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Sample records for morpholino gene knockdown

  1. Using Morpholinos for Gene Knockdown in Giardia intestinalis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Meredith L.; Cande, W. Zacheus

    2009-01-01

    We used translation-blocking morpholinos to reduce protein levels in Giardia intestinalis. Twenty-four hours after electroporation with morpholinos targeting either green fluorescent protein or kinesin-2b, levels of these proteins were reduced by 60%. An epitope-tagged transgene can also be used as a reporter for morpholino efficacy with targets lacking specific antibodies. PMID:19377039

  2. Gene knockdown by morpholino-modified oligonucleotides in the zebrafish model: applications for developmental toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.; Karchner, Sibel I.; Hahn, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has long been used as a model for developmental biology, making it an excellent model to use also in developmental toxicology. The many advantages of zebrafish include their small size, prolific spawning, rapid development, and transparent embryos. They can be easily manipulated genetically through the use of transgenic technology and gene knock-down via morpholino-modified antisense oligonucleotides (MOs). Knocking down specific genes to assess their role in the response to toxicant exposure provides a way to further our knowledge of how developmental toxicants work on a molecular and mechanistic level, while establishing a relationship between these molecular events and morphological, behavioral, and/or physiological effects (i.e. phenotypic anchoring). In this chapter we address important considerations for using MOs to study developmental toxicology in zebrafish embryos and provide a protocol for their use. PMID:22669659

  3. Gene knockdown by morpholino-modified oligonucleotides in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model: applications for developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Timme-Laragy, Alicia R; Karchner, Sibel I; Hahn, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has long been used as a model for developmental biology, making it an excellent model to use also in developmental toxicology. The many advantages of zebrafish include their small size, prolific spawning, rapid development, and transparent embryos. They can be easily manipulated genetically through the use of transgenic technology and gene knockdown via morpholino-modified antisense oligonucleotides (MOs). Knocking down specific genes to assess their role in the response to toxicant exposure provides a way to further our knowledge of how developmental toxicants work on a molecular and mechanistic level while establishing a relationship between these molecular events and morphological, behavioral, and/or physiological effects (i.e., phenotypic anchoring). In this chapter, we address important considerations for using MOs to study developmental toxicology in zebrafish embryos and provide a protocol for their use.

  4. Characterization of zebrafish dysferlin by morpholino knockdown

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Genri; Serafini, Peter R.; Myers, Jennifer A.; Alexander, Matthew S.; Kunkel, Louis M.

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} cDNAs of zebrafish dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb). {yields} The dysferlin expression was detected in skeletal muscle, heart and eye. {yields} Injection of antisense morpholinos to dysferlin caused marked muscle disorganization. {yields} Zebrafish dysferlin expression may be involved in stabilizing muscle structures. -- Abstract: Mutations in the gene encoding dysferlin cause two distinct muscular dystrophy phenotypes: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD-2B) and Miyoshi myopathy (MM). Dysferlin is a large transmembrane protein involved in myoblast fusion and membrane resealing. Zebrafish represent an ideal animal model to use for studying muscle disease including abnormalities of dysferlin. cDNAs of zebrafish dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb) and the predicted amino acid sequences, showed 68% similarity to predicted amino acid sequences of mammalian dysferlin. The expression of dysferlin was mainly in skeletal muscle, heart and eye, and the expression could be detected as early as 11 h post fertilization (hpf). Three different antisense oligonucleotide morpholinos were targeted to inhibit translation of this dysferlin mRNA and the morpholino-injected fish showed marked muscle disorganization which could be detected by birefringence assay. Western blot analysis using dysferlin antibodies showed that the expression of dysferlin was reduced in each of the three morphants. Dysferlin expression was shown to be reduced at the myosepta of zebrafish muscle using immunohistochemistry, although the expression of other muscle membrane components, dystrophin, laminin, {beta}-dystroglycan were detected normally. Our data suggest that zebrafish dysferlin expression is involved in stabilizing muscle structures and its downregulation causes muscle disorganization.

  5. Comparative phosphoproteomics of zebrafish Fyn/Yes morpholino knockdown embryos.

    PubMed

    Lemeer, Simone; Jopling, Chris; Gouw, Joost; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J R; Slijper, Monique; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2008-11-01

    The coordinated movement of cells is indispensable for normal vertebrate gastrulation. Several important players and signaling pathways have been identified in convergence and extension (CE) cell movements during gastrulation, including non-canonical Wnt signaling. Fyn and Yes, members of the Src family of kinases, are key regulators of CE movements as well. Here we investigated signaling pathways in early development by comparison of the phosphoproteome of wild type zebrafish embryos with Fyn/Yes knockdown embryos that display specific CE cell movement defects. For quantitation we used differential stable isotope labeling by reductive amination of peptides. Equal amounts of labeled peptides from wild type and Fyn/Yes knockdown embryos were mixed and analyzed by on-line reversed phase TiO(2)-reversed phase LC-MS/MS. Phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides were quantified, and significant changes in protein expression and/or phosphorylation were detected. We identified 348 phosphoproteins of which 69 showed a decrease in phosphorylation in Fyn/Yes knockdown embryos and 72 showed an increase in phosphorylation. Among these phosphoproteins were known regulators of cell movements, including Adducin and PDLIM5. Our results indicate that quantitative phosphoproteomics combined with morpholino-mediated knockdowns can be used to identify novel signaling pathways that act in zebrafish development in vivo.

  6. Comparison of Zebrafish tmem88a mutant and morpholino knockdown phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Place, Elsie S.; Smith, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Tmem88a is a transmembrane protein that is thought to be a negative regulator of the Wnt signalling pathway. Several groups have used antisense morpholino oligonucleotides in an effort to characterise the role of tmem88a in zebrafish cardiovascular development, but they have not obtained consistent results. Here, we generate an 8 bp deletion in the coding region of the tmem88a locus using TALENs, and we have gone on to establish a viable homozygous tmem88aΔ8 mutant line. Although tmem88aΔ8 mutants have reduced expression of some key haematopoietic genes, differentiation of erythrocytes and neutrophils is unaffected, contradicting our previous study using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides. We find that expression of the tmem88a paralogue tmem88b is not significantly changed in tmem88aΔ8 mutants and injection of the tmem88a splice-blocking morpholino oligonucleotide into tmem88aΔ8 mutants recapitulates the reduction of erythrocytes observed in morphants using o-Dianisidine. This suggests that there is a partial, but inessential, requirement for tmem88a during haematopoiesis and that morpholino injection exacerbates this phenotype in tmem88a morpholino knockdown embryos. PMID:28192479

  7. Comparison of Zebrafish tmem88a mutant and morpholino knockdown phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Eve, Alexander M J; Place, Elsie S; Smith, James C

    2017-01-01

    Tmem88a is a transmembrane protein that is thought to be a negative regulator of the Wnt signalling pathway. Several groups have used antisense morpholino oligonucleotides in an effort to characterise the role of tmem88a in zebrafish cardiovascular development, but they have not obtained consistent results. Here, we generate an 8 bp deletion in the coding region of the tmem88a locus using TALENs, and we have gone on to establish a viable homozygous tmem88aΔ8 mutant line. Although tmem88aΔ8 mutants have reduced expression of some key haematopoietic genes, differentiation of erythrocytes and neutrophils is unaffected, contradicting our previous study using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides. We find that expression of the tmem88a paralogue tmem88b is not significantly changed in tmem88aΔ8 mutants and injection of the tmem88a splice-blocking morpholino oligonucleotide into tmem88aΔ8 mutants recapitulates the reduction of erythrocytes observed in morphants using o-Dianisidine. This suggests that there is a partial, but inessential, requirement for tmem88a during haematopoiesis and that morpholino injection exacerbates this phenotype in tmem88a morpholino knockdown embryos.

  8. Knockdown of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes using antisense morpholinos.

    PubMed

    Pietri, J E; Cheung, K W; Luckhart, S

    2014-10-01

    Arthropod-borne infectious diseases are responsible for nearly 1.5 million deaths annually across the globe, with malaria responsible for >50% of these deaths. Recent efforts to enhance malaria control have focused on developing genetically modified Anopheles mosquitoes that are resistant to malaria parasite infection by manipulating proteins that are essential to the immune response. Although this approach has shown promise, the lack of efficient genetic tools in the mosquito makes it difficult to investigate innate immunity using reverse genetics. Current gene knockdown strategies based on small interfering RNA are typically labourious, inefficient, and require extensive training. In the present study, we describe the use of morpholino antisense oligomers to knockdown MEK-ERK signalling in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi through a simple feeding protocol. Anti-MEK morpholino provided in a saline meal was readily ingested by female mosquitoes with minimal toxicity and resulted in knockdown of total MEK protein levels 3-4 days after morpholino feeding. Further, anti-MEK morpholino feeding attenuated inducible phosphorylation of the downstream kinase ERK and, as predicted by previous work, reduced parasite burden in mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium falciparum. To our knowledge, this is the first example of morpholino use for target protein knockdown via feeding in an insect vector. Our results suggest this method is not only efficient for studies of individual proteins, but also for studies of phenotypic control by complex cell signalling networks. As such, our protocol is an effective alternative to current methods for gene knockdown in arthropods.

  9. A PATO-compliant zebrafish screening database (MODB): management of morpholino knockdown screen information.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Michelle N; Li, Tongbin; Ren, Yongliang; Bill, Brent R; Ellis, Lynda Bm; Ekker, Stephen C

    2008-01-07

    The zebrafish is a powerful model vertebrate amenable to high throughput in vivo genetic analyses. Examples include reverse genetic screens using morpholino knockdown, expression-based screening using enhancer trapping and forward genetic screening using transposon insertional mutagenesis. We have created a database to facilitate web-based distribution of data from such genetic studies. The MOrpholino DataBase is a MySQL relational database with an online, PHP interface. Multiple quality control levels allow differential access to data in raw and finished formats. MODBv1 includes sequence information relating to almost 800 morpholinos and their targets and phenotypic data regarding the dose effect of each morpholino (mortality, toxicity and defects). To improve the searchability of this database, we have incorporated a fixed-vocabulary defect ontology that allows for the organization of morpholino affects based on anatomical structure affected and defect produced. This also allows comparison between species utilizing Phenotypic Attribute Trait Ontology (PATO) designated terminology. MODB is also cross-linked with ZFIN, allowing full searches between the two databases. MODB offers users the ability to retrieve morpholino data by sequence of morpholino or target, name of target, anatomical structure affected and defect produced. MODB data can be used for functional genomic analysis of morpholino design to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity. MODB also serves as a template for future sequence-based functional genetic screen databases, and it is currently being used as a model for the creation of a mutagenic insertional transposon database.

  10. AHR2 morpholino knockdown reduces the toxicity of total particulate matter to zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Massarsky, Andrey; Bone, Audrey J; Dong, Wu; Hinton, David E; Prasad, G L; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2016-10-15

    The zebrafish embryo has been proposed as a 'bridge model' to study the effects of cigarette smoke on early development. Previous studies showed that exposure to total particulate matter (TPM) led to adverse effects in developing zebrafish, and suggested that the antioxidant and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathways play important roles. This study investigated the roles of these two pathways in mediating TPM toxicity. The study consisted of four experiments. In experiment I, zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6h post fertilization (hpf) until 96hpf to TPM0.5 and TPM1.0 (corresponding to 0.5 and 1.0μg/mL equi-nicotine units) in the presence or absence of an antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine/NAC) or a pro-oxidant (buthionine sulfoximine/BSO). In experiment II, TPM exposures were performed in embryos that were microinjected with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), AHR2, cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), or CYP1B1 morpholinos, and deformities were assessed. In experiment III, embryos were exposed to TPM, and embryos/larvae were collected at 24, 48, 72, and 96hpf to assess several genes associated with the antioxidant and AHR pathways. Lastly, experiment IV assessed the activity and protein levels of CYP1A and CYP1B1 after exposure to TPM. We demonstrate that the incidence of TPM-induced deformities was generally not affected by NAC/BSO treatments or Nrf2 knockdown. In contrast, AHR2 knockdown reduced, while CYP1A or CYP1B1 knockdowns elevated the incidence of some deformities. Moreover, as shown by gene expression the AHR pathway, but not the antioxidant pathway, was induced in response to TPM exposure, providing further evidence for its importance in mediating TPM toxicity.

  11. Morpholino-mediated Knockdown of DUX4 Toward Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jennifer CJ; King, Oliver D; Zhang, Yuanfan; Clayton, Nicholas P; Spencer, Carrie; Wentworth, Bruce M; Emerson, Charles P; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Derepression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle has emerged as a likely cause of pathology in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Here we report on the use of antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides to suppress DUX4 expression and function in FSHD myotubes and xenografts. The most effective was phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide FM10, which targets the polyadenylation signal of DUX4. FM10 had no significant cell toxicity, and RNA-seq analyses of FSHD and control myotubes revealed that FM10 down-regulated many transcriptional targets of DUX4, without overt off-target effects. Electroporation of FM10 into FSHD patient muscle xenografts in mice also down-regulated DUX4 and DUX4 targets. These findings demonstrate the potential of antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides as an FSHD therapeutic option. PMID:27378237

  12. Spatiotemporal Control of Embryonic Gene Expression Using Caged Morpholinos

    PubMed Central

    Shestopalov, Ilya A.; Chen, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic development depends on spatial and temporal control of gene function, and deciphering the molecular mechanisms that underlie pattern formation requires methods for perturbing gene expression with similar precision. Emerging chemical technologies can enable such perturbations, as exemplified by the use of caged morpholino (cMO) oligonucleotides to photo-inactivate genes in zebrafish embryos with spatiotemporal control. This chapter describes general principles for cMO design and methods for cMO assembly in three steps from commercially available reagents. Experimental techniques for the microinjection and photoactivation of these reagents are described in detail, as well as the preparation and application of caged fluorescein dextran (cFD) for labeling irradiated cells. Using these protocols, cMOs can be effective tools for functional genomic studies in zebrafish and other model organisms. PMID:21924162

  13. Using Morpholinos to Probe Gene Networks in Sea Urchin.

    PubMed

    Materna, Stefan C

    2017-01-01

    The control processes that underlie the progression of development can be summarized in maps of gene regulatory networks (GRNs). A critical step in their assembly is the systematic perturbation of network candidates. In sea urchins the most important method for interfering with expression in a gene-specific way is application of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MOs). MOs act by binding to their sequence complement in transcripts resulting in a block in translation or a change in splicing and thus result in a loss of function. Despite the tremendous success of this technology, recent comparisons to mutants generated by genome editing have led to renewed criticism and challenged its reliability. As with all methods based on sequence recognition, MOs are prone to off-target binding that may result in phenotypes that are erroneously ascribed to the loss of the intended target. However, the slow progression of development in sea urchins has enabled extremely detailed studies of gene activity in the embryo. This wealth of knowledge paired with the simplicity of the sea urchin embryo enables careful analysis of MO phenotypes through a variety of methods that do not rely on terminal phenotypes. This article summarizes the use of MOs in probing GRNs and the steps that should be taken to assure their specificity.

  14. Effective heritable gene knockdown in zebrafish using synthetic microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Giacomotto, Jean; Rinkwitz, Silke; Becker, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Although zebrafish is used to model human diseases through mutational and morpholino-based knockdown approaches, there are currently no robust transgenic knockdown tools. Here we investigate the knockdown efficiency of three synthetic miRNA-expressing backbones and show that these constructs can downregulate a sensor transgene with different degrees of potency. Using this approach, we reproduce spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in zebrafish by targeting the smn1 gene. We also generate different transgenic lines, with severity and age of onset correlated to the level of smn1 inhibition, recapitulating for the first time the different forms of SMA in zebrafish. These lines are proof-of-concept that miRNA-based approaches can be used to generate potent heritable gene knockdown in zebrafish. PMID:26051838

  15. Quantitative evaluation of morpholino-mediated protein knockdown of GFP, MSX1, and PAX7 during tail regeneration in Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Schnapp, Esther; Tanaka, Elly M; Tamaka, Elly M

    2005-01-01

    Vertebrate regeneration is a fascinating but poorly understood biological phenomena. Urodele amphibians such as Ambystoma mexicanum (the axolotl) can functionally regenerate complex body structures such as the limb and tail, including the spinal cord, throughout life. So far, molecular studies on regeneration have been limited due to the paucity of tools for knocking-down gene and protein function. In this article, we quantitatively assessed the ability of morpholinos to specifically down-regulate protein expression in both cultured urodele cells and in vivo. We focused on the down-regulation of green fluorescent protein and two axolotl proteins, MSX1 and PAX7. Our data show that the expression of these proteins can be efficiently reduced by morpholinos. MSX1 has been hypothesized to be involved in muscle dedifferentiation based on experiments using cultured myotubes. Our studies in in vivo muscle fibers so far have shown no influence of overexpressing or down-regulating MSX1 on the dedifferentiation process.

  16. Number of inadvertent RNA targets for morpholino knockdown in Danio rerio is largely underestimated: evidence from the study of Ser/Arg-rich splicing factors.

    PubMed

    Joris, Marine; Schloesser, Marie; Baurain, Denis; Hanikenne, Marc; Muller, Marc; Motte, Patrick

    2017-09-19

    Although the involvement of Ser/Arg-rich (SR) proteins in RNA metabolism is well documented, their role in vertebrate development remains elusive. We, therefore, elected to take advantage of the zebrafish model organism to study the SR genes' functions using the splicing morpholino (sMO) microinjection and the programmable site-specific nucleases. Consistent with previous research, we revealed discrepancies between the mutant and morphant phenotypes and we show that these inconsistencies may result from a large number of unsuspected inadvertent morpholino RNA targets. While microinjection of MOs directed against srsf5a (sMOsrsf5a) led to developmental defects, the corresponding homozygous mutants did not display any phenotypic traits. Furthermore, microinjection of sMOsrsf5a into srsf5a-/- led to the previously observed morphant phenotype. Similar findings were observed for other SR genes. sMOsrsf5a alternative target genes were identified using deep mRNA sequencing. We uncovered that only 11 consecutive bases complementary to sMOsrsf5a are sufficient for binding and subsequent blocking of splice sites. In addition, we observed that sMOsrsf5a secondary targets can be reduced by increasing embryos growth temperature after microinjection. Our data contribute to the debate about MO specificity, efficacy and the number of unknown targeted sequences. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Invention and Early History of Morpholinos: From Pipe Dream to Practical Products.

    PubMed

    Summerton, James E

    2017-01-01

    Beginning with my concept in 1969 to treat disease at the nucleic acid level using antisense nucleic acids, antisense has evolved to the current Morpholino oligos. Morpholinos have been the dominant gene knockdown system in developmental biology. Lack of delivery technologies has limited their use in adult animals (including humans), though alteration in muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) allows delivery into adult muscle. Morpholinos are currently in Phase 3 clinical trials for DMD and a Morpholino oligo for skipping dystrophin exon 51 has been approved by the US FDA. With improved delivery techniques, such as those in development at Gene Tools, therapeutic Morpholinos for many difficult-to-treat diseases will be possible. Initial applications are expected to be custom cocktails of delivery-enabled Morpholinos for treating cancers.

  18. Micromanipulation of gene expression in the adult zebrafish brain using cerebroventricular microinjection of morpholino oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kizil, Caghan; Iltzsche, Anne; Kaslin, Jan; Brand, Michael

    2013-05-23

    Manipulation of gene expression in tissues is required to perform functional studies. In this paper, we demonstrate the cerebroventricular microinjection (CVMI) technique as a means to modulate gene expression in the adult zebrafish brain. By using CVMI, substances can be administered into the cerebroventricular fluid and be thoroughly distributed along the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. We particularly focus on the use of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, which are potent tools for knocking down gene expression in vivo. In our method, when applied, morpholino molecules are taken up by the cells lining the ventricular surface. These cells include the radial glial cells, which act as neurogenic progenitors. Therefore, knocking down gene expression in the radial glial cells is of utmost importance to analyze the widespread neurogenesis response in zebrafish, and also would provide insight into how vertebrates could sustain adult neurogenesis response. Such an understanding would also help the efforts for clinical applications in human neurodegenerative disorders and central nervous system regeneration. Thus, we present the cerebroventricular microinjection method as a quick and efficient way to alter gene expression and neurogenesis response in the adult zebrafish forebrain. We also provide troubleshooting tips and other useful information on how to carry out the CVMI procedure.

  19. Analyses of gene function in amphioxus embryos by microinjection of mRNAs and morpholino oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Holland, Linda Z; Onai, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    The invertebrate chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma), which is the most basal living chordate, has become an accepted model for the vertebrate ancestor in studies of development and evolution. Amphioxus resembles vertebrates in regard to morphology, developmental gene expression, and gene function. In addition, the amphioxus genome has representatives of most vertebrate gene families. Although it has not undergone the two rounds of whole genome duplications that occurred early in the vertebrate lineage, the amphioxus genome has retained considerable synteny with vertebrate genomes. Thus, studies of genes and development in amphioxus embryos can reveal the fundamental genetic basis of the vertebrate body plan, giving insights into the developmental mechanisms of such organs as the somites, pharynx, kidney, and the central nervous system. Moreover, amphioxus is very useful for understanding how these characters evolved. This chapter details methods for microinjection of amphioxus eggs with mRNAs or morpholino antisense oligonucleotides to analyze gene networks operating in early development.

  20. Lessons from morpholino-based screening in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bedell, Victoria M.; Westcot, Stephanie E.

    2011-01-01

    Morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) are an effective, gene-specific antisense knockdown technology used in many model systems. Here we describe the application of MOs in zebrafish (Danio rerio) for in vivo functional characterization of gene activity. We summarize our screening experience beginning with gene target selection. We then discuss screening parameter considerations and data and database management. Finally, we emphasize the importance of off-target effect management and thorough downstream phenotypic validation. We discuss current morpholino limitations, including reduced stability when stored in aqueous solution. Advances in MO technology now provide a measure of spatiotemporal control over MO activity, presenting the opportunity for incorporating more finely tuned analyses into MO-based screening. Therefore, with careful management, MOs remain a valuable tool for discovery screening as well as individual gene knockdown analysis. PMID:21746693

  1. Inhibition of Gene Expression in Escherichia coli by Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Geller, B. L.; Deere, J. D.; Stein, D. A.; Kroeker, A. D.; Moulton, H. M.; Iversen, P. L.

    2003-01-01

    Antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) were tested for the ability to inhibit gene expression in Escherichia coli. PMOs targeted to either a myc-luciferase reporter gene product or 16S rRNA did not inhibit luciferase expression or growth. However, in a strain with defective lipopolysaccharide (lpxA mutant), which has a leaky outer membrane, PMOs targeted to the myc-luciferase or acyl carrier protein (acpP) mRNA significantly inhibited their targets in a dose-dependent response. A significant improvement was made by covalently joining the peptide (KFF)3KC to the end of PMOs. In strains with an intact outer membrane, (KFF)3KC-myc PMO inhibited luciferase expression by 63%. A second (KFF)3KC-PMO conjugate targeted to lacI mRNA induced β-galactosidase in a dose-dependent response. The end of the PMO to which (KFF)3KC is attached affected the efficiency of target inhibition but in various ways depending on the PMO. Another peptide-lacI PMO conjugate was synthesized with the cationic peptide CRRRQRRKKR and was found not to induce β-galactosidase. We conclude that the outer membrane of E. coli inhibits entry of PMOs and that (KFF)3KC-PMO conjugates are transported across both membranes and specifically inhibit expression of their genetic targets. PMID:14506035

  2. Knockdown of a Zebrafish Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Repressor (AHRRa) Affects Expression of Genes Related to Photoreceptor Development and Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Jenny, Matthew J.; Hahn, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) is a transcriptional repressor of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and is regulated by an AHR-dependent mechanism. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) possess two AHRR paralogs; AHRRa regulates constitutive AHR signaling during development, whereas AHRRb regulates polyaromatic hydrocarbon-induced gene expression. However, little is known about the endogenous roles and targets of AHRRs. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of AHRRs during zebrafish development using a loss-of-function approach followed by gene expression analysis. Zebrafish embryos were microinjected with morpholino oligonucleotides against AHRRa or AHRRb to knockdown AHRR protein expression. At 72 h postfertilization (hpf), microarray analysis revealed that the expression of 279 and 116 genes was altered by knockdown of AHRRa and AHRRb, respectively. In AHRRa-morphant embryos, 97 genes were up-regulated and 182 genes were down-regulated. Among the down-regulated genes were several related to photoreceptor function, including cone-specific genes such as several opsins (opn1sw1, opn1sw2, opn1mw1, and opn1lw2), phosphodiesterases (pde6H and pde6C), retinol binding protein (rbp4l), phosducin, and arrestins. Down-regulation was confirmed by RT-PCR and with samples from an independent experiment. The four genes tested (opn1sw1, pde6H, pde6C, and arr3b) were not inducible by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. AHRRa knockdown also caused up-regulation of embryonic hemoglobin (hbbe3), suggesting a role for AHRR in regulating hematopoiesis. Knockdown of AHRRb caused up-regulation of 31 genes and down-regulation of 85 genes, without enrichment for any specific biological process. Overall, these results suggest that AHRRs may have important roles in development, in addition to their roles in regulating xenobiotic signaling. PMID:24675095

  3. Knockdown of col22a1 gene in zebrafish induces a muscular dystrophy by disruption of the myotendinous junction.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Benjamin; Guiraud, Alexandre; Malbouyres, Marilyne; Zwolanek, Daniela; Guillon, Emilie; Bretaud, Sandrine; Monnot, Catherine; Schulze, Jörg; Bader, Hannah L; Allard, Bruno; Koch, Manuel; Ruggiero, Florence

    2013-11-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the major site of force transfer in skeletal muscle, and defects in its structure correlate with a subset of muscular dystrophies. Col22a1 encodes the MTJ component collagen XXII, the function of which remains unknown. Here, we have cloned and characterized the zebrafish col22a1 gene and conducted morpholino-based loss-of-function studies in developing embryos. We showed that col22a1 transcripts localize at muscle ends when the MTJ forms and that COLXXII protein integrates the junctional extracellular matrix. Knockdown of COLXXII expression resulted in muscular dystrophy-like phenotype, including swimming impairment, curvature of embryo trunk/tail, strong reduction of twitch-contraction amplitude and contraction-induced muscle fiber detachment, and provoked significant activation of the survival factor Akt. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies revealed that absence of COLXXII caused a strong reduction of MTJ folds and defects in myoseptal structure. These defects resulted in reduced contractile force and susceptibility of junctional extracellular matrix to rupture when subjected to repeated mechanical stress. Co-injection of sub-phenotypic doses of morpholinos against col22a1 and genes of the major muscle linkage systems showed a synergistic gene interaction between col22a1 and itga7 (α7β1 integrin) that was not observed with dag1 (dystroglycan). Finally, pertinent to a conserved role in humans, the dystrophic phenotype was rescued by microinjection of recombinant human COLXXII. Our findings indicate that COLXXII contributes to the stabilization of myotendinous junctions and strengthens skeletal muscle attachments during contractile activity.

  4. ARID1A gene knockdown promotes neuroblastoma migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Xu, Z; Zhao, Z; An, Q; Wang, L; Yu, Y; Piao, D

    2017-03-03

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood which often acquires drug resistance and becomes aggressive phenotypes. The high-risk patients suffer from high mortality due to the limitation of the treatment strategies. ARID1A (AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A), a subunit of SWI/SNF complexes, is considered as a tumor suppressor in many cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ARID1A on migration and invasion in neuroblastoma cells. The shRNA targeting ARID1A was designed and delivered into SK-N-SH cells to knock down ARID1A expression. Knockdown of ARID1A by shRNA significantly increased the viability and invasion ability, and caused G1 arrest inhibition and DNA synthesis increase in SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, Knockdown of ARID1A increased the activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in SK-N-SH cells. Furthermore, ARID1A knockdown caused diminished expression of E-cadherin, enhanced expression of N-cadherin and β-catenin nuclear translocation in SK-N-SH cells. These results suggest that loss of ARID1A may associate with the promotion of invasion and metastasis of neuroblastoma. Our findings indicate ARID1A is a tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma.

  5. RNAi-mediated gene knockdown and in vivo diuresis assay in adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Aguirre, Sarah E; Hansen, Immo A

    2012-07-14

    This video protocol demonstrates an effective technique to knockdown a particular gene in an insect and conduct a novel bioassay to measure excretion rate. This method can be used to obtain a better understanding of the process of diuresis in insects and is especially useful in the study of diuresis in blood-feeding arthropods that are able to take up huge amounts of liquid in a single blood meal. This RNAi-mediated gene knockdown combined with an in vivo diuresis assay was developed by the Hansen lab to study the effects of RNAi-mediated knockdown of aquaporin genes on Aedes aegypti mosquito diuresis. The protocol is setup in two parts: the first demonstration illustrates how to construct a simple mosquito injection device and how to prepare and inject dsRNA into the thorax of mosquitoes for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. The second demonstration illustrates how to determine excretion rates in mosquitoes using an in vivo bioassay.

  6. Manipulating the in vivo immune response by targeted gene knockdown.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Judy

    2015-08-01

    Aptamers, nucleic acids selected for high affinity binding to proteins, can be used to activate or antagonize immune mediators or receptors in a location and cell-type specific manner and to enhance antigen presentation. They can also be linked to other molecules (other aptamers, siRNAs or miRNAs, proteins, toxins) to produce multifunctional compounds for targeted immune modulation in vivo. Aptamer-siRNA chimeras (AsiCs) that induce efficient cell-specific knockdown in immune cells in vitro and in vivo can be used as an immunological research tool or potentially as an immunomodulating therapeutic.

  7. In vivo electroporation of morpholinos into the regenerating adult zebrafish tail fin.

    PubMed

    Hyde, David R; Godwin, Alan R; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-03-29

    Certain species of urodeles and teleost fish can regenerate their tissues. Zebrafish have become a widely used model to study the spontaneous regeneration of adult tissues, such as the heart, retina, spinal cord, optic nerve, sensory hair cells, and fins. The zebrafish fin is a relatively simple appendage that is easily manipulated to study multiple stages in epimorphic regeneration. Classically, fin regeneration was characterized by three distinct stages: wound healing, blastema formation, and fin outgrowth. After amputating part of the fin, the surrounding epithelium proliferates and migrates over the wound. At 33 °C, this process occurs within six hours post-amputation (hpa, Figure 1B). Next, underlying cells from different lineages (ex. bone, blood, glia, fibroblast) re-enter the cell cycle to form a proliferative blastema, while the overlying epidermis continues to proliferate (Figure 1D). Outgrowth occurs as cells proximal to the blastema re-differentiate into their respective lineages to form new tissue (Figure 1E). Depending on the level of the amputation, full regeneration is completed in a week to a month. The expression of a large number of gene families, including wnt, hox, fgf, msx, retinoic acid, shh, notch, bmp, and activin-betaA genes, is up-regulated during specific stages of fin regeneration. However, the roles of these genes and their encoded proteins during regeneration have been difficult to assess, unless a specific inhibitor for the protein exists, a temperature-sensitive mutant exists or a transgenic animal (either overexpressing the wild-type protein or a dominant-negative protein) was generated. We developed a reverse genetic technique to quickly and easily test the function of any gene during fin regeneration. Morpholino oligonucleotides are widely used to study loss of specific proteins during zebrafish, Xenopus, chick, and mouse development. Morpholinos basepair with a complementary RNA sequence to either block pre-mRNA splicing or m

  8. Aberrant splicing in the ocular albinism type 1 gene (OA1/GPR143) is corrected in vitro by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Vetrini, Francesco; Tammaro, Roberta; Bondanza, Sergio; Surace, Enrico M; Auricchio, Alberto; De Luca, Michele; Ballabio, Andrea; Marigo, Valeria

    2006-05-01

    An intronic point mutation was identified in the ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) gene (HUGO symbol, GPR143) in a family with the X-linked form of ocular albinism. Interestingly, the mutation creates a new acceptor splice site in intron 7 of the OA1 gene. In addition to low levels of normally spliced mRNA product of the OA1 gene, the patient samples contained also an aberrantly spliced mRNA with a 165 bp fragment of intron 7 (from position +750 to +914) inserted between exons 7 and 8. The abnormal transcript contained a premature stop codon and was unstable, as revealed by Northern blot analysis. We defined that mutation NC_000023.8:g.25288G>A generated a consensus binding motif for the splicing factor enhancer ASF/SF2, which most likely favored transcription of the aberrant mRNA. Furthermore, it activated a cryptic donor-splice site causing the inclusion between exons 7 and 8 of the 165 bp intronic fragment. Thus, the aberrant splicing is most likely explained by the generation of a de novo splicing enhancer motif. Finally, to rescue OA1 expression in the patient's melanocytes, we designed an antisense morpholino modified oligonucleotide complementary to the mutant sequence. The morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) was able to rescue OA1 expression and restore the OA1 protein level in the patient's melanocytes through skipping of the aberrant inclusion. The use of MO demonstrated that the lack of OA1 was caused by the generation of a new splice site. Furthermore, this technique will lead to new approaches to correct splice site mutations that cause human diseases.

  9. Knockdown of Zebrafish Lumican Gene (zlum) Causes Scleral Thinning and Increased Size of Scleral Coats*

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Lung-Kun; Liu, Chia-Yang; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Huang, Chang-Jen; Hu, Fung-Rong; Chien, Chung-Liang; Wang, I-Jong

    2010-01-01

    The lumican gene (lum), which encodes one of the major keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs) in the vertebrate cornea and sclera, has been linked to axial myopia in humans. In this study, we chose zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an animal model to elucidate the role of lumican in the development of axial myopia. The zebrafish lumican gene (zlum) spans ∼4.6 kb of the zebrafish genome. Like human (hLUM) and mouse (mlum), zlum consists of three exons, two introns, and a TATA box-less promoter at the 5′-flanking region of the transcription initiation site. Sequence analysis of the cDNA predicts that zLum encodes 344 amino acids. zLum shares 51% amino acid sequence identity with human lumican. Similar to hLUM and mlum, zlum mRNA is expressed in the eye and many other tissues, such as brain, muscle, and liver as well. Transgenic zebrafish harboring an enhanced GFP reporter gene construct downstream of a 1.7-kb zlum 5′-flanking region displayed enhanced GFP expression in the cornea and sclera, as well as throughout the body. Down-regulation of zlum expression by antisense zlum morpholinos manifested ocular enlargement resembling axial myopia due to disruption of the collagen fibril arrangement in the sclera and resulted in scleral thinning. Administration of muscarinic receptor antagonists, e.g. atropine and pirenzepine, effectively subdued the ocular enlargement caused by morpholinos in in vivo zebrafish larvae assays. The observation suggests that zebrafish can be used as an in vivo model for screening compounds in treating myopia. PMID:20551313

  10. Conditional knockdown of target gene expression by tetracycline regulated transcription of double strand RNA.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xubin; Omi, Minoru; Harada, Hidekiyo; Ishii, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Harukazu

    2011-01-01

    In vivo electroporation has served as an effective tool for the study of developmental biology. Here we report tetracycline inducible gene knockdown by electroporation. Our system consists of genome integration of a cassette encoding long double strand RNA (dsRNA) of a gene of interest by electroporation, transcription of which is assured by RNA polymerase II, and induction of transcription of dsRNA by tetracyclin. Long dsRNA decapped by ribozyme in the cassette and without poly A tail is processed into siRNA within nuclei. We could successfully induce knockdown of En2 and Coactosin by Dox administration.

  11. Brain gene expression changes elicited by peripheral vitellogenin knockdown in the honey bee.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, M M; Ament, S A; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Robinson, G E

    2013-10-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is best known as a yolk protein precursor. Vg also functions to regulate behavioural maturation in adult honey bee workers, but the underlying molecular mechanisms by which it exerts this novel effect are largely unknown. We used abdominal vitellogenin (vg) knockdown with RNA interference (RNAi) and brain transcriptomic profiling to gain insights into how Vg influences honey bee behavioural maturation. We found that vg knockdown caused extensive gene expression changes in the bee brain, with much of this transcriptional response involving changes in central biological functions such as energy metabolism. vg knockdown targeted many of the same genes that show natural, maturation-related differences, but the direction of change for the genes in these two contrasts was not correlated. By contrast, vg knockdown targeted many of the same genes that are regulated by juvenile hormone (JH) and there was a significant correlation for the direction of change for the genes in these two contrasts. These results indicate that the tight coregulatory relationship that exists between JH and Vg in the regulation of honey bee behavioural maturation is manifest at the genomic level and suggest that these two physiological factors act through common pathways to regulate brain gene expression and behaviour. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Multi-gene engineering: simultaneous expression and knockdown of six genes off a single platform.

    PubMed

    Greber, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2007-04-01

    Increases in our understanding of gene function have greatly expanded the repertoire of possible genetic interventions at our disposal with the consequence that many genetic engineering applications require multiple manipulations in which target genes can be both overexpressed and silenced in a simple and co-ordinated manner. Using synthetic introns as a source of encoding short-interfering RNA (siRNA), we demonstrate that it is possible to simultaneously express both a transgene and siRNA from a single polymerase (Pol) II promoter. By encoding siRNA as an intron between two protein domains requiring successful splicing for functionality, it was possible to demonstrate that splicing was occurring, that the coding genes (exonic transgenes) resulted in functional protein, and that the spliced siRNA-containing lariat was capable of modulating expression of a separate target gene. We subsequently extended this concept to develop pTRIDENT-based multi-cistronic vectors that were capable of co-ordinated expression of up to three siRNAs and three transgenes off a single genetic platform. Such multi-gene engineering technology, enabling concomitant transgene overexpression and target gene knockdown, should be useful for therapeutic, biopharmaceutical production, and basic research applications.

  13. RNAi Mediated Tiam1 Gene Knockdown Inhibits Invasion of Retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Jyotirmay; Kanwar, Rupinder K.; Kanwar, Jagat R.; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    T lymphoma invasion and metastasis protein (Tiam1) is up-regulated in variety of cancers and its expression level is related to metastatic potential of the type of cancer. Earlier, Tiam1 was shown to be overexpressed in retinoblastoma (RB) and we hypothesized that it was involved in invasiveness of RB. This was tested by silencing Tiam1 in RB cell lines (Y79 and Weri-Rb1) using siRNA pool, targeting different regions of Tiam1 mRNA. The cDNA microarray of Tiam1 silenced cells showed gene regulations altered by Tiam1 were predominantly on the actin cytoskeleton interacting proteins, apoptotic initiators and tumorogenic potential targets. The silenced phenotype resulted in decreased growth and increased apoptosis with non-invasive characteristics. Transfection of full length and N-terminal truncated construct (C1199) clearly revealed membrane localization of Tiam1 and not in the case of C580 construct. F-actin staining showed the interaction of Tiam1 with actin in the membrane edges that leads to ruffling, and also imparts varying invasive potential to the cell. The results obtained from our study show for the first time that Tiam1 modulates the cell invasion, mediated by actin cytoskeleton remodeling in RB. PMID:23950931

  14. RNAi mediated Tiam1 gene knockdown inhibits invasion of retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Nithya; Navaneethakrishnan, Saranya; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Kanwar, Jagat R; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    T lymphoma invasion and metastasis protein (Tiam1) is up-regulated in variety of cancers and its expression level is related to metastatic potential of the type of cancer. Earlier, Tiam1 was shown to be overexpressed in retinoblastoma (RB) and we hypothesized that it was involved in invasiveness of RB. This was tested by silencing Tiam1 in RB cell lines (Y79 and Weri-Rb1) using siRNA pool, targeting different regions of Tiam1 mRNA. The cDNA microarray of Tiam1 silenced cells showed gene regulations altered by Tiam1 were predominantly on the actin cytoskeleton interacting proteins, apoptotic initiators and tumorogenic potential targets. The silenced phenotype resulted in decreased growth and increased apoptosis with non-invasive characteristics. Transfection of full length and N-terminal truncated construct (C1199) clearly revealed membrane localization of Tiam1 and not in the case of C580 construct. F-actin staining showed the interaction of Tiam1 with actin in the membrane edges that leads to ruffling, and also imparts varying invasive potential to the cell. The results obtained from our study show for the first time that Tiam1 modulates the cell invasion, mediated by actin cytoskeleton remodeling in RB.

  15. USP40 gene knockdown disrupts glomerular permeability in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hisashi; Nishibori, Yukino; Katayama, Kan; Katada, Tomohisa; Takahashi, Shohei; Kiuchi, Zentaro; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Kawakami, Hayato; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kudo, Akihiko; Asanuma, Katsuhiko; Takematsu, Hiromu; Yan, Kunimasa

    2017-02-01

    Unbiased transcriptome profiling and functional genomics approaches have identified ubiquitin specific protease 40 (USP40) as a highly specific glomerular transcript. This gene product remains uncharacterized, and its biological function is completely unknown. Here, we showed that mouse and rat glomeruli exhibit specific expression of the USP40 protein, which migrated at 150 kDa and was exclusively localized in the podocyte cytoplasm of the adult kidney. Double-labeling immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy analysis of fetal and neonate kidney samples revealed that USP40 was also expressed in the vasculature, including in glomerular endothelial cells at the premature stage. USP40 in cultured glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes was specifically localized to the intermediate filament protein: nestin. In glomerular endothelial cells, immunoprecipitation confirmed actual protein-protein binding of USP40 with nestin, and USP40-siRNA transfection revealed significant reduction of nestin. In rat model of minimal change nephrotic syndrome, apparent reduction of USP40 in the diseased podocytes at the proteinuric stage, which was also associated with the reduction of nestin. Morphants lacking USP40 in zebrafish exhibited disorganized glomeruli with the reduction of the cell junction in the endothelium and foot process effacement in the podocytes. Permeability studies in these zebrafish morphants demonstrated a disruption of the selective glomerular permeability filter. These data indicate that USP40 is a novel protein that might play a crucial role in glomerulogenesis and the glomerular integrity after birth through the modulation of intermediate filament protein homeostasis.

  16. RNAi-mediated double gene knockdown and gustatory perception measurement in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Baker, Nicholas; Amdam, Gro V

    2013-07-25

    This video demonstrates novel techniques of RNA interference (RNAi) which downregulate two genes simultaneously in honey bees using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injections. It also presents a protocol of proboscis extension response (PER) assay for measuring gustatory perception. RNAi-mediated gene knockdown is an effective technique downregulating target gene expression. This technique is usually used for single gene manipulation, but it has limitations to detect interactions and joint effects between genes. In the first part of this video, we present two strategies to simultaneously knock down two genes (called double gene knockdown). We show both strategies are able to effectively suppress two genes, vitellogenin (vg) and ultraspiracle (usp), which are in a regulatory feedback loop. This double gene knockdown approach can be used to dissect interrelationships between genes and can be readily applied in different insect species. The second part of this video is a demonstration of proboscis extension response (PER) assay in honey bees after the treatment of double gene knockdown. The PER assay is a standard test for measuring gustatory perception in honey bees, which is a key predictor for how fast a honey bee's behavioral maturation is. Greater gustatory perception of nest bees indicates increased behavioral development which is often associated with an earlier age at onset of foraging and foraging specialization in pollen. In addition, PER assay can be applied to identify metabolic states of satiation or hunger in honey bees. Finally, PER assay combined with pairing different odor stimuli for conditioning the bees is also widely used for learning and memory studies in honey bees.

  17. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Prevents Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Tafazzin Gene Knockdown in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    He, Quan; Harris, Nicole; Ren, Jun; Han, Xianlin

    2014-01-01

    Tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase, plays an important role in cardiolipin side chain remodeling. Previous studies have shown that dysfunction of tafazzin reduces cardiolipin content, impairs mitochondrial function, and causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy and are also the obligated byproducts of mitochondria. We hypothesized that tafazzin knockdown increases ROS production from mitochondria, and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents tafazzin knockdown induced mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction. We employed cardiac myocytes transduced with an adenovirus containing tafazzin shRNA as a model to investigate the effects of the mitochondrial antioxidant, mito-Tempo. Knocking down tafazzin decreased steady state levels of cardiolipin and increased mitochondrial ROS. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with mito-Tempo normalized tafazzin knockdown enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular ATP decline. Mito-Tempo also significantly abrogated tafazzin knockdown induced cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and cell death. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes and suggest mito-Tempo as a potential therapeutic for Barth syndrome and other dilated cardiomyopathies resulting from mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:25247053

  18. Knockdown of MLO genes reduces susceptibility to powdery mildew in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Pessina, Stefano; Lenzi, Luisa; Perazzolli, Michele; Campa, Manuela; Dalla Costa, Lorenza; Urso, Simona; Valè, Giampiero; Salamini, Francesco; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Erysiphe necator is the causal agent of powdery mildew (PM), one of the most destructive diseases of grapevine. PM is controlled by sulfur-based and synthetic fungicides, which every year are dispersed into the environment. This is why PM-resistant varieties should become a priority for sustainable grapevine and wine production. PM resistance can be achieved in other crops by knocking out susceptibility S-genes, such as those residing at genetic loci known as MLO (Mildew Locus O). All MLO S-genes of dicots belong to the phylogenetic clade V, including grapevine genes VvMLO7, 11 and 13, which are upregulated during PM infection, and VvMLO6, which is not upregulated. Before adopting a gene-editing approach to knockout candidate S-genes, the evidence that loss of function of MLO genes can reduce PM susceptibility is necessary. This paper reports the knockdown through RNA interference of VvMLO6, 7, 11 and 13. The knockdown of VvMLO6, 11 and 13 did not decrease PM severity, whereas the knockdown of VvMLO7 in combination with VvMLO6 and VvMLO11 reduced PM severity up to 77%. The knockdown of VvMLO7 and VvMLO6 seemed to be important for PM resistance, whereas a role for VvMLO11 does not seem likely. Cell wall appositions (papillae) were present in both resistant and susceptible lines in response to PM attack. Thirteen genes involved in defense were less upregulated in infected mlo plants, highlighting the early mlo-dependent disruption of PM invasion. PMID:27390621

  19. Expression profiles of genes in DJ-1-knockdown and L 166 P DJ-1 mutant cells.

    PubMed

    Nishinaga, Hiromi; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Taira, Takahiro; Andreadis, Athena; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2005-12-16

    DJ-1 is a novel oncogene and a causative gene for the familial form of Parkinson's disease (PD). DJ-1 has been shown to play roles in anti-oxidative stress by eliminating reactive oxygen species and in transcriptional regulation of genes. Loss of these functions of DJ-1 is thought to trigger the onset of PD. In this study, to identify genes for which expressions are regulated by DJ-1, DNA microarray analyses were carried out using two mouse NIH3T3 cell lines, DJ-1-knockdown cells and cells harboring an exogenously added L 166 P DJ-1 mutant found in PD patients. In both cell lines, drastic changes in expressions of genes, including genes related to stress, apoptosis, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, were observed and changes in expressions were confirmed by RT-PCR. Of the genes identified, expression level of the extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD 3) gene was found to decrease in DJ-1-knockdown cells, while expressions of SOD 1 and SOD 2 genes did not change. Furthermore, expression of the tau gene, a gene whose product gives cells neurotoxicity by aggregation, was found to increase at its promoter level in L 166 P DJ-1 cells. These findings suggest that DJ-1 regulates expressions of genes for which functions are thought to be related to cell death or neurodegeneration.

  20. Acat1 knockdown gene therapy decreases amyloid-β in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Stephanie R; Chang, Catherine Cy; Dogbevia, Godwin; Bryleva, Elena Y; Bowen, Zachary; Hasan, Mazahir T; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    Both genetic inactivation and pharmacological inhibition of the cholesteryl ester synthetic enzyme acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) have shown benefit in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we aimed to test the potential therapeutic applications of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Acat1 gene knockdown in AD mice. We constructed recombinant AAVs expressing artificial microRNA (miRNA) sequences, which targeted Acat1 for knockdown. We demonstrated that our AAVs could infect cultured mouse neurons and glia and effectively knockdown ACAT activity in vitro. We next delivered the AAVs to mouse brains neurosurgically, and demonstrated that Acat1-targeting AAVs could express viral proteins and effectively diminish ACAT activity in vivo, without inducing appreciable inflammation. We delivered the AAVs to the brains of 10-month-old AD mice and analyzed the effects on the AD phenotype at 12 months of age. Acat1-targeting AAV delivered to the brains of AD mice decreased the levels of brain amyloid-β and full-length human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP), to levels similar to complete genetic ablation of Acat1. This study provides support for the potential therapeutic use of Acat1 knockdown gene therapy in AD.

  1. shRNA-Induced Gene Knockdown In Vivo to Investigate Neutrophil Function.

    PubMed

    Basit, Abdul; Tang, Wenwen; Wu, Dianqing

    2016-01-01

    To silence genes in neutrophils efficiently, we exploited the RNA interference and developed an shRNA-based gene knockdown technique. This method involves transfection of mouse bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells with retroviral vector carrying shRNA directed at a specific gene. Transfected stem cells are then transplanted into irradiated wild-type mice. After engraftment of stem cells, the transplanted mice have two sets of circulating neutrophils. One set has a gene of interest knocked down while the other set has full complement of expressed genes. This efficient technique provides a unique way to directly compare the response of neutrophils with a knocked-down gene to that of neutrophils with the full complement of expressed genes in the same environment.

  2. Preparation of cell-lines for conditional knockdown of gene expression and measurement of the knockdown effects on E4orf4-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Brestovitsky, Anna; Sharf, Rakefet; Kleinberger, Tamar

    2012-10-21

    Functional inactivation of gene expression in mammalian cells is crucial for the study of the contribution of a protein of interest to various pathways(1,2). However, conditional knockdown of gene expression is required in cases when constitutive knockdown is not tolerated by cells for a long period of time(3-5). Here we describe a protocol for preparation of cell lines allowing conditional knockdown of subunits of the ACF chromatin remodeling factor. These cell lines facilitate the determination of the contribution of ACF to induction of cell death by the adenovirus E4orf4 protein(6). Sequences encoding short hairpin RNAs for the Acf1 and SNF2h subunits of the ACF chromatin remodeling factor were cloned next to a doxycycline-inducible promoter in a plasmid also containing a gene for the neomycin resistance gene. Neomycin-resistant cell clones were selected in the presence of G418 and isolated. The resulting cell lines were induced by doxycycline treatment, and once Acf1 or SNF2h expression levels were reduced, the cells were transfected with a plasmid encoding E4orf4 or an empty vector. To confirm the specific effect of the shRNA constructs, Acf1 or SNF2h protein levels were restored to WT levels by cotransfection with a plasmid expressing Acf1 or SNF2h which were rendered resistant to the shRNA by introduction of silent mutations. The ability of E4orf4 to induce cell death in the various samples was determined by a DAPI assay, in which the frequency of appearance of nuclei with apoptotic morphologies in the transfected cell population was measured(7-9). The protocol described here can be utilized for determination of the functional contribution of various proteins to induction of cell death by their protein partners in cases when constitutive knockdown may be cell lethal.

  3. Preparation of Cell-lines for Conditional Knockdown of Gene Expression and Measurement of the Knockdown Effects on E4orf4-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Brestovitsky, Anna; Sharf, Rakefet; Kleinberger, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Functional inactivation of gene expression in mammalian cells is crucial for the study of the contribution of a protein of interest to various pathways1,2. However, conditional knockdown of gene expression is required in cases when constitutive knockdown is not tolerated by cells for a long period of time3-5. Here we describe a protocol for preparation of cell lines allowing conditional knockdown of subunits of the ACF chromatin remodeling factor. These cell lines facilitate the determination of the contribution of ACF to induction of cell death by the adenovirus E4orf4 protein6. Sequences encoding short hairpin RNAs for the Acf1 and SNF2h subunits of the ACF chromatin remodeling factor were cloned next to a doxycycline-inducible promoter in a plasmid also containing a gene for the neomycin resistance gene. Neomycin-resistant cell clones were selected in the presence of G418 and isolated. The resulting cell lines were induced by doxycycline treatment, and once Acf1 or SNF2h expression levels were reduced, the cells were transfected with a plasmid encoding E4orf4 or an empty vector. To confirm the specific effect of the shRNA constructs, Acf1 or SNF2h protein levels were restored to WT levels by cotransfection with a plasmid expressing Acf1 or SNF2h which were rendered resistant to the shRNA by introduction of silent mutations. The ability of E4orf4 to induce cell death in the various samples was determined by a DAPI assay, in which the frequency of appearance of nuclei with apoptotic morphologies in the transfected cell population was measured7-9. The protocol described here can be utilized for determination of the functional contribution of various proteins to induction of cell death by their protein partners in cases when constitutive knockdown may be cell lethal. PMID:23117279

  4. Inducible Knockdown of Plasmodium Gene Expression Using the glmS Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Prommana, Parichat; Uthaipibull, Chairat; Wongsombat, Chayaphat; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Knuepfer, Ellen; Holder, Anthony A.; Shaw, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional reverse genetic approaches for study of Plasmodium malaria parasite gene function are limited, or not applicable. Hence, new inducible systems are needed. Here we describe a method to control P. falciparum gene expression in which target genes bearing a glmS ribozyme in the 3′ untranslated region are efficiently knocked down in transgenic P. falciparum parasites in response to glucosamine inducer. Using reporter genes, we show that the glmS ribozyme cleaves reporter mRNA in vivo leading to reduction in mRNA expression following glucosamine treatment. Glucosamine-induced ribozyme activation led to efficient reduction of reporter protein, which could be rapidly reversed by removing the inducer. The glmS ribozyme was validated as a reverse-genetic tool by integration into the essential gene and antifolate drug target dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (PfDHFR-TS). Glucosamine treatment of transgenic parasites led to rapid and efficient knockdown of PfDHFR-TS mRNA and protein. PfDHFR-TS knockdown led to a growth/arrest mutant phenotype and hypersensitivity to pyrimethamine. The glmS ribozyme may thus be a tool for study of essential genes in P. falciparum and other parasite species amenable to transfection. PMID:24023691

  5. Gene expression profiling of NB4 cells following knockdown of nucleostemin using DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Jia, Yu; Wei, Yuanyu; Liu, Shuai; Yue, Baohong

    2016-07-01

    Nucleostemin (NS) is mainly expressed in stem and tumor cells, and is necessary for the maintenance of their self-renewal and proliferation. Originally, NS was thought to exert its effects through inhibiting p53, while recent studies have revealed that NS is also able to function independently of p53. The present study performed a gene expression profiling analysis of p53‑mutant NB4 leukeima cells following knockdown of NS in order to elucidate the p53‑independent NS pathway. NS expression was silenced using lentivirus‑mediated RNA interference technology, and gene expression profiling of NB4 cells was performed by DNA microarray analysis. A total of 1,953 genes were identified to be differentially expressed (fold change ≥2 or ≤0.5) following knockdown of NS expression. Furthermore, reverse‑transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the expression of certain candidate genes, and the results were in agreement with the micaroarray data. Pathway analysis indicated that aberrant genes were enhanced in endoplasmic, c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase and mineral absorption pathways. The present study shed light on the mechanisms of the p54‑independent NS pathway in NB4 cells and provided a foundation for the discovery of promising targets for the treatment of p53-mutant leukemia.

  6. Response of Two Heat Shock Genes to Selection for Knockdown Heat Resistance in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    McColl, G.; Hoffmann, A. A.; McKechnie, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    To identify genes involved in stress resistance and heat hardening, replicate lines of Drosophila melanogaster were selected for increased resistance to knockdown by a 39° heat stress. Two selective regimes were used, one with and one without prior hardening. Mean knockdown times were increased from ~5 min to >20 min after 18 generations. Initial realized heritabilities were as high as 10% for lines selected without hardening, and crosses between lines indicated simple additive gene effects for the selected phenotypes. To survey allelic variation and correlated selection responses in two candidate stress genes, hsr-omega and hsp68, we applied denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to amplified DNA sequences from small regions of these genes. After eight generations of selection, allele frequencies at both loci showed correlated responses for selection following hardening, but not without hardening. The hardening process itself was associated with a hsp68 frequency change in the opposite direction to that associated with selection that followed hardening. These stress loci are closely linked on chromosome III, and the hardening selection established a disequilibrium, suggesting an epistatic effect on resistance. The data indicate that molecular variation in both hsr-omega and hsp68 contribute to natural heritable variation for hardened heat resistance. PMID:8844150

  7. Knockdown of ICB-1 gene enhanced estrogen responsiveness of ovarian and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Konwisorz, Anna; Springwald, Anette; Haselberger, Martina; Goerse, Regina; Ortmann, Olaf; Treeck, Oliver

    2010-03-01

    ICB-1 chromosome 1 open reading frame 38 (C1orf38) is a human gene initially described by our group to be involved in differentiation processes of cancer cells. Recently, we have reported ICB-1 as a novel estrogen target gene and identified an estrogen response element in its promoter. In this study, we examined the role of ICB-1 in regulation of proliferation of breast and ovarian cancer cells. We knocked down its expression in estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and hormone-unresponsive SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells by stable transfection with a specific shRNA plasmid followed by G-418 selection. Knockdown of ICB-1 enabled a considerable estrogen response of SK-OV-3 cells in terms of proliferation. This transformation of SK-OV-3 cells into an estrogen-responsive phenotype was accompanied by upregulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) expression and a significant decrease of ERbeta expression on the mRNA level. Expression of ERalpha-dependent genes progesterone receptor, pS2, fibulin 1c, and c-fos was elevated in SK-OV-3 cells stably expressing ICB-1 shRNA. In MCF-7 cells, ICB-1 knockdown exerted similar effects on gene expression, supporting a general role of ICB-1 in estrogen responsiveness. Our data suggest that differentiation-associated gene ICB-1 might exert antagonistic actions on cellular estrogen response, which can result in inhibition of estradiol-triggered proliferation. The molecular mechanisms mediating this inhibitory effect of ICB-1 on estrogen signaling are suggested to be limitation of ERalpha transcript levels but sustaining high levels of ERbeta, reducing both activation of ERalpha target genes and cellular proliferation. The identification of ICB-1 as a new player in endocrine-related cancer encourages further studies on the significance of this gene in cancer development and therapy.

  8. Duplication and Retention Biases of Essential and Non-Essential Genes Revealed by Systematic Knockdown Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, David; Warnecke, Tobias; Jeffries, Sean J.; Kwon, Taejoon; Rogers, Anthony; Hurst, Laurence D.; Ahringer, Julie

    2013-01-01

    When a duplicate gene has no apparent loss-of-function phenotype, it is commonly considered that the phenotype has been masked as a result of functional redundancy with the remaining paralog. This is supported by indirect evidence showing that multi-copy genes show loss-of-function phenotypes less often than single-copy genes and by direct tests of phenotype masking using select gene sets. Here we take a systematic genome-wide RNA interference approach to assess phenotype masking in paralog pairs in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome. Remarkably, in contrast to expectations, we find that phenotype masking makes only a minor contribution to the low knockdown phenotype rate for duplicate genes. Instead, we find that non-essential genes are highly over-represented among duplicates, leading to a low observed loss-of-function phenotype rate. We further find that duplicate pairs derived from essential and non-essential genes have contrasting evolutionary dynamics: whereas non-essential genes are both more often successfully duplicated (fixed) and lost, essential genes are less often duplicated but upon successful duplication are maintained over longer periods. We expect the fundamental evolutionary duplication dynamics presented here to be broadly applicable. PMID:23675306

  9. Reversible gene knockdown in mice using a tight, inducible shRNA expression system

    PubMed Central

    Seibler, Jost; Kleinridders, Andre; Küter-Luks, Birgit; Niehaves, Sandra; Brüning, Jens C.; Schwenk, Frieder

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference through expression of short hairpin (sh)RNAs provides an efficient approach for gene function analysis in mouse genetics. Techniques allowing to control time and degree of gene silencing in vivo, however, are still lacking. Here we provide a generally applicable system for the temporal control of ubiquitous shRNA expression in mice. Depending on the dose of the inductor doxycycline, the knockdown efficiency reaches up to 90%. To demonstrate the feasibility of our tool, a mouse model of reversible insulin resistance was generated by expression of an insulin receptor (Insr)-specific shRNA. Upon induction, mice develop severe hyperglycemia within seven days. The onset and progression of the disease correlates with the concentration of doxycycline, and the phenotype returns to baseline shortly after withdrawal of the inductor. On a broad basis, this approach will enable new insights into gene function and molecular disease mechanisms. PMID:17376804

  10. Knockdown of Maternal Homeobox Transcription Factor SEBOX Gene Impaired Early Embryonic Development in Porcine Parthenotes

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, Zhong; ZHAO, Ming-Hui; JIA, Jia-Lin; HEO, Young-Tae; CUI, Xiang-Shun; OH, Jeong Su; KIM, Nam-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A number of germ cell-specific transcription factors essential for ovarian formation and folliculogenesis have been identified and studied. However, the role of these factors during early embryonic development has been poorly explored. In the present study, we investigated the role of SEBOX, a maternal homeobox transcription factor, during early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes. mRNA for SEBOX is preferentially expressed in oocytes, and expression persists until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Knockdown of SEBOX by siRNA disrupted early embryonic development, but not oocyte maturation. Many maternal genes essential for early embryonic development were upregulated in SEBOX-depleted embryos. Moreover, some pluripotency-associated genes, including SOX2 and NANOG, were upregulated when SEBOX was knocked down. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SEBOX is required for early embryonic development in pigs and appears to regulate the degradation of maternal transcripts and the expression of pluripotency genes. PMID:24018616

  11. Knockdown of maternal homeobox transcription factor SEBOX gene impaired early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhong; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Jia, Jia-Lin; Heo, Young-Tae; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2013-12-17

    A number of germ cell-specific transcription factors essential for ovarian formation and folliculogenesis have been identified and studied. However, the role of these factors during early embryonic development has been poorly explored. In the present study, we investigated the role of SEBOX, a maternal homeobox transcription factor, during early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes. mRNA for SEBOX is preferentially expressed in oocytes, and expression persists until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Knockdown of SEBOX by siRNA disrupted early embryonic development, but not oocyte maturation. Many maternal genes essential for early embryonic development were upregulated in SEBOX-depleted embryos. Moreover, some pluripotency-associated genes, including SOX2 and NANOG, were upregulated when SEBOX was knocked down. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SEBOX is required for early embryonic development in pigs and appears to regulate the degradation of maternal transcripts and the expression of pluripotency genes.

