognized contamination of Hudson River fish by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We examined PCB concentrations and stock of origin of coastal striped bass to better understand the effects of these two factors on the composition of the harvest. The probability of observing differences in PCB concentration among fish from the Hudson River stock and the 'southern' group (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River stocks combined) was investigated with the logit model (a linear model for analysis of categorical data). Although total PCB concentrations were highly variable among fish from the two groups, striped bass classified as Hudson River stock had a significantly greater probability of having PCB concentrations equal to or greater than 2.00 mg/kg than did fish belonging to the southern group for all age- and size-classes examined. There was a significantly greater probability of observing total PCB concentrations equal to or exceeding 2.00 mg/kg in fish that were 5, 6, and 7 or more years old, and this probability increased linearly with age. We observed similar results when we examined the effect of size on total PCB concentration. The minimum-size limit estimated to permit escapement of fish to sustain stock production is 610 mm total length. Unless total PCB concentrations decrease in striped bass, it is likely that many harvestable fish will have concentrations that exceed the tolerance limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  13. The problem of introduced species in management and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgpeth, J. W.

    1980-03-01

    One hundred years ago the striped bass Morone saxatilis was introduced in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system from the east coast of the United States. It was part of our national policy at the time to transplant all potentially useful species everywhere else. The policy was facilitated by completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869. As a result, the present ichthyofauna of the San Francisco Bay area is largely alien. Introduction of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica resulted in the inadvertent introduction of many species of invertebrates. Identification of these introduced species was not realized as a problem until recently, and no one knows how many exotic species there are. In other parts of the world there are examples of similar introductions, e.g. Crepidula fornicata and Rhithropanopeus harrisi in Europe. Although it is now the policy to frown upon and prohibit introductions, they cannot be prevented and the process still continues, as witnessed by the examples of Elminus modestus in Europe and Palaemon macrodactylus in California. In the USA the recently developed idea of “mitigation,” the artificial replacement of disturbed or destroyed areas by development of quasi-natural areas in compensation, has been accompanied, at the hands of inexperienced practitioners, by potentially dangerous introductions of exotic species. The assumption, for example, that cordgrass (Spartina) should be equally beneficial everywhere in the world has led to the disrupting introduction of potentially hybridizing species in New Zealand and aggressive immigrants in Oregon marshes. This situation calls for more sophisticated understanding of the role of introduced species in natural aquatic ecosystems, and a higher degree of competence in systematic biology.

  14. Spatial and temporal diet patterns of subadult and small adult striped bass in Massachusetts estuaries: Data, a synthesis, and trends across scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferry, K.H.; Mather, Martha E.

    2012-01-01

    Subadult and small adult (375–475 mm total length) striped bass Morone saxatilis are abundant and represent an important component of the recovered U.S. Atlantic coast stocks. However, little is known about these large aggregations of striped bass during their annual foraging migrations to New England. A quantitative understanding of trends in the diets of subadult and small adult migrants is critical to research and management. Because of the complexity of the Massachusetts coast, we were able to compare diets at multiple spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales and evaluate which of these provided the greatest insights into the foraging patterns of this size of fish. Specifically, during spring through autumn, we quantified the diets of 797 migratory striped bass collected from 13 Massachusetts estuaries distributed among three geographic regions in two biogeographic provinces. Our data provided three useful results. First, subadult and young adult striped bass ate a season-specific mixture of fish and invertebrates. For example, more juvenile Atlantic herring Clupea harengus were eaten in spring than in summer or autumn, more juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus were eaten in autumn than in spring or summer, amphipods were eaten primarily in the southern biogeographic province, and shrimp Crangon sp. were eaten in all locations and seasons. Second, examining diets by season was essential because of the temporal variability in striped bass prey. Grouping prey by fish and invertebrates revealed the potential for predictable differences in growth across geographic locations and seasons, based on the output from simple bioenergetics simulations. Third, of the three spatial scales examined, region provided the most quantitative and interpretable ecological trends. Our results demonstrate the utility of comparing multiple scales to evaluate the best way to depict diet trends in a migrating predator that seasonally uses different geographic locations.

  15. Coupling aquaculture with forest plantations for food, energy, and water resiliency.

    PubMed

    Shifflett, Shawn Dayson; Culbreth, Allison; Hazel, Dennis; Daniels, Harry; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater aquaculture and forest bioenergy markets are expanding globally in areas concurrently experiencing human population growth, urbanization and water shortages. Coupling these agroecosystems can improve food, energy, and water resiliency by enhancing ecosystem services through fertilization, water-reuse, carbon storage, and bioenergy via biomass production. This study evaluated how a model aquaculture-managed forest plantation could (1) provision fish and woody biomass; (2) regulate carbon, groundwater infiltration, and groundwater quality; and (3) support nutrient cycling over a two-year period. A 0.5-hectare hardwood bioenergy plantation was established with 12 Populus spp. genotypes adjacent to a 0.6-hectare freshwater aquaculture operation (hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops×M. saxatilis); pond waters were land-applied on the plantation for two years. The aquaculture operation produced ~3.5Mg of fish and trees yielded 5.9Mgha(-1)yr(-1) of oven-dry biomass, sequestered 2.9Mg carbon (C) ha(-1)yr(-1) and stored 0.028Mg nitrogen (N) ha(-1)yr(-1). Biomass productivity, carbon storage, and nitrogen storage differed significantly among the evaluated Populus genotypes. Land application of pond water increased groundwater infiltration by 60% relative to the previous year. The integrated system regulated chlorophyll a, total organic carbon, and nitrogen in groundwater at concentrations below regulatory limits. This study demonstrated that coupled agroecosystems could deliver productive yields of food and bioenergy as well as support water re-use while meeting water quality regulations. More research is needed to evaluated long-term sustainability and economic viability of this coupled system and other land management practices that seek to improve food, energy, and water resiliency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Locational differences in mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Individuals who fish, and their families that ingest self-caught fish, make decisions about where to fish, what type of fish to eat, and the quantity of fish to eat. While federal and state agencies often issue consumption advisories for some fish with high mercury (Hg) concentrations, advisories seldom provide the actual metal levels to the general public. There are few data for most saltwater fish, and even less information on variations in Hg levels in fish within a state or geographical region. The objective of this study was to provide Hg concentrations from 19 species of fish caught in different locations in New Jersey to (1) test the hypothesis that mean metal levels vary geographically, (2) provide this information to individuals who fish these coastal waters, and (3) provide a range of values for risk assessors who deal with saltwater fish exposure in the Northeastern United States. Selenium (Se) was also examined because of its purported moderating effect on the toxicity of Hg. Hg levels showed significant geographical variation for 10 of 14 species that were caught in more than one region of New Jersey, but there were significant locational differences for Se in only 5 of the fish. Mercury levels were significantly lower in fish collected from northern New Jersey (except for ling, Molva molva), compared to other regions. As might be expected, locational differences in Hg levels were greatest for fish species with the highest Hg concentrations (shark, Isurus oxyrinchus; tuna, Thunnus thynnus and T. albacares; striped bass, Morone saxatilis; bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix). Fishers and their families might reduce their risk from Hg exposure not only by selecting fish generally lower in Hg, but by fishing predominantly in some regions over others, further lowering the potential risk. Health professionals might use these data to advise patients on which fish are safest to consume (in terms of Hg exposure) from particular geographical regions.

  17. Universal assay of vitellogenin as a biomarker for environmental estrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Heppell, S A; Denslow, N D; Folmar, L C; Sullivan, C V

    1995-01-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG), the serum phospholipoglycoprotein precursor to egg yolk, is potentially an ideal biomarker for environmental estrogens. This study was undertaken to develop antibodies against conserved regions on the VTG molecule that could form the basis for establishing bioassays to detect estrogen exposure in any oviparous vertebrate. We developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated against purified rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) VTG and selected for the property of specifically recognizing VTG purified from two phylogenetically distant vertebrates, trout and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting indicated that these mAbs specifically recognize purified VTG and VTG or other estrogen-inducible proteins in plasma or serum from representative species of four vertebrate classes (fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds). All of the mAbs generated were IgM class. A polyclonal antiserum was raised against a synthetic consensus peptide representing the conserved N-terminal amino acid sequence of VTG. The results of Western blotting indicate that this antiserum specifically recognizes VTG in plasma or serum from teleost fish of diverse families. It was used to detect VTG in Western blots of serum from brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) with cancer (hepatocellular and cholangio-carcinoma) collected from a contaminated industrial site outside of their normal vitellogenic season. Our results indicate that it is feasible to generate antibodies capable of recognizing VTG without regard to species and that development of a universal VTG assay is an achievable goal. Images Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8593883

  18. Schooling increases risk exposure for fish navigating past artificial barriers.

    PubMed

    Lemasson, Bertrand H; Haefner, James W; Bowen, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems.

  19. The fundamental thermal niche of adult landlocked striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have described the temperatures selected by landlocked striped bass Morone saxatilis in different locales throughout the USA. However, seasonally low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) in many systems prevented striped bass from using the cool waters (<22??C) they may have preferred. In Melton Hill Reservoir, a 92-km-long impoundment on the Clinch River in east Tennessee, 15 adult striped bass were tagged with temperature-sensing radio tags and tracked for an average of 418 d in 1999-2000. Cold, hypolimnetic discharges from an upstream dam and heated discharge from a steam-generating electric facility near the midpoint of this run-of-the-river reservoir provided a broad range of temperatures in most seasons, and hypoxic habitats were uncommon even during stratification. The mean temperature occupied by striped bass varied seasonally (repeated-measures analysis of variance, P < 0.0001) and was highest in summer (17.5??C), intermediate in spring and fall (15.4-16.9??C), and lowest in winter (13.0??C). The mean and modal temperatures occupied during the growing season (May-October 1999) were 17.5??C and 19.0??C, respectively; 30% of the observations were between 9??C and 15??C. These data indicate that the fundamental thermal niche of adult landlocked striped bass may be lower than literature estimates. These results also represent the first unbiased field estimates of the influence of season on the thermal ecology of adult striped bass. The thermal characteristics of habitats considered optimal in habitat suitability index models for adult landlocked striped bass (i.e., 18-24??C) should be revised to include cooler waters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  20. Seasonal variation and estradiol-dependent elevation of Thames estuary eel Anguilla anguilla plasma vitellogenin levels and comparisons with other United Kingdom estuaries.

    PubMed

    Peters, L D; Doyotte, A; Mitchelmore, C L; McEvoy, J; Livingstone, D R

    2001-11-12

    Eel Anguilla anguilla plasma vitellogenin was investigated as a biomarker of exposure to environmental compounds with estrogenic activity, along the tidal course of the Thames Estuary, UK. A. anguilla was chosen as a sentinel species because of their wide distribution, robustness in field and laboratory studies and also because they have a characterised normal intersex' condition where the gonad contains both developing male and female gonadal cells termed a Syrski organ. Following laboratory exposure to 17beta-estradiol (intraperitoneal injection), a plasma protein (approx. 211 kDa apparent molecular weight) was detected by monoclonal antibodies to vitellogenin of striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Western and dot blot analyses were developed and vitellogenin was isolated from 17beta-estradiol-treated fish to calibrate the quantification of the blots by image analysis. The limits of sensitivity for the Western and dot blots were 100 and 10 ng vitellogenin/ml, respectively. Levels of vitellogenin in Thames estuary samples were below the detection limits of the Western but not the dot blot, and showed no statistically significant site-specific (10 sites) and seasonal-specific (May, August, November) differences. Values were observed to be low, between 11 and 165 ng/ml, compared with 17-50 mg/ml for 17beta-estradiol-treated eels. Similar low levels of plasma vitellogenin were determined in fish sampled along the Tyne, Wear, Tees or Humber estuaries, or the Weston canal Liverpool, with mean plasma vitellogenin levels varying between 44 and 82 ng/ml. These levels of vitellogenin in A. anguilla plasma were observed to be consistent with the known biology of the eel. Immature females, or fish with syrski organs, reported both lower levels and smaller variation of plasma vitellogenin concentrations whereas the highest plasma vitellogenin concentrations were determined in fish above 45 cm consistent with female fish. These results indicate inter-species variation between the

  1. Mercury in sport fish from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jay A; Greenfield, Ben K; Ichikawa, Gary; Stephenson, Mark

    2008-02-25

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in fillet tissue of sport fish captured in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta and surrounding tributaries, a region particularly impacted by historic gold and mercury mining activity. In 1999 and 2000, mercury concentrations were measured in 767 samples from ten fish species. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), the primary target species, exhibited a median Hg concentration of 0.53 mug g(-1) (N=406). Only 23 largemouth bass (6%) were below a 0.12 mug g(-1) threshold corresponding to a 4 meals per month safe consumption limit. Most of the largemouth bass (222 fish, or 55% of the sample) were above a 0.47 mug g(-1) threshold corresponding to a 1 meal per month consumption limit. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), white catfish (Ameirus catus), and Sacramento pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus grandis) also had relatively high concentrations, with 31% or more of samples above 0.47 mug g(-1). Concentrations were lowest in redear (Lepomis microlophus) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) sunfish, with most samples below 0.12 mug g(-1), suggesting that targeting these species for sport and subsistence fishing may reduce human dietary exposure to Hg in the region. An improved method of analysis of covariance was performed to evaluate spatial variation in Hg in largemouth bass captured in 2000, while accounting for variability in fish length. Using this approach, Hg concentrations were significantly elevated in the Feather River, northern Delta, lower Cosumnes River, and San Joaquin River regions. In spite of elevated Hg concentrations on all of its tributaries, the central Delta had concentrations that were low both in comparison to safe consumption guidelines and to other locations.

  2. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Robert D.; Scyphers, Steven B.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders’ perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state’s management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders’ support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that

  3. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Striped Bass

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, C.W.; Neves, R.J.; Pardue, G.B.

    1983-10-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is a highly valued recreational and commercial fish species and is surpassed in total recreational catch (weight) only by bluefish and Atlantic mackerel on the Atlantic coast. Males mature at age 2 or 3, and females at age 4 or 5. Striped bass are anadromous, spawning in fresh or nearly fresh water, from April through June in the Mid-Atlantic region. Upper Chesapeake Bay, its major tributaries, and the Chesapeake-Delaware Canal are the most important spawning grounds on the Atlantic coast. Eggs are semibuoyant, and require a minimum current velocity of 30.5 cm/s during development to keep them from settling and smothering on the bottom. Environmental conditions during the larval stage are considered most crucial in terms of future year class strength. Juveniles remain in or near areas of origin for 2 or 3 years, at which time a portion of the juveniles may join coastal migratory stocks, moving north in spring and summer and south in fall and winter. Temperature, salinity, current velocity, and turbidity are important environmental factors for striped bass. Eggs require water temperatures between 14/sup 0/C and 23/sup 0/C, salinities between 0 and 10 ppt, water currents of at least 30.5 cm/s, and turbidities less than 1000 mg/l for successful development and hatching. Larvae require temperatures between 10/sup 0/C and 25/sup 0/C, salinities between 0 and 15 ppt, and turbidities less than 500 mg/1 for survival. Juvenile and adult tolerances are generally wider. 171 references, 4 figures, 9 tables.

  4. Spawning migration of telemetered striped bass in the Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, J.T.; Haeseker, S.L.; Hightower, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The spring spawning migration is a key period for effective management of anadromous populations of striped bass Morone saxatilis. Information on migratory behavior is needed in order to develop appropriate harvest regulations and to conduct effective surveys while fish are on the spawning grounds. We used ultrasonic telemetry to estimate the timing and duration of the upriver spawning migration for the Roanoke River, North Carolina, population and to evaluate whether a short-term fluctuation in temperature or flow would alter the distribution of telemetered fish on the spawning grounds. Seventy-eight fish implanted with transmitters were released during 1993 and 1994. Twenty-nine telemetered fish migrated upriver in 1994, and 14 telemetered fish entered the river in 1995. Migration of telemetered fish began in mid- to late April when water temperatures in the lower river reached 17-18??C. Males began their spawning migration significantly earlier than females in 1994; the difference was not significant in 1995. The 165-km upriver migration took about a week, as did the downriver migration after the spawning season. In 1994 and 1995 respectively, males remained on the spawning grounds for averages of 22 and 21 d, females for 8 and 11 d. Because of shorter residency times only about half the telemetered females were on the spawning grounds at any one time during the peak of the spawning season. Striped bass remained on the spawning grounds during a short-term temperature decrease of about 4??C (over 5 d) and an increase in flow from about 190 to 390 m3/s (over 1 d).