  12. Knockdown of the intraflagellar transport protein IFT46 stimulates selective gene expression in mouse chondrocytes and affects early development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Valcourt, Ulrich; Bougault, Carole; Aubert-Foucher, Elisabeth; Arnaud, Estelle; Giraud, Lionel; Mallein-Gerin, Frédéric

    2007-10-19

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act as multifunctional regulators in morphogenesis during development. In particular they play a determinant role in the formation of cartilage molds and their replacement by bone during endochondral ossification. In cell culture, BMP-2 favors chondrogenic expression and promotes hypertrophic maturation of chondrocytes. In mouse chondrocytes we have identified a BMP-2-sensitive gene encoding a protein of 301 amino acids. This protein, named mIFT46, is the mouse ortholog of recently identified Caenorhabditis elegans and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins. After generation of a polyclonal antibody against mIFT46, we showed for the first time that the endogenous protein is located in the primary cilium of chondrocytes. We also found that mIFT46 is preferentially expressed in early hypertrophic chondrocytes located in the growth plate. Additionally, mIFT46 knockdown by small interfering RNA oligonucleotides in cultured chondrocytes specifically stimulated the expression of several genes related to skeletogenesis. Furthermore, Northern blotting analysis indicated that mIFT46 is also expressed before chondrogenesis in embryonic mouse development, suggesting that the role of mIFT46 might not be restricted to cartilage. To explore the role of IFT46 during early development, we injected antisense morpholino oligonucleotides in Danio rerio embryos to reduce zebrafish IFT46 protein (zIFT46) synthesis. Dramatic defects in embryonic development such as a dorsalization and a tail duplication were observed. Thus our results taken together indicate that the ciliary protein IFT46 has a specific function in chondrocytes and is also essential for normal development of vertebrates.

  13. SiRNA-mediated in vivo gene knockdown by acid-degradable cationic nanohydrogel particles.

    PubMed

    Leber, Nadine; Kaps, Leonard; Aslam, Misbah; Schupp, Jonathan; Brose, Alexander; Schäffel, David; Fischer, Karl; Diken, Mustafa; Strand, Dennis; Koynov, Kaloian; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Nuhn, Lutz; Zentel, Rudolf; Schuppan, Detlef

    2017-02-28

    Cationic nanohydrogel particles have become an attractive tool for systemic siRNA delivery, but improvement of their in vivo tolerance is desirable, especially to prevent potential long term side effects by tissue and cellular accumulation. Here, we designed novel ketal cross-linked cationic nanohydrogel particles that were assessed for reduced tissue accumulation and robust siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo. An oligo-amine cross-linker equipped with a ketal moiety in its core was synthesized and applied to nanohydrogel cross-linking of self-assembled reactive ester block copolymers in DMSO. The resulting acid-sensitive cationic nanoparticles spontaneously disassembled over time in acidic milieu, as investigated by dynamic light scattering. Fluorescent correlation spectroscopy showed effective complexation with siRNA as well as its release upon particle degradation at endosomal pH. These properties resulted in an enhanced in vitro gene knockdown for the acid-degradable cationic nanoparticles compared to their non-degradable spermine analogues. In a murine liver fibrosis model enhanced carrier and payload accumulation in the fibrotic tissue facilitated sequence-specific gene knockdown and prevented fibrosis progression. Long-term monitoring of the carrier in the body showed an enhanced clearance for the acid-degradable carrier, even after multiple dosing. Therefore, these acid-degradable cationic nanohydrogel particles can be considered as promising siRNA carriers for in vivo purposes towards therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. RNAi-based targeted gene knockdown in the model oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Xin, Yi; Wang, Qintao; Yang, Juan; Hu, Hanhua; Xu, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae are promising feedstock for renewable fuels such as biodiesel, yet development of industrial oleaginous strains has been hindered by the paucity and inefficiency of reverse genetics tools. Here we established an efficient RNAi-based targeted gene-knockdown method for Nannochloropsis spp., which are emerging model organisms for industrial microalgal oil production. The method achieved a 40-80% success rate in Nannochloropsis oceanica strain IMET1. When transcript level of one carbonic anhydrase (CA) was inhibited by 62-83% via RNAi, mutant cells exhibited photosynthetic oxygen evolution (POE) rates that were 68-100% higher than wild-type (WT) at pH 6.0, equivalent to WT at pH 8.2, yet 39-45% lower than WT at pH 9.0. Moreover, the mutant POE rates were negatively correlated with the increase of culture pH, an exact opposite of WT. Thus, a dynamic carbon concentration mechanism (CCM) that is highly sensitive to pH homeostasis was revealed, where the CA inhibition likely partially abrogated the mechanism that normally deactivates CCM under a high level of dissolved CO2 . Extension of the method to another sequenced N. oceanica strain of CCMP 1779 demonstrated comparable performance. Finally, McrBC-PCR followed by bisulfite sequencing revealed that the gene knockdown is mediated by the CG, CHG and CHH types of DNA methylation at the coding region of the targeted gene. The efficiency, robustness and general applicability of this reverse genetics approach suggested the possibility of large-scale RNAi-based gene function screening in industrial microalgae.

  15. The effect of neurospecific knockdown of candidate genes for locomotor behavior and sound production in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fedotov, Sergey A; Bragina, Julia V; Besedina, Natalia G; Danilenkova, Larisa V; Kamysheva, Elena A; Panova, Anna A; Kamyshev, Nikolai G

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of central pattern generators (CPGs) are poorly understood. Investigations using genetic approaches in the model organism Drosophila may help to identify unknown molecular players participating in the formation or control of motor patterns. Here we report Drosophila genes as candidates for involvement in the neural mechanisms responsible for motor functions, such as locomotion and courtship song. Twenty-two Drosophila lines, used for gene identification, were isolated from a previously created collection of 1064 lines, each carrying a P element insertion in one of the autosomes. The lines displayed extreme deviations in locomotor and/or courtship song parameters compared with the whole collection. The behavioral consequences of CNS-specific RNAi-mediated knockdowns for 10 identified genes were estimated. The most prominent changes in the courtship song interpulse interval (IPI) were seen in flies with Sps2 or CG15630 knockdown. Glia-specific knockdown of these genes produced no effect on the IPI. Estrogen-induced knockdown of CG15630 in adults reduced the IPI. The product of the CNS-specific gene, CG15630 (a predicted cell surface receptor), is likely to be directly involved in the functioning of the CPG generating the pulse song pattern. Future studies should ascertain its functional role in the neurons that constitute the song CPG. Other genes (Sps2, CG34460), whose CNS-specific knockdown resulted in IPI reduction, are also worthy of detailed examination.

  16. The effect of neurospecific knockdown of candidate genes for locomotor behavior and sound production in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Fedotov, Sergey A; Bragina, Julia V; Besedina, Natalia G; Danilenkova, Larisa V; Kamysheva, Elena A; Panova, Anna A; Kamyshev, Nikolai G

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of central pattern generators (CPGs) are poorly understood. Investigations using genetic approaches in the model organism Drosophila may help to identify unknown molecular players participating in the formation or control of motor patterns. Here we report Drosophila genes as candidates for involvement in the neural mechanisms responsible for motor functions, such as locomotion and courtship song. Twenty-two Drosophila lines, used for gene identification, were isolated from a previously created collection of 1064 lines, each carrying a P element insertion in one of the autosomes. The lines displayed extreme deviations in locomotor and/or courtship song parameters compared with the whole collection. The behavioral consequences of CNS-specific RNAi-mediated knockdowns for 10 identified genes were estimated. The most prominent changes in the courtship song interpulse interval (IPI) were seen in flies with Sps2 or CG15630 knockdown. Glia-specific knockdown of these genes produced no effect on the IPI. Estrogen-induced knockdown of CG15630 in adults reduced the IPI. The product of the CNS-specific gene, CG15630 (a predicted cell surface receptor), is likely to be directly involved in the functioning of the CPG generating the pulse song pattern. Future studies should ascertain its functional role in the neurons that constitute the song CPG. Other genes (Sps2, CG34460), whose CNS-specific knockdown resulted in IPI reduction, are also worthy of detailed examination. PMID:25494872

  17. Knockdown of CSE1L Gene in Colorectal Cancer Reduces Tumorigenesis in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Pimiento, Jose M; Neill, Kevin G; Henderson-Jackson, Evita; Eschrich, Steven A; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Husain, Kazim; Shibata, David; Coppola, Domenico; Malafa, Mokenge P

    2016-10-01

    Human cellular apoptosis susceptibility (chromosomal segregation 1-like, CSE1L) gene plays a role in nuclear-to-cytoplasm transport and chromosome segregation during mitosis, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. CSE1L is involved in colon carcinogenesis. CSE1L gene expression was assessed with three data sets using Affymetrix U133 + gene chips on normal human colonic mucosa (NR), adenomas (ADs), and colorectal carcinoma (CRC). CSE1L protein expression in CRC, AD, and NR from the same patients was measured by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. We evaluated CSE1L expression in CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, and HT29) and its biological functions. CSE1L mRNA was significantly increased in all AD and CRC compared with NR (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectivly). We observed a change in CSE1L staining intensity and cellular localization by immunohistochemistry. CSE1L was significantly increased during the transition from AD to CRC when compared with NR in a CRC tissue microarray (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001). HCT116, SW480, and HT29 cells also expressed CSE1L protein. CSE1L knockdown by shRNA inhibited protein, resulting in decreased cell proliferation, reduced colony formation in soft agar, and induction of apoptosis. CSE1L protein is expressed early and across all stages of CRC development. shRNA knockdown of CSE1L was associated with inhibition of tumorigenesis in CRC cells. CSE1L may represent a potential target for treatment of CRC.

  18. Efficient Gene Knockdown in Mouse Oocytes through Peptide Nanoparticle-Mediated SiRNA Transfection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen; Li, Ruichao; Zhou, Chunxiang; Shi, Liya; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhixia; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The use of mouse oocytes as a model for studying female meiosis is very important in reproductive medicine. Gene knockdown by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is usually the first step in the study of the function of a target gene in mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. Traditionally, the only way to introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes is through microinjection, which is certainly less efficient and strenuous than siRNA transfection in somatic cells. Recently, in research using somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated siRNA transfection has been gaining popularity over liposome nanoparticle-mediated methods because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, no researchers have yet tried transfecting siRNA into mouse oocytes because of the existence of the protective zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane). We therefore tested whether peptide nanoparticles can introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes. In the present study, we showed for the first time that our optimized program can efficiently knock down a target gene with high specificity. Furthermore, we achieved the expected meiotic phenotypes after we knocked down a test unknown target gene TRIM75. We propose that peptide nanoparticles may be superior for preliminary functional studies of unknown genes in mouse oocytes.

  19. Efficient Gene Knockdown in Mouse Oocytes through Peptide Nanoparticle-Mediated SiRNA Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhen; Li, Ruichao; Zhou, Chunxiang; Shi, Liya; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhixia; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The use of mouse oocytes as a model for studying female meiosis is very important in reproductive medicine. Gene knockdown by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is usually the first step in the study of the function of a target gene in mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. Traditionally, the only way to introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes is through microinjection, which is certainly less efficient and strenuous than siRNA transfection in somatic cells. Recently, in research using somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated siRNA transfection has been gaining popularity over liposome nanoparticle-mediated methods because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, no researchers have yet tried transfecting siRNA into mouse oocytes because of the existence of the protective zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane). We therefore tested whether peptide nanoparticles can introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes. In the present study, we showed for the first time that our optimized program can efficiently knock down a target gene with high specificity. Furthermore, we achieved the expected meiotic phenotypes after we knocked down a test unknown target gene TRIM75. We propose that peptide nanoparticles may be superior for preliminary functional studies of unknown genes in mouse oocytes. PMID:26974323

  20. Simultaneous knockdown of six non-family genes using a single synthetic RNAi fragment in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE PAGES

    Czarnecki, Olaf; Bryan, Anthony C.; Jawdy, Sara S.; ...

    2016-02-17

    Genetic engineering of plants that results in successful establishment of new biochemical or regulatory pathways requires stable introduction of one or more genes into the plant genome. It might also be necessary to down-regulate or turn off expression of endogenous genes in order to reduce activity of competing pathways. An established way to knockdown gene expression in plants is expressing a hairpin-RNAi construct, eventually leading to degradation of a specifically targeted mRNA. Knockdown of multiple genes that do not share homologous sequences is still challenging and involves either sophisticated cloning strategies to create vectors with different serial expression constructs ormore » multiple transformation events that is often restricted by a lack of available transformation markers. Synthetic RNAi fragments were assembled in yeast carrying homologous sequences to six or seven non-family genes and introduced into pAGRIKOLA. Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and subsequent expression analysis of targeted genes proved efficient knockdown of all target genes. In conclusion, we present a simple and cost-effective method to create constructs to simultaneously knockdown multiple non-family genes or genes that do not share sequence homology. The presented method can be applied in plant and animal synthetic biology as well as traditional plant and animal genetic engineering.« less

  1. Simultaneous knockdown of six non-family genes using a single synthetic RNAi fragment in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, Olaf; Bryan, Anthony C.; Jawdy, Sara S.; Yang, Xiaohan; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Gui; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2016-02-17

    Genetic engineering of plants that results in successful establishment of new biochemical or regulatory pathways requires stable introduction of one or more genes into the plant genome. It might also be necessary to down-regulate or turn off expression of endogenous genes in order to reduce activity of competing pathways. An established way to knockdown gene expression in plants is expressing a hairpin-RNAi construct, eventually leading to degradation of a specifically targeted mRNA. Knockdown of multiple genes that do not share homologous sequences is still challenging and involves either sophisticated cloning strategies to create vectors with different serial expression constructs or multiple transformation events that is often restricted by a lack of available transformation markers. Synthetic RNAi fragments were assembled in yeast carrying homologous sequences to six or seven non-family genes and introduced into pAGRIKOLA. Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and subsequent expression analysis of targeted genes proved efficient knockdown of all target genes. In conclusion, we present a simple and cost-effective method to create constructs to simultaneously knockdown multiple non-family genes or genes that do not share sequence homology. The presented method can be applied in plant and animal synthetic biology as well as traditional plant and animal genetic engineering.

  2. PhotoMorphs™: A Novel Light-Activated Reagent for Controlling Gene Expression in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini, Amber J.; Schuler, Aaron D.; Zebala, John A.; Mayer, Alan N.

    2009-01-01

    Manipulating gene expression in zebrafish is critical for exploiting the full potential of this vertebrate model organism. Morpholino oligos are the most commonly employed antisense technology for knocking down gene expression. However, morpholinos suffer from a lack of control over the timing and location of knockdown. In this report, we describe a novel light-activatable knockdown reagent called PhotoMorph™. PhotoMorphs can be generated from existing morpholinos by hybridization with a complementary caging strand containing a photocleavable linkage. The caging strand neutralizes the morpholino activity until irradiation of the PhotoMorph with UV light releases the morpholino. We generated PhotoMorphs to target genes encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), No tail, and E-cadherin to illustrate the utility of this approach. Temporal control of gene expression with PhotoMorphs permitted us to circumvent the early lethal phenotype of E-cadherin knockdown. A splice-blocking PhotoMorph directed to the rheb gene showed light-dependent gene knockdown up to 72 hpf. PhotoMorphs thus offer a new class of laboratory reagents suitable for the spatiotemporal control of gene expression in the zebrafish. PMID:19644983

  3. Expression Analysis and Knockdown of Two Antennal Odorant-Binding Protein Genes in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Sengul, Meryem S.; Tu, Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    The presence and expression of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in the olfactory organs suggest that they play an important role in mosquito olfaction. However, no direct evidence has been found for their involvement in the host-seeking behavior of mosquitoes. It is important to establish a method in which a loss-of-function test can be performed to determine the possible role of these genes in olfaction. In this study, a double subgenomic Sindbis virus expression system was used to reduce the expression of two Obp genes in Aedes aegypti L (Diptera: Culicidae), AaegObp1 and AaegObp2. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed predominant expression of both genes in the female antennae, the primary olfactory tissue of mosquitoes. Moreover, at 11 days post virus-inoculation, the mRNA levels of AaegObp1 and AaegObp2 were significantly reduced in olfactory tissues of recombinant virus-inoculated female mosquitoes compared to that of controls by approximately 8 and 100-fold, respectively. These data suggest that the double subgenomic Sindbis virus expression system can be efficiently used to knockdown Obp gene expression in olfactory tissues of mosquitoes. We discuss the potential for a systematic analysis of the molecular players involved in mosquito olfaction using this newly developed technique. Such analysis will provide an important step to interfere with the host-seeking behavior of mosquitoes to prevent the transmission of diseases. PMID:21062207

  4. klf2ash317 Mutant Zebrafish Do Not Recapitulate Morpholino-Induced Vascular and Haematopoietic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Novodvorsky, Peter; Watson, Oliver; Gray, Caroline; Wilkinson, Robert N.; Reeve, Scott; Smythe, Carl; Beniston, Richard; Plant, Karen; Maguire, Richard; M. K. Rothman, Alexander; Elworthy, Stone; van Eeden, Fredericus J. M.; Chico, Timothy J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives The zinc-finger transcription factor Krϋppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) transduces blood flow into molecular signals responsible for a wide range of responses within the vasculature. KLF2 maintains a healthy, quiescent endothelial phenotype. Previous studies report a range of phenotypes following morpholino antisense oligonucleotide-induced klf2a knockdown in zebrafish. Targeted genome editing is an increasingly applied method for functional assessment of candidate genes. We therefore generated a stable klf2a mutant zebrafish and characterised its cardiovascular and haematopoietic development. Methods and Results Using Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALEN) we generated a klf2a mutant (klf2ash317) with a 14bp deletion leading to a premature stop codon in exon 2. Western blotting confirmed loss of wild type Klf2a protein and the presence of a truncated protein in klf2ash317 mutants. Homozygous klf2ash317 mutants exhibit no defects in vascular patterning, survive to adulthood and are fertile, without displaying previously described morphant phenotypes such as high-output cardiac failure, reduced haematopoetic stem cell (HSC) development or impaired formation of the 5th accessory aortic arch. Homozygous klf2ash317 mutation did not reduce angiogenesis in zebrafish with homozygous mutations in von Hippel Lindau (vhl), a form of angiogenesis that is dependent on blood flow. We examined expression of three klf family members in wildtype and klf2ash317 zebrafish. We detected vascular expression of klf2b (but not klf4a or biklf/klf4b/klf17) in wildtypes but found no differences in expression that might account for the lack of phenotype in klf2ash317 mutants. klf2b morpholino knockdown did not affect heart rate or impair formation of the 5th accessory aortic arch in either wildtypes or klf2ash317 mutants. Conclusions The klf2ash317 mutation produces a truncated Klf2a protein but, unlike morpholino induced klf2a knockdown, does not

  5. Efficient gene knockdown in Clostridium acetobutylicum by synthetic small regulatory RNAs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Changhee; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-02-01

    Clostridium is considered a promising microbial host for the production of valuable industrial chemicals. However, Clostridium is notorious for the difficulty of genetic manipulations, and consequently metabolic engineering. Thus, much effort has been exerted to develop novel tools for genetic and metabolic engineering of Clostridium strains. Here, we report the development of a synthetic small regulatory RNA (sRNA)-based system for controlled gene expression in Clostridium acetobutylicum, consisting of a target recognition site, MicC sRNA scaffold, and an RNA chaperone Hfq. To examine the functional operation of sRNA system in C. acetobutylicum, expression control was first examined with the Evoglow fluorescent protein as a model protein. Initially, a C. acetobutylicum protein annotated as Hfq was combined with the synthetic sRNA based on the Escherichia coli MicC scaffold to knockdown Evoglow expression. However, C. acetobutylicum Hfq did not bind to E. coli MicC, while MicC scaffold-based synthetic sRNA itself was able to knockdown the expression of Evoglow. When E. coli hfq gene was introduced, the knockdown efficiency assessed by measuring fluorescence intensity, could be much enhanced. Then, this E. coli MicC scaffold-Hfq system was used to knock down adhE1 gene expression in C. acetobutylicum. Knocking down the adhE1 gene expression using the synthetic sRNA led to a 40% decrease in butanol production (2.5 g/L), compared to that (4.5 g/L) produced by the wild-type strain harboring an empty vector. The sRNA system was further extended to knock down the pta gene expression in the buk mutant C. acetobutylicum strain PJC4BK for enhanced butanol production. The PJC4BK (pPta-Hfq(Eco) ) strain, which has the pta gene expression knocked down, was able to produce 16.9 g/L of butanol, which is higher than that (14.9 g/L) produced by the PJC4BK strain, mainly due to reduced acetic acid production. Fed-batch culture of PJC4BK (pPta-Hfq(Eco) ) strain coupled with

  6. Dmpk gene deletion or antisense knockdown does not compromise cardiac or skeletal muscle function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Carrell, Samuel T.; Carrell, Ellie M.; Auerbach, David; Pandey, Sanjay K.; Bennett, C. Frank; Dirksen, Robert T.; Thornton, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a genetic disorder in which dominant-active DM protein kinase (DMPK) transcripts accumulate in nuclear foci, leading to abnormal regulation of RNA processing. A leading approach to treat DM1 uses DMPK-targeting antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to reduce levels of toxic RNA. However, basal levels of DMPK protein are reduced by half in DM1 patients. This raises concern that intolerance for further DMPK loss may limit ASO therapy, especially since mice with Dmpk gene deletion reportedly show cardiac defects and skeletal myopathy. We re-examined cardiac and muscle function in mice with Dmpk gene deletion, and studied post-maturity knockdown using Dmpk-targeting ASOs in mice with heterozygous deletion. Contrary to previous reports, we found no effect of Dmpk gene deletion on cardiac or muscle function, when studied on two genetic backgrounds. In heterozygous knockouts, the administration of ASOs reduced Dmpk expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle by > 90%, yet survival, electrocardiogram intervals, cardiac ejection fraction and muscle strength remained normal. The imposition of cardiac stress by pressure overload, or muscle stress by myotonia, did not unmask a requirement for DMPK. Our results support the feasibility and safety of using ASOs for post-transcriptional silencing of DMPK in muscle and heart. PMID:27522499

  7. RNAi-based conditional gene knockdown in mice using a U6 promoter driven vector.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vivek; Coumoul, Xavier; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2007-01-05

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool widely used for studying gene function in a number of species. We have previously developed an approach that allows conditional expression of a polymerase III promoter based small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in mice using the Cre-LoxP system. This approach uses a U6 promoter, which is inactive due to the presence of a ploxPneo cassette in the promoter; this promoter can be activated after excision of the neo gene in transgenic mice that express a Cre recombinase transgene. As a proof of principle, we have previously knocked down over 95% of Fgfr2 transcripts in mouse germlines, leading to embryonic lethality, while restricting the knockdown to the progress zone of the limb results in live animals with malformation of digits of both the forelimbs and hindlimbs. We now provide a detailed protocol, including a simplified single-step cloning procedure for vector construction. This method provides a fast yet efficient way to decipher gene functions in vivo in a tissue specific manner.

  8. RNAi mediated gene knockdown and transgenesis by microinjection in the necromenic Nematode Pristionchus pacificus.

    PubMed

    Cinkornpumin, Jessica K; Hong, Ray L

    2011-10-16

    Although it is increasingly affordable for emerging model organisms to obtain completely sequenced genomes, further in-depth gene function and expression analyses by RNA interference and stable transgenesis remain limited in many species due to the particular anatomy and molecular cellular biology of the organism. For example, outside of the crown group Caenorhabditis that includes Caenorhabditis elegans, stably transmitted transgenic lines in non-Caenorhabditis species have not been reported in this specious phylum (Nematoda), with the exception of Strongyloides stercoralis and Pristionchus pacificus. To facilitate the expanding role of P. pacificus in the study of development, evolution, and behavior, we describe here the current methods to use microinjection for making transgenic animals and gene knock down by RNAi. Like the gonads of C. elegans and most other nematodes, the gonads of P. pacificus is syncitial and capable of incorporating DNA and RNA into the oocytes when delivered by direct microinjection. Unlike C. elegans however, stable transgene inheritance and somatic expression in P. pacificus requires the addition of self genomic DNA digested with endonucleases complementary to the ends of target transgenes and coinjection markers. The addition of carrier genomic DNA is similar to the requirement for transgene expression in Strongyloides stercoralis and in the germ cells of C. elegans. However, it is not clear if the specific requirement for the animals' own genomic DNA is because P. pacificus soma is very efficient at silencing non-complex multi-copy genes or that extrachromosomal arrays in P. pacificus require genomic sequences for proper kinetochore assembly during mitosis. The ventral migration of the two-armed (didelphic) gonads in hermaphrodites further complicates the ability to inject both gonads in individual worms. We also demonstrate the use of microinjection to knockdown a dominant mutant (roller,tu92) by injecting double-stranded RNA (ds

  9. RNAi Mediated Gene Knockdown and Transgenesis by Microinjection in the Necromenic Nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    PubMed Central

    Cinkornpumin, Jessica K.; Hong, Ray L.

    2011-01-01

    Although it is increasingly affordable for emerging model organisms to obtain completely sequenced genomes, further in-depth gene function and expression analyses by RNA interference and stable transgenesis remain limited in many species due to the particular anatomy and molecular cellular biology of the organism. For example, outside of the crown group Caenorhabditis that includes Caenorhabditis elegans3, stably transmitted transgenic lines in non-Caenorhabditis species have not been reported in this specious phylum (Nematoda), with the exception of Strongyloides stercoralis4 and Pristionchus pacificus5. To facilitate the expanding role of P. pacificus in the study of development, evolution, and behavior6-7, we describe here the current methods to use microinjection for making transgenic animals and gene knock down by RNAi. Like the gonads of C. elegans and most other nematodes, the gonads of P. pacificus is syncitial and capable of incorporating DNA and RNA into the oocytes when delivered by direct microinjection. Unlike C. elegans however, stable transgene inheritance and somatic expression in P. pacificus requires the addition of self genomic DNA digested with endonucleases complementary to the ends of target transgenes and coinjection markers5. The addition of carrier genomic DNA is similar to the requirement for transgene expression in Strongyloides stercoralis4 and in the germ cells of C. elegans. However, it is not clear if the specific requirement for the animals' own genomic DNA is because P. pacificus soma is very efficient at silencing non-complex multi-copy genes or that extrachromosomal arrays in P. pacificus require genomic sequences for proper kinetochore assembly during mitosis. The ventral migration of the two-armed (didelphic) gonads in hermaphrodites further complicates the ability to inject both gonads in individual worms8. We also demonstrate the use of microinjection to knockdown a dominant mutant (roller,tu92) by injecting double

  10. Antisense precision polymer micelles require less poly(ethylenimine) for efficient gene knockdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhoury, Johans J.; Edwardson, Thomas G.; Conway, Justin W.; Trinh, Tuan; Khan, Farhad; Barłóg, Maciej; Bazzi, Hassan S.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic nucleic acids are powerful molecules for shutting down protein expression. However, their cellular uptake is poor and requires transport vectors, such as cationic polymers. Of these, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) has been shown to be an efficient vehicle for nucleic acid transport into cells. However, cytotoxicity has been a major hurdle in the development of PEI-DNA complexes as clinically viable therapeutics. We have synthesized antisense-polymer conjugates, where the polymeric block is completely monodisperse and sequence-controlled. Depending on the polymer sequence, these can self-assemble to produce micelles of very low polydispersity. The introduction of linear poly(ethylenimine) to these micelles leads to aggregation into size-defined PEI-mediated superstructures. Subsequently, both cellular uptake and gene silencing are greatly enhanced over extended periods compared to antisense alone, while at the same time cellular cytotoxicity remains very low. In contrast, gene silencing is not enhanced with antisense polymer conjugates that are not able to self-assemble into micelles. Thus, using antisense precision micelles, we are able to achieve significant transfection and knockdown with minimal cytotoxicity at much lower concentrations of linear PEI then previously reported. Consequently, a conceptual solution to the problem of antisense or siRNA delivery is to self-assemble these molecules into `gene-like' micelles with high local charge and increased stability, thus reducing the amount of transfection agent needed for effective gene silencing.Therapeutic nucleic acids are powerful molecules for shutting down protein expression. However, their cellular uptake is poor and requires transport vectors, such as cationic polymers. Of these, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) has been shown to be an efficient vehicle for nucleic acid transport into cells. However, cytotoxicity has been a major hurdle in the development of PEI-DNA complexes as clinically viable

  11. Knockdown of ROS1 gene sensitizes breast tumor growth to doxorubicin in a syngeneic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tiash, Snigdha; Chua, Ming Jang; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of breast cancer, the second leading cause of female deaths worldwide, with classical drugs is often accompanied by treatment failure and relapse of disease condition. Development of chemoresistance and drug toxicity compels compromising the drug concentration below the threshold level with the consequence of therapeutic inefficacy. Moreover, amplification and over-activation of proto-oncogenes in tumor cells make the treatment more challenging. The oncogene, ROS1 which is highly expressed in diverse types of cancers including breast carcinoma, functions as a survival protein aiding cancer progression. Thus we speculated that selective silencing of ROS1 gene by carrier-mediated delivery of siRNA might sensitize the cancer cells to the classical drugs at a relatively low concentration. In this investigation we showed that intracellular delivery of c-ROS1-targeting siRNA using pH-sensitive inorganic nanoparticles of carbonate apatite sensitizes mouse breast cancer cells (4T1) to doxorubicin, but not to cisplatin or paclitaxel, with the highest enhancement in chemosensitivity obtained at 40 nM of the drug concentration. Although intravenous administrations of ROS1-loaded nanoparticles reduced growth of the tumor, a further substantial effect on growth retardation was noted when the mice were treated with the siRNA- and Dox-bound particles, thus suggesting that silencing of ROS1 gene could sensitize the mouse breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo to doxorubicin as a result of synergistic effect of the gene knockdown and the drug action, eventually preventing activation of the survival pathway protein, AKT1. Our findings therefore provide valuable insight into the potential cross-talk between the pathways of ROS1 and doxorubicin for future development of effective therapeutics for breast cancer.

  12. Gene knockdown by ihpRNA-triggering in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete fungus Laccaria bicolor.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Minna J; Pardo, Alejandro G

    2010-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) is a mutualistic association between fungi and the roots of the vast majority of trees. These include numerous ecologically and economically relevant species and the participating fungal symbionts are predominantly filamentous basidiomycetes. In natural ecosystems the plant nutrient uptake from soil takes place via the extraradical mycelia of these ECM mycosimbionts as a trade for plant photosyntates. The symbiotic phase in the life cycle of ECM basidiomycetes is the dikaryotic hyphae. Therefore, studies on symbiotic relevant gene functions require the inactivation of both gene copies in these dikaryotic fungi. RNA silencing is a eukaryotic sequence homology-dependent degradation of target RNAs which is believed to have evolved as a protection mechanism against invading nucleic acids. In different eukaryotic organisms, including fungi, the RNA silencing pathway can be artificially triggered to target and degrade gene transcripts of interest, resulting in gene knock-down. Most importantly, RNA silencing can act at the cytosolic level affecting mRNAs originating from several gene copies and different nuclei thus offering an efficient means of altering gene expression in dikaryotic organisms. Therefore, the pHg/pSILBAγ silencing vector was constructed for efficient RNA silencing triggering in the model mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor. This cloning vector carries the Agaricus bisporus gpdII-promoter, two multiple cloning sites separated by a L. bicolor nitrate reductase intron and the Aspergillus nidulans trpC terminator. pSILBAγ allows an easy two-step PCR-cloning of hairpin sequences to be expressed in basidiomycetes. With one further cloning step into pHg, a pCAMBIA1300-based binary vector carrying a hygromycin resistance cassette, makes the pHg/pSILBAγ plasmid compatible with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The pHg/pSILBAγ-system results in predominantly single integrations of RNA silencing triggering T-DNAs in the fungal genome

  13. Genetic Architecture of a Hormonal Response to Gene Knockdown in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Rueppell, Olav; Huang, Zachary Y.; Wang, Ying; Fondrk, M. Kim; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in endocrine signaling is proposed to underlie the evolution and regulation of social life histories, but the genetic architecture of endocrine signaling is still poorly understood. An excellent example of a hormonally influenced set of social traits is found in the honey bee (Apis mellifera): a dynamic and mutually suppressive relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) regulates behavioral maturation and foraging of workers. Several other traits cosegregate with these behavioral phenotypes, comprising the pollen hoarding syndrome (PHS) one of the best-described animal behavioral syndromes. Genotype differences in responsiveness of JH to Vg are a potential mechanistic basis for the PHS. Here, we reduced Vg expression via RNA interference in progeny from a backcross between 2 selected lines of honey bees that differ in JH responsiveness to Vg reduction and measured JH response and ovary size, which represents another key aspect of the PHS. Genetic mapping based on restriction site-associated DNA tag sequencing identified suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ovary size and JH responsiveness. We confirmed genetic effects on both traits near many QTL that had been identified previously for their effect on various PHS traits. Thus, our results support a role for endocrine control of complex traits at a genetic level. Furthermore, this first example of a genetic map of a hormonal response to gene knockdown in a social insect helps to refine the genetic understanding of complex behaviors and the physiology that may underlie behavioral control in general. PMID:25596612

  14. AMOD: a morpholino oligonucleotide selection tool

    PubMed Central

    Klee, Eric W.; Shim, Kyong Jin; Pickart, Michael A.; Ekker, Stephen C.; Ellis, Lynda B. M.

    2005-01-01

    AMOD is a web-based program that aids in the functional evaluation of nucleotide sequences through sequence characterization and antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (target site) selection. Submitted sequences are analyzed by translation initiation site prediction algorithms and sequence-to-sequence comparisons; results are used to characterize sequence features required for morpholino design. Within a defined subsequence, base composition and homodimerization values are computed for all putative morpholino oligonucleotides. Using these properties, morpholino candidates are selected and compared with genomic and transcriptome databases with the goal to identify target-specific enriched morpholinos. AMOD has been used at the University of Minnesota to design ∼200 morpholinos for a functional genomics screen in zebrafish. The AMOD web server and a tutorial are freely available to both academic and commercial users at . PMID:15980523

  15. A multicolor panel of TALE-KRAB based transcriptional repressor vectors enabling knockdown of multiple gene targets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhonghui; Wu, Elise; Qian, Zhijian; Wu, Wen-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Stable and efficient knockdown of multiple gene targets is highly desirable for dissection of molecular pathways. Because it allows sequence-specific DNA binding, transcription activator-like effector (TALE) offers a new genetic perturbation technique that allows for gene-specific repression. Here, we constructed a multicolor lentiviral TALE-Kruppel-associated box (KRAB) expression vector platform that enables knockdown of multiple gene targets. This platform is fully compatible with the Golden Gate TALEN and TAL Effector Kit 2.0, a widely used and efficient method for TALE assembly. We showed that this multicolor TALE-KRAB vector system when combined together with bone marrow transplantation could quickly knock down c-kit and PU.1 genes in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells of recipient mice. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that this platform simultaneously knocked down both c-Kit and PU.1 genes in the same primary cell populations. Together, our results suggest that this multicolor TALE-KRAB vector platform is a promising and versatile tool for knockdown of multiple gene targets and could greatly facilitate dissection of molecular pathways. PMID:25475013

  16. Expression of IARS2 gene in colon cancer and effect of its knockdown on biological behavior of RKO cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ling; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Jing-Yu; Xiong, Liang-Fa; Shen, Tao; Sa, Ya-Lian; O’Yang, Yi-Ming; Zhao, Si-Hui; Chen, Jia-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression level of IARS2 gene in colon cancer tissues and various cell strains of the cancer; to explore cytologically the effect of IARS2 gene knockdown on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle of RKO cells in the cancer. Methods: Real-time, fluorescence-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to detect the expression of IARS2 gene in human colon cancer and surrounding tissues and in various cell strains of the cancer; the RNA interference target of IARS2 gene was designed and the target was detected by Western blot; the IARS2-siRNA lentiviral vector was established and used to infect the RKO cells of colon cancer; qPCR was employed to determine the effect of gene knockdown; changes of the RKO cells in growth, apoptosis, cell cycle and clone formation were observed after IARS2 gene knockdown. Results: The expression of IARS2 gene was higher in human colon cancer tissues than in surrounding tissues; there was expression of IARS2 gene in colon cancer cells, and the expression level of IARS2 gene mRNA was higher in the RKO cells than in the SW480, HCT116, DLD1, HT-29 and SW620 cells. After infection of the RKO cells with IARS2-siRNA lentivirus, the expression of IARS2 gene was inhibited in the level of mRNA; proliferation rate of the RKO cells was significantly inhibited; the G1 phase arrest of the RKO cells was increased with less RKO cells in S phase; the apoptotic RKO cells increased significantly; and the number of colonies of the RKO cells reduced. Conclusion: The expression of IARS2 gene is different in human colon cancer and surrounding tissues; after knockdown of IARS2 gene, proliferation of the RKO cells is inhibited; there are more cells in G phase and fewer cells in S phase; apoptosis of cells is increased; and formation of colonies is reduced. IARS2 gene is probably a cancer-promoting gene. PMID:26722399

  17. Effect of AURKA Gene Expression Knockdown on Angiogenesis and Tumorigenesis of Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Yan, Qin; Hu, Minmin; Qin, Di; Feng, Zhenqing

    2016-12-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common malignant gynecological cancers. Higher expression of AURKA has been found in immortalized human ovarian epithelial cells in previous studies, implying the relationship between AURKA and ovarian cancer pathogenesis. We investigated the effect of AURKA on angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of human ovarian cancer cells. Firstly, the expression of AURKA in HO8910 and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines was knocked down using a vector expressing a short hairpin small interfering RNA (shRNA). Next, the effect of knockdown of AURKA on cell angiogenesis, proliferation, migration, and invasion was determined by microtubule formation assay, proliferation assay, transwell migration, and invasion assays. In addition, the effect of AURKA knockdown on angiogenesis and tumorigenesis was also determined in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model and in nude mice. The results of the microtubule formation assay indicated that knockdown of AURKA significantly inhibited ovarian cancer cell-induced angiogenesis of endothelial cells compared to its control (P < 0.001). Knockdown of AURKA also significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of HO8910 and SKOV3 cells in vitro. Furthermore, the Matrigel plug assay showed that knockdown of AURKA significantly repressed ovarian cancer cell-induced angiogenesis in nude mice (P < 0.05), and the CAMs model also showed that AURKA knockdown significantly attenuated the angiogenesis (P < 0.001) and tumorigenesis (P < 0.001) of HO8910 cells compared to the control. Finally, the tumorigenicity assay in vivo further indicated that AURKA shRNA reduced tumorigenesis in nude mice inoculated with ovarian cancer cells (P < 0.001). These results suggest the potential role of AURKA in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, which may provide a potential therapeutic target for the disease.

  18. A library of MiMICs allows tagging of genes and reversible, spatial and temporal knockdown of proteins in Drosophila

    DOE PAGES

    Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Lee, Pei-Tseng; Campbell, Megan E.; ...

    2015-03-31

    Here, we document a collection of ~7434 MiMIC (Minos Mediated Integration Cassette) insertions of which 2854 are inserted in coding introns. They allowed us to create a library of 400 GFP-tagged genes. We show that 72% of internally tagged proteins are functional, and that more than 90% can be imaged in unfixed tissues. Moreover, the tagged mRNAs can be knocked down by RNAi against GFP (iGFPi), and the tagged proteins can be efficiently knocked down by deGradFP technology. The phenotypes associated with RNA and protein knockdown typically correspond to severe loss of function or null mutant phenotypes. Finally, we demonstratemore » reversible, spatial, and temporal knockdown of tagged proteins in larvae and adult flies. This new strategy and collection of strains allows unprecedented in vivo manipulations in flies for many genes. These strategies will likely extend to vertebrates.« less

  19. A library of MiMICs allows tagging of genes and reversible, spatial and temporal knockdown of proteins in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Lee, Pei-Tseng; Campbell, Megan E.; Chen, Kuchuan; Anguiano-Zarate, Stephanie; Cantu Gutierrez, Manuel; Busby, Theodore; Lin, Wen-Wen; He, Yuchun; Schulze, Karen L.; Booth, Benjamin W.; Evans-Holm, Martha; Venken, Koen J.T.; Levis, Robert W.; Spradling, Allan C.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2015-03-31

    Here, we document a collection of ~7434 MiMIC (Minos Mediated Integration Cassette) insertions of which 2854 are inserted in coding introns. They allowed us to create a library of 400 GFP-tagged genes. We show that 72% of internally tagged proteins are functional, and that more than 90% can be imaged in unfixed tissues. Moreover, the tagged mRNAs can be knocked down by RNAi against GFP (iGFPi), and the tagged proteins can be efficiently knocked down by deGradFP technology. The phenotypes associated with RNA and protein knockdown typically correspond to severe loss of function or null mutant phenotypes. Finally, we demonstrate reversible, spatial, and temporal knockdown of tagged proteins in larvae and adult flies. This new strategy and collection of strains allows unprecedented in vivo manipulations in flies for many genes. These strategies will likely extend to vertebrates.

  20. A library of MiMICs allows tagging of genes and reversible, spatial and temporal knockdown of proteins in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Lee, Pei-Tseng; Campbell, Megan E; Chen, Kuchuan; Anguiano-Zarate, Stephanie; Gutierrez, Manuel Cantu; Busby, Theodore; Lin, Wen-Wen; He, Yuchun; Schulze, Karen L; Booth, Benjamin W; Evans-Holm, Martha; Venken, Koen J T; Levis, Robert W; Spradling, Allan C; Hoskins, Roger A; Bellen, Hugo J

    2015-03-31

    Here, we document a collection of ∼7434 MiMIC (Minos Mediated Integration Cassette) insertions of which 2854 are inserted in coding introns. They allowed us to create a library of 400 GFP-tagged genes. We show that 72% of internally tagged proteins are functional, and that more than 90% can be imaged in unfixed tissues. Moreover, the tagged mRNAs can be knocked down by RNAi against GFP (iGFPi), and the tagged proteins can be efficiently knocked down by deGradFP technology. The phenotypes associated with RNA and protein knockdown typically correspond to severe loss of function or null mutant phenotypes. Finally, we demonstrate reversible, spatial, and temporal knockdown of tagged proteins in larvae and adult flies. This new strategy and collection of strains allows unprecedented in vivo manipulations in flies for many genes. These strategies will likely extend to vertebrates.

  1. Gene knockdown by intro-thoracic injection of double-stranded RNA in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuhua; Ding, Zhiping; Zhang, Chengwei; Yang, Baojun; Liu, Zewen

    2010-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful strategy for gene function study in insects. Here, we described the development of a RNAi technique by microinjection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Based on the mortality and RNAi efficiency criteria, the conjunctive between prothorax and mesothorax was selected as the injection site and 50 nl as injection volume. Three genes with different expression patterns were selected to evaluate the RNAi efficiency. A comparable 40% decrease of gene expression was observed at the 4th day after injection for the ubiquitously expressed calreticulin and the gut specific cathepsin-B genes, but only 25% decrease at the 5th day for the central nervous system specific Nlbeta2 gene. Double injection could increase the RNAi efficiency, such as from 25% to 53% for Nlbeta2 gene. The gene knockdown technique developed in this study will be an essential post-genomic tool for further investigations in N. lugens.

  2. Investigation of TbfA in Riemerella anatipestifer using plasmid-based methods for gene over-expression and knockdown

    PubMed Central

    Liu, MaFeng; Wang, MengYi; Zhu, DeKang; Wang, MingShu; Jia, RenYong; Chen, Shun; Sun, KunFeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, XiaoYue; Biville, Francis; Cheng, AnChun

    2016-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer is a duck pathogen that has caused serious economic losses to the duck industry worldwide. Despite this, there are few reported studies of the physiological and pathogenic mechanisms of Riemerella anatipestifer infection. In previous study, we have shown that TonB1 and TonB2 were involved in hemin uptake. TonB family protein (TbfA) was not investigated, since knockout of this gene was not successful at that time. Here, we used a plasmid based gene over-expression and knockdown to investigate its function. First, we constructed three Escherichia-Riemerella anatipestifer shuttle vectors containing three different native Riemerella anatipestifer promoters. The shuttle plasmids were introduced into Riemerella anatipestifer ATCC11845 by conjugation at an efficiency of 5 × 10−5 antibiotic-resistant transconjugants per recipient cell. Based on the high-expression shuttle vector pLMF03, a method for gene knockdown was established. Knockdown of TbfA in Riemerella anatipestifer ATCC11845 decreased the organism’s growth ability in TSB medium but did not affect its hemin utilization. In contrast, over-expression of TbfA in Riemerella anatipestifer ATCC11845ΔtonB1ΔtonB2. Significantly promoted the organism’s growth in TSB medium but significantly inhibited its hemin utilization. Collectively, these findings suggest that TbfA is not involved in hemin utilization by Riemerella anatipestifer. PMID:27845444

  3. Making a Morpholino Experiment Work: Controls, Favoring Specificity, Improving Efficacy, Storage, and Dose.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Jon D

    2017-01-01

    A good Morpholino experiment starts with oligos that have been carefully designed to minimize off-target RNA binding. Performing a successful, reproducible, and well-controlled Morpholino experiment requires oligos that are single stranded and in solution at a known concentration. The outcome of treatment with the oligo needs to be checked for specificity, that is, that the observed outcome is due to interaction with the intended RNA and not an interaction with an unexpected RNA. In this chapter, I will discuss Morpholino use mostly in the context of embryonic microinjection experiments, though many techniques and warnings will be applicable to cell culture or adult animal experiments as well. Controls are critical to a good experiment, but good techniques in designing, preparing, storing, and using the oligos can improve the strength and specificity of the knockdown. Finally, it is important to know the solution concentration of the oligo to ensure that the results are reproducible.

  4. Effect of vegf gene knockdown on growth of the murine sarcoma cell line MS-K.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiu Y; Yoshioka, Asami; Mashio, Yuka; Ikeda, Toru; Jiang, Huijie; Touma, Maki; Wu, Qiong; Wang, ChangLiu; Sugimoto, Kenkichi

    2011-06-01

    The murine sarcoma cell line MS-K was previously established as a Ki-ras-positive cell line. Inoculation of this cell line under the flank of C3H/HeN mice results in the growth of large tumors with well-developed blood vessels within day 30 of transplantation without any metastasis because MS-K cells produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To elucidate the role of VEGF in tumor formation in vivo, stable vegf-knockdown-MS-K clones were obtained using plasmid-based knockdown vectors. Interestingly, tumorigenesis was completely suppressed in a vegf-A-knockdown-MS-K clone [designated MS-K (A-KD)]. Proliferation and colony formation capacity of the MS-K (A-KD) cells in a semi-solid medium under low serum conditions was significantly lower than that of control MS-K (SCR) cells; however, the expression of vegf-receptor 1 (vegf-r-1) was not changed. Addition of the recombinant VEGF-A(165) partially restored the colony formation capacity of MS-K (A-KD) cells and caused the phosphorylation of VEGF-r-1 (Flt-1) in MS-K (Normal) cells. Furthermore, tumorigenicity of the vegf-r-1-knockdown-MS-K clone [designated MS-K (R1-KD)] had obviously delayed or strongly suppressed compared with the MS-K (Normal). These results indicate that Vascular endothelial growth factor-A, produced from MS-K, acts as a growth factor for MS-K cells itself and supports tumor formation in vivo by inducing the blood vessel formation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Knockdown of ALR (MLL2) Reveals ALR Target Genes and Leads to Alterations in Cell Adhesion and Growth▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Issaeva, Irina; Zonis, Yulia; Rozovskaia, Tanya; Orlovsky, Kira; Croce, Carlo M.; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Mazo, Alex; Eisenbach, Lea; Canaani, Eli

    2007-01-01

    ALR (MLL2) is a member of the human MLL family, which belongs to a larger SET1 family of histone methyltransferases. We found that ALR is present within a stable multiprotein complex containing a cohort of proteins shared with other SET1 family complexes and several unique components, such as PTIP and the jumonji family member UTX. Like other complexes formed by SET1 family members, the ALR complex exhibited strong H3K4 methyltransferase activity, conferred by the ALR SET domain. By generating ALR knockdown cell lines and comparing their expression profiles to that of control cells, we identified a set of genes whose expression is activated by ALR. Some of these genes were identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation as direct ALR targets. The ALR complex was found to associate in an ALR-dependent fashion with promoters and transcription initiation sites of target genes and to induce H3K4 trimethylation. The most characteristic features of the ALR knockdown cells were changes in the dynamics and mode of cell spreading/polarization, reduced migration capacity, impaired anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, and decreased tumorigenicity in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that ALR is a transcriptional activator that induces the transcription of target genes by covalent histone modification. ALR appears to be involved in the regulation of adhesion-related cytoskeletal events, which might affect cell growth and survival. PMID:17178841

  6. Regeneration of diabetic axons is enhanced by selective knockdown of the PTEN gene

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhagat; Singh, Vandana; Krishnan, Anand; Koshy, Kurien; Martinez, Jose A.; Cheng, Chu; Almquist, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus renders both widespread and localized irreversible damage to peripheral axons while imposing critical limitations on their ability to regenerate. A major failure of regenerative capacity thereby imposes a ‘double hit’ in diabetic patients who frequently develop focal neuropathies such as carpal tunnel syndrome in addition to generalized diffuse polyneuropathy. The mechanisms of diabetic neuron regenerative failure have been speculative and few approaches have offered therapeutic opportunities. In this work we identify an unexpected but major role for PTEN upregulation in diabetic peripheral neurons in attenuating axon regrowth. In chronic diabetic neuropathy models in mice, we identified significant PTEN upregulation in peripheral sensory neurons of messenger RNA and protein compared to littermate controls. In vitro, sensory neurons from these mice responded to PTEN knockdown with substantial rises in neurite outgrowth and branching. To test regenerative plasticity in a chronic diabetic model with established neuropathy, we superimposed an additional focal sciatic nerve crush injury and assessed morphological, electrophysiological and behavioural recovery. Knockdown of PTEN in dorsal root ganglia ipsilateral to the side of injury was achieved using a unique form of non-viral short interfering RNA delivery to the ipsilateral nerve injury site and paw. In comparison with scrambled sequence control short interfering RNA, PTEN short interfering RNA improved several facets of regeneration: recovery of compound muscle action potentials, reflecting numbers of reconnected motor axons to endplates, conduction velocities of both motor and sensory axons, reflecting their maturation during regrowth, numbers and calibre of regenerating myelinated axons distal to the injury site, reinnervation of the skin by unmyelinated epidermal axons and recovery of mechanical sensation. Collectively, these findings identify a novel therapeutic approach, potentially

  7. New insights for Ets2 function in trophoblast using lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown in trophoblast stem cells.

    PubMed

    Odiatis, C; Georgiades, P

    2010-07-01

    Mouse trophoblast stem (TS) cells represent a unique in vitro system that provides an unlimited supply of TS cells for the study of trophoblast differentiation and TS cell self-renewal. Although the mouse transcription factor Ets2 is required for TS cell self-renewal, its role in this and in TS cell differentiation has not been explored fully, partly due to the early lethality of Ets2 null mice. To address this, we developed a novel lentivirus-based system that resulted in efficient Ets2 knockdown in the overwhelming majority of TS cells. This system enables functional studies in TS cells, especially for genes required for TS cell self-renewal because TS cell derivation using gene-knockout embryos for such genes depends on TS cell self-renewal. Using morphological/morphometric criteria and gene expression analysis, we show that the requirement for Ets2 in self-renewal of TS cells cultured in 'stem cell medium' (SCM) involves maintenance of the expression of genes that inhibit TS cell differentiation in SCM, such as Cdx2 and Esrrb, and preservation of the undifferentiated TS cell morphology. During TS cell differentiation caused by Cdx2/Esrrb downregulation, due to either Ets2 knockdown in SCM or culture in differentiation medium (DM), Ets2 is also required for the promotion of trophoblast giant cell (TGC) and junctional zone trophoblast (JZT) differentiation. This TGC differentiation involves Ets2-dependent expression of Hand1, a gene required for the differentiation of all TGC types. This study uncovers new roles for Ets2 in TS cell self-renewal and differentiation and demonstrates the usefulness of this lentivirus system for gene function studies in TS cells.

  8. Development of a protocol for selection of genes fit for the in vivo knockdown method and its application to insulin receptor substrate genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mikako; Kakutani, Yukari; Kaburagi, Misako; Funabashi, Hisakage; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Prediabetes model mice in which more than one gene associated with diabetes is knocked down simultaneously are potentially useful for pharmaceutical and medical studies of diabetes. However, the effective conditions for sufficient knockdown in vivo are dependent on the intrinsic properties of the target genes. It is necessary to investigate which genes are applicable or not to the in vivo knockdown method. In this study, insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 (Irs-1, Irs-2) were selected as target genes. Effective siRNAs against the respective genes were designed, and their efficacy was confirmed by cell-based experiments. Based on the results of siRNAs, shRNA expression vectors against Irs-1 and Irs-2 were constructed, respectively. Their efficacy was also confirmed by cell-based experiments. A hydrodynamic method was applied to the delivery of the vectors to mice. This method was found to be effective for predominant delivery to the liver by demonstrative delivery of an EGFP expression vector and successive histochemical analysis. Fifty micrograms of the shRNA expression vector was injected into the tail vein. After 24 h, the liver, pancreas, and muscle were isolated, and the expression levels of Irs-1 and Irs-2 were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. In the liver, Irs-2 was effectively knocked down to 60% of the control level, but Irs-1 was not influenced even under the same conditions. The protocol developed here is feasible for the selection of genes fit for in vivo knockdown method.

  9. Zebrafish atoh8 mutants do not recapitulate morpholino phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Place, Elsie S.; Smith, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Atoh8 is a bHLH transcription factor expressed in pancreas, skeletal muscle, the nervous system, and cardiovascular tissues during embryological development. Although it has been implicated in the regulation of pancreatic and endothelial cell differentiation, the phenotypic consequences of Atoh8 loss are uncertain. Conclusions from knockout studies in the mouse differ widely depending on the targeting strategy used, while atoh8 knockdown by interfering morpholino oligonucleotides (morpholinos) in zebrafish has led to a range of developmental defects. This study characterised zebrafish embryos homozygous for atoh8sa1465, a loss-of-function allele of atoh8, in order to provide genetic evidence for the developmental role of Atoh8 in this species. Embryos homozygous for atoh8sa1465 present normal body morphology, swimbladder inflation, and heart looping, and survive to adulthood. These embryos do not develop pericardial oedema by 72 hpf and are not sensitised to the loss of Fog1 protein, suggesting that this previously described abnormality is not a specific phenotype. Vascular patterning and primitive haematopoiesis are unaffected in atoh8sa1465/sa1465 mutant embryos. Together, the data suggest that Atoh8 is dispensible for zebrafish development under standard laboratory conditions. PMID:28182631

  10. A Possible Zebrafish Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease: Knockdown of wnt5a Causes Cysts in Zebrafish Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liwei; Xiao, An; Wecker, Andrea; McBride, Daniel A.; Choi, Soo Young; Zhou, Weibin; Lipschutz, Joshua H.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common causes of end-stage kidney disease, a devastating disease for which there is no cure. The molecular mechanisms leading to cyst formation in PKD remain somewhat unclear, but many genes are thought to be involved. Wnt5a is a non-canonical glycoprotein that regulates a wide range of developmental processes. Wnt5a works through the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that regulates oriented cell division during renal tubular cell elongation. Defects of the PCP pathway have been found to cause kidney cyst formation. Our paper describes a method for developing a zebrafish cystic kidney disease model by knockdown of the wnt5a gene with wnt5a antisense morpholino (MO) oligonucleotides. Tg(wt1b:GFP) transgenic zebrafish were used to visualize kidney structure and kidney cysts following wnt5a knockdown. Two distinct antisense MOs (AUG - and splice-site) were used and both resulted in curly tail down phenotype and cyst formation after wnt5a knockdown. Injection of mouse Wnt5a mRNA, resistant to the MOs due to a difference in primary base pair structure, rescued the abnormal phenotype, demonstrating that the phenotype was not due to “off-target” effects of the morpholino. This work supports the validity of using a zebrafish model to study wnt5a function in the kidney. PMID:25489842

  11. A possible zebrafish model of polycystic kidney disease: knockdown of wnt5a causes cysts in zebrafish kidneys.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liwei; Xiao, An; Wecker, Andrea; McBride, Daniel A; Choi, Soo Young; Zhou, Weibin; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2014-12-02

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common causes of end-stage kidney disease, a devastating disease for which there is no cure. The molecular mechanisms leading to cyst formation in PKD remain somewhat unclear, but many genes are thought to be involved. Wnt5a is a non-canonical glycoprotein that regulates a wide range of developmental processes. Wnt5a works through the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that regulates oriented cell division during renal tubular cell elongation. Defects of the PCP pathway have been found to cause kidney cyst formation. Our paper describes a method for developing a zebrafish cystic kidney disease model by knockdown of the wnt5a gene with wnt5a antisense morpholino (MO) oligonucleotides. Tg(wt1b:GFP) transgenic zebrafish were used to visualize kidney structure and kidney cysts following wnt5a knockdown. Two distinct antisense MOs (AUG - and splice-site) were used and both resulted in curly tail down phenotype and cyst formation after wnt5a knockdown. Injection of mouse Wnt5a mRNA, resistant to the MOs due to a difference in primary base pair structure, rescued the abnormal phenotype, demonstrating that the phenotype was not due to "off-target" effects of the morpholino. This work supports the validity of using a zebrafish model to study wnt5a function in the kidney.

  12. Knockdown of embryonic myosin heavy chain reveals an essential role in the morphology and function of the developing heart

    PubMed Central

    Rutland, Catrin Sian; Polo-Parada, Luis; Ehler, Elisabeth; Alibhai, Aziza; Thorpe, Aaran; Suren, Suganthi; Emes, Richard D.; Patel, Bhakti; Loughna, Siobhan

    2011-01-01

    The expression and function of embryonic myosin heavy chain (eMYH) has not been investigated within the early developing heart. This is despite the knowledge that other structural proteins, such as alpha and beta myosin heavy chains and cardiac alpha actin, play crucial roles in atrial septal development and cardiac function. Most cases of atrial septal defects and cardiomyopathy are not associated with a known causative gene, suggesting that further analysis into candidate genes is required. Expression studies localised eMYH in the developing chick heart. eMYH knockdown was achieved using morpholinos in a temporal manner and functional studies were carried out using electrical and calcium signalling methodologies. Knockdown in the early embryo led to abnormal atrial septal development and heart enlargement. Intriguingly, action potentials of the eMYH knockdown hearts were abnormal in comparison with the alpha and beta myosin heavy chain knockdowns and controls. Although myofibrillogenesis appeared normal, in knockdown hearts the tissue integrity was affected owing to apparent focal points of myocyte loss and an increase in cell death. An expression profile of human skeletal myosin heavy chain genes suggests that human myosin heavy chain 3 is the functional homologue of the chick eMYH gene. These data provide compelling evidence that eMYH plays a crucial role in important processes in the early developing heart and, hence, is a candidate causative gene for atrial septal defects and cardiomyopathy. PMID:21862559

  13. Knockdown of the coenzyme Q synthesis gene Smed-dlp1 affects planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shiobara, Yumiko; Harada, Chiaki; Shiota, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Saeko; Tabata, Kenta; Sekie, Kiyoteru; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater planarian is a model organism used to study tissue regeneration that occupies an important position among multicellular organisms. Planarian genomic databases have led to the identification of genes that are required for regeneration, with implications for their roles in its underlying mechanism. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a fundamental lipophilic molecule that is synthesized and expressed in every cell of every organism. Furthermore, CoQ levels affect development, life span, disease and aging in nematodes and mice. Because CoQ can be ingested in food, it has been used in preventive nutrition. In this study, we investigated the role of CoQ in planarian regeneration. Planarians synthesize both CoQ9 and rhodoquinone 9 (RQ9). Knockdown of Smed-dlp1, a trans-prenyltransferase gene that encodes an enzyme that synthesizes the CoQ side chain, led to a decrease in CoQ9 and RQ9 levels. However, ATP levels did not consistently decrease in these animals. Knockdown animals exhibited tissue regression and curling. The number of mitotic cells decreased in Smed-dlp1 (RNAi) animals. These results suggested a failure in physiological cell turnover and stem cell function. Accordingly, regenerating planarians died from lysis or exhibited delayed regeneration. Interestingly, the observed phenotypes were partially rescued by ingesting food supplemented with α-tocopherol. Taken together, our results suggest that oxidative stress induced by reduced CoQ9 levels affects planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis. PMID:26516985

  14. Knockdown of the coenzyme Q synthesis gene Smed-dlp1 affects planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Shiobara, Yumiko; Harada, Chiaki; Shiota, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Saeko; Tabata, Kenta; Sekie, Kiyoteru; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-12-01

    The freshwater planarian is a model organism used to study tissue regeneration that occupies an important position among multicellular organisms. Planarian genomic databases have led to the identification of genes that are required for regeneration, with implications for their roles in its underlying mechanism. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a fundamental lipophilic molecule that is synthesized and expressed in every cell of every organism. Furthermore, CoQ levels affect development, life span, disease and aging in nematodes and mice. Because CoQ can be ingested in food, it has been used in preventive nutrition. In this study, we investigated the role of CoQ in planarian regeneration. Planarians synthesize both CoQ9 and rhodoquinone 9 (RQ9). Knockdown of Smed-dlp1, a trans-prenyltransferase gene that encodes an enzyme that synthesizes the CoQ side chain, led to a decrease in CoQ9 and RQ9 levels. However, ATP levels did not consistently decrease in these animals. Knockdown animals exhibited tissue regression and curling. The number of mitotic cells decreased in Smed-dlp1 (RNAi) animals. These results suggested a failure in physiological cell turnover and stem cell function. Accordingly, regenerating planarians died from lysis or exhibited delayed regeneration. Interestingly, the observed phenotypes were partially rescued by ingesting food supplemented with α-tocopherol. Taken together, our results suggest that oxidative stress induced by reduced CoQ9 levels affects planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis.

  15. A library of MiMICs allows tagging of genes and reversible, spatial and temporal knockdown of proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Lee, Pei-Tseng; Campbell, Megan E; Chen, Kuchuan; Anguiano-Zarate, Stephanie; Cantu Gutierrez, Manuel; Busby, Theodore; Lin, Wen-Wen; He, Yuchun; Schulze, Karen L; Booth, Benjamin W; Evans-Holm, Martha; Venken, Koen JT; Levis, Robert W; Spradling, Allan C; Hoskins, Roger A; Bellen, Hugo J

    2015-01-01

    Here, we document a collection of ∼7434 MiMIC (Minos Mediated Integration Cassette) insertions of which 2854 are inserted in coding introns. They allowed us to create a library of 400 GFP-tagged genes. We show that 72% of internally tagged proteins are functional, and that more than 90% can be imaged in unfixed tissues. Moreover, the tagged mRNAs can be knocked down by RNAi against GFP (iGFPi), and the tagged proteins can be efficiently knocked down by deGradFP technology. The phenotypes associated with RNA and protein knockdown typically correspond to severe loss of function or null mutant phenotypes. Finally, we demonstrate reversible, spatial, and temporal knockdown of tagged proteins in larvae and adult flies. This new strategy and collection of strains allows unprecedented in vivo manipulations in flies for many genes. These strategies will likely extend to vertebrates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05338.001 PMID:25824290

  16. Aire knockdown in medullary thymic epithelial cells affects Aire protein, deregulates cell adhesion genes and decreases thymocyte interaction.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Nicole; Assis, Amanda Freire; Cotrim-Sousa, Larissa Cotrim; Lopes, Gabriel Sarti; Mosella, Maritza Salas; Lima, Djalma Sousa; Bombonato-Prado, Karina F; Passos, Geraldo Aleixo

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that even a partial reduction of Aire mRNA levels by siRNA-induced Aire knockdown (Aire KD) has important consequences to medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Aire knockdown is sufficient to reduce Aire protein levels, impair its nuclear location, and cause an imbalance in large-scale gene expression, including genes that encode cell adhesion molecules. These genes drew our attention because adhesion molecules are implicated in the process of mTEC-thymocyte adhesion, which is critical for T cell development and the establishment of central self-tolerance. Accordingly, we consider the following: 1) mTECs contribute to the elimination of self-reactive thymocytes through adhesion; 2) Adhesion molecules play a crucial role during physical contact between these cells; and 3) Aire is an important transcriptional regulator in mTECs. However, its role in controlling mTEC-thymocyte adhesion remains unclear. Because Aire controls adhesion molecule genes, we hypothesized that the disruption of its expression could influence mTEC-thymocyte interaction. To test this hypothesis, we used a murine Aire(+) mTEC cell line as a model system to reproduce mTEC-thymocyte adhesion in vitro. Transcriptome analysis of the mTEC cell line revealed that Aire KD led to the down-modulation of more than 800 genes, including those encoding for proteins involved in cell adhesion, i.e., the extracellular matrix constituent Lama1, the CAM family adhesion molecules Vcam1 and Icam4, and those that encode peripheral tissue antigens. Thymocytes co-cultured with Aire KD mTECs had a significantly reduced capacity to adhere to these cells. This finding is the first direct evidence that Aire also plays a role in controlling mTEC-thymocyte adhesion.

  17. [Exon skipping therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy by using antisense Morpholino].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2009-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the lack of dystrophin protein at the sarcolemma. Exon skipping by antisense oligonucleotides is a novel method to restore the reading frame of the mutated DMD gene, and rescue dystrophin production. We recently reported that systemic delivery of Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting exon 6 and 8 of the canine DMD gene, efficiently recovered functional dystrophin proteins at the sarcolamma of dystrophic dogs, and improved performance of affected dogs without serious side effects (Yokota et al., Ann Neurol. 65 (6): 667-676, 2009). To optimize therapeutic antisense Morpholinos for more frequent mutations of the DMD gene, we designed antisense Morpholinos targeting exon 51 of the mouse DMD gene, and injected them separately or in combination into the muscles of mdx52 mice, in which exon 52 has been deleted by a gene targeting technique (Araki et al., 1997). We also tried systemic delivery of antisense Morpholino to skip exon 51 in mdx52 mice. It is important to verify the effectiveness and side effects of antisense Morpholino in experimental animal models such as dystrophic dogs or mdx52 mice, before clinical trials in DMD patients.

  18. Knockdown of mental disorder susceptibility genes disrupts neuronal network physiology in vitro.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Erik J; Charlesworth, Paul; Coba, Marcelo P; Grant, Seth G N

    2011-06-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are common diseases caused by multiple genes that disrupt brain circuits. While great progress has been made in identifying schizophrenia susceptibility genes, these studies have left two major unanswered mechanistic questions: is there a core biochemical mechanism that these genes regulate, and what are the electrophysiological consequences of the altered gene expression? Because clinical studies implicate abnormalities in neuronal networks, we developed a system for studying the neurophysiology of neuronal networks in vitro where the role of candidate disease genes can be rapidly assayed. Using this system we focused on three postsynaptic proteins DISC1, TNIK and PSD-93/DLG2 each of which is encoded by a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. We also examined the utility of this assay system in bipolar disorder (BD), which has a strong genetic overlap with schizophrenia, by examining the bipolar disorder susceptibility gene Dctn5. The global neuronal network firing behavior of primary cultures of mouse hippocampus neurons was examined on multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) and genes of interest were knocked down using RNAi interference. Measurement of multiple neural network parameters demonstrated phenotypes for these genes compared with controls. Moreover, the different genes disrupted network properties and showed distinct and overlapping effects. These data show multiple susceptibility genes for complex psychiatric disorders, regulate neural network physiology and demonstrate a new assay system with wide application. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of antiviral capacity of transgenic silkworms against cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus via knockdown of multiple viral genes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liang; Peng, Zhengwen; Guo, Huizhen; Sun, Jingchen; Sun, Qiang; Xia, Fei; Huang, Chunlin; Xu, Guowen; Xia, Qingyou

    2017-07-20

    Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), a major pathogen of silkworms, causes serious economic losses in sericulture. The BmCPV genome contains 10 discrete dsRNA segments; among these, S1, S2, S3, S4, S6, and S7 encode virus structural proteins, whereas S5, S8, S9, and S10 encode nonstructural proteins. In an attempt to create an anti-BmCPV silkworm strain, we constructed transgenic RNAi vector pb-CNS for knockdown of S5, S8, S9, and S10, and pb-SNS targeting S1, S2, S4, S5, and S8. Transgenic silkworm line CNS and SNS were generated via microinjection of the practical diapause silkworm strain Furong. Following infection via the oral administration of a high dose of BmCPV, the mortality rates of the nontransgenic control, CNS, and SNS were 91%, 37%, and 41%, respectively. qPCR showed that the viral mRNA content in CNS and SNS was significantly lower than that in the nontransgenic line. The economic traits of CNS and SNS were not affected. These results suggest that the knockdown of multiple BmCPV genes significantly enhances the antiviral capacity of the silkworm. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. RNAi Knockdown of Ape1 Gene in the Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Gang-Ming; Yu, Jieqing; LeBron, Cynthia; Fu, Yumei

    2017-01-01

    Murine embryonic stem cells (ES) are pluripotent cells and have the potential to become a wide variety of specialized cell types. Mouse ES cell differentiation can be regarded as a valuable biological tool that has led to major advances in our understanding of cell and developmental biology. In vitro differentiation of mouse ES cells can be directed to a specific lineage formation, such as hematopoietic lineage, by appropriate cytokine and/or growth factor stimulation. To study specific gene function in early developmental events, gene knockout approaches have been traditionally used, however, this is a time-consuming and expensive approach. Recently, we have shown that siRNA is an effective strategy to knock down target gene expression, such as Ape1, during ES cell differentiation, and consequently, one can alter cell fates in ES-derived differentiated cells. This approach will be applicable to test the function of a wide variety of gene products using the ES cell differentiation system.

  1. Knockdown of genes in the Toll pathway reveals new lethal RNA interference targets for insect pest control.

    PubMed

    Bingsohn, L; Knorr, E; Billion, A; Narva, K E; Vilcinskas, A

    2017-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising alternative strategy for ecologically friendly pest management. However, the identification of RNAi candidate genes is challenging owing to the absence of laboratory strains and the seasonality of most pest species. Tribolium castaneum is a well-established model, with a strong and robust RNAi response, which can be used as a high-throughput screening platform to identify potential RNAi target genes. Recently, the cactus gene was identified as a sensitive RNAi target for pest control. To explore whether the spectrum of promising RNAi targets can be expanded beyond those found by random large-scale screening, to encompass others identified using targeted knowledge-based approaches, we constructed a Cactus interaction network. We tested nine genes in this network and found that the delivery of double-stranded RNA corresponding to fusilli and cactin showed lethal effects. The silencing of cactin resulted in 100% lethality at every developmental stage from the larva to the adult. The knockdown of pelle, Dorsal-related immunity factor and short gastrulation reduced or even prevented egg hatching in the next generation. The combination of such targets with lethal and parental RNAi effects can now be tested against different pest species in field studies.

  2. ERN1 knockdown modifies the hypoxic regulation of TP53, MDM2, USP7 and PERP gene expressions in U87 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Danilovskyi, S V; Minchenko, D O; Moliavko, O S; Kovalevska, O V; Karbovskyi, L L; Minchenko, O H

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress and hypoxia are necessary components of malignant tumors growth and suppression of ERN1 (from endoplasmic reticulum to nuclei-1) signalling pathway, which is linked to the apoptosis and cell death processes, significantly decreases proliferative processes. Glioma cells with ERN1 knockdown were used in order to investigate the effect of ERNI blockade on the expression of TP53, MDM2, PERP, and USP7 genes and its hypoxic regulation. We have studied the expression of TP53 (tumor protein 53), MDM2 (TP53 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog), PERP (TP53 apoptosis effector), and USP7 (ubiquitin specific peptidase 7) genes, which are related to cell proliferation and apoptosis, in glioma cells with ERN1 knockdown under hypoxic condition. It was shown that blockade of ERNI gene function in U87 glioma cells intensified the expression of TP53 and USP7 genes, but decreased the expression ofMDM2 and PERP genes. Thus, an enhanced expression of TP53 gene in ERN1 knockdown glioma cells correlates with the decreased level of ubiquitin ligase MDM2 and increased expression level of USP7 which deubiquitinates TP53 and MDM2 and induces TP53-dependent cell growth repression and apoptosis. At the same time, the expression levels of TP53, MDM2, and USP7 genes do not change significantly in glioma cells with suppression of endoribonuclease activity only, but PERP gene expression is strongly increased. Moreover, the expression of TP53 and UPS7 genes is decreased in hypoxic conditions in control glioma cells only; however, MDM2 and PERP gene expressions are increased in both cell types, being more significant in ERN1 knockdown cells. Thus, the expression of genes encoding TP53 and related to TP53 factors depends upon the endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling as well as on hypoxia, and correlates with suppression of glioma growth under ERN1 knockdown.

  3. Knockdown of Polyphenol Oxidase Gene Expression in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with Artificial MicroRNAs.

    PubMed

    Chi, Ming; Bhagwat, Basdeo; Tang, Guiliang; Xiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    It is of great importance and interest to develop crop varieties with low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity for the food industry because PPO-mediated oxidative browning is a main cause of post-harvest deterioration and quality loss of fresh produce and processed foods. We recently demonstrated that potato tubers with reduced browning phenotypes can be produced by inhibition of the expression of several PPO gene isoforms using artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology. The approach introduces a single type of 21-nucleotide RNA population to guide silencing of the PPO gene transcripts in potato tissues. Some advantages of the technology are: small RNA molecules are genetically transformed, off-target gene silencing can be avoided or minimized at the stage of amiRNA designs, and accuracy and efficiency of the processes can be detected at every step using molecular biological techniques. Here we describe the methods for transformation and regeneration of potatoes with amiRNA vectors, detection of the expression of amiRNAs, identification of the cleaved product of the target gene transcripts, and assay of the expression level of PPO gene isoforms in potatoes.

  4. Systematic knockdown of morphine pathway enzymes in opium poppy using virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Wijekoon, Champa P; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) remains the sole commercial source for several pharmaceutical alkaloids including the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine, and the semi-synthetic drugs oxycodone, buprenorphine and naltrexone. Although most of the biosynthetic genes have been identified, the post-transcriptional regulation of the morphinan alkaloid pathway has not been determined. We have used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a functional genomics tool to investigate the regulation of morphine biosynthesis via a systematic reduction in enzyme levels responsible for the final six steps in the pathway. Specific gene silencing was confirmed at the transcript level by real-time quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction), and at the protein level by immunoblot analysis using antibodies raised against salutaridine synthase (SalSyn), salutaridine reductase (SalR), salutaridine 7-O-acetyltransferase (SalAT), thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM), codeinone reductase (COR), and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). In some cases, silencing a specific biosynthetic gene resulted in a predictable accumulation of the substrate for the corresponding enzyme. Reduced SalSyn, SalR, T6ODM and CODM protein levels correlated with lower morphine levels and a substantial increase in the accumulation of reticuline, salutaridine, thebaine and codeine, respectively. In contrast, the silencing of genes encoding SalAT and COR resulted in the accumulation of salutaridine and reticuline, respectively, which are not the corresponding enzymatic substrates. The silencing of alkaloid biosynthetic genes using VIGS confirms the physiological function of enzymes previously characterized in vitro, provides insight into the biochemical regulation of morphine biosynthesis, and demonstrates the immense potential for metabolic engineering in opium poppy.

  5. Knockdown of antiapoptotic genes in breast cancer cells by siRNA loaded into hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    João de Mello, Leônidas, Jr.; Rosa Souza, Gabriela Regina; Winter, Evelyn; Silva, Adny Henrique; Pittella, Frederico; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Tumorigenesis is related to an imbalance in controlling mechanisms of apoptosis. Expression of the genes BCL-2 and BCL-xL results in the promotion of cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, a novel approach to suppress antiapoptotic genes is the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in cancer cells. However, there are some limitations for the application of siRNA such as the need for vectors to pass the cell membrane and deliver the nucleic acid. In this study CaP-siRNA-PEG-polyanion hybrid nanoparticles were developed to promote siRNA delivery to cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in order to evaluate whether the silencing of antiapoptotic genes BCL-2 and BCL-xL by siRNA would increase cancer cell death. After 48 h of incubation the expression of BCL-2 and BCL-xL genes decreased to 49% and 23%, respectively. The siRNA sequence used induced cancer cell death at a concentration of 200 nM siRNA after 72 h of incubation. As the targeted proteins are related to the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, the nanocarriers systems were also tested in the presence of doxorubicin (DOX). The results showed a significant reduction in the CC50 of the DOX, after silencing the antiapoptotic genes. In addition, an increase in apoptotic cell counts for both incubations conditions was observed as well. In conclusion, silencing antiapoptotic genes such as BCL-2 and BCL-xL through the use of siRNA carried by hybrid nanoparticles showed to be effective in vitro, and presents a promising strategy for pre-clinical analysis, especially when combined with DOX against breast cancer.

  6. Influence of RNAi knockdown for E-complex genes on the silkworm proleg development.

    PubMed

    Xiang, H; Li, M W; Guo, J H; Jiang, J H; Huang, Y P

    2011-01-01

    Larvae of many holometabolous insects possess abdominal appendages called prolegs. Lepidoptera larvae have prolegs in the segments A3-A6. Functions of Lepidoptera hox genes on these abdominal appendages development is still a controversial issue. In this article, we report the use of double strand RNA (dsRNA)-mediated interference (RNAi) to dissect the function of some hox genes, specifically E-complex genes Ubx, abd-A, and Abd-B, in the ventral appendage development of the Lepidoptera silkworm, Bombyx mori. We found that Ubx RNAi caused leg identity in A1 segment, abd-A RNAi caused severe defect of abdominal prolegs and Abd-B RNAi allowed proleg identity in more posterior abdominal segments. These results confirm that Lepidoptera hox genes Ubx and Abd-B have evolved the repressing function to ventral appendage development, which is similar to those of Drosophila. However, Lepidoptera abd-A might have been modified distinctively during evolution, and has important roles in directing the development of prolegs. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Knockdown of Broad-Complex Gene Expression of Bombyx mori by Oligopyrrole Carboxamides Enhances Silk Production.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asfa; Bovilla, Venugopal Reddy; Mysarla, Danti Kumari; Siripurapu, Prasanthi; Pathak, Rashmi U; Basu, Bhakti; Mamillapalli, Anitha; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2017-04-11

    Bombyx mori (B. mori) is important due to its major role in the silk production. Though DNA binding ligands often influence gene expression, no attempt has been made to exploit their use in sericulture. The telomeric heterochromatin of B. mori is enriched with 5'-TTAGG-3' sequences. These sequences were also found to be present in several genes in the euchromatic regions. We examined three synthetic oligopyrrole carboxamides that target 5'-TTAGG-3' sequences in controlling the gene expression in B. mori. The ligands did not show any defect or feeding difference in the larval stage, crucial for silk production. The ligands caused silencing of various isoforms of the broad-complex transcription factor and cuticle proteins which resulted in late pupal developmental defects. Furthermore, treatment with such drugs resulted in statistically enhanced cocoon weight, shell weight, and silk yield. This study shows for the first time use of oligopyrrole carboxamide drugs in controlling gene expression in B. mori and their long term use in enhancing silk production.

  8. Using RNAi in C. "elegans" to Demonstrate Gene Knockdown Phenotypes in the Undergraduate Biology Lab Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful technology used to knock down genes in basic research and medicine. In 2006 RNAi technology using "Caenorhabditis elegans" ("C. elegans") was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine and thus students graduating in the biological sciences should have experience with this technology. However,…

  9. Assessing somatic hypermutation in Ramos B cells after overexpression or knockdown of specific genes.

    PubMed

    Upton, Dana C; Unniraman, Shyam

    2011-11-01

    B cells start their life with low affinity antibodies generated by V(D)J recombination. However, upon detecting a pathogen, the variable (V) region of an immunoglobulin (Ig) gene is mutated approximately 100,000-fold more than the rest of the genome through somatic hypermutation (SHM), resulting in high affinity antibodies. In addition, class switch recombination (CSR) produces antibodies with different effector functions depending on the kind of immune response that is needed for a particular pathogen. Both CSR and SHM are initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which deaminates cytosine residues in DNA to produce uracils. These uracils are processed by error-prone forms of repair pathways, eventually leading to mutations and recombination. Our current understanding of the molecular details of SHM and CSR come from a combination of studies in mice, primary cells, cell lines, and cell-free experiments. Mouse models remain the gold standard with genetic knockouts showing critical roles for many repair factors (e.g. Ung, Msh2, Msh6, Exo1, and polymerase η). However, not all genes are amenable for knockout studies. For example, knockouts of several double-strand break repair proteins are embryonically lethal or impair B-cell development. Moreover, sometimes the specific function of a protein in SHM or CSR may be masked by more global defects caused by the knockout. In addition, since experiments in mice can be lengthy, altering expression of individual genes in cell lines has become an increasingly popular first step to identifying and characterizing candidate genes. Ramos - a Burkitt lymphoma cell line that constitutively undergoes SHM - has been a popular cell-line model to study SHM. One advantage of Ramos cells is that they have a built-in convenient semi-quantitative measure of SHM. Wild type cells express IgM and, as they pick up mutations, some of the mutations knock out IgM expression. Therefore, assaying IgM loss by fluorescence

  10. Knockdown of Five Genes Encoding Uncharacterized Proteins Inhibits Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Dead Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Sateriale, Adam; Miller, Peter; Huston, Christopher D

    2016-04-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes invasive amebiasis, which is endemic to many developing countries and characterized by dysentery and liver abscesses. The virulence of E. histolytica correlates with the degree of host cell engulfment, or phagocytosis, and E. histolytica phagocytosis alters amebic gene expression in a feed-forward manner that results in an increased phagocytic ability. Here, we used a streamlined RNA interference screen to silence the expression of 15 genes whose expression was upregulated in phagocytic E. histolytica trophozoites to determine whether these genes actually function in the phagocytic process. When five of these genes were silenced, amebic strains with significant decreases in the ability to phagocytose apoptotic host cells were produced. Phagocytosis of live host cells, however, was largely unchanged, and the defects were surprisingly specific for phagocytosis. Two of the five encoded proteins, which we named E. histolytica ILWEQ (EhILWEQ) and E. histolytica BAR (EhBAR), were chosen for localization via SNAP tag labeling and localized to the site of partially formed phagosomes. Therefore, both EhILWEQ and EhBAR appear to contribute to E. histolytica virulence through their function in phagocytosis, and the large proportion (5/15 [33%]) of gene-silenced strains with a reduced ability to phagocytose host cells validates the previously published microarray data set demonstrating feed-forward control of E. histolytica phagocytosis. Finally, although only limited conclusions can be drawn from studies using the virulence-deficient G3 Entamoeba strain, the relative specificity of the defects induced for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells but not healthy cells suggests that cell killing may play a rate-limiting role in the process of Entamoeba histolytica host cell engulfment.

  11. Knockdown of Five Genes Encoding Uncharacterized Proteins Inhibits Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Dead Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sateriale, Adam; Miller, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes invasive amebiasis, which is endemic to many developing countries and characterized by dysentery and liver abscesses. The virulence of E. histolytica correlates with the degree of host cell engulfment, or phagocytosis, and E. histolytica phagocytosis alters amebic gene expression in a feed-forward manner that results in an increased phagocytic ability. Here, we used a streamlined RNA interference screen to silence the expression of 15 genes whose expression was upregulated in phagocytic E. histolytica trophozoites to determine whether these genes actually function in the phagocytic process. When five of these genes were silenced, amebic strains with significant decreases in the ability to phagocytose apoptotic host cells were produced. Phagocytosis of live host cells, however, was largely unchanged, and the defects were surprisingly specific for phagocytosis. Two of the five encoded proteins, which we named E. histolytica ILWEQ (EhILWEQ) and E. histolytica BAR (EhBAR), were chosen for localization via SNAP tag labeling and localized to the site of partially formed phagosomes. Therefore, both EhILWEQ and EhBAR appear to contribute to E. histolytica virulence through their function in phagocytosis, and the large proportion (5/15 [33%]) of gene-silenced strains with a reduced ability to phagocytose host cells validates the previously published microarray data set demonstrating feed-forward control of E. histolytica phagocytosis. Finally, although only limited conclusions can be drawn from studies using the virulence-deficient G3 Entamoeba strain, the relative specificity of the defects induced for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells but not healthy cells suggests that cell killing may play a rate-limiting role in the process of Entamoeba histolytica host cell engulfment. PMID:26810036

  12. Knockdown of Antiapoptotic Genes in Breast Cancer Cells by siRNA Loaded Into Hybrid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mello Júnior, Leônidas; Rosa E Souza, Gabriela; Winter, Evelyn; Henrique Silva, Adny; Pittella, Frederico; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2017-02-23

    Tumorigenesis is related to an imbalance in controlling mechanisms of apoptosis. Expression of the genes BCL-2 and BCL-xL results in promotion of cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, a novel approach to suppress antiapoptotic genes is the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in cancer cells. However, there are some limitations for the application of siRNA such as low bioavailability, requiring vectors as a strategy to achieve the nucleic acid transfection. In this study formulations containing CaP-siRNA-PEG-polyanion hybrid nanoparticles were developed to enhance siRNA delivery to cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in order to evaluate if the silencing of antiapoptotic genes BCL-2 and BCL-xL by siRNA would succeed in increasing cancer cells death. After 48h of incubation the expression of BCL-2 and BCL-xL genes decreased to 49% and 23%, respectively. The formulation proved to be toxic to cancer cells at concentration of 200 nM siRNA after 72h of incubation. As the targeted proteins are related to the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, the nanocarriers systems were also tested in the presence of doxorubicin (DOX). The results showed a significant reduction in CC50 of DOX, for both targets. In addition, an increase in apoptotic cell counts for both incubations conditions was observed as well. In conclusion, silencing antiapoptotic genes such as BCL-2 and BCL-xL through the use of siRNA carried by hybrid nanoparticles showed to be effective in vitro, and presents a promising strategy for pre-clinical analysis, especially when combined with DOX against breast cancer.

  13. Knock-down of heat-shock protein 90 and isocitrate lyase gene expression reduced root-knot nematode reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Souza Junior, José Dijair Antonino; Martins-de-Sa, Diogo; Viana, Antônio Américo Barbosa; Carneiro, Regina Maria Dechechi Gomes; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Fragoso, Rodrigo Rocha; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2015-05-01

    Crop losses caused by nematode infections are estimated to be valued at USD 157 billion per year. Meloidogyne incognita, a root-knot nematode (RKN), is considered to be one of the most important plant pathogens due to its worldwide distribution and the austere damage it can cause to a large variety of agronomically important crops. RNA interference (RNAi), a gene silencing process, has proven to be a valuable biotechnology alternative method for RKN control. In this study, the RNAi approach was applied, using fragments of M. incognita genes that encode for two essential molecules, heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and isocitrate lyase (ICL). Plant-mediated RNAi of these genes led to a significant level of resistance against M. incognita in the transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants. Bioassays of plants expressing HSP90 dsRNA demonstrated a delay in gall formation and up to 46% reduction in eggs compared with wild-type plants. A reduction in the level of HSP90 transcripts was observed in recovered eggs from plants expressing dsRNA, indicating that gene silencing persisted and was passed along to first progeny. The ICL knock-down had no clear effect on gall formation but resulted in up to 77% reduction in egg oviposition compared with wild-type plants. Our data suggest that both genes may be involved in RKN development and reproduction. Thus, in this paper, we describe essential candidate genes that could be applied to generate genetically modified crops, using the RNAi strategy to control RKN parasitism.

  14. Speech sound processing deficits and training-induced neural plasticity in rats with dyslexia gene knockdown.

    PubMed

    Centanni, Tracy M; Chen, Fuyi; Booker, Anne M; Engineer, Crystal T; Sloan, Andrew M; Rennaker, Robert L; LoTurco, Joseph J; Kilgard, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    In utero RNAi of the dyslexia-associated gene Kiaa0319 in rats (KIA-) degrades cortical responses to speech sounds and increases trial-by-trial variability in onset latency. We tested the hypothesis that KIA- rats would be impaired at speech sound discrimination. KIA- rats needed twice as much training in quiet conditions to perform at control levels and remained impaired at several speech tasks. Focused training using truncated speech sounds was able to normalize speech discrimination in quiet and background noise conditions. Training also normalized trial-by-trial neural variability and temporal phase locking. Cortical activity from speech trained KIA- rats was sufficient to accurately discriminate between similar consonant sounds. These results provide the first direct evidence that assumed reduced expression of the dyslexia-associated gene KIAA0319 can cause phoneme processing impairments similar to those seen in dyslexia and that intensive behavioral therapy can eliminate these impairments.

  15. Speech Sound Processing Deficits and Training-Induced Neural Plasticity in Rats with Dyslexia Gene Knockdown

    PubMed Central

    Centanni, Tracy M.; Chen, Fuyi; Booker, Anne M.; Engineer, Crystal T.; Sloan, Andrew M.; Rennaker, Robert L.; LoTurco, Joseph J.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    In utero RNAi of the dyslexia-associated gene Kiaa0319 in rats (KIA-) degrades cortical responses to speech sounds and increases trial-by-trial variability in onset latency. We tested the hypothesis that KIA- rats would be impaired at speech sound discrimination. KIA- rats needed twice as much training in quiet conditions to perform at control levels and remained impaired at several speech tasks. Focused training using truncated speech sounds was able to normalize speech discrimination in quiet and background noise conditions. Training also normalized trial-by-trial neural variability and temporal phase locking. Cortical activity from speech trained KIA- rats was sufficient to accurately discriminate between similar consonant sounds. These results provide the first direct evidence that assumed reduced expression of the dyslexia-associated gene KIAA0319 can cause phoneme processing impairments similar to those seen in dyslexia and that intensive behavioral therapy can eliminate these impairments. PMID:24871331

  16. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a β-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of chemosensory receptor genes in Manduca sexta and knockdown by RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Insects detect environmental chemicals via a large and rapidly evolving family of chemosensory receptor proteins. Although our understanding of the molecular genetic basis for Drosophila chemoreception has increased enormously in the last decade, similar understanding in other insects remains limited. The tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, has long been an important model for insect chemosensation, particularly from ecological, behavioral, and physiological standpoints. It is also a major agricultural pest on solanaceous crops. However, little sequence information and lack of genetic tools has prevented molecular genetic analysis in this species. The ability to connect molecular genetic mechanisms, including potential lineage-specific changes in chemosensory genes, to ecologically relevant behaviors and specializations in M. sexta would be greatly beneficial. Results Here, we sequenced transcriptomes from adult and larval chemosensory tissues and identified chemosensory genes based on sequence homology. We also used dsRNA feeding as a method to induce RNA interference in larval chemosensory tissues. Conclusions We report identification of new chemosensory receptor genes including 17 novel odorant receptors and one novel gustatory receptor. Further, we demonstrate that systemic RNA interference can be used in larval olfactory neurons to reduce expression of chemosensory receptor transcripts. Together, our results further the development of M. sexta as a model for functional analysis of insect chemosensation. PMID:22646846

  18. Knockdown of Dyslexia-Gene Dcdc2 Interferes with Speech Sound Discrimination in Continuous Streams

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Anne B.; Chen, Fuyi; Sloan, Andrew M.; Carraway, Ryan S.; Rennaker, Robert L.; LoTurco, Joseph J.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is the most common developmental language disorder and is marked by deficits in reading and phonological awareness. One theory of dyslexia suggests that the phonological awareness deficit is due to abnormal auditory processing of speech sounds. Variants in DCDC2 and several other neural migration genes are associated with dyslexia and may contribute to auditory processing deficits. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that RNAi suppression of Dcdc2 in rats causes abnormal cortical responses to sound and impaired speech sound discrimination. In the current study, rats were subjected in utero to RNA interference targeting of the gene Dcdc2 or a scrambled sequence. Primary auditory cortex (A1) responses were acquired from 11 rats (5 with Dcdc2 RNAi; DC−) before any behavioral training. A separate group of 8 rats (3 DC−) were trained on a variety of speech sound discrimination tasks, and auditory cortex responses were acquired following training. Dcdc2 RNAi nearly eliminated the ability of rats to identify specific speech sounds from a continuous train of speech sounds but did not impair performance during discrimination of isolated speech sounds. The neural responses to speech sounds in A1 were not degraded as a function of presentation rate before training. These results suggest that A1 is not directly involved in the impaired speech discrimination caused by Dcdc2 RNAi. This result contrasts earlier results using Kiaa0319 RNAi and suggests that different dyslexia genes may cause different deficits in the speech processing circuitry, which may explain differential responses to therapy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although dyslexia is diagnosed through reading difficulty, there is a great deal of variation in the phenotypes of these individuals. The underlying neural and genetic mechanisms causing these differences are still widely debated. In the current study, we demonstrate that suppression of a candidate-dyslexia gene causes deficits on tasks of

  19. Knockdown of Dyslexia-Gene Dcdc2 Interferes with Speech Sound Discrimination in Continuous Streams.

    PubMed

    Centanni, Tracy Michelle; Booker, Anne B; Chen, Fuyi; Sloan, Andrew M; Carraway, Ryan S; Rennaker, Robert L; LoTurco, Joseph J; Kilgard, Michael P

    2016-04-27

    Dyslexia is the most common developmental language disorder and is marked by deficits in reading and phonological awareness. One theory of dyslexia suggests that the phonological awareness deficit is due to abnormal auditory processing of speech sounds. Variants in DCDC2 and several other neural migration genes are associated with dyslexia and may contribute to auditory processing deficits. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that RNAi suppression of Dcdc2 in rats causes abnormal cortical responses to sound and impaired speech sound discrimination. In the current study, rats were subjected in utero to RNA interference targeting of the gene Dcdc2 or a scrambled sequence. Primary auditory cortex (A1) responses were acquired from 11 rats (5 with Dcdc2 RNAi; DC-) before any behavioral training. A separate group of 8 rats (3 DC-) were trained on a variety of speech sound discrimination tasks, and auditory cortex responses were acquired following training. Dcdc2 RNAi nearly eliminated the ability of rats to identify specific speech sounds from a continuous train of speech sounds but did not impair performance during discrimination of isolated speech sounds. The neural responses to speech sounds in A1 were not degraded as a function of presentation rate before training. These results suggest that A1 is not directly involved in the impaired speech discrimination caused by Dcdc2 RNAi. This result contrasts earlier results using Kiaa0319 RNAi and suggests that different dyslexia genes may cause different deficits in the speech processing circuitry, which may explain differential responses to therapy. Although dyslexia is diagnosed through reading difficulty, there is a great deal of variation in the phenotypes of these individuals. The underlying neural and genetic mechanisms causing these differences are still widely debated. In the current study, we demonstrate that suppression of a candidate-dyslexia gene causes deficits on tasks of rapid stimulus processing

  20. Knockdown of CTRP6 inhibits adipogenesis via lipogenic marker genes and Erk1/2 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-jing; Mo, De-lin; Zhao, Cun-zhen; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Yao-sheng; Pang, Wei-jun; Yang, Gong-she

    2015-05-01

    C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), an adipose-tissue secretory factor, plays an important role in inflammatory reaction and carcinogenesis. However, the biological function of CTRP6 in adipogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CTRP6 knockdown on lipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results showed that after 3T3-L1 adipocytes transfected with anti-CTRP6 small interfering RNA (siRNA), not only levels of secreted CTRP6 protein in the culture medium but also the expression level of the CTRP6 protein in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, the number of lipid droplets in the adipocytes was reduced, as well as the OD values reflecting the fat content being significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Meanwhile the levels of adipogenic markers, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 (aP2), were decreased after treatment with anti-CTRP6 siRNA, whereas the expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) were increased. Furthermore, after transfection, activity of phosphorylated Erk1/2 (p-Erk1/2) was inhibited in the early stage of differentiation, but in terminal differentiation of adipocytes, its activity was activated. Taken together, the results indicate that knockdown of CTRP6 can inhibit adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through lipogenic marker genes and Erk1/2 signaling pathway.

  1. Reverse genetics in the tide pool: knock-down of target gene expression via RNA interference in the copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Felipe S; Schoville, Sean D; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-07-01

    Reverse genetic tools are essential for characterizing phenotypes of novel genes and testing functional hypotheses generated from next-generation sequencing studies. RNA interference (RNAi) has been a widely used technique for describing or quantifying physiological, developmental or behavioural roles of target genes by suppressing their expression. The marine intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus has become an emerging model for evolutionary and physiological studies, but this species is not amenable to most genetic manipulation approaches. As crustaceans are susceptible to RNAi-mediated gene knock-down, we developed a simple method for delivery of gene-specific double-stranded RNA that results in significant suppression of target gene transcription levels. The protocol was examined on five genes of interest, and for each, at least 50% knock-down in expression was achieved. While knock-down levels did not reach 100% in any trial, a well-controlled experiment with one heat-shock gene showed unambiguously that such partial gene suppression may cause dramatic changes in phenotype. Copepods with suppressed expression of heat-shock protein beta 1 (hspb1) exhibited dramatically decreased tolerance to high temperatures, validating the importance of this gene during thermal stress, as proposed by a previous study. The application of this RNAi protocol in T. californicus will be invaluable for examining the role of genes putatively involved in reproductive isolation, mitochondrial function and local adaptation.

  2. Knockdown of Nogo gene by short hairpin RNA interference promotes functional recovery of spinal cord injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Min; Luo, Yun-Gang; Li, Juan; Xu, Kun

    2016-05-01

    The specific myelin component Nogo protein is one of the major inhibitory molecules of spinal cord axonal outgrowth following spinal cord injury. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing Nogo protein with shRNA interference on the promotion of functional recovery in a rat model with spinal cord hemisection. Nogo-A short hairpin RNAs (Nogo shRNAs) were constructed and transfected into rats with spinal cord hemisection by adenovirus-mediated transfection. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to analyze the expression of Nogo-A and Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43). In addition, Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scores were used to assess the functional recovery of rats following spinal cord injury. The results demonstrated that expression of the Nogo‑A gene was observed to be downregulated following transfection and GAP‑43 expression was observed to increase. The BBB scores were increased following treatment with Nogo shRNAs, indicating functional recovery of the injured nerves. Thus, Nogo-A shRNA interference can knockdown Nogo gene expression and upregulate GAP-43 to promote the functional recovery of spinal cord injury in rats. This finding may advance progress toward assisting the regeneration of injured neurons through the use of Nogo-A shRNA.

  3. RNAi-Mediated Knockdown of Serine Protease Inhibitor Genes Increases the Mortality of Plutella xylostella Challenged by Destruxin A

    PubMed Central

    Han, Pengfei; Fan, Jiqiao; Liu, Yu; Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Yan, Shaoqiao; Qiu, Bao-Li; Ren, Shunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Destruxin A is a mycotoxin that is secreted by entomopathogenic fungi which has a broad-spectrum insecticidal effect. Previous transcript and protein profiling analysis showed that destruxin A has significant effects on the expression of serine protease inhibitor genes (serpin-2, 4, 5) in the larvae of Plutella xylostella. In the current study, we aimed to understand the role of serpins under application of destruxin A. We obtained two full-length cDNA sequences of P. xylostella serpins, named serpin-4 and serpin-5, and cloned the serpin-2 gene whose full-length has already been published. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these two serpin genes were highly clustered with other serpins associated with the immune response in other insects. The temporal and spatial expression of serpin-2, serpin-4 and serpin-5 were determined to be the highest in the fat body and hemolymph of 4th larval stage using qRT-PCR and western blot detection techniques. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated knockdown of P. xylostella serpin genes was carried out by microinjection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The expression levels of serpins decreased significantly after RNAi. Results showed that the depletion of serpins induced cecropins expression, increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, body melanization and mortality in the larvae of P. xylostella under the same lethal concentration of destruxin A. The superimposed effects of serpins RNAi were similar with the destruxin A treatment upon mortality of P. xylostella larvae. We discovered for the first time that serpins play indispensable role in P. xylostella when challenged by destruxin A and deduced the possible function mechanism of destruxin A. Our findings are conducive to fully understanding the potential insecticidal mechanism of destruxin A and constitute a well-defined potential molecular target for novel insecticides. PMID:24837592

  4. RNAi-mediated knockdown of serine protease inhibitor genes increases the mortality of Plutella xylostella challenged by destruxin A.

    PubMed

    Han, Pengfei; Fan, Jiqiao; Liu, Yu; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Yan, Shaoqiao; Qiu, Bao-Li; Ren, Shunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Destruxin A is a mycotoxin that is secreted by entomopathogenic fungi which has a broad-spectrum insecticidal effect. Previous transcript and protein profiling analysis showed that destruxin A has significant effects on the expression of serine protease inhibitor genes (serpin-2, 4, 5) in the larvae of Plutella xylostella. In the current study, we aimed to understand the role of serpins under application of destruxin A. We obtained two full-length cDNA sequences of P. xylostella serpins, named serpin-4 and serpin-5, and cloned the serpin-2 gene whose full-length has already been published. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these two serpin genes were highly clustered with other serpins associated with the immune response in other insects. The temporal and spatial expression of serpin-2, serpin-4 and serpin-5 were determined to be the highest in the fat body and hemolymph of 4th larval stage using qRT-PCR and western blot detection techniques. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated knockdown of P. xylostella serpin genes was carried out by microinjection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The expression levels of serpins decreased significantly after RNAi. Results showed that the depletion of serpins induced cecropins expression, increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, body melanization and mortality in the larvae of P. xylostella under the same lethal concentration of destruxin A. The superimposed effects of serpins RNAi were similar with the destruxin A treatment upon mortality of P. xylostella larvae. We discovered for the first time that serpins play indispensable role in P. xylostella when challenged by destruxin A and deduced the possible function mechanism of destruxin A. Our findings are conducive to fully understanding the potential insecticidal mechanism of destruxin A and constitute a well-defined potential molecular target for novel insecticides.

  5. RNAi mediated knockdown of the ryanodine receptor gene decreases chlorantraniliprole susceptibility in Sogatella furcifera.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao; Wan, Pin-Jun; Hu, Xing-Xing; Li, Guo-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The diamide insecticides activate ryanodine receptors (RyRs) to release and deplete intracellular calcium stores from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscles and the endoplasmic reticulum of many types of cells. They rapidly interrupt feeding of the target pest and eventually kill the pest due to starvation. However, information about the structure and function of insect RyRs is still limited. In this study, we isolated a 15,985bp full-length cDNA (named SfRyR) from Sogatella furcifera, a serious rice planthopper pest throughout Asia. SfRyR encodes a 5140-amino acid protein, which shares 78-97% sequence identities with other insect homologues, and less than 50% identities with Homo sapiens RyR1-3. All hallmarks of the RyR proteins are conserved in SfRyR. In the N-terminus, SfRyR has a MIR domain, two RIH domains, three SPRY domains, four copies of RyR repeated domain and a RIH-associated domain. In the C-terminus, SfRyR possesses two consensus calcium ion-binding EF-hand motifs, and six transmembrane helices. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that SfRyR was widely found in all development stages including egg, first through fifth instar nymphs, macropterous adult females and males. On day 2 fifth-instar nymphs, SfRyR was ubiquitously expressed in the head, thorax and abdomen. Dietary ingestion of dsSfRyR1 and dsSfRyR2 significantly reduced the mRNA level of SfRyR in the treated nymphs by 77.9% and 81.8% respectively, and greatly decreased chlorantraniliprole-induced mortality. Thus, our results suggested that SfRyR gene encoded a functional RyR that mediates chlorantraniliprole toxicity to S. furcifera.

  6. Cardiac Gene Expression Knockdown Using Small Inhibitory RNA-Loaded Microbubbles and Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    McTiernan, Charles F.; Chen, Xucai; Klein, Edwin C.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has potential therapeutic value for cardiac disease, but targeted delivery of interfering RNA is a challenge. Custom designed microbubbles, in conjunction with ultrasound, can deliver small inhibitory RNA to target tissues in vivo. The efficacy of cardiac RNA interference using a microbubble-ultrasound theranostic platform has not been demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that custom designed microbubbles and ultrasound can mediate effective delivery of small inhibitory RNA to the heart. Microbubble and ultrasound mediated cardiac RNA interference was tested in transgenic mice displaying cardiac-restricted luciferase expression. Luciferase expression was assayed in select tissues of untreated mice (n = 14). Mice received intravenous infusion of cationic microbubbles bearing small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase (n = 9) or control RNA (n = 8) during intermittent cardiac-directed ultrasound at mechanical index of 1.6. Simultaneous echocardiography in a separate group of mice (n = 3) confirmed microbubble destruction and replenishment during treatment. Three days post treatment, cardiac luciferase messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly lower in ultrasound-treated mice receiving microbubbles loaded with small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase compared to mice receiving microbubbles bearing control RNA (23±7% and 33±7% of control mice, p<0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). Passive cavitation detection focused on the heart confirmed that insonification resulted in inertial cavitation. In conclusion, small inhibitory RNA-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound directed at the heart significantly reduced the expression of a reporter gene. Ultrasound-targeted destruction of RNA-loaded microbubbles may be an effective image-guided strategy for therapeutic RNA interference in cardiac disease. PMID:27471848

  7. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the Halloween gene spookiest (CYP307B1) impedes adult eclosion in the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ecdysteroids play a critical role in coordinating insect growth, development, and reproduction. A suite of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases coded by what are collectively termed Halloween genes mediate ecdysteroid biosynthesis. In this study, we describe cloning and RNAi-mediated knockdown of the CYP3...

  8. Salt Sensitive Tet-Off-Like Systems to Knockdown Primordial Germ Cell Genes for Repressible Transgenic Sterilization in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanbo; Su, Baofeng; Qin, Guyu; Ye, Zhi; Alsaqufi, Ahmed; Perera, Dayan A.; Shang, Mei; Odin, Ramjie; Vo, Khoi; Drescher, David; Robinson, Dalton; Zhang, Dan; Abass, Nermeen; Dunham, Rex A.

    2017-01-01

    Repressible knockdown approaches were investigated for transgenic sterilization in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Two primordial germ cell (PGC) marker genes, nanos and dead end, were targeted for knockdown, and an off-target gene, vasa, was monitored. Two potentially salt sensitive repressible promoters, zebrafish adenylosuccinate synthase 2 (ADSS) and zebrafish racemase (Rm), were each coupled with four knockdown strategies: ds-sh RNA targeting the 5′ end (N1) or 3′ end (N2) of channel catfish nanos, full-length cDNA sequence of channel catfish nanos for overexpression (cDNA) and ds-sh RNA targeting channel catfish dead end (DND). Each construct had an untreated group and treated group with sodium chloride as the repressor compound. Spawning rates of full-sibling P1 fish exposed or not exposed to the constructs as treated and untreated embryos were 93% and 59%, respectively, indicating potential sterilization of fish and repression of the constructs. Although the mRNA expression data of PGC marker genes were inconsistent in P1 fish, most F1 individuals were able to downregulate the target genes in untreated groups and repress the knockdown process in treated groups. The results indicate that repressible transgenic sterilization is feasible for reproductive control of fish, but more data from F2 or F3 are needed for evaluation. PMID:28561774

  9. Salt Sensitive Tet-Off-Like Systems to Knockdown Primordial Germ Cell Genes for Repressible Transgenic Sterilization in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Li, Hanbo; Su, Baofeng; Qin, Guyu; Ye, Zhi; Alsaqufi, Ahmed; Perera, Dayan A; Shang, Mei; Odin, Ramjie; Vo, Khoi; Drescher, David; Robinson, Dalton; Zhang, Dan; Abass, Nermeen; Dunham, Rex A

    2017-05-31

    Repressible knockdown approaches were investigated for transgenic sterilization in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Two primordial germ cell (PGC) marker genes, nanos and dead end, were targeted for knockdown, and an off-target gene, vasa, was monitored. Two potentially salt sensitive repressible promoters, zebrafish adenylosuccinate synthase 2 (ADSS) and zebrafish racemase (Rm), were each coupled with four knockdown strategies: ds-sh RNA targeting the 5' end (N1) or 3' end (N2) of channel catfish nanos, full-length cDNA sequence of channel catfish nanos for overexpression (cDNA) and ds-sh RNA targeting channel catfish dead end (DND). Each construct had an untreated group and treated group with sodium chloride as the repressor compound. Spawning rates of full-sibling P₁ fish exposed or not exposed to the constructs as treated and untreated embryos were 93% and 59%, respectively, indicating potential sterilization of fish and repression of the constructs. Although the mRNA expression data of PGC marker genes were inconsistent in P₁ fish, most F₁ individuals were able to downregulate the target genes in untreated groups and repress the knockdown process in treated groups. The results indicate that repressible transgenic sterilization is feasible for reproductive control of fish, but more data from F₂ or F₃ are needed for evaluation.

  10. Sustained knockdown of a disease-causing gene in patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells using lentiviral vector-based gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Eggenschwiler, Reto; Loya, Komal; Wu, Guangming; Sharma, Amar Deep; Sgodda, Malte; Zychlinski, Daniela; Herr, Christian; Steinemann, Doris; Teckman, Jeffrey; Bals, Robert; Ott, Michael; Schambach, Axel; Schöler, Hans Robert; Cantz, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for studies on disease-related developmental processes and may serve as an autologous cell source for future treatment of many hereditary diseases. New genetic engineering tools such as zinc finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nuclease allow targeted correction of monogenetic disorders but are very cumbersome to establish. Aiming at studies on the knockdown of a disease-causing gene, lentiviral vector-mediated expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) is a valuable option, but it is limited by silencing of the knockdown construct upon epigenetic remodeling during differentiation. Here, we propose an approach for the expression of a therapeutic shRNA in disease-specific iPSCs using third-generation lentiviral vectors. Targeting severe α-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency, we overexpressed a human microRNA 30 (miR30)-styled shRNA directed against the PiZ variant of A1AT, which is known to cause chronic liver damage in affected patients. This knockdown cassette is traceable from clonal iPSC lines to differentiated hepatic progeny via an enhanced green fluorescence protein reporter expressed from the same RNA-polymerase II promoter. Importantly, the cytomegalovirus i/e enhancer chicken β actin (CAG) promoter-driven expression of this construct is sustained without transgene silencing during hepatic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. At low lentiviral copy numbers per genome we confirmed a functional relevant reduction (-66%) of intracellular PiZ protein in hepatic cells after differentiation of patient-specific iPSCs. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that lentiviral vector-mediated expression of shRNAs can be efficiently used to knock down and functionally evaluate disease-related genes in patient-specific iPSCs.

  11. Effects of AAV-mediated knockdown of nNOS and GPx-1 gene expression in rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Boone, Deborah R; Leek, Jeanna M; Falduto, Michael T; Torres, Karen E O; Sell, Stacy L; Parsley, Margaret A; Cowart, Jeremy C; Uchida, Tatsuo; Micci, Maria-Adelaide; DeWitt, Douglas S; Prough, Donald S; Hellmich, Helen L

    2017-01-01

    Virally mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down injury-induced genes could improve functional outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, little is known about the consequences of gene knockdown on downstream cell signaling pathways and how RNAi influences neurodegeneration and behavior. Here, we assessed the effects of adeno-associated virus (AAV) siRNA vectors that target two genes with opposing roles in TBI pathogenesis: the allegedly detrimental neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the potentially protective glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1). In rat hippocampal progenitor cells, three siRNAs that target different regions of each gene (nNOS, GPx-1) effectively knocked down gene expression. However, in vivo, in our rat model of fluid percussion brain injury, the consequences of AAV-siRNA were variable. One nNOS siRNA vector significantly reduced the number of degenerating hippocampal neurons and showed a tendency to improve working memory. GPx-1 siRNA treatment did not alter TBI-induced neurodegeneration or working memory deficits. Nevertheless, microarray analysis of laser captured, virus-infected neurons showed that knockdown of nNOS or GPx-1 was specific and had broad effects on downstream genes. Since nNOS knockdown only modestly ameliorated TBI-induced working memory deficits, despite widespread genomic changes, manipulating expression levels of single genes may not be sufficient to alter functional outcome after TBI.

  12. Knock-down of transcript abundance of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor genes in white clover (Trifolium repens) reveals a redundancy and diversity of gene function.

    PubMed

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Laing, William A; Richardson, Kim A; Hofmann, Rainer W; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional regulation of four phylogenetically distinct members of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) genes isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens; designated Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5) has been investigated to determine their wider functional role. The four genes displayed differential transcription during seed germination, and in different tissues of the mature plant, and transcription was also ontogenetically regulated. Heterologous over-expression of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5 in Nicotiana tabacum retarded larval growth of the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and an increase in the transcription of the pathogenesis-related genes PR1 and PR4 was observed in the Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI4 over-expressing lines. RNA interference (RNAi) knock-down lines in white clover displayed significantly altered vegetative growth phenotypes with inhibition of shoot growth and a stimulation of root growth, while knock-down of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2 and Tr-KPI5 transcript abundance also retarded larval growth of S. litura. Examination of these RNAi lines revealed constitutive stress-associated phenotypes as well as altered transcription of cellular signalling genes. These results reveal a functional redundancy across members of the KPI gene family. Further, the regulation of transcription of at least one member of the family, Tr-KPI2, may occupy a central role in the maintenance of a cellular homeostasis.

  13. Dmp53, basket and drICE gene knockdown and polyphenol gallic acid increase life span and locomotor activity in a Drosophila Parkinson’s disease model

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Arellano, Hector Flavio; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism(s) by which dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are eroded in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is critical for effective therapeutic strategies. By using the binary tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Gal4/UAS-X RNAi Drosophila melanogaster system, we report that Dmp53, basket and drICE gene knockdown in dopaminergic neurons prolong life span (p < 0.05; log-rank test) and locomotor activity (p < 0.05; χ2 test) in D. melanogaster lines chronically exposed to (1 mM) paraquat (PQ, oxidative stress (OS) generator) compared to untreated transgenic fly lines. Likewise, knockdown flies displayed higher climbing performance than control flies. Amazingly, gallic acid (GA) significantly protected DAergic neurons, ameliorated life span, and climbing abilities in knockdown fly lines treated with PQ compared to flies treated with PQ only. Therefore, silencing specific gene(s) involved in neuronal death might constitute an excellent tool to study the response of DAergic neurons to OS stimuli. We propose that a therapy with antioxidants and selectively “switching off” death genes in DAergic neurons could provide a means for pre-clinical PD individuals to significantly ameliorate their disease condition. PMID:24385865

  14. Spatially- and temporally-controlled postnatal p53 knockdown cooperates with embryonic Schwann cell precursor Nf1 gene loss to promote malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Hirbe, Angela C; Dahiya, Sonika; Friedmann-Morvinski, Dinorah; Verma, Inder M; Clapp, D Wade; Gutmann, David H

    2016-02-16

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are highly aggressive sarcomas that arise sporadically or in association with the Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome. In individuals with NF1, MPNSTs are hypothesized to arise from Nf1-deficient Schwann cell precursor cells following the somatic acquisition of secondary cooperating genetic mutations (e.g., p53 loss). To model this sequential genetic cooperativity, we coupled somatic lentivirus-mediated p53 knockdown in the adult right sciatic nerve with embryonic Schwann cell precursor Nf1 gene inactivation in two different Nf1 conditional knockout mouse strains. Using this approach, ~60% of mice with Periostin-Cre-mediated Nf1 gene inactivation (Periostin-Cre; Nf1(flox/flox) mice) developed tumors classified as low-grade MPNSTs following p53 knockdown (mean, 6 months). Similarly, ~70% of Nf1+/- mice with GFAP-Cre-mediated Nf1 gene inactivation (GFAP-Cre; Nf1(flox/null) mice) developed low-grade MPNSTs following p53 knockdown (mean, 3 months). In addition, wild-type and Nf1+/- mice with GFAP-Cre-mediated Nf1 loss develop MPNSTs following somatic p53 knockout with different latencies, suggesting potential influences of Nf1+/- stromal cells in MPNST pathogenesis. Collectively, this new MPNST model system permits the analysis of somatically-acquired events as well as tumor microenvironment signals that potentially cooperate with Nf1 loss in the development and progression of this deadly malignancy.

  15. Development of Novel Bioanalytical Methods to Determine the Effective Concentrations of Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers in Tissues and Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Frederick J.; Crumley, Stacy L.; Mourich, Dan V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO) are neutrally charged, sequence-specific antisense agents that interfere with targeted gene expression. PMO have been shown to be highly specific and potent therapies after cellular uptake, yet methods to detect PMO in tissue and inside the cell are limited. We offer in this report novel methods for the detection of cellular resident PMO using flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow FISH) and a sandwich hybridization technique to quickly and sensitively quantify tissue resident PMO. These methods rely on oligonucleotide probes complementary to a PMO to specifically detect and quantify cell-associated and tissue resident PMO after in vitro or in vivo administration. Using the sandwich hybridization technique, we show that intranasally delivered PMO demonstrates zero-order clearance kinetics from the lung. Furthermore, PMO was detected in nonhematopoietic and hematopoietic cells of the lung regardless of influenza virus infection, although an increase in PMO uptake in infected hematopoietic cells was observed. Coincident measurement of target knock-down to cell-associated influenza A PMO concentration allowed for the calculation of an EC50. PMID:23515175

  16. Development of novel bioanalytical methods to determine the effective concentrations of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers in tissues and cells.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Frederick J; Crumley, Stacy L; Mourich, Dan V; Iversen, Patrick L

    2013-02-01

    Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO) are neutrally charged, sequence-specific antisense agents that interfere with targeted gene expression. PMO have been shown to be highly specific and potent therapies after cellular uptake, yet methods to detect PMO in tissue and inside the cell are limited. We offer in this report novel methods for the detection of cellular resident PMO using flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow FISH) and a sandwich hybridization technique to quickly and sensitively quantify tissue resident PMO. These methods rely on oligonucleotide probes complementary to a PMO to specifically detect and quantify cell-associated and tissue resident PMO after in vitro or in vivo administration. Using the sandwich hybridization technique, we show that intranasally delivered PMO demonstrates zero-order clearance kinetics from the lung. Furthermore, PMO was detected in nonhematopoietic and hematopoietic cells of the lung regardless of influenza virus infection, although an increase in PMO uptake in infected hematopoietic cells was observed. Coincident measurement of target knock-down to cell-associated influenza A PMO concentration allowed for the calculation of an EC50.

  17. Gene targeting by RNAi-mediated knockdown of potent DNA ligase IV homologue in the cellulase-producing fungus Talaromyces cellulolyticus.

    PubMed

    Hayata, Koutarou; Asada, Seiya; Fujii, Tatsuya; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-11-01

    The genome of the cellulase-producing fungus Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly Acremonium cellulolyticus) was screened for a potent DNA ligase IV gene (ligD homologue). Homologous recombination efficiency in T. cellulolyticus is very low. Therefore, suppression of a non-homologous end-joining system was attempted to enable specific gene knockouts for molecular breeding. The transcript levels of ligD homologue were 0.037 of those of the parental YP-4 strain in the Li20 transformant carrying the RNAi construct targeting the ligD homologue. Transformation of the hairpin-type RNAi vector into T. cellulolyticus could be useful in fungal gene knockdown experiments. Cellulase production and protein secretion were similar in the parental YP-4 strain and the Li20 transformant. Knockout transformation of ligD homologue using the Li20 transformant led to 23.1 % double crossover gene targeting. Our results suggest that the potent DNA ligase IV gene of T. cellulolyticus is related to non-homologous end joining and that the knockdown of the ligD homologue is useful in gene targeting.

  18. Titration and conditional knockdown of the prfB gene in Escherichia coli: effects on growth and overproduction of the recombinant mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed

    Rengby, Olle; Arnér, Elias S J

    2007-01-01

    Release factor 2 (RF2), encoded by the prfB gene in Escherichia coli, catalyzes translational termination at UGA and UAA codons. Termination at UGA competes with selenocysteine (Sec) incorporation at Sec-dedicated UGA codons, and RF2 thereby counteracts expression of selenoproteins. prfB is an essential gene in E. coli and can therefore not be removed in order to increase yield of recombinant selenoproteins. We therefore constructed an E. coli strain with the endogenous chromosomal promoter of prfB replaced with the titratable P(BAD) promoter. Knockdown of prfB expression gave a bacteriostatic effect, while two- to sevenfold overexpression of RF2 resulted in a slightly lowered growth rate in late exponential phase. In a turbidostatic fermentor system the simultaneous impact of prfB knockdown on growth and recombinant selenoprotein expression was subsequently studied, using production of mammalian thioredoxin reductase as model system. This showed that lowering the levels of RF2 correlated directly with increasing Sec incorporation specificity, while also affecting total selenoprotein yield concomitant with a lower growth rate. This study thus demonstrates that expression of prfB can be titrated through targeted exchange of the native promoter with a P(BAD)-promoter and that knockdown of RF2 can result in almost full efficiency of Sec incorporation at the cost of lower total selenoprotein yield.

  19. Knockdown of Long Noncoding RNA Small Nucleolar RNA Host Gene 12 Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis by Upregulating miR-138 in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Qi, Guanbin; Zhang, Juanjuan; Wu, Jingcan; Zhou, Nannan; Li, Lei; Ma, Jing

    2017-09-05

    Small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 (SNHG12) is a novel long noncoding RNA identified to be upregulated and functions as an oncogene in several cancers. However, the function of SNHG12 and its target genes in modulating nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development are rarely reported. In the present study, we validated that SNHG12 was overexpressed, while miR-138 was low-expressed, in NSCLC cells compared with normal human lung epithelial cells. SNHG12 harbored the binding site of miR-138 and inversely regulated the expression miR-138. Knockdown of SNHG12 inhibited proliferation and colony-forming ability, induced apoptosis, and increased caspase-3 activity of NSCLC cells, whereas miR-138 downregulation restored these effects. Furthermore, SNHG12 knockdown decreased volumes and weight of xenograft tumors in a NSCLC mouse model. Taken together, these findings suggested that knockdown of SNHG12 suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis by upregulating miR-138 in NSCLC.

  20. Regeneration-dependent conditional gene knockdown (Readyknock) in planarian: demonstration of requirement for Djsnap-25 expression in the brain for negative phototactic behavior.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Pulvers, Jeremy N; Inoue, Takeshi; Tarui, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Agata, Kiyokazu; Umesono, Yoshihiko

    2007-06-01

    Freshwater planarians have a simple and evolutionarily primitive brain structure. Here, we identified the Djsnap-25 gene encoding a homolog of the evolutionarily conserved synaptic protein SNAP-25 from the planarian Dugesia japonica and assessed its role in brain function. Djsnap-25 was expressed widely in the nervous system. To investigate the specific role of Djsnap-25 in the brain, we developed a unique technique of RNA interference (RNAi), regeneration-dependent conditional gene knockdown (Readyknock), exploiting the high regenerative capacity of planarians, and succeeded in selectively eliminating the DjSNAP-25 activity in the head region while leaving the DjSNAP-25 activity in the trunk region intact. These knockdown animals showed no effect on brain morphology or on undirected movement of the trunk itself. Light-avoidance behavior or negative phototaxis was used to quantitatively analyze brain function in the knockdown animals. The results suggested that the DjSNAP-25 activity within the head region is required for two independent sensory-processing pathways that regulate locomotive activity and directional movement downstream of distinct primary sensory outputs coming from the head margin and the eyes, respectively, during negative phototaxis. Our approach demonstrates that planarians are a powerful model organism to study the molecular basis of the brain as an information-processing center.