  5. Tag return models allowing for harvest and catch and release: Evidence of environmental and management impacts on striped bass fishing and natural mortality rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, H.; Pollock, K.H.; Brownie, C.; Hoenig, J.M.; Latour, R.J.; Wells, B.K.; Hightower, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Catch-and-release fisheries have become very important in the management of overexploited recreational fish stocks. Tag return studies, where the tag is removed regardless of fish disposition, have been used to assess the effectiveness of restoration efforts for these fisheries. We extend the instantaneous rate formulation of tag return models to allow for catch and release as well as harvest. The key point of our methods is that, given an estimate of the tag reporting rate, the fishing mortality rate (F) is separated into two components: the mortality on harvested fish and the "mortality" on tags (because the lags are removed) of fish released alive. The total fishing mortality rate for untagged fish is the sum of the Fs due to harvest and hooking mortality suffered by fish released alive. Natural mortality rates can also be estimated. Both age-independent models and age-dependent models are constructed, and the age-dependent models are illustrated by application to data from a study of striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay from 1991 to 2003 by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. By fitting models of the natural mortality rate with limited age and year dependence, we demonstrate an overall decrease in natural mortality rates as fish age and provide evidence of an increase in natural mortality beginning in the late 1990s, when an outbreak of the disease mycobacteriosis is thought to have begun. Our results indicate that fishing mortality is age dependent; selectivity increases up to age 6, when fish appear to be fully recruited to the fishery. There is also evidence of an increase in fishing mortality since 1995, when regulations were relaxed. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  6. Estimating fishing mortality, natural mortality, and selectivity using recoveries from tagging young fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, H.; Brownie, C.; Hightower, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    Current methods for estimation of age- and year-specific instantaneous mortality rates based on multiyear, multiple-age tagging studies assume that it is feasible to tag fish in a wide range of ages. For some species, however, only the youngest one or two age-classes are readily available for tagging. Given the practical advantages of tagging young fish only, an important question is whether such studies would provide the information needed for estimation of age-dependent mortality rates. We investigated three designs: tagging only the youngest available age-class, tagging the two youngest age-classes, and tagging the first five age-classes. We carried out simulation studies to assess estimator performance under these three designs, in each case assuming the same total number of tagged fish. Data were generated assuming fishing mortality rates to be age and year dependent and natural mortality rates to be constant or with limited age dependence. Estimator performance is best when fish are tagged in five age-classes, and tagging fish in the two youngest age-classes shows substantial improvement compared with tagging one age-class only. External information about the tag-reporting rate is necessary to obtain estimators with reasonable properties, especially in the case of models with age-dependent natural mortality. Such information can be obtained from auxiliary studies by means of high-reward tags or planted tags. Collecting recovery information for several additional years after the last release produces small improvements in precision and bias. If tagging fish in multiple age-classes is impractical, reasonable precision can be obtained by tagging one or preferably two age-classes and obtaining supplemental information on the reporting rate. For illustration, estimates of age-dependent fishing and natural mortality rates were obtained from tag returns on Chesapeake Bay striped bass Morone saxatilis tagged at ages 3 and 4 years. ?? Copyright by the American

  7. The use of freshwater and saltwater animals to distinguish between the toxic effects of salinity and contaminants in irrigation drain water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Burch, S.A.; Nelson, M.K.; Buckler, D.R.; Hunn, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Irrigation drain waters entering Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (SWMA) in south-western Nevada contain elevated levels of salinity and several inorganic contaminants (As, B, Cu, Li, Mo, and Sr). Mortalities of fish and waterfowl at the management area are believed to be associated with the poor water quality of the drains. The objective of the present study was to use fresh-water and saltwater animals to distinguish between the toxic effects of salinity and contaminants in effluent samples collected from irrigation drain waters. Static acute effluent tests were conducted with water collected from four sites at SWMA. Animals acclimated or cultured in fresh water (fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas; amphipods, Hyalella azteca; cladocerans, Daphnia magna) and salt water (striped bass, Morone saxatilis; amphipods, Hyalella azteca; and cladocerans, Daphnia magna) were used to separate toxic effects of salinity from the effects of inorganic contaminants in the drain water. One drain water (TJ drain, salinity 19 parts per thousand (grams per liter), osmolality 503 mmol/kg, hardness 3,780 mg/L as CaCO3) was toxic only to freshwater animals and saltwater cultured daphnids; water from a receiving pond (Pintail Bay, salinity 23 g/L, osmolality 542 mmol/kg, hardness 830 mg/L as CaCO3) was toxic to both freshwater and saltwater animals. Acute tests conducted with reconstituted waters representative of the Pintail Bay sample indicated that atypical ion ratios were toxic to striped bass and amphipods, even without the addition of inorganic contaminants. However, the addition of inorganic contaminants representative of the Pintail Bay sample increased the toxicity of this reconstituted water. These findings indicate that the toxicity of the TJ drain sample was related mainly to elevated salinity and that the toxicity of the Pintail Bay sample was a function of inorganic contamination and atypical ion ratios in combination with elevated salinity.

  8. LOCATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN MERCURY AND SELENIUM LEVELS IN 19 SPECIES OF SALTWATER FISH FROM NEW JERSEY

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who fish, and their families that ingest self-caught fish, make decisions about where to fish, what type of fish to eat, and the quantity of fish to eat. While federal and state agencies often issue consumption advisories for some fish with high mercury (Hg) concentrations, advisories seldom provide the actual metal levels to the general public. There are few data for most saltwater fish, and even less information on variations in Hg levels in fish within a state or geographical region. The objective of this study was to provide Hg concentrations from 19 species of fish caught in different locations in New Jersey to (1) test the hypothesis that mean metal levels vary geographically, (2) provide this information to individuals who fish these coastal waters, and (3) provide a range of values for risk assessors who deal with saltwater fish exposure in the Northeastern United States. Selenium (Se) was also examined because of its purported moderating effect on the toxicity of Hg. Hg levels showed significant geographical variation for 10 of 14 species that were caught in more than one region of New Jersey, but there were significant locational differences for Se in only 5 of the fish. Mercury levels were significantly lower in fish collected from northern New Jersey (except for ling, Molva molva), compared to other regions. As might be expected, locational differences in Hg levels were greatest for fish species with the highest Hg concentrations (shark, Isurus oxyrinchus; tuna, Thunnus thynnus and T. albacares; striped bass, Morone saxatilis; bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix). Fishers and their families might reduce their risk from Hg exposure not only by selecting fish generally lower in Hg, but by fishing predominantly in some regions over others, further lowering the potential risk. Health professionals might use these data to advise patients on which fish are safest to consume (in terms of Hg exposure) from particular geographical regions. PMID:21598171

  9. Optimal swim speeds for traversing velocity barriers: An analysis of volitional high-speed swimming behavior of migratory fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, T.

    2005-01-01

    Migrating fish traversing velocity barriers are often forced to swim at speeds greater than their maximum sustained speed (Ums). Failure to select an appropriate swim speed under these conditions can prevent fish from successfully negotiating otherwise passable barriers. I propose a new model of a distance-maximizing strategy for fishes traversing velocity barriers, derived from the relationships between swim speed and fatigue time in both prolonged and sprint modes. The model predicts that fish will maximize traversed distance by swimming at a constant groundspeed against a range of flow velocities, and this groundspeed is equal to the negative inverse of the slope of the swim speed-fatigue time relationship for each mode. At a predictable flow velocity, they should switch from the optimal groundspeed for prolonged mode to that for sprint mode. Data from six migratory fish species (anadromous clupeids: American shad Alosa sapidissima, alewife A. pseudoharengus and blueback herring A. aestivalis; amphidromous: striped bass Morone saxatilis; and potomodromous species: walleye (previously known as Stizostedion vitrium) and white sucker Catostomus commersonii) were used to explore the ability of fish to approximate the predicted distance-maximizing behaviors, as well as the consequences of deviating from the optima. Fish volitionally sprinted up an open-channel flume against fixed flow velocities of 1.5-4.5 m s-1, providing data on swim speeds and fatigue times, as well as their groundspeeds. Only anadromous clupeids selected the appropriate distance-maximizing groundspeed at both prolonged and sprint modes. The other three species maintained groundspeeds appropriate to the prolonged mode, even when they should have switched to the sprint optima. Because of this, these species failed to maximize distance of ascent. The observed behavioral variability has important implications both for distributional limits and fishway design.

  10. Effect of low-head lock and dam structures on migration and spawning of American shad and striped bass in the Cape Fear River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joseph A.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations within the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, have declined substantially since the late 1800s. Three low-head lock-and-dam (LD) structures on the river (LD-1–3) contributed to this decline by limiting access to upstream spawning habitat. We used egg sampling and sonic telemetry to examine the effects of the LD structures on migration and spawning activity of American shad Alosa sapidissima and striped bassMorone saxatilis. Egg distribution and stage of development suggested that most of the American shad spawning took place downstream from the lowermost structure, LD-1. The predicted mean density of stage-1 American shad eggs at a water temperature of 21°C was 895 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% credible interval [CI] = 800–994) below LD-1; 147 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% CI = 103–197) below LD-2; and 32 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% CI = 17–49) below the uppermost structure, LD-3. The probability of capturing a stage-1 American shad egg was strongly dependent on water temperature and hour of egg collection. Transmitter detections for 20 sonic-tagged American shad and 20 striped bass in 2008 showed that for both species, the majority of fish moved upstream of LD-1; 35% of American shad and 25% of striped bass migrated upstream of LD-3. Based on passage rates at the three LD structures, American shad would be expected to be most abundant downstream of LD-1 and upstream of LD-3. For striped bass, the river section between LD-2 and LD-3 had the highest egg collections and highest predicted proportion of the run. In combination, these results demonstrate that the locking program provides some access to historical spawning habitat, although further improvements in fish passage could benefit both species.

  11. Schooling Increases Risk Exposure for Fish Navigating Past Artificial Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Lemasson, Bertrand H.; Haefner, James W.; Bowen, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems. PMID:25268736

  12. Hooking mortality and physiological responses of striped bass angled in freshwater and held in live-release tubes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettinger, J.M.; Tomasso, J.R.; Isely, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality and physiological responses of adult striped bass Morone saxatilis angled from Lake Murray, South Carolina, and held in live-release tubes were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2003. To estimate mortality, we attached external ultrasonic transmitters to 59 striped bass (mean total length [TL] = 585 mm). Striped bass were caught with angling gear, tagged, and immediately released or held in live-release tubes for 2, 4, or 6 h prior to release. No mortality of striped bass was observed during spring. Overall mortality during summer was 83%. Mortality of summer-caught striped bass was not related to tube residence time, fish TL, depth of capture, or surface water temperature. To characterize physiological stress, we measured the plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality levels of 62 additional striped bass (mean TL = 563 mm) that were angled and immediately released or angled and held in live-release tubes. Plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality were positively related to tube residence time. When the hematological characteristics were considered only in relation to tube residence time, responses indicative of physiological stress continued for about 150 min, after which blood chemistry began to return to normal. Live-release tubes appear to be useful for keeping striped bass alive when they are angled from cool water, but they are not effective for striped bass angled from warm water. The high summer mortality of striped bass suggests a need for restrictive fishing regulations during the summer for the Lake Murray striped bass fishery. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  13. Effects of dreissenids on monitoring and management of fisheries in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Water clarity increased in nearshore areas of western Lake Erie by the early-1990s mainly as a result of the filtering activities of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena spp.), which invaded in the mid-1980s. We hypothesized that increased water clarity would result in greater trawl avoidance and thus reduced ability to capture fish in bottom trawls during daytime compared to nighttime. We examined this hypothesis by summarizing three analyses on fish data collected in western Lake Erie. First, we used a two-tiered modeling approach on the ration (R) of catch per hour (CPH) of age-0 yellow perch (Perca flavencens Mitchell) at night to CPH during daytime in 1961-2005. The best a priori and a posteriori models indicated a shift to higher CPH at night (R > 1) between 1990 and 1991, which corresponded to 3 years after the dreissenid invasion and when water clarity noticeably increased at nearshore sites. Secondly, we examined effects of nighttime sampling on estimates of abundance of age-2 and older yellow perch, which form the basis for recommended allowable harvest (RAH). When data from night sampling were included in models that predict abundance of age-2 yellow perch from indices of abundance of age-0 and age-1 yellow perch, predicted abundance was lower and model precision, as measured by r-squared, was higher compared to models that excluded data collected at night. Furthermore, the use of only CPH data collected at night typically resulted in lower estimates of abundance and more precise models compared to models that included CPH data collected during both daytime and nighttime. Thirdly, we used presence/absence data from paired bottom trawl samples to calculate an index of capture probability (or catchability) to determine if our ability to capture the four most common benthic species in western Lake Erie was affected by dreissenid-caused increased water clarity. Three species of fish(white perch, Morone americana Gmelin; yellow perch; and trout-perch, Percopsis

  14. Impacts of Weather Variations on Energy Consumption Efforts at U.S. Air Force Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    outlier or extreme outlier data points were Arnold, Cheyenne Mountain, Eielson, Elmendorf, Hanscom, Moron , New Boston, and Thule. These installations...Travis Beale Los Angeles Edwards Moron Cannon Pope Figure 4-15. Energy Source Consumption per Base for Climate Zone 4 Climate Zone 1 0 5 10 15 20...Flying Major Misawa AB PACAF 2 Combat Flying Major Moody AFB ACC* 5 Combat Flying Major Moron AB USAFE 4 Combat Flying Minor Mountain Home AFB ACC 3

  15. Leptin stimulates hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor gene expression in a teleost fish, the hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Won, Eugene T; Douros, Jonathan D; Hurt, David A; Borski, Russell J

    2016-04-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic peptide hormone that circulates as an indicator of adiposity in mammals, and functions to maintain energy homeostasis by balancing feeding and energy expenditure. In fish, leptin tends to be predominantly expressed in the liver, another important energy storing tissue, rather than in fat depots as it is in mammals. The liver also produces the majority of circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which comprise the mitogenic component of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF endocrine growth axis. Based on similar regulatory patterns of leptin and IGFs that we have documented in previous studies on hybrid striped bass (HSB: Morone saxatilis×Morone chrysops), and considering the co-localization of these peptides in the liver, we hypothesized that leptin might regulate the endocrine growth axis in a manner that helps coordinate somatic growth with energy availability. Using a HSB hepatocyte culture system to simulate autocrine or paracrine exposure that might occur within the liver, this study examines the potential for leptin to modulate metabolism and growth through regulation of IGF gene expression directly, or indirectly through the regulation of GH receptors (GHR), which mediate GH-induced IGF expression. First, we verified that GH (50nM) has a classical stimulatory effect on IGF-1 and additionally show it stimulates IGF-2 transcription in hepatocytes. Leptin (5 and/or 50nM) directly stimulated in vitro GHR2 gene expression within 8h of exposure, and both GHR1 and GHR2 as well as IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression after 24h. Cells were then co-incubated with submaximal concentrations of leptin and GH (25nM each) to test if they had a synergistic effect on IGF gene expression, possibly through increased GH sensitivity following GHR upregulation by leptin. In combination, however, the treatments only had an additive effect on stimulating IGF-1 mRNA despite their capacity to increase GHR mRNA abundance. This suggests that leptin's stimulatory

  16. Interactions between striped bass and other gamefish in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Raborn, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions among reservoir fishes may be pronounced because fish assemblages in these artificial environments have had little time to develop niche-partitioning strategies that alleviate negative interspecific interactions. Such interactions may at times have been intensified by introductions of predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis, introduced to create additional fisheries and control pelagic clupeids. Possible interactions between existing fish assemblages and striped bass include predation and competition. While there is a perception among angler groups that predation by striped bass on co-existing game fish is significant, most studies have reported little or no predation on game fish my striped bass and have considered predation rare and inconsequential. Moreover, predation that occurs will likely be compensatory and fail to reduce overall game fish survival. Any indirect effect of striped bass predation by restricting prey-sized game fish to limited refuge sites remains unknown. Exploitative competition may be more common. Although infrequently, introduced striped bass have depleted prey resources shared with other piscivores, particularly when stocking rates have been high, when there is a high rate of natural reproduction, or when prey supply has plunged in response to environmental fluxes. Fluctuation in prey supply, associated with ordinary environmental variability, and associated time lages in prey supply and predator demand, preclude adjusting predator densities to exactly balance demand with supply. The frequency of low supply-demand rations varies across systems and exhibits seasonal trends. Nevertheless, chronic supply-demand imbalances are manageable where the predator assemblage is at least partially controlled through stocking, harvest regulations, or both. Because of the poor state of knowledge concerning the parameters defining balance and because uncontrollable annual fluctuations preclude exact management of

  17. Reliability of fish size estimates obtained from multibeam imaging sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Magowan, Kevin J.; Brown, Lori M.; Fox, Dewayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Multibeam imaging sonars have considerable potential for use in fisheries surveys because the video-like images are easy to interpret, and they contain information about fish size, shape, and swimming behavior, as well as characteristics of occupied habitats. We examined images obtained using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) multibeam sonar for Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, striped bass Morone saxatilis, white perch M. americana, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus of known size (20–141 cm) to determine the reliability of length estimates. For ranges up to 11 m, percent measurement error (sonar estimate – total length)/total length × 100 varied by species but was not related to the fish's range or aspect angle (orientation relative to the sonar beam). Least-square mean percent error was significantly different from 0.0 for Atlantic sturgeon (x̄  =  −8.34, SE  =  2.39) and white perch (x̄  = 14.48, SE  =  3.99) but not striped bass (x̄  =  3.71, SE  =  2.58) or channel catfish (x̄  = 3.97, SE  =  5.16). Underestimating lengths of Atlantic sturgeon may be due to difficulty in detecting the snout or the longer dorsal lobe of the heterocercal tail. White perch was the smallest species tested, and it had the largest percent measurement errors (both positive and negative) and the lowest percentage of images classified as good or acceptable. Automated length estimates for the four species using Echoview software varied with position in the view-field. Estimates tended to be low at more extreme azimuthal angles (fish's angle off-axis within the view-field), but mean and maximum estimates were highly correlated with total length. Software estimates also were biased by fish images partially outside the view-field and when acoustic crosstalk occurred (when a fish perpendicular to the sonar and at relatively close range is detected in the side lobes of adjacent beams). These sources of

  18. Mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey as a function of species, size, and season.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2011-03-15

    There are few data on risks to biota and humans from mercury levels in saltwater fish. This paper examines mercury and selenium levels in muscle of 19 species of fish caught by recreational fisherfolk off the New Jersey shore, as a function of species of fish, size, and season, and risk of mercury to consumers. Average mercury levels ranged from 0.01 ppm (wet weight) (Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus) to 1.83 ppm (Mako Shark Isurus oxyrinchus). There were four categories of mercury levels: very high (only Mako), high (averaging 0.3-0.5 ppm, 3 species), medium (0.14-0.20 ppm, 10 species), and low (below 0.13 ppm, 5 species). Average selenium levels for the fish species ranged from 0.18 ppm to 0.58 ppm, and had lower variability than mercury (coefficient of variation=38.3 vs 69.1%), consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential element. The correlation between mercury and selenium was significantly positive for five and negative for two species. Mercury levels showed significant positive correlations with fish size for ten species. Size was the best predictor of mercury levels. Selenium showed no consistent relationship to fish length. Over half of the fish species had some individual fish with mercury levels over 0.3 ppm, and a third had fish with levels over 0.5 ppm, levels that pose a human health risk for high end consumers. Conversely several fish species had no individuals above 0.5 ppm, and few above 0.3 ppm, suggesting that people who eat fish frequently, can reduce their risk from mercury by selecting which species (and which size) to consume. Overall, with the exception of shark, Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus), Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), the species sampled are generally medium to low in mercury concentration. Selenium:mercury molar ratios were generally above 1:1, except for the Mako shark. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Piraino, Maria N; Taylor, David L

    2013-11-01

    Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fish. Target fish were collected from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA) and included black sea bass Centropristis striata [n = 54, 14-55 cm total length (TL)], bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31-73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34-102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18-55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27-61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue [mean muscle Hg = 0.47-1.18 mg/kg dry weight (dw)] followed by fin clips (0.03-0.09 mg/kg dw) and scales (0.01-0.07 mg/kg dw). The coefficient of determination (R (2)) derived from power regressions of intraspecies muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35 and 0.78 (mean R (2) = 0.57) and 0.14-0.37 (mean R (2) = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R (2) = 0.63-0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R (2) = 0.33-0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R (2) values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool; however, this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes and likely depends on species-specific life-history characteristics.

  20. Chronicling long-term predator responses to a shifting forage base in Chesapeake Bay: an energetics approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, Anthony S.; Griffin, Jennifer C.; Margraf, F. Joseph; May, Eric B.; Hartman, Kyle J.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Striped Bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay has increased significantly since the 1980s because of management efforts while the relative abundance of some key prey fish has declined since the 1970s. We examined the trophic interactions and prey consumption patterns of Striped Bass in Chesapeake Bay to determine how Striped Bass have responded to changing prey resources. Seasonal diet, growth, and thermal data were collected from 1955 to 1959, 1990 to 1992, and 1998 to 2001; these data were coupled with a bioenergetics model approach to characterize temporal patterns in prey consumption for Striped Bass. The estimates were compared across each period to build a historical prey consumption profile from 1955 to 2001. Prey consumption dynamics for Striped Bass have changed dramatically between 1955 and 2001. In general, Striped Bass in the early and late 1990s consumed less Atlantic Menhaden Brevoortia tyranus and more Bay Anchovy Anchoa mitchilli than during the 1950s. The largest differences in consumption were observed in the younger age-classes. During 1998–2001, age-1 and age-2 Striped Bass consumed, respectively, 15.5 and 11.9 times less Atlantic Menhaden than during the 1950sand 12.2 and 7.2 less than during 1990–1992. Bay Anchovy were almost absent in the diet of bass age 3 and older during the 1950s but were consumed by the age-3+ group during 1990–1992 and to a greater extent during 1998–2001. Age-3+ Striped Bass during 1998–2001, on average, consumed twice as much Bay Anchovy than during 1990–1992. Blue crab Callinectes sappidus were consumed only by age 2 in the 1950s and 1990–1992 and by ages 2 and older in 1998–2001. Age-2 bass consumed 8.8 more blue crab in 1990–1992 and 7.5 times more in 1998–2001 than during the 1950s. The patterns in the consumption of Atlantic Menhaden coincided with increased consumption of Bay Anchovy and blue crab, possibly as a result of the declines in Atlantic Menhaden

  1. An evaluation of introgression of Atlantic coast striped bass mitochondrial DNA in a Gulf of Mexico population using formalin-preserved museum collections.

    PubMed

    Wirgin, I; Maceda, L; Stabile, J; Mesing, C

    1997-10-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis populations in drainages along the Gulf of Mexico coast (Gulf) were depleted in the 1950s and 1960s, probably because of anthropogenic influences. It is believed that only the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (A-C-F) river system continually supported a naturally reproducing population of Gulf lineage. Striped bass juveniles of Atlantic coast (Atlantic) ancestry were introduced to restore population abundances in the A-C-F from the late 1960s to the mid 1970s and in many other Gulf rivers from the 1960s to the present. We previously identified mtDNA polymorphisms that were unique to approximately 60% of striped bass from the A-C-F and which confirmed the continued successful natural reproduction of striped bass of Gulf maternal ancestry within the system. However, the genetic relatedness of the extant A-C-F population to 'pure' Gulf striped bass was not addressed. In this study, we determined the frequency of a diagnostic mtDNA XbaI polymorphism in samples of 'pure' Gulf striped bass that were collected from the A-C-F prior to the introduction of Atlantic fish, that were obtained from museum collections, and that were originally preserved in formalin. PCR primers were developed that allowed for amplification of a 191-bp mtDNA fragment that contained the diagnostic XbaI restriction site. Using RFLP and direct sequence analyses of the PCR amplicons, we found no significant differences in mtDNA XbaI genotype frequencies between the archived samples and extant A-C-F samples collected over a 15-year period. This indicates that significant maternally mediated introgression of Atlantic mtDNA genomes into the A-C-F gene pool has not occurred. Additionally, we found no evidence of the unique Gulf mtDNA genotype in striped bass from extant populations in Texas, Louisiana and the Mississippi River. These results highlight the importance of the A-C-F as a repository of striped bass to restore extirpated Gulf populations and the potential use of

  2. A novel method to develop an otolith microchemistry model to determine striped bass habitat use in the San Francisco Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Phillis, C C; Ostrach, D J; Gras, M; Yin, Q; Ingram, B L; Zinkl, J G; Weber, P K

    2006-06-14

    Otolith Sr/Ca has become a popular tool for hind casting habitat utilization and migration histories of euryhaline fish. It can readily identify habitat shifts of diadromous fish in most systems. Inferring movements of fish within estuarine habitat, however, requires a model of that accounts of the local water chemistry and the response of individual species to that water chemistry, which is poorly understood. Modeling is further complicated by the fact that high marine Sr and Ca concentrations results in a rapid, nonlinear increase in water Sr/Ca and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr between fresh and marine waters. Here we demonstrate a novel method for developing a salinity-otolith Sr/Ca model for the purpose of reconstructing striped bass (Morone saxatilis) habitat use in the San Francisco Bay estuary. We used correlated Sr/Ca and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios measurements from adult otoliths from striped bass that experienced a range of salinities to infer striped bass otolith Sr/Ca response to changes in salinity and water Sr/Ca ratio. Otolith {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr can be assumed to accurately record water {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr because there is no biological fractionation of Sr isotopes. Water {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr can in turn be used to estimate water salinity based on the mixing of fresh and marine water with known {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. The relationship between adjacent analyses on otoliths of Sr/Ca and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr by LA-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS (r{sup 2} = 0.65, n = 66) is used to predict water salinity from a measured Sr/Ca ratio. The nature of this non-linear model lends itself well to identifying residence in the Delta and to a lesser extent Suisun Bay, but does not do well locating residence within the more saline bays west of Carquinez Strait. An increase in the number of analyses would improve model confidence, but ultimately the precision of the model is limited by the variability in the response of individual fish to water Sr/Ca.

  3. Striped Bass Habitat use in the San Francisco Estuary Determined Using Otolith Microchemistry Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillis, C. C.; Ostrach, D. J.; Weber, P. K.; Ingram, B. L.; Zinkl, J. G.

    2005-12-01

    Habitat use has been shown to be an important factor in the bioaccumulation of contaminants in striped bass ( Morone saxatilis). This study explores techniques to determine migration in striped bass as part of a larger study investigating maternal transfer of xenobiotics to progeny in the San Francisco Estuary. The timing of movement of fish between salt and fresh water can easily be determined using a number of chemical markers in otoliths. Determining movement within estuaries, however, is a more difficult problem because mesohaline geochemical signatures approach the marine end member at very low salinities. Two tracers were used to reconstruct the migration history of striped bass in the San Francisco Estuary: Sr/Ca (measured by electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS) and Sr isotope ratio (measured by LA-MC-ICP-MS). Both tracers can be used to map the salinity the fish is exposed to at the time of otolith increment deposition. Salinity, in turn, is mapped to location within the San Francisco Bay estuary based on monthly salinity surveys. The two methods have their respective benefits. Sr/Ca can be measured with higher spatial resolution (<10 microns). Sr isotope ratios are not modulated by metabolism. Sr isotope measurements were made to check the Sr/Ca results. In the San Francisco Estuary, low 87Sr/86Sr (0.706189) river water mixes with high 87Sr/86Sr (0.709168) marine water to 80% of the marine signal (0.7085) when the salinity is only 5% (1.8 ppt) seawater, and 95% of the marine signal (0.7090) at salinities of 20% (6.6 ppt) seawater (Ingram and Sloan, 1992). This salinity model should map directly to the otolith because there is no biological fractionation of Sr isotopes. The Sr/Ca otolith and salinity models predict a similar response. For both models, calculated otolith salinity is mapped to location within the San Francisco Estuary based on monthly salinity surveys. Using previously published salinity models, the otolith Sr/Ca and Sr isotope results are

  4. Characterization of Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae from Diseased Farmed and Wild Marine Fish from the U.S. Gulf Coast, Latin America, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Wang, Rui; Wiles, Judy; Baumgartner, Wes; Green, Christopher; Plumb, John; Hawke, John

    2015-06-01

    We examined Lancefield serogroup B Streptococcus isolates recovered from diseased, cultured hybrid Striped Bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis × White Bass M. chrysops) and wild and cultured Gulf Killifish Fundulus grandis from coastal waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Gulf coast) and compared those isolates to strains from tilapias Oreochromis spp. reared in Mississippi, Thailand, Ecuador, and Honduras and to the original Gulf coast strain identified by Plumb et al. ( 1974 ). The isolates were subjected to phylogenetic, biochemical, and antibiotic susceptibility analyses. Genetic analysis was performed using partial sequence comparison of (1) the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene; (2) the sipA gene, which encodes a surface immunogenic protein; (3) the cspA gene, which encodes a cell surface-associated protein; and (4) the secY gene, which encodes components of a general protein secretion pathway. Phylogenies inferred from sipA, secY, and cspA gene sequence comparisons were more discriminating than that inferred from the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The U.S. Gulf coast strains showed a high degree of similarity to strains from South America and Central America and belonged to a unique group that can be distinguished from other group B streptococci. In agreement with the molecular findings, biochemical and antimicrobial resistance analyses demonstrated that the isolates recovered from the U.S. Gulf coast and Latin America were more similar to each other than to isolates from Thailand. Three laboratory challenge methods for inducing streptococcosis in Gulf Killifish were evaluated-intraperitoneal (IP) injection, immersion (IMM), and immersion plus abrasion (IMMA)-using serial dilutions of S. agalactiae isolate LADL 97-151, a representative U.S. Gulf coast strain. The dose that was lethal to 50% of test fish by 14 d postchallenge was approximately 2 CFU/fish via IP injection. In contrast, the fish that were challenged via IMM or IMMA presented cumulative mortality

  5. Safety of oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F) administered in feed to hybrid striped bass, walleyes, and yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Schleis, S.M.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F, a medicated premix containing oxytetracycline at 220 g/kg) is approved in the United States to control certain systemic bacterial diseases of salmon and catfish when fed at a rate of 55-82.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per day for 10 d. Although oxytetracycline may also control certain systemic bacterial infections in coolwater or scaled warmwater fish, no safety data for such species are available. Our objective was to determine the safety of oxytetracycline administered in feed at nominal doses of 0, 82.5, 248, or 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 to yellow perch Perca flavescens and hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis x white bass M. chrysops) for 10 d and to walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) for 20 d. Yellow perch and hybrid striped bass consumed 50% to 100% of the diet, whereas walleye feed consumption was occasionally less than 50% of the diet. Feed or fecal material was present in the gastrointestinal tract of all necropsied walleyes except for one control fish. The single growth effect was that hybrid striped bass offered a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 were significantly smaller than untreated controls. Oxytetracycline-related histopathological findings were limited to walleyes and were of low severity. The histopathological findings included decreased hematopoietic-lymphopoietic (H&L) tissue in the anterior kidneys, diffuse hyperplasia of the gill filament epithelium, and a decreased prevalence of fish with eosinophilic droplets in their renal tubular epithelial cells. Although the incidence of decreased H&L tissue tended to increase in proportion to oxytetracycline dose, this finding was statistically significant only for fish that received a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1. Given the pathogenicity of the types of bacteria that are controlled by oxytetracycline treatment and the long history of its use in major aquaculture species, the relative risk of the minor oxytetracycline

  6. Mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey as a function of species, size, and season

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There are few data on risks to biota and humans from mercury levels in saltwater fish. This paper examines mercury and selenium levels in muscle of 19 species of fish caught by recreational fisherfolk off the New Jersey shore, as a function of species of fish, size, and season, and risk of mercury to consumers. Average mercury levels ranged from 0.01 ppm (wet weight) (Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus) to 1.83 ppm (Mako Shark Isurus oxyrinchus). There were four categories of mercury levels: very high (only Mako), high (averaging 0.3–0.5 ppm, 3 species), medium (0.14–0.20 ppm, 10 species), and low (below 0.13 ppm, 5 species). Average selenium levels for the fish species ranged from 0.18 ppm to 0.58 ppm, and had lower variability than mercury (coefficient of variation=38.3 vs 69.1%), consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential element. The correlation between mercury and selenium was significantly positive for five and negative for two species. Mercury levels showed significant positive correlations with fish size for ten species. Size was the best predictor of mercury levels. Selenium showed no consistent relationship to fish length. Over half of the fish species had some individual fish with mercury levels over 0.3 ppm, and a third had fish with levels over 0.5 ppm, levels that pose a human health risk for high end consumers. Conversely several fish species had no individuals above 0.5 ppm, and few above 0.3 ppm, suggesting that people who eat fish frequently, can reduce their risk from mercury by selecting which species (and which size) to consume. Overall, with the exception of shark, Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus), Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), the species sampled are generally medium to low in mercury concentration. Selenium:mercury molar ratios were generally above 1:1, except for the Mako shark. PMID:21292311

  7. Salmon testes meal as a functional feed additive in fish meal and plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum)and nile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report that salmon testes meal (TM) produced from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts is a potential protein source for aquafeed formulations. A series of feeding trials was conducted using three different fish species; including Nile tilapia, rainbow trout, and white sturgeon at their early gr...

  8. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR to detect Parvicapsula minibicornis and comparison to histologically ranked infection of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), from the Klamath River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    True, K.; Purcell, M.K.; Foott, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Parvicapsula minibicornis is a myxosporean parasite that is associated with disease in Pacific salmon during their freshwater life history phase. This study reports the development of a quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to detect P. minibicornis DNA. The QPCR assay targets the 18S ribosomal subunit gene. A plasmid DNA control was developed to calibrate cycle threshold (CT) score to plasmid molecular equivalent (PME) units, a measure of gene copy number. Assay validation revealed that the QPCR was sensitive and able to detect 50 ag of plasmid DNA, which was equivalent to 12.5 PME. The QPCR assay could detect single P. minibicornis actinospores well above assay sensitivity, indicating a single spore contains at least 100 times the 18S DNA copies required for detection. The QPCR assay was repeatable and highly specific; no detectable amplification was observed using DNA from related myxozoan parasites. The method was validated using kidney tissues from 218 juvenile Chinook salmon sampled during the emigration period of March to July 2005 from the Klamath River. The QPCR assay was compared with histological examination. The QPCR assay detected P. minibicornis infection in 88.1% of the fish sampled, while histological examination detected infection in 71.1% of the fish sampled. Good concordance was found between the methods as 80% of the samples were in agreement. The majority of the disconcordant fish were positive by QPCR, with low levels of P. minibicornis DNA, but negative by histology. The majority of the fish rated histologically as having subclinical or clinical infections had high QPCR levels. The results of this study demonstrate that QPCR is a sensitive quantitative tool for evaluating P. minibicornis infection in fish health monitoring studies. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the muscle proteins of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) fillets wrapped with chitosan-based edible film during cold storage (4±1°C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günlü, Ali; Sipahioǧlu, Sinem; Alpas, Hami

    2014-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of changes that occurred in the muscle proteins of fresh rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during storage at 4±1°C as a result of packaging in vacuum (C), subject to high pressure after packaging in vacuum high hydrostatic pressue (HHP), packaged in vacuum after wrapping with chitosan film (CFW) and subject to high pressure after wrapping with chitosan-based film and packaged in vacuum (HHP+CFW ). Samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE in four-day intervals and the densitometric analyses of the gels were carried out. According to the results, minor changes were determined in the major bands of the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar muscle fractions of trouts as a result of HHP application and CFW. The most important change occurred in the myofibrillar muscle fraction as a decrease in the densities of the bands at 200 and 31.4 kDa after HHP application. Similarly, the sarcoplasmic muscle fraction of trout fillet decreased in the densities of the bands at 39.3, 26.6 and 23.3 kDa after HHP application. In addition, it is thought that the bands that occur at 30 kDa in the myofibrillar muscle fraction and at 20.7 kDa at the sarcoplasmic muscle fraction may be related with the degradation of trouts during cold storage.