  1. APE1/Ref-1 knockdown in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Characterizing gene expression changes and identifying novel pathways using single-cell RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Shah, Fenil; Goossens, Emery; Atallah, Nadia M; Grimard, Michelle; Kelley, Mark R; Fishel, Melissa L

    2017-09-18

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1 or APE1) is a multifunctional protein that regulates numerous transcription factors associated with cancer-related pathways. Because APE1 is essential for cell viability, generation of APE1 knockout cell lines and determining a comprehensive list of genes regulated by APE1 has not been possible. To circumvent this challenge, we utilized single-cell RNA Sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes in relation to APE1 protein levels within the cell. Using a straight forward yet novel statistical design, we identified 2,837 genes whose expression is significantly changed following APE1 knockdown. Using this gene expression profile, we identified multiple new pathways not previously linked to APE1, including the EIF2 signaling and mTOR pathways and a number of mitochondrial-related pathways. We demonstrate that APE1 has an effect on modifying gene expression up to a threshold of APE1 expression, demonstrating that it is not necessary to completely knockout APE1 in cells to accurately study APE1 function. We validated the findings using a selection of the differentially expressed genes along with siRNA knockdown and qRT-PCR. Testing additional patient-derived pancreatic cancer cells reveal particular genes (ITGA1, TNFAIP2, COMMD7, RAB3D) that respond to APE1 knockdown similarly across all the cell lines. Furthermore, we verified that the redox function of APE1 was responsible for driving gene expression of mitochondrial genes such as PRDX5 and genes that are important for proliferation such as SIPA1 and RAB3D by treating with APE1 redox specific inhibitor, APX3330. Our study identifies several novel genes and pathways affected by APE1, as well as tumor sub-type specificity. These findings will allow for hypothesis driven approaches to generate combination therapies using, for example, APE1 inhibitor APX3330 with other approved FDA drugs in an innovative manner for pancreatic and other cancer

  2. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  3. Double gene siRNA knockdown of mutant p53 and TNF induces apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pileczki, Valentina; Pop, Laura; Braicu, Cornelia; Budisan, Livia; Bolba Morar, Gabriela; del C Monroig-Bosque, Paloma; Sandulescu, Robert V; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is the major downregulated pathway in cancer. Simultaneous inhibition using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) of two key player genes, p53 and TNF, is an interesting and feasible strategy when it comes to investigating various molecular pathways and biological processes in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is one of the most aggressive and therapeutically unresponsive forms of breast cancers. Our present research focuses on evaluating the impact of double p53-siRNA and TNF-siRNA knockdown at a cellular level, and also evaluating cell proliferation, apoptosis, induction of autophagy, and gene expression by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction array approaches. Simultaneous inhibition of p53 and TNF in Hs578T TNBC human cell line revealed a panel of up- and downregulated genes involved in apoptosis. Furthermore, the effects of double gene knockdown were validated in a second TNBC cell line, MDA-MB-231, by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assay. All our findings help in understanding the functional mechanisms of extrinsic apoptosis, cell signaling pathways, and the mechanisms involved in tumor cell survival, growth, and death in TNBC. PMID:27956838

  4. Knockdown of astrocyte elevated gene-1 inhibits tumor growth and modifies microRNAs expression profiles in human colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Sujun; Wu, Binwen; Li, Dongfeng; Zhou, Weihong; Deng, Gang; Zhang, Kaijun; Li, Youjia

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • AEG-1 expression in CRC cell lines and down-regulation or upregulation of AEG-1 in vitro. • Knockdown of AEG-1 inhibits cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion. • Upregulation of AEG-1 enhances proliferation, invasion and colony formation. • Knockdown of AEG-1 accumulates G0/G1-phase cells and promotes apoptosis in CRC cells. • AEG-1 knockdown increases 5-FU cytotoxicity. - Abstract: Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1), upregulated in various types of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC), has been reported to be associated with the carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are widely involved in the initiation and progression of cancer. However, the functional significance of AEG-1 and the relationship between AEG-1 and microRNAs in human CRC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AEG-1 could serve as a potential therapeutic target of human CRC and its possible mechanism. We adopted a strategy of ectopic overexpression or RNA interference to upregulate or downregulate expression of AEG-1 in CRC models. Their phenotypic changes were analyzed by Western blot, MTT and transwell matrix penetration assays. MicroRNAs expression profiles were performed using microarray analysis followed by validation using qRT-PCR. Knockdown of AEG-1 could significantly inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion and promotes apoptosis. Conversely, upregulation of AEG-1 could significantly enhance cell proliferation, invasion and reduced apoptisis. AEG-1 directly contributes to resistance to chemotherapeutic drug. Targeted downregulation of AEG-1 might improve the expression of miR-181a-2{sup ∗}, -193b and -193a, and inversely inhibit miR-31 and -9{sup ∗}. Targeted inhibition of AEG-1 can lead to modification of key elemental characteristics, such as miRNAs, which may become a potential effective therapeutic strategy for CRC.

  5. Knockdown of the fat mass and obesity gene disrupts cellular energy balance in a cell-type specific manner.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Ryan T; Fong, Jason T; Billman, Penny; Puri, Neelu

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that FTO variants strongly correlate with obesity and mainly influence energy intake with little effect on the basal metabolic rate. We suggest that FTO influences eating behavior by modulating intracellular energy levels and downstream signaling mechanisms which control energy intake and metabolism. Since FTO plays a particularly important role in adipocytes and in hypothalamic neurons, SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to understand how siRNA mediated knockdown of FTO expression alters cellular energy homeostasis. Cellular energy status was evaluated by measuring ATP levels using a luminescence assay and uptake of fluorescent glucose. FTO siRNA in SH-SY5Y cells mediated mRNA knockdown (-82%), increased ATP concentrations by up to 46% (P = 0.013) compared to controls, and decreased phosphorylation of AMPk and Akt in SH-SY5Y by -52% and -46% respectively as seen by immunoblotting. In contrast, FTO siRNA in 3T3-L1 cells decreased ATP concentration by -93% (p<0.0005), and increased AMPk and Akt phosphorylation by 204% and 70%, respectively suggesting that FTO mediates control of energy levels in a cell-type specific manner. Furthermore, glucose uptake was decreased in both SH-SY5Y (-51% p = 0.015) and 3T3-L1 cells (-30%, p = 0.0002). We also show that FTO knockdown decreases NPY mRNA expression in SH-SY5Y cells (-21%) through upregulation of pSTAT3 (118%). These results provide important evidence that FTO-variant linked obesity may be associated with altered metabolic functions through activation of downstream metabolic mediators including AMPk.

  6. Zebrafish ambra1a and ambra1b Knockdown Impairs Skeletal Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Skobo, Tatjana; Benato, Francesca; Grumati, Paolo; Meneghetti, Giacomo; Cianfanelli, Valentina; Castagnaro, Silvia; Chrisam, Martina; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina; Bonaldo, Paolo; Cecconi, Francesco; Valle, Luisa Dalla

    2014-01-01

    The essential role of autophagy in muscle homeostasis has been clearly demonstrated by phenotype analysis of mice with muscle-specific inactivation of genes encoding autophagy-related proteins. Ambra1 is a key component of the Beclin 1 complex and, in zebrafish, it is encoded by two paralogous genes, ambra1a and ambra1b, both required for normal embryogenesis and larval development. In this study we focused on the function of Ambra1, a positive regulator of the autophagic process, during skeletal muscle development by means of morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown and compared the phenotype of zebrafish Ambra1-depleted embryos with that of Ambra1gt/gt mouse embryos. Morphological analysis of zebrafish morphant embryos revealed that silencing of ambra1 impairs locomotor activity and muscle development, as well as myoD1 expression. Skeletal muscles in ATG-morphant embryos displayed severe histopathological changes and contained only small areas of organized myofibrils that were widely dispersed throughout the cell. Double knockdown of ambra1a and ambra1b resulted in a more severe phenotype whereas defects were much less evident in splice-morphants. The morphants phenotypes were effectively rescued by co-injection with human AMBRA1 mRNA. Together, these results indicate that ambra1a and ambra1b are required for the correct development and morphogenesis of skeletal muscle. PMID:24922546

  7. AHR2 knockdown prevents PAH-mediated cardiac toxicity and XRE- and ARE-associated gene induction in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tiem, Lindsey A.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2011-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants often present in aquatic systems as complex mixtures. Embryonic fish are sensitive to the developmental toxicity of some PAHs, but the exact mechanisms involved in this toxicity are still unknown. This study explored the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the oxidative stress response of zebrafish to the embryotoxicity of select PAHs. Embryos were exposed to two PAHs, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF; a strong AHR agonist) and fluoranthene (FL; a cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) inhibitor), alone and in combination. CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and redox-responsive genes glutathione s-transferase pi 2 (GSTp2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLc), MnSOD and CuZnSOD mRNA expression was examined. CYP1 activity was measured via an in vivo ethoxyresorufin-O-deethlyase (EROD) activity assay, and the area of the pericardium was measured as an index of cardiotoxicity. BkF or FL alone caused no deformities whereas BkF + FL resulted in extreme pericardial effusion. BkF induced CYP activity above controls and co-exposure with FL inhibited this activity. BkF induced expression of all three CYPs, GSTp2, and GCLc. BkF + FL caused greater than additive induction of the three CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc but had no effect on MnSOD or CuZnSOD. AHR2 knockdown protected against the cardiac deformities caused by BkF + FL and significantly inhibited the induction of the CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc after BkF + FL compared to non-injected controls. These results further show the protective role of AHR2 knockdown against cardiotoxic PAHs and the role of AHR2 as a mediator of redox-responsive gene induction. - Research Highlights: > Co-exposure of the PAHs BkF and FL causes cardiotoxicity in zebrafish. > BkF and FL co-exposure upregulates certain XRE- and ARE-associated genes. > AHR2 knockdown prevents the deformities caused by BkF and FL co-exposure. > AHR2

  8. Knock-down of HEXA and HEXB genes correlate with the absence of the immunostimulatory function of HSC-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Tiribuzi, Roberto; D'Angelo, Francesco; Berardi, Anna C; Martino, Sabata; Orlacchio, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate whether the genetic defect in the HEXA and HEXB genes (which causes the absence of the lysosomal β-N-acetyl-hexosaminidase), are related to the wide inflammation in GM2 gangliosidoses (Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease), we have chosen the dendritic cells (DCs) as a study model. Using the RNA interference approach, we generated an in vitro model of HEXs knock-down immunogenic DCs (i-DCs) from CD34(+)-haemopoietic stem cells (CD34(+)-HSCs), thus mimicking the Tay-Sachs (HEXA-/-) and Sandhoff (HEXB-/-) cells. We showed that the absence of β-N-acetyl-hexosaminidase activity does not alter the differentiation of i-DCs from HSCs, but it is critical for the activation of CD4(+)T cells because knock-down of HEXA or HEXB gene causes a loss of function of i-DCs. Notably, the silencing of the HEXA gene had a stronger immune inhibitory effect, thereby indicating a major involvement of β-N-acetyl-hexosaminidase A isoenzyme within this mechanism.

  9. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the Halloween gene Spookiest (CYP307B1) impedes adult eclosion in the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus.

    PubMed

    Van Ekert, E; Wang, M; Miao, Y-G; Brent, C S; Hull, J J

    2016-10-01

    Ecdysteroids play a critical role in coordinating insect growth, development and reproduction. A suite of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases coded by what are collectively termed Halloween genes mediate ecdysteroid biosynthesis. In this study, we describe cloning and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the CYP307B1 Halloween gene (Spookiest) in the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus. Transcripts for Ly. hesperus Spookiest (LhSpot) were amplified from all life stages and correlated well with timing of the pre-moult ecdysteroid pulse. In adults, LhSpot was amplified from heads of both genders as well as female reproductive tissues. Heterologous expression of a LhSpot fluorescent chimera in cultured insect cells co-localized with a fluorescent marker of the endoplasmic reticulum/secretory pathway. RNAi-mediated knockdown of LhSpot in fifth instars reduced expression of ecdysone-responsive genes E74 and E75, and prevented adult development. This developmental defect was rescued following application of exogenous 20-hydroxyecdysone but not exogenous 7-dehydrocholesterol. The unequivocal RNAi effects on Ly. hesperus development and the phenotypic rescue by 20-hydroxyecdysone are causal proof of the involvement of LhSpot in ecdysteroid biosynthesis and related developmental processes, and may provide an avenue for development of new control measures against Ly. hesperus. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. The use of Endo-Porter to deliver morpholinos in kidney organ culture

    PubMed Central

    Nikopoulos, George N.; Adams, Tamara L.; Adams, Derek; Oxburgh, Leif; Prudovsky, Igor; Verdi, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    Cellular interactions in development of the kidney are used as a model of reciprocal inductive events between epithelium and mesenchyme. Time- and labor-intensive methods have been developed to study this phenomenon. For example, in mice, the targeted disruption of genes in vivo has been used to modify the genetic program directing kidney development. However, gene targeting is a resource-intensive approach and alternative strategies for gene and protein modification in the kidney need to be developed. Herein, we have developed an efficient system for the delivery of antisense morpholino to alter normal protein expression. We describe the use of Endo-Porter to effectively deliver morpholinos to all parts and regions of the kidney explant. Also, we definitively show via confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis that the use of Endo-Porter in delivering antisense morpholinos is robust throughout the entire kidney explant, providing efficient suppression of protein expression. This method saves time and cost when compared with targeted disruption and is an improvement upon previous kidney organ culture methods. PMID:18476819

  11. The use of Endo-Porter to deliver morpholinos in kidney organ culture.

    PubMed

    Nikopoulos, George N; Adams, Tamara L; Adams, Derek; Oxburgh, Leif; Prudovsky, Igor; Verdi, Joseph M

    2008-04-01

    Cellular interactions in development of the kidney are used as a model of reciprocal inductive events between epithelium and mesenchyme. Time- and labor-intensive methods have been developed to study this phenomenon. For example, in mice, the targeted disruption of genes in vivo has been used to modify the genetic program directing kidney development. However, gene targeting is a resource-intensive approach and alternative strategies for gene and protein modification in the kidney need to be developed. Herein, we have developed an efficient system for the delivery of antisense morpholino to alter normal protein expression. We describe the use of Endo-Porter to effectively deliver morpholinos to all parts and regions of the kidney explant. Also, we definitively show via confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis that the use of Endo-Porter in delivering antisense morpholinos is robust throughout the entire kidney explant, providing efficient suppression of protein expression. This method saves time and cost when compared with targeted disruption and is an improvement upon previous kidney organ culture methods.

  12. Expression and knockdown of the PEPC1 gene affect carbon flux in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaodong; Cai, Jiajia; Li, Yajun; Fei, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The regulation of lipid biosynthesis is important in photosynthetic eukaryotic cells. This regulation is facilitated by the direct synthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerol (TAG), and by other controls of the main carbon metabolic pathway. In this study, knockdown of the mRNA expression of the Chlamydomonas phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoform 1 (CrPEPC1) gene by RNA interference increased TAG level by 20 % but decreased PEPC activities in the corresponding transgenic algae by 39-50 %. The decrease in CrPEPC1 expression increased the expression of TAG biosynthesis-related genes, such as acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase and phosphatidate phosphatase. Conversely, CrPEPC1 over-expression decreased TAG level by 37 % and increased PEPC activities by 157-184 %. These observations suggest that the lipid content of algal cells can be controlled by regulating the CrPEPC1 gene.

  13. Deceleration of liver regeneration by knockdown of augmenter of liver regeneration gene is associated with impairment of mitochondrial DNA synthesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Li-hong; Dong, Ling-yue; Yu, Hao; Sun, Guang-yong; Wu, Yuan; Gao, Jian; Thasler, Wolfgang; An, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Hepatic stimulator substance, also known as augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), is a novel hepatic mitogen that stimulates liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH). Recent work has indicated that a lack of ALR expression inhibited liver regeneration in rats, and the mechanism seems to be related to increased cell apoptosis. The mitochondria play an important role during liver regeneration. Adequate ATP supply, which is largely dependent on effective mitochondrial biogenesis, is essential for progress of liver regeneration. However, ALR gene expression during liver regeneration, particularly its function with mitochondrial DNA synthesis, remains poorly understood. In this study, ALR expression in hepatocytes of mice was suppressed with ALR short-hairpin RNA interference or ALR deletion (knockout, KO). The ALR-defective mice underwent PH, and the liver was allowed to regenerate for 1 wk. Analysis of liver growth and its correlation with mitochondrial biogenesis showed that both ALR mRNA and protein levels increased robustly in control mice with a maximum at days 3 and 4 post-PH. However, ALR knockdown inhibited hepatic DNA synthesis and decelerated liver regeneration after PH. Furthermore, both in the ALR-knockdown and ALR-KO mice, expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α were reduced, resulting in impaired mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, ALR is apparently required to ensure appropriate liver regeneration following PH in mice, and deletion of the ALR gene may delay liver regeneration in part due to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis.

  14. Knockdown of the candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene homolog Dyx1c1 in rodents: Effects on auditory processing, visual attention, and cortical and thalamic anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Szalkowski, Caitlin E.; Booker, Anne B.; Truong, Dongnhu T.; Threlkeld, Steven W.; Rosen, Glenn D.; Fitch, Roslyn H.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the behavioral and neuroanatomical effects of embryonic knockdown of the candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene (CDSG) homolog Dyx1c1 through RNA interference in rats. Specifically, we examined long-term effects on visual attention abilities in males, in addition to assessing rapid and complex auditory processing abilities in male and, for the first time, female rats. Results replicated prior evidence of complex acoustic processing deficits in Dyx1c1 male rats, and revealed new evidence of comparable deficits in Dyx1c1 female rats. Moreover, we found new evidence that knocking down Dyx1c1 produced orthogonal impairments in visual attention in the male sub-group. Stereological analyses of male brains from prior RNA interference studies revealed that, despite consistent visible evidence of disruptions in neuronal migration (i.e., heterotopia), knockdown of Dyx1c1 did not significantly alter cortical volume, hippocampal volume, or midsagittal area of the corpus callosum (measured in a separate cohort of like-treated Dyx1c1 male rats). Dyx1c1 transfection did however lead to significant changes in medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) anatomy, with a significant shift to smaller MGN neurons in Dyx1c1 transfected animals. Combined results provide important information about the impact of Dyx1c1 on behavioral functions that parallel domains known to be affected in language impaired populations, as well as information about widespread changes to the brain following early disruption of this candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene. PMID:23594585

  15. Bacterial resistance to antisense peptide phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Susan E; Reese, Kaleb A; Mitev, Georgi M; Mullen, Valerie; Johnson, Rudd C; Pomraning, Kyle R; Mellbye, Brett L; Tilley, Lucas D; Iversen, Patrick L; Freitag, Michael; Geller, Bruce L

    2012-12-01

    Peptide phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) are synthetic DNA mimics that bind cRNA and inhibit bacterial gene expression. The PPMO (RFF)(3)RXB-AcpP (where R is arginine, F, phenylalanine, X is 6-aminohexanoic acid, B is β-alanine, and AcpP is acyl carrier protein) is complementary to 11 bases of the essential gene acpP (which encodes acyl carrier protein). The MIC of (RFF)(3)RXB-AcpP was 2.5 μM (14 μg/ml) in Escherichia coli W3110. The rate of spontaneous resistance of E. coli to (RFF)(3)RXB-AcpP was 4 × 10(-7) mutations/cell division. A spontaneous (RFF)(3)RXB-AcpP-resistant mutant (PR200.1) was isolated. The MIC of (RFF)(3)RXB-AcpP was 40 μM (224 μg/ml) for PR200.1. The MICs of standard antibiotics for PR200.1 and W3110 were identical. The sequence of acpP was identical in PR200.1 and W3110. PR200.1 was also resistant to other PPMOs conjugated to (RFF)(3)RXB or peptides with a similar composition or pattern of cationic and nonpolar residues. Genomic sequencing of PR200.1 identified a mutation in sbmA, which encodes an active transport protein. In separate experiments, a (RFF)(3)RXB-AcpP-resistant isolate (RR3) was selected from a transposome library, and the insertion was mapped to sbmA. Genetic complementation of PR200.1 or RR3 with sbmA restored susceptibility to (RFF)(3)RXB-AcpP. Deletion of sbmA caused resistance to (RFF)(3)RXB-AcpP. We conclude that resistance to (RFF)(3)RXB-AcpP was linked to the peptide and not the phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer, dependent on the composition or repeating pattern of amino acids, and caused by mutations in sbmA. The data further suggest that (RFF)(3)R-XB PPMOs may be transported across the plasma membrane by SbmA.

  16. Bacterial Resistance to Antisense Peptide Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, Susan E.; Reese, Kaleb A.; Mitev, Georgi M.; Mullen, Valerie; Johnson, Rudd C.; Pomraning, Kyle R.; Mellbye, Brett L.; Tilley, Lucas D.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Freitag, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Peptide phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) are synthetic DNA mimics that bind cRNA and inhibit bacterial gene expression. The PPMO (RFF)3RXB-AcpP (where R is arginine, F, phenylalanine, X is 6-aminohexanoic acid, B is β-alanine, and AcpP is acyl carrier protein) is complementary to 11 bases of the essential gene acpP (which encodes acyl carrier protein). The MIC of (RFF)3RXB-AcpP was 2.5 μM (14 μg/ml) in Escherichia coli W3110. The rate of spontaneous resistance of E. coli to (RFF)3RXB-AcpP was 4 × 10−7 mutations/cell division. A spontaneous (RFF)3RXB-AcpP-resistant mutant (PR200.1) was isolated. The MIC of (RFF)3RXB-AcpP was 40 μM (224 μg/ml) for PR200.1. The MICs of standard antibiotics for PR200.1 and W3110 were identical. The sequence of acpP was identical in PR200.1 and W3110. PR200.1 was also resistant to other PPMOs conjugated to (RFF)3RXB or peptides with a similar composition or pattern of cationic and nonpolar residues. Genomic sequencing of PR200.1 identified a mutation in sbmA, which encodes an active transport protein. In separate experiments, a (RFF)3RXB-AcpP-resistant isolate (RR3) was selected from a transposome library, and the insertion was mapped to sbmA. Genetic complementation of PR200.1 or RR3 with sbmA restored susceptibility to (RFF)3RXB-AcpP. Deletion of sbmA caused resistance to (RFF)3RXB-AcpP. We conclude that resistance to (RFF)3RXB-AcpP was linked to the peptide and not the phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer, dependent on the composition or repeating pattern of amino acids, and caused by mutations in sbmA. The data further suggest that (RFF)3R-XB PPMOs may be transported across the plasma membrane by SbmA. PMID:22985881

  17. Knockdown of phosphoethanolamine transmethylation enzymes decreases viability of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Witola, William H; Cooks-Fagbodun, Sheritta; Ordonez, Adriana Reyes; Matthews, Kwame; Abugri, Daniel A; McHugh, Mark

    2016-06-15

    The phosphobase methylation pathway, in which phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) successively catalyze the methylation of phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine, is essential in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Two PMT-encoding genes (HcPMT1 and HcPMT2) cloned from Haemonchus contortus have been shown, by in vitro assays, to possess enzymatic characteristics similar to those of C. elegans PMTs, but their physiological significance in H. contortus is yet to be elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we endeavored to determine the importance of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 in the survival of H. contortus by adapting the use of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMO) antisense approach to block the translation of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 in the worms. We found that PPMOs targeting HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 down-regulated the expression of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 proteins in adult H. contortus. Analysis of the effect of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 knockdown showed that it significantly decreased worm motility and viability, thus validating HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 as essential enzymes for survival of H. contortus. Studies of gene function in H. contortus have been constrained by limited forward and reverse genetic technologies for use in H. contortus. Thus, our success in adaptation of use of PPMO antisense approach in H. contortus provides an important reverse genetic technological advance for studying this parasitic nematode of veterinary significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Knockdown of astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) in cervical cancer cells decreases their invasiveness, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangwen; Wang, Degui; Liu, Huiling; Feng, Ying; Zhu, Tianyuan; Zhang, Lang; Zhu, Bingdong; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    During cancer development, epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) facilitates tumor dissemination and metastatic spread, which is characterized by morphologic changes from epithelial cells to fibroblast-like cells, disassembly of intercellular junction, and increased cell motility. Overexpression of astrocyte elevated gene-1(AEG-1) in various cancer cell lines and cancers has been found to be associated with aggressive tumor behavior. We found that AEG-1 expression was elevated in low differentiation cervical cancer specimens from patients. However, little is known about the AEG-1’s precise role in invasion and metastasis. Here we demonstrate that downregulation of AEG-1 by RNAi significantly decreased the invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells, suggesting that AEG-1 overexpression may enhance cancer cell motility by inducing EMT. Downregulation of AEG-1 also led to reduced expression of mesenchymal marker vimentin and the transcription factor Snail but upregulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin in HeLa cells. In addition, knockdown of AEG-1 decreased colony forming units and increased sensitivity to cancer drugs in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that knockdown of AEG-1 could decrease EMT and chemoresistance in cervical cancer cells and attenuate their aggressive behavior. PMID:24675891

  19. Zebrafish Cardiotoxicity: The Effects of CYP1A Inhibition and AHR2 Knockdown Following Exposure to Weak Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Bryan William; Van Tiem Garner, Lindsey; Di Giulio, Richard Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates many of the toxic effects of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Strong AHR agonists, such as certain polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), cause severe cardiac teratogenesis in fish embryos. Moderately strong AHR agonists, such as benzo[a]pyrene and β-naphthoflavone, have been shown to cause similar cardiotoxic effects when coupled with a cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) inhibitor, such as fluoranthene (FL). We sought to determine if weak AHR agonists, when combined with a CYP1A inhibitor (FL) or CYP1A morpholino gene knockdown, are capable of causing cardiac deformities similar to moderately strong AHR agonists (Wassenberg and Di Giulio 2004; Wassenberg and Di Giulio 2004; Billiard, Timme-Laragy et al. 2006; Van Tiem and Di Giulio 2011). The weak AHR agonists included the following: carbaryl, phenanthrene, 2-methylindole, 3-methylindole, indigo, and indirubin. The results showed a complex pattern of cardiotoxic response to weak agonist inhibitor exposure and morpholino-knockdown. Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos were first exposed to weak AHR agonists at equimolar concentrations. The agonists were assessed for their relative potency as inducers of CYP1 enzyme activity, measured by the ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) assay, and cardiac deformities. Carbaryl, 2-methylindole, and 3-methylindole induced the highest CYP1A activity in zebrafish. Experiments were then conducted to determine the individual cardiotoxicity of each compound. Next, zebrafish were co-exposed to each agonist (at concentrations below those determined to be cardiotoxic) and FL in combination to assess if CYP1A inhibition could induce cardiac deformities. Carbaryl, 2-methylindole, 3-methylindole, and phenanthrene significantly increased pericardial edema relative to controls when combined with FL. To further evaluate the

  20. Zebrafish cardiotoxicity: the effects of CYP1A inhibition and AHR2 knockdown following exposure to weak aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel R; Clark, Bryan W; Garner, Lindsey V T; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2015-06-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates many of the toxic effects of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Strong AHR agonists, such as certain polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), cause severe cardiac teratogenesis in fish embryos. Moderately strong AHR agonists, such as benzo[a]pyrene and β-naphthoflavone, have been shown to cause similar cardiotoxic effects when coupled with a cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) inhibitor, such as fluoranthene (FL). We sought to determine if weak AHR agonists, when combined with a CYP1A inhibitor (FL) or CYP1A morpholino gene knockdown, are capable of causing cardiac deformities similar to moderately strong AHR agonists (Wassenberg and Di Giulio Environ Health Perspect 112(17):1658-1664, 2004a; Wassenberg and Di Giulio Res 58(2-5):163-168, 2004b; Billiard et al. Toxicol Sci 92(2):526-536, 2006; Van Tiem and Di Giulio Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 254(3):280-287, 2011). The weak AHR agonists included the following: carbaryl, phenanthrene, 2-methylindole, 3-methylindole, indigo, and indirubin. Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos were first exposed to weak AHR agonists at equimolar concentrations. The agonists were assessed for their relative potency as inducers of CYP1 enzyme activity, measured by the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay, and cardiac deformities. Carbaryl, 2-methylindole, and 3-methylindole induced the highest CYP1A activity in zebrafish. Experiments were then conducted to determine the individual cardiotoxicity of each compound. Next, zebrafish were coexposed to each agonist (at concentrations below those determined to be cardiotoxic) and FL in combination to assess if CYP1A inhibition could induce cardiac deformities. Carbaryl, 2-methylindole, 3-methylindole, and phenanthrene significantly increased pericardial edema relative to controls when combined with FL. To further evaluate the interaction

  1. Knockdown of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (mct8) disturbs brain development and locomotion in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    de Vrieze, Erik; van de Wiel, Sandra M W; Zethof, Jan; Flik, Gert; Klaren, Peter H M; Arjona, Francisco J

    2014-06-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) is an inherited disorder of brain development characterized by severe psychomotor retardation. This X-linked disease is caused by mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), an important thyroid hormone transporter in brain neurons. MCT8-knockout mice lack the 2 major neurological symptoms of AHDS, namely locomotor problems and cognitive impairment. The pathological mechanism explaining the symptoms is still obscure, and no cure for this condition is known. The development of an animal model that carries MCT8-related neurological symptoms is warranted. We have employed morpholino-based gene knockdown to create zebrafish deficient for mct8. Knockdown of mct8 results in specific symptoms in the thyroid axis and brain. The mct8-morphants showed impaired locomotor behavior and brain development. More specifically, we observed maldevelopment of the cerebellum and mid-hindbrain boundary and apoptotic clusters in the zebrafish brain. The mRNA expression of zebrafish orthologs of mammalian TSH, thyroid hormone transporters, and deiodinases was altered in mct8 morphants. In particular, deiodinase type 3 gene expression was consistently up-regulated in zebrafish mct8 morphants. The thyroid hormone metabolite tetrac, but not T3, partly ameliorated the affected phenotype and locomotion disability of morphant larvae. Our results show that mct8 knockdown in zebrafish larvae results in disturbances in the thyroid axis, brain, and locomotion behavior, which is congruent with the clinical aspect of impaired locomotion and cognition in patients with AHDS. Taken together, the zebrafish is a suitable animal model for the study of the pathophysiology of AHDS.

  2. Gucy2f zebrafish knockdown – a model for Gucy2d-related leber congenital amaurosis

    PubMed Central

    Stiebel-Kalish, Hadas; Reich, Ehud; Rainy, Nir; Vatine, Gad; Nisgav, Yael; Tovar, Anna; Gothilf, Yoav; Bach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in retinal-specific guanylate cyclase (Gucy2d) are associated with Leber congenital amaurosis-1 (LCA1). Zebrafish offer unique advantages relative to rodents, including their excellent color vision, precocious retinal development, robust visual testing strategies, low cost, relatively easy transgenesis and shortened experimental times. In this study we will demonstrate the feasibility of using gene-targeting in the zebrafish as a model for the photoreceptor-specific GUCY2D-related LCA1, by reporting the visual phenotype and retinal histology resulting from Gucy2f knockdown. Gucy2f zebrafish LCA-orthologous cDNA was identified and isolated by PCR amplification. Its expression pattern was determined by whole-mount in-situ hybridization and its function was studied by gene knockdown using two different morpholino-modified oligos (MO), one that blocks translation of Gucy2f and one that blocks splicing of Gucy2f. Visual function was assessed with an optomotor assay on 6-days-post-fertilization larvae, and by analyzing changes in retinal histology. Gucy2f knockdown resulted in significantly lower vision as measured by the optomotor response compared with uninjected and control MO-injected zebrafish larvae. Histological changes in the Gucy2f-knockdown larvae included loss and shortening of cone and rod outer segments. A zebrafish model of Gucy2f-related LCA1 displays early visual dysfunction and photoreceptor layer dystrophy. This study serves as proof of concept for the use of zebrafish as a simple, inexpensive model with excellent vision on which further study of LCA-related genes is possible. PMID:22378290

  3. siRNA Knockdown of Ribosomal Protein Gene RPL19 Abrogates the Aggressive Phenotype of Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Alix; Brewer, Daniel; Beesley, Carol; Dodson, Andrew; Forootan, Shiva; Dickinson, Timothy; Gerard, Patricia; Lane, Brian; Yao, Sheng; Cooper, Colin S.; Djamgoz, Mustafa B. A.; Gosden, Christine M.; Ke, Youqiang; Foster, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    We provide novel functional data that posttranscriptional silencing of gene RPL19 using RNAi not only abrogates the malignant phenotype of PC-3M prostate cancer cells but is selective with respect to transcription and translation of other genes. Reducing RPL19 transcription modulates a subset of genes, evidenced by gene expression array analysis and Western blotting, but does not compromise cell proliferation or apoptosis in-vitro. However, growth of xenografted tumors containing the knocked-down RPL19 in-vivo is significantly reduced. Analysis of the modulated genes reveals induction of the non-malignant phenotype principally to involve perturbation of networks of transcription factors and cellular adhesion genes. The data provide evidence that extra-ribosomal regulatory functions of RPL19, beyond protein synthesis, are critical regulators of cellular phenotype. Targeting key members of affected networks identified by gene expression analysis raises the possibility of therapeutically stabilizing a benign phenotype generated by modulating the expression of an individual gene and thereafter constraining a malignant phenotype while leaving non-malignant tissues unaffected. PMID:21799931

  4. Optimization of Morpholino Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting the Intronic Repressor Element1 in Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Osman, Erkan Y; Washington, Charles W; Kaifer, Kevin A; Mazzasette, Chiara; Patitucci, Teresa N; Florea, Kyra M; Simon, Madeline E; Ko, Chien-Ping; Ebert, Allison D; Lorson, Christian L

    2016-09-01

    Loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1) causes Spinal Muscular Atrophy, a devastating neurodegenerative disease. SMN2 is a nearly identical copy gene; however SMN2 cannot prevent disease development in the absence of SMN1 since the majority of SMN2-derived transcripts are alternatively spliced, encoding a truncated, unstable protein lacking exon 7. Nevertheless, SMN2 retains the ability to produce low levels of functional protein. Previously we have described a splice-switching Morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) sequence that targets a potent intronic repressor, Element1 (E1), located upstream of SMN2 exon 7. In this study, we have assessed a novel panel of Morpholino ASOs with the goal of optimizing E1 ASO activity. Screening for efficacy in the SMNΔ7 mouse model, a single ASO variant was more active in vivo compared with the original E1(MO)-ASO. Sequence variant eleven (E1(MOv11)) consistently showed greater efficacy by increasing the lifespan of severe Spinal Muscular Atrophy mice after a single intracerebroventricular injection in the central nervous system, exhibited a strong dose-response across an order of magnitude, and demonstrated excellent target engagement by partially reversing the pathogenic SMN2 splicing event. We conclude that Morpholino modified ASOs are effective in modifying SMN2 splicing and have the potential for future Spinal Muscular Atrophy clinical applications.

  5. Inhibition of iridovirus protein synthesis and virus replication by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeted to the major capsid protein, the 18 kDa immediate-early protein, and a viral homolog of RNA polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, Robert; Bryan, Locke; Long, Scott; Majji, Sai; Hoskins, Glenn; Sinning, Allan; Olivier, Jake; Chinchar, V. Gregory . E-mail: vchinchar@microbio.umsmed.edu

    2007-02-20

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is a large DNA virus that encodes {approx} 100 proteins. Although the general features of FV3 replication are known, the specific roles that most viral proteins play in the virus life cycle have not yet been elucidated. To address the question of viral gene function, antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMOs) were used to transiently knock-down expression of specific viral genes and thus infer their role in virus replication. We designed asMOs directed against the major capsid protein (MCP), an 18 kDa immediate-early protein (18K) that was thought to be a viral regulatory protein, and the viral homologue of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (vPol-II{alpha}). All three asMOs successfully inhibited translation of the targeted protein, and two of the three asMOs resulted in marked phenotypic changes. Knock-down of the MCP resulted in a marked reduction in viral titer without a corresponding drop in the synthesis of other late viral proteins. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that in cells treated with the anti-MCP MO assembly sites were devoid of viral particles and contained numerous aberrant structures. In contrast, inhibition of 18K synthesis did not block virion formation, suggesting that the 18K protein was not essential for replication of FV3 in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. Finally, consistent with the view that late viral gene expression is catalyzed by a virus-encoded or virus-modified Pol-II-like protein, knock-down of vPol-II{alpha} triggered a global decline in late gene expression and virus yields without affecting the synthesis of early viral genes. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of using asMOs to elucidate the function of FV3 proteins.

  6. Using Vital Dyes to Trace Uptake of dsRNA by Green Peach Aphid Allows Effective Assessment of Target Gene Knockdown

    PubMed Central

    Bilgi, Vineeta; Fosu-Nyarko, John; Jones, Michael G. K.

    2017-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective tool to study gene function. For in vitro studies of RNAi in insects, microinjection of double-stranded (ds)RNA may cause stress. Non-persuasive oral delivery of dsRNA to trigger RNAi is a better mode of delivery for delicate insects such as aphids because it mimics natural feeding. However, when insects feed ad libitum, some individuals may not feed. For accurate measurement of gene knockdown, analysis should only include insects that have ingested dsRNA. The suitability of eleven dyes was assessed to trace ingestion of dsRNA in an artificial feeding system for green peach aphids (GPA, Myzus persicae). Non-toxic levels of neutral red and acridine orange were suitable tracers: they were visible in the stylet and gut after feeding for 24 h, and may also attract aphids to feed. Nymphs stained with neutral red (0.02%) were analysed for target gene expression after feeding on sucrose with dsRNA (V-ATPase, vha-8). There was a greater reduction in vha-8 expression and reproduction compared to nymphs fed the diet without dye. The results confirm the importance of identifying aphids that have ingested dsRNA, and also provide evidence that the vha-8 gene is a potential target for control of GPAs. PMID:28054949

  7. Using Vital Dyes to Trace Uptake of dsRNA by Green Peach Aphid Allows Effective Assessment of Target Gene Knockdown.

    PubMed

    Bilgi, Vineeta; Fosu-Nyarko, John; Jones, Michael G K

    2017-01-03

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective tool to study gene function. For in vitro studies of RNAi in insects, microinjection of double-stranded (ds)RNA may cause stress. Non-persuasive oral delivery of dsRNA to trigger RNAi is a better mode of delivery for delicate insects such as aphids because it mimics natural feeding. However, when insects feed ad libitum, some individuals may not feed. For accurate measurement of gene knockdown, analysis should only include insects that have ingested dsRNA. The suitability of eleven dyes was assessed to trace ingestion of dsRNA in an artificial feeding system for green peach aphids (GPA, Myzus persicae). Non-toxic levels of neutral red and acridine orange were suitable tracers: they were visible in the stylet and gut after feeding for 24 h, and may also attract aphids to feed. Nymphs stained with neutral red (0.02%) were analysed for target gene expression after feeding on sucrose with dsRNA (V-ATPase, vha-8). There was a greater reduction in vha-8 expression and reproduction compared to nymphs fed the diet without dye. The results confirm the importance of identifying aphids that have ingested dsRNA, and also provide evidence that the vha-8 gene is a potential target for control of GPAs.

  8. Induction of Body Weight Loss through RNAi-Knockdown of APOBEC1 Gene Expression in Transgenic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Jolivet, Geneviève; Braud, Sandrine; DaSilva, Bruno; Passet, Bruno; Harscoët, Erwana; Viglietta, Céline; Gautier, Thomas; Lagrost, Laurent; Daniel-Carlier, Nathalie; Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Harosh, Itzik

    2014-01-01

    In the search of new strategies to fight against obesity, we targeted a gene pathway involved in energy uptake. We have thus investigated the APOB mRNA editing protein (APOBEC1) gene pathway that is involved in fat absorption in the intestine. The APOB gene encodes two proteins, APOB100 and APOB48, via the editing of a single nucleotide in the APOB mRNA by the APOBEC1 enzyme. The APOB48 protein is mandatory for the synthesis of chylomicrons by intestinal cells to transport dietary lipids and cholesterol. We produced transgenic rabbits expressing permanently and ubiquitously a small hairpin RNA targeting the rabbit APOBEC1 mRNA. These rabbits exhibited a moderately but significantly reduced level of APOBEC1 gene expression in the intestine, a reduced level of editing of the APOB mRNA, a reduced level of synthesis of chylomicrons after a food challenge, a reduced total mass of body lipids and finally presented a sustained lean phenotype without any obvious physiological disorder. Interestingly, no compensatory mechanism opposed to the phenotype. These lean transgenic rabbits were crossed with transgenic rabbits expressing in the intestine the human APOBEC1 gene. Double transgenic animals did not present any lean phenotype, thus proving that the intestinal expression of the human APOBEC1 transgene was able to counterbalance the reduction of the rabbit APOBEC1 gene expression. Thus, a moderate reduction of the APOBEC1 dependent editing induces a lean phenotype at least in the rabbit species. This suggests that the APOBEC1 gene might be a novel target for obesity treatment. PMID:25216115

  9. Knockdown of the differentially expressed gene TNFRSF12A inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Ma, Sicong; Qi, Xingxing; Tang, Xiaoyin; Cui, Dan; Wang, Zhi; Chi, Jiachang; Li, Ping; Zhai, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been reported to be highly insensitive to conventional chemotherapy. In the current study, the Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray (4×44 K) was used in order to identify the differentially expressed genes between HCC and adjacent tissues, and the top 22 differentially expressed genes were confirmed through reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Among the identified differences in gene expression, expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 12A (TNFRSF12A) was markedly higher in HCC tissue than in adjacent tissue. Previous studies have suggested that TNFRSF12A may serve a role in tumor growth and metastasis, thus in the current study, TNFRSF12A was knocked down in the SMMC7721 cell line through siRNA. This demonstrated that cells exhibited reduced reproductive and metastatic capacity ex vivo. Thus, the results of the current study suggest that TNFRSF12A may be a candidate therapeutic target for cancer including HCC, and additional genes that exhibited significantly different expression from normal adjacent tissues require further study. PMID:28138696

  10. Activation of endocrine-related gene expression in placental choriocarcinoma cell lines following DNA methylation knock-down.

    PubMed

    Hogg, K; Robinson, W P; Beristain, A G

    2014-07-01

    Increasingly, placental DNA methylation is assessed as a factor in pregnancy-related complications, yet the transcriptional impact of such findings is not always clear. Using a proliferative in vitro placental model, the effect of DNA methylation loss on gene activation was evaluated at a number of genes selected for being differentially methylated in pre-eclampsia-associated placentae in vivo. We aimed to determine whether reduced DNA methylation at specific loci was associated with transcriptional changes at the corresponding gene, thus providing mechanistic underpinnings for previous clinical findings and to assess the degree of transcriptional response amongst our candidate genes. BeWo and JEG3 choriocarcinoma cells were exposed to 1 μM 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) or vehicle control for 48 h, and re-plated and cultured for a further 72 h in normal media before cells were harvested for RNA and DNA. Bisulphite pyrosequencing confirmed that DNA methylation was reduced by ∼30-50% points at the selected loci studied in both cell lines. Gene activation, measured by qRT-PCR, was highly variable and transcript specific, indicating differential sensitivity to DNA methylation. Most notably, loss of DNA methylation at the leptin (LEP) promoter corresponded to a 200-fold and 40-fold increase in LEP expression in BeWo and JEG3 cells, respectively (P < 0.01). Transcripts of steroidogenic pathway enzymes CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 were up-regulated ∼40-fold in response to 5-Aza-CdR exposure in BeWo cells (P < 0.01). Other transcripts, including aromatase (CYP19), HSD11B2, inhibin (INHBA) and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) were more moderately, although significantly, affected by loss of associated DNA methylation. These data present a mixed effect of DNA methylation changes at selected loci supporting cautionary interpretation of DNA methylation results in the absence of functional data.

  11. KNOCKDOWN OF GCN5 HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE by siRNA DECREASES ETHANOL INDUCED HISTONE ACETYLATION AND AFFECTS DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF GENES IN HUMAN HEPATOMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Mahua; Pandey, Ravi S.; Clemens, Dahn L.; Davis, J. Wade; Lim, Robert W.; Shukla, Shivendra D.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated whether Gcn5, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), is involved in ethanol induced acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3AcK9) and has any effect on the gene expression. Human hepatoma HepG2 cells transfected with ethanol metabolizing enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (VA 13 cells) were used. Knockdown of Gcn5 by siRNA silencing decreased mRNA and protein levels of GCN5, HAT activity, and also attenuated ethanol induced H3AcK9 in VA13 cells. Illumina gene microarray analysis using total RNA showed 940 transcripts affected by GCN5 silencing or ethanol. Silencing caused differential expression of 891 transcripts (≥ 1.5 fold up- or down- regulated). Among these, 492 transcripts were up- and 399 were down- regulated compared to their respective controls. Using a more stringent threshold (≥ 2.5 fold) the array data from GCN5 silenced samples showed 57 genes differentially expressed (39 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated). Likewise, ethanol caused differential regulation of 57 transcripts with ≥ 1.5 fold change (35 gene up-regulated and 22 down-regulated). Further analysis showed that eight genes were differentially regulated that were common for both ethanol treatment and GCN5 silencing. Among these, SLC44A2 (a putative choline transporter) was strikingly up-regulated by ethanol (3 fold), and GCN5 silencing down regulated it (1.5 fold). The quantitative RT-PCR profile corroborated the array findings. This report demonstrates for the first time that (a) GCN5 differentially affects expression of multiple genes, (b) ethanol induced histone H3-lysine 9 acetylation is mediated via GCN5 and (c) that GCN5 is involved in ethanol induced expression of the putative choline transporter SLC44A2. PMID:21367571

  12. Knockdown of a cellulose synthase gene BoiCesA affects the leaf anatomy, cellulose content and salt tolerance in broccoli

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ying; Xu, Fengfeng; Liu, Mengyun; Lin, Peng; Ren, Shuxin; Ma, Rui; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose is the major component of cell wall materials. A 300 bp specific fragment from the cDNA fragment was chosen to insert into vector pFGC1008 at forward and reverse orientations to construct the recombinant RNAi vector. Knockdown of BoiCesA caused “dwarf” phenotype with smaller leaves and a loss of the content of cellulose. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of the RNAi apparatus could repress expression of the CesA gene. Meanwhile, examination of the leaves from the T3 of RNAi transformants indicated reduction of cell expansion in vascular bundles, particularly on their abaxial surface. The proline and soluble sugar content increased contrarily. Under the salt stress, the T3 of RNAi plants showed significant higher resistance. The expression levels of some salt tolerance related genes (BoiProH, BoiPIP2;2, BoiPIP2;3) were significantly changed in T3 of RNAi plants. The results showed that the hairpin structure of CesA specific fragment inhibited the endogenous gene expression and it was proved that the cDNA fragment was relevant to the cellulose biosynthesis. Moreover, modulation cellulose synthesis probably was an important influencing factor in polysaccharide metabolism and adaptations of plants to stresses. This will provide technological possibilities for the further study of modulation of the cellulose content of crops. PMID:28169290

  13. Postnatal knockdown of dok-7 gene expression in mice causes structural defects in neuromuscular synapses and myasthenic pathology.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Takahiro; Tezuka, Tohru; Miyoshi, Sadanori; Yamanashi, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle and is required for muscle contraction. The formation and maintenance of NMJs are governed by the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK. We previously showed that the muscle cytoplasmic protein Dok-7 is an essential activator of MuSK. Indeed, mice lacking either Dok-7 or MuSK form no NMJs, and defects in the human DOK7 gene underlie a congenital myasthenic syndrome (an NMJ disorder). However, it remains unproven whether Dok-7 is required for the postnatal maintenance of NMJs. In this study, we generated recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding short hairpin RNAs targeting the mouse dok-7 gene (AAV-shD7). Systemic administration of AAV-shD7 into 2-week-old mice down-regulated dok-7 expression in muscle and induced myasthenic symptoms including reduction in body weight and motor function. Moreover, AAV-shD7 treatment suppressed MuSK-dependent gene expression of NMJ components and reduced the size of NMJs. These results demonstrate that correct, physiological levels of dok-7 expression are required for the postnatal maintenance of NMJs. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Pro-apoptotic gene knockdown mediated by nanocomplexed siRNA reduces radiation damage in primary salivary gland cultures

    PubMed Central

    Arany, Szilvia; Xu, Qingfu; Hernady, Eric; Benoit, Danielle S.W.; Dewhurst, Steve; Ovitt, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    A critical issue in the management of head and neck tumors is radioprotection of the salivary glands. We have investigated whether siRNA-mediated gene knock down of pro-apoptotic mediators can reduce radiation-induced cellular apoptosis in salivary gland cells in vitro. We used novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles to deliver functionally active siRNAs into cultures of salivary gland cells. The nanoparticle molecules are comprised of cationic micelles that electrostatically interact with the siRNA, protecting it from nuclease attack, and also include pH-responsive endosomolytic constituents that promote release of the siRNA into the target cell cytoplasm. Transfection controls with Cy3-tagged siRNA/nanoparticle complexes showed efficiently internalized siRNAs in more than 70% of the submandibular gland cells. We found that introduction of siRNAs specifically targeting the Pkcδ or Bax genes significantly blocked the induction of these pro-apoptotic proteins that normally occurs after radiation in cultured salivary gland cells. Furthermore, the level of cell death from subsequent radiation, as measured by caspase-3, TUNEL, and mitochondrial disruption assays, was significantly decreased. Thus, we have successfully demonstrated that the siRNA/ nanoparticle-mediated knock down of pro-apoptotic genes can prevent radiation-induced damage in submandibular gland primary cell cultures. PMID:22253051

  15. RNAi-mediated TCR knockdown prevents autoimmunity in mice caused by mixed TCR dimers following TCR gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Bunse, Mario; Bendle, Gavin M; Linnemann, Carsten; Bies, Laura; Schulz, Stephan; Schumacher, Ton N; Uckert, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Genetically modified T cells that express a transduced T cell receptor (TCR) α/β heterodimer in addition to their endogenous TCR are used in clinical studies to treat cancer. These cells express two TCR-α and two TCR-β chains that do not only compete for CD3 proteins but also form potentially self-reactive mixed TCR dimers, composed of endogenous and transferred chains. To overcome these deficits, we developed an RNAi-TCR replacement vector that simultaneously silences the endogenous TCR and expresses an RNAi-resistant TCR. Transduction of the virus-specific P14 TCR without RNAi resulted in unequal P14 TCR-α and -β chain surface levels, indicating heterodimerization with endogenous TCR chains. Such unequal expression was also observed following TCR gene optimization. Equal surface levels of the introduced TCR chains were however achieved by silencing the endogenous TCR. Importantly, all mice that received cells transduced with the native or optimized P14 TCR developed lethal TCR gene transfer-induced graft-versus-host-disease (TI-GVHD) due to formation of mixed TCR dimers. In contrast, TI-GVHD was almost completely prevented when using the RNAi-TCR replacement vector. Our data demonstrate that RNAi-assisted TCR replacement reduces the formation of mixed TCR dimers, and thereby significantly reduces the risk of TI-GVHD in TCR gene therapy.

  16. Knockdown of a putative Halloween gene Shade reveals its role in ecdysteroidogenesis in the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuang; Wan, Pin-Jun; Zhou, Li-Tao; Mu, Li-Li; Li, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-01

    Ecdysteroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays fundamental roles in insect development and reproduction, whereas the primary role of ecdysone (E) is the precursor for 20E. A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP), encoded by a Halloween gene Shade (Shd, cyp314a1), catalyzes the conversion of E into 20E in representative insect species in Diptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. We describe here the cloning and characterization of LsShd in a hemipteran insect species, the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus. LsSHD has five insect conserved P450 motifs, i.e., Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, PERF and heme-binding motifs. Temporal expression pattern of LsShd was determined through the fourth-instar and the early fifth-instar stages by qPCR. LsShd showed two expression peaks in day 2 and day 5 fourth-instar nymphs, and two troughs in day 1 fourth and fifth instars. Dietary introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of LsShd into nymphs successfully knocked down the target gene, decreased expression level of ecdysone receptor (LsEcR) gene, and caused nymphal lethality and delayed development. Ingestion of 20E did not increase LsShd expression level, but almost completely rescued LsEcR mRNA level, and relieved the negative effects on the survival and development in LsShd-dsRNA-exposed nymphs. In contrast, dietary introduction of E had little rescue effects. Thus, our data suggest that the ecdysteroidogenic pathway is conserved in insects, and LsSHD functions to regulate metamorphotic processes by converting E to 20E even in a hemipteran insect, L. striatellus. © 2013.

  17. Knockdown of a putative argininosuccinate lyase gene reduces arginine content and impairs nymphal development in Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, San-Yue; Li, Guo-Qing; Wan, Pin-Jun; Fu, Qiang; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Mu, Li-Li

    2017-05-01

    Nilaparvata lugens is a typical phloem feeder. Rice phloem is high in simple sugars and very low in essential amino acids. Nilaparvata lugens harbors an ascomycete Entomomyces delphacidicola that hypothetically biosynthesizes several amino acids to meet the nutrition requirement of the planthopper. Among these amino acids, here, we focused on arginine biosynthesis. A complete cDNA of an E. delphacidicola gene, arginine-succinate lyase, EdArg4, the last step in arginine biosynthesis, was obtained. RNAi-mediated suppression of EdArg4 reduced arginine content in the hemolymph, and decreased the expression of several arginine biosynthesis genes. Silencing of EdArg4 delayed nymphal development and led to nymphal lethality. About 20% of the EdArg4 RNAi surviving adults were deformed. The most obvious defect was wider and larger abdomen. The EdArg4 RNAi-treated planthoppers had thickened wings and enlarged antennae, legs, and anal tubes and a few adults did not normally emerge. Arginine deficiency in the EdArg4 RNAi planthoppers repressed nitric oxide signaling, determined at the transcriptional level. We infer that E. delphacidicola biosynthesizes essential arginine to compensate for nutrition deficiency in N. lugens. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase gene decreases thiamethoxam resistance in adults of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Xie, Wen; Li, Ru-mei; Zhou, Xiao-mao; Wang, Shao-li; Wu, Qing-jun; Yang, Ni-na; Xia, Ji-xing; Yang, Ze-zong; Guo, Li-tao; Liu, Ya-ting; Zhang, You-jun

    2017-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci has developed a high level of resistance to thiamethoxam, a second generation neonicotinoid insecticide that has been widely used to control this pest. In this study, we investigated whether hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (HOT) is involved in resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam in the whitefly. We cloned the full-length gene that encodes HOT in B. tabaci. Its cDNA contains a 1428-bp open reading frame encoding 475 amino acid residues. Then we evaluated the mRNA expression level of HOT in different developmental stages, and found HOT expression was significantly greater in thiamethoxam resistance adults than in thiamethoxam susceptible adults. Subsequently, seven field populations of B. tabaci adults were sampled, the expression of mRNA level of HOT significant positive correlated with thiamethoxam resistance level. At last, we used a modified gene silencing system to knock-down HOT expression in B. tabaci adults. The results showed that the HOT mRNA levels decreased by 57% and thiamethoxam resistance decreased significantly after 2 days of feeding on a diet containing HOT dsRNA. The results indicated that down-regulation of HOT expression decreases thiamethoxam resistance in B. tabaci adults. PMID:28117358

  19. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase gene decreases thiamethoxam resistance in adults of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Xie, Wen; Li, Ru-Mei; Zhou, Xiao-Mao; Wang, Shao-Li; Wu, Qing-Jun; Yang, Ni-Na; Xia, Ji-Xing; Yang, Ze-Zong; Guo, Li-Tao; Liu, Ya-Ting; Zhang, You-Jun

    2017-01-24

    Bemisia tabaci has developed a high level of resistance to thiamethoxam, a second generation neonicotinoid insecticide that has been widely used to control this pest. In this study, we investigated whether hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (HOT) is involved in resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam in the whitefly. We cloned the full-length gene that encodes HOT in B. tabaci. Its cDNA contains a 1428-bp open reading frame encoding 475 amino acid residues. Then we evaluated the mRNA expression level of HOT in different developmental stages, and found HOT expression was significantly greater in thiamethoxam resistance adults than in thiamethoxam susceptible adults. Subsequently, seven field populations of B. tabaci adults were sampled, the expression of mRNA level of HOT significant positive correlated with thiamethoxam resistance level. At last, we used a modified gene silencing system to knock-down HOT expression in B. tabaci adults. The results showed that the HOT mRNA levels decreased by 57% and thiamethoxam resistance decreased significantly after 2 days of feeding on a diet containing HOT dsRNA. The results indicated that down-regulation of HOT expression decreases thiamethoxam resistance in B. tabaci adults.

  20. Two knockdown models of the autism genes SYNGAP1 and SHANK3 in zebrafish produce similar behavioral phenotypes associated with embryonic disruptions of brain morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kozol, Robert A.; Cukier, Holly N.; Zou, Bing; Mayo, Vera; De Rubeis, Silvia; Cai, Guiqing; Griswold, Anthony J.; Whitehead, Patrice L.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Gilbert, John R.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Martin, Eden R.; Baker, James D.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Dallman, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the genetics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), how genetic mutations translate to the behavioral changes characteristic of ASD remains largely unknown. ASD affects 1–2% of children and adults, and is characterized by deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and social interactions, as well as the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or stereotyped interests. ASD is clinically and etiologically heterogeneous, with a strong genetic component. Here, we present functional data from syngap1 and shank3 zebrafish loss-of-function models of ASD. SYNGAP1, a synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein, and SHANK3, a synaptic scaffolding protein, were chosen because of mounting evidence that haploinsufficiency in these genes is highly penetrant for ASD and intellectual disability (ID). Orthologs of both SYNGAP1 and SHANK3 are duplicated in the zebrafish genome and we find that all four transcripts (syngap1a, syngap1b, shank3a and shank3b) are expressed at the earliest stages of nervous system development with pronounced expression in the larval brain. Consistent with early expression of these genes, knockdown of syngap1b or shank3a cause common embryonic phenotypes including delayed mid- and hindbrain development, disruptions in motor behaviors that manifest as unproductive swim attempts, and spontaneous, seizure-like behaviors. Our findings indicate that both syngap1b and shank3a play novel roles in morphogenesis resulting in common brain and behavioral phenotypes. PMID:25882707

  1. Advantages of ethanol dilution method for preparing GALA-modified liposomal siRNA carriers on the in vivo gene knockdown efficiency in pulmonary endothelium.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Kenji; Akita, Hidetaka; Santiwarangkool, Sarochin; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) modified with a GALA peptide (GALA/MEND) exerted dual functions; effective targeting the pulmonary endothelium and endosomal escape. The GALA/MEND containing encapsulated siRNA was originally prepared by the film coated hydration method (GALA/MENDHyd). However, an ethanol dilution method was found to be more appropriate for scaling up the preparation of this liposomal nanoparticle. In this study, we report on the preparation of a GALA/MEND based on the principal of the ethanol dilution (GALA/MENDEtOH). The gene knockdown efficiency of the MENDHyd and MENDEtOH without GALA-modification was equivalent regardless of the method used in the preparation. The GALA/MENDEtOH induced more efficient gene silencing in the pulmonary endothelium (ED50; approximately 0.17 mg siRNA/kg) compared to the GALA/MENDHyd. The GALA/MENDEtOH escaped from endosomes more rapidly than GALA/MENDHyd, while the pharmacokinetics and lung accumulation of GALA/MENDEtOH and GALA/MENDHyd were comparable after i.v. administration. Collectively, the ethanol dilution method improves the function of the GALA/MEND as a lung-targeting siRNA carrier.

  2. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers suppress mutant huntingtin expression and attenuate neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Marque, Leonard O.; Cordner, Zachary; Pruitt, Jennifer L.; Bhat, Manik; Li, Pan P.; Kannan, Geetha; Ladenheim, Ellen E.; Moran, Timothy H.; Margolis, Russell L.; Rudnicki, Dobrila D.