  10. First Description of a New Disease in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)) Similar to Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI) and Detection of a Gene Sequence Related to Piscine Orthoreovirus (PRV)

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Anne Berit; Hjortaas, Monika; Tengs, Torstein; Hellberg, Hege; Johansen, Renate

    2015-01-01

    In fall 2013, anorexia, lethargy and mortalities up to 10-12,000 dead fish per week were observed in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in three fresh water hatcheries (salinity 0-1 ‰) on the west coast of Norway. The fish (25-100 g) showed signs of circulatory failure with haemorrhages, ascites and anaemia. The histopathological findings comprised inflammation of the heart and red muscle and liver necrosis. The affected fish had a common origin. Disease and mortalities were also observed up to four months after sea water transfer. Microbiological examination did not reveal presence of any known pathogens. Based on histopathological similarities to heart and skeletal inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon, associated with piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), extended investigations to detect a virus within the family Reoviridae were conducted. By the use of primer sets targeting the PRV genome, a sequence with 85% identity to a part of segment S1 of PRV was obtained. Further analysis showed that the virus sequence could only be aligned with PRV and no other reoviruses both on amino acid and nucleotide level. Two PCR assays were developed for specific detection of the virus. High amounts of the virus were detected in diseased fish at all affected farms and low amounts were detected in low prevalence at the broodfish farms. Further investigations are needed to determine if the virus is associated with the new disease in rainbow trout and to further characterize the virus with respect to classification, relationship with PRV, virulence, pathology and epidemiology. PMID:26176955

  11. The association between metabolic rate, immune parameters, and growth performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), following the injection of a DNA vaccine alone and concurrently with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Lisa A; Schulte, P M; Balfry, S K; McKinley, R S; LaPatra, S E

    2010-02-01

    This research demonstrates a significant increase in routine metabolic rate (RMR) following injection of a DNA vaccine concurrently with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine. The increase in RMR was transient and associated with increased activity of both the non-specific and specific immune responses. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with a DNA vaccine (DV), a commercially available polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine (AV), or the two vaccines in combination and sampled at 203, 305, and 406 days (dd) post-vaccine injection (pvi) for RMR and key immune parameters (serum lysozyme activity, serum neutralization antibody titres). The RMR of fish that received both the DV and the AV was significantly higher at 203 dd pvi, compared to fish from all other treatment groups which included the control, the AV, and the DV groups. The increased RMR corresponded to elevated levels of serum lysozyme activity and an earlier seroconversion of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. To determine if growth performance was affected by the transient increase in RMR, specific growth rate (SGR), percent daily weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined at 798, 1204, and 1610 dd pvi. Although fish in all three vaccine groups showed significant increases in SGR and WG at 798 and 1610 dd pvi compared to the control group, the overall weight of the fish was not different at the end of the experiment. In summary, this study shows that concurrent injection of a DV and an AV transiently increases the RMR of rainbow trout and changes the manner in which the immune response occurs, but does not affect the overall growth performance of the fish.

  12. Measuring bioavailable metals using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and transplanted seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus), blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and sea snails (Littorina saxatilis) suspended from monitoring buoys near a former lead-zinc mine in West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Jens; Bach, Lis; Gustavson, Kim

    2014-01-15

    Measuring loads of bioavailable metals is important for environmental assessment near mines and other industrial sources. In this study, a setup of monitoring buoys was tested to assess loads of bioavailable metals near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland using transplanted seaweed, mussels and sea snails. In addition, passive DGT samplers were installed. After a 9-day deployment period, concentrations of especially Pb, Zn and Fe in the species were all markedly elevated at the monitoring sites closest to the mine. Lead concentrations in all three species and the DGT-Pb results showed a significant linear correlation. Zinc and Fe concentrations were less correlated indicating that the mechanisms for Zn and Fe accumulation in the three species are more complex. The results show that there is still a significant load of metals from the mine and that such buoys can be an adequate method to assess present loads of bioavailable metals.

  13. [On the infecstation of musculature in the Pacific salmons from Okhotsk Sea at early sea stage of their life].

    PubMed

    Nomokonova, L A

    2009-01-01

    Data on the infection of the musculature of juvenile salmons Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum, 1792) and O. keta (Walbaum, 1792) with the nematode Anisakis sp. l. and cestode Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp. l. in Okhotsk Sea and adjacent Pacific waters are given. Probable regions where the infestation of juvenile salmons may take place are established. Interspecific differences in the levels of infestation, as well as differences in the invasion of fishes during their migration to ocean are revealed.

  14. Characterization of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Flea and Tick Specimens From Northern Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Northern Peru Patrick J. Blair,1* Ju Jiang,2 George B. Schoeler,1 Cecilia Moron,3 Elizabeth Anaya,3 Manuel Cespedes,3 Christopher Cruz,1 Vidal Felices,1...opossums with human murine typhus, Texas. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:549–554. 9. Bouyer, D. H., J. Stenos, P. Crocquet- Valdes , C. G. Moron, V. L. Popov, J. E

  15. Demand Management: The Primary Care Role at Ireland Army Community Hospital (IACH)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-29

    internal medicine, and pediatrics (Kongstvedt, 2001). The principal role of primary care physicians is an inevitable evolution of managed care (Fox... Moron , Bacchetti, Baker & Bindman, 2001; Zhan, Miller, Wong, & Myer, 2004). A study examining the correlation of preventable hospitalizations and...effectiveness of primary care (Gill & Mainous, 1998; Backus, Moron , Bacchetti, Baker & Bindman, 2001; Bindman, et al., 1995; Zhan, Miller, Wong, & Myer, 2004

  16. Acid rain publications by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villella, Rita F.

    1989-01-01

    Pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems has been a concern to society since the burning of fossil fuels began in the industrial revolution. In the past decade or so, this concern has been heightened by evidence that chemical transformation in the atmosphere of combustion by-products and subsequent long-range transport can cause environmental damage in remote areas. The extent of this damage and the rates of ecological recovery were largely unknown. "Acid rain" became the environmental issue of the 1980's. To address the increasing concerns of the public, in 1980 the Federal government initiated a 10-year interagency research program to develop information that could be used by the President and the Congress in making decisions for emission controls. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has been an active participant in acid precipitation research. The Service provided support to a number of scientific conferences and forums, including the Action Seminar on Acid Precipitation held in Toronto, Canada, in 1979, an international symposium on Acidic Precipitation and Fishery Impacts in Northeastern North America in 1981, and a symposium on Acidic Precipitation and Atmospheric Deposition: A Western Perspective in 1982. These meetings as well as the growing involvement with the government's National Acidic Precipitation Assessment Program placed the Service in the lead in research on the biological effects of acidic deposition. Research projects have encompassed water chemistry, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, fish, and waterfowl. Water quality surveys have been conducted to help determine the extent of acid precipitation effects in the northeast, Middle Atlantic, and Rocky Mountain regions. In addition to lake and stream studies, research in wetland and some terrestrial habitats has also been conducted. Specific projects have addressed important sport species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and striped bass (Morone

  17. Air Mobility Command’s En Route Support Infrastructure: A Construct of Aircraft Type and Geographic Location Utilized to Assess En Route Aircraft Logistic Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and during operations in Kosovo, C-5 major inspections were performed at Moron AB, Spain (AMC, 2002b). 9 Figure 2. Countries Visited by AMC...Minor LTAG Incirlik AB, Turkey 721 AMOG 728 Air Mobility Squadron Minor LPLA Lajes AB, Azores 721 AMOG 729 Air Mobility Squadron Minor LEMO Moron AB...A. (1999). Air mobility: The evolution of global reach. Vienna, VA: PointOne Publishing. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). (2006

  18. Potential mechanisms of attenuation for rifampicin-passaged strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the etiologic agent of bacterial coldwater disease in salmonids. Earlier research showed that a rifampicin-passaged strain of F. psychrophilum (CSF 259-93B 17) caused no disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) while inducing a protective im...

  19. Enhanced efficacy of an attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum strain cultured under iron-limited conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An attenuated strain of Flavobacterium psychrophilum (CSF259-93B.17) has shown potential as a vaccine for prevention of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Because BCWD outbreaks can result in high mortality in other salmonid species, specifically coho...

  20. Flagella biosynthesis and regulation by the Rcs pathway within the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri during infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gram-negative Enterobacterium Yersinia ruckeri is the etiologic agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM) within farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the prevalence of non-motile variants of Y. ruckeri and the appearance of these ...

  1. Flagellar regulation in Yersinia ruckeri during infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gram-negative Enterobacterium Yersinia ruckeri is the etiologic agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM), a septicemia affecting primarily farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the prevalence of non-motile variants of Y. ruckeri a...

  2. Identification Of O-antigen biosynthetic genes specific to Serovar 01 Yersinia Ruckeri: Role in virulence and protective immunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yersinia ruckeri, the etiologic agent of enteric redmouth disease, causes a hemorrhagic septicemia that primarily affects farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Y. ruckeri strains comprise several O-serotypes; however the majority of outbreaks are caused by serotype O1 isolates of this...

  3. Identification of O-Antigen biosynthetic genes specific to Serovar 01 Yersinia Ruckeri: Role in virulence and protective immunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yersinia ruckeri is the etiologic agent of enteric redmouth disease, a hemorrhagic septicemia that primarily affects farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Y. ruckeri strains comprise several O-serotypes; however the vast majority of outbreaks are caused by serotype O1 isolates of this...

  4. Regulation of flagellum biosynthesis within the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yersinia ruckeri, a Gram negative Enterobacterium, is the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM) within farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). There has been an increase of ERM outbreaks in previously vaccinated trout caused by a recently emerged, non-motile variant of Y. r...

  5. Climate change, fish, and aquatic habitat in the Blue Mountains [Chapter 5

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Isaak; Katherine Ramsey; John C. Chatel; Deborah L. Konnoff; Robert A. Gecy; Dona Horan

    2017-01-01

    National Forest System lands in the Blue Mountains region support a diversity of important native aquatic species that will be affected by climate change. As part of the Blue Mountains Adaptation Partnership, four of these species (spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Walbaum in Artedi), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus Suckley), summer steelhead (O....

  6. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Draft Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Alaskan Radar System Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    Dynamics) IV. Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum)," Environment Canada, Fisheries and Marine Service. Tech. Report 530. 6-8 Malcolm, J. M., 1974...arctic char/Dolly Varden. Salvelinus alyinus/Salvelinus malma lake trout Salvelinus namaycush humpback whitefish Corezonus Pidschian round whitefish

  7. A survey of sport fish use on the Copper River Delta, Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Dirk W. Lang

    2010-01-01

    Aerial counts, in-person interviews, and mail-in questionnaires were used to survey sport fish use during the coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) season on the Copper River Delta, Alaska from 2002 through 2006. Angler counts provided an index of use on individual streams and were used to develop a spatial database exhibiting patterns of use...

  8. Persistent effects of wildfire and debris flows on the invertebrate prey base of rainbow trout in Idaho streams

    Treesearch

    Amanda E. Rosenberger; Jason B. Dunham; John M. Buffington; Mark S. Wipfli

    2011-01-01

    Wildfire and debris flows are important physical and ecological drivers in headwater streams of western North America. Past research has primarily examined short-term effects of these disturbances; less is known about longer-term impacts. We investigated wildfire effects on the invertebrate prey base for drift-feeding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) in...

  9. Titre distribution patterns of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in ovarian fluids of hatchery and feral salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.; Jenes, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic mecrosis virus (IHNV) is enzootic in virtually all populations of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and in populations of chinook salmon, O. tshawytscha (Walbaum), of the Sacramento River drainage in California. This disease is an obstacle in hatcheries using brood stocks from these populations. However, naturally spawning sockeye salmon are highly successful and are the most important commercially fished salmon species in the United States. Most of the commercial landings of sockeye salmon are of feral fish originating in Alaska. The success of natural populations of salmon in which IHNV is enzootic, and the recurrent outbreaks of the disease in hatchery fish, led us to compare IHNW prevalence rates in hatchery and feral salmon populations.

  10. From Moral Imbecility to Maladaptive Behavior: The Social Construction of Educable Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelb, Steven A.

    The paper presents the thesis that mild mental subnormality developed as a "scientific," hence natural, explanation for the socially unacceptable behavior of economically marginal persons. The history of such labels as "moron,""imbecile," and "moral imbecile" is traced to the late 19th century emphasis on biology and genetics in human affairs.…

  11. "Just the Way Things Were" or Malicious Intent?: One Professor's Effort to Facilitate Truth--A JRLE Student Voices Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Katherine C.

    2007-01-01

    During a class discussion, a professor placed a quote on the overhead by Lewis Terman, former Stanford professor, APA president, and vicar of IQ testing and gifted education in America. The passage stressed that Mexicans and Blacks are born morons, not capable of learning, and should be segregated from Anglos in special classes. In addition, in…

  12. Bedding Down with C-O-T-S: Leveraging Commercial Industry to Solve the Strategic Airlift Shortfall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Seeb International Al Dahfra Rota Moron Brindisi Pisa Rimini Istres Tuzla Taszar Diego Garcia Source: Maj Gen Don Cook, “Evolving to an...1997 and forecast to maintain at least a 6.7 percent growth rate through 2015 , the world cargo market is one of today’s fastest expanding industries.154

  13. Treating sunshine bass eggs with copper sulfate controls fungus and increases survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

  14. Copper sulfate controls fungus on sunshine bass eggs and increases survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

  15. Bacillus licheniformis isolated during a fishkill is non-pathogenic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When a fish kill occurred in October 2006 in the Corsica River, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay located near Centreville, Maryland, USA, the event affected mostly white perch (Morone americana) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), and a study was performed to determine whether pathogenic o...

  16. The effect of PIT tagging on survival, tag retention, and weight gain in fingerling white bass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We tagged fingerling white bass Morone chrysops with Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) at two body locations (peritoneal cavity and dorsal musculature) and six weight classes (-6, 10, 14, 19, 25, and 30 g) to evaluate survival, tag retention, and weight gain during a 28-day experimental period. ...

  17. The Acme of Skill: Nonkinetic Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    frontmatter.indd 6 7/29/08 12:15:43 PM Introduction The term nonkinetic warfare may seem to be an oxy- moron . How can warfare be described as...the hallmark of the previous two genera- tions of warfare. The authors attribute the evolution of warfare largely to the advancement in technology and

  18. The Role of Range and Speed in the 21st Century: Transforming Air Power through Technology. A Systems Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    costs and sortie costs. Fig. 1: Historical evolution of cost structure. The implication of these findings is that long aircraft range is currently...Jaber AB Kuwait Taszar Hungary Ali Al Salem AB Kuwait All Al Salem AB Kuwait Aviano AB Italy Masirah AB Oman Manas Kyrgyzstan Moron AB Spain Seeb lAP

  19. Strategic Deployment Requirements for an Expeditionary Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-29

    operations will directly depend on effective integration of Army combat system development, deployment infrastructure and evolution of strategic lift...Enduring Freedom, (Air Force Historical Research Agency, 14 November 2002), 6. 40 Eastward, the pilings of the bridge were Moron (Spain), Rhein

  20. United States Transportation Command Annual Command Report 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    environment through the appropriate review and prioritization of command require­ ments and through the continued development and evolution of new...loads trucks with humanitarian supplies for ground transportation at Chaklala C-5A Galaxy aircraft at Moron Air Base, Spain, while deployed in support

  1. Navy and Marine Corps Medical News. Issue 24

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-19

    care, both preventive and restorative, and a powerful component in the scientific evolution of medicine and research. But what sets us apart from...Rota and Moron Airbase selected to man NASA’s Space Shuttle Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) Site. The NASA training course was given to

  2. Air Force Roadmap 2006-2025

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    sensors include the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) system, the Moron Optical Space Surveillance (MOSS) system, the...for a large portion of the space segment communication evolution , including deployment of the Advanced EHF, Wideband Gapfiller System, and the

  3. Joint Military Ethics: A Framework for the Future.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    a vain attempt to put out a forest that is burning to the ground. The military is currently undergoing an evolution in mission and force structure...severely hamper future operations. CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT "A man of character in peace will be a man of courage in war." - Lord Moron By most accounts

  4. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  5. A revision of the Eudarcia glaseri-species group (Lepidoptera, Meessiidae) with description of two new species from Greece and Crimea.

    PubMed

    Bidzilya, Oleksiy V; Budashkin, Yury I; Gaedike, Reinhard

    2016-10-31

    The Eudarcia glaseri-species group is revised. Four species are recognized, two of which are described as new: E. ignorata, sp. n. (Greece) and E. saxatilis, sp. n. (Crimea). E. abchasicum (Zagulajev, 1979) status rev., bona sp. is recalled from synonymy of E. glaseri. Re-descriptions and an identification key for all four species are given. The hitherto unknown females of E. glaseri (Petersen, 1967) and E. armatum (Gaedike, 1985) are described.

  6. Jasminanthes xuanlienensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tran, The Bach; Hai, Do Van; Ha, Bui Thu; Rodda, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Jasminanthes xuanlienensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Vietnam is described, illustrated and compared with its five congeners. Jasminanthes xuanlienensis differs distinctly from congeners by the longer peduncles (14–18 cm vs. 4 cm at most in Jasminanthes pilosa and Jasminanthes saxatilis, salmon-pink color of the inner corolla lobes (white or greenish in the other species), and corolla tube length (12.0–14.5 mm vs. shorter or longer in congeners). PMID:27698580

  7. Jasminanthes xuanlienensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, The Bach; Hai, Do Van; Ha, Bui Thu; Rodda, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Jasminanthes xuanlienensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Vietnam is described, illustrated and compared with its five congeners. Jasminanthes xuanlienensis differs distinctly from congeners by the longer peduncles (14-18 cm vs. 4 cm at most in Jasminanthes pilosa and Jasminanthes saxatilis, salmon-pink color of the inner corolla lobes (white or greenish in the other species), and corolla tube length (12.0-14.5 mm vs. shorter or longer in congeners).

  8. AU-18 Space Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    planning process, as it governs all aspects of the US role in space. Furthermore, fiscal con- siderations both shape and constrain space policy. This...performing COMINT and/or FISINT activities. Figure 13-10. Poppy satellite with multiface de- sign. (Photo taken by the NRL and provided cour- tesy of the...Optical Space Surveillance (MOSS) System was fielded at Moron AB, Spain, during the first quarter of fiscal year 1998. MOSS operates in conjunction

  9. Evolution of the Current Global War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1 GENERAL G. S. MARTIN COMMANDER UNITED STATES AIR FORCES in EUROPE DFI INTERNATIONAL – AIR & SPACE SEMINAR SERIES EVOLUTION OF THE CURRENT...GLOBAL WAR Report Documentation Page Report Date 24Jan2002 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle EVOLUTION OF THE CURRENT...4 800 COOPERATIVE SECURITY Oct 00 – Oct 01 18 Moron AB, SP Sigonella NAS, IT Incirlik AB, TU Ramstein AB, GE Rhein-Main AB, GE FIGHTING

  10. Enhanced Cyberspace Defense through Covert Publish-Subscribe Broker Pattern Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    incorporated into industrial design systems, stock exchanges and in some cases military weapon systems. An important step in the future evolution ...Oblietely, et al [75], traced the evolution of the term “covert channel” through research and scientific journals to discover that indeed, there is...system’s resource allocation and management implementation and violates the system’s security policy [75]. Millen [82] and Morone [80] refined the

  11. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 19, Number 2, Summer 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    99 Richard M. Swain Reviewer: Capt Gilles Van Nederveen, USAF, Retired Blitzkrieg to Desert Storm: The Evolution ...AB, Italy Moron AB, Spain Incirlik AB, Turkey Sigonella AB, Italy Rota AB, Spain Al Udeid AB, Qatar Kuwait Tel Aviv, Israel Cairo, Egypt Lajes... Evolution of an Antiterrorism Program After the collapse of the Soviet Union, po­ litical scientists predicted a new multipolar world—one devoid of the

  12. Micro-spatial distribution of two sibling periwinkle species across the intertidal indicates hybrdization.

    PubMed

    Granovitch, Andrei I; Maximovich, Alexei N; Avanesyan, Alina V; Starunova, Zinaida I; Mikhailova, Natalia A

    2013-09-01

    Populations of periwinkles Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792) and L. arcana Hannaford Ellis, 1978 are well suited for microevolutionary studies, being at the same time closely related and intraspecifically diverse. The divergence between these two sibling species, sympatric over large parts of their distribution areas, is small, the only morphological difference being the pallial gland complex structure in females. Molecular identification is possible with the use of a RAPD nuclear marker (cloned A2.8 DNA fragment) typical for L. arcana. However, in some individuals from sympatric populations molecular and morphological criteria suggest conflicting species affiliation, which may be explained either by hybridization or by shared ancestral polymorphism. We tested the hybridization hypotheses examining the micro-spatial distribution of these two species across the intertidal zone in two distant sites at the Barents Sea. We found that (a) the frequency of putative hybrids in sympatric populations was proportional to the frequency of L. arcana; (b) L. saxatilis bearing A2.8 DNA fragment were almost absent in the lower part of the intertidal zone, where L. arcana was absent too; (c) there was a close positive correlation between the distribution of potential parent molluscs and putative hybrids. Moreover, logistic regression models showed a good agreement between the distribution of putative hybrid frequencies and that of parental species frequencies. All our observations taken together support the hypothesis of hybridization between L. saxatilis and L. arcana. Elucidating the mechanisms that support the species status of these sympatric populations is necessary.

  13. The Littorina sequence database (LSD)--an online resource for genomic data.

    PubMed

    Canbäck, Björn; André, Carl; Galindo, Juan; Johannesson, Kerstin; Johansson, Tomas; Panova, Marina; Tunlid, Anders; Butlin, Roger

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive, searchable expressed sequence tag database for the periwinkle snail Littorina saxatilis, an upcoming model species in evolutionary biology. The database is the result of a hybrid assembly between Sanger and 454 sequences, 1290 and 147,491 sequences respectively. Normalized and non-normalized cDNA was obtained from different ecotypes of L. saxatilis collected in the UK and Sweden. The Littorina sequence database (LSD) contains 26,537 different contigs, of which 2453 showed similarity with annotated proteins in UniProt. Querying the LSD permits the selection of the taxonomic origin of blast hits for each contig, and the search can be restricted to particular taxonomic groups. The database allows access to UniProt annotations, blast output, protein family domains (PFAM) and Gene Ontology. The database will allow users to search for genetic markers and identifying candidate genes or genes for expression analyses. It is open for additional deposition of sequence information for L. saxatilis and other species of the genus Littorina. The LSD is available at http://mbio-serv2.mbioekol.lu.se/Littorina/.

  14. Resistance to freshwater exposure in White Sea Littorina spp. I: Anaerobic metabolism and energetics.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, I M; Bock, C; Pörtner, H O

    2000-03-01

    Anaerobic metabolism and changes in the osmotic concentration of extravisceral fluid were studied in the White Sea periwinkles (Littorina littorea, Littorina saxatilis and Littorina obtusata) during freshwater exposure. Resistance to hypoosmotic stress increased in the order: L. obtusata < L. saxatilis < L. littorea. Our data suggest that osmotic shock is not a primary reason for mortality of the periwinkles under these conditions. During environmental anaerobiosis, considerable succinate accumulation (up to 10(-19) micromol g(-1) wet weight), and depletion of phosphagen and ATP pools were found in the studied species. Other metabolic end products (alanopine, strombine, lactate, acetate or propionate) were not detected. Succinate accumulation and net ATP breakdown were the fastest in the least resistant species, L. obtusata, and slowest in the most resistant, L. littorea. Rate of ATP turnover decreased during freshwater exposure in L. littorea and L. saxatilis, but not in L. obtusata. Our data suggest that differential resistance of three studied Littorina spp. to extreme hypoosmotic stress may be related to their different abilities to reduce metabolic rate and ATP turnover during sustained anoxia. Species-specific variations in anaerobic capacity of Littorina spp. are discussed in relation to their vertical distribution, size and ecology.

  15. Reproduktionsbiologische Untersuchungen an drei Littorina-Arten der südlichen Nordsee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, C. S.; Götting, K.-J.

    1985-06-01

    Populations of Littorina mariae, L. obtusata and L. saxatilis from the coast near Roscoff (Brittany), from the North Sea islands Helgoland and Sylt were investigated with regard to several characters of their reproductive biology. Important factors are body size and weight, maturation size, shell thickness, sex ratio and reproductive effort of adults as well as number, size and mortality of embryos. Mature L. saxatilis individuals inhabiting sandy shores are smaller and have thinner shells and higher reproductive effort than those on rocky coasts. On shores with loose and semipermanent boulders the adults are clearly larger. Interannual variations in some life history parameters may be explained by changes in food supply. In populations with small adults, ♀ ♀ are bigger than ♂ ♂. In localities where L. mariae and L. obtusata occur sympatrically, a tendency to accentuate interspecific contrast is recognized. Life history patterns, especially in L. saxatilis populations, show two tendencies: (a) a rapid increase of shell-size and thickness, which offers better chances of survival and of maximizing clutch-size and clutch-numbers during life-time; (b) early entrance into maturity leads to accelerated reproduction, but life expectation is reduced. Both tendencies are balanced by the action of biotic and abiotic factors.

  16. Systematics of Juniperus section Juniperus based on leaf essential oils and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs).

    PubMed

    Adams

    2000-07-01

    The composition of the leaf essential oils of all the species of Juniperus in sect. Juniperus (=sect. Oxycedrus) are reported and compared (J. brevifolia, J. cedrus, J. communis, J. c. var. saxatilis, J. c. var. oblonga, J. formosana, J. oxycedrus, J. o. subsp. badia, J. o. subsp. macrocarpa, J. o. subsp. transtagana, J. rigida, J. r. subsp. conferta, J. sibirica, J. taxifolia and J. t. var. lutchuensis). In addition, DNA fingerprinting by RAPDs was utilized. Based on these data, several taxa remained at the same taxonomic level: J. brevifolia, J. cedrus, J. communis, J. c. var. saxatilis, J. formosana, J. oxycedrus, J. rigida, J. r. var. conferta, and J. taxifolia. However, several taxa exhibited considerable differentiation that warranted their recognition at the specific level: J. oblonga M.-Bieb. (=J. communis var. oblonga), J. badia H. Gay (=J. oxycedrus subsp. badia), J. macrocarpa Sibth. and Sm. (=J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa), J. navicularis Gand. (=J. oxycedrus subsp. transtagana), J. sibirica Brugsd. (=J. communis var. saxatilis in part), and J. lutchuensis Koidz. (= J. taxifolia var. lutchuensis).

  17. Fragmenting networks by targeting collective influencers at a mesoscopic level.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-11-25

    A practical approach to protecting networks against epidemic processes such as spreading of infectious diseases, malware, and harmful viral information is to remove some influential nodes beforehand to fragment the network into small components. Because determining the optimal order to remove nodes is a computationally hard problem, various approximate algorithms have been proposed to efficiently fragment networks by sequential node removal. Morone and Makse proposed an algorithm employing the non-backtracking matrix of given networks, which outperforms various existing algorithms. In fact, many empirical networks have community structure, compromising the assumption of local tree-like structure on which the original algorithm is based. We develop an immunization algorithm by synergistically combining the Morone-Makse algorithm and coarse graining of the network in which we regard a community as a supernode. In this way, we aim to identify nodes that connect different communities at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed algorithm works more efficiently than the Morone-Makse and other algorithms on networks with community structure.

  18. Fragmenting networks by targeting collective influencers at a mesoscopic level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-11-01

    A practical approach to protecting networks against epidemic processes such as spreading of infectious diseases, malware, and harmful viral information is to remove some influential nodes beforehand to fragment the network into small components. Because determining the optimal order to remove nodes is a computationally hard problem, various approximate algorithms have been proposed to efficiently fragment networks by sequential node removal. Morone and Makse proposed an algorithm employing the non-backtracking matrix of given networks, which outperforms various existing algorithms. In fact, many empirical networks have community structure, compromising the assumption of local tree-like structure on which the original algorithm is based. We develop an immunization algorithm by synergistically combining the Morone-Makse algorithm and coarse graining of the network in which we regard a community as a supernode. In this way, we aim to identify nodes that connect different communities at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed algorithm works more efficiently than the Morone-Makse and other algorithms on networks with community structure.

  19. Fragmenting networks by targeting collective influencers at a mesoscopic level

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    A practical approach to protecting networks against epidemic processes such as spreading of infectious diseases, malware, and harmful viral information is to remove some influential nodes beforehand to fragment the network into small components. Because determining the optimal order to remove nodes is a computationally hard problem, various approximate algorithms have been proposed to efficiently fragment networks by sequential node removal. Morone and Makse proposed an algorithm employing the non-backtracking matrix of given networks, which outperforms various existing algorithms. In fact, many empirical networks have community structure, compromising the assumption of local tree-like structure on which the original algorithm is based. We develop an immunization algorithm by synergistically combining the Morone-Makse algorithm and coarse graining of the network in which we regard a community as a supernode. In this way, we aim to identify nodes that connect different communities at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed algorithm works more efficiently than the Morone-Makse and other algorithms on networks with community structure. PMID:27886251

  20. [The divergence of the dolly varden char Salvelinus malma in Asian Northern Pacific populations inferred from the PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, V A

    2002-10-01

    Genetic differentiation of the dolly varden char Salvelinus malma Walbaum was studied in five populations from the western part of the Northern Pacific. Using restriction analysis (RFLP), we examined polymorphism of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments amplified in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MtDNA haplotypes were shown to fall into two phylogenetic groups, which probably reflect the existence of two previously described subspecies of Asian dolly varden, S. malma malma and S. malma krascheninnikovi. The divergence of mtDNA nucleotide sequences in the dolly varden subspecies (about 4%) corresponds to the differences between the valid char species from the genus Salvelinus.

  1. Degradation of organophosphates by fish liver phosphatases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, James W.; Knowles, Charles O.

    1968-01-01

    Liver homogenates of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, and channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Walbaum), were shown by a manometric technique to contain soluble enzymes capable of degrading diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) and 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (dichlorvos). Hydrolysis of the compounds was greatest in the presence of the manganic ion. Tentative identification of certain of the hydrolysis products suggested that cleavage of the anhydride bond was a degradation pathway for DFP and dichlorvos in vitro under the assay conditions employed. Substrate summation, inhibition, and activation experiments failed to clearly indicate more than a single enzyme hydrolyzing DFP and dichlorvos in the two fish.

  2. Piscine reovirus in wild and farmed salmonids in British Columbia, Canada: 1974-2013.

    PubMed

    Marty, G D; Morrison, D B; Bidulka, J; Joseph, T; Siah, A

    2015-08-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) was common among wild and farmed salmonids in British Columbia, western Canada, from 1987 to 2013. Salmonid tissues tested for PRV by real-time rRT-PCR included sections from archived paraffin blocks from 1974 to 2008 (n = 363) and fresh-frozen hearts from 2013 (n = 916). The earliest PRV-positive sample was from a wild-source steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from 1977. By histopathology (n = 404), no fish had lesions diagnostic for heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). In some groups, lymphohistiocytic endocarditis affected a greater proportion of fish with PRV than fish without PRV, but the range of Ct values among affected fish was within the range of Ct values among unaffected fish. Also, fish with the lowest PRV Ct values (18.4-21.7) lacked endocarditis or any other consistent lesion. From 1987 to 1994, the proportion of PRV positives was not significantly different between farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (44% of 48), and wild-source salmonids (31% of 45). In 2013, the proportion of PRV positives was not significantly different between wild coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), sampled from British Columbia (5.0% of 60) or the reference region, Alaska, USA (10% of 58). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Assessment of the Fishery Improvement Opportunities on the Pend Oreille River, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Michael R.; Willms, Roger A.; Scholz, Allan T.

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the fishery improvement opportunities on the Box Canyon portion of the Pend Oreille River. This report contains the findings of the first year of the study. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Richardson)) were present in the Pend Oreille River prior to the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The river also contained native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson)), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus (Walbaum)) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni (Girard)). Rainbow trout were planted in the river and some grew to lengths in excess of 30 inches. With the construction of Box Canyon Dam, in 1955, the most productive section of the river was inundated. Following the construction of the dam the trout fishery declined and the populations of spiny ray fish and rough fish increased. The objectives of the first year of the study were to determine the relative abundance of each species in the river and sloughs; the population levels in fish in the river and four selected tributaries; fish growth rates; the feeding habits and abundance of preferred prey; the migration patterns; and the total fishing pressure, catch per unit effort, and total harvest by conducting a year-round creel survey. 132 refs.

  4. A comparative study on the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of five Juniperus taxa.

    PubMed

    Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Güvenç, Ayşegül; Yesilada, Erdem

    2009-09-07

    Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) species have been used to various inflammatory and infectious diseases such as bronchitis, colds, cough, fungal infections, hemorrhoids, gynecological diseases, and wounds in Turkish folk medicine. To evaluate this traditional information, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts prepared from different parts (stem, fruit and leaves) of the five Turkish taxa under Juniperus section of the gender; J. drupacea, J. communis var. communis, J. communis var. saxatilis, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, and J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa growing were investigated. For the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced and PGE(2)-induced hind paw edema models, and for the antinociceptive activity p-benzoquinone-induced writhing and hot plate tests in mice were employed. The methanolic extracts of fruit and leaves from J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. communis var. saxatilis exhibited notable inhibition in carrageenan-induced edema model at a dose of 100mg/kg. The same extracts also displayed significant activity against PGE(2)-induced edema model. While, the remaining extracts were found inactive against these edema models. A similar activity pattern was observed against p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test without inducing any gastric damage or apparent acute toxicity, whereas all extracts were inactive in hot plate test. The experimental data demonstrated that J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. communis var. saxatilis displayed remarkable anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities; however, further studies are warranted to define and isolate the active anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive components from these active species which may yield safe and effective agents to be used in the treatment of inflammatory disorders.

  5. Final Environmental Impact Statement. F-15E Beddown at Seymour Johnson AFB, North Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-18

    problem of aircraft disturbance to fish and wildlife sonic booms on fish and wildlife. Center staff have rst-mch occurs over a wide geographic area...of hatchery striped bass (or portions thereof) are available at no cost to Service ficd (Morone ai=dlis) due to high-intensity sonic booms...Point I2-45 2-45 ................. EFFECTS OF AIRCRAFT NOISE AND SONIC BOOMS m ON FISH AND WILDLIFE RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF m U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE

  6. Impact of Spontaneous Prophage Induction on the Fitness of Bacterial Populations and Host-Microbe Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Arun M.; Thormann, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages and genetic elements, such as prophage-like elements, pathogenicity islands, and phage morons, make up a considerable amount of bacterial genomes. Their transfer and subsequent activity within the host's genetic circuitry have had a significant impact on bacterial evolution. In this review, we consider what underlying mechanisms might cause the spontaneous activity of lysogenic phages in single bacterial cells and how the spontaneous induction of prophages can lead to competitive advantages for and influence the lifestyle of bacterial populations or the virulence of pathogenic strains. PMID:25404701

  7. [Aspergillus infection in skin transplantation and its therapy].

    PubMed

    Bauer, U; Staib, F; Hasse, W

    1975-06-01

    In a 10 years old girl sustaining a corrosive injury of the lower leg from sulphuric acid, in the region of a skin transplantation colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenium) and Aspergillus niger (van Tieghem) took place. This infection endangered the attempt of transplantation and the saving of the foot. Treatment by medication with nystatin (moronal) and canesten (clotrimazol) were ineffective. Pimaricin (pimafucin, natamycin) quickly erradicated the mycotic infection and secured an undisturbed progress for the transplantation. Additionally the epidemiology of infections by Aspergillus is briefly discussed.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: White bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Karen; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1984-01-01

    Habitat characteristics important to white bass (Morone chrysops) are reviewed in this report using two techniques developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM). The Suitability Index (SI) curves and graphs and Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models developed in this report are based primarily on a synthesis of information obtained from a review of literature concerning the habitat requirements of the species. A discussion of IFIM and white bass SI curves available for use with IFIM is included.