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Disease pathogenesis derives, at least in part, from the long polyglutamine tract encoded by mutant HTT. Therefore, considerable effort has been dedicated to the development of therapeutic strategies that significantly reduce the expression of the mutant HTT protein. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeted to the CAG repeat region of HTT transcripts have been of particular interest due to their potential capacity to discriminate between normal and mutant HTT transcripts. Here, we focus on phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs), ASOs that are especially stable, highly soluble and non-toxic. We designed three PMOs to selectively target expanded CAG repeat tracts (CTG22, CTG25 and CTG28), and two PMOs to selectively target sequences flanking the HTT CAG repeat (HTTex1a and HTTex1b). In HD patient–derived fibroblasts with expanded alleles containing 44, 77 or 109 CAG repeats, HTTex1a and HTTex1b were effective in suppressing the expression of mutant and non-mutant transcripts. CTGn PMOs also suppressed HTT expression, with the extent of suppression and the specificity for mutant transcripts dependent on the length of the targeted CAG repeat and on the CTG repeat length and concentration of the PMO. PMO CTG25 reduced HTT-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and suppressed mutant HTT expression in vivo in the N171-82Q transgenic mouse model. Finally, CTG28 reduced mutant HTT expression and improved the phenotype of HdhQ7/Q150 knock-in HD mice. These data demonstrate the potential of PMOs as an approach to suppressing the expression of mutant HTT. PMID:25035419

  3. Downregulation of E-cadherin is an essential event in activating beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent transcription and expression of its target genes in Pdcd4 knockdown cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Sun, Z-X; Allgayer, H; Yang, H-S

    2010-01-07

    We reported earlier that knockdown of tumor suppressor Pdcd4 (programed cell death 4) downregulates E-cadherin expression and activates beta-catenin/Tcf (T-cell factor)-dependent transcription in colon tumor cells. However, the underlying mechanism of these observations remains unknown. In this study, we showed that knockdown of Pdcd4 downregulates E-cadherin expression through elevated protein level of Snail. Over-expression of Pdcd4 upregulates E-cadherin expression and inhibits beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent transcription. We then showed that knockdown of E-cadherin activates beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent transcription. Conversely, over-expression of E-cadherin in Pdcd4 knockdown cells inhibits beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent transcription. In addition, Pdcd4 knockdown stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and c-Myc expression, whereas u-PAR and c-Myc expression can be reversed by over-expressing E-cadherin in Pdcd4 knockdown cells. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we showed that beta-catenin/Tcf4 directly binds to the promoters of u-PAR and c-myc in Pdcd4 knockdown cells. Futhermore, knockdown of u-PAR or c-Myc inhibits invasion in Pdcd4 knockdown cells, suggesting that both u-PAR and c-Myc contribute to invasion induced by Pdcd4 knockdown. Taken together, our data showed that elevated Snail expression by Pdcd4 knockdown leads to downregulation of E-cadherin resulting in activating beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent transcription and stimulating the expression of c-Myc and u-PAR, thus providing molecular explanation of how Pdcd4 suppresses tumor invasion.

  4. Zebrafish Models for Ectopic Mineralization Disorders: Practical Issues from Morpholino Design to Post-Injection Observations

    PubMed Central

    Hosen, Mohammad Jakir; Vanakker, Olivier M.; Willaert, Andy; Huysseune, Ann; Coucke, Paul; De Paepe, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish (ZF, Danio rerio) has emerged as an important and popular model species to study different human diseases. Key regulators of skeletal development and calcium metabolism are highly conserved between mammals and ZF. The corresponding orthologs share significant sequence similarities and an overlap in expression patterns when compared to mammals, making ZF a potential model for the study of mineralization-related disorders and soft tissue mineralization. To characterize the function of early mineralization-related genes in ZF, these genes can be knocked down by injecting morpholinos into early stage embryos. Validation of the morpholino needs to be performed and the concern of aspecific effects can be addressed by applying one or more independent techniques to knock down the gene of interest. Post-injection assessment of early mineralization defects can be done using general light microscopy, calcein staining, Alizarin red staining, Alizarin red-Alcian blue double staining, and by the use of transgenic lines. Examination of general molecular defects can be done by performing protein and gene expression analysis, and more specific processes can be explored by investigating ectopic mineralization-related mechanisms such as apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this paper, we will discuss all details about the aforementioned techniques; shared knowledge will be very useful for the future investigation of ZF models for ectopic mineralization disorders and to understand the underlying pathways involved in soft tissue calcification. PMID:23760765

  5. The N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor in Heart Development: A Gene Knockdown Model Using siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Octavian V.; Bennett, Gregory D.; Rosenquist, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    Antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) may disrupt the development of the cardiac neural crest (CNC) and contribute to conotruncal heart defects. To test this interaction, a loss-of-function model was generated using small interfering RNAs (siRNA) directed against the critical NR1-subunit of this receptor in avian embryos. The coding sequence of the chicken NR1-gene and predicted protein sequences were characterized and found to be homologous with other vertebrate species. Analysis of its spatiotemporal expression demonstrated its expression within the neural tube at pre-migratory CNC sites. siRNA targeted to the NR1-mRNA in pre-migratory CNC lead to a significant decrease in NR1 protein expression. However, embryo survival and heart development were not adversely affected. These results indicate that the CNC may function normally in the absence of functional NMDAR, and that NMDAR antagonists may have a complex impact upon the CNC that transcends impairment of a single receptor type. PMID:19737608

  6. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. RNAi knock-downs support roles for the mucin-like (AeIMUC1) gene and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) gene in Aedes aegypti susceptibility to Plasmodium gallinaceum.

    PubMed

    Berois, M; Romero-Severson, J; Severson, D W

    2012-03-01

    The mosquito midgut represents the first barrier encountered by the Plasmodium parasite (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) when it is ingested in blood from an infected vertebrate. Previous studies identified the Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mucin-like (AeIMUC1) and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) genes as midgut-expressed candidate genes influencing susceptibility to infection by Plasmodium gallinaceum (Brumpt). We used RNA inference (RNAi) by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injections to examine ookinete survival to the oocyst stage following individual gene knock-downs. Double-stranded RNA gene knock-downs were performed 3 days prior to P. gallinaceum infection and oocyst development was evaluated at 7 days post-infection. Mean numbers of parasites developing to the oocyst stage were significantly reduced by 52.3% in dsAeIMUC1-injected females and by 36.5% in dsSDR-injected females compared with females injected with a dsβ-gal control. The prevalence of infection was significantly reduced in dsAeIMUC1- and dsSDR-injected females compared with females injected with dsβ-gal; these reductions resulted in a two- and three-fold increase in the number of uninfected individuals, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that both AeIMUC1 and SDR play a role in Ae. aegypti vector competence to P. gallinaceum.

  10. Impacts of T-Phylloplanin Gene Knockdown and of Helianthus and Datura Phylloplanins on Peronospora tabacina Spore Germination and Disease Potential1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Kroumova, Antoaneta B.; Shepherd, Ryan W.; Wagner, George J.

    2007-01-01

    T-phylloplanin proteins secreted to aerial surfaces of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) by short procumbent trichomes inhibit spore germination and blue mold disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Peronospora tabacina. Many other plants were found to contain water-washed leaf surface proteins (phylloplanins), but the functions and properties of these are not known. Here we extend earlier evidence for the antifungal activity of T-phylloplanins using a reverse genetics approach. RNA interference of the T-phylloplanin gene in tobacco ‘T.I. 1068’ resulted in loss of T-phylloplanin mRNA and protein, loss of in vitro spore germination inhibition activity, and leaf infection inhibition activity of leaf water washes from RNA interference plants, and young knockdown plants were susceptible to disease. The glycoprotein character, adaxial-leaf-surface enrichment of, and renewability of T-phylloplanins are also described. We also report that leaf water washes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and jimson weed (Datura metel), but not soybean (Glycine max), like that of tobacco, possess ProteinaseK- and boiling-sensitive P. tabacina spore germination and tobacco leaf infection inhibition activities. Results establish that T-phylloplaninins of tobacco are active in P. tabacina inhibition, and indicate that leaf surface proteins of certain non-Nicotiana species that are not susceptible to P. tabacina disease can inhibit germination of spores of this oomycete pathogen and inhibit tobacco leaf infection by this pathogen. PMID:17573541

  11. Impacts of T-Phylloplanin gene knockdown and of Helianthus and Datura phylloplanins on Peronospora tabacina spore germination and disease potential.

    PubMed

    Kroumova, Antoaneta B; Shepherd, Ryan W; Wagner, George J

    2007-08-01

    T-phylloplanin proteins secreted to aerial surfaces of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) by short procumbent trichomes inhibit spore germination and blue mold disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Peronospora tabacina. Many other plants were found to contain water-washed leaf surface proteins (phylloplanins), but the functions and properties of these are not known. Here we extend earlier evidence for the antifungal activity of T-phylloplanins using a reverse genetics approach. RNA interference of the T-phylloplanin gene in tobacco 'T.I. 1068' resulted in loss of T-phylloplanin mRNA and protein, loss of in vitro spore germination inhibition activity, and leaf infection inhibition activity of leaf water washes from RNA interference plants, and young knockdown plants were susceptible to disease. The glycoprotein character, adaxial-leaf-surface enrichment of, and renewability of T-phylloplanins are also described. We also report that leaf water washes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and jimson weed (Datura metel), but not soybean (Glycine max), like that of tobacco, possess ProteinaseK- and boiling-sensitive P. tabacina spore germination and tobacco leaf infection inhibition activities. Results establish that T-phylloplaninins of tobacco are active in P. tabacina inhibition, and indicate that leaf surface proteins of certain non-Nicotiana species that are not susceptible to P. tabacina disease can inhibit germination of spores of this oomycete pathogen and inhibit tobacco leaf infection by this pathogen.

  12. Reverse-genetic approach to verify physiological roles of rice phytoalexins: characterization of a knockdown mutant of OsCPS4 phytoalexin biosynthetic gene in rice.

    PubMed

    Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Usui, Masami; Sugawara, Chizu; Otomo, Kazuko; Hirose, Yuko; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Okada, Kazunori; Shimizu, Takafumi; Koga, Jinichiro; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Chuba, Masaru; Kawana, Yoshiaki; Kuroda, Masaharu; Minami, Eiichi; Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2014-01-01

    A variety of labdane-related diterpenoids, including phytocassanes, oryzalexins and momilactones, were identified as phytoalexins in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Momilactone B was also isolated as an allelochemical exuded from rice roots. The biosynthetic genes of these phytoalexins have been identified, including six labdane-related diterpene cyclase genes such as OsCPS2, OsCPS4, OsKSL4, OsKSL7, OsKSL8 and OsKSL10. Here we identified an OsCPS4 knockdown mutant, cps4-tos, by screening Tos17 mutant lines using polymerase chain reaction. OsCPS4 encodes a syn-copalyl diphosphate synthase responsible for momilactones and oryzalexin S biosynthesis. Because Tos17 was inserted into the third intron of OsCPS4, the mature OsCPS4 mRNA was detected in the cps4-tos mutant as well as the wild type. Nevertheless, mature OsCPS4 transcript levels in the cps4-tos mutant were about one sixth those in the wild type. The cps4-tos mutant was more susceptible to rice blast fungus than the wild type, possibly due to lower levels of momilactones and oryzalexin S in the mutant. Moreover, co-cultivation experiments suggested that the allelopathic effect of cps4-tos against some kinds of lowland weeds was significantly lower than that of the wild type, probably because of lower momilactone content exuded from cps4-tos roots. A reverse-genetic strategy using the cps4-tos mutant showed the possible roles of momilactones not only as phytoalexins but also as allelopathic substances. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Knockdown of poc1b causes abnormal photoreceptor sensory cilium and vision impairment in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Conghui; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Fang; Liu, Qin

    2015-10-02

    Proteomic analysis of the mouse photoreceptor sensory cilium identified a set of cilia proteins, including Poc1 centriolar protein b (Poc1b). Previous functional studies in human cells and zebrafish embryos implicated that Poc1b plays important roles in centriole duplication and length control, as well as ciliogenesis. To study the function of Poc1b in photoreceptor sensory cilia and other primary cilia, we expressed a tagged recombinant Poc1b protein in cultured renal epithelial cells and rat retina. Poc1b was localized to the centrioles and spindle bundles during cell cycle progression, and to the basal body of photoreceptor sensory cilia. A morpholino knockdown and complementation assay of poc1b in zebrafish showed that loss of poc1b led to a range of morphological anomalies of cilia commonly associated with human ciliopathies. In the retina, the development of retinal laminae was significantly delayed and the length of photoreceptor outer segments was shortened. Visual behavior studies revealed impaired visual function in the poc1b morphants. In addition, ciliopathy-associated developmental defects, such as small eyes, curved body axis, heart defects, and shortened cilia in Kupffer's vesicle, were observed as well. These data suggest that poc1b is required for normal development and ciliogenesis of retinal photoreceptor sensory cilia and other cilia. Furthermore, this conclusion is supported by recent findings that mutations in POC1B gene have been identified in patients with inherited retinal dystrophy and syndromic retinal ciliopathy.

  14. Knockdown of the juvenile hormone receptor gene inhibits soldier-specific morphogenesis in the damp-wood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (Isoptera: Archotermopsidae).

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Yudai; Yaguchi, Hajime; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2015-09-01

    The Methoprene-tolerant (Met) protein has been established as a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor. Knockdown of the Met gene caused precocious metamorphosis and suppression of ovarian development. However, the function of Met in caste development of social insects is unclear. In termites, JH acts as a central factor for caste development, especially for soldier differentiation, which involves two molts from workers via a presoldier stage. Increased JH titer in workers is needed for the presoldier molt, and the high JH titer is maintained throughout the presoldier period. Although presoldiers have the fundamental morphological features of soldiers, the nature of the cuticle is completely different from that of soldiers. We expected that JH signals via Met are involved in soldier-specific morphogenesis of the head and mandibles during soldier differentiation, especially in the presoldier period, in natural conditions. To test this hypothesis, we focused on soldier differentiation in an incipient colony of the damp-wood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. Met homolog (ZnMet) expression in heads increased just after the presoldier molt. This high expression was reduced by ZnMet double stranded (dsRNA) injection before the presoldier molt. Although this treatment did not cause any morphological changes in presoldiers, it caused strong effects on soldiers, their mandibles being significantly shorter and head capsules smaller than those of control soldiers. Injection of ZnMet dsRNA throughout the presoldier stage did not affect the formation of soldier morphology, including cuticle formation. These results suggested that the rapid increase in ZnMet expression and subsequent activation of JH signaling just after the presoldier molt are needed for the formation of soldier-specific weapons. Therefore, besides its established role in insect metamorphosis, the JH receptor signaling also underlies soldier development in termites.

  15. Modeling and gene knockdown to assess the contribution of nonsense-mediated decay, premature termination, and selenocysteine insertion to the selenoprotein hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Meplan, Catherine; Huguenin, Grazielle V.B.; Hesketh, John E.; Shanley, Daryl P.

    2016-01-01

    The expression of selenoproteins, a specific group of proteins that incorporates selenocysteine, is hierarchically regulated by the availability of Se, with some, but not all selenoprotein mRNA transcripts decreasing in abundance with decreasing Se. Selenocysteine insertion into the peptide chain occurs during translation following recoding of an internal UGA stop codon. There is increasing evidence that this UGA recoding competes with premature translation termination, which is followed by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the transcript. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the susceptibility of different selenoprotein mRNAs to premature termination during translation and differential sensitivity of selenoprotein transcripts to NMD are major factors in the selenoprotein hierarchy. Selenoprotein transcript abundance was measured in Caco-2 cells using real-time PCR under different Se conditions and the data obtained fitted to mathematical models of selenoprotein translation. A calibrated model that included a combination of differential sensitivity of selenoprotein transcripts to NMD and different frequency of non-NMD related premature translation termination was able to fit all the measurements. The model predictions were tested using SiRNA to knock down expression of the crucial NMD factor UPF1 (up-frameshift protein 1) and selenoprotein mRNA expression. The calibrated model was able to predict the effect of UPF1 knockdown on gene expression for all tested selenoproteins, except SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), which itself is essential for selenoprotein synthesis. These results indicate an important role for NMD in the hierarchical regulation of selenoprotein mRNAs, with the exception of SPS2 whose expression is likely regulated by a different mechanism. PMID:27208313

  16. Analysis of 14-3-3 Family Member Function in Xenopus Embryos by Microinjection of Antisense Morpholino Oligos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Jeffrey M. C.; Muslin, Anthony J.

    The 14-3-3 intracellular phosphoserine/threonine-binding proteins are adapter molecules that regulate signal transduction, cell cycle, nutrient sensing, apoptotic, and cytoskeletal pathways. There are seven 14-3-3 family members, encoded by separate genes, in vertebrate organisms. To evaluate the role of individual 14-3-3 proteins in vertebrate embryonic development, we utilized an antisense morpholino oligo microinjection technique in Xenopus laevis embryos. By use of this method, we showed that embryos lacking specific 14-3-3 proteins displayed unique phenotypic abnormalities. Specifically, embryos lacking 14-3-3 τ exhibited gastrulation and axial patterning defects, but embryos lacking 14-3-3 γ exhibited eye defects without other abnormalities, and embryos lacking 14-3-3 ζ appeared completely normal. These and other results demonstrate the power and specificity of the morpholino antisense oligo microinjection technique.

  17. Neural Crest Migration and Survival Are Susceptible to Morpholino-Induced Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Jette, Cicely A.

    2016-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a stem cell-like embryonic population that is essential for generating and patterning the vertebrate body, including the craniofacial skeleton and peripheral nervous system. Defects in NC development underlie many birth defects and contribute to formation of some of the most malignant cancers in humans, such as melanoma and neuroblastoma. For these reasons, significant research efforts have been expended to identify genes that control NC development, as it is expected to lead to a deeper understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling vertebrate development and identify new treatments for NC-derived diseases and cancers. However, a number of inconsistencies regarding gene function during NC development have emerged from comparative analyses of gene function between mammalian and non-mammalian systems (chick, frog, zebrafish). This poses a significant barrier to identification of single genes and/or redundant pathways to target in NC diseases. Here, we determine whether technical differences, namely morpholino-based approaches used in non-mammalian systems, could contribute to these discrepancies, by examining the extent to which NC phenotypes in fascin1a (fscn1a) morphant embryos are similar to or different from fscn1a null mutants in zebrafish. Analysis of fscn1a morphants showed that they mimicked early NC phenotypes observed in fscn1a null mutants; however, these embryos also displayed NC migration and derivative phenotypes not observed in null mutants, including accumulation of p53-independent cell death. These data demonstrate that morpholinos can cause seemingly specific NC migration and derivative phenotypes, and thus have likely contributed to the inconsistencies surrounding NC gene function between species. We suggest that comparison of genetic mutants between different species is the most rigorous method for identifying conserved genetic mechanisms controlling NC development and is critical to identify new treatments for NC

  18. Control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestations by the combination of subolesin vaccination and tick autocidal control after subolesin gene knockdown in ticks fed on cattle.

    PubMed

    Merino, Octavio; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Villar, Margarita; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Kocan, Katherine M; de la Fuente, José

    2011-03-09

    Tick subolesin was shown in immunization trials using the recombinant protein to protect hosts against tick infestations. In this study, we demonstrated that subolesin vaccination and release of ticks after subolesin knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) could be used for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick infestations in cattle and suggested that the combination of these methods could increase the efficacy of cattle tick control under some circumstances. The greatest tick control was obtained when both release of ticks after subolesin knockdown and vaccination were used concurrently. However, modeling results suggested that vaccine efficacy could be increased if at least 80% of the ticks infesting cattle correspond to subolesin-knockdown ticks. The results of this proof-of-concept trial demonstrated the efficacy of the sterile acarine technique (SAT) through production of subolesin-knockdown larvae by dsRNA injection into replete females for the control of R. microplus tick infestations, alone or in combination with subolesin vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microinjection-based RNA interference knockdown of ecdysteroid biosynthetic genes in a non-model hemipteran pest, Lygus hesperus (western tarnished plant bug)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNAi-mediated knockdown of target transcripts offers great potential, both in terms of insect functional genomics and the development of novel insect pest management strategies. Frequently, dsRNAs targeting transcripts of interest are introduced orally to the target organism via feeding. This delive...

  20. Knockdown of the AKT3 (PKBγ), PI3KCA, and VEGFR2 genes by RNA interference suppresses glioblastoma multiforme T98G cells invasiveness in vitro.

    PubMed

    Paul-Samojedny, Monika; Pudełko, Adam; Suchanek-Raif, Renata; Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Fila-Daniłow, Anna; Borkowska, Paulina; Kowalski, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain malignancy, having a very poor prognosis and is characterized by extensive brain invasion as well as resistance to the therapy. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/PTEN signaling pathway is deregulated in GBM. Besides, florid vascularization and aberrantly elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) occur very often. The present study was designed to examine the inhibitory effect of AKT3, PI3KCA, and VEGFR2 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) on GBM cell invasiveness. T98G cells were transfected with AKT3, PI3KCA, and/or VEGFR2 siRNAs. VEGFR2 protein-positive cells were identified by flow cytometry using specific monoclonal anti-VEGFR2 antibodies. Alterations in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of VEGF, VEGFR2, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) (MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-13, MMP-14), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) (TIMP-1, TIMP-3), c-Fos, c-Jun, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), ObRa, and cathepsin D genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Cells treated with specific siRNA were also analyzed for invasion using the Matrigel invasion assay. We have found significantly lower mRNA levels of MMPs, cathepsin D, VEGF, VEGFR2, HIF-1α, and c-Fos/c-Jun ratio, as well as significantly higher mRNA level of TIMPs in AKT3 and PI3KCA siRNA transfected cells compared to untransfected cells, while significantly lower mRNA levels of MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14) and TIMP-1, as well as significantly higher mRNA level of TIMP-3, were shown only in cells transfected with VEGFR2 siRNA. The positive correlation between MMP-13 and ObRa mRNA copy number has been found. Summarizing, transfection of T98G cells with AKT3, PI3KCA, or VEGFR2 siRNAs leads to a significant reduction in cell invasiveness. The siRNA-induced AKT3, PI3KCA, and VEGFR2 mRNA knockdown may offer a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce the invasiveness of GBM cells.

  1. Controlling gene loss of function in newts with emphasis on lens regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tsonis, Panagiotis A; Haynes, Tracy; Maki, Nobuyasu; Nakamura, Kenta; Casco-Robles, Martin Miguel; Yamada, Shouta; Miura, Tomoya; Chiba, Chikafumi; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2011-05-01

    Here we describe a protocol for gene loss of function during regeneration in newts, specifically applied to lens regeneration. Knockdown with the use of morpholinos can be achieved both in vitro and in vivo, depending on the experimental design. These methods achieve desirable levels of gene knockdown, and thus can be compared with methods developed for use in other animals, such as zebrafish. The technology has been applied to study molecular mechanisms during the process of lens regeneration by knocking down genes at specific stages and examining their effects on other genes and lens differentiation. The protocol can take a few days or up to 20 d to complete, depending on the duration of the experiment.

  2. Differential Responses to Wnt and PCP Disruption Predict Expression and Developmental Function of Conserved and Novel Genes in a Cnidarian

    PubMed Central

    Lapébie, Pascal; Ruggiero, Antonella; Barreau, Carine; Chevalier, Sandra; Chang, Patrick; Dru, Philippe; Houliston, Evelyn; Momose, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have used Digital Gene Expression analysis to identify, without bilaterian bias, regulators of cnidarian embryonic patterning. Transcriptome comparison between un-manipulated Clytia early gastrula embryos and ones in which the key polarity regulator Wnt3 was inhibited using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (Wnt3-MO) identified a set of significantly over and under-expressed transcripts. These code for candidate Wnt signaling modulators, orthologs of other transcription factors, secreted and transmembrane proteins known as developmental regulators in bilaterian models or previously uncharacterized, and also many cnidarian-restricted proteins. Comparisons between embryos injected with morpholinos targeting Wnt3 and its receptor Fz1 defined four transcript classes showing remarkable correlation with spatiotemporal expression profiles. Class 1 and 3 transcripts tended to show sustained expression at “oral” and “aboral” poles respectively of the developing planula larva, class 2 transcripts in cells ingressing into the endodermal region during gastrulation, while class 4 gene expression was repressed at the early gastrula stage. The preferential effect of Fz1-MO on expression of class 2 and 4 transcripts can be attributed to Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) disruption, since it was closely matched by morpholino knockdown of the specific PCP protein Strabismus. We conclude that endoderm and post gastrula-specific gene expression is particularly sensitive to PCP disruption while Wnt-/β-catenin signaling dominates gene regulation along the oral-aboral axis. Phenotype analysis using morpholinos targeting a subset of transcripts indicated developmental roles consistent with expression profiles for both conserved and cnidarian-restricted genes. Overall our unbiased screen allowed systematic identification of regionally expressed genes and provided functional support for a shared eumetazoan developmental regulatory gene set with both predicted and previously

  3. A Morpholino Strategy to Assess TSC Gene Function in Zebrafish

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder associated with severe neurological symptoms including mental retardation, autism ...ABSTRACT Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder associated with severe neurological symptoms including mental retardation, autism ...devastating autosomal dominant disease that results in severe neurological symptoms including mental retardation, autism , and seizures (DiMario, 2004

  4. Rip3 knockdown rescues photoreceptor cell death in blind pde6c zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Viringipurampeer, I A; Shan, X; Gregory-Evans, K; Zhang, J P; Mohammadi, Z; Gregory-Evans, C Y

    2014-01-01

    Achromatopsia is a progressive autosomal recessive retinal disease characterized by early loss of cone photoreceptors and later rod photoreceptor loss. In most cases, mutations have been identified in CNGA3, CNGB3, GNAT2, PDE6C or PDE6H genes. Owing to this genetic heterogeneity, mutation-independent therapeutic schemes aimed at preventing cone cell death are very attractive treatment strategies. In pde6cw59 mutant zebrafish, cone photoreceptors expressed high levels of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) kinases, key regulators of necroptotic cell death. In contrast, rod photoreceptor cells were alternatively immunopositive for caspase-3 indicating activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis in these cells. Morpholino gene knockdown of rip3 in pde6cw59 embryos rescued the dying cone photoreceptors by inhibiting the formation of reactive oxygen species and by inhibiting second-order neuron remodelling in the inner retina. In rip3 morphant larvae, visual function was restored in the cones by upregulation of the rod phosphodiesterase genes (pde6a and pde6b), compensating for the lack of cone pde6c suggesting that cones are able to adapt to their local environment. Furthermore, we demonstrated through pharmacological inhibition of RIP1 and RIP3 activity that cone cell death was also delayed. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the underlying mechanism of cone cell death in the pde6cw59 mutant retina is through necroptosis, whereas rod photoreceptor bystander death occurs through a caspase-dependent mechanism. This suggests that targeting the RIP kinase signalling pathway could be an effective therapeutic intervention in retinal degeneration patients. As bystander cell death is an important feature of many retinal diseases, combinatorial approaches targeting different cell death pathways may evolve as an important general principle in treatment. PMID:24413151

  5. Knockdown of a JmjC domain-containing gene JMJ524 confers altered gibberellin responses by transcriptional regulation of GRAS protein lacking the DELLA domain genes in tomato.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Yu, Chuying; Wu, Hua; Luo, Zhidan; Ouyang, Bo; Cui, Long; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2015-03-01

    Plants integrate responses to independent hormonal and environmental signals to survive adversity. In particular, the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) regulates a variety of developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, the Jumonji-C (JmjC) domain-containing gene JMJ524 was characterized in tomato. JMJ524 responded to circadian rhythms and was upregulated by GA treatment. Knockdown of JMJ524 by RNAi caused a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype with shrunken leaves and shortened internodes. However, in these transgenic plants, higher levels of endogenous GAs were detected. A genome-wide gene expression analysis by RNA-seq indicated that the expression levels of two DELLA-like genes, SlGLD1 ('GRAS protein Lacking the DELLA domain') and SlGLD2, were increased in JMJ524-RNAi transgenic plants. Nevertheless, only the overexpression of SlGLD1 in tomato resulted in a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype, suggesting that SlGLD1 acts as a repressor of GA signalling. This study proposes that JMJ524 is required for stem elongation by altering GA responses, at least partially by regulating SlGLD1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. RNAi knock-down of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Toll gene and immune deficiency gene reveals their difference in regulating antimicrobial peptides transcription.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fujun; He, Shulin; Liu, Yongjie; Zhu, Xiaowen; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin

    2014-06-01

    NF-κB dependent antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are of critical importance in protecting insects or mammals from microorganisms infection. However, we still do not make clear signaling pathways in regulating AMPs expression in shrimps. In this study, RNAi approach was used to study differences between Toll signaling pathway and immune deficiency signaling pathway in regulating the transcription of NF-κB dependent AMPs post bacteria challenge. Results showed that the transcription level of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor was highly suppressed in Litopenaeus vannamei immune deficiency (LvIMD) silenced shrimps by gene specific dsRNA compared to Litopenaeus vannamei Toll (LvToll) silenced shrimps with or without Vibrio anguillarum and Micrococcus lysodeikticus challenge. Conversely the transcription level of penaeidin3a was significantly suppressed in LvToll silenced shrimps compared to LvIMD silenced shrimps. However, no obvious difference was found in regulating the transcription of CrustinP. Meanwhile, we found that silencing LvToll both down regulated the transcription of Dorsal and Relish while silencing LvIMD only down regulated the transcription of Relish. At last, shrimp survival experiment showed that post V. anguillarum challenge high mortality was found both in LvToll and LvIMD silenced groups while post M. lysodeikticus challenge we saw high mortality only in LvToll silenced group. Hence, we conclude that shrimp L. vannamei Toll pathway and IMD pathway might be different in regulating the transcription of NF-κB dependent AMPs and responding to bacteria challenge but not independent of each other.

  7. Knockout mouse production assisted by Blm knockdown

    PubMed Central

    FUKUDA, Mikiko; INOUE, Mayuko; MURAMATSU, Daisuke; MIYACHI, Hitoshi; SHINKAI, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Production of knockout mice using targeted embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a powerful approach for investigating the function of specific genes in vivo. Although the protocol for gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) in ESCs is already well established, the targeting efficiency varies at different target loci and is sometimes too low. It is known that knockdown of the Bloom syndrome gene, BLM, enhances HR-mediated gene targeting efficiencies in various cell lines. However, it has not yet been investigated whether this approach in ESCs is applicable for successful knockout mouse production. Therefore, we attempted to answer this question. Consistent with previous reports, Blm knockdown enhanced gene targeting efficiencies for three gene loci that we examined by 2.3–4.1-fold. Furthermore, the targeted ESC clones generated good chimeras and were successful in germline transmission. These data suggest that Blm knockdown provides a general benefit for efficient ESC-based and HR-mediated knockout mouse production. PMID:26598326

  8. Defining Synphenotype Groups in Xenopus tropicalis by Use of Antisense Morpholino Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Amer Ahmed; Collart, Clara; Gilchrist, Michael J; Smith, J. C

    2006-01-01

    To identify novel genes involved in early development, and as proof-of-principle of a large-scale reverse genetics approach in a vertebrate embryo, we have carried out an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) screen in Xenopus tropicalis, in the course of which we have targeted 202 genes expressed during gastrula stages. MOs were designed to complement sequence between −80 and +25 bases of the initiating AUG codons of the target mRNAs, and the specificities of many were tested by (i) designing different non-overlapping MOs directed against the same mRNA, (ii) injecting MOs differing in five bases, and (iii) performing “rescue” experiments. About 65% of the MOs caused X. tropicalis embryos to develop abnormally (59% of those targeted against novel genes), and we have divided the genes into “synphenotype groups,” members of which cause similar loss-of-function phenotypes and that may function in the same developmental pathways. Analysis of the expression patterns of the 202 genes indicates that members of a synphenotype group are not necessarily members of the same synexpression group. This screen provides new insights into early vertebrate development and paves the way for a more comprehensive MO-based analysis of gene function in X. tropicalis. PMID:17112317

  9. p53-Mediated Biliary Defects Caused by Knockdown of cirh1a, the Zebrafish Homolog of the Gene Responsible for North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Benjamin J.; Lorent, Kristin; Matthews, Randolph P.; Pack, Michael

    2013-01-01

    North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NAIC) is a rare, autosomal recessive, progressive cholestatic disease of infancy affecting the Cree-Ojibway first Nations of Quebec. All NAIC patients are homozygous for a missense mutation (R565W) in CIRH1A, the human homolog of the yeast nucleolar protein Utp4. Utp4 is part of the t-Utp subcomplex of the small subunit (SSU) processome, a ribonucleoprotein complex required for ribosomal RNA processing and small subunit assembly. NAIC has thus been proposed to be a primary ribosomal disorder (ribosomopathy); however, investigation of the pathophysiologic mechanism of this disease has been hindered by lack of an animal model. Here, using a morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-based loss-of-function strategy, we have generated a model of NAIC in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish Cirhin shows substantial homology to the human homolog, and cirh1a mRNA is expressed in developing hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. Injection of two independent MOs directed against cirh1a at the one-cell stage causes defects in canalicular and biliary morphology in 5 dpf larvae. In addition, 5 dpf Cirhin-deficient larvae have dose-dependent defects in hepatobiliary function, as assayed by the metabolism of an ingested fluorescent lipid reporter. Previous yeast and in vitro studies have shown that defects in ribosome biogenesis cause stabilization and nuclear accumulation of p53, which in turn causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Thus, the nucleolus appears to function as a cellular stress sensor in some cell types. In accordance with this hypothesis, transcriptional targets of p53 are upregulated in Cirhin-deficient zebrafish embryos, and defects in biliary function seen in Cirhin-deficient larvae are completely abrogated by mutation of tp53. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence of a role for Cirhin in biliary development, and support the hypothesis that congenital defects affecting ribosome biogenesis can activate

  10. DNAH6 and Its Interactions with PCD Genes in Heterotaxy and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Onuoha, Ezenwa Obi; Damerla, Rama Rao; Francis, Richard; Furutani, Yoshiyuki; Tariq, Muhammad; King, Stephen M.; Hendricks, Gregory; Cui, Cheng; Saydmohammed, Manush; Lee, Dong Min; Zahid, Maliha; Sami, Iman; Leatherbury, Linda; Pazour, Gregory J.; Ware, Stephanie M.; Nakanishi, Toshio; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Tsang, Michael; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2016-01-01

    Heterotaxy, a birth defect involving left-right patterning defects, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a sinopulmonary disease with dyskinetic/immotile cilia in the airway are seemingly disparate diseases. However, they have an overlapping genetic etiology involving mutations in cilia genes, a reflection of the common requirement for motile cilia in left-right patterning and airway clearance. While PCD is a monogenic recessive disorder, heterotaxy has a more complex, largely non-monogenic etiology. In this study, we show mutations in the novel dynein gene DNAH6 can cause heterotaxy and ciliary dysfunction similar to PCD. We provide the first evidence that trans-heterozygous interactions between DNAH6 and other PCD genes potentially can cause heterotaxy. DNAH6 was initially identified as a candidate heterotaxy/PCD gene by filtering exome-sequencing data from 25 heterotaxy patients stratified by whether they have airway motile cilia defects. dnah6 morpholino knockdown in zebrafish disrupted motile cilia in Kupffer’s vesicle required for left-right patterning and caused heterotaxy with abnormal cardiac/gut looping. Similarly DNAH6 shRNA knockdown disrupted motile cilia in human and mouse respiratory epithelia. Notably a heterotaxy patient harboring heterozygous DNAH6 mutation was identified to also carry a rare heterozygous PCD-causing DNAI1 mutation, suggesting a DNAH6/DNAI1 trans-heterozygous interaction. Furthermore, sequencing of 149 additional heterotaxy patients showed 5 of 6 patients with heterozygous DNAH6 mutations also had heterozygous mutations in DNAH5 or other PCD genes. We functionally assayed for DNAH6/DNAH5 and DNAH6/DNAI1 trans-heterozygous interactions using subthreshold double-morpholino knockdown in zebrafish and showed this caused heterotaxy. Similarly, subthreshold siRNA knockdown of Dnah6 in heterozygous Dnah5 or Dnai1 mutant mouse respiratory epithelia disrupted motile cilia function. Together, these findings support an oligogenic disease

  11. Knockdown of mineralocorticoid or angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus prevents angiotensin II hypertension in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aidong; Huang, Bing S; Wang, Hong-Wei; Ahmad, Monir; Leenen, Frans H H

    2014-01-01

    Circulating Ang II activates an aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) – angiotensin II (Ang II) – angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) pathway in the hypothalamus. To obtain insights into the actual neuronal projections involved, adeno-associated virus carrying small interfering RNA against either AT1aR (AAV-AT1aR-siRNA) or MR (AAV-MR-siRNA) were infused into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in Wistar rats. Intra-PVN infusion of AAV-AT1aR-siRNA or AAV-MR-siRNA decreased AT1R or MR expression in the PVN but not in the subfornical organ (SFO) or supraoptic nucleus (SON). Subcutaneous infusion of Ang II at 500 ng kg−1 min−1 for 2 weeks increased mean arterial pressure by 60–70 mmHg, and increased AT1R and MR expression in the SFO, SON and PVN. Intra-PVN AT1aR-siRNA prevented the Ang II-induced increase in AT1R but not MR expression in the PVN, and MR-siRNA prevented MR but not AT1R expression in the PVN. The increases in AT1R and MR expression in both the SFO and the SON were not changed by the two AAV-siRNAs. Specific knockdown of AT1R or MR in the PVN by AAV-siRNA each prevented most of the Ang II-induced hypertension. Prevention of the subcutaneous Ang II-induced increase in MR but not the increase in AT1R by knockdown of MR and vice versa suggests an independent regulation of MR and AT1R expression in the PVN. Both AT1R and MR activation in the PVN play a critical role in Ang II-induced hypertension in rats. PMID:24973408

  12. Knock-down of the methyltransferase Kmt6 relieves H3K27me3 and results in induction of cryptic and otherwise silent secondary metabolite gene clusters in Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Studt, Lena; Rösler, Sarah M; Burkhardt, Immo; Arndt, Birgit; Freitag, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a vast array of secondary metabolites (SMs) and some play a role in agriculture or pharmacology. Sequencing of the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi revealed the presence of far more SM-encoding genes than known products. SM production is energy-consuming and thus tightly regulated, leaving the majority of SM gene clusters silent under laboratory conditions. One important regulatory layer in SM biosynthesis involves histone modifications that render the underlying genes either silent or poised for transcription. Here, we show that the majority of the putative SM gene clusters in F. fujikuroi are located within facultative heterochromatin marked by trimethylated lysine 27 on histone 3 (H3K27me3). Kmt6, the methyltransferase responsible for establishing this histone mark, appears to be essential in this fungus, and knock-down of Kmt6 in the KMT6(kd) strain shows a drastic phenotype affecting fungal growth and development. Transcription of four so far cryptic and otherwise silent putative SM gene clusters was induced in the KMT6(kd) strain, in which decreased expression of KMT6 is accompanied by reduced H3K27me3 levels at the respective gene loci and accumulation of novel metabolites. One of the four putative SM gene clusters, named STC5, was analysed in more detail thereby revealing a novel sesquiterpene. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Ultrasound-enhanced delivery of Morpholino with Bubble liposomes ameliorates the myotonia of myotonic dystrophy model mice

    PubMed Central

    Koebis, Michinori; Kiyatake, Tamami; Yamaura, Hiroshi; Nagano, Kanako; Higashihara, Mana; Sonoo, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yukiko; Negishi, Yoichi; Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Yanagihara, Dai; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Takahashi, Masanori P.; Nishino, Ichizo; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO)-mediated control of the alternative splicing of the chloride channel 1 (CLCN1) gene is a promising treatment for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) because the abnormal splicing of this gene causes myotonia in patients with DM1. In this study, we optimised a PMO sequence to correct Clcn1 alternative splicing and successfully remedied the myotonic phenotype of a DM1 mouse model, the HSALR mouse. To enhance the efficiency of delivery of PMO into HSALR mouse muscles, Bubble liposomes, which have been used as a gene delivery tool, were applied with ultrasound exposure. Effective delivery of PMO led to increased expression of Clcn1 protein in skeletal muscle and the amelioration of myotonia. Thus, PMO-mediated control of the alternative splicing of the Clcn1 gene must be important target of antisense therapy of DM1. PMID:23873129

  14. RNA interference knockdown of aminopeptidase N genes decrease the susceptibility of Chilo suppressalis larvae to Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca-expressing transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Fan, Jinxing; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Lin, Yongjun; Ma, Weihua

    2017-03-06

    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins are resistant to lepidopteran pests, such as Chilo suppressalis, a major insect pest of rice in Asia. Understanding how these toxins interact with their hosts is crucial to understanding their insecticidal action. In this study, knockdown of two aminopeptidase N genes (APN1 and APN2) by RNA interference resulted in decreased susceptibility of C. suppressalis larvae to the Bt rice varieties TT51 (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac fusion genes) and T1C-19 (Cry1Ca), but not T2A-1 (Cry2Aa). This suggests that APN1 and APN2 are receptors for Cry1A and Cry1C toxins in C. suppressalis.

  15. Targeting protein translation, RNA splicing, and degradation by morpholino-based conjugates in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Garg, Aprajita; Wesolowski, Donna; Alonso, Dulce; Deitsch, Kirk W; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Altman, Sidney

    2015-09-22

    Identification and genetic validation of new targets from available genome sequences are critical steps toward the development of new potent and selective antimalarials. However, no methods are currently available for large-scale functional analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genome. Here we present evidence for successful use of morpholino oligomers (MO) to mediate degradation of target mRNAs or to inhibit RNA splicing or translation of several genes of P. falciparum involved in chloroquine transport, apicoplast biogenesis, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Consistent with their role in the parasite life cycle, down-regulation of these essential genes resulted in inhibition of parasite development. We show that a MO conjugate that targets the chloroquine-resistant transporter PfCRT is effective against chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant parasites, causes enlarged digestive vacuoles, and renders chloroquine-resistant strains more sensitive to chloroquine. Similarly, we show that a MO conjugate that targets the PfDXR involved in apicoplast biogenesis inhibits parasite growth and that this defect can be rescued by addition of isopentenyl pyrophosphate. MO-based gene regulation is a viable alternative approach to functional analysis of the P. falciparum genome.

  16. shRNA-Mediated XRCC2 Gene Knockdown Efficiently Sensitizes Colon Tumor Cells to X-ray Irradiation in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Wang, Yan; Du, Liqing; Xu, Chang; Sun, Yuanming; Yang, Bing; Sun, Zhijuan; Fu, Yue; Cai, Lu; Fan, Saijun; Fan, Feiyue; Liu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common tumors of the digestive tract. Resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) decreased therapeutic efficiency in these patients’ radiotherapy. XRCC2 is the key protein of DNA homologous recombination repair, and its high expression is associated with enhanced resistance to DNA damage induced by IR. Here, we investigated the effect of XRCC2 silencing on colon tumor cells’ growth and sensitivity to X-radiation in vitro and in vivo. Colon tumor cells (T84 cell line) were cultivated in vitro and tumors originated from the cell line were propagated as xenografts in nude mice. The suppression of XRCC2 expression was achieved by using vector-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in T84 cells. We found that the knockdown of XRCC2 expression effectively decreased T84 cellular proliferation and colony formation, and led to cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrested in G2/M phase induced by X-radiation in vitro. In addition, tumor xenograft studies suggested that XRCC2 silencing inhibited tumorigenicity after radiation treatment in vivo. Our data suggest that the suppression of XRCC2 expression rendered colon tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo, implying XRCC2 as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of radioresistant human colon cancer. PMID:24481064

  17. Knockdown of spalt function by RNAi causes de-repression of Hox genes and homeotic transformations in the crustacean Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Copf, Tijana; Rabet, Nicolas; Averof, Michalis

    2006-10-01

    Hox genes play a central role in the specification of distinct segmental identities in the body of arthropods. The specificity of Hox genes depends on their restricted expression domains, their interaction with specific cofactors and selectivity for particular target genes. spalt genes are associated with the function of Hox genes in diverse species, but the nature of this association varies: in some cases, spalt collaborates with Hox genes to specify segmental identities, in others, it regulates Hox gene expression or acts as their target. Here we study the role of spalt in the branchiopod crustacean Artemia franciscana. We find that Artemia spalt is expressed in the pre-segmental 'growth zone' and in stripes in each of the trunk (thoracic, genital and post-genital) segments that emerge from this zone. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we show that knocking down the expression of spalt has pleiotropic effects, which include thoracic to genital (T-->G), genital to thoracic (G-->T) and post-genital to thoracic (PG-->T) homeotic transformations. These transformations are associated with a stochastic de-repression of Hox genes in the corresponding segments of RNAi-treated animals (AbdB for T-->G and Ubx/AbdA for G-->T and PG-->T transformations). We discuss a possible role of spalt in the maintenance of Hox gene repression in Artemia and in other animals.

  18. Novel Genes Participating in the Formation of Prismatic and Nacreous Layers in the Pearl Oyster as Revealed by Their Tissue Distribution and RNA Interference Knockdown

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Hiroki; Mizutani, Saeri; Ota, Ayaka; Osakabe, Yuki; Nagai, Kiyohito; Maeyama, Kaoru; Okamoto, Kikuhiko; Kanoh, Satoshi; Asakawa, Shuichi; Watabe, Shugo

    2014-01-01

    In our previous publication, we identified novel gene candidates involved in shell formation by EST analyses of the nacreous and prismatic layer-forming tissues in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. In the present study, 14 of those genes, including two known genes, were selected and further examined for their involvement in shell formation using the RNA interference. Molecular characterization based on the deduced amino acid sequences showed that seven of the novel genes encode secretory proteins. The tissue distribution of the transcripts of the genes, as analyzed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, was mostly consistent with those obtained by the EST analysis reported previously. Shells in the pearl oysters injected with dsRNAs targeting genes 000027, 000058, 000081, 000096, 000113 (nacrein), 000118, 000133 and 000411 (MSI60), which showed expression specific to the nacreous layer forming tissues, showed abnormal surface appearance in this layer. Individuals injected with dsRNAs targeting genes 000027, 000113 and 000133 also exhibited abnormal prismatic layers. Individuals injected with dsRNAs targeting genes 000031, 000066, 000098, 000145, 000194 and 000200, which showed expression specific to prismatic layer forming tissues, displayed an abnormal surface appearance in both the nacreous and prismatic layers. Taken together, the results suggest that the genes involved in prismatic layer formation might also be involved in the formation of the nacreous layers. PMID:24454739

  19. Impaired Cytogenetic Damage Repair and Cell Cycle Regulation in Response to Ionizing Radiation in Human Fibroblast Cells with Individual Knock-down of 25 Genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry; Emami, Kamal; Hammond, Dianne; Casey, Rachael; Mehta, Satish; Jeevarajan, Antony; Pierson, Duane; Wu, Honglu

    2008-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have demonstrated that genes with upregulated expression induced by IR may play important roles in DNA damage sensing, cell cycle checkpoint and chromosomal repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR and its impact on cytogenetic responses to ionizing radiation has not been systematically studied. In our present study, the expression of 25 genes selected based on their transcriptional changes in response to IR or from their known DNA repair roles were individually knocked down by siRNA transfection in human fibroblast cells. Chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) formation were measured as the cytogenetic endpoints. Our results showed that the yield of MN and/or CA formation were significantly increased by suppressed expression of 5 genes that included Ku70 in the DSB repair pathway; XPA in the NER pathway; RPA1 in the MMR pathway; RAD17 and RBBP8 in cell cycle control. Knocked-down expression of 4 genes including MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, and SESN1 and SUMO1 showed significant inhibition of cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Furthermore, loss of XPA, p21 and MLH1 expression resulted in both enhanced cell cycle progression and significantly higher yield of cytogenetic damage, indicating the involvement of these gene products in both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Of these 11 genes that affected the cytogenetic response, 9 were up-regulated in the cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulating the biological consequences after IR. Failure to express these IR-responsive genes, such as by gene mutation, could seriously change the outcome of the post IR scenario and lead to carcinogenesis.

  20. A de novo X;8 translocation creates a PTK2-THOC2 gene fusion with THOC2 expression knockdown in a patient with psychomotor retardation and congenital cerebellar hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Bianchi, Federico T.; Schiavi, Alfonso; Chiotto, Alessandra M.A.; Rolando, Marco; di Cantogno, Ludovica Verdun; Grosso, Enrico; Cavalieri, Simona; Calcia, Alessandro; Lacerenza, Daniela; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Stevanin, Giovanni; Marelli, Cecilia; Durr, Alexandra; Forlani, Sylvie; Chelly, Jamel; Montarolo, Francesca; Tempia, Filippo; Beggs, Hilary E.; Reed, Robin; Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria C.; Brussino, Alessandro; Ventura, Natascia; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Brusco, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    We identified a balanced de novo translocation involving chromosomes Xq25 and 8q24 in an eight year-old girl with a non-progressive form of congenital ataxia, cognitive impairment and cerebellar hypoplasia. Breakpoint definition showed that the promoter of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase 2 (PTK2, also known as Focal Adhesion Kinase, FAK) gene on chromosome 8q24.3 is translocated 2 kb upstream of the THO complex subunit 2 (THOC2) gene on chromosome Xq25. PTK2 is a well-known non-receptor tyrosine kinase whereas THOC2 encodes a component of the evolutionarily conserved multiprotein THO complex, involved in mRNA export from nucleus. The translocation generated a sterile fusion transcript under the control of the PTK2 promoter, affecting expression of both PTK2 and THOC2 genes. PTK2 is involved in cell adhesion and, in neurons, plays a role in axonal guidance, and neurite growth and attraction. However, PTK2 haploinsufficiency alone is unlikely to be associated with human disease. Therefore, we studied the role of THOC2 in the CNS using three models: 1) THOC2 ortholog knockout in C. elegans which produced functional defects in specific sensory neurons; 2) Thoc2 knockdown in primary rat hippocampal neurons which increased neurite extension; 3) Thoc2 knockdown in neuronal stem cells (LC1) which increased their in vitro growth rate without modifying apoptosis levels. We suggest that THOC2 can play specific roles in neuronal cells and, possibly in combination with PTK2 reduction, may affect normal neural network formation, leading to cognitive impairment and cerebellar congenital hypoplasia. PMID:23749989

  1. Combined effect of a peptide–morpholino oligonucleotide conjugate and a cell-penetrating peptide as an antibiotic

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Donna; Alonso, Dulce; Altman, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    A cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)–morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) conjugate (PMO) that has an antibiotic effect in culture had some contaminating CPPs in earlier preparations. The mixed conjugate had gene-specific and gene-nonspecific effects. An improved purification procedure separates the PMO from the free CPP and MO. The gene-specific effects are a result of the PMO, and the nonspecific effects are a result of the unlinked, unreacted CPP. The PMO and the CPP can be mixed together, as has been shown previously in earlier experiments, and have a combined effect as an antibiotic. Kinetic analysis of these effects confirm this observation. The effect of the CPP is bacteriostatic. The effect of the PMO appears to be bacteriocidal. An assay for mutations that would alter the ability of these agents to affect bacterial viability is negative. PMID:23650357

  2. RNA interference-mediated knock-down of Bla g 1 in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., implicates this allergen-encoding gene in digestion and nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Suazo, A; Gore, C; Schal, C

    2009-11-01

    We used RNA interference (RNAi) to silence the expression of a gene encoding Bla g 1, a human allergen produced by the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., to study its function in cockroach physiology. Females injected with 1 microg of double-stranded RNA contained 64% less Bla g 1 protein and Bla g 1 mRNA abundance was reduced by 91.4% compared to sham-injected females. Bla g 1 knockdown slowed the pace of weight gain, midgut growth, and colleterial gland and basal oocyte maturation, resulting in delayed egg case formation and lower fecundity. Exogenous juvenile hormone treatments rescued reproduction in RNAi-treated females, suggesting that Bla g 1 silencing lowered endogenous juvenile hormone, probably by reducing food intake and nutrient absorption.

  3. Knockdown of RNA Interference Pathway Genes in Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates a Possible Mechanism of Resistance to Lethal dsRNA.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Ana María; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2), an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA's and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We identified both genes from a transcriptome library generated from different tissues and developmental stages of the western corn rootworm, an important target pest for transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting essential genes. The expression of these genes was suppressed by more than 90% after injecting gene specific dsRNA into adult rootworms. The injected beetles were then fed vATPase A dsRNA which has previously been demonstrated to cause mortality in western corn rootworm adults. The suppression of both RNAi pathway genes resulted in reduced mortality after subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of vATPase A dsRNA as well as increased vATPase A expression relative to control treatments. Injections with dsRNA for a non-lethal target sequence (Laccase 2) did not affect mortality or expression caused by vATPase A dsRNA indicating that the results observed with Argo and Dicer dsRNA were not caused by simple competition among different dsRNA's. These results confirm that both genes play an important role in the RNAi pathway for western corn rootworms and indicate that selection pressures that potentially affect the expression of these genes may provide a basis for future studies to understand potential mechanisms of resistance.

  4. Knockdown of RNA Interference Pathway Genes in Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates a Possible Mechanism of Resistance to Lethal dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Ana María; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Narva, Kenneth E.; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2), an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA’s and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We identified both genes from a transcriptome library generated from different tissues and developmental stages of the western corn rootworm, an important target pest for transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting essential genes. The expression of these genes was suppressed by more than 90% after injecting gene specific dsRNA into adult rootworms. The injected beetles were then fed vATPase A dsRNA which has previously been demonstrated to cause mortality in western corn rootworm adults. The suppression of both RNAi pathway genes resulted in reduced mortality after subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of vATPase A dsRNA as well as increased vATPase A expression relative to control treatments. Injections with dsRNA for a non-lethal target sequence (Laccase 2) did not affect mortality or expression caused by vATPase A dsRNA indicating that the results observed with Argo and Dicer dsRNA were not caused by simple competition among different dsRNA’s. These results confirm that both genes play an important role in the RNAi pathway for western corn rootworms and indicate that selection pressures that potentially affect the expression of these genes may provide a basis for future studies to understand potential mechanisms of resistance. PMID:27310918

  5. Genotype effect on lifespan following vitellogenin knockdown.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Kate E; Fondrk, M Kim; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2015-01-01

    Honey bee workers display remarkable flexibility in the aging process. This plasticity is closely tied to behavioral maturation. Workers who initiate foraging behavior at earlier ages have shorter lifespans, and much of the variation in total lifespan can be explained by differences in pre-foraging lifespan. Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk precursor protein, influences worker lifespan both as a regulator of behavioral maturation and through anti-oxidant and immune functions. Experimental reduction of Vg mRNA, and thus Vg protein levels, in wild-type bees results in precocious foraging behavior, decreased lifespan, and increased susceptibility to oxidative damage. We sought to separate the effects of Vg on lifespan due to behavioral maturation from those due to immune and antioxidant function using two selected strains of honey bees that differ in their phenotypic responsiveness to Vg gene knockdown. Surprisingly, we found that lifespans lengthen in the strain described as behaviorally and hormonally insensitive to Vg reduction. We then performed targeted gene expression analyses on genes hypothesized to mediate aging and lifespan: the insulin-like peptides (Ilp1 and 2) and manganese superoxide dismutase (mnSOD). The two honey bee Ilps are the most upstream components in the insulin-signaling pathway, which influences lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster and other organisms, while manganese superoxide dismutase encodes an enzyme with antioxidant functions in animals. We found expression differences in the llps in fat body related to behavior (llp1 and 2) and genetic background (Ilp2), but did not find strain by treatment effects. Expression of mnSOD was also affected by behavior and genetic background. Additionally, we observed a differential response to Vg knockdown in fat body expression of mnSOD, suggesting that antioxidant pathways may partially explain the strain-specific lifespan responses to Vg knockdown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting intronic repressor Element1 improve phenotype in SMA mouse models.

    PubMed

    Osman, Erkan Y; Miller, Madeline R; Robbins, Kate L; Lombardi, Abby M; Atkinson, Arleigh K; Brehm, Amanda J; Lorson, Christian L

    2014-09-15

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1). In all SMA patients, a nearly identical copy gene called SMN2 is present, which produces low levels of functional protein owing to an alternative splicing event. To prevent exon-skipping, we have targeted an intronic repressor, Element1 (E1), located upstream of SMN2 exon 7 using Morpholino-based antisense oligonucleotides (E1(MO)-ASOs). A single intracerebroventricular injection in the relatively severe mouse model of SMA (SMNΔ7 mouse model) elicited a robust induction of SMN protein, and mean life span was extended from an average survival of 13 to 54 days following a single dose, consistent with large weight gains and a correction of the neuronal pathology. Additionally, E1(MO)-ASO treatment in an intermediate SMA mouse (SMN(RT) mouse model) significantly extended life span by ∼700% and weight gain was comparable with the unaffected animals. While a number of experimental therapeutics have targeted the ISS-N1 element of SMN2 pre-mRNA, the development of E1 ASOs provides a new molecular target for SMA therapeutics that dramatically extends survival in two important pre-clinical models of disease.

  7. Role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 CYP1C genes in the reduced mesencephalic vein blood flow caused by activation of AHR2

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Akira; Stegeman, John J.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Harano, Ryo; Peterson, Richard E.; Hiraga, Takeo; Teraoka, Hiroki

    2011-06-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes various signs of toxicity in early life stages of vertebrates through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We previously reported a sensitive and useful endpoint of TCDD developmental toxicity in zebrafish, namely a decrease in blood flow in the dorsal midbrain, but downstream genes involved in the effect are not known. The present study addressed the role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 1C (CYP1C) genes in association with a decrease in mesencephalic vein (MsV) blood flow. The CYP1C subfamily was recently discovered in fish and includes the paralogues CYP1C1 and CYP1C2, both of which are induced via AHR2 in zebrafish embryos. We used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO or morpholino) to block initiation of translation of the target genes. TCDD-induced mRNA expression of CYP1Cs and a decrease in MsV blood flow were both blocked by gene knockdown of AHR2. Gene knockdown of CYP1C1 by two different morpholinos and CYP1C2 by two different morpholinos, but not by their 5 nucleotide-mismatch controls, was effective in blocking reduced MsV blood flow caused by TCDD. The same CYP1C-MOs prevented reduction of blood flow in the MsV caused by {beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF), representing another class of AHR agonists. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA expression of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 was induced by TCDD most strongly in branchiogenic primordia and pectoral fin buds. In situ hybridization using head transverse sections showed that TCDD increased the expression of both CYP1Cs in endothelial cells of blood vessels, including the MsV. These results indicate a potential role of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 in the local circulation failure induced by AHR2 activation in the dorsal midbrain of the zebrafish embryo. - Research Highlights: > We examine the roles of zebrafish CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 in TCDD developmental toxicity. > TCDD induces mRNA expression of both CYP1Cs in the mesencephalic vein. > Knockdown of each

  8. Turkey knockdown in successive flocks.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D; Edson, R K; Watkins, K L; Robertson, J L; Meldrum, J B; Novilla, M N

    2000-01-01

    Turkey knockdown was diagnosed in three of five flocks of hen turkeys on a single farm within a 12-mo period. The age of birds in the flocks affected ranged from 6 wk 2 days to 7 wk 4 days. The attack rate ranged from 0.02% to 0.30% with a case fatality rate in affected birds ranging from 0 to 74%. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and histopathologic lesions associated with knockdown. The feed in all flocks contained bacitracin methylene disalicylate and monensin (Coban). Affected birds were recumbent, demonstrated paresis, and were unable to vocalize. Postmortem examination revealed few significant lesions although pallor of the adductor muscles and petechiation in adductor and gastrocnemius muscles were noted. Birds that had been recumbent for extended periods were severely dehydrated. Consistent microscopic lesions included degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration of adductor, gastrocnemius, and abdominal muscles. No lesion in cardiac tissue was noted. Results of our investigation indicated that changes in water consumption, vitamin E status, and brooder to finisher movement correlated with the occurrence of knockdown. Turkey knockdown was defined in 1993 as any condition identified in a turkey flock that has affected the neuromuscular system to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand. This definition was later modified to...neuromuscular or skeletal systems to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand properly. Knockdown may be associated with numerous feed, management, or disease factors alone or in combination. Dosage of monensin, feed restriction/gorging, water restriction, heat stress, copper, mycotoxins, sodium chloride in feed, and sulfa drugs have all been suggested as contributing factors; however, laboratory studies to duplicate this have not been successful. This report presents observations from a single farm at which three of five hen flocks in a single year experienced knockdown. When a flock was reported as

  9. Reducing AsA leads to leaf lesion and defence response in knock-down of the AsA biosynthetic enzyme GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene in tomato plant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chanjuan; Ouyang, Bo; Yang, Changxian; Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhang, Junhong; Li, Hanxia; Ye, Zhibiao

    2013-01-01

    As a vital antioxidant, L-ascorbic acid (AsA) affects diverse biological processes in higher plants. Lack of AsA in cell impairs plant development. In the present study, we manipulated a gene of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase which catalyzes the conversion of D-mannose-1-P to GDP-D-mannose in AsA biosynthetic pathway and found out the phenotype alteration of tomato. In the tomato genome, there are four members of GMP gene family and they constitutively expressed in various tissues in distinct expression patterns. As expected, over-expression of SlGMP3 increased total AsA contents and enhanced the tolerance to oxidative stress in tomato. On the contrary, knock-down of SlGMP3 significantly decreased AsA contents below the threshold level and altered the phenotype of tomato plants with lesions and further senescence. Further analysis indicated the causes for this symptom could result from failing to instantly deplete the reactive oxygen species (ROS) as decline of free radical scavenging activity. More ROS accumulated in the leaves and then triggered expressions of defence-related genes and mimic symptom occurred on the leaves similar to hypersensitive responses against pathogens. Consequently, the photosynthesis of leaves was dramatically fallen. These results suggested the vital roles of AsA as an antioxidant in leaf function and defence response of tomato.

  10. Establishment of Functional Genomics Pipeline in Epiblast-Like Tissue by Combining Transcriptomic Analysis and Gene Knockdown/Knockin/Knockout, Using RNA Interference and CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Takata, Nozomu; Sakakura, Eriko; Kasukawa, Takeya; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    The epiblast (foremost embryonic ectoderm) generates all three germ layers and therefore has crucial roles in the formation of all mammalian body cells. However, regulation of epiblast gene expression is poorly understood because of the difficulty of manipulating epiblast tissues in vivo. In the present study, using the self-organizing properties of embryonic stem cell (ESC), we generated and characterized epiblast-like tissue in three-dimensional culture. We identified significant genome-wide gene expression changes in this epiblast-like tissue by transcriptomic analysis. In addition, we identified the particular significance of the Erk/Mapk and integrin-linked kinase pathways, and genes related to ectoderm/epithelial formation, using the bioinformatics resources IPA and DAVID. Here, we focused on Fgf5, which ranked in the top 10 among the discovered genes. To develop a functional analysis of Fgf5, we created an efficient method combining CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering and RNA interference (RNAi). Notably, we show one-step generation of various Fgf5 reporter lines including heterozygous and homozygous knockins (the GET method). For time- and dose-dependent depletion of fgf5 over the course of development, we generated an ESC line harboring Tol2 transposon-mediated integration of an inducible short hairpin RNA interference system (pdiRNAi). Our findings raised the possibility that Fgf/Erk signaling and apicobasal epithelial integrity are important factors in epiblast development. In addition, our methods provide a framework for a broad array of applications in the areas of mammalian genetics and molecular biology to understand development and to improve future therapeutics.