  9. Canadian Decisions in a Shifting North American Security Landscape

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    reentered the relationship, and hit a low with the “ moron comment” made by a Chretien aide at NATO’s Prague Summit in November, 2002. The Prime...Joel J. Sokolsky, “Glued to Its Seat: Canada, Peacekeeping and the Western Alliance in the Post-Cold War Era,” The Transatlantic Link in Evolution ...Alliance in the Post- Cold War Era,” The Transatlantic Link in Evolution : What has Changed Since 11 September 2001, Martello Paper 25, ed. Charles C

  10. [Differentiation of Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma from Asia and North America inferred from PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, V A; Crane, P A; Wenburg, J K

    2005-05-01

    Genetic differentiation of Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma Walbaum from the Asian and North American Pacific coasts was studied. We examined restriction fragment length polymorphism of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments amplified in polymerase chain reaction, which encoded four NADH dehydrogenase subunits, the cytochrome b gene, and a D-loop segment. The mtDNA haplotypes were shown to form three phylogenetic groups, whose geographic distribution corresponded to three Dolly Varden subspecies: S. malma malma, S. malma krascheninnikovi, and S. malma lordi. The nucleotide sequence divergence between S. malma malma and S. malma krascheninnikovi was 3.8%; between S. malma malma and S. malma lordi, 3.1%; and between S. malma krascheninnikovi and S. malma lordi, 2.5%. The northern Dolly Varden S. malma malma from Asia was shown to be genetically identical to that from North America.

  11. EMG telemetry studies on upstream migration of chum salmon in the Toyohira River, Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Makiguchi, Yuya; Konno, Yoshifumi; Konishi, Koji; Miyoshi, Koji; Sakashita, Taku; Nii, Hisaya; Nakao, Katsuya; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    The movements of 28 adult chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) tagged with electromyogram (EMG) transmitters were tracked along the Toyohira river, Hokkaido, Japan, in October of 2007 and 2008 to investigate and evaluate the upstream migratory behavior through the protection bed and fishway of ground sills. The approach time of fish that ascended successfully through the protection bed and fishway was shorter than that of unsuccessful fish. The unsuccessful fish were observed to swim in currents with high water velocity and shallow water depth at swimming speeds that exceeded their critical swimming speed (U (crit)) during the approach to these structures. In consequence, unsuccessful fish frequently alternated between burst and maximum sustained speeds without ever ascending the fishway, and eventually became exhausted. It is important that fishway are constructed to enable chum salmon to find a passage way easily, so that they can migrate upstream rapidly without wasting excessive energy.

  12. Detection of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in river water and demonstration of waterborne transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.; Jenes, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the possible role of waterborne infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in transmission of the disease among spawning sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), both infection rates and virus titres were higher in fish held at high density in a side channel than in fish in the adjacent river. Virus was never isolated from river water, but was found in water from the side channel at levels ranging from 32.5 to 1600 plaque-forming units (p.f.u.)/ml. Uninfected yearling sockeye salmon held in a box in the side channel developed localized gill infections with IHN virus. The disease did not progress to the viscera until a threshold titre of about 105 p.f.u./g was reached in the gill. The effectiveness of the gill as a barrier limiting development of systemic infections means that waterborne IHN virus probably does not greatly increase the infection rate in a sockeye salmon population during spawning.

  13. Detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in river water and demonstration of waterborne transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Pascho, Ronald J.; Jenes, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the possible role of waterborne infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in transmission of the disease among spawning sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), both infection rates and virus titres were higher in fish held at high density in a side channel than in fish in the adjacent river. Virus was never isolated from river water, but was found in water from the side channel at levels ranging from 32.5 to 1600 plaque-forming units (p.f.u.)/ml. Uninfected yearling sockeye salmon held in a box in the side channel developed localized gill infections with IHN virus. The disease did not progress to the viscera until a threshold titre of about 105 p.f.u./g was reached in the gill. The effectiveness of the gill as a barrier limiting development of systemic infections means that waterborne IHN virus probably does not greatly increase the infection rate in a sockeye salmon population during spawning.

  14. Spatial variation in life history characteristics of common megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) on the Northern Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, P.; Angus (née Laurenson), C. H.; Marshall, C. T.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years stock structure recommendations for megrim on the Northern Shelf have varied, primarily due to a lack of biological and fishery data. In this study, we compared a number of life history characteristics of the common megrim Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum) between the northern North Sea and Rockall, the latitudinal extremes of the species' distribution on the Northern Shelf. Reproductive timing, sex ratio, maturity and growth were different between the two study areas. Reproductive timing in the northern North Sea was more protracted than at Rockall and other areas. There were differences in sex ratio between the study areas and female megrim in the northern North Sea exhibited different growth rates and larger size at maturity than at Rockall. The results of this study support the recent changes to the definition of the Northern Shelf stocks which recommend that the northern North Sea be treated separately to Rockall.

  15. Occurrence and morphogenetic characteristics of Gyrodactylus (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from a rainbow trout farm (Lake Ladoga, Russia).

    PubMed

    Ieshko, Evgeny; Barskaya, Yulia; Parshukov, Aleksey; Lumme, Jaakko; Khlunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Gyrodactylus parasite infected juveniles on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) from a fish farm in Lake Ladoga were investigated. The observed cases of infection in fish featured a high prevalence, when almost all of the fish were infected. However, if an outbreak of the monogenean infection is observed in spring, the intensity of the infection may be low, and when the infection occurs in the ice-covered period (late autumn - winter), the number of parasites on the fins of a single fish may exceed 3000 specimens. Molecular identification of the parasite demonstrated that the infecting clone was identical with rainbow trout specific strain of Gyrodactylus salaris RBT widely spread in Northern Europe, but a small proportion of the parasites were the hybrid clone Gyrodactylus pomeraniae x G. lavareti. Morphological variations of hooks and other opisthaptor parts in the monogenean Gyrodactylus depending on the intensity of infection in rainbow trout were demonstrated.

  16. Some enzymatic properties of brain Acetylcholinesterase from bluegill and channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, James W.; Knowles, Charles O.

    1968-01-01

    Using a manometric technique an acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7, acetylcholine acetyl-hydrolase) was demonstrated in brain tissue from the bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, and the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Walbaum). The activities were 19 and 37 μmoles acetylcholine hydrolyzed/milligram protein per hour for the bluegill and channel catfish enzymes, respectively. The optimum substrate concentration for the hydrolysis of acetylcholine was 10 mMfor the enzymes from both species. Generally, the catfish acetylcholinesterase was somewhat more susceptible than the bluegill to the inhibitors tested; however, the bluegill enzyme was more susceptible to inhibition by malathion and malaoxon.

  17. Efficacy of selected oral chemotherapeutants against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora: Ophyroglenidae) infecting rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Andrew P; Wootten, Rodney; Côté, Isabelle; Sommerville, Christina

    2003-06-20

    The chemotherapeutic efficacy of 6 in-feed compounds against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 was assessed using experimental infections of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) fingerlings. Trial doses of 104 ppm amprolium hydrochloride or 65 ppm clopidol fed to fish for 10 d prior to infection significantly reduced the number of trophonts establishing in trout fingerlings by 62.0 and 35.2% respectively. In-feed treatments of infected trout with either 63 or 75 ppm amprolium hydrochloride, 92 ppm clopidol, or 38, 43 or 47 ppm salinomycin sodium for 10 d also significantly reduced the number of surviving trophonts by 77.6 and 32.2% for amprolium, 20.1% for clopidol and 80.2, 71.9 and 93.3% respectively for salinomycin sodium.

  18. Suppression of invasive lake trout in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredenberg, C. R.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Syslo, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Fisheries managers have implemented suppression programmes to control non-native lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum), in several lakes throughout the western United States. This study determined the feasibility of experimentally suppressing lake trout using gillnets in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, for the conservation of threatened bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Suckley). The demographics of the lake trout population during suppression (2009–2013) were described, and those data were used to assess the effects of suppression scenarios on population growth rate (λ) using an age-structured population model. Model simulations indicated that the population was growing exponentially (λ = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16–1.28) prior to suppression. However, suppression resulted in declining λ(0.61–0.79) for lake trout, which was concomitant with stable bull trout adult abundances. Continued suppression at or above observed exploitation levels is needed to ensure continued population declines.

  19. A riverscape perspective of Pacific salmonids and aquatic habitats prior to large-scale dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, S.J.; Duda, J.J.; Torgersen, C.E.; Welty, E.; Pess, G.R.; Peters, R.; McHenry, M.L.

    2012-01-01

     Dam removal has been increasingly proposed as a river restoration technique. In 2011, two large hydroelectric dams will be removed from Washington State’s Elwha River. Ten anadromous fish populations are expected to recolonise historical habitats after dam removal. A key to understanding watershed recolonisation is the collection of spatially continuous information on fish and aquatic habitats. A riverscape approach with an emphasis on biological data has rarely been applied in mid-sized, wilderness rivers, particularly in consecutive years prior to dam removal. Concurrent snorkel and habitat surveys were conducted from the headwaters to the mouth (rkm 65–0) of the Elwha River in 2007 and 2008. This riverscape approach characterised the spatial extent, assemblage structure and patterns of relative density of Pacific salmonids. The presence of dams influenced the longitudinal patterns of fish assemblages, and species richness was the highest downstream of the dams, where anadromous salmonids still have access. The percent composition of salmonids was similar in both years for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), coastal cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii (Richardson) (89%; 88%), Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum) (8%; 9%), and bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Suckley) (3% in both years). Spatial patterns of abundance for rainbow and cutthroat trout (r = 0.76) and bull trout (r = 0.70) were also consistent between years. Multivariate and univariate methods detected differences in habitat structure along the river profile caused by natural and anthropogenic factors. The riverscape view highlighted species-specific biological hotspots and revealed that 60–69% of federally threatened bull trout occurred near or below the dams. Spatially continuous surveys will be vital in evaluating the effectiveness of upcoming dam removal projects at restoring anadromous salmonids.

  20. Alien molluscan species established along the Italian shores: an update, with discussions on some Mediterranean “alien species” categories

    PubMed Central

    Crocetta, Fabio; Macali, Armando; Furfaro, Giulia; Cooke, Samantha; Guido Villani; Valdés, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The state of knowledge of the alien marine Mollusca in Italy is reviewed and updated. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), Polycera hedgpethi Er. Marcus, 1964 and Haminoea japonica Pilsbry, 1895are here considered as established on the basis of published and unpublished data, and recent records of the latter considerably expand its known Mediterranean range to the Tyrrhenian Sea. COI sequences obtained indicate that a comprehensive survey of additional European localities is needed to elucidate the dispersal pathways of Haminoea japonica.Recent records and interpretation of several molluscan taxa as alien are discussed both in light of new Mediterranean (published and unpublished) records and of four categories previously excluded from alien species lists. Within this framework, ten taxa are no longer considered as alien species, or their records from Italy are refuted. Furthermore, Trochocochlea castriotae Bellini, 1903 is considered a new synonym for Gibbula albida (Gmelin, 1791). Data provided here leave unchanged as 35 the number of alien molluscan taxa recorded from Italy as well as the percentage of the most plausible vectors of introduction, but raise to 22 the number of established species along the Italian shores during the 2005–2010 period, and backdate to 1792 the first introduction of an alien molluscan species (Littorina saxatilis) to the Italian shores. PMID:23794825

  1. Introduction of non-native marine fish species to the Canary Islands waters through oil platforms as vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajuelo, José G.; González, José A.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Martín, José A.; Ruiz-Díaz, Raquel; Lorenzo, José M.; Luque, Ángel

    2016-11-01

    This work documents the introduction of non-native fish species to the Canary Islands (central-eastern Atlantic) through oil rigs. Methodological approaches have included surveys by underwater visual censuses around and under oil platforms and along the docking area of rigs at the Port of Las Palmas. Eleven non-native fish species were registered. Paranthias furcifer, Abudefduf hoefleri, Acanthurus bahianus, Acanthurus chirurgus, and Acanthurus coeruleus are first recorded from the Canaries herein. Other three species could not be identified, although they have never been observed in the Canaries. Cephalopholis taeniops, Abudefduf saxatilis, and Acanthurus monroviae had been previously recorded. Native areas of these species coincide with the areas of origin and the scale of oil rigs with destination the Port of Las Palmas. The absence of native species in the censuses at rigs and their presence at rigs docking area, together with the observation of non-native species after the departure of platforms, reject the possibility that these non-native species were already present in the area introduced by another vector. C. taeniops, A. hoefleri, A. saxatilis, A. chirurgus, A. coeruleus and A. monroviae are clearly seafarer species. A. bahianus seems to be a potential seafarer species. P. furcifer is a castaway species. For the moment, the number of individuals of the non-native species in marine ecosystems of the Canaries seems to be low, and more investigation is needed for controlling these translocations.

  2. Trophic ecology of the supralittoral rocky shore (Roscoff, France): A dual stable isotope (δ 13C, δ 15N) and experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurand, Sandrine; Riera, Pascal

    2006-07-01

    The present study investigates the trophic transfers on the upper littoral rocky shore (i.e. the supralittoral zone together with the upper midlittoral and adlittoral) of northern Brittany. The population mainly consists of four invertebrate species: the littorinids Littorina saxatilis and Melarhaphe neritoides, the isopod Ligia oceanica and the insect Petrobius maritimus. The utilisation of food sources available to these grazers was examined in a laboratory microcosm feeding experiment and a field study using stable isotopes (δ 13C, δ 15N). The results indicated that although Ligia oceanica preferentially occurs in the supralittoral zone, its trophic subsidies originate mostly from the adlittoral and lower intertidal zones. The stable isotope data also suggested that adlittoral terrestrial organic material may be the major food source of Petrobius maritimus. δ 15N of Littorina saxatilis indicated a highly variable diet consisting of supralittoral lichens, midlittoral macroalgae and other food sources (e.g. microalgae). Both feeding experiments and stable isotope data show that only Melarhaphe neritoides has a clearly identifiable diet based on a mixture of lichens, mostly Verrucaria maura and Caloplaca marina, as estimated by an isotopic mixing model. Hence, the food web of this intertidal zone appears largely based on trophic subsidies from other habitats (i.e. upper and lower intertidal zones).

  3. Genetic Identification of Spirometra decipiens Plerocercoids in Terrestrial Snakes from Korea and China.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Park, Hansol; Lee, Dongmin; Choe, Seongjun; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-04-01

    Human sparganosis is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with larval forms (procercoid/plerocercoid) of Spirometra spp. The purpose of this study was to identify Spirometra spp. of infected snakes using a multiplex PCR assay and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the spargana of terrestrial snakes obtained from Korea and China. A total of 283 snakes were obtained that included 4 species of Colubridae comprising Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus (n=150), Dinodon rufozonatum rufozonatum (n=64), Elaphe davidi (n=2), and Elaphe schrenkii (n=7), and 1 species of Viperidae, Agkistrodon saxatilis (n=60). The snakes were collected from the provinces of Chungbuk, Chungnam, and Gyeongbuk in Korea (n=161), and from China (n=122). The overall infection rate with spargana was 83% (235/283). The highest was recorded for D. rufozonatum rufozonatum (100%), followed by A. saxatilis (85%) and R. tigrinus tigrinus (80%), with a negative result for E. davidi (0%) and E. schrenkii (0%). The sequence identities between the spargana from snakes (n=50) and Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (KJ599680) or S. decipiens (KJ599679) control specimens were 90.8% and 99.2%, respectively. Pairwise genetic distances between spargana (n=50) and S. decipiens ranged from 0.0080 to 0.0107, while those between spargana and S. erinaceieuropaei ranged from 0.1070 to 0.1096. In this study, all of the 904 spargana analyzed were identified as S. decipiens either by a multiplex PCR assay (n=854) or mitochondrial cox1 sequence analysis (n=50).

  4. [Systematics and genegeography of Juniperus communis inferred from isoenzyme data].

    PubMed

    Khantemirova, E V; Berkutenko, A N; Semerikov, V L

    2012-09-01

    Using isoenzyme analysis, 35 populations of Juniperus communis L. from various parts of the Russian species range and by one population from Sweden and Alaska were studied. The total sample size was 1200 plants. As a result, the existence ofJ. communis var. oblonga in North Caucasus and J. communis var. depressa in North America was confirmed, but genetic differences between J. communis var. communis and J. communis var. saxatilis were not detected in the main part of the Russian species range (European part of Russia, Ural, Siberia). These populations proved to be genetically uniform with the same predominant allelic frequencies, which may evidence recent settling of this species from one of Central or East European refugium. J. communis var. saxatilis from northeastern Russia inhabiting the region behind Verkhoyansk mountain and Russian Far East showed considerable differentiation in frequencies of alleles at three loci and geographical subdivision. These populations also exhibit high intrapopulation variation. This can be connected with the refugium in this territory. The origin of this group is probably connected with migrations from Central Asia (Tibet) in the direction to northeastern Russia along mountains connecting Central and North Asia. It is also assumed that migrations of this species previously proceeded across the Beringian land bridge.

  5. Fatty acid composition of Juniperus species (Juniperus section) native to Turkey.

    PubMed

    Güvenç, Aysegül; Küçükboyaci, Nurgün; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acid compositions of seeds of five taxa of the Juniperus section of the genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae), i. e. J. drupacea Lab., J. communis L. var. communis, J. communis var. saxatilis Pall., J. oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus, and J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball, were investigated. Methyl ester derivatized fatty acids of the lipophylic extracts of the five species were comparatively analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Juniperus taxa showed uniform fatty acid patterns, among which linoleic (25.8 - 32.5%), pinolenic (11.9 - 24.1%) and oleic acids (12.4 - 17.2%) were determined to be the main fractions in the seed oils. Juniperonic acid was found to be remarkably high in J. communis var. saxatilis (11.4%), J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus (10.4%), and J. communis var. communis (10.1%). To the best of our knowledge, the present work discloses the first report on the fatty acid compositions of seeds of this Juniperus section grown in Turkey.

  6. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2013-10-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts.