  11. RNAi-mediated gene knockdown and anti-angiogenic therapy of RCCs using a cyclic RGD-modified liposomal-siRNA system.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yu; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Sato, Yusuke; Hyodo, Mamoru; Akita, Hidetaka; Ohga, Noritaka; Hida, Kyoko; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-01-10

    Angiogenesis is one of crucial processes associated with tumor growth and development, and consequently a prime target for cancer therapy. Although tumor endothelial cells (TECs) play a key role in pathological angiogenesis, investigating phenotypical changes in neovessels when a gene expression in TEC is suppressed is a difficult task. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) represents a potential agent due to its ability to silence a gene of interest. We previously developed a system for in vivo siRNA delivery to cancer cells that involves a liposomal-delivery system, a MEND that contains a unique pH-sensitive cationic lipid, YSK05 (YSK-MEND). In the present study, we report on the development of a system that permits the delivery of siRNA to TECs by combining the YSK-MEND and a ligand that is specific to TECs. Cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys) (cRGD) is a well-known ligand to αVβ3 integrin, which is selectively expressed at high levels in TECs. We incorporated cRGD into the YSK-MEND (RGD-MEND) to achieve an efficient gene silencing in TECs. Quantitative RT-PCR and the 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR indicated that the intravenous injection of RGD-MEND at a dose of 4.0mg/kg induced a significant RNAi-mediated gene reduction in TEC but not in endothelial cells of other organs. Finally, we evaluated the therapeutic potency of the RGD-MEND encapsulating siRNA against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. A substantial delay in tumor growth was observed after three sequential RGD-MEND injections on alternate days. In conclusion, the RGD-MEND represents a new approach for the characterization of TECs and for us in anti-angiogenic therapy.

  12. RNAi knockdown of acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene eliminates jinggangmycin-enhanced reproduction and population growth in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Xin; Ge, Lin-Quan; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Lu, Xiu-Li; Li, Xin; Stanley, David; Song, Qi-Sheng; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2015-10-20

    A major challenge in ecology lies in understanding the coexistence of intraguild species, well documented at the organismal level, but not at the molecular level. This study focused on the effects of the antibiotic, jinggangmycin (JGM), a fungicide widely used in Asian rice agroecosystems, on reproduction of insects within the planthopper guild, including the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens and the white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera, both serious resurgence rice pests. JGM exposure significantly increased BPH fecundity and population growth, but suppressed both parameters in laboratory and field WBPH populations. We used digital gene expression and transcriptomic analyses to identify a panel of differentially expressed genes, including a set of up-regulated genes in JGM-treated BPH, which were down-regulated in JGM-treated WBPH. RNAi silencing of Acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACC), highly expressed in JGM-treated BPH, reduced ACC expression (by > 60%) and eliminated JGM-induced fecundity increases in BPH. These findings support our hypothesis that differences in ACC expression separates intraguild species at the molecular level.

  13. RNAi knockdown of acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene eliminates jinggangmycin-enhanced reproduction and population growth in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Xin; Ge, Lin-Quan; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Lu, Xiu-Li; Li, Xin; Stanley, David; Song, Qi-Sheng; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in ecology lies in understanding the coexistence of intraguild species, well documented at the organismal level, but not at the molecular level. This study focused on the effects of the antibiotic, jinggangmycin (JGM), a fungicide widely used in Asian rice agroecosystems, on reproduction of insects within the planthopper guild, including the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens and the white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera, both serious resurgence rice pests. JGM exposure significantly increased BPH fecundity and population growth, but suppressed both parameters in laboratory and field WBPH populations. We used digital gene expression and transcriptomic analyses to identify a panel of differentially expressed genes, including a set of up-regulated genes in JGM-treated BPH, which were down-regulated in JGM-treated WBPH. RNAi silencing of Acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACC), highly expressed in JGM-treated BPH, reduced ACC expression (by > 60%) and eliminated JGM-induced fecundity increases in BPH. These findings support our hypothesis that differences in ACC expression separates intraguild species at the molecular level. PMID:26482193

  14. Knockdown of fbxl10/kdm2bb rescues chd7 morphant phenotype in a zebrafish model of CHARGE syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Balow, Stephanie A.; Pierce, Lain X.; Zentner, Gabriel E.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Davis, Stephani; Sabaawy, Hatem E.; McDermott, Brian M.; Scacheri, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a sporadic autosomal-dominant genetic disorder characterized by a complex array of birth defects so named for its cardinal features of ocular coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, growth retardation, genital abnormalities, and ear abnormalities. Approximately two-thirds of individuals clinically diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome have heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7), an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler. To examine the role of Chd7 in development, a zebrafish model was generated through morpholino (MO)-mediated targeting of the zebrafish chd7 transcript. High doses of chd7 MO induce lethality early in embryonic development. However, low dose-injected embryos are viable, and by 4 days post-fertilization, morphant fish display multiple defects in organ systems analogous to those affected in humans with CHARGE syndrome. The chd7 morphants show elevated expression of several potent cell-cycle inhibitors including ink4ab (p16/p15), p21 and p27, accompanied by reduced cell proliferation. We also show that Chd7 is required for proper organization of neural crest-derived craniofacial cartilage structures. Strikingly, MO-mediated knockdown of the jumonji domain-containing histone demethylase fbxl10/kdm2bb, a repressor of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, rescues cell proliferation and cartilage defects in chd7 morphant embryos and can lead to complete rescue of the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. These results indicate that CHARGE-like phenotypes in zebrafish can be mitigated through modulation of fbxl10 levels and implicate FBXL10 as a possible therapeutic target in CHARGE syndrome. PMID:23920116

  15. Impairment of preimplantation porcine embryo development by histone demethylase KDM5B knockdown through disturbance of bivalent H3K4me3-H3K27me3 modifications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Hongyong; Wang, Xianlong; Dobbs, Kyle B; Yao, Jing; Qin, Guosong; Whitworth, Kristin; Walters, Eric M; Prather, Randall S; Zhao, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    KDM5B (JARID1B/PLU1) is a H3K4me2/3 histone demethylase that is implicated in cancer development and proliferation and is also indispensable for embryonic stem cell self-renewal, cell fate, and murine embryonic development. However, little is known about the role of KDM5B during preimplantation embryo development. Here we show that KDM5B is critical to porcine preimplantation development. KDM5B was found to be expressed in a stage-specific manner, consistent with demethylation of H3K4me3, with the highest expression being observed from the 4-cell to the blastocyst stages. Knockdown of KDM5B by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides injection impaired porcine embryo development to the blastocyst stage. The impairment of embryo development might be caused by increased expression of H3K4me3 at the 4-cell and blastocyst stages, which disturbs the balance of bivalent H3K4me3-H3K27me3 modifications at the blastocyst stage. Decreased abundance of H3K27me3 at blastocyst stage activates multiple members of homeobox genes (HOX), which need to be silenced for faithful embryo development. Additionally, the histone demethylase KDM6A was found to be upregulated by knockdown of KDM5B, which indicated it was responsible for the decreased abundance of H3K27me3 at the blastocyst stage. The transcriptional levels of Ten-Eleven Translocation gene family members (TET1, TET2, and TET3) are found to be increased by knockdown of KDM5B, which indicates cross talk between histone modifications and DNA methylation. The studies above indicate that KDM5B is required for porcine embryo development through regulating the balance of bivalent H3K4me3-H3K27me3 modifications.

  16. Knockdown of Leptin A Expression Dramatically Alters Zebrafish Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qin; Dalman, Mark; Chen, Yun; Akhter, Mashal; Brahmandam, Sravya; Patel, Yesha; Lowe, Josef; Thakkar, Mitesh; Gregory, Akil-Vuai; Phelps, Daryllanae; Riley, Caitlin; Londraville, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO) technology, we blocked leptin A or leptin receptor expression in embryonic zebrafish, and analyzed consequences of leptin knock-down on fish development. Embryos injected with leptin A or leptin receptor MOs (leptin A or leptin receptor morphants) had smaller bodies and eyes, undeveloped inner ear, enlarged pericardial cavity, curved body and/or tail and larger yolk compared to control embryos of the same stages. The defects persisted in 6-9 day old larvae. We found that blocking leptin A function had little effect on the development of early brain (1 day old), but differentiation of both the morphant dorsal brain and retinal cells was severely disrupted in older (2 day old) embryos. Despite the enlarged pericardial cavity, differentiation of cardiac cells appeared to be similar to control embryos. Formation of the morphants’ inner ear is also severely disrupted, which corroborates existing reports of leptin receptor expression in inner ear of both zebrafish and mammals. Co-injection of leptin A MO and recombinant leptin results in partial rescue of the wild-type phenotype. Our results suggest that leptin A plays distinct roles in zebrafish development. PMID:22841760

  17. ANG II receptor subtype 1a gene knockdown in the subfornical organ prevents increased drinking behavior in bile duct-ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Walch, Joseph D.; Nedungadi, T. Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) causes congestive liver failure that initiates hemodynamic changes, resulting in dilutional hyponatremia due to increased water intake and vasopressin release. This project tested the hypothesis that angiotensin signaling at the subfornical organ (SFO) augments drinking behavior in BDL rats. A genetically modified adeno-associated virus containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for ANG II receptor subtype 1a (AT1aR) gene was microinjected into the SFO of rats to knock down expression. Two weeks later, BDL or sham surgery was performed. Rats were housed in metabolic chambers for measurement of fluid and food intake and urine output. The rats were euthanized 28 days after BDL surgery for analysis. A group of rats was perfused for immunohistochemistry, and a second group was used for laser-capture microdissection for analysis of SFO AT1aR gene expression. BDL rats showed increased water intake that was attenuated in rats that received SFO microinjection of AT1aR shRNA. Among BDL rats treated with scrambled (control) and AT1aR shRNA, we observed an increased number of vasopressin-positive cells in the supraoptic nucleus that colocalized with ΔFosB staining, suggesting increased vasopressin release in both groups. These results indicate that angiotensin signaling through the SFO contributes to increased water intake, but not dilutional hyponatremia, during congestive liver failure. PMID:25009217

  18. Identification of gene knockdown targets conferring enhanced isobutanol and 1-butanol tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a tunable RNAi screening approach.

    PubMed

    Crook, Nathan; Sun, Jie; Morse, Nicholas; Schmitz, Alexander; Alper, Hal S

    2016-12-01

    Improving yeast tolerance to 1-butanol and isobutanol is a step toward enabling high-titer production. To identify previously unknown genetic targets leading to increased tolerance, we establish a tunable RNA interference (RNAi) screening approach. Specifically, we optimized the efficiency and tunability of RNA interference library screening in yeast, ultimately enabling downregulation efficiencies from 0 to 94 %. Using this system, we identified the Hsp70 family as a key regulator of isobutanol tolerance in a single round of screening, with downregulation of these genes conferring up to 64 % increased growth in 12 g/L isobutanol. For 1-butanol, we find through two rounds of iterative screening that the combined downregulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and enolase improves growth up to 3100 % in 10 g/L 1-butanol. Collectively, this work improves the tunability of RNAi in yeast as demonstrated by the discovery of novel effectors for these complex phenotypes.

  19. Distribution of the members of Anopheles gambiae and pyrethroid knock-down resistance gene (kdr) in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Dabiré, K R; Diabaté, A; Agostinho, F; Alves, F; Manga, L; Faye, O; Baldet, T

    2008-04-01

    An entomological survey conducted in 2002 in Guinea Bissau aimed i) to study the distribution of the members of Anopheles gambiae Giles complex (Diptera: Culicidae) throughout four ecological areas extended from mangrove to savannah ii) to evaluate the insecticide susceptibility status of these malaria vectors exposed to permethrin 0.75% and DDT4%, and finally iii) to investigate the occurrence and the spread of the Leu-Phe knock down resistance (kdr) gene associated with pyrethroid and DDT resistance within these vector populations. Adult female mosquitoes issued from indoor morning collections were tested using WHO procedures, test kits and impregnated papers to assess their insecticide susceptibility status. Tested specimens were identified by PCR assays and characterized for the kdr gene. Malaria vectors were mainly dominated elsewhere by An. gambiae s.s. (both S and M molecular forms) living in sympatry with low proportion of An. melas in the littoral. An. gambiae s.s. tested populations were fully susceptible both to permethrin 0.75% and to DDT 4% irrespective to their location and ecotypes. The Leu-Phe kdr mutation was detected at low frequency only in two sites respectively urban (Bissau) and Guinea-savannah (Gabu) areas. It occurred only in the S molecular form in Gabu (at the frequency of 0.14) and both in the S and M molecular forms in Bissau at the frequency of 0.06 and 0.02 respectively. These results suggested that the populations of An. gambiae s.s., the most frequent malaria vector in Guinea Bissau, still remain cross-susceptible to pyrethroids and DDT This susceptibility status and the frequency of resistance mechanism such as the kdr mutation must be monitored in the future particularly in the urban and savannah areas with continuous and intensive use of insecticides.

  20. Knockdown of prodynorphin gene prevents cognitive decline, reduces anxiety, and rescues loss of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor function in aging.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Caroline; Tse, Yiu Chung; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Chabot, Jean-Guy; Herzog, Herbert; Schwarzer, Christoph; Wong, Tak Pan; Quirion, Rémi

    2013-07-31

    Expression of dynorphin, an endogenous opioid peptide, increases with age and has been associated with memory impairments in rats. In human, prodynorphin (Pdyn) gene polymorphisms might be linked to cognitive function in the elderly. Moreover, elevated dynorphin levels have been reported in postmortem samples from Alzheimer's disease patients. However, the cellular and molecular processes affected by higher dynorphin levels during aging remain unknown. Using Pdyn(-/-) mice, we observed significant changes in the function and expression of Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). Compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates, we found increased expression of mGluR1α and mGluR5 in the hippocampus and cortex of old, but not young, Pdyn(-/-) mice. Increased Group 1 mGluR expression in aged Pdyn(-/-) mice was associated with enhanced mGluR-mediated long-term depression, a form of synaptic plasticity. Notably, whereas aged WT mice developed spatial and recognition memory deficits, aged Pdyn(-/-) mice performed similarly as young mice. Pharmacological treatments with 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide, a positive modulator of mGlu5 receptors, or norbinaltorphimine, an antagonist for dynorphin-targeted κ-opioid receptor, rescued memory in old WT mice. Conversely, mGlu5 receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride impaired spatial memory of old Pdyn(-/-) mice. Intact cognition in aged Pdyn(-/-) mice paralleled with increased expression of Group 1 mGluR-related genes Homer 1a and Arc. Finally, aged Pdyn(-/-) mice displayed less anxiety-related behaviors than age-matched WT mice. Together, our results suggest that elevated Pdyn expression during normal aging reduces mGluR expression and signaling, which in turn impairs cognitive functions and increases anxiety.

  1. Establishment of conditional vectors for hairpin siRNA knockdowns

    PubMed Central

    Matsukura, Shiro; Jones, Peter A.; Takai, Daiya

    2003-01-01

    Small interference RNA (siRNA) is an emerging methodology in reverse genetics. Here we report the development of a new tetracycline-inducible vector-based siRNA system, which uses a tetracycline-responsive derivative of the U6 promoter and the tetracycline repressor for conditional in vivo transcription of short hairpin RNA. This method prevents potential lethality immediately after transfection of a vector when the targeted gene is indispensable, or the phenotype of the knockdown is lethal or results in a growth abnormality. We show that the controlled knockdown of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in human cancer resulted in growth arrest. Removal of the inducer, doxycycline, from treated cells led to re-expression of the targeted gene. Thus the method allows for a highly controlled approach to gene knockdown. PMID:12888529

  2. Knockdown of Litopenaeus vannamei HtrA2, an up-regulated gene in response to WSSV infection, leading to delayed shrimp mortality.

    PubMed

    Peepim, Termsri; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Khunrae, Pongsak; Senapin, Saengchan; Rattanarojpong, Triwit

    2016-02-10

    HtrA2 is an apoptosis-activating gene that enhances the apoptotic process by preventing the formation of the IAP-caspase complex, thereby freeing caspase to trigger the apoptosis pathway. In this study, we presented the full-length cDNA sequence of HtrA2 from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvHtrA2). The full-length LvHtrA2 was 1335 bp, encoding 444 amino acids. This deduced amino acid sequence contained five conserved domains: a mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS), a transmembrane (TM) domain, an IAP-binding motif (IBM), a trimerization motif, a serine protease domain, and a PDZ domain normally found in the HtrA2 proteins of other organisms. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that LvHtrA2 clustered with the HtrA2 from other invertebrates and was closely related to Penaeus monodon HtrA2 (PmHtrA2). RT-PCR with RNA extracts from L. vannamei revealed that LvHtrA2 expression was found in several tissues, including the lymphoid organs, the haemocytes, the hepatopancreas, the gill, and the stomach, with different expression levels. When determining the role of LvHtrA2 in WSSV infection, it was found that LvHtrA2 transcription was early up-regulated in the WSSV-infected shrimp at 8h post-infection (p.i.) and expression still remained high at 48 h p.i.. It also demonstrated that dsRNA specific to LvHtrA2 reduced the cumulative mortality in the WSSV-infected shrimp compared with the control group. Additionally, depletion of the LvHtrA2 transcripts reduced expression levels for caspase-3 (Cap-3) gene in shrimp. This result could suggest that LvHtrA2 may involved in apoptosis mediated mortality rather than providing immune protection during WSSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of porcine MyD88 knockdown on the expression of TLR4 pathway-related genes and proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chaohui; Sun, Li; Yu, Lihuai; Zhu, Guoqiang; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

    2016-12-01

    As a critical adapter protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR)/Interleukin (IL)-1R signalling pathway, myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) plays an important role in immune responses and host defence against pathogens. The present study was designed to provide a foundation and an important reagent for the mechanistic study of MyD88 and its role TLR/IL-1R signalling pathways in porcine immunity. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi was used to generate a porcine PK15 cell line with a silenced MyD88 gene and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting were used to detect changes in the expression of critical genes in the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling pathway. ELISA was used to measure the levels of seven proinflammatory cytokines-interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β-in cell culture supernatants after MyD88 silencing. We successfully obtained a PK15 cell line with 61% MyD88 mRNA transcript down-regulated. In PK15 cells with MyD88 silencing, the transcript levels of TLR4 and IL-1β were significantly reduced, whereas there were no significant changes in the expression levels of cluster of differentiation antigen 14 (CD14), interferon-α (IFN-α) or TNF-α The ELISA results showed that the levels of most cytokines were not significantly changed apart from IL-8 without stimulation, which was significantly up-regulated. When cells were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.1 μg/ml) for 6 h, the global level of seven proinflammatory cytokines up-regulated and the level of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 of Blank and negative control (NC) group up-regulated more significantly than RNAi group (P<0.05), which revealed that the MyD88 silencing could reduce the TLR4 signal transduction which inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines and finally leaded to immunosuppression.

  4. A novel amino acid substitution in the para-sodium channel gene in Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with knockdown resistance.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Marcelino; Flores, Adriana E; Alvarez, Genoveva; Molina, Alberto; Rodriguez, Iram; Ponce, Gustavo

    2010-12-01

    Resistance acquired by the tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) to different types of ixodicides in Mexico has had a negative impact on national and local livestock, mainly due to the transmission of diseases such as babesiosis and anaplasmosis, among others. The technique used for the diagnosis of resistance was that in the bioassays noted in the Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM-006-ZOO-1994). The purpose of this investigation was the determination of resistance to pyrethroids through isoleucine-phenylalanine mutation in the gene KDR, in a population of ticks from Montemorelos, NL, Mexico. Preliminary bioassays demonstrated resistance to cypermethrin and deltamethrin (27.4%) and flumethrin (36.7-34.7%). To identify the mutation, DNA was extracted from 100 mg of larvae (pools), 10 pools were assessed by PCR, in which a pair of primers designed with the program Oligo 2.0 and Amplify 1.2 amplified a 136 bp fragment containing the mutation. The PCR product was subsequently sequenced to confirm the presence of the mutation. A strain susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides (Mora strain) was used as control, but it did not show the mutation. However, the mutation was detected in 4 out of 10 samples of the strain Montemorelos.

  5. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Peptide-Conjugated Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Howard, James J; Sturge, Carolyn R; Moustafa, Dina A; Daly, Seth M; Marshall-Batty, Kimberly R; Felder, Christina F; Zamora, Danniel; Yabe-Gill, Marium; Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Bailey, Stacey M; Wong, Michael; Goldberg, Joanna B; Geller, Bruce L; Greenberg, David E

    2017-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly virulent, multidrug-resistant pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and is particularly devastating in patients with cystic fibrosis. Increasing antibiotic resistance coupled with decreasing numbers of antibiotics in the developmental pipeline demands novel antibacterial approaches. Here, we tested peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs), which inhibit translation of complementary mRNA from specific, essential genes in P. aeruginosa PPMOs targeted to acpP, lpxC, and rpsJ, inhibited P. aeruginosa growth in many clinical strains and activity of PPMOs could be enhanced 2- to 8-fold by the addition of polymyxin B nonapeptide at subinhibitory concentrations. The PPMO targeting acpP was also effective at preventing P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation and at reducing existing biofilms. Importantly, treatment with various combinations of a PPMO and a traditional antibiotic demonstrated synergistic growth inhibition, the most effective of which was the PPMO targeting rpsJ with tobramycin. Furthermore, treatment of P. aeruginosa PA103-infected mice with PPMOs targeting acpP, lpxC, or rpsJ significantly reduced the bacterial burden in the lungs at 24 h by almost 3 logs. Altogether, this study demonstrates that PPMOs targeting the essential genes acpP, lpxC, or rpsJ in P. aeruginosa are highly effective at inhibiting growth in vitro and in vivo These data suggest that PPMOs alone or in combination with antibiotics represent a novel approach to addressing the problems associated with rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Inhibition of Multiple Subtypes of Influenza A Virus in Cell Cultures with Morpholino Oligomers▿

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Qing; Pastey, Manoj ; Kobasa, Darwyn; Puthavathana, Piliapan; Lupfer, Christopher; Bestwick, Richard K. ; Iversen, Patrick L.; Chen, Jianzhu; Stein, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (P-PMO) are single-stranded nucleic acid-like antisense agents that can reduce gene expression by sterically blocking complementary RNA sequence. P-PMO are water soluble and nuclease resistant, and they readily achieve uptake into cells in culture under standard conditions. Eight P-PMO, each 20 to 22 bases in length, were evaluated for their ability to inhibit influenza A virus (FLUAV) A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) replication in cell culture. The P-PMO were designed to base pair with FLUAV RNA sequences that are highly conserved across viral subtypes and considered critical to the FLUAV biological-cycle, such as gene segment termini and mRNA translation start site regions. Several P-PMO were highly efficacious, each reducing viral titer in a dose-responsive and sequence-specific manner in A/PR/8/34-infected cells. Two P-PMO, one designed to target the AUG translation start site region of PB1 mRNA and the other the 3′-terminal region of nucleoprotein viral genome RNA, also proved to be potent against several other FLUAV strains, including A/WSN/33 (H1N1), A/Memphis/8/88 (H3N2), A/Eq/Miami/63 (H3N8), A/Eq/Prague/56 (H7N7), and the highly pathogenic A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/04 (H5N1). The P-PMO exhibited minimal cytotoxicity in cell viability assays. High efficacy by two of the P-PMO against multiple FLUAV subtypes suggests that these oligomers represent a broad-spectrum therapeutic approach against a high percentage of known FLUAV strains. PMID:16966399

  7. Simultaneous knock-down of six β-galactosidase genes in petunia petals prevents loss of pectic galactan but decreases petal strength.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Erin M; Somerfield, Sheryl D; Deroles, Simon C; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Erridge, Zoë A; Brummell, David A; Hunter, Donald A

    2017-04-01

    Galactose (Gal) is incorporated into cell wall polysaccharides as flowers open, but then is lost because of β-galactosidase activity as flowers mature and wilt. The significance of this for flower physiology resides in the role of galactan-containing polysaccharides in the cell wall, which is still largely unresolved. To investigate this, transcript accumulation of six cell wall-associated β-galactosidases was simultaneously knocked down in 'Mitchell' petunia (Petunia axillaris x (P. axillaris x P. hybrida)) flower petals. The multi-PhBGAL RNAi construct targeted three bud- and three senescence-associated β-galactosidase genes. The petals of the most down-regulated line (GA19) were significantly disrupted in galactose turnover during flower opening, and at the onset of senescence had retained 86% of their galactose compared with 20% in the controls. The Gal content of Na2CO3-soluble cell wall extracts and the highly insoluble polysaccharides associated with cellulose were particularly affected. Immunodetection with the antibody LM5 showed that much of the cell wall Gal in GA19 was retained as galactan, presumably the side-chains of rhamnogalacturonan-I. The flowers of GA19, despite having retained substantially more galactan, were no different from controls in their internal cell arrangement, dimensions, weight or timing of opening and senescence. However, the GA19 petals had less petal integrity (as judged by force required to cause petal fracture) after opening and showed a greater decline in this integrity with time than controls, raising the possibility that galactan loss is a mechanism for helping to maintain petal tissue cohesion after flower opening.

  8. New coumarin carboxylates having trifluoromethyl, diethylamino and morpholino terminal groups: Synthesis and mesomorphic characterisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa, Hosapalya Thimmaiah; Harishkumar, Hosanagara Narayana; Palakshamurthy, Bandrehalli Siddagangappa

    2017-03-01

    New set of trifluromethyl, diethylamino and morpholino derived coumarin compounds were prepared by reacting various coumarin 3-carboxylic acids with various phenyl esters with peripheral alkyl, ester and polar cyano moieties in the presence of EDC.HCl/DMAP as esterification agent. The chemical structures of new coumarin derivatives were confirmed by standard spectroscopic techniques and mesomorphic behaviours were established by polarised optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Trifluoromethane and morpholino derivatives show SmA/Nematic phase, while diethylamino derivatives did not show liquid crystalline property.

  9. Loss of a Candidate Biliary Atresia Susceptibility Gene, add3a, Causes Biliary Developmental Defects in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Vivian; Cofer, Zenobia C.; Cui, Shuang; Sapp, Valerie; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Matthews, Randolph P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive fibroinflammatory cholangiopathy affecting the bile ducts of neonates. Although BA is the leading indication for pediatric liver transplantation, the etiology remains elusive. Adducin 3 (ADD3) and X-prolyl aminopeptidase 1 (XPNPEP1) are 2 genes previously identified in genome-wide association studies as potential BA susceptibility genes. Using zebrafish, we investigated the importance of ADD3 and XPNPEP1 in functional studies. Methods: To determine whether loss of either gene leads to biliary defects, we performed morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO) knockdown studies targeting add3a and xpnpep1 in zebrafish. Individuals were assessed for decreases in biliary function and the presence of biliary defects. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on pooled 5 days postfertilization larvae to assess variations in transcriptional expression of genes of interest. Results: Although both xpnpep1 and add3a are expressed in the developing zebrafish liver, only knockdown of add3a produced intrahepatic defects and decreased biliary function. Similar results were observed in homozygous add3a mutants. MO-mediated knockdown of add3a also showed higher mRNA expression of hedgehog (Hh) targets. Inhibition of Hh signaling rescued biliary defects caused by add3a knockdown. Combined knockdown of add3a and glypican-1 (gpc1), another mediator of Hh activity that is also a BA susceptibility gene, resulted in more severe biliary defects than knockdown of either alone. Conclusions: Our results support previous studies identifying ADD3 as a putative genetic risk factor for BA susceptibility. Our results also provide evidence that add3a may be affecting the Hh pathway, an important factor in BA pathogenesis. PMID:27526058

  10. Morpholino oligonucleotides do not participate perfectly in standard Watson-Crick complexes with RNA.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gaoping; Wesolowski, Donna; Izadjoo, Mina; Altman, Sidney

    2010-11-01

    RNase P from E. coli will cleave a RNA at a site designated in a complex with an external guide sequence (EGS). The location of the site is determined by the Watson-Crick complementary sequence that can be formed between the RNA and the EGS. Morpholino oligonucleotides (PMOs) that have the same base sequences as any particular EGS will not direct cleavage by RNase P of the target RNA at the expected site in three mRNAs. Instead, cleavage occurs at a secondary site that does not correspond exactly to the expected Watson-Crick sequence in the PMO. This cleavage in the mRNA for a drug resistance gene, CAT mRNA, is at least second order in the concentration of the PMOs, but the mechanism is not understood yet and might be more complicated than a simple second-order reaction. EGSs and PMOs inhibit the reactions of each other effectively in a competitive fashion. A basic peptide attached to the PMO (PPMO) is more effective because of its binding properties to the mRNA as a substrate. However, a PMO is just as efficient as a PPMO on a mRNA that is mutated so that the canonical W-C site has been altered. The altered mRNA is not recognizable by effective extensive W-C pairing to an EGS or PMO. The complex of a PMO on a mutated mRNA as a substrate shows that the dimensions of the modified oligonucleotide cannot be the same as a naked piece of single-stranded RNA.

  11. A single administration of morpholino antisense oligomer rescues spinal muscular atrophy in mouse.

    PubMed

    Porensky, Paul N; Mitrpant, Chalermchai; McGovern, Vicki L; Bevan, Adam K; Foust, Kevin D; Kaspar, Brain K; Wilton, Stephen D; Burghes, Arthur H M

    2012-04-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by α-motor neuron loss in the spinal cord anterior horn. SMA results from deletion or mutation of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 gene (SMN1) and retention of SMN2. A single nucleotide difference between SMN1 and SMN2 results in exclusion of exon 7 from the majority of SMN2 transcripts, leading to decreased SMN protein levels and development of SMA. A series of splice enhancers and silencers regulate incorporation of SMN2 exon 7; these splice motifs can be blocked with antisense oligomers (ASOs) to alter SMN2 transcript splicing. We have evaluated a morpholino (MO) oligomer against ISS-N1 [HSMN2Ex7D(-10,-29)], and delivered this MO to postnatal day 0 (P0) SMA pups (Smn-/-, SMN2+/+, SMNΔ7+/+) by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. Survival was increased markedly from 15 days to >100 days. Delayed CNS MO injection has moderate efficacy, and delayed peripheral injection has mild survival advantage, suggesting that early CNS ASO administration is essential for SMA therapy consideration. ICV treatment increased full-length SMN2 transcript as well as SMN protein in neural tissue, but only minimally in peripheral tissue. Interval analysis shows a decrease in alternative splice modification over time. We suggest that CNS increases of SMN will have a major impact on SMA, and an early increase of the SMN level results in correction of motor phenotypes. Finally, the early introduction by intrathecal delivery of MO oligomers is a potential treatment for SMA patients.

  12. The Popeye domain containing 2 (popdc2) gene in zebrafish is required for heart and skeletal muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Kirchmaier, Bettina C.; Poon, Kar Lai; Schwerte, Thorsten; Huisken, Jan; Winkler, Christoph; Jungblut, Benno; Stainier, Didier Y.; Brand, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Popeye domain containing (Popdc) genes encode a family of transmembrane proteins with an evolutionary conserved Popeye domain. These genes are abundantly expressed in striated muscle tissue, however their function is not well understood. In this study we have investigated the role of the popdc2 gene in zebrafish. Popdc2 transcripts were detected in the embryonic myocardium and transiently in the craniofacial and tail musculature. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of popdc2 resulted in aberrant development of skeletal muscle and heart. Muscle segments in the trunk were irregularly shaped and craniofacial muscles were severely reduced or even missing. In the heart, pericardial edema was prevalent in the morphants and heart chambers were elongated and looping was abnormal. These pathologies in muscle and heart were alleviated after reducing the morpholino concentration. However the heart still was abnormal displaying cardiac arrhythmia at later stages of development. Optical recordings of cardiac contractility revealed irregular ventricular contractions with a 2:1, or 3:1 atrial/ventricular conduction ratio, which caused a significant reduction in heart frequency. Recordings of calcium transients with high spatiotemporal resolution using a transgenic calcium indicator line (Tg(cmlc2:gCaMP)s878) and SPIM microscopy confirmed the presence of a severe arrhythmia phenotype. Our results identify popdc2 as a gene important for striated muscle differentiation and cardiac morphogenesis. In addition it is required for the development of the cardiac conduction system. PMID:22290329

  13. PCTAIRE1-knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to TNF family cytokines.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Teruki; Shi, Ranxin; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Reed, John C; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While PCTAIRE1/PCTK1/Cdk16 is overexpressed in malignant cells and is crucial in tumorigenesis, its function in apoptosis remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of PCTAIRE1 in apoptosis, especially in the extrinsic cell death pathway. Gene-knockdown of PCTAIRE1 sensitized prostate cancer PPC1 and Du145 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells to TNF-family cytokines, including TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Meanwhile, PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not sensitize non-malignant cells, including diploid fibroblasts IMR-90 and the immortalized prostate epithelial cell line 267B1. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not up-regulate death receptor expression on the cell surface or affect caspase-8, FADD and FLIP expression levels. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did promote caspase-8 cleavage and RIPK1 degradation, while RIPK1 mRNA knockdown sensitized PPC1 cells to TNF-family cytokines. Furthermore, the kinase inhibitor SNS-032, which inhibits PCTAIRE1 kinase activity, sensitized PPC1 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Together these results suggest that PCTAIRE1 contributes to the resistance of cancer cell lines to apoptosis induced by TNF-family cytokines, which implies that PCTAIRE1 inhibitors could have synergistic effects with TNF-family cytokines for cytodestruction of cancer cells.

  14. Chemical Modifications of Antisense Morpholino Oligomers Enhance Their Efficacy against Ebola Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    2001. Pathogenesis of experimental Ebola Zaire virus infec- tion in BALB/c mice. J. Comp. Pathol. 125:233–242. 13. Han, Z., H. Boshra, J. O. Sunyer, S...Property Organization , Geneva, Switzerland. 38. World Health Organization . 2008. Outbreak news. Ebola haemorrhagic fe- ver, Uganda—end of the outbreak...American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Chemical Modifications of Antisense Morpholino Oligomers Enhance Their Efficacy against Ebola Virus

  15. Manipulation of Developing Juvenile Structures in Purple Sea Urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) by Morpholino Injection into Late Stage Larvae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sea urchins have been used as experimental organisms for developmental biology for over a century. Yet, as is the case for many other marine invertebrates, understanding the development of the juveniles and adults has lagged far behind that of their embryos and larvae. The reasons for this are, in large part, due to the difficulty of experimentally manipulating juvenile development. Here we develop and validate a technique for injecting compounds into juvenile rudiments of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We first document the distribution of rhodaminated dextran injected into different compartments of the juvenile rudiment of sea urchin larvae. Then, to test the potential of this technique to manipulate development, we injected Vivo-Morpholinos (vMOs) designed to knock down p58b and p16, two proteins involved in the elongation of S. purpuratus larval skeleton. Rudiments injected with these vMOs showed a delay in the growth of some juvenile skeletal elements relative to controls. These data provide the first evidence that vMOs, which are designed to cross cell membranes, can be used to transiently manipulate gene function in later developmental stages in sea urchins. We therefore propose that injection of vMOs into juvenile rudiments, as shown here, is a viable approach to testing hypotheses about gene function during development, including metamorphosis. PMID:25436992

  16. Manipulation of developing juvenile structures in purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) by morpholino injection into late stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Heyland, Andreas; Hodin, Jason; Bishop, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Sea urchins have been used as experimental organisms for developmental biology for over a century. Yet, as is the case for many other marine invertebrates, understanding the development of the juveniles and adults has lagged far behind that of their embryos and larvae. The reasons for this are, in large part, due to the difficulty of experimentally manipulating juvenile development. Here we develop and validate a technique for injecting compounds into juvenile rudiments of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We first document the distribution of rhodaminated dextran injected into different compartments of the juvenile rudiment of sea urchin larvae. Then, to test the potential of this technique to manipulate development, we injected Vivo-Morpholinos (vMOs) designed to knock down p58b and p16, two proteins involved in the elongation of S. purpuratus larval skeleton. Rudiments injected with these vMOs showed a delay in the growth of some juvenile skeletal elements relative to controls. These data provide the first evidence that vMOs, which are designed to cross cell membranes, can be used to transiently manipulate gene function in later developmental stages in sea urchins. We therefore propose that injection of vMOs into juvenile rudiments, as shown here, is a viable approach to testing hypotheses about gene function during development, including metamorphosis.

  17. Synthesis of Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligonucleotides and Their Chimeras Using Phosphoramidite Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sibasish; Caruthers, Marvin H

    2016-12-07

    Phosphorodiamidate morpholinos (PMOs) and PMO-DNA chimeras have been prepared on DNA synthesizers using phosphoramidite chemistry. This was possible by first generating boranephosphoroamidate morpholino internucleotide linkages followed by oxidative substitution with four different amines: N,N-dimethylamine, N-methylamine, ammonia, and morpholine. When compared to a natural DNA duplex, the amino modified PMO was found to have a higher melting temperature with either complementary DNA or RNA, whereas the remaining PMO analogues having morpholino, dimethylamino, or N-methylamino phosphorodiamidate linkages had melting temperatures that were either comparable or reduced. Additionally the N,N-dimethylamino PMO-DNA chimeras were found to stimulate RNaseH1 activity. Treatment of HeLa cells with fluorescently labeled PMO chimeras demonstrated that these analogues were efficiently taken up by cells in the presence of a lipid transfection reagent. Because of the simplistic synthesis procedures, various PMO analogues are now readily available and should therefore open new pathways for research into the antisense, diagnostic, and nanotechnology oligonucleotide fields.

  18. Achieving targeted and quantifiable alteration of mRNA splicing with Morpholino oligos

    SciTech Connect

    Morcos, Paul A. . E-mail: pmorcos@gene-tools.com

    2007-06-29

    This work represents the first guide for using steric-block antisense oligos as tools for effective and targeted modification of RNA splicing. Comparison of several steric-block oligo types shows the properties of Morpholinos provide significant advantages over other potential splice-blocking oligos. The procedures and complications of designing effective splice-blocking Morpholino oligos are described. The design process requires complete pre-mRNA sequence for defining suitable targets, which usually generate specific predictable messengers. To validate the targeting procedure, the level and nature of transcript alteration is characterized by RT-PCR analysis of splice modification in a {beta}-globin splice model system. An oligo-walking study reveals that while U1 and U2 small nuclear RiboNucleoProtein (snRNP) binding sites are the most effective targets for blocking splicing, inclusion of these sites is not required to achieve effective splice modifications. The most effective targeting strategy employs simultaneously blocking snRNP binding sites and splice-junctions. The work presented here continues to be the basis for most of the successful Morpholino oligos designed for the worldwide research community to block RNA splicing.

  19. Bubble liposomes and ultrasound exposure improve localized morpholino oligomer delivery into the skeletal muscles of dystrophic mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Yoichi; Ishii, Yuko; Shiono, Hitomi; Akiyama, Saki; Sekine, Shoko; Kojima, Takuo; Mayama, Sayaka; Kikuchi, Taiki; Hamano, Nobuhito; Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo; Aramaki, Yukihiko

    2014-03-03

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder that is caused by mutations in the DMD gene that lead to an absence of functional protein. The mdx dystrophic mouse contains a nonsense mutation in exon 23 of the dystrophin gene; a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) designed to skip this mutated exon in the mRNA induces dystrophin expression. However, an efficient PMO delivery method is needed to improve treatment strategies for DMD. We previously developed polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified liposomes (Bubble liposomes) that entrap ultrasound contrast gas and demonstrated that the combination of Bubble liposomes with ultrasound exposure is an effective gene delivery tool in vitro and in vivo. In this study, to evaluate the ability of Bubble liposomes as a PMO delivery tool, we tested the potency of the Bubble liposomes combined with ultrasound exposure to boost the delivery of PMO and increase the skipping of the mutated exon in the mdx mouse. The results indicated that the combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound exposure increased the uptake of the PMO targeting a nonsense mutation in exon 23 of the dystrophin gene and consequently increased the PMO-mediated exon-skipping efficiency compared with PMO injection alone, leading to significantly enhanced dystrophin expression. This increased efficiency indicated the potential of the combination of Bubble liposomes with ultrasound exposure to enhance PMO delivery for treating DMD. Thus, this ultrasound-mediated Bubble liposome technique may provide an effective, noninvasive, nonviral method for PMO therapy for DMD muscle as well as for other muscular dystrophies.

  20. Chronic Systemic Therapy With Low-dose Morpholino Oligomers Ameliorates the Pathology and Normalizes Locomotor Behavior in mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Malerba, Alberto; Sharp, Paul S; Graham, Ian R; Arechavala-Gomeza, Virginia; Foster, Keith; Muntoni, Francesco; Wells, Dominic J; Dickson, George

    2011-01-01

    The administration of antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) to skip one or more exons in mutated forms of the DMD gene and so restore the reading frame of the transcript is one of the most promising approaches to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). At present, preclinical studies demonstrating the efficacy and safety of long-term AO administration have not been conducted. Furthermore, it is essential to determine the minimal effective dose and frequency of administration. In this study, two different low doses (LDs) of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) designed to skip the mutated exon 23 in the mdx dystrophic mouse were administered for up to 12 months. Mice treated for 50 weeks showed a substantial dose-related amelioration of the pathology, particularly in the diaphragm. Moreover, the generalized physical activity was profoundly enhanced compared to untreated mdx mice showing that widespread, albeit partial, dystrophin expression restores the normal activity in mdx mice. Our results show for the first time that a chronic long-term administration of LDs of unmodified PMO, equivalent to doses in use in DMD boys, is safe, significantly ameliorates the muscular dystrophic phenotype and improves the activity of dystrophin-deficient mice, thus encouraging the further clinical translation of this approach in humans. PMID:21102560

  1. Cationic polyelectrolyte-mediated delivery of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides for exon-skipping in vitro and in mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingxing; Wu, Bo; Tucker, Jason D; Lu, Peijuan; Lu, Qilong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a series of cationic polyelectrolytes (PEs) with different size and composition for their potential to improve delivery of an antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDAC) polymer series, especially PE-3 and PE-4, improves the delivery efficiency of PMO, comparable with Endoporter-mediated PMO delivery in vitro. The enhanced PMO delivery and targeting to dystrophin exon 23 was further observed in mdx mice, up to fourfold with the PE-4, compared with PMO alone. The cytotoxicity of the PEs was lower than that of Endoporter and polyethylenimine 25,000 Da in vitro, and was not clearly detected in muscle in vivo under the tested concentrations. Together, these results demonstrate that optimization of PE molecular size, composition, and distribution of cationic charge are key factors to achieve enhanced PMO exon-skipping efficiency. The increased efficiency and lower toxicity show this PDDAC series to be capable gene/antisense oligonucleotide delivery-enhancing agents for treating muscular dystrophy and other diseases. PMID:26366082

  2. Cationic polyelectrolyte-mediated delivery of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides for exon-skipping in vitro and in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxing; Wu, Bo; Tucker, Jason D; Lu, Peijuan; Lu, Qilong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a series of cationic polyelectrolytes (PEs) with different size and composition for their potential to improve delivery of an antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDAC) polymer series, especially PE-3 and PE-4, improves the delivery efficiency of PMO, comparable with Endoporter-mediated PMO delivery in vitro. The enhanced PMO delivery and targeting to dystrophin exon 23 was further observed in mdx mice, up to fourfold with the PE-4, compared with PMO alone. The cytotoxicity of the PEs was lower than that of Endoporter and polyethylenimine 25,000 Da in vitro, and was not clearly detected in muscle in vivo under the tested concentrations. Together, these results demonstrate that optimization of PE molecular size, composition, and distribution of cationic charge are key factors to achieve enhanced PMO exon-skipping efficiency. The increased efficiency and lower toxicity show this PDDAC series to be capable gene/antisense oligonucleotide delivery-enhancing agents for treating muscular dystrophy and other diseases.

  3. Delayed Time-to-Treatment of an Antisense Morpholino Oligomer Is Effective against Lethal Marburg Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Warren, Travis K; Whitehouse, Chris A; Wells, Jay; Welch, Lisa; Charleston, Jay S; Heald, Alison; Nichols, Donald K; Mattix, Marc E; Palacios, Gustavo; Kugleman, Jeffrey R; Iversen, Patrick L; Bavari, Sina

    2016-02-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) is an Ebola-like virus in the family Filovirdae that causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic fever with a case fatality rate as high as 90%. AVI-7288, a positively charged antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMOplus) targeting the viral nucleoprotein gene, was evaluated as a potential therapeutic intervention for MARV infection following delayed treatment of 1, 24, 48, and 96 h post-infection (PI) in a nonhuman primate lethal challenge model. A total of 30 cynomolgus macaques were divided into 5 groups of 6 and infected with 1,830 plaque forming units of MARV subcutaneously. AVI-7288 was administered by bolus infusion daily for 14 days at 15 mg/kg body weight. Survival was the primary endpoint of the study. While none (0 of 6) of the saline group survived, 83-100% of infected monkeys survived when treatment was initiated 1, 24, 48, or 96 h post-infection (PI). The antisense treatment also reduced serum viremia and inflammatory cytokines in all treatment groups compared to vehicle controls. The antibody immune response to virus was preserved and tissue viral antigen was cleared in AVI-7288 treated animals. These data show that AVI-7288 protects NHPs against an otherwise lethal MARV infection when treatment is initiated up to 96 h PI.

  4. Upregulation of functional Kv11.1 isoform expression by inhibition of intronic polyadenylation with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qiuming; Stump, Matthew R; Zhou, Zhengfeng

    2014-11-01

    The KCNH2 gene encodes the Kv11.1 potassium channel that conducts the rapidly activating delayed rectifier current in the heart. KCNH2 pre-mRNA undergoes alternative processing; intron 9 splicing leads to the formation of a functional, full-length Kv11.1a isoform, while polyadenylation within intron 9 generates a non-functional, C-terminally truncated Kv11.1a-USO isoform. The relative expression of Kv11.1 isoforms plays an important role in the regulation of Kv11.1 channel function and the pathogenesis of long QT syndrome. In this study, we identified cis-acting elements that are required for KCNH2 intron 9 poly(A) signal activity. Mutation of these elements decreased Kv11.1a-USO expression and increased the expression of Kv11.1a mRNA, protein and channel current. More importantly, blocking these elements by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides shifted the alternative processing of KCNH2 intron 9 from the polyadenylation to the splicing pathway, leading to the predominant production of Kv11.1a and a significant increase in Kv11.1 current. Our findings indicate that the expression of the Kv11.1a isoform can be upregulated by an antisense approach. Antisense inhibition of KCNH2 intronic polyadenylation represents a novel approach to increase Kv11.1 channel function.

  5. Simplet controls cell proliferation and gene transcription during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kizil, Caghan; Otto, Georg W; Geisler, Robert; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Antos, Christopher L

    2009-01-15

    Two hallmarks of vertebrate epimorphic regeneration are a significant increase in the proliferation of normally quiescent cells and a re-activation of genes that are active during embryonic development. It is unclear what the molecular determinants are that regulate these events and how they are coordinated. Zebrafish have the ability to regenerate several compound structures by regulating cell proliferation and gene transcription. We report that fam53b/simplet (smp) regulates both cell proliferation and the transcription of specific genes. In situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR experiments showed that amputation of zebrafish hearts and fins resulted in strong up-regulation of the smp gene. In regenerating adult fin, smp expression remained strong in the distal mesenchyme which later expanded to the basal layers of the distal epidermis and distal tip epithelium. Morpholino knockdown of smp reduced regenerative outgrowth by decreasing cell proliferation as measured by BrdU incorporation and histone H3 phosphorylation. In addition, smp knockdown increased the expression of msxb, msxc, and shh, as well as the later formation of ectopic bone. Taken together, these data indicate a requirement for smp in fin regeneration through control of cell proliferation, the regulation of specific genes and proper bone patterning.

  6. Knockdown of Tmem234 in zebrafish results in proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Patricia Q; Oddsson, Asmundur; Ebarasi, Lwaki; He, Bing; Hultenby, Kjell; Wernerson, Annika; Betsholtz, Christer; Tryggvason, Karl; Patrakka, Jaakko

    2015-12-01

    Podocytes are highly specialized epithelial cells located at the outer aspects of the glomerular capillary tuft and critical components of the kidney filtration barrier. To maintain their unique features, podocytes express a number of proteins that are only sparsely found elsewhere in the body. In this study, we have identified four (Tmem234, Znf185, Lrrc49, and Slfn5) new highly podocyte-enriched proteins. The proteins are strongly expressed by podocytes, while other parts of the kidney show only weak or no expression. Tmem234, Slfn5, and Lrrc49 are located in foot processes, whereas Znf185 is found in both foot and major processes. Expressional studies in developing kidneys show that these proteins are first expressed at the capillary stage glomerulus, the same stage when the formation of major and foot processes begins. We identified zebrafish orthologs for Tmem234 and Znf185 genes and knocked down their expression using morpholino technology. Studies in zebrafish larvae indicate that Tmem234 is essential for the organization and functional integrity of the pronephric glomerulus filtration barrier, as inactivation of Tmem234 expression results in foot process effacement and proteinuria. In summary, we have identified four novel highly podocyte-enriched proteins and show that one of them, Tmem234, is essential for the normal filtration barrier in the zebrafish pronephric glomerulus. Identification of new molecular components of the kidney filtration barrier opens up possibilities to study their role in glomerulus biology and diseases. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Antisense peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer conjugate: dose-response in mice infected with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Lucas D; Mellbye, Brett L; Puckett, Susan E; Iversen, Patrick L; Geller, Bruce L

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) are DNA analogues that inhibit translation by an antisense mechanism. Membrane-penetrating peptides attached to PMOs increase PMO efficacy by enhancing penetration through bacterial membranes. The objectives of these experiments are to demonstrate gene-specific efficacy and establish a dose-response relationship of a peptide-PMO conjugate. An 11-base PMO (AcpP) targeted at acpP (an essential gene) of Escherichia coli was synthesized and conjugated with the cell-penetrating peptide RFFRFFRFFRXB (X is 6-aminohexanoic acid and B is beta-alanine). Mice were infected by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with K-12 E. coli W3110, and treated i.p. at 15 min and 12 h post-infection with various amounts of AcpP peptide-PMO conjugate, AcpP PMO without attached peptide, scrambled base sequence PMOs or ampicillin. A strain (LT1) of E. coli was constructed by replacing acpP with an allele that has four wobble base substitutions in the region targeted by the PMO. Twelve hours after a single treatment, 30 microg of AcpP peptide-PMO or 3 mg of AcpP PMO reduced bacteraemia by 3 orders of magnitude compared with treatment with water. Neither scrambled base sequence PMO controls nor 30 microg of ampicillin reduced bacteraemia. Two treatments with 30 microg of AcpP peptide-PMO reduced cfu significantly more than four treatments with 15 microg at 15 min, 4, 8 and 12 h. Mice treated with doses of AcpP peptide-PMO > 30 microg showed further reductions in plasma cfu. Survival 48 h after treatment with 2 x 30 microg (3 mg/kg) of AcpP peptide-PMO or 2 x 3 mg (300 mg/kg) of AcpP PMO was 100%, compared with 20% for mice treated with water or scrambled base sequence PMO controls. However, survival was reduced to 75% and 0% for mice treated with 2 x 300 microg and 2 x 1 mg of AcpP peptide-PMO, respectively. A conjugate made from the D-isomeric form of each amino acid was less effective than the L-amino acid equivalent, and required 2 x 300 microg

  8. Open and closed evolutionary paths for drastic morphological changes, involving serial gene duplication, sub-functionalization, and selection

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Gembu; Lee, Shu-Hua; Li, Ing-Jia; Chang, Chun-Ju; Tamura, Koji; Ota, Kinya G.

    2016-01-01

    Twin-tail goldfish strains are examples of drastic morphological alterations that emerged through domestication. Although this mutation is known to be caused by deficiency of one of two duplicated chordin genes, it is unknown why equivalent mutations have not been observed in other domesticated fish species. Here, we compared the chordin gene morphant phenotypes of single-tail goldfish and common carp (close relatives, both of which underwent chordin gene duplication and domestication). Morpholino-induced knockdown depleted chordin gene expression in both species; however, while knockdown reproduced twin-tail morphology in single-tail goldfish, it had no effect on common carp morphology. This difference can be explained by the observation that expression patterns of the duplicated chordin genes overlap completely in common carp, but are sub-functionalized in goldfish. Our finding implies that goldfish drastic morphological changes might be enhanced by the subsequent occurrence of three different types of evolutionary event (duplication, sub-functionalization, and selection) in a certain order. PMID:27220684

  9. Peptide Nanoparticle Delivery of Charge-Neutral Splice-Switching Morpholino Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Järver, Peter; Zaghloul, Eman M.; Arzumanov, Andrey A.; Saleh, Amer F.; McClorey, Graham; Hammond, Suzan M.; Hällbrink, Mattias; Langel, Ülo; Smith, C.I. Edvard; Wood, Matthew J.A.; Gait, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Oligonucleotide analogs have provided novel therapeutics targeting various disorders. However, their poor cellular uptake remains a major obstacle for their clinical development. Negatively charged oligonucleotides, such as 2′-O-Methyl RNA and locked nucleic acids have in recent years been delivered successfully into cells through complex formation with cationic polymers, peptides, liposomes, or similar nanoparticle delivery systems. However, due to the lack of electrostatic interactions, this promising delivery method has been unsuccessful to date using charge-neutral oligonucleotide analogs. We show here that lipid-functionalized cell-penetrating peptides can be efficiently exploited for cellular transfection of the charge-neutral oligonucleotide analog phosphorodiamidate morpholino. The lipopeptides form complexes with splice-switching phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide and can be delivered into clinically relevant cell lines that are otherwise difficult to transfect while retaining biological activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show delivery through complex formation of biologically active charge-neutral oligonucleotides by cationic peptides. PMID:25594433

  10. Lentivirus-mediated Knockdown of HDAC1 Uncovers Its Role in Esophageal Cancer Metastasis and Chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min; He, Gang; Wang, Yan; Pang, Xueli; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylationase 1 (HDAC1) is ubiquitously expressed in various cell lines and tissues and play an important role of regulation gene expression. Overexpression of HDAC1 has been observed in various types of cancers, which indicated that it might be a target for cancer therapy. To test HDAC1 inhibition for cancer treatment, the gene expression of HDAC1 was knockdown mediated by a lentivirus system. Our data showed the gene expression of HDAC1 could be efficiently knockdown by RNAi mediated by lentivirus in esophageal carcinoma EC109 cells. Knockdown of HDAC1 led to significant decrease of cell growth and altered cell cycle distribution. The result of transwell assay showed that the numbers of cells travelled through the micropore membrane was significantly decreased as HDAC1 expression was knockdown. Moreover, HDAC1 knockdown inhibited the migration of EC109 cells as determining by scratch test. Additionally, enhancement of cisplatin-stimulated apoptosis was detected by HDAC1 knockdown. Our data suggested inhibition of HDAC1 expression by lentivirus mediated shRNA might be further applied for esophageal cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27698906

  11. Cdx ParaHox genes acquired distinct developmental roles after gene duplication in vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Maeso, Ignacio; Faas, Laura; Isaacs, Harry V; Holland, Peter W H

    2015-08-01

    The functional consequences of whole genome duplications in vertebrate evolution are not fully understood. It remains unclear, for instance, why paralogues were retained in some gene families but extensively lost in others. Cdx homeobox genes encode conserved transcription factors controlling posterior development across diverse bilaterians. These genes are part of the ParaHox gene cluster. Multiple Cdx copies were retained after genome duplication, raising questions about how functional divergence, overlap, and redundancy respectively contributed to their retention and evolutionary fate. We examined the degree of regulatory and functional overlap between the three vertebrate Cdx genes using single and triple morpholino knock-down in Xenopus tropicalis followed by RNA-seq. We found that one paralogue, Cdx4, has a much stronger effect on gene expression than the others, including a strong regulatory effect on FGF and Wnt genes. Functional annotation revealed distinct and overlapping roles and subtly different temporal windows of action for each gene. The data also reveal a colinear-like effect of Cdx genes on Hox genes, with repression of Hox paralogy groups 1 and 2, and activation increasing from Hox group 5 to 11. We also highlight cases in which duplicated genes regulate distinct paralogous targets revealing pathway elaboration after whole genome duplication. Despite shared core pathways, Cdx paralogues have acquired distinct regulatory roles during development. This implies that the degree of functional overlap between paralogues is relatively low and that gene expression pattern alone should be used with caution when investigating the functional evolution of duplicated genes. We therefore suggest that developmental programmes were extensively rewired after whole genome duplication in the early evolution of vertebrates.

  12. Annexin A3 Knockdown Suppresses Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Qing; Zhang, Yue-Hua; Qiu, Jing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study identified an elevated abundance of annexin A3 (Anxa3) as a novel prognostic biomarker of lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) through quantitative proteomics analysis. However, the biological functions of Anxa3 in LADC are not fully clear. In this study, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed to investigate the effects of Anxa3 downregulation on the growth, migration, invasion, metastasis, and signaling pathway activation of LADC cells. After Anxa3 downregulation, the growth of A549 and LTEP-a2 LADC cells was slowed and they showed decreased migration and invasion in vitro. Anxa3 knockdown significantly inhibited tumor formation by A549 cells in vivo; while many metastases were formed by control A549 cells, there were obvious reductions in the numbers of lung, liver, and brain metastases formed by Anxa3 knockdown in A549 cells. Furthermore, Anxa3 knockdown significantly decreased MMP-2 and N-cadherin expression and increased E-cadherin expression both in cell lines in vitro and in tumor nodules examined during in vivo tumorigenesis assays. Interestingly, Anxa3 downregulation reduced the phosphorylated levels of MEK and ERK. In summary, Anxa3 knockdown inhibited the growth, migration, invasion, and metastasis of LADC, decreased the activation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway, and modulated the expression of MMP-2, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin. PMID:27995049

  13. The use of urinary and kidney SILAM proteomics to monitor kidney response to high dose morpholino oligonucleotides in the mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aiping; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Shaughnessy, Conner; Das, Jharna R; Rayavarapu, Sree; Brown, Kristy J; Ray, Patricio E; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; van den Anker, John N; Hoffman, Eric P; Hathout, Yetrib

    Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMO) are used as a promising exon-skipping gene therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). One potential complication of high dose PMO therapy is its transient accumulation in the kidneys. Therefore new urinary biomarkers are needed to monitor this treatment. Here, we carried out a pilot proteomic profiling study using stable isotope labeling in mammals (SILAM) strategy to identify new biomarkers to monitor the effect of PMO on the kidneys of the dystrophin deficient mouse model for DMD (mdx-23). We first assessed the baseline renal status of the mdx-23 mouse compared to the wild type (C57BL10) mouse, and then followed the renal outcome of mdx-23 mouse treated with a single high dose intravenous PMO injection (800 mg/kg). Surprisingly, untreated mdx-23 mice showed evidence of renal injury at baseline, which was manifested by albuminuria, increased urine output, and changes in established urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). The PMO treatment induced further transient renal injury, which peaked at 7 days, and returned to almost the baseline status at 30 days post-treatment. In the kidney, the SILAM approach followed by western blot validation identified changes in Meprin A subunit alpha at day 2, then returned to normal levels at day 7 and 30 after PMO injection. In the urine, SILAM approach identified an increase in Clusterin and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 as potential candidates to monitor the transient renal accumulation of PMO. These results, which were confirmed by Western blots or ELISA, demonstrate the value of the SILAM approach to identify new candidate biomarkers of renal injury in mdx-23 mice treated with high dose PMO. Chemical compounds studied in this article: Phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PubChem CID: 22140692); isoflurane (PubChem CID: 3763); formic acid (PubChem CID: 284); acetonitrile (PubChem CID: 6342); acetone (PubChem CID: 180); methanol (PubChem CID: 887).

  14. The use of urinary and kidney SILAM proteomics to monitor kidney response to high dose morpholino oligonucleotides in the mdx mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aiping; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Shaughnessy, Conner; Das, Jharna R.; Rayavarapu, Sree; Brown, Kristy J; Ray, Patricio E.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; van den Anker, John N.; Hoffman, Eric P; Hathout, Yetrib

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMO) are used as a promising exon-skipping gene therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). One potential complication of high dose PMO therapy is its transient accumulation in the kidneys. Therefore new urinary biomarkers are needed to monitor this treatment. Here, we carried out a pilot proteomic profiling study using stable isotope labeling in mammals (SILAM) strategy to identify new biomarkers to monitor the effect of PMO on the kidneys of the dystrophin deficient mouse model for DMD (mdx-23). We first assessed the baseline renal status of the mdx-23 mouse compared to the wild type (C57BL10) mouse, and then followed the renal outcome of mdx-23 mouse treated with a single high dose intravenous PMO injection (800 mg/kg). Surprisingly, untreated mdx-23 mice showed evidence of renal injury at baseline, which was manifested by albuminuria, increased urine output, and changes in established urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). The PMO treatment induced further transient renal injury, which peaked at 7 days, and returned to almost the baseline status at 30 days post-treatment. In the kidney, the SILAM approach followed by western blot validation identified changes in Meprin A subunit alpha at day 2, then returned to normal levels at day 7 and 30 after PMO injection. In the urine, SILAM approach identified an increase in Clusterin and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 as potential candidates to monitor the transient renal accumulation of PMO. These results, which were confirmed by Western blots or ELISA, demonstrate the value of the SILAM approach to identify new candidate biomarkers of renal injury in mdx-23 mice treated with high dose PMO. Chemical compounds studied in this article: Phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PubChem CID: 22140692); isoflurane (PubChem CID: 3763); formic acid (PubChem CID: 284); acetonitrile (PubChem CID: 6342); acetone (PubChem CID: 180); methanol (PubChem CID: 887) PMID:26213685

  15. Development of a general methodology for labelling peptide-morpholino oligonucleotide conjugates using alkyne-azide click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Shabanpoor, Fazel; Gait, Michael J

    2013-11-11

    We describe a general methodology for fluorescent labelling of peptide conjugates of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMOs) by alkyne functionalization of peptides, subsequent conjugation to PMOs and labelling with a fluorescent compound (Cy5-azide). Two peptide-PMO (PPMO) examples are shown. No detrimental effect of such labelled PMOs was seen in a biological assay.

  16. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    PubMed

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M; Esguerra, Camila V; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  17. Dual Myostatin and Dystrophin Exon Skipping by Morpholino Nucleic Acid Oligomers Conjugated to a Cell-penetrating Peptide Is a Promising Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Malerba, Alberto; Kang, Jagjeet K; McClorey, Graham; Saleh, Amer F; Popplewell, Linda; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew JA; Dickson, George

    2012-01-01

    The knockdown of myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass may have important implications in disease conditions accompanied by muscle mass loss like cancer, HIV/AIDS, sarcopenia, muscle atrophy, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In DMD patients, where major muscle loss has occurred due to a lack of dystrophin, the therapeutic restoration of dystrophin expression alone in older patients may not be sufficient to restore the functionality of the muscles. We recently demonstrated that phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) can be used to re-direct myostatin splicing and promote the expression of an out-of-frame transcript so reducing the amount of the synthesized myostatin protein. Furthermore, the systemic administration of the same PMO conjugated to an octaguanidine moiety (Vivo-PMO) led to a significant increase in the mass of soleus muscle of treated mice. Here, we have further optimized the use of Vivo-PMO in normal mice and also tested the efficacy of the same PMO conjugated to an arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide (B-PMO). Similar experiments conducted in mdx dystrophic mice showed that B-PMO targeting myostatin is able to significantly increase the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle weight and when coadministered with a B-PMO targeting the dystrophin exon 23, it does not have a detrimental interaction. This study confirms that myostatin knockdown by exon skipping is a potential therapeutic strategy to counteract muscle wasting conditions and dual myostatin and dystrophin skipping has potential as a therapy for DMD. PMID:23250360

  18. Inhibition of norovirus replication by morpholino oligomers targeting the 5′-end of the genome

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Karin; Cavanaugh, Victoria J.; Matson, David O.; González-Molleda, Lorenzo; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Zintz, Carmelann; Smith, Alvin W.; Iversen, Patrick; Green, Kim Y.; Campbell, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses are an important cause of non-bacterial epidemic gastroenteritis, but no specific antiviral therapies are available. We investigated the inhibitory effect of phosphorodiamidiate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) targeted against norovirus sequences. A panel of peptide-conjugated PMOs (PPMOs) specific for the murine norovirus (MNV) genome was developed, and two PPMO compounds directed against the first AUG of the ORF1 coding sequence near the 5′-end of the genome proved effective in inhibiting MNV replication in cells. A consensus PPMO (designated Noro 1.1), designed to target the corresponding region of several diverse human norovirus genotypes, decreased the efficiency of protein translation in a cell-free luciferase reporter assay and inhibited Norwalk virus protein expression in replicon-bearing cells. Our data suggest that PPMOs directed against the relatively conserved 5′-end of the norovirus genome may show broad antiviral activity against this genetically diverse group of viruses. PMID:18783811

  19. T-Box Gene eomesodermin and the Homeobox-Containing Mix/Bix Gene mtx2 Regulate Epiboly Movements in the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Ashley E.E.; Howley, Cristin; Fox, Monica Dixon; Ho, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The T-box gene eomesodermin (eomes) has been implicated in mesoderm specification and patterning in both zebrafish and frog. Here, we describe an additional function for eomes in the control of morphogenesis. Epiboly, the spreading and thinning of an epithelial cell sheet, is a central component of gastrulation in many species; however, despite its importance, little is known about its molecular control. Here, we show that repression of eomes function in the zebrafish embryo dramatically inhibits epiboly movements. We also show that eomes regulates the expression of a zygotic homeobox transcription factor mtx2. Gene knockdown of mtx2 using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, likewise, leads to an inhibition of epiboly; moreover, we show that knockdown of mtx2 function in the extraembryonic yolk syncytial layer only is sufficient to cause epiboly defects. Thus, we have identified two components in a molecular pathway controlling epiboly and show that interactions between deep layer cells of the embryo proper and extraembryonic tissues contribute in a coordinated manner to different aspects of epiboly movements. PMID:15765511

  20. Knockdown of Lingo1b protein promotes myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wu; Hu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Demyelinating diseases include multiple sclerosis, which is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by immune attacks on the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in myelin sheath damage and axonal loss. Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin domain-containing neurite outgrowth inhibitory protein (Nogo) receptor-interacting protein-1 (LINGO-1) have been identified as a negative regulator of oligodendrocytes differentiation. Targeted LINGO-1 inhibition promotes neuron survival, axon regeneration, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and remyelination in diverse animal models. Although studies in rodent models have extended our understanding of LINGO-1, its roles in neural development and myelination in zebrafish (Danio rerio) are not yet clear. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish homolog of the human LINGO-1 and found that lingo1b regulated myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation. The expression of lingo1b started 1 (mRNA) and 2 (protein) days post-fertilization (dpf) in the CNS. Morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown of lingo1b resulted in developmental abnormalities, including less dark pigment, small eyes, and a curly spinal cord. The lack of lingo1b enhanced myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation during embryogenesis. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry and movement analysis showed that lingo1b was involved in the axon development of primary motor neurons. These results suggested that Lingo1b protein functions as a negative regulator of myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation during zebrafish development.

  1. Versican knock-down compromises chondrogenesis in the embryonic chick limb.

    PubMed

    Shepard, John B; Gliga, Diana A; Morrow, Amanda P; Hoffman, Stanley; Capehart, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal cell aggregation is critical for cartilage formation in the vertebrate limb. The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role in governing cell behavior and cell phenotype in this tissue, and the hyalectin versican is highly expressed in the ECM of precartilage mesenchymal cells and developing synovial joints. Although several in vitro studies have been conducted in an attempt to address versican's role during limb mesenchymal condensation, factors such as differences in cell density in culture, variations between chondrogenic cell lines, and the inability to prolong the viability of limb explants have led to conflicting data, mandating an in vivo analysis. By using a morpholino directed strategy in ovo, we performed knock-down of versican expression in the presumptive ulnar region of the developing chick wing at time points critical to skeletogenesis. These data indicate that in ovo misexpression of versican compromised mesenchymal condensation with resulting ulnar cartilages reduced in length distally by an average of 53% relative to contralateral control limbs. In select versican morphants the olecranon process was also reduced in size proximally and failed to cup the humerus, likely impairing joint morphogenesis. This study represents the first report assessing the role of versican in the developing chick limb in ovo, further demonstrating the importance of versican proteoglycan expression during chondrogenesis and extending previous findings to suggest a role for versican during synovial joint development.

  2. HP1 knockdown is associated with abnormal condensation of almost all chromatin types in a grasshopper (Eyprepocnemis plorans).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Bakkali, Mohammed; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; López-León, María Dolores

    2014-09-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a highly conserved family of eukaryotic proteins required for heterochromatic gene silencing and euchromatic gene transcription regulation. In addition, HP1 is involved in chromatin organization and protection of chromosome integrity during cell division. Here, we present a cytological and molecular analysis of the effects of HP1 knockdown in Eyprepocnemis plorans, a grasshopper species polymorphic for supernumerary heterochromatic chromosomes. Our results revealed contrasting effects of HP1 knockdown on gene activity. While the Bub1 gene decreased in expression level in HP1 knockdown animals, NOR activity, rRNA and, contrarily to previous reports in Drosophila, Hsp70 gene expression remained unchanged. Furthermore, HP1 knockdown resulted in abnormal chromatin condensation, chromosomal bridges, higher frequency of macrospermatids, loss of muscle mass and hemolymph amount as well as a low number of dividing cells and survival reduction. All these phenotypes are very likely due to the chromatin condensation disruption observed for almost all kinds of chromatin.

  3. Essential role of Jun family transcription factors in PU.1 knockdown-induced leukemic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Steidl, Ulrich; Rosenbauer, Frank; Verhaak, Roel G W; Gu, Xuesong; Ebralidze, Alexander; Otu, Hasan H; Klippel, Steffen; Steidl, Christian; Bruns, Ingmar; Costa, Daniel B; Wagner, Katharina; Aivado, Manuel; Kobbe, Guido; Valk, Peter J M; Passegué, Emmanuelle; Libermann, Towia A; Delwel, Ruud; Tenen, Daniel G

    2006-11-01

    Knockdown of the transcription factor PU.1 (encoded by Sfpi1) leads to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in mice. We examined the transcriptome of preleukemic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in which PU.1 was knocked down (referred to as 'PU.1-knockdown HSCs') to identify transcriptional changes preceding malignant transformation. Transcription factors c-Jun and JunB were among the top-downregulated targets. Restoration of c-Jun expression in preleukemic cells rescued the PU.1 knockdown-initiated myelomonocytic differentiation block. Lentiviral restoration of JunB at the leukemic stage led to loss of leukemic self-renewal capacity and prevented leukemia in NOD-SCID mice into which leukemic PU.1-knockdown cells were transplanted. Examination of human individuals with AML confirmed the correlation between PU.1 and JunB downregulation. These results delineate a transcriptional pattern that precedes leukemic transformation in PU.1-knockdown HSCs and demonstrate that decreased levels of c-Jun and JunB contribute to the development of PU.1 knockdown-induced AML by blocking differentiation and increasing self-renewal. Therefore, examination of disturbed gene expression in HSCs can identify genes whose dysregulation is essential for leukemic stem cell function and that are targets for therapeutic interventions.

  4. Role of Hox PG2 genes in Nile tilapia pharyngeal arch specification: implications for gnathostome pharyngeal arch evolution.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Pierre; Scemama, Jean-Luc; Stellwag, Edmund J

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that the ancestral osteichthyan Hox paralog group 2 gene complement was composed of two genes, Hoxa2 and b2, both of which have been retained in tetrapods, but only one of which functions as a selector gene of second pharyngeal arch identity (PA2). Genome duplication at the inception of the teleosts likely generated four Hox PG2 genes, only two of which, hoxa2b and b2a, have been preserved in zebrafish, where they serve as functionally redundant PA2 selector genes. Evidence from our laboratory has shown that other telelosts, specifically striped bass and Nile tilapia, harbor three transcribed Hox PG2 genes, hoxa2a, a2b, and b2a, with unspecified function(s). We have focused on characterizing the function of the three Nile tilapia Hox PG2 genes as a model to examine the effects of postgenome duplication gene loss on the evolution of developmental gene function. We studied Hox PG2 gene function in tilapia by examining the effects of independent morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-induced knockdowns on pharyngeal arch morphology and Hox gene expression patterns. Morphological defects resulting from independent MO-induced knockdowns of tilapia hoxa2a, a2b, and b2a included the expected PA2 to PA1 homeotic transformations previously observed in tetrapods and zebrafish, as well as concordant and unexpected morphological changes in posterior arch-derived cartilages. Of particular interest, was the observation of a MO-induced supernumerary arch between PA6 and PA7, which occurred concomitantly with other MO-induced pharyngeal arch defects. Beyond these previously unreported morphant-induced transformations, a comparison of Hox PG2 gene expression patterns in tilapia Hox PG2 morphants were indicative of arch-specific auto- and cross-regulatory activities as well as a Hox paralog group 2 interdependent regulatory network for control of pharyngeal arch specification.

  5. Gene-Specific Countermeasures Against Ebola Virus Based on Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    EBOV under biosafety–level-4 conditions [1,2]. Although there has been significant progress toward vaccine development via demon- stration of...protection in nonhuman primates from EBOV illness and death [12,13], a vaccine will not fulfill all requirements for EBOV countermeasures. Administration of...type I interferons, therapeutic vaccines , immune globulins, ribavirin, and other nucleoside analogues have been some- what successful in rodent EBOV

  6. The microcephaly gene aspm is involved in brain development in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun-Taek; Lee, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Jung, Ju-Yeon; Ahn, Dae-Gwon; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Choi, Dong-Kug; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} We identified a zebrafish aspm/mcph5 gene that is expressed in proliferating cells in the CNS during early development. {yields} Embryos injected with the aspm MO consistently showed a reduced head and eye size but were otherwise grossly normal, closely mimicking the known phenotypes of human microcephaly patients. {yields} Knock-down of aspm causes cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death during early development. -- Abstract: MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. Homozygous mutation of the MCPH5 gene, also known as ASPM, is the most common cause of the MCPH phenotype. To elucidate the roles of ASPM during embryonic development, the zebrafish aspm was identified, which is specifically expressed in proliferating cells in the CNS. Morpholino-mediated knock-down of aspm resulted in a significant reduction in head size. Furthermore, aspm-deficient embryos exhibited a mitotic arrest during early development. These findings suggest that the reduction in brain size in MCPH might be caused by lack of aspm function in the mitotic cell cycle and demonstrate that the zebrafish can provide a model system for congenital diseases of the human nervous system.

  7. The role of the Pax1/9 gene in the early development of amphioxus pharyngeal gill slits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Li, Guang; Liu, Xian; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2015-01-01

    The pharynx is a major characteristic of chordates. Compared with vertebrates, amphioxus has an advantage for the study of pharynx development, as embryos lack neural crest, and the pharynx is mainly derived from endoderm cells. The Pax1/9 subfamily genes have essential roles in vertebrate pharyngeal patterning, but it is not known if the Pax1/9 gene has similar functions in amphioxus pharynx development. To answer this question, we examined the Pax1/9 gene expression pattern in amphioxus embryos at different developmental stages, and observed morphological changes following Pax1/9 knockdown. RT-qPCR analysis indicated that Pax1/9 expression was initiated during early neurula stage and rapidly peaked during mid-neurula stage. Furthermore, in situ hybridization analysis showed that Pax1/9 transcripts were localized exclusively in the most endodermal region of the developing pharynx in early neurula stage embryos; however, Pax1/9 expression was strikingly down-regulated in the region where gill slits would form from the fusion of endoderm and ectoderm in subsequent developmental stages and was maintained in the border regions between adjacent gill slits. Knockdown of Pax1/9 function using both morpholino and siRNA approaches led to embryonic defects in the first three gill slits, and fusion of the first two gill slits. Moreover, the expression levels of the pharyngeal marker genes Six1/2 and Tbx1/10 were reduced in Pax1/9 knockdown embryos. From these observations, we concluded that the Pax1/9 gene has an important role in the initial differentiation of amphioxus pharyngeal endoderm and in the formation of gill slits, most likely via modulation of Six1/2 and Tbx1/10 expression.

  8. Biodegradable charged polyester-based vectors (BCPVs) as an efficient non-viral transfection nanoagent for gene knockdown of the BCR-ABL hybrid oncogene in a human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chengbin; Panwar, Nishtha; Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Butian; Liu, Maixian; Toh, Huiting; Yoon, Ho Sup; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Chong, Peter Han Joo; Law, Wing-Cheung; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2016-04-01

    First-line therapy of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has always involved the use of BCR-ABL tyrosine-kinase inhibitors which is associated with an abnormal chromosome called Philadelphia chromosome. Although the overall survival rate has been improved by the current therapeutic regime, the presence of resistance has resulted in limited efficacy. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutic regime is proposed with the aim to knockdown the BCR-ABL hybrid oncogene using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The siRNA transfection rates have usually been limited due to the declining contact probability among polyplexes and the non-adherent nature of leukemic cells. Our work aims at addressing this limitation by using a biodegradable charged polyester-based vector (BCPV) as a nanocarrier for the delivery of BCR-ABL-specific siRNA to the suspension culture of a K562 CML cell line. BCR-ABL siRNAs were encapsulated in the BCPVs by electrostatic force. Cell internalization was facilitated by the BCPV and assessed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The regulation of the BCR-ABL level in K562 cells as a result of RNAi was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed that BCPV was able to form stable nanoplexes with siRNA molecules, even in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS), and successfully assisted in vitro siRNA transfection in the non-adherent K562 cells. As a consequence of downregulation of BCR-ABL, BCPV-siRNA nanoplexes inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. All results were compared with a commercial transfection reagent, Lipofectamine2000™, which served as a positive control. More importantly, this class of non-viral vector exhibits biodegradable features and negligible cytotoxicity, thus providing a versatile platform to deliver siRNA to non-adherent leukemia cells with high transfection efficiency by effectively overcoming extra- and intra-cellular barriers. Due to the excellent in vitro

  9. Biodegradable charged polyester-based vectors (BCPVs) as an efficient non-viral transfection nanoagent for gene knockdown of the BCR-ABL hybrid oncogene in a human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengbin; Panwar, Nishtha; Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Butian; Liu, Maixian; Toh, Huiting; Yoon, Ho Sup; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Chong, Peter Han Joo; Law, Wing-Cheung; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2016-04-28

    First-line therapy of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has always involved the use of BCR-ABL tyrosine-kinase inhibitors which is associated with an abnormal chromosome called Philadelphia chromosome. Although the overall survival rate has been improved by the current therapeutic regime, the presence of resistance has resulted in limited efficacy. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutic regime is proposed with the aim to knockdown the BCR-ABL hybrid oncogene using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The siRNA transfection rates have usually been limited due to the declining contact probability among polyplexes and the non-adherent nature of leukemic cells. Our work aims at addressing this limitation by using a biodegradable charged polyester-based vector (BCPV) as a nanocarrier for the delivery of BCR-ABL-specific siRNA to the suspension culture of a K562 CML cell line. BCR-ABL siRNAs were encapsulated in the BCPVs by electrostatic force. Cell internalization was facilitated by the BCPV and assessed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The regulation of the BCR-ABL level in K562 cells as a result of RNAi was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed that BCPV was able to form stable nanoplexes with siRNA molecules, even in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS), and successfully assisted in vitro siRNA transfection in the non-adherent K562 cells. As a consequence of downregulation of BCR-ABL, BCPV-siRNA nanoplexes inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. All results were compared with a commercial transfection reagent, Lipofectamine2000™, which served as a positive control. More importantly, this class of non-viral vector exhibits biodegradable features and negligible cytotoxicity, thus providing a versatile platform to deliver siRNA to non-adherent leukemia cells with high transfection efficiency by effectively overcoming extra- and intra-cellular barriers. Due to the excellent in vitro

  10. Transposon-mediated targeted and specific knockdown of maternally expressed transcripts in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Iitsuka, Takako; Mita, Kaoru; Hozumi, Akiko; Hamada, Mayuko; Satoh, Nori; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2014-05-23

    Maternal mRNAs play crucial roles during early embryogenesis of ascidians, but their functions are largely unknown. In this study, we developed a new method to specifically knockdown maternal mRNAs in Ciona intestinalis using transposon-mediated transgenesis. We found that GFP expression is epigenetically silenced in Ciona intestinalis oocytes and eggs, and this epigenetic silencing of GFP was used to develop the knockdown method. When the 5' upstream promoter and 5' untranslated region (UTR) of a maternal gene are used to drive GFP in eggs, the maternal gene is specifically knocked down together with GFP. The 5' UTR of the maternal gene is the major element that determines the target gene silencing. Zygotic transcription of the target gene is unaffected, suggesting that the observed phenotypes specifically reflect the maternal function of the gene. This new method can provide breakthroughs in studying the functions of maternal mRNAs.

  11. Transcriptional response to mitochondrial protease IMMP2L knockdown in human primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gokoolparsadh, Akira; Fang, Zhiming; Braidy, Nady; Lin, Peijie; Pardy, Christopher J; Eapen, Valsamma; Clarke, Raymond; Voineagu, Irina

    2017-01-22

    IMMP2L encodes the inner membrane peptidase subunit 2, a mitochondrial protease involved in cleaving the space-sorting signals of mitochondrial membrane proteins. IMMP2L has been implicated in Tourette syndrome, but how its dysfunction contributes to the neurodevelopmental phenotype remains unclear. Here we show that IMMP2L transcription requires Topoisomerase I in human primary astrocytes, and characterize the downstream effects of IMMP2L knockdown on gene expression. We demonstrate that IMMP2L knockdown leads to dysregulation of genes involved in central nervous system development. We also find that the transcriptional response to IMMP2L knockdown partially overlaps the one induced by mitochondrial complex III inhibition. Overall, these data bring further insight into the molecular consequences of IMMP2L dysfunction in the brain. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CFTR Knockdown induces proinflammatory changes in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Crites, Karoline St-Martin; Morin, Geneviève; Orlando, Valérie; Patey, Natacha; Cantin, Catherine; Martel, Judith; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Mailhot, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Hyperinflammation is a hallmark feature of cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. However, inflammation has also been documented systemically and, more recently, in extrapulmonary CF-affected tissues such as the pancreas and intestine. The pathogenesis of CF-related inflammation and more specifically the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in that respect are not entirely understood. We have tested the hypothesis that genetic depletion of CFTR will affect the inflammatory status of human intestinal epithelial cell lines. CFTR expression was genetically depleted from Caco-2/15 and HT-29 cells using short hairpin RNA interference (shRNAi). Inflammatory conditions were induced by the addition of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) for various periods of time. Gene expression, mRNA stability and secreted levels of interleukin (IL)-6, -8 and 10 were assessed. Analysis of pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38, ERK 1/2 and JNK), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor alpha (IκBα), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was also performed. Eosinophils were counted in the jejunal mucosa of Cftr-/- and Cftr+/+ mice. CFTR gene and protein knockdown caused a significant increase in basal secretion of IL-8 as well as in IL-1β-induced secretion of IL-6 and -8. Release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, remained unaffected by CFTR depletion. The enhanced secretion of IL-8 stems in part from increased IL8 mRNA levels and greater activation of ERK1/2 MAPK, IκBα and NF-κB in the CFTR knockdown cells. By contrast, phosphorylation levels of p38 and JNK MAPK did not differ between control and knockdown cells. We also found a higher number of infiltrating eosinophils in the jejunal mucosa of Cftr -/- females, but not males, compared to Cftr +/+ mice, thus providing in vivo support to our in vitro findings. Collectively

  13. Overexpression or knockdown of rat tryptophan hyroxylase-2 has opposing effects on anxiety behavior in an estrogen-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hiroi, Ryoko; McDevitt, Ross A.; Morcos, Paul A.; Clark, Michael S.; Neumaier, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies showed that chronic estrogen treatment increases tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TpH2) mRNA in the caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), and this increase was associated with decreased anxiety. The present study explored the interaction of estrogen and targeted, bidirectional manipulation of TpH2 expression in the caudal DRN by knockdown or viral overexpression, to decrease or increase tryptophan hydroxylase expression respectively, on anxiety behavior. Rats were ovariectomized and replaced with empty or estradiol capsules (OVX, OVX/E, respectively). Animals received microinfusions of either antisense TpH2 or control morpholino oligonucleotides into caudal DRN and were later tested in the open field test. A separate group of animals were microinfused with TpH2-GFP or GFP-only herpes simplex viral vectors into caudal DRN and tested in the open field. The bidirectional impact of manipulations on TpH2 expression was confirmed using a combination of quantitative protein and mRNA measurements; TpH2 expression changes were limited to discrete subregions of DRN that were targeted by the manipulations. Estradiol decreased anxiety in all behavioral measures. In the OVX/E group, TpH2 knockdown significantly decreased time spent in the center of the open field, but not in the OVX group, suggesting that TpH2 knockdown reduced the anxiolytic effects of estrogen. Conversely, TpH2 overexpression in the OVX group mimicked the effects of estrogen, as measured by increased time spent in the center of the open field. These results suggest that estrogen and TpH2 in the caudal DRN have a critical interaction in regulating anxiety-like behavior. PMID:21182901

  14. 2,4,6-Trimethyl-1,3,5-tris­(morpholino­meth­yl)benzene

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hong-Ji; Xu, Chen; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Le; Ji, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, C24H39N3O3, the H atoms of the methyl groups are disordered over two positions, with site-occupation factors fixed at 0.5. The three morpholino groups are arranged in an asymmetrical fashion with respect to the anchoring mesitylene ring and adopt chair conformations. Inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions link the mol­ecules into a one-dimensional chain structure. PMID:21202718

  15. Analgesic activity of (+)-1-(3-methyl-4-morpholino-2:2-diphenylbutyryl)pyrrolidine (r.875) in student volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cahal, D. A.

    1958-01-01

    (+)-1-(3-Methyl-4-morpholino-2:2-diphenylbutyryl)pyrrolidine (R.875) raised the threshold to ischaemic pain in healthy human volunteers. The peak effect for all doses was reached after about 2 hr. The drug frequently caused nausea and vomiting but no euphoria. Muscular weakness was experienced by many subjects and was sometimes followed 1 to 2 hr. later by hiccup and muscle twitching, suggesting that R.875 may have an effect on striped muscle. PMID:13523131

  16. Antisense Morpholino Oligonucleotides Reduce Neurofilament Synthesis and Inhibit Axon Regeneration in Lamprey Reticulospinal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guixin; Jin, Li-qing; Hu, Jianli; Rodemer, William; Selzer, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey has been used as a model for the study of axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. Previous studies have suggested that, unlike developing axons in mammal, the tips of regenerating axons in lamprey spinal cord are simple in shape, packed with neurofilaments (NFs), and contain very little F-actin. Thus it has been proposed that regeneration of axons in the central nervous system of mature vertebrates is not based on the canonical actin-dependent pulling mechanism of growth cones, but involves an internal protrusive force, perhaps generated by the transport or assembly of NFs in the distal axon. In order to assess this hypothesis, expression of NFs was manipulated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO). A standard, company-supplied MO was used as control. Axon retraction and regeneration were assessed at 2, 4 and 9 weeks after MOs were applied to a spinal cord transection (TX) site. Antisense MO inhibited NF180 expression compared to control MO. The effect of inhibiting NF expression on axon retraction and regeneration was studied by measuring the distance of axon tips from the TX site at 2 and 4 weeks post-TX, and counting the number of reticulospinal neurons (RNs) retrogradely labeled by fluorescently-tagged dextran injected caudal to the injury at 9 weeks post-TX. There was no statistically significant effect of MO on axon retraction at 2 weeks post-TX. However, at both 4 and 9 weeks post-TX, inhibition of NF expression inhibited axon regeneration.

  17. Development of peptide-conjugated morpholino oligomers as pan-arenavirus inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Benjamin W; Bederka, Lydia H; Stein, David A; Ting, Joey P C; Moulton, Hong M; Buchmeier, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Members of the Arenaviridae family are a threat to public health and can cause meningitis and hemorrhagic fever, and yet treatment options remain limited by a lack of effective antivirals. In this study, we found that peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMO) complementary to viral genomic RNA were effective in reducing arenavirus replication in cell cultures and in vivo. PPMO complementary to the Junín virus genome were designed to interfere with viral RNA synthesis or translation or both. However, only PPMO designed to potentially interfere with translation were effective in reducing virus replication. PPMO complementary to sequences that are highly conserved across the arenaviruses and located at the 5' termini of both genomic segments were effective against Junín virus, Tacaribe virus, Pichinde virus, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-infected cell cultures and suppressed viral titers in the livers of LCMV-infected mice. These results suggest that arenavirus 5' genomic termini represent promising targets for pan-arenavirus antiviral therapeutic development.

  18. Inhibition of alphavirus infection in cell culture and in mice with antisense morpholino oligomers.

    PubMed

    Paessler, Slobodan; Rijnbrand, Rene; Stein, David A; Ni, Haolin; Yun, Nadezhda E; Dziuba, Natallia; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Seregin, Alexey; Ma, Yinghong; Blouch, Robert; Iversen, Patrick L; Zacks, Michele A

    2008-07-05

    The genus Alphavirus contains members that threaten human health, both as natural pathogens and as potential biological weapons. Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMO) enter cells readily and can inhibit viral replication through sequence-specific steric blockade of viral RNA. Sindbis virus (SINV) has low pathogenicity in humans and is regularly utilized as a model alphavirus. PPMO targeting the 5'-terminal and AUG translation start site regions of the SINV genome blocked the production of infectious SINV in tissue culture. PPMO designed against corresponding regions in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) were likewise found to be effective in vitro against several strains of VEEV. Mice treated with PPMO before and after VEEV infection were completely protected from lethal outcome while mice receiving only post-infection PPMO treatment were partially protected. Levels of virus in tissue samples correlated with animal survival. Uninfected mice suffered no apparent ill-effects from PPMO treatment. Thus, PPMO appear promising as candidates for therapeutic development against alphaviruses.

  19. Antisense Morpholino-Oligomers Directed against the 5′ End of the Genome Inhibit Coronavirus Proliferation and Growth†

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Benjamin W.; Stein, David A.; Kroeker, Andrew D.; Paulino, Amy D.; Moulton, Hong M.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Buchmeier, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Conjugation of a peptide related to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat represents a novel method for delivery of antisense morpholino-oligomers. Conjugated and unconjugated oligomers were tested to determine sequence-specific antiviral efficacy against a member of the Coronaviridae, Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Specific antisense activity designed to block translation of the viral replicase polyprotein was first confirmed by reduction of luciferase expression from a target sequence-containing reporter construct in both cell-free and transfected cell culture assays. Peptide-conjugated morpholino-oligomers exhibited low toxicity in DBT astrocytoma cells used for culturing MHV. Oligomer administered at micromolar concentrations was delivered to >80% of cells and inhibited virus titers 10- to 100-fold in a sequence-specific and dose-responsive manner. In addition, targeted viral protein synthesis, plaque diameter, and cytopathic effect were significantly reduced. Inhibition of virus infectivity by peptide-conjugated morpholino was comparable to the antiviral activity of the aminoglycoside hygromycin B used at a concentration fivefold higher than the oligomer. These results suggest that this composition of antisense compound has therapeutic potential for control of coronavirus infection. PMID:15140987

  20. A DNA biosensor based on a morpholino oligomer coated indium-tin oxide electrode and a cationic redox polymer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Ting, Boon Ping

    2009-05-01

    A simple and ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor employing a morpholino oligomer as capture probe and a cationic redox polymer as signal generator for direct detection of DNA is presented in this report. It is based on the immobilization of the morpholino oligomer on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode and amperometric detection of target DNA by forming a DNA/cationic redox polymer bilayer on the ITO electrode. After hybridizing the morpholino capture probe (MCP) to the target DNA, the cationic redox polymer was introduced to the ITO electrode via electrostatic interaction with the hybridized DNA. The deposited redox polymer exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA), allowing for direct voltammetric and amperometric detection of DNA. Under optimized experimental conditions, a detection limit of 1.0 pM and linear current-concentration relationship up to 500 pM were obtained in amperometry. The resulting biosensors offered much better mismatch discrimination against mismatch sequences than their DNA counterparts.

  1. Transcriptional and phenotypic comparisons of Ppara knockout and siRNA knockdown mice

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Angus T.; Dai, Xudong; Spencer, Andrew G.; Reppen, Tom; Menzie, Ann; Roesch, Paula L.; He, Yudong; Caguyong, Michelle J.; Bloomer, Sherri; Herweijer, Hans; Wolff, Jon A.; Hagstrom, James E.; Lewis, David L.; Linsley, Peter S.; Ulrich, Roger G.

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential as a tool for studying gene function in mammals. However, the specificity and magnitude of the in vivo response to RNAi remains to be fully characterized. A molecular and phenotypic comparison of a genetic knockout mouse and the corresponding knockdown version would help clarify the utility of the RNAi approach. Here, we used hydrodynamic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (Ppara), a gene that is central to the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. We found that Ppara knockdown in the liver results in a transcript profile and metabolic phenotype that is comparable to those of Ppara−/− mice. Combining the profiles from mice treated with the PPARα agonist fenofibrate, we confirmed the specificity of the RNAi response and identified candidate genes proximal to PPARα regulation. Ppara knockdown animals developed hypoglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, phenotypes observed in Ppara−/− mice. In contrast to Ppara−/− mice, fasting was not required to uncover these phenotypes. Together, these data validate the utility of the RNAi approach and suggest that siRNA can be used as a complement to classical knockout technology in gene function studies. PMID:16945951

  2. Knock-down of the MEP pathway isogene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 2 inhibits formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced apocarotenoids, and abolishes normal expression of mycorrhiza-specific plant marker genes.

    PubMed

    Floss, Daniela S; Hause, Bettina; Lange, Peter R; Küster, Helge; Strack, Dieter; Walter, Michael H

    2008-10-01

    The first step of the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is catalyzed by two isoforms of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS1 and DXS2). In Medicago truncatula, MtDXS1 and MtDXS2 genes exhibit completely different expression patterns. Most prominently, colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi induces the accumulation of certain apocarotenoids (cyclohexenone and mycorradicin derivatives) correlated with the expression of MtDXS2 but not of MtDXS1. To prove a distinct function of DXS2, a selective RNAi approach on MtDXS2 expression was performed in transgenic hairy roots of M. truncatula. Repression of MtDXS2 consistently led to reduced transcript levels in mycorrhizal roots, and to a concomitant reduction of AM-induced apocarotenoid accumulation. The transcript levels of MtDXS1 remained unaltered in RNAi plants, and no phenotypical changes in non-AM plants were observed. Late stages of the AM symbiosis were adversely affected, but only upon strong repression with residual MtDXS2-1 transcript levels remaining below approximately 10%. This condition resulted in a strong decrease in the transcript levels of MtPT4, an AM-specific plant phosphate transporter gene, and in a multitude of other AM-induced plant marker genes, as shown by transcriptome analysis. This was accompanied by an increased proportion of degenerating and dead arbuscules at the expense of mature ones. The data reveal a requirement for DXS2-dependent MEP pathway-based isoprenoid products to sustain mycorrhizal functionality at later stages of the symbiosis. They further validate the concept of a distinct role for DXS2 in secondary metabolism, and offer a novel tool to selectively manipulate the levels of secondary isoprenoids by targeting their precursor supply.

  3. MCTP2 is a dosage-sensitive gene required for cardiac outflow tract development

    PubMed Central

    Lalani, Seema R.; Ware, Stephanie M.; Wang, Xueqing; Zapata, Gladys; Tian, Qi; Franco, Luis M.; Jiang, Zhengxin; Bucasas, Kristine; Scott, Daryl A.; Campeau, Philippe M.; Hanchard, Neil; Umaña, Luis; Cast, Ashley; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau W.; McBride, Kim L.; Bray, Molly; Craig Chinault, A.; Boggs, Barbara A.; Huang, Miao; Baker, Mariah R.; Hamilton, Susan; Towbin, Jeff; Jefferies, John L.; Fernbach, Susan D.; Potocki, Lorraine; Belmont, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) have been reported in rare individuals with large terminal deletions of chromosome 15q26. However, no single gene important for left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) development has been identified in this region. Using array-comparative genomic hybridization, we identified two half-siblings with CoA with a 2.2 Mb deletion on 15q26.2, inherited from their mother, who was mosaic for this deletion. This interval contains an evolutionary conserved, protein-coding gene, MCTP2 (multiple C2-domains with two transmembrane regions 2). Using gene-specific array screening in 146 individuals with non-syndromic LVOT obstructive defects, another individual with HLHS and CoA was found to have a de novo 41 kb intragenic duplication within MCTP2, predicted to result in premature truncation, p.F697X. Alteration of Mctp2 gene expression in Xenopus laevis embryos by morpholino knockdown and mRNA overexpression resulted in the failure of proper OT development, confirming the functional importance of this dosage-sensitive gene for cardiogenesis. Our results identify MCTP2 as a novel genetic cause of CoA and related cardiac malformations. PMID:23773997

  4. The effect of Msh2 knockdown on methylating agent induced toxicity in DNA glycosylase deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Cooley, N; Elder, R H; Povey, A C

    2010-01-31

    The DNA structure recognition protein MSH2 is an important protein in DNA mismatch repair due to its role in initiating the repair process. To examine the potential interactions between mismatch repair and base excision repair (BER) we have examined the effect of MSH2 knockdown on 6-thioguanine (6-TG), temozolomide (TMZ) and methylmethane sulphonate (MMS) induced toxicity in BER proficient and deficient cell lines. An shRNA expression vector containing Msh2 target sequences was designed and used to transfect mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking either alkylpurine DNA N-glycosylase (Mpg) or endonuclease III homologue (Nth1). Significant knockdown of Msh2 gene expression was achieved with three different target sequences, with the highest level being shown by Msh2(283). Clonal selection resulted in differing levels of knockdown in Mpg(-/-) cells: (69.0+/-12.1% from 5 cell clones). Transfection of the Msh2(283) sequence in Mpg+/+, Nth1+/+ and Nth1(-/-) cells resulted in average knockdowns of 45.1+/-40.5% (3 clones), 58.0+/-21.4% (5 clones) and 74.9+/-14.8% (3 clones), respectively. Msh2 knockdown resulted in increased resistance to 6-TG in BER (MPG and NTH1) proficient and deficient cell lines with similar levels of knockdown (84+/-4%) but increased resistance to TMZ only in Mpg+/+ and Nth1(-/-) cell lines and not Mpg(-/-) or Nth1+/+ cells as assessed by an MTT assay. Msh2 knockdown had no effect on sensitivity to MMS induced toxicity. In a clonogenic assay, Msh2 silenced Mpg+/+, Mpg(-/-), Nth1+/+ and Nth1(-/-) cells were more resistant to TMZ. These results confirm previous studies showing that MSH2 is a key protein in influencing 6-TG and O(6)-methylguanine induced toxicity but also suggest that the effect of this protein depends upon the presence of other proteins in different DNA repair pathways. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Morpholinos and their peptide conjugates: therapeutic promise and challenge for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Hong M; Moulton, Jon D

    2010-12-01

    Exon-skipping efficacies of phosphodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) or the conjugates of PMOs with cell-penetrating peptides (PPMOs) have been tested in various animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), including mdx mice, utrophin-dystrophin double-knockout mice, and CXMD dogs, as well as in DMD patients in clinical trials. The studies have shown that PMOs can diffuse into leaky muscle cells, modify splicing of DMD transcripts, induce expression of partially functional dystrophin, and improve function of some skeletal muscles. PMOs are non-toxic, with a report of mdx mice tolerating a 3g/kg dose, and no drug-related safety issue in human has been reported. However, because of their poor cell uptake and rapid renal clearance, large and frequently repeated doses of PMOs are likely required for functional benefit in some skeletal muscles of DMD patients. In addition, PMOs do not enter cardiomyocytes sufficiently to relieve heart pathology, the efficacy of delivery to various muscles varies greatly, and delivery across the tissue of each skeletal muscle tissue is patchy. PPMOs enter cells at far lower doses, enter cardiomyocytes in useful quantities, and deliver more evenly to myocytes both when different muscles are compared and when assessed at the level of single muscle tissue sections. Compared to PMOs, far lower doses of PPMOs can restore dystrophin sufficiently to reduce disease pathology, increase skeletal and cardiac muscle functions, and prolong survival of animals. The biggest challenge for PPMO is determining safe and effective doses. The toxicity of PPMOs will require caution when moving into the clinic. The first PPMO-based DMD drug is currently in preclinical development for DMD patients who can benefit from skipping exon 50.

  6. Context Dependent Effects of Chimeric Peptide Morpholino Conjugates Contribute to Dystrophin Exon-skipping Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yin, HaiFang; Boisguerin, Prisca; Moulton, Hong M; Betts, Corinne; Seow, Yiqi; Boutilier, Jordan; Wang, Qingsong; Walsh, Anthony; Lebleu, Bernard; Wood, Matthew JA

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported that cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and novel chimeric peptides containing CPP (referred as B peptide) and muscle-targeting peptide (referred as MSP) motifs significantly improve the systemic exon-skipping activity of morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomers (PMOs) in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In the present study, the general mechanistic significance of the chimeric peptide configuration on the activity and tissue uptake of peptide conjugated PMOs in vivo was investigated. Four additional chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates including newly identified peptide 9 (B-9-PMO and 9-B-PMO) and control peptide 3 (B-3-PMO and 3-B-PMO) were tested in mdx mice. Immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and western blot results indicated that B-9-PMO induced significantly higher level of exon skipping and dystrophin restoration than its counterpart (9-B-PMO), further corroborating the notion that the activity of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates is dependent on relative position of the tissue-targeting peptide motif within the chimeric peptide with respect to PMOs. Subsequent mechanistic studies showed that enhanced cellular uptake of B-MSP-PMO into muscle cells leads to increased exon-skipping activity in comparison with MSP-B-PMO. Surprisingly, further evidence showed that the uptake of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates of both orientations (B-MSP-PMO and MSP-B-PMO) was ATP- and temperature-dependent and also partially mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), indicating that endocytosis is likely the main uptake pathway for both chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates. Collectively, our data demonstrate that peptide orientation in chimeric peptides is an important parameter that determines cellular uptake and activity when conjugated directly to oligonucleotides. These observations provide insight into the design of improved cell targeting compounds for future therapeutics studies. PMID:24064708

  7. Context Dependent Effects of Chimeric Peptide Morpholino Conjugates Contribute to Dystrophin Exon-skipping Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haifang; Boisguerin, Prisca; Moulton, Hong M; Betts, Corinne; Seow, Yiqi; Boutilier, Jordan; Wang, Qingsong; Walsh, Anthony; Lebleu, Bernard; Wood, Matthew Ja

    2013-09-24

    We have recently reported that cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and novel chimeric peptides containing CPP (referred as B peptide) and muscle-targeting peptide (referred as MSP) motifs significantly improve the systemic exon-skipping activity of morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomers (PMOs) in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In the present study, the general mechanistic significance of the chimeric peptide configuration on the activity and tissue uptake of peptide conjugated PMOs in vivo was investigated. Four additional chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates including newly identified peptide 9 (B-9-PMO and 9-B-PMO) and control peptide 3 (B-3-PMO and 3-B-PMO) were tested in mdx mice. Immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and western blot results indicated that B-9-PMO induced significantly higher level of exon skipping and dystrophin restoration than its counterpart (9-B-PMO), further corroborating the notion that the activity of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates is dependent on relative position of the tissue-targeting peptide motif within the chimeric peptide with respect to PMOs. Subsequent mechanistic studies showed that enhanced cellular uptake of B-MSP-PMO into muscle cells leads to increased exon-skipping activity in comparison with MSP-B-PMO. Surprisingly, further evidence showed that the uptake of chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates of both orientations (B-MSP-PMO and MSP-B-PMO) was ATP- and temperature-dependent and also partially mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), indicating that endocytosis is likely the main uptake pathway for both chimeric peptide-PMO conjugates. Collectively, our data demonstrate that peptide orientation in chimeric peptides is an important parameter that determines cellular uptake and activity when conjugated directly to oligonucleotides. These observations provide insight into the design of improved cell targeting compounds for future therapeutics studies.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e124; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013

  8. Selective Neuromuscular Denervation in Taiwanese Severe SMA Mouse Can Be Reversed by Morpholino Antisense Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Te-Lin; Chen, Tai-Heng; Hsu, Ya-Yun; Cheng, Yu-Hua; Juang, Bi-Tzen; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease caused by deficiency of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, which leads to synaptic defects and spinal motor neuron death. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) abnormalities have been found to be involved in SMA pathogenesis in the SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. However, whether similar NMJ pathological findings present in another commonly used mouse model, the Taiwanese SMA mouse, has not been fully investigated. To examine the NMJs of the Taiwanese severe SMA mouse model (Smn-/-; SMN2tg/0), which is characterized by severe phenotype and death before postnatal day (P) 9, we investigated 25 axial and appendicular muscles from P1 to P9. We labelled the muscles with anti-neurofilament and anti-synaptophysin antibodies for nerve terminals and α-bungarotoxin for acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). We found that severe NMJ denervation (<50% fully innervated endplates) selectively occurred in the flexor digitorum brevis 2 and 3 (FDB-2/3) muscles from P5, and an increased percentage of fully denervated endplates correlated with SMA progression. Furthermore, synaptophysin signals were absent at the endplate compared to control littermate mice, suggesting that vesicle transport might only be affected at the end stage. Subsequently, we treated the Taiwanese severe SMA mice with morpholino (MO) antisense oligonucleotides (80 μg/g) via subcutaneous injection at P0. We found that MO significantly reversed the NMJ denervation in FDB-2/3 muscles and extended the survival of Taiwanese severe SMA mice. We conclude that early NMJ denervation in the FDB-2/3 muscles of Taiwanese severe SMA mice can be reversed by MO treatment. The FDB-2/3 muscles of Taiwanese severe SMA mice provide a very sensitive platform for assessing the effectiveness of drug treatments in SMA preclinical studies. PMID:27124114

  9. Selective Neuromuscular Denervation in Taiwanese Severe SMA Mouse Can Be Reversed by Morpholino Antisense Oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Te-Lin; Chen, Tai-Heng; Hsu, Ya-Yun; Cheng, Yu-Hua; Juang, Bi-Tzen; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease caused by deficiency of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, which leads to synaptic defects and spinal motor neuron death. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) abnormalities have been found to be involved in SMA pathogenesis in the SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. However, whether similar NMJ pathological findings present in another commonly used mouse model, the Taiwanese SMA mouse, has not been fully investigated. To examine the NMJs of the Taiwanese severe SMA mouse model (Smn-/-; SMN2tg/0), which is characterized by severe phenotype and death before postnatal day (P) 9, we investigated 25 axial and appendicular muscles from P1 to P9. We labelled the muscles with anti-neurofilament and anti-synaptophysin antibodies for nerve terminals and α-bungarotoxin for acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). We found that severe NMJ denervation (<50% fully innervated endplates) selectively occurred in the flexor digitorum brevis 2 and 3 (FDB-2/3) muscles from P5, and an increased percentage of fully denervated endplates correlated with SMA progression. Furthermore, synaptophysin signals were absent at the endplate compared to control littermate mice, suggesting that vesicle transport might only be affected at the end stage. Subsequently, we treated the Taiwanese severe SMA mice with morpholino (MO) antisense oligonucleotides (80 μg/g) via subcutaneous injection at P0. We found that MO significantly reversed the NMJ denervation in FDB-2/3 muscles and extended the survival of Taiwanese severe SMA mice. We conclude that early NMJ denervation in the FDB-2/3 muscles of Taiwanese severe SMA mice can be reversed by MO treatment. The FDB-2/3 muscles of Taiwanese severe SMA mice provide a very sensitive platform for assessing the effectiveness of drug treatments in SMA preclinical studies.

  10. FTO knockdown in rat ventromedial hypothalamus does not affect energy balance.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, Margriet A; Sanders, Loek E; de Jong, Johannes W; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Adan, Roger A H

    2014-12-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) clustered in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has been associated with obesity. FTO expression is ubiquitous, with particularly high levels in the hypothalamic area of the brain. To investigate the region-specific role of FTO, AAV technology was applied to knockdown FTO in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). No effect of FTO knockdown was observed on bodyweight or parameters of energy balance. Animals were exposed twice to an overnight fast, followed by a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet for 1 week. FTO knockdown did not result in a different response to the diets. A region-specific role for FTO in the VMH in the regulation of energy balance could not be found.

  11. Knockdown of cullin 4A inhibits growth and increases chemosensitivity in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Chen, I-Chuan; You, Liang; Jablons, David M; Li, Ya-Chin; Mao, Jian-Hua; Xu, Zhidong; Lung, Jr-Hau; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2016-07-01

    Cullin 4A (Cul4A) has been observed to be overexpressed in various cancers. In this study, the role of Cul4A in the growth and chemosensitivity in lung cancer cells were studied. We showed that Cul4A is overexpressed in lung cancer cells and tissues. Knockdown of the Cul4A expression by shRNA in lung cancer cells resulted in decreased cellular proliferation and growth in lung cancer cells. Increased sensitivity to gemcitabine, a chemotherapy drug, was also noted in those Cul4A knockdown lung cancer cells. Moreover, increased expression of p21, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) and TGF beta-induced (TGFBI) was observed in lung cancer cells after Cul4A knockdown, which may be partially related to increased chemosensitivity to gemcitabine. G0/G1 cell cycle arrest was also noted after Cul4A knockdown. Notably, decreased tumour growth and increased chemosensitivity to gemcitabine were also noted after Cul4A knockdown in lung cancer xenograft nude mice models. In summary, our study showed that targeting Cul4A with RNAi or other techniques may provide a possible insight to the development of lung cancer therapy in the future.

  12. PEG-PLA nanoparticles facilitate siRNA knockdown in adult zebrafish heart.

    PubMed

    Diao, Jupeng; Wang, Hongxia; Chang, Nannan; Zhou, Xiao-Hai; Zhu, Xiaojun; Wang, Jun; Xiong, Jing-Wei

    2015-10-15

    The remarkable regenerative capacity of the zebrafish has made it an important model organism for studying heart regeneration. However, current loss-of-function studies are limited by a lack of conditional-knockout and effective gene-knockdown methods for the adult heart. Here, we report a novel siRNA knockdown method facilitated by poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactide) (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles. The siRNA-encapsulated nanoparticles successfully entered cells and resulted in remarkable gene-specific knockdown in the adult heart. This effect was demonstrated by down-regulation of the Aldh1a2 and Dusp6 proteins after intrapleural delivery of nanoparticle-encapsulated siRNAs. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Aldh1a2 was sufficient to inhibit myocardial proliferation and decrease the numbers of Gata4-positive cardiomyocytes after ventricular resection. Therefore, the results of this work demonstrate that nanoparticle-facilitated siRNA delivery provides an alternative tool for loss-of-function studies of genes in the adult heart in particular and other organs in general in the adult zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of replication and transcription activator and latency-associated nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by morpholino oligomers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jin; Wang, Kai-Yu; Stein, David A; Patel, Deendayal; Watkins, Rheba; Moulton, Hong M; Iversen, Patrick L; Matson, David O

    2007-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The KSHV replication and transcription activator (RTA) and latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) play key roles in activating KSHV lytic replication and maintaining KSHV latency, respectively. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO) are similar to short single-stranded DNA oligomers, but possess a modified backbone that confers highly specific binding and resistance to nucleases. In this study, RTA and LANA mRNA in PEL cells were targeted by antisense peptide-conjugated PMO (P-PMO) in an effort to suppress KSHV replication. Highly efficient P-PMO uptake by PEL cells was observed. Treatment of PEL cells with a RTA P-PMO (RP1) reduced RTA expression in a dose-dependent and sequence-specific manner, and also caused a significant decrease in several KSHV early and late gene products, including vIL-6, vIRF-1, and ORF-K8.1A. KSHV viral DNA levels were reduced both in cells and culture supernatants of RP1 P-PMO-treated cells, indicating that KSHV lytic replication was suppressed. Treatment of BCBL-1 cells with P-PMO against LANA resulted in a reduction of LANA expression. Cell viability assays detected no cytotoxicity from P-PMO alone, within the concentration range used for the experiments in this study. These results suggest that RP1 P-PMO can specifically block KSHV replication, and further study is warranted.

  14. Whole-Exome Sequencing of Congenital Glaucoma Patients Reveals Hypermorphic Variants in GPATCH3, a New Gene Involved in Ocular and Craniofacial Development.

    PubMed

    Ferre-Fernández, Jesús-José; Aroca-Aguilar, José-Daniel; Medina-Trillo, Cristina; Bonet-Fernández, Juan-Manuel; Méndez-Hernández, Carmen-Dora; Morales-Fernández, Laura; Corton, Marta; Cabañero-Valera, María-José; Gut, Marta; Tonda, Raul; Ayuso, Carmen; Coca-Prados, Miguel; García-Feijoo, Julián; Escribano, Julio

    2017-04-11

    Congenital glaucoma (CG) is a heterogeneous, inherited and severe optical neuropathy that originates from maldevelopment of the anterior segment of the eye. To identify new disease genes, we performed whole-exome sequencing of 26 unrelated CG patients. In one patient we identified two rare, recessive and hypermorphic coding variants in GPATCH3, a gene of unidentified function, and 5% of a second group of 170 unrelated CG patients carried rare variants in this gene. The recombinant GPATCH3 protein activated in vitro the proximal promoter of CXCR4, a gene involved in embryo neural crest cell migration. The GPATCH3 protein was detected in human tissues relevant to glaucoma (e.g., ciliary body). This gene was expressed in the dermis, skeletal muscles, periocular mesenchymal-like cells and corneal endothelium of early zebrafish embryos. Morpholino-mediated knockdown and transient overexpression of gpatch3 led to varying degrees of goniodysgenesis and ocular and craniofacial abnormalities, recapitulating some of the features of zebrafish embryos deficient in the glaucoma-related genes pitx2 and foxc1. In conclusion, our data suggest the existence of high genetic heterogeneity in CG and provide evidence for the role of GPATCH3 in this disease. We also show that GPATCH3 is a new gene involved in ocular and craniofacial development.

  15. Whole-Exome Sequencing of Congenital Glaucoma Patients Reveals Hypermorphic Variants in GPATCH3, a New Gene Involved in Ocular and Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Ferre-Fernández, Jesús-José; Aroca-Aguilar, José-Daniel; Medina-Trillo, Cristina; Bonet-Fernández, Juan-Manuel; Méndez-Hernández, Carmen-Dora; Morales-Fernández, Laura; Corton, Marta; Cabañero-Valera, María-José; Gut, Marta; Tonda, Raul; Ayuso, Carmen; Coca-Prados, Miguel; García-Feijoo, Julián; Escribano, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Congenital glaucoma (CG) is a heterogeneous, inherited and severe optical neuropathy that originates from maldevelopment of the anterior segment of the eye. To identify new disease genes, we performed whole-exome sequencing of 26 unrelated CG patients. In one patient we identified two rare, recessive and hypermorphic coding variants in GPATCH3, a gene of unidentified function, and 5% of a second group of 170 unrelated CG patients carried rare variants in this gene. The recombinant GPATCH3 protein activated in vitro the proximal promoter of CXCR4, a gene involved in embryo neural crest cell migration. The GPATCH3 protein was detected in human tissues relevant to glaucoma (e.g., ciliary body). This gene was expressed in the dermis, skeletal muscles, periocular mesenchymal-like cells and corneal endothelium of early zebrafish embryos. Morpholino-mediated knockdown and transient overexpression of gpatch3 led to varying degrees of goniodysgenesis and ocular and craniofacial abnormalities, recapitulating some of the features of zebrafish embryos deficient in the glaucoma-related genes pitx2 and foxc1. In conclusion, our data suggest the existence of high genetic heterogeneity in CG and provide evidence for the role of GPATCH3 in this disease. We also show that GPATCH3 is a new gene involved in ocular and craniofacial development. PMID:28397860

  16. Knockdown of lymphoid enhancer factor 1 inhibits colon cancer progression in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Juan; Yao, Yu; Jiang, Li-Li; Hu, Ting-Hua; Ma, Jie-Qun; Liao, Zi-Jun; Yao, Jun-Tao; Li, Dong-Fan; Wang, Shu-Hong; Nan, Ke-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Expression of lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) is frequently altered in different human cancers. This study aimed to assess LEF1 expression in colon cancer tissues and to explore changed phenotypes, gene expressions, and the possible mechanism after knocked down LEF1 expression in colon cancer cell lines. A total of 106 colon cancer and matched paratumorous normal tissues were used to assess LEF1 expression using immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. LEF1 lentivirus was used to knockdown LEF1 expression for the assessment of cell viability, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and gene expressions. The nude mouse xenograft assay was performed to detect the effects of LEF1 knockdown in vivo. The data showed that the levels of LEF1 mRNA and protein were significantly increased in human colon cancer tissues compared to the matched paratumorous normal tissues and were associated with infiltration depth, lymph node and distant metastases, advanced TNM (tumor-node-metastasis) stages, and shorter overall survival. Furthermore, LEF1 knockdown reduced tumor cell viability, invasion capacity, MMP2 and MMP-9 expression, but induced apoptosis. Nude mouse xenograft assay showed that LEF1 knockdown suppressed tumor formation and growth in vivo. In addition, the expression of Notch pathway-related proteins RBP-jκ and Hes1 was reduced in LEF1 knockdown cells. Taken together, LEF1 protein was overexpressed in colon cancer tissues and knockdown of LEF1 expression inhibited colon cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that targeting of LEF1 expression should be further evaluated for colon cancer prevention and therapy.

  17. Knockdown of Lymphoid Enhancer factor 1 Inhibits Colon Cancer Progression In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li-Li; Hu, Ting-Hua; Ma, Jie-Qun; Liao, Zi-Jun; Yao, Jun-Tao; Li, Dong-Fan; Wang, Shu-Hong; Nan, Ke-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Expression of lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) is frequently altered in different human cancers. This study aimed to assess LEF1 expression in colon cancer tissues and to explore changed phenotypes, gene expressions, and the possible mechanism after knocked down LEF1 expression in colon cancer cell lines. A total of 106 colon cancer and matched paratumorous normal tissues were used to assess LEF1 expression using immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. LEF1 lentivirus was used to knockdown LEF1 expression for the assessment of cell viability, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and gene expressions. The nude mouse xenograft assay was performed to detect the effects of LEF1 knockdown in vivo. The data showed that the levels of LEF1 mRNA and protein were significantly increased in human colon cancer tissues compared to the matched paratumorous normal tissues and were associated with infiltration depth, lymph node and distant metastases, advanced TNM (tumor-node-metastasis) stages, and shorter overall survival. Furthermore, LEF1 knockdown reduced tumor cell viability, invasion capacity, MMP2 and MMP-9 expression, but induced apoptosis. Nude mouse xenograft assay showed that LEF1 knockdown suppressed tumor formation and growth in vivo. In addition, the expression of Notch pathway-related proteins RBP-jκ and Hes1 was reduced in LEF1 knockdown cells. Taken together, LEF1 protein was overexpressed in colon cancer tissues and knockdown of LEF1 expression inhibited colon cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that targeting of LEF1 expression should be further evaluated for colon cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:24098538

  18. Association between Three Mutations, F1565C, V1023G and S996P, in the Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channel Gene and Knockdown Resistance in Aedes aegypti from Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Rochmijati Wuliandari, Juli; Lee, Siu Fai; White, Vanessa Linley; Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene (Vssc) have been identified in Aedes aegypti and some have been associated with pyrethroid insecticide resistance. Whether these mutations cause resistance, alone or in combination with other alleles, remains unclear, but must be understood if mutations are to become markers for resistance monitoring. We describe High Resolution Melt (HRM) genotyping assays for assessing mutations found in Ae. aegypti in Indonesia (F1565C, V1023G, S996P) and use them to test for associations with pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes from Yogyakarta, a city where insecticide use is widespread. Such knowledge is important because Yogyakarta is a target area for releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with virus-blocking traits for dengue suppression. We identify three alleles across Yogyakarta putatively linked to resistance in previous research. By comparing resistant and susceptible mosquitoes from bioassays, we show that the 1023G allele is associated with resistance to type I and type II pyrethroids. In contrast, F1565C homozygotes were rare and there was only a weak association between individuals heterozygous for the mutation and resistance to a type I pyrethroid. As the heterozygote is expected to be incompletely recessive, it is likely that this association was due to a different resistance mechanism being present. A resistance advantage conferred to V1023G homozygotes through addition of the S996P allele in the homozygous form was suggested for the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin. Screening of V1023G and S996P should assist resistance monitoring in Ae. aegypti from Yogyakarta, and these mutations should be maintained in Wolbachia strains destined for release in this city to ensure that these virus-blocking strains of mosquitoes are not disadvantaged, relative to resident populations. PMID:26463408

  19. Knockdown of the gene encoding Drosophila tribbles homologue 3 (Trib3) improves insulin sensitivity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR)-γ activation in a rat model of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Weismann, D.; Erion, D. M.; Ignatova-Todorava, I.; Nagai, Y.; Stark, R.; Hsiao, J. J.; Flannery, C.; Birkenfeld, A. L.; May, T.; Kahn, M.; Zhang, D.; Yu, X. X.; Murray, S. F.; Bhanot, S.; Monia, B. P.; Cline, G. W.; Shulman, G. I.; Samuel, V. T.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Insulin action is purportedly modulated by Drosophila tribbles homologue 3 (TRIB3), which in vitro prevents thymoma viral proto-oncogene (AKT) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activation. However, the physiological impact of TRIB3 action in vivo remains controversial. Methods We investigated the role of TRIB3 in rats treated with either a control or Trib3 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO). Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed in vivo using a euglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp. A separate group was treated with the PPAR-γ antagonist, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) to assess the role of PPAR-γ in mediating the response to Trib3 ASO. Results Trib3 ASO treatment specifically reduced Trib3 expression by 70 to 80% in liver and white adipose tissue. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin concentrations and basal rate of endogenous glucose production were unchanged. However, Trib3 ASO increased insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose uptake by ~50% during the euglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp. This was attributable to improved skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Despite the reduction of Trib3 expression, AKT2 activity was not increased. Trib3 ASO increased white adipose tissue mass by 70%, and expression of Ppar-γ and its key target genes, raising the possibility that Trib3 ASO improves insulin sensitivity primarily in a PPAR-γ-dependent manner. Co-treatment with BADGE blunted the expansion of white adipose tissue and abrogated the insulin-sensitising effects of Trib3 ASO. Finally, Trib3 ASO also increased plasma HDL-cholesterol, a change that persisted with BADGE co-treatment. Conclusions/interpretation These data suggest that TRIB3 inhibition improves insulin sensitivity in vivo primarily in a PPAR-γ-dependent manner and without any change in AKT2 activity. PMID:21190014

  20. Dual Myostatin and Dystrophin Exon Skipping by Morpholino Nucleic Acid Oligomers Conjugated to a Cell-penetrating Peptide Is a Promising Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Alberto; Kang, Jagjeet K; McClorey, Graham; Saleh, Amer F; Popplewell, Linda; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew Ja; Dickson, George

    2012-12-18

    The knockdown of myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass may have important implications in disease conditions accompanied by muscle mass loss like cancer, HIV/AIDS, sarcopenia, muscle atrophy, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In DMD patients, where major muscle loss has occurred due to a lack of dystrophin, the therapeutic restoration of dystrophin expression alone in older patients may not be sufficient to restore the functionality of the muscles. We recently demonstrated that phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) can be used to re-direct myostatin splicing and promote the expression of an out-of-frame transcript so reducing the amount of the synthesized myostatin protein. Furthermore, the systemic administration of the same PMO conjugated to an octaguanidine moiety (Vivo-PMO) led to a significant increase in the mass of soleus muscle of treated mice. Here, we have further optimized the use of Vivo-PMO in normal mice and also tested the efficacy of the same PMO conjugated to an arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide (B-PMO). Similar experiments conducted in mdx dystrophic mice showed that B-PMO targeting myostatin is able to significantly increase the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle weight and when coadministered with a B-PMO targeting the dystrophin exon 23, it does not have a detrimental interaction. This study confirms that myostatin knockdown by exon skipping is a potential therapeutic strategy to counteract muscle wasting conditions and dual myostatin and dystrophin skipping has potential as a therapy for DMD.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e62; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.54; published online 18 December 2012.