  7. Effects of implantation method and temperature on mortality and loss of simulated transmitters in hybrid striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.G.; Bjorgo, K.A.; Isely, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the effects of surgical implantation method and temperature on mortality and transmitter loss, we compared two antenna placements (trailing antenna versus shielded needle) and two suture materials (absorbable versus nonabsorbable) in hybrid striped bass Morone saxitilis x Morone chrysops (227-410 mm total length) that had been surgically implanted with simulated transmitters and held at high (22-29??C) and low (12-18??C) temperatures for 120 d. Fish were individually examined after 7, 30, 60. 90. and 120 d to evaluate suture and wound condition as well as transmitter loss. Neither suture material nor antenna placement affected transmitter loss, mortality, or growth at either high or low temperatures. Absorbable sutures were lost more quickly than were nonabsorbable sutures, but they persisted beyond incision closure at both high and low temperatures. At high temperatures, 50% suture loss occurred by 30 d for absorbable sutures and by 60 d for nonabsorbable sutures. Mortality occurred only at high temperatures but was delayed and was likely caused by peritoneal infection. Transmitter loss was not significant; it occurred only in the low-temperature trial and was caused by pressure necrosis at the incision rather than by suture failure. Temperature significantly affected all responses examined in this study. Significant irritation, infection, and mortality occurred in all treatment groups at high temperatures.

  8. Paleozoic tectonics in the eastern part of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Li, Weimin; Feng, Zhiqiang; Neubauer, Franz

    2017-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is the largest accretionary orogen in the world, which is responsible for considerable Phanerozoic juvenile crustal growth. The NE China and its adjacent areas compose the eastern segment of the CAOB, which is a key area for providing important evidence of the CAOB evolution and understanding the NE Asian tectonics. The eastern segment of the CAOB is composed tectonically of four micro-blocks and four sutures, i.e. Erguna block (EB), Xing'an block (XB), Songliao-Xilinhot block (SXB), Jiamusi block (JB), Xinlin-Xiguitu suture (XXS), Heihe-Hegenshan suture (HHS), Mudanjiang-Yilan suture (MYS) and Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun-Yanji suture (SXCYS). The EB and XB were amalgamated by westward subduction, oceanic island accretions and final collision in ca. 500 Ma. The XB and SXB were amalgamated by subduction-related Early Paleozoic marginal arc, Late Paleozoic marginal arc and final collision in the late Early Carboniferous to early Late Carboniferous. The JB probably had been attached to the SXB in the Early Paleozoic, but broken apart from the SXB in the Triassic and collided back in the Jurassic. The closure of Paleo-Asian Ocean had experienced a long continue/episodic subduction-accretion processes on margins of the NCC to the south and the SXB to the north from the Early to Late Paleozoic. The final closure happened along the SXCYS, from west Solonker, Sonid Youqi, Kedanshan (Keshenketengqi), Xar Moron River through Songliao Basin via Kailu, Tongliao, Horqin Zuoyizhongqi, Changchun, to the east Panshi, Huadian, Dunhua, Yanji, with a scissors style closure in time from the Late Permian-Early Triassic in the west to the Late Permian-Middle Triassic in the east. The amalgamated blocks should compose a united micro-continent, named as Jiamusi-Mongolia Block (JMB) after Early Carboniferous, which bounded by Mongo-Okhotsk suture to the northwest, Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun suture to the south and the eastern margin of JB to the

  9. Development of microsatellite markers using Illumina MiSeq sequencing to characterize Ephedra gerardiana (Ephedraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    De, Ji; Zhu, Weidong; Liu, Tianmeng; Wang, Zhe; Zhong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Ephedra gerardiana (Ephedraceae), occurring in the Himalayan ranges, is an important plant species used in Tibetan medicine. Due to the lack of molecular markers to characterize genetic diversity, knowledge for conservation and uses of E. gerardiana resources is limited; we therefore developed microsatellite markers for use in this species. Methods and Results: Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology, we developed 29 polymorphic microsatellite loci suitable for E. gerardiana, of which 15 loci also showed polymorphisms in two related Ephedra species, E. saxatilis and E. monosperma. The average number of effective alleles per locus ranged from two to six. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.23 to 0.83 and 0.44 to 0.86, respectively, in E. gerardiana populations. Conclusions: The developed 29 microsatellite markers are effective for the study of genetic structure and genetic diversity of E. gerardiana, and 15 of these markers are suitable for related Ephedra species. PMID:28337389

  10. Waste-heat mariculture of striped bass for population enhancement and food production. Final report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Van Olst, J.C.; Carlberg, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    Biological and economic data were obtained to determine whether the culture of striped bass (Morona saxatilis) in power plant thermal effluent could be a cost-effective means of utilizing an otherwise wasted energy resource to provide additional supplies of high-quality seafood. Experiments were conducted to provide some of the data necessary to predict tank-carrying capacity, food-conversion efficiency, and water flow requirements for striped bass cultured at high density in future commercial-scale operations. Computer models were developed for several modes of operation of a theoretical commercial production facility, and return-on-investment calculations were made which indicated that substantial profits are possible. At these sites, no heating or pumping of water would be required, and an annual return-on-operating costs of 103% was estimated.

  11. Small mammals as hosts of immature ixodid ticks.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Fourie, L J; Braack, L E O

    2005-09-01

    Two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. Scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, and Cape hares, Lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. In Free State Province Namaqua rock mice, Aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of the immature stages of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae, while in Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces red veld rats, Aethomys chrysophilus, Namaqua rock mice and Natal multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis were good hosts of H. leachi and Rhipicephalus simus. Haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick recovered from animals in all three provinces.

  12. The "Human Subject," "Vulnerable Populations," and Medical History: The Problem of Presentism and the Discourse of Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Connor, J T H

    2017-02-15

    This discussion considers recent historical works of eugenics and sterilization in Canada, but it is not an historiographic review essay or critique per se of this literature. Rather, by focussing on the topic of historic diagnostic categories such as "feeble-minded," "idiot," and "moron," methodological issues such as historical presentism and its possible interactions with the discourse of modern bioethics are examined. The conclusions derived are meant only to be cautionary, and are neither prescriptive nor proscriptive. Medical historians undertaking analyses of currently contentious topics that may directly involve or indirectly allude to "human subjects" or "vulnerable populations" perhaps ought to reflect on the degree, if any, they may be anachronistically writing contemporary bioethical categories into bygone eras.

  13. Cadmium and lead levels along the estuarine ecosystem of Tigre River-San Andres Lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Sauceda, María de la Luz; Pérez-Castañeda, Roberto; Sánchez-Martínez, Jesús Genaro; Aguirre-Guzmán, Gabriel

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium and lead levels were evaluated in water and sediment along the estuarine ecosystem of Tigre River-San Andres Lagoon (Gulf of Mexico) during September to December 2009. Significant highest metal concentration in water (0.45 mg L(-1) Cd and 3.94 mg L(-1) Pb) and sediment (2.83 mg kg(-1) Cd and 6.61 mg kg(-1) Pb) were found at the mouth of the Tigre River, where the fishing town of El Moron is located. Cadmium levels in sediment were above limits associated with adverse biological effects on aquatic fauna, so negative impacts on natural populations of aquatic organisms would be expected to occur. This in turn could affect the fishery resources inhabiting this ecosystem.

  14. Prey selection for the exotic cladoceran Bythotrephes cederstroemi by selected Lake Erie fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, Michael T.; Klarer, David M.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of zooplankton in the diet of yellow perch (Perca flavescens), white perch (Morone americana), walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), and white bass (M. chry-sops)was assessed in the central basin of Lake Erie in 1985–1988. Zooplankton were collected by vertical hauls in 1987–1988 and fish with a rock-hopper trawl. Although copepods (calanoid and cyciopoid) were the major zooplankton in the plankton samples, they were not well represented in the fish diet. From 1985 through 1988, Cladocera became an increasingly important food – particularly a recent invader from Europe, Bythotrephes cederstroemi. It was a major component in the diet of yellow perch from June to October in both 1987 and 1988. The zooplankton consumption by white perch was more diverse until September, when B. cederstroemi became the major food item.

  15. Diets of emerald and spottail shiners and potential interactions with other western Lake Erie planktivorous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Kyle J.; Vondracek, Bruce; Parrish, Donna L.; Muth, Kenneth M.

    1992-01-01

    Emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) and spottail shiner (N. hudsonius) were abundant historically in western Lake Erie. Recent changes in the fish community suggest that shiners may not compete favorably with the invading white perch (Morone americana) or the gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). We examined the diets of emerald and spottail shiner and compared them to other planktivores in western Lake Erie. Emerald and spottail shiner ate cladocerans such as Daphnia spp.,Leptodora, and Bythotrephes. Biologically significant overlaps (Schoener 1970 index ≥ 0.6) among zooplanktivores occurred from July through September, but most occurred during July. The frequency of significant diet overlaps among planktivores declined since an earlier study in the mid-1970s (Muth and Busch 1989) possibly indicating that competitive interactions have eased since 1975. In addition to competitive interactions, other factors such as increased eutrophication and predator mediated mortality likely played a role in planktivore community changes since the early 1970s.

  16. Care Of The Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J.

    1979-01-01

    Mental retardation is a clinical syndrome, not an intellectual defect or brain disease per se. As such, physicians should not participate in the downgrading labelling of moron, idiot and imbecile. Such labelled people are difficult to relate to and this results in the concept of 'nil expectations' in which the whole of society participates. Maladaptation in this syndrome is more related to poor environmental input than to basic organic defect, and is a family problem. The family doctor is in an ideal situation to help the family handle the problems of anger, shame, guilt, rejection. If aware of his own feelings, he should also be the coordinator of the physical needs of the child and the alternatives available for maximal input. Imagesp1344-a PMID:21297810

  17. The "Human Subject," "Vulnerable Populations," and Medical History: The Problem of Presentism and the Discourse of Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Connor, J T H

    2017-01-01

    This discussion considers recent historical works of eugenics and sterilization in Canada, but it is not an historiographic review essay or critique per se of this literature. Rather, by focussing on the topic of historic diagnostic categories such as "feeble-minded," "idiot," and "moron," methodological issues such as historical presentism and its possible interactions with the discourse of modern bioethics are examined. The conclusions derived are meant only to be cautionary, and are neither prescriptive nor proscriptive. Medical historians undertaking analyses of currently contentious topics that may directly involve or indirectly allude to "human subjects" or "vulnerable populations" perhaps ought to reflect on the degree, if any, they may be anachronistically writing contemporary bioethical categories into bygone eras.

  18. First records of a European cladoceran, Bythotrephes cederstroemi, in Lakes Erie and Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, Michael T.; Klarer, David M.; Krieger, Kenneth A.

    1986-01-01

    Adult forms of the cladoceran Bythotrephes cederstroemi Schoedler (Cercopagidae), a widespread European freshwater zooplankter, occurred in the stomachs of four common species of Lake Erie fish (yellow perch, Perca flavescens; white perch, Morone americana; white bass, M. chrysops; and walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) collected in early October 1985. The fish were collected at several stations in the nearshore open waters of the central basin between Ashtabula and Huron, Ohio. Other investigators have seen this species in other locations in Lake Erie and also in Lake Huron. The report of B. cederstroemi in Lake Huron in December 1984 appears to be the first record of this species in North America.

  19. The effect of predation on stunted and nonstunted white perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Pierce, L.L.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    Predation is widely regarded as a means to prevent or minimise the establishment of a stunted (high density of slow growing individuals) population. We investigated the effect of predation on two different white perch Morone americana populations (stunted and nonstunted) by examining the stomach contents of piscivorous fishes. White perch and gizzard shad dominated piscivore diets in Branched Oak Lake, whereas white perch dominated piscivore diets in Pawnee Lake. White perch consumed in the stunted population (Branched Oak Lake) were larger and older than white perch consumed in the nonstunted population (Pawnee Lake). Many of the consumed white perch in the stunted population were sexually mature and had the opportunity to spawn at least once. In contrast, all of the consumed white perch in the nonstunted population were sexually immature. Predation may have reinforced the stunting of white perch in Branched Oak Lake through removal of the largest, oldest individuals. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Enlightening the past: analytical proof for the use of Pistacia exudates in ancient Egyptian embalming resins.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tim M; Gradl, Manuela; Welte, Beatrix; Metzger, Michael; Pusch, Carsten M; Albert, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Mastic, the resinous exudate of the evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus, is frequently discussed as one of the ingredients used for embalming in ancient Egypt. We show the identification of mastic in ancient Egyptian embalming resins by an unambiguous assignment of the mastic triterpenoid fingerprint consisting of moronic acid, oleanonic acid, isomasticadienonic and masticadienonic acid through the consolidation of NMR and GC/MS analysis. Differences in the observed triterpenoid fingerprints between mummy specimens suggest that more than one plant species served as the triterpenoid resin source. Analysis of the triterpenoid acids of ancient embalming resin samples in the form of their methyl- and trimethylsilyl esters is compared. In addition we show a simple way to differentiate between residues of mastic from its use as incense during embalming or from direct mastic application in the embalming resin. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Sulfoximines: a neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lücking, Ulrich

    2013-09-02

    Innovation has frequently been described as the key to drug discovery. However, in the daily routine, medicinal chemists often tend to stick to the functional groups and structural elements they know and love. Blockbuster cancer drug Velcade (bortezomib), for example, was rejected by more than 50 companies, supposedly because of its unusual boronic acid function (as often repeated: "only a moron would put boron in a drug!"). Similarly, in the discovery process of the pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394, the unconventional proposal to introduce a sulfoximine group into the lead series also led to sneers and raised eyebrows, since sulfoximines have seldom been used in medicinal chemistry. However, it was the introduction of the sulfoximine group that finally allowed the fundamental issues of the project to be overcome, culminating in the identification of the clinical sulfoximine pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394. This Minireview provides an overview of a widely neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry--the sulfoximine group.

  2. Development of in vivo genotoxicity tests in estuarine fish and their application to aquatic toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Means, J.C.; Daniels, C.B.; Baksi, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Genotoxicity assays were developed in embryonic stages of two species of fish, striped bass (Morone saxitilis) and sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and in the adults of Fundulus heteroclitus using metaphase chromosome aberrations as the endpoint. Dose-dependent responses were obtained with several chemical mutagens, including 9-aminoacridine, ethylmethane sulphonate, cyclophosphamide and n-methyl-n-nitro-n-nitroguanidine, added to estuarine water at doses spanning several orders of magnitude in compound concentration. Exposures ranged from one to four days; however, two-day exposure time was found to be optimal in eggs and larvae. Tissues from the gills, kidney and intestinal tract of adult Fundulus were found to be responsive to mutagen exposure; however, the intestine gave the best responses. The results of these experiments suggest that these assays are sufficiently sensitive to be used in the field as well as in laboratory tests.

  3. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  4. Unexpected Irregular Monoterpene "Yomogi Alcohol" in the Volatiles of the Lathyrus L. species (Leguminosae) of Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Can Başer, Kemal Hüsnü

    2016-01-01

    Lathyrus species including L. ochrus and L. sativus are known for their food, feed and horticultural uses. Despite their widespread uses and cultivation, there is limited information on their chemistry. Previously, only the essential oil composition of L. rotundifolius, L. vernus and volatiles of L. odoratus have been reported. In the present research, volatiles of seven Lathyrus L. species, namely, L. aphaca, L. ochrus, L. cicera, L. sativus, L. gorgonei, L. saxatilis and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius were analyzed by SPME GC-MS for the first time. Plant materials were collected from five different locations in Cyprus (February-March 2012). The main components of L. aphaca volatiles from four locations were yomogi alcohol 26.1-16.5%, camphor 21.6-10.1%, tetradecane 14.3-0%; L. cicera from five locations were yomogi alcohol 20.3-3.0%, camphor 18.7-2.0%; L. gorgonei from two locations were yomogi alcohol 24.5-13.1%, camphor 17.1-9.0% and L. sativus was yomogi alcohol 11.4%, camphor 9.0%. Yomogi alcohol was not present as the major compound in L. ochrus (2-methyl butanoic acid 7.2%), L. saxatilis (hexanal 7.7%) and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius ((Z)-3-hexenal 8.6%) volatiles. The volatiles of the Lathyrus species were also compared with each other quantitative and qualitatively using AHC analysis to find out differences among the species. The irregular monoterpene yomogi alcohol is reported from the Lathyrus and the Leguminosae family for the first time. The existence of yomogi alcohol in Lathyrus volatiles points out that the irregular monoterpenes are not restricted solely to Asteraceae family.

  5. Genetic Identification of Spirometra decipiens Plerocercoids in Terrestrial Snakes from Korea and China

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Park, Hansol; Lee, Dongmin; Choe, Seongjun; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2016-01-01

    Human sparganosis is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with larval forms (procercoid/plerocercoid) of Spirometra spp. The purpose of this study was to identify Spirometra spp. of infected snakes using a multiplex PCR assay and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the spargana of terrestrial snakes obtained from Korea and China. A total of 283 snakes were obtained that included 4 species of Colubridae comprising Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus (n=150), Dinodon rufozonatum rufozonatum (n=64), Elaphe davidi (n=2), and Elaphe schrenkii (n=7), and 1 species of Viperidae, Agkistrodon saxatilis (n=60). The snakes were collected from the provinces of Chungbuk, Chungnam, and Gyeongbuk in Korea (n=161), and from China (n=122). The overall infection rate with spargana was 83% (235/283). The highest was recorded for D. rufozonatum rufozonatum (100%), followed by A. saxatilis (85%) and R. tigrinus tigrinus (80%), with a negative result for E. davidi (0%) and E. schrenkii (0%). The sequence identities between the spargana from snakes (n=50) and Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (KJ599680) or S. decipiens (KJ599679) control specimens were 90.8% and 99.2%, respectively. Pairwise genetic distances between spargana (n=50) and S. decipiens ranged from 0.0080 to 0.0107, while those between spargana and S. erinaceieuropaei ranged from 0.1070 to 0.1096. In this study, all of the 904 spargana analyzed were identified as S. decipiens either by a multiplex PCR assay (n=854) or mitochondrial cox1 sequence analysis (n=50). PMID:27180576

  6. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese Snakes and Their Adults Recovered from Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts. PMID:24327778

  7. Provenance analysis of Permian sandstones in the central and southern Da Xing'an Mountains, China: Constraints on the evolution of the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guoqing; Liu, Yongjiang; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Zhao, Yingli; Wen, Quanbo; Li, Wei; Wu, Linna; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Limin

    2012-12-01

    Modal, chemical and U-Pb zircon data from Permian sandstones in the central and southern Da Xing'an Mountains (eastern Inner Mongolia, China) constrain, for the first time, plate collision processes between the northern margin of the North China craton and the composite Erguna-Xing'an-Songliao block. The study area is located between the Ondor Sum-Xar Moron and Hegenshan suture zones of the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Modal and geochemical analyses of Permian sandstones suggest derivation from dissected continental arc and recycled orogenic sources. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb detrital zircon data from sandstones indicate Early Permian to earliest Triassic maximum depositional ages (278 ± 4 Ma to 249 ± 3 Ma). These data also show two uniform age groups of 270-280 Ma and 310-320 Ma, and we interpret their source to be mainly the Sonidzuoqi-Xilinhot-southern Xi Ujimqin magmatic arc in the north (the southern margin of the Xing'an-Erguna block). The sample from the Upper Permian to lowermost Triassic Linxi Formation in the Linxi area also contains zircons with age groups of ~ 1800 Ma and ~ 2500 Ma, consistent with derivation from the northern margin of the North China craton, which lies to the south. Therefore, the collision between the North China craton and the Xing'an-Erguna block began during the deposition of the Linxi Formation, and the final closure of the intervening oceanic basin occurred during ca. Late Permian-earliest Triassic times, forming the Ondor Sum-Xar Moron suture zone.

  8. DNA Sequence Heterogeneity of Campylobacter jejuni CJIE4 Prophages and Expression of Prophage Genes

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Clifford G.; Chong, Patrick M.; McCorrister, Stuart J.; Mabon, Philip; Walker, Matthew; Westmacott, Garrett R.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni carry temperate bacteriophages that can affect the biology or virulence of the host bacterium. Known effects include genomic rearrangements and resistance to DNA transformation. C. jejuni prophage CJIE1 shows sequence variability and variability in the content of morons. Homologs of the CJIE1 prophage enhance both adherence and invasion to cells in culture and increase the expression of a specific subset of bacterial genes. Other C. jejuni temperate phages have so far not been well characterized. In this study we describe investigations into the DNA sequence variability and protein expression in a second prophage, CJIE4. CJIE4 sequences were obtained de novo from DNA sequencing of five C. jejuni isolates, as well as from whole genome sequences submitted to GenBank by other research groups. These CJIE4 DNA sequences were heterogenous, with several different insertions/deletions (indels) in different parts of the prophage genome. Two variants of a 3–4 kb region inserted within CJIE4 had different gene content that distinguished two major conserved CJIE4 prophage families. Additional indels were detected throughout the prophage. Detection of proteins in the five isolates characterized in our laboratory in isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) experiments indicated that prophage proteins within each of the two large indel variants were expressed during growth of the bacteria on Mueller Hinton agar plates. These proteins included the extracellular DNase associated with resistance to DNA transformation and prophage repressor proteins. Other proteins associated with known or suspected roles in prophage biology were also expressed from CJIE4, including capsid protein, the phage integrase, and MazF, a type II toxin-antitoxin system protein. Together with the results previously obtained for the CJIE1 prophage these results demonstrate that sequence variability and expression of moron genes are both general properties of temperate

  9. Temporal trends of young-of-year fishes in Lake Erie and comparison of diel sampling periods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Bur, M.T.; Adams, J.V.

    2007-01-01

    We explored temporal trends of young-of-year (YOY) fishes caught in bottom trawl hauls at an established offshore monitoring site in Lake Erie in fall during 1961–2001. Sampling was conducted during morning, afternoon, and night in each year. Catches per hour (CPH) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) YOY were relatively low and exhibited no temporal trend. This result was consistent with the species’ intolerance to Lake Erie’s adverse winter water temperatures. Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) YOY decreased sharply after 1991, which was consistent with recent oligotrophication of the lake. Following the establishment in 1979 and rapid increase of white perch (Morone americana) YOY, white bass (Morone chrysops) and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) YOY decreased. Trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus) YOY decreased during 1986–1991, but recovered to previous levels during 1991–2001. The recovery coincided with the resurgence of mayflies (Ephemoptera) in the lake. CPH of spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius) and emerald shiner (N. atherinoides) YOY exhibited no temporal trend between 1961 and the late 1970s to early 1980s. CPH of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) YOY decreased during 1961–1988, and walleye (Sander vitreum) YOY increased overall during the time series. These observations were consistent with published studies of adults in the region. CPH of 4 of the 10 species of YOY considered were greatest during night. CPH for walleye YOY was higher in the morning than in the afternoon, but there was no significant difference between night and morning abundances. The results suggest that (1) CPH of YOY fishes may be a useful monitoring tool for Lake Erie, and (2) offshore monitoring programs that do not include night sampling periods may underestimate recruitment for several common species.

  10. The effects of bupropion on hybrid striped bass brain chemistry and predatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lauren E; Bisesi, Joseph H; Lei, E N Y; Lam, Michael H W; Klaine, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Increased use of antidepressants has led to an increase in their detection in final treated wastewater effluents and receiving streams. Antidepressants are intended to modify human behavior by altering brain chemistry, and because of the high functional conservation of antidepressant target receptors in vertebrates, aquatic organisms may be at risk. The antidepressant bupropion is designed to alter brain norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations in humans. The objective of the present study was to understand if alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in the hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis × Morone chrysops) brain by bupropion would alter this predator's ability to capture prey. The authors exposed hybrid striped bass to bupropion in a static system for 6 d, followed by a 6-d recovery period. During the present study's 12-d experiment, each hybrid striped bass was fed 4 unexposed fathead minnows every 3 d, and the time it took the hybrid striped bass to consume each of those 4 fathead minnows was quantified. After each feeding event, hybrid striped bass brains were harvested and analyzed for changes in several brain neurotransmitter concentrations, including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and many of their metabolites. Although bupropion altered the concentration of dopamine and many of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter metabolite concentrations in the brains on day 3 of the exposure, it did not alter the time to capture prey. This suggests that alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in the hybrid striped bass brain does not alter a predator's ability to capture prey. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2058-2065. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Description of two new nematode species, parasites of the Mississippi paddlefish Polyodon spathula (Acipenseriformes: Polyodontidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Kuchta, Roman

    2013-08-01

    Two new nematode species are described from the paddlefish Polyodon spathula (Walbaum) (Polyodontidae, Acipenseriformes) from the Mississippi River drainage, United States, based on specimens previously deposited in the U.S. National Parasite Collection. Those specimens were Camallanus polyodontis n. sp. (Camallanidae) from the host (site of infection not given) collected in the Yellowstone River, Montana in 1974 and Syngnathinema chitwoodi n. sp. (Daniconematidae) from the body cavity of fish collected in Mississippi in 1926. Camallanus polyodontis (male and female) is mainly characterized by the presence of a conspicuously large, oval, sclerotized formation at the base of tridents on the buccal capsule, by which it distinctly differs from all congeners. It also differs from other North American species of the genus by additional features such as the body size, the length of spicules, or the length of the female tail. Syngnathinema chitwoodi (a single subgravid female) differs from the only other congener, Syngnathinema californiense Moravec, Spangenberg and Frasca, 2001, a parasite of the circulatory system of the pipefish in California and British Columbia, mainly in that the posterior end of the muscular esophagus is not submerged into the anterior end of the glandular esophagus. Previous reports of Camallanus oxycephalus Ward and Magath, 1917 in P. spathula may be misidentifications of C. polyodontis.

  12. Exploring Early Micronutrient Deficiencies in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by Next-Generation Sequencing Technology – From Black Box to Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Olsvik, Pål A.; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn; Waagbø, Rune

    2013-01-01

    This work studies final nutritional status and transcriptional responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum 1792) (28 g) after a 10 week feeding experiment designed to elucidate the effect of adding a vitamin and mineral premix on growth, health, and nutritional endpoints. Juvenile fish were fed a either a diet supplemented with a vitamin and mineral premix (Diet S) or the same diet without premix supplementation (Diet U). The analyzed micronutrient composition of diets differed accordingly. Pooled livers from 15 fish from each dietary group were used to create suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries that were sequenced with 454 FLX GS Titanium Technology. In total 552 812 reads were sequenced from the two cDNA libraries. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was then used to characterize the hepatic transcriptome of the two dietary groups of rainbow trout. In the present communication we discuss how selected micronutrients may affect the transcriptome at suboptimal status by directly impacting the cellular metabolism, functions, and structures, and by introducing respective compensatory mechanisms. Processes related to lipid metabolism, peptide hydrolysis, oxygen transportation, and growth development were mostly affected. Considering the transcriptomics data relative to changes in nutritional status from the feeding study and the background phenotypic outcome of growth performance and gill histopathology, the outcome of the transcriptional profiling are suggested to be mainly related to suboptimal pantothenic acid and vitamin C nutrition. PMID:23894486

  13. Reciprocal subsidies and food web pathways leading to chum salmon fry in a temperate marine-terrestrial ecotone.

    PubMed

    Romanuk, Tamara N; Levings, Colin D

    2010-04-08

    Stable isotope analysis was used to determine the relative proportions of terrestrial and marine subsidies of carbon to invertebrates along a tidal gradient (low-intertidal, mid-intertidal, high-intertidal, supralittoral) and to determine the relative importance of terrestrial carbon in food web pathways leading to chum salmon fry Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) in Howe Sound, British Columbia. We found a clear gradient in the proportion of terrestrially derived carbon along the tidal gradient ranging from 68% across all invertebrate taxa in the supralittoral to 25% in the high-intertidal, 20% in the mid-intertidal, and 12% in the low-intertidal. Stable isotope values of chum salmon fry indicated carbon contributions from both terrestrial and marine sources, with terrestrially derived carbon ranging from 12.8 to 61.5% in the muscle tissue of chum salmon fry (mean 30%). Our results provide evidence for reciprocal subsidies of marine and terrestrially derived carbon on beaches in the estuary and suggest that the vegetated supralittoral is an important trophic link in supplying terrestrial carbon to nearshore food webs.

  14. Composition and location of simulated lake-shore redds influence incubation success in kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fincel, M.J.; Chipps, S.R.; Bennett, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for improving spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), were explored by quantifying incubation success of embryos exposed to three substrate treatments in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, USA. Substrate treatments included no modification that used existing gravels in the lake (EXISTING), a cleaned substrate treatment where existing gravels were sifted in the water column to remove silt (CLEANED) and the addition of new, silt-free gravel (ADDED). Incubation success was evaluated using Whitlock-Vibert incubation boxes buried within each substrate treatment that contained recently fertilised embryos. Upon retrieval, live and dead sac fry and eyed eggs were enumerated to determine incubation success (sac fry and eyed eggs ?? 100/number of fertilised embryos). Incubation success varied significantly among locations and redd treatments. In general, incubation success among ADDED redds (0.0-13.0%) was significantly lower than that for EXISTING (1.4-61.0%) and CLEANED (0.4-62.5%) redds. Adding new gravel to spawning areas changed the morphometry of the gravel-water interface and probably exposed embryos to disturbance from wave action and reduced embryo survival. Moreover, efforts to improve spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee should consider water depth and location (e.g. protected shorelines) as important variables. Adding clean gravel to existing spawning areas may provide little benefit if water depth or lake-bottom morphometry are altered. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Retention of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus infectivity in fish tissue homogenates and fluids stored at three temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.; Mulcahy, D.

    1983-01-01

    Pools of brain, kidney, spleen, liver and gut tissues from several rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, and whole sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), fry were homogenized with a known amount of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Virus was also added to ovarian fluids and sera pooled from several rainbow trout. The plaque assay was used to determine the retention of IHNV infectivity after different storage periods at 20°C, 4°C and -20°C. The work was used to evaluate homogenization as a remote field treatment of IHNV samples before shipment to the laboratory. Maintenance of viral infectivity varied widely among different homogenates and fluids. For short-term storage, 4°C was generally the most efficient temperature for preserving infectious virus in ovarian fluids, sera and homogenates of eggs, spleen, whole fry and brain, while infectivity was most efficiently preserved in kidney and liver homogenates by storage at -20°C. Infectious virus was not detected in any sample stored for one year at -20°C. Variations in retention of viral infectivity make homogenization of samples in the field followed by transfer to the laboratory unacceptable.

  16. Retention of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus infectivity in fish tissue homogenates and fluids stored at three temperatures.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.; Mulcahy, D.

    1983-01-01

    Pools of brain, kidney, spleen, liver and gut tissues from several rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, and whole sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), fry were homogenized with a known amount of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Virus was also added to ovarian fluids and sera pooled from several rainbow trout. The plaque assay was used to determine the retention of IHNV infectivity after different storage periods at 20°C, 4°C and —20°C. The work was used to evaluate homogenization as a remote field treatment of IHNV samples before shipment to the laboratory. Maintenance of viral infectivity varied widely among different homogenates and fluids. For short-term storage, 4°C was generally the most efficient temperature for preserving infectious virus in ovarian fluids, Sera and homogenates of eggs, spleen, whole fry and brain, while infectivity was most efficiently preserved in kidney and liver homogenates by storage at −20°C. Infectious virus was not detected in any sample stored for one year at −20°C. Variations in retention of viral infectivity make homogenization of samples in the field followed by transfer to the laboratory unacceptable.

  17. First evidence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Haenen, O L M; Schuetze, H; Cieslak, M; Oldenburg, S; Spierenburg, M A H; Roozenburg-Hengst, I; Voorbergen-Laarman, M; Engelsma, M Y; Olesen, N J

    2016-08-01

    In spring 2008, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was detected for the first time in the Netherlands. The virus was isolated from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from a put-and-take fishery with angling ponds. IHNV is the causative agent of a serious fish disease, infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). From 2008 to 2011, we diagnosed eight IHNV infections in rainbow trout originating from six put-and-take fisheries (symptomatic and asymptomatic fish), and four IHNV infections from three rainbow trout farms (of which two were co-infected by infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, IPNV), at water temperatures between 5 and 15 °C. At least one farm delivered trout to four of these eight IHNV-positive farms. Mortalities related to IHNV were mostly <40%, but increased to nearly 100% in case of IHNV and IPNV co-infection. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that these 12 isolates clustered into two different monophyletic groups within the European IHNV genogroup E. One of these two groups indicates a virus-introduction event by a German trout import, whereas the second group indicates that IHNV was already (several years) in the Netherlands before its discovery in 2008.

  18. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Applegate, L.J.; Murray, A.L.; Purcell, M.K.; McKibben, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  19. High thermal tolerance of a rainbow trout population near its southern range limit suggests local thermal adjustment.

    PubMed

    Verhille, Christine E; English, Karl K; Cocherell, Dennis E; Farrell, Anthony P; Fangue, Nann A

    2016-01-01

    Transformation of earth's ecosystems by anthropogenic climate change is predicted for the 21st century. In many regions, the associated increase in environmental temperatures and reduced precipitation will have direct effects on the physiological performance of terrestrial and aquatic ectotherms and have already threatened fish biodiversity and important fisheries. The threat of elevated environmental temperatures is particularly salient for members of the Oncorhynchus genus living in California, which is the southern limit of their range. Here, we report the first assessments of the aerobic capacity of a Californian population of wild Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum in relationship to water temperature. Our field measurements revealed that wild O. mykiss from the lower Tuolumne River, California maintained 95% of their peak aerobic scope across an impressive temperature range (17.8-24.6°C). The thermal range for peak performance corresponds to local high river temperatures, but represents an unusually high temperature tolerance compared with conspecifics and congeneric species from northern latitudes. This high thermal tolerance suggests that O. mykiss at the southern limit of their indigenous distribution may be locally adjusted relative to more northern populations. From fisheries management and conservation perspectives, these findings challenge the use of a single thermal criterion to regulate the habitat of the O. mykiss species along the entirety of its distribution range.

  20. Androgenetic development of X- and Y-chromosome bearing haploid rainbow trout embryos.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Oliwia; Kowalski, Radosław K; Judycka, Sylwia; Rożyński, Rafał; Dobosz, Stefan; Ocalewicz, Konrad

    2016-09-01

    Haploid fish embryos are important in studies regarding role of the recessive traits during early ontogeny. In fish species with the male heterogamety, androgenetic haploid embryos might be also useful tool in studies concerning role of the sex chromosomes during an embryonic development. Morphologically differentiated X and Y chromosomes have been found in a limited number of fish species including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum 1792). To evaluate role of the sex chromosomes during rainbow trout embryonic development, survival of the androgenetic haploids in the presence of X or Y sex chromosomes has been examined. Androgenetic haploid rainbow trout were produced by fertilization of X-irradiated eggs with spermatozoa derived from the normal males (XY) and neomales, that is, sex-reversed females (XX) to produce X- and Y-bearing haploids, and all X-bearing haploids, respectively. Survival rates of the androgenetic progenies of normal males and neomales examined during embryogenesis and at hatching did not differ significantly. However, all haploids died within next few days after hatching. Cytogenetic analysis of the androgenetic embryos confirmed their haploid status. Moreover, apart from the intact paternal chromosomes, residues of the irradiated maternal chromosomes observed as chromosome fragments were identified in some of the haploids. Provided results suggested that rainbow trout X and Y chromosomes despite morphological and genetic differences are at the early stage of differentiation and still share genetic information responsible for the proper embryonic development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.