  1. Neurogenic gene regulatory pathways in the sea urchin embryo

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zheng; Angerer, Lynne M.; Angerer, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    During embryogenesis the sea urchin early pluteus larva differentiates 40-50 neurons marked by expression of the pan-neural marker synaptotagmin B (SynB) that are distributed along the ciliary band, in the apical plate and pharyngeal endoderm, and 4-6 serotonergic neurons that are confined to the apical plate. Development of all neurons has been shown to depend on the function of Six3. Using a combination of molecular screens and tests of gene function by morpholino-mediated knockdown, we identified SoxC and Brn1/2/4, which function sequentially in the neurogenic regulatory pathway and are also required for the differentiation of all neurons. Misexpression of Brn1/2/4 at low dose caused an increase in the number of serotonin-expressing cells and at higher dose converted most of the embryo to a neurogenic epithelial sphere expressing the Hnf6 ciliary band marker. A third factor, Z167, was shown to work downstream of the Six3 and SoxC core factors and to define a branch specific for the differentiation of serotonergic neurons. These results provide a framework for building a gene regulatory network for neurogenesis in the sea urchin embryo. PMID:26657764

  2. Neurogenic gene regulatory pathways in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng; Angerer, Lynne M; Angerer, Robert C

    2016-01-15

    During embryogenesis the sea urchin early pluteus larva differentiates 40-50 neurons marked by expression of the pan-neural marker synaptotagmin B (SynB) that are distributed along the ciliary band, in the apical plate and pharyngeal endoderm, and 4-6 serotonergic neurons that are confined to the apical plate. Development of all neurons has been shown to depend on the function of Six3. Using a combination of molecular screens and tests of gene function by morpholino-mediated knockdown, we identified SoxC and Brn1/2/4, which function sequentially in the neurogenic regulatory pathway and are also required for the differentiation of all neurons. Misexpression of Brn1/2/4 at low dose caused an increase in the number of serotonin-expressing cells and at higher dose converted most of the embryo to a neurogenic epithelial sphere expressing the Hnf6 ciliary band marker. A third factor, Z167, was shown to work downstream of the Six3 and SoxC core factors and to define a branch specific for the differentiation of serotonergic neurons. These results provide a framework for building a gene regulatory network for neurogenesis in the sea urchin embryo. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. The maternal genes Ci-p53/p73-a and Ci-p53/p73-b regulate zygotic ZicL expression and notochord differentiation in Ciona intestinalis embryos.

    PubMed

    Noda, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    I isolated a Ciona intestinalis homolog of p53, Ci-p53/p73-a, in a microarray screen of rapidly degraded maternal mRNA by comparing the transcriptomes of unfertilized eggs and 32-cell stage embryos. Higher expression of the gene in eggs and lower expression in later embryonic stages were confirmed by whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR); expression was ubiquitous in eggs and early embryos. Knockdown of Ci-p53/p73-a by injection of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) severely perturbed gastrulation cell movements and expression of notochord marker genes. A key regulator of notochord differentiation in Ciona embryos is Brachyury (Ci-Bra), which is directly activated by a zic-like gene (Ci-ZicL). The expression of Ci-ZicL and Ci-Bra in A-line notochord precursors was downregulated in Ci-p53/p73-a knockdown embryos. Maternal expression of Ci-p53/p73-b, a homolog of Ci-p53/p73-a, was also detected. In Ci-p53/p73-b knockdown embryos, gastrulation cell movements, expression of Ci-ZicL and Ci-Bra in A-line notochord precursors, and expression of notochord marker gene at later stages were perturbed. The upstream region of Ci-ZicL contains putative p53-binding sites. Cis-regulatory analysis of Ci-ZicL showed that these sites are involved in expression of Ci-ZicL in A-line notochord precursors at the 32-cell and early gastrula stages. These results suggest that p53 genes are maternal factors that play a crucial role in A-line notochord differentiation in C. intestinalis embryos by regulating Ci-ZicL expression.

  4. Evaluation of a new biocompatible poly(N-(morpholino ethyl methacrylate)-based copolymer for the delivery of ruthenium oligonucleotides, targeting HPV16 E6 oncogene.

    PubMed

    Reschner, Anca; Shim, Yong Ho; Dubois, Philippe; Delvenne, Philippe; Evrard, Brigitte; Marcélis, Lionel; Moucheron, Cécile; Kirsch-De Mesmaeker, Andrée; Defrancq, Eric; Raes, Martine; Piette, Jacques; Collard, Laurence; Piel, Géraldine

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the use of a new biocompatible block copolymer poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-N-(morpholino)ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA-b-PMEMA) for the delivery of a particular antisense oligonucleotide targeting E6 gene from human papilloma virus. This antisense oligonucleotide was derivatized with a polyazaaromatic Ru(II) complex which, under visible illumination, is able to produce an irreversible crosslink with the complementary targeted sequence. The purpose of this study is to determine whether by the use of a suitable transfection agent, it is possible to increase the efficiency of the antisense oligonucleotide targeting E6 gene, named Ru-P-4. In a recent study, we showed that Oligofectamine transfected Ru-P-4 antisense oligonucleotide failed to inhibit efficiently the growth of cervical cancer cell line SiHa, contrarily to the Ru-P-6 antisense oligonucleotide, another sequence also targeting the E6 gene. The ability of PDMAEMA-b-PMEMA to form polyplexes with optimal physicochemical characteristics was investigated first. Then the ability of the PDMAEMA-b-PMEMA/Ru-P-4 antisense oligonucleotide polyplexes to transfect two keratinocyte cell lines (SiHa and HaCat) and the capacity of polyplexes to inhibit HPV16+ cervical cancer cell growth was evaluated. PDMAEMA-b-PMEMA base polyplexes at the optimal molar ratio of polymer nitrogen atoms to DNA phosphates (N/P), were able to deliver Ru-P-4 antisense oligonucleotide and to induce a higher growth inhibition in human cervical cancer SiHa cells, compared to other formulations based on Oligofectamine.

  5. The functional genetic link of NLGN4X knockdown and neurodevelopment in neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lingling; Chang, Xiao; Zhang, Peilin; Coba, Marcelo P; Lu, Wange; Wang, Kai

    2013-09-15

    Genetic mutations in NLGN4X (neuroligin 4), including point mutations and copy number variants (CNVs), have been associated with susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, it is unclear how mutations in NLGN4X result in neurodevelopmental defects. Here, we used neural stem cells (NSCs) as in vitro models to explore the impacts of NLGN4X knockdown on neurodevelopment. Using two shRNAmir-based vectors targeting NLGN4X and one control shRNAmir vector, we modulated NLGN4X expression and differentiated these NSCs into mature neurons. We monitored the neurodevelopmental process at Weeks 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6, based on morphological analysis and whole-genome gene expression profiling. At the cellular level, in NSCs with NLGN4X knockdown, we observed increasingly delayed neuronal development and compromised neurite formation, starting from Week 2 through Week 6 post differentiation. At the molecular level, we identified multiple pathways, such as neurogenesis, neuron differentiation and muscle development, which are increasingly disturbed in cells with NLGN4X knockdown. Notably, several postsynaptic genes, including DLG4, NLGN1 and NLGN3, also have decreased expression. Based on in vitro models, NLGN4X knockdown directly impacts neurodevelopmental process during the formation of neurons and their connections. Our functional genomics study highlights the utility of NSCs models in understanding the functional roles of CNVs in affecting neurodevelopment and conferring susceptibility to neurodevelopmental diseases.

  6. Preparation of 111In-DTPA morpholino oligomer for low abdominal accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; Rusckowski, Mary; Greiner, Dale; Hnatowich, Donald

    2010-01-01

    An ability to quantitate the beta cell mass by noninvasive nuclear imaging will be very useful in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetes. However, to be successful, radioactivity from the pancreas must not be obscured by the background radioactivity in the abdomen. Pretargeting offers the promise of achieving high target organ to normal tissue ratios. In preparation for pancreas imaging studies by pretargeting using morpholino oligomers (MORF/cMORF), it was necessary to develop a simple and efficient method to radiolabel the cMORF effector. Because we have shown that labeling the cMORF with 111In via DTPA reduces excretion into the intestines compared to labeling with 99mTc via MAG3, the conjugation of DTPA to cMORF were investigated for the 111In labeling. The amine-derivatized cMORF was conjugated with DTPA using EDC (1-Ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride) as an alternative to the conventional cyclic anhydride. The conjugation efficiency (represented by the number of DTPA groups attached per cMORF) was investigated by changing the EDC, DTPA and cMORF molar ratios. Different open columns were considered for the purification of DTPA-cMORF. Before conjugation, each cMORF molecule was confirmed to have an amine by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) assay using the ω-amino butyric acid as positive standrad and the non-amine derivatized cMORF as negative standard. The average number of DTPA groups per cMORF was 0.15–0.20 following the conjugation with DTPA over a cMORF/DTPA molar ratio of 0.5 to 5 and over a cMORF/EDC molar ratio of 20 to 60. The conjugation efficiency was lower than expected probably due to steric hindrance. A 1×50 cm P-4 column using ammonia acetate as eluting buffer provided an adequate separation of DTPA-cMORF from free DTPA. The 111In labeling efficiency by transchelation from acetate exceeded 95%, thus avoiding the need for postlabeling purification. Despite the lower than expected conjugation efficiency

  7. Preparation of (111)In-DTPA morpholino oligomer for low abdominal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; Rusckowski, Mary; Greiner, Dale; Hnatowich, Donald

    2010-09-01

    An ability to quantitate the beta cell mass by noninvasive nuclear imaging will be very useful in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetes. However, to be successful, radioactivity from the pancreas must not be obscured by the background radioactivity in the abdomen. Pretargeting offers the promise of achieving high target organ to normal tissue ratios. In preparation for pancreas imaging studies by pretargeting using morpholino oligomers (MORF/cMORF), it was necessary to develop a simple and efficient method to radiolabel the cMORF effector. Because we have shown that labeling the cMORF with (111)In via DTPA reduces excretion into the intestines compared to labeling with (99m)Tc via MAG(3), the conjugation of DTPA to cMORF was investigated for (111)In labeling. The amine-derivatized cMORF was conjugated with DTPA using 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) as an alternative to the conventional cyclic anhydride. The conjugation efficiency (represented by the number of DTPA groups attached per cMORF) was investigated by changing the EDC, DTPA, and cMORF molar ratios. Different open columns were considered for the purification of DTPA-cMORF. Before conjugation, each cMORF molecule was confirmed to have an amine by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) assay using the omega-amino butyric acid as positive standard and the non-amine derivatized cMORF as negative standard. The average number of DTPA groups per cMORF was 0.15-0.20 following the conjugation over a cMORF/DTPA molar ratio of 0.5-5 and over a cMORF/EDC molar ratio of 20-60. The conjugation efficiency was lower than expected probably due to steric hindrance. A 1 x 50cm P-4 column using ammonium acetate as eluting buffer provided an adequate separation of DTPA-cMORF from free DTPA. The (111)In labeling efficiency by transchelation from acetate exceeded 95%, thus avoiding the need for postlabeling purification. Despite the lower than expected conjugation efficiency in which

  8. Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, stability and toxicity of a cell-penetrating peptide-morpholino oligomer conjugate.

    PubMed

    Amantana, Adams; Moulton, Hong M; Cate, Melissa L; Reddy, Muralimohan T; Whitehead, Tom; Hassinger, Jed N; Youngblood, Derek S; Iversen, Patrick L

    2007-01-01

    Conjugation of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) to phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO) has been shown to enhance cytosolic and nuclear delivery of PMO. However, the in vivo disposition of CPP-PMO is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, stability, and safety profile of an anti-c-myc PMO conjugated to the CPP, (RXR)4 (X = 6-aminohexanoic acid) in rats. The PMO and CPP-PMO were administrated intravenously into rats. The concentrations of the PMO and the CPP-PMO in plasma and tissues were monitored by HPLC. The stability of the CPP portion of the CPP-PMO conjugate in rat plasma and tissue lysates was determined by mass spectrometry. The safety profile of the CPP-PMO was assessed by body weight changes, serum chemistry, and animal behavior. CPP conjugation improved the kinetic behavior of PMO with a 2-fold increase in the estimated elimination half-life, a 4-fold increase in volume of distribution, and increased area under the plasma concentration vs time curve. Consistent with the improved pharmacokinetic profile, conjugation to CPP increased the uptake of PMO in all tissues except brain, varied between organ type with greater uptake enhancement occurring in liver, spleen, and lungs. The CPP-PMO conjugate had greater tissue retention than the corresponding PMO. Mass spectrometry data indicated no observable degradation of the PMO portion, while there was identifiable degradation of the CPP portion. Time-dependent CPP degradation was observed in plasma and tissue lysates, with the degradation in plasma being more rapid. The pattern of degraded products differed between the plasma and lysates. Safety evaluation data showed that the CPP-PMO was well-tolerated at the dose of 15 mg/kg with no apparent signs of toxicity. In contrast, at the dose of 150 mg/kg, adverse events such as lethargy, weight loss, and elevated BUN (p < 0.01) and serum creatinine (p < 0.001) levels were recorded

  9. Improving the labeling of S-acetyl NHS-MAG(3)-conjugated morpholino oligomers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozheng; Zhang, Surong; He, Jiang; Zhu, Zhihong; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2002-01-01

    S-Acetyl MAG(3) (S-acetylmercaptoacetyltriglycine) has been used as a chelator for the (99m)Tc labeling of a variety of biomolecules. The objective of this study was to improve upon the labeling of morpholino (MORF), a DNA analogue, as a model biomolecule. A 15mer MORF with a primary amine was conjugated with NHS-MAG(3) in the usual manner, and the MORF-MAG(3) was purified over a P4 column as before. The conjugate was radiolabeled using stannous ion as usual, and the impurities were identified using size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE HPLC). Various methods were then investigated to remove the impurities. With tartrate as the transchelator, two impurities were identified as labeled MAG(3) and labeled tartrate. The labeled MAG(3) could not be removed by simply repurifying the conjugate using the usual pH 5.2 NH(4)OAc buffer before labeling. However, this impurity could be completely removed if the conjugate was adjusted to pH 7.6 and heated before repurification. The labeled tartrate impurity was removed by heating during labeling. On the basis of these observations, the following procedure for purification of the conjugation mixture and subsequent labeling was adopted. After MORF was conjugated with NHS-MAG(3) and purified over P4 with pH 5.2 NH(4)OAc eluant, the oligomer fractions were combined, adjusted to pH 7.6, and heated in a boiling water bath for 20 min. The conjugated oligomer was then repurified over P4 for storage at refrigerator temperatures. Labeling is achieved simply by adding fresh stannous ion to a solution of the MORF-MAG(3) in pH 7.6 containing tartrate followed by (99m)Tc-pertechnetate. After the mixture is heated for 20 min in boiling water, the labeling efficiency is always over 90% as determined by size exclusion HPLC and paper chromatography and the specific activities can exceed 7 mCi/microg. By making several relatively simple changes to the routine procedure used to conjugate and radiolabel biomolecules with (99m

  10. ETV4 and Myeov knockdown impairs colon cancer cell line proliferation and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Alan C. . E-mail: amoss@bidmc.harvard.edu; Lawlor, Garrett; Murray, David; Tighe, Donal; Madden, Stephen F.; Mulligan, Anne-Marie; Keane, Conor O.; Brady, Hugh R.; Doran, Peter P.; MacMathuna, Padraic

    2006-06-23

    We have identified novel colorectal cancer-associated genes using NCBI's UNIGENE cDNA libraries. Colon cancer libraries were examined using Digital Differential Display and disease-associated genes were selected. Among these were ETV4 and MYEOV, novel colorectal cancer-associated genes. Samples of matched normal and neoplastic colon were obtained from human subjects and gene expression was quantified using real-time PCR. ETV4 gene expression was significantly increased in colonic neoplasia in comparison to matched normal colonic tissue (p < 0.05). Myeov expression was also increased in colon neoplasia in comparison to matched normal tissue. The effect of siRNA-mediated knockdown of ETV4 and Myeov on cell proliferation and invasion was assessed. ETV4 knockdown resulted in a 90% decrease in cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and a 67% decrease in cell invasion. Myeov knockdown resulted in a 48% decrease in cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and a 36% decrease in cell invasion. These data suggest that ETV4 and Myeov may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Knockdown of HSPA9 induces TP53-dependent apoptosis in human hematopoietic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tuoen; Krysiak, Kilannin; Shirai, Cara Lunn; Kim, Sanghyun; Shao, Jin; Ndonwi, Matthew; Walter, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are the most common adult myeloid blood cancers in the US. Patients have increased apoptosis in their bone marrow cells leading to low peripheral blood counts. The full complement of gene mutations that contribute to increased apoptosis in MDS remains unknown. Up to 25% of MDS patients harbor and acquired interstitial deletion on the long arm of chromosome 5 [del(5q)], creating haploinsufficiency for a large set of genes including HSPA9. Knockdown of HSPA9 in primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells significantly inhibits growth and increases apoptosis. We show here that HSPA9 knockdown is associated with increased TP53 expression and activity, resulting in increased expression of target genes BAX and p21. HSPA9 protein interacts with TP53 in CD34+ cells and knockdown of HSPA9 increases nuclear TP53 levels, providing a possible mechanism for regulation of TP53 by HSPA9 haploinsufficiency in hematopoietic cells. Concurrent knockdown of TP53 and HSPA9 rescued the increased apoptosis observed in CD34+ cells following knockdown of HSPA9. Reduction of HSPA9 below 50% results in severe inhibition of cell growth, suggesting that del(5q) cells may be preferentially sensitive to further reductions of HSPA9 below 50%, thus providing a genetic vulnerability to del(5q) cells. Treatment of bone marrow cells with MKT-077, an HSPA9 inhibitor, induced apoptosis in a higher percentage of cells from MDS patients with del(5q) compared to non-del(5q) MDS patients and normal donor cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that reduced levels of HSPA9 may contribute to TP53 activation and increased apoptosis observed in del(5q)-associated MDS. PMID:28178280

  12. Knockdown of HSPA9 induces TP53-dependent apoptosis in human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tuoen; Krysiak, Kilannin; Shirai, Cara Lunn; Kim, Sanghyun; Shao, Jin; Ndonwi, Matthew; Walter, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are the most common adult myeloid blood cancers in the US. Patients have increased apoptosis in their bone marrow cells leading to low peripheral blood counts. The full complement of gene mutations that contribute to increased apoptosis in MDS remains unknown. Up to 25% of MDS patients harbor and acquired interstitial deletion on the long arm of chromosome 5 [del(5q)], creating haploinsufficiency for a large set of genes including HSPA9. Knockdown of HSPA9 in primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells significantly inhibits growth and increases apoptosis. We show here that HSPA9 knockdown is associated with increased TP53 expression and activity, resulting in increased expression of target genes BAX and p21. HSPA9 protein interacts with TP53 in CD34+ cells and knockdown of HSPA9 increases nuclear TP53 levels, providing a possible mechanism for regulation of TP53 by HSPA9 haploinsufficiency in hematopoietic cells. Concurrent knockdown of TP53 and HSPA9 rescued the increased apoptosis observed in CD34+ cells following knockdown of HSPA9. Reduction of HSPA9 below 50% results in severe inhibition of cell growth, suggesting that del(5q) cells may be preferentially sensitive to further reductions of HSPA9 below 50%, thus providing a genetic vulnerability to del(5q) cells. Treatment of bone marrow cells with MKT-077, an HSPA9 inhibitor, induced apoptosis in a higher percentage of cells from MDS patients with del(5q) compared to non-del(5q) MDS patients and normal donor cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that reduced levels of HSPA9 may contribute to TP53 activation and increased apoptosis observed in del(5q)-associated MDS.

  13. Impairment of the tRNA-splicing endonuclease subunit 54 (tsen54) gene causes neurological abnormalities and larval death in zebrafish models of pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Kasher, Paul R; Namavar, Yasmin; van Tijn, Paula; Fluiter, Kees; Sizarov, Aleksander; Kamermans, Maarten; Grierson, Andrew J; Zivkovic, Danica; Baas, Frank

    2011-04-15

    Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) represents a group (PCH1-6) of neurodegenerative autosomal recessive disorders characterized by hypoplasia and/or atrophy of the cerebellum, hypoplasia of the ventral pons, progressive microcephaly and variable neocortical atrophy. The majority of PCH2 and PCH4 cases are caused by mutations in the TSEN54 gene; one of the four subunits comprising the tRNA-splicing endonuclease (TSEN) complex. We hypothesized that TSEN54 mutations act through a loss of function mechanism. At 8 weeks of gestation, human TSEN54 is expressed ubiquitously in the brain, yet strong expression is seen within the telencephalon and metencephalon. Comparable expression patterns for tsen54 are observed in zebrafish embryos. Morpholino (MO) knockdown of tsen54 in zebrafish embryos results in loss of structural definition in the brain. This phenotype was partially rescued by co-injecting the MO with human TSEN54 mRNA. A developmental patterning defect was not associated with tsen54 knockdown; however, an increase in cell death within the brain was observed, thus bearing resemblance to PCH pathophysiology. Additionally, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea mutant zebrafish homozygous for a tsen54 premature stop-codon mutation die within 9 days post-fertilization. To determine whether a common disease pathway exists between TSEN54 and other PCH-related genes, we also monitored the effects of mitochondrial arginyl-tRNA synthetase (rars2; PCH1 and PCH6) knockdown in zebrafish. Comparable brain phenotypes were observed following the inhibition of both genes. These data strongly support the hypothesis that TSEN54 mutations cause PCH through a loss of function mechanism. Also we suggest that a common disease pathway may exist between TSEN54- and RARS2-related PCH, which may involve a tRNA processing-related mechanism.

  14. The Ndst Gene Family in Zebrafish: Role of Ndst1b in Pharyngeal Arch Formation

    PubMed Central

    Haitina, Tatjana; Habicher, Judith; Ledin, Johan; Kjellén, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are ubiquitous components of the extracellular matrix and plasma membrane of metazoans. The sulfation pattern of the HS glycosaminoglycan chain is characteristic for each tissue and changes during development. The glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (NDST) enzymes catalyze N-deacetylation and N-sulfation during HS biosynthesis and have a key role in designing the sulfation pattern. We here report on the presence of five NDST genes in zebrafish. Zebrafish ndst1a, ndst1b, ndst2a and ndst2b represent duplicated mammalian orthologues of NDST1 and NDST2 that arose through teleost specific genome duplication. Interestingly, the single zebrafish orthologue ndst3, is equally similar to tetrapod Ndst3 and Ndst4. It is likely that a local duplication in the common ancestor of lobe-finned fish and tetrapods gave rise to these two genes. All zebrafish Ndst genes showed distinct but partially overlapping expression patterns during embryonic development. Morpholino knockdown of ndst1b resulted in delayed development, craniofacial cartilage abnormalities, shortened body and pectoral fin length, resembling some of the features of the Ndst1 mouse knockout. PMID:25767878

  15. Structural insights of a PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor with the morpholino-triazine scaffold.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Takako; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H

    2016-04-01

    Stimulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which controls cell proliferation and growth, is often observed in cancer cell. Inhibiting both PI3K and mTOR in this pathway can switch off Akt activation and hence, plays a powerful role for modulating this pathway. PKI-587, a drug containing the structure of morpholino-triazines, shows a dual and nano-molar inhibition activity and is currently in clinical trial. To provide an insight into the mechanism of this dual inhibition, pharmacophore and QSAR models were developed in this work using compounds based on the morpholino-triazines scaffold, followed by a docking study. Pharmacophore model suggested the mechanism of the inhibition of PI3Kα and mTOR by the compounds were mostly the same, which was supported by the docking study showing similar docking modes. The analysis also suggested the importance of the flat plane shape of the ligands, the space surrounding the ligands in the binding pocket, and the slight difference in the shape of the binding sites between PI3Kα and mTOR.

  16. Structural insights of a PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor with the morpholino-triazine scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Takako; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H.

    2016-04-01

    Stimulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which controls cell proliferation and growth, is often observed in cancer cell. Inhibiting both PI3K and mTOR in this pathway can switch off Akt activation and hence, plays a powerful role for modulating this pathway. PKI-587, a drug containing the structure of morpholino-triazines, shows a dual and nano-molar inhibition activity and is currently in clinical trial. To provide an insight into the mechanism of this dual inhibition, pharmacophore and QSAR models were developed in this work using compounds based on the morpholino-triazines scaffold, followed by a docking study. Pharmacophore model suggested the mechanism of the inhibition of PI3Kα and mTOR by the compounds were mostly the same, which was supported by the docking study showing similar docking modes. The analysis also suggested the importance of the flat plane shape of the ligands, the space surrounding the ligands in the binding pocket, and the slight difference in the shape of the binding sites between PI3Kα and mTOR.

  17. CRISPR/Cas9: An inexpensive, efficient loss of function tool to screen human disease genes in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Dipankan; Marfo, Chris A; Li, Davis; Lane, Maura; Khokha, Mustafa K

    2015-12-15

    Congenital malformations are the major cause of infant mortality in the US and Europe. Due to rapid advances in human genomics, we can now efficiently identify sequence variants that may cause disease in these patients. However, establishing disease causality remains a challenge. Additionally, in the case of congenital heart disease, many of the identified candidate genes are either novel to embryonic development or have no known function. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop inexpensive and efficient technologies to screen these candidate genes for disease phenocopy in model systems and to perform functional studies to uncover their role in development. For this purpose, we sought to test F0 CRISPR based gene editing as a loss of function strategy for disease phenocopy in the frog model organism, Xenopus tropicalis. We demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can efficiently modify both alleles in the F0 generation within a few hours post fertilization, recapitulating even early disease phenotypes that are highly similar to knockdowns from morpholino oligos (MOs) in nearly all cases tested. We find that injecting Cas9 protein is dramatically more efficacious and less toxic than cas9 mRNA. We conclude that CRISPR based F0 gene modification in X. tropicalis is efficient and cost effective and readily recapitulates disease and MO phenotypes.

  18. Genome-wide changes accompanying the knockdown of Ep-CAM in retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Moutushy; Kandalam, Mallikarjuna; Verma, Rama Shanker; UmaMaheswari, Krishnan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2010-05-11

    Previously we showed that epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM), a cell surface molecule, was highly expressed in primary retinoblastoma tumors. In the present study, we studied the genes regulated by Ep-CAM in a retinoblastoma Y79 cell line in vitro using a combination of short interference RNA and microarray technology. Flow cytometry, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (Q-RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry were performed to confirm the Ep-CAM re-expression in the Y79 cells treated with 5'-azacytidine (AZC). Ep-CAM expression in AZC-treated Y79 cells was silenced using synthetic anti-Ep-CAM short interference RNA, and whole genome microarray was performed to determine the gene expression changes post Ep-CAM knockdown. Ep-CAM inhibition was confirmed by Q-RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. Ep-CAM expression was significantly restored in Y79 cells on day 5 of AZC treatment. Ep-CAM inhibition significantly affected Y79 cell proliferation. We identified 465 upregulated genes (>or=1.0 fold) and 205 downregulated genes (knockdown of Ep-CAM. These genes regulate several aspects of tumor function, including cell survival/proliferation, DNA replication/transcription, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Quantitative pathway analysis using Biointerpreter further revealed that the most pronounced effect of Ep-CAM knockdown was deregulation of pathways that include mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP) kinase and tumor protein 53 (P53) pathways. Real-time Q-RT-PCR confirmed microarray gene expression changes for selected genes. Ep-CAM silencing significantly decreases Y79 cell proliferation and revealed a wide network of deregulated pathways in vitro. Future studies targeting Ep-CAM gene expression in vivo will help to delineate the mechanisms associated with Ep-CAM gene function in neoplastic transformation and define the potential for Ep-CAM-based molecular intervention in retinoblastoma patients.

  19. MYT1L mutations cause intellectual disability and variable obesity by dysregulating gene expression and development of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Blanchet, Patricia; Cooper, Gregory M.; Thompson, Michelle L.; Duban-Bedu, Benedicte; Gerard, Benedicte; Suckno, Sylvie; Deshpande, Charu; Clowes, Virginia; Vogt, Julie; Turnpenny, Peter; Alembik, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Deletions at chromosome 2p25.3 are associated with a syndrome consisting of intellectual disability and obesity. The smallest region of overlap for deletions at 2p25.3 contains PXDN and MYT1L. MYT1L is expressed only within the brain in humans. We hypothesized that single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in MYT1L would cause a phenotype resembling deletion at 2p25.3. To examine this we sought MYT1L SNVs in exome sequencing data from 4, 296 parent-child trios. Further variants were identified through a genematcher-facilitated collaboration. We report 9 patients with MYT1L SNVs (4 loss of function and 5 missense). The phenotype of SNV carriers overlapped with that of 2p25.3 deletion carriers. To identify the transcriptomic consequences of MYT1L loss of function we used CRISPR-Cas9 to create a knockout cell line. Gene Ontology analysis in knockout cells demonstrated altered expression of genes that regulate gene expression and that are localized to the nucleus. These differentially expressed genes were enriched for OMIM disease ontology terms “mental retardation”. To study the developmental effects of MYT1L loss of function we created a zebrafish knockdown using morpholinos. Knockdown zebrafish manifested loss of oxytocin expression in the preoptic neuroendocrine area. This study demonstrates that MYT1L variants are associated with syndromic obesity in humans. The mechanism is related to dysregulated expression of neurodevelopmental genes and altered development of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus. PMID:28859103

  20. Knockdown strategies for the study of proprotein convertases and proliferation in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    D'Anjou, François; Couture, Frédéric; Desjardins, Roxane; Day, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Gene silencing strategies targeting mRNA are suitable methods to validate the functions of specific genes. In this chapter, we sought to compare two knockdown strategies for the study of proprotein convertases and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. We used both SOFA-HDV ribozyme and lentiviral-mediated shRNA delivery system to reduce PACE4 mRNA levels and validate its implication in the proliferation of DU145 prostate cancer cells. The cellular effects of PACE4 knockdown were assessed (1) in vitro using two tetrazolium salts (MTT and XTT assays) and (2) in vivo using a tumor xenograft approach in immunodeficient mice (Nu/Nu). Our results confirm the unique role of the proprotein convertase PACE4 in prostate cancer cell proliferation while demonstrating advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Achieving target validation in an effective manner is critical, as further development using a drug development approach is highly laborious and requires enormous resources.

  1. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    SciTech Connect

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Levin, Bruce L.; Leonard, Jonathan

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  2. Inhibition of SULT4A1 Expression Induces Up-Regulation of Phototransduction Gene Expression in 72-Hour Postfertilization Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Frank; Thomas, Holly; Ethen, Cheryl M.; Wu, Zhengliang L.; Chen, Dongquan; Kraft, Timothy W.; Parant, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfotransferase (SULT) 4A1 is an orphan enzyme that shares distinct structure and sequence similarities with other cytosolic SULTs. SULT4A1 is primarily expressed in neuronal tissue and is also the most conserved SULT, having been identified in every vertebrate investigated to date. Certain haplotypes of the SULT4A1 gene are correlated with higher baseline psychopathology in schizophrenic patients, but no substrate or function for SULT4A1 has yet been identified despite its high level of sequence conservation. In this study, deep RNA sequencing was used to search for alterations in gene expression in 72-hour postfertilization zebrafish larvae following transient SULT4A1 knockdown (KD) utilizing splice blocking morpholino oligonucleotides. This study demonstrates that transient inhibition of SULT4A1 expression in developing zebrafish larvae results in the up-regulation of several genes involved in phototransduction. SULT4A1 KD was verified by immunoblot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Gene regulation changes identified by deep RNA sequencing were validated by qPCR. This study is the first identification of a cellular process whose regulation appears to be associated with SULT4A1 expression. PMID:24553382

  3. Inhibition of SULT4A1 expression induces up-regulation of phototransduction gene expression in 72-hour postfertilization zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Frank; Thomas, Holly; Ethen, Cheryl M; Wu, Zhengliang L; Chen, Dongquan; Kraft, Timothy W; Parant, John M; Falany, Charles N

    2014-05-01

    Sulfotransferase (SULT) 4A1 is an orphan enzyme that shares distinct structure and sequence similarities with other cytosolic SULTs. SULT4A1 is primarily expressed in neuronal tissue and is also the most conserved SULT, having been identified in every vertebrate investigated to date. Certain haplotypes of the SULT4A1 gene are correlated with higher baseline psychopathology in schizophrenic patients, but no substrate or function for SULT4A1 has yet been identified despite its high level of sequence conservation. In this study, deep RNA sequencing was used to search for alterations in gene expression in 72-hour postfertilization zebrafish larvae following transient SULT4A1 knockdown (KD) utilizing splice blocking morpholino oligonucleotides. This study demonstrates that transient inhibition of SULT4A1 expression in developing zebrafish larvae results in the up-regulation of several genes involved in phototransduction. SULT4A1 KD was verified by immunoblot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Gene regulation changes identified by deep RNA sequencing were validated by qPCR. This study is the first identification of a cellular process whose regulation appears to be associated with SULT4A1 expression.

  4. Identification of mutations in the MYO9A gene in patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Emily; Töpf, Ana; Müller, Juliane S.; Cox, Daniel; Evangelista, Teresinha; Colomer, Jaume; Abicht, Angela; Senderek, Jan; Hasselmann, Oswald; Yaramis, Ahmet; Laval, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a group of rare and genetically heterogenous disorders resulting from defects in the structure and function of the neuromuscular junction. Patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome exhibit fatigable muscle weakness with a variety of accompanying phenotypes depending on the protein affected. A cohort of patients with a clinical diagnosis of congenital myasthenic syndrome that lacked a genetic diagnosis underwent whole exome sequencing in order to identify genetic causation. Missense biallelic mutations in the MYO9A gene, encoding an unconventional myosin, were identified in two unrelated families. Depletion of MYO9A in NSC-34 cells revealed a direct effect of MYO9A on neuronal branching and axon guidance. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of the two MYO9A orthologues in zebrafish, myo9aa/ab, demonstrated a requirement for MYO9A in the formation of the neuromuscular junction during development. The morphants displayed shortened and abnormally branched motor axons, lack of movement within the chorion and abnormal swimming in response to tactile stimulation. We therefore conclude that MYO9A deficiency may affect the presynaptic motor axon, manifesting in congenital myasthenic syndrome. These results highlight the involvement of unconventional myosins in motor axon functionality, as well as the need to look outside traditional neuromuscular junction-specific proteins for further congenital myasthenic syndrome candidate genes. PMID:27259756

  5. Efficacy of RNA interference knockdown using aerosolized short interfering RNAs bound to nanoparticles in three diverse aphid species.

    PubMed

    Thairu, M W; Skidmore, I H; Bansal, R; Nováková, E; Hansen, T E; Li-Byarlay, H; Wickline, S A; Hansen, A K

    2017-03-17

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a promising method for validating gene function; however, its utility in nonmodel insects has proven problematic, with delivery methods being one of the main obstacles. This study investigates a novel method of RNAi delivery in aphids, the aerosolization of short interfering RNA (siRNA)-nanoparticle complexes. By using nanoparticles as a siRNA carrier, the likelihood of cellular uptake is increased, when compared to methods previously used in insects. To determine the efficacy of this RNAi delivery system, siRNAs were aerosolized with and without nanoparticles in three aphid species: Acyrthosiphon pisum, Aphis glycines and Schizaphis graminum. The genes targeted for knockdown were carotene dehydrogenase (tor), which is important for pigmentation in Ac. pisum, and branched chain-amino acid transaminase (bcat), which is essential in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in all three aphid species. Overall, we observed modest gene knockdown of tor in Ac. pisum and moderate gene knockdown of bcat in Ap. glycines along with its associated phenotype. We also determined that the nanoparticle emulsion significantly increased the efficacy of gene knockdown. Overall, these results suggest that the aerosolized siRNA-nanoparticle delivery method is a promising new high-throughput and non-invasive RNAi delivery method in some aphid species.

  6. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of water-soluble morpholino-decorated paclitaxel prodrugs with remarkably decreased toxicity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Siliang; Chen, Kuncheng; Wang, Chenhong; Jiang, Xifeng; Dong, Huajin; Gong, Zehui; Liu, Keliang

    2016-08-01

    Novel water-soluble paclitaxel prodrugs were designed and synthesized by introducing morpholino groups through different linkers. These derivatives showed 400-20,000-times greater water solubility than paclitaxel as well as comparable activity in MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines. The prodrug PM4 was tested in the S-180 tumor mouse model, with paclitaxel as the positive control. The results showed that PM4 had comparable antitumor activity as paclitaxel, with tumor inhibition of 54% versus 56%, and remarkably decreased toxicity. The survival rate of treated mice was 8/8 in the PM4 group, compared to 3/8 in the paclitaxel group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Knockdown of NAT12/NAA30 reduces tumorigenic features of glioblastoma-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Mughal, Awais A; Grieg, Zanina; Skjellegrind, Håvard; Fayzullin, Artem; Lamkhannat, Mustapha; Joel, Mrinal; Ahmed, M Shakil; Murrell, Wayne; Vik-Mo, Einar O; Langmoen, Iver A; Stangeland, Biljana

    2015-08-21

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain malignancy and confers a dismal prognosis. GBMs harbor glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs) that drive tumorigenesis and contribute to therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Consequently, there is a strong rationale to target this cell population in order to develop new molecular therapies against GBM. Accumulating evidence indicates that Nα-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), that are dysregulated in numerous human cancers, can serve as therapeutic targets. Microarrays were used to study the expression of several NATs including NAT12/NAA30 in clinical samples and stem cell cultures. The expression of NAT12/NAA30 was analyzed using qPCR, immunolabeling and western blot. We conducted shRNA-mediated knockdown of NAT12/NAA30 gene in GICs and studied the effects on cell viability, sphere-formation and hypoxia sensitivity. Intracranial transplantation to SCID mice enabled us to investigate the effects of NAT12/NAA30 depletion in vivo. Using microarrays we identified genes and biochemical pathways whose expression was altered upon NAT12/NAA30 down-regulation. While decreased expression of the distal 3'UTR of NAT12/NAA30 was generally observed in GICs and GBMs, this gene was strongly up-regulated at the protein level in GBM and GICs. The increased protein levels were not caused by increased levels of the steady state mRNA but rather by other mechanisms. Also, shorter 3'UTR of NAT12/NAA30 correlated with poor survival in glioma patients. As well, we observed previously not described nuclear localization of this typically cytoplasmic protein. When compared to non-silencing controls, cells featuring NAT12/NAA30 knockdown exhibited reduced cell viability, sphere-forming ability, and mitochondrial hypoxia tolerance. Intracranial transplantation showed that knockdown of NAT12/NAA30 resulted in prolonged animal survival. Microarray analysis of the knockdown cultures showed reduced levels of HIF1α and altered expression

  8. CRISPR/Cas9-based generation of knockdown mice by intronic insertion of artificial microRNA using longer single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hiromi; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Sato, Takehito; Sato, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Masato

    2015-08-05

    Knockdown mouse models, where gene dosages can be modulated, provide valuable insights into gene function. Typically, such models are generated by embryonic stem (ES) cell-based targeted insertion, or pronuclear injection, of the knockdown expression cassette. However, these methods are associated with laborious and time-consuming steps, such as the generation of large constructs with elements needed for expression of a functional RNAi-cassette, ES-cell handling, or screening for mice with the desired knockdown effect. Here, we demonstrate that reliable knockdown models can be generated by targeted insertion of artificial microRNA (amiRNA) sequences into a specific locus in the genome [such as intronic regions of endogenous eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) gene] using the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Crispr associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. We used in vitro synthesized single-stranded DNAs (about 0.5-kb long) that code for amiRNA sequences as repair templates in CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis. Using this approach we demonstrate that amiRNA cassettes against exogenous (eGFP) or endogenous [orthodenticle homeobox 2 (Otx2)] genes can be efficiently targeted to a predetermined locus in the genome and result in knockdown of gene expression. We also provide a strategy to establish conditional knockdown models with this method.

  9. C/EBPβ knockdown protects cardiomyocytes from hypertrophy via inhibition of p65-NFκB.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jian; Li, Hong; Chen, Xi; Zeng, Siyu; Ye, Jiantao; Zhou, Changhua; Liu, Min; Zhang, Luankun; Yu, Na; Gan, Xiaohong; Zhou, Houfeng; Xian, Zhiwei; Chen, Shaorui; Liu, Peiqing

    2014-06-05

    C/EBPβ, a member of the bHLH gene family of DNA-binding transcription factors, has been indicated as a central signal in physiologic hypertrophy. However, the role of C/EBPβ in pathological cardiac hypertrophy remains to be elucidated. In this study, we revealed that C/EBPβ is involved in cardiac hypertrophy, the expression of C/EBPβ were significantly increased in response to hypertrophic stimulation in vitro and in vivo. C/EBPβ knockdown inhibited PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and diminished the nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of p65-NFκB. These results suggested that C/EBPβ knockdown protected cardiomyocytes from hypertrophy, which may be attributed to inhibition of NFκB-dependent transcriptional activity. These findings shed new light on the understanding of C/EBPβ-related cardiomyopathy, and suggest the potential application of C/EBPβ inhibitors in cardiac hypertrophy.

  10. RNAi-Mediated Knockdown of IKK1 in Transgenic Mice Using a Transgenic Construct Containing the Human H1 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Maldonado, Rodolfo; Murillas, Rodolfo; Page, Angustias; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P.; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M. Llanos

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of gene expression through siRNAs is a tool increasingly used for the study of gene function in model systems, including transgenic mice. To achieve perdurable effects, the stable expression of siRNAs by an integrated transgenic construct is necessary. For transgenic siRNA expression, promoters transcribed by either RNApol II or III (such as U6 or H1 promoters) can be used. Relatively large amounts of small RNAs synthesis are achieved when using RNApol III promoters, which can be advantageous in knockdown experiments. To study the feasibility of H1 promoter-driven RNAi-expressing constructs for protein knockdown in transgenic mice, we chose IKK1 as the target gene. Our results indicate that constructs containing the H1 promoter are sensitive to the presence of prokaryotic sequences and to transgene position effects, similar to RNApol II promoters-driven constructs. We observed variable expression levels of transgenic siRNA among different tissues and animals and a reduction of up to 80% in IKK1 expression. Furthermore, IKK1 knockdown led to hair follicle alterations. In summary, we show that constructs directed by the H1 promoter can be used for knockdown of genes of interest in different organs and for the generation of animal models complementary to knockout and overexpression models. PMID:24523631

  11. Specific in vivo knockdown of protein function by intrabodies

    PubMed Central

    Marschall, Andrea LJ; Dübel, Stefan; Böldicke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) are recombinant antibody fragments that bind to target proteins expressed inside of the same living cell producing the antibodies. The molecules are commonly used to study the function of the target proteins (i.e., their antigens). The intrabody technology is an attractive alternative to the generation of gene-targeted knockout animals, and complements knockdown techniques such as RNAi, miRNA and small molecule inhibitors, by-passing various limitations and disadvantages of these methods. The advantages of intrabodies include very high specificity for the target, the possibility to knock down several protein isoforms by one intrabody and targeting of specific splice variants or even post-translational modifications. Different types of intrabodies must be designed to target proteins at different locations, typically either in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus or in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Most straightforward is the use of intrabodies retained in the ER (ER intrabodies) to knock down the function of proteins passing the ER, which disturbs the function of members of the membrane or plasma proteomes. More effort is needed to functionally knock down cytoplasmic or nuclear proteins because in this case antibodies need to provide an inhibitory effect and must be able to fold in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm. In this review, we present a broad overview of intrabody technology, as well as applications both of ER and cytoplasmic intrabodies, which have yielded valuable insights in the biology of many targets relevant for drug development, including α-synuclein, TAU, BCR-ABL, ErbB-2, EGFR, HIV gp120, CCR5, IL-2, IL-6, β-amyloid protein and p75NTR. Strategies for the generation of intrabodies and various designs of their applications are also reviewed. PMID:26252565

  12. Developing a Zebrafish Model of NF1 for Structure-Function Analysis and Identification of Modifier Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 01-04-2009 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3 . DATES COVERED 1 APR 2008 - 31 MAR...TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Page 3 Table of Contents...confirmed by RT-PCR at 3 dpf, and the production of aberrant bands upon morpholino knockdown demonstrated inappropriate splicing (arrowheads in Fig. 3A

  13. Transcriptome response and developmental implications of RNAi-mediated ODC knockdown in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Choubey, Ami; Rajam, M V

    2016-12-24

    Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitously present polycationic compounds that play a critical role in various growth and developmental processes including stress responses in plants. Yet, their specific functions and mode of action remain largely unknown. In the present study, we have targeted tobacco ornithine decarboxylase gene (ODC) by RNA interference to modulate cellular PA levels and study the effects at different developmental time points. Down-regulation of ODC resulted in significant physiological and morphological anomalies including reduced leaf size, reduced chlorophyll and carotene content, decreased abiotic stress tolerance, early onset of senescence, delayed flowering, partial male and female sterility, reduced seed setting, delayed seed germination, reduced seed viability, and poor in vitro regeneration response from leaf explants. Also, for the first time, microarray analysis has been attempted to study genome-wide gene expression changes in response to lowered PA titers in an ODC knockdown line. A number of transcription factors, auxin- and ethylene-responsive genes, stress-induced genes, lignin-biosynthesis genes, photosynthesis-related genes, senescence-associated genes, membrane proteins, and protein kinases were found to be affected, suggesting a probable list of PA-responsive genes. Transcriptome analysis has also indicated many genes, which could directly or indirectly be responsible for regulating the PA metabolic pathway. Various phenotypic changes observed upon ODC knockdown along with the identification of a number of gene targets means it is a step forward in envisaging possible mechanisms of PA action and for assigning them with specific roles in various developmental processes they are known to be a part of.

  14. Neuroligin-1 Knockdown Suppresses Seizure Activity by Regulating Neuronal Hyperexcitability.

    PubMed

    Fang, Min; Wei, Jin-Lai; Tang, Bo; Liu, Jing; Chen, Ling; Tang, Zhao-Hua; Luo, Jing; Chen, Guo-Jun; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abnormally synchronized synaptic transmission in the brain leads to epilepsy. Neuroligin-1 (NL1) is a synaptic cell adhesion molecule localized at excitatory synapses. NL1 modulates synaptic transmission and determines the properties of neuronal networks in the mammalian central nervous system. We showed that the expression of NL1 and its binding partner neurexin-1β was increased in temporal lobe epileptic foci in patients and lithium-pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats. We investigated electrophysiological and behavioral changes in epileptic rats after lentivirally mediated NL1 knockdown in the hippocampus to determine whether NL1 suppression prevented seizures and, if so, to explore the probable underlying mechanisms. Our behavioral studies revealed that NL1 knockdown in epileptic rats reduced seizure severity and increased seizure latency. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices from NL1 knockdown epileptic rats revealed a decrease in spontaneous action potential frequency and a decrease in miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency but not amplitude. The amplitude of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent EPSCs was also selectively decreased. Notably, NL1 knockdown reduced total NMDAR1 expression and the surface/total ratio in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. Taken together, these data indicate that NL1 knockdown in epileptic rats may reduce the frequency and severity of seizures and suppress neuronal hyperexcitability via changes in postsynaptic NMDARs.

  15. Quantitative proteomics reveals direct and indirect alterations in the histone code following methyltransferase knockdown.

    PubMed

    Plazas-Mayorca, Mariana D; Bloom, Joshua S; Zeissler, Ulrike; Leroy, Gary; Young, Nicolas L; DiMaggio, Peter A; Krugylak, Leonid; Schneider, Robert; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2010-09-01

    Histones are highly conserved proteins that organize cellular DNA. These proteins, especially their N-terminal domains, are adorned with many post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as lysine methylation, which are associated with active or repressed transcriptional states. The lysine methyltransferase G9a and its interaction partner Glp1 can mono- or dimethylate histone H3 on lysine (H3K9me1 or me2); possible cross-talk between these modifications and other PTMs on the same or other histone molecules is currently uncharacterized. In this study, we comprehensively analyze the effects of G9a/Glp1 knockdown on the most abundant histone modifications through both Bottom Up and Middle Down mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In addition to the expected decrease in H3K9me1/me2 we find that other degrees of methylation on K9 are affected by the reduction of G9a/Glp1 activity, particularly when K9 methylation occurs in combination with K14 acetylation. In line with this, an increase in K14 acetylation upon G9a knockdown was observed across all H3 variants (H3.1, H3.2 and H3.3), hinting at the potential existence of a binary switch between K9 methylation and K14 acetylation. Interestingly, we also detect changes in the abundance of other modifications (such as H3K79me2) in response to lowered levels of G9a/Glp1 suggesting histone PTM cross-talk amongst the H3 variants. In contrast, we find that G9a/Glp1 knockdown produces little effect on the levels of histone H4 PTMs, indicating low to no trans-histone PTM crosstalk. Lastly, we determined gene expression profiles of control and G9a/Glp1 knockdown cells, and we find that the G9a/Glp1 knockdown influences several genes, including DNA binding proteins and key factors in chromatin. Our results provide new insights into the intra- and inter- histone cross-regulation of histone K9 methylation and its potential downstream gene targets.

  16. Induction of fibrillin-2 and periostin expression in Osterix-knockdown MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Jeong; Lee, Eun-Hye; Park, Seung-Yoon; Kim, Jung-Eun

    2017-01-05

    Osteoporosis is the most common age-related bone disease that is characterized by an imbalance between osteoblasts for bone formation and osteoclasts for bone resorption. Anti-catabolic drugs have been developed to inhibit osteoclast activity and to prevent bone loss in osteoporosis. However, because it is difficult to increase bone mass in osteoporotic bone, it would be beneficial to simultaneously enhance osteoblast function and thus form bone. Osterix (Osx) is an essential transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation. To date, many studies have focused on discovering Osx target genes and on increasing osteoblast differentiation. However, Osx targets and the mechanisms controlling osteoblast differentiation, are not well known. Here, we generated stable Osx-knockdown cell lines by employing shRNA in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Stable Osx-knockdown osteoblasts exhibited a significant reduction in cell differentiation and nodule formation, which was similar to the reduced osteoblast activity observed in an Osx-deficient mouse model. Using an Affymetrix GeneChip microarray, we determined the differential gene expression profile in response to Osx knockdown, which provided insight into molecular mechanisms underlying osteoblast differentiation. Of 2743 genes with roles in cell differentiation, 15 were upregulated and 2 were downregulated in Osx-knockdown osteoblasts. In particular, the expression of fibrillin-2 and periostin was significantly increased in Osx-knockdown osteoblasts compared to that in control cells, as validated by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, this study showed differential gene expression profiles for Osx-mediated osteoblast differentiation, suggesting that fibrillin-2 and periostin will be target candidates of Osx in osteoblast differentiation.

  17. Highly conserved functions of the Brachyury gene on morphogenetic movements: insight from the early-diverging phylum Ctenophora.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Atsuko; Martindale, Mark Q; Fukui, Akimasa; Tochinai, Shin

    2010-03-01

    Brachyury, a member of the T-box transcription family identified in a diverse array of metazoans, was initially recognized for its function in mesoderm formation and notochord differentiation in vertebrates; however, its ancestral role has been suggested to be in control of morphogenetic movements. Here, we show that morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown of Brachyury (MlBra) in embryos of a ctenophore, one of the most ancient groups of animals, prevents the invagination of MlBra expressing stomodeal cells and is rescued with corresponding RNA injections. Injection of RNA encoding a dominant-interfering construct of MlBra causes identical phenotypes to that of RNA encoding a dominant-interfering form of Xenopus Brachyury (Xbra) in Xenopus embryos. Both injected embryos down-regulate Xbra downstream genes, Xbra itself and Xwnt11 but not axial mesodermal markers, resulting in failure to complete gastrulation due to loss of convergent extension movements. Moreover, animal cap assay reveals that MlBra induces Xwnt11 like Xbra. Overall results using Xenopus embryos show that these two genes are functionally interchangeable. These functional experiments demonstrate for the first time in a basal metazoan that the primitive role of Brachyury is to regulate morphogenetic movements, rather than to specify endomesodermal fates, and the role is conserved between non-bilaterian metazoans and vertebrates. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Androglobin knockdown inhibits growth of glioma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Lu, Yi-Sheng; Li, Xia; Zhu, Zhi-Chuan; Li, Kui; Liu, Ji-Wei; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Ze-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Globin family was famous for oxygen supply function of its members such as hemoglobin and myoglobin. With the progress of research, several members of this protein family have been proven to play roles in tumors including glioma. Androglobin (ADGB) is a recently identified member of globin family with very few studies about its function. In the present study, we show that ADGB plays an oncogene role in glioma. Lentiviral vector mediated ADGB knockdown inhibited the proliferation of glioma cell lines determined by MTT assay and colony formation assay. ADGB knockdown also increased the apoptosis of glioma cell line U251 assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, western blot showed that ADGB knockdown altered levels of several proteins related to proliferation, survival or apoptosis in U251 cells. These findings suggest ADGB is involved in the progression of glioma in vitro. PMID:24966926

  19. miRNA-embedded shRNAs for Lineage-specific BCL11A Knockdown and Hemoglobin F Induction

    PubMed Central

    Guda, Swaroopa; Brendel, Christian; Renella, Raffaele; Du, Peng; Bauer, Daniel E; Canver, Matthew C; Grenier, Jennifer K; Grimson, Andrew W; Kamran, Sophia C; Thornton, James; de Boer, Helen; Root, David E; Milsom, Michael D; Orkin, Stuart H; Gregory, Richard I; Williams, David A

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) expressed via RNA polymerase (pol) III promoters has been widely exploited to modulate gene expression in a variety of mammalian cell types. For certain applications, such as lineage-specific knockdown, embedding targeting sequences into pol II-driven microRNA (miRNA) architecture is required. Here, using the potential therapeutic target BCL11A, we demonstrate that pol III-driven shRNAs lead to significantly increased knockdown but also increased cytotoxcity in comparison to pol II-driven miRNA adapted shRNAs (shRNAmiR) in multiple hematopoietic cell lines. We show that the two expression systems yield mature guide strand sequences that differ by a 4 bp shift. This results in alternate seed sequences and consequently influences the efficacy of target gene knockdown. Incorporating a corresponding 4 bp shift into the guide strand of shRNAmiRs resulted in improved knockdown efficiency of BCL11A. This was associated with a significant de-repression of the hemoglobin target of BCL11A, human γ-globin or the murine homolog Hbb-y. Our results suggest the requirement for optimization of shRNA sequences upon incorporation into a miRNA backbone. These findings have important implications in future design of shRNAmiRs for RNAi-based therapy in hemoglobinopathies and other diseases requiring lineage-specific expression of gene silencing sequences. PMID:26080908

  20. Fruitless RNAi knockdown in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, influences male fertility.

    PubMed

    Boerjan, Bart; Tobback, Julie; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Huybrechts, Roger; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-02-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the male-specific splice isoform of the fruitless gene (Fru(M)) encodes a set of transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of male courtship and copulation. Recent insights from non-drosophilid insects suggest a conserved evolutionary role for the transcription factor Fruitless. In the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria and the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, both orthopteran insects, a conserved functional role for fruitless has been proposed. Fru specific RNAi knockdown in the third nymphal stage of male Schistocera gregaria delays copulation initiation and results in reduced progeny. In order to identify the origin of the observed phenotypic effects following a fruitless RNAi treatment in the male, we show that the fru knockdown has no detectable effect on spermio- or spermatogenesis and on the transfer of spermatozoa during copulation. Nevertheless, it is clear that the male seminal vesicles contain significantly less spermatozoa after fru RNAi as compared to gfp RNAi controls. We conclude that a lowered male fertility, caused by the fru knockdown in male desert locusts may be the direct cause for the reduction of the progeny numbers in their naïve female copulation partners.

  1. Role of HSF activation for resistance to heat, cold and high-temperature knock-down.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Overgaard, Johannes; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Holmstrup, Martin; Justesen, Just; Loeschcke, Volker

    2005-12-01

    Regulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) by the heat shock factor (HSF) and the importance of these proteins for resistance to heat stress is well documented. Less characterized is the importance of Hsps for cold stress resistance although Hsp70 is known to be induced following long-term cold exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, a temperature-sensitive HSF mutant line was used to investigate the role of HSF activation following heat hardening, rapid cold hardening (RCH) and long-term cold acclimation (LTCA) on heat and cold resistance, and this was correlated with Hsp70 expression. In addition, the effect of HSF activation on high-temperature knock-down resistance was evaluated. We found a significantly decreased HSF activation in the mutant line as compared to a corresponding control line following heat hardening, and this was correlated with decreased heat resistance of the mutant line. However, we did not find this difference in HSF activity to be important for resistance to cold stress or high-temperature knock-down. The findings indicate that induction of stress genes regulated by HSF, such as Hsps, although occurring following LTCA, are not of major importance for cold stress resistance and neither for RCH nor high-temperature knock-down resistance in D. melanogaster.

  2. Identification of Genetic Suppressors of the Sin3A Knockdown Wing Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Stephanie; Gammouh, Sarah; Pile, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the Sin3A transcriptional corepressor in regulating the cell cycle is established in various metazoans. Little is known, however, about the signaling pathways that trigger or are triggered by Sin3A function. To discover genes that work in similar or opposing pathways to Sin3A during development, we have performed an unbiased screen of deficiencies of the Drosophila third chromosome. Additionally, we have performed a targeted loss of function screen to identify cell cycle genes that genetically interact with Sin3A. We have identified genes that encode proteins involved in regulation of gene expression, signaling pathways and cell cycle that can suppress the curved wing phenotype caused by the knockdown of Sin3A. These data indicate that Sin3A function is quite diverse and impacts a wide variety of cellular processes. PMID:23166712

  3. RNAi knockdown of redox signaling protein Ape1 in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Gang-Ming; Lebron, Cynthia; Fu, Yumei

    2010-01-01

    Murine embryonic stem cells (ES) are pluripotent cells and have the potential to become a wide variety of specialized cell types. Mouse ES cell differentiation can be regarded as a valuable biological tool that has led to major advances in our understanding of cell and developmental biology. In vitro differentiation of mouse ES cells can be directed to a specific lineage formation, such as hematopoietic lineage, by appropriate cytokine and/or growth factor stimulation. To study specific gene function in early developmental events, gene knockout approaches have been traditionally used; however, this is a time-consuming and expensive approach. Recently, we have shown that siRNA is an effective strategy to knockdown target gene expression, such as Ape1, during ES cell differentiation, and consequently, one can alter cell fates in ES-derived differentiated cells. This approach will be applicable to test the function of a wide variety of gene products using the ES cell differentiation system.

  4. The effects of Kiaa0319 knockdown on cortical and subcortical anatomy in male rats.

    PubMed

    Szalkowski, Caitlin E; Fiondella, Christopher F; Truong, Dongnhu T; Rosen, Glenn D; LoTurco, Joseph J; Fitch, Roslyn H

    2013-04-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by a specific deficit in reading despite adequate overall intelligence and educational resources. The neurological substrate underlying these significant behavioral impairments is not known. Studies of post mortem brain tissue from male and female dyslexic individuals revealed focal disruptions of neuronal migration concentrated in the left hemisphere, along with aberrant symmetry of the right and left the planum temporale, and changes in cell size distribution within the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (Galaburda et al., 1985; Humphreys et al., 1990). More recent neuroimaging studies have identified several changes in the brains of dyslexic individuals, including regional changes in gray matter, changes in white matter, and changes in patterns of functional activation. In a further effort to elucidate the etiology of dyslexia, epidemiological and genetic studies have identified several candidate dyslexia susceptibility genes. Some recent work has investigated associations between some of these genetic variants and structural changes in the brain. Variants of one candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene, KIAA0319, have been linked to morphological changes in the cerebellum and functional activational changes in the superior temporal sulcus (Jamadar et al., 2011; Pinel et al., 2012). Animal models have been used to create a knockdown of Kiaa0319 (the rodent homolog of the human gene) via in utero RNA interference in order to study the gene's effects on brain development and behavior. Studies using this animal model have demonstrated that knocking down the gene leads to focal disruptions of neuronal migration in the form of ectopias and heterotopias, similar to those observed in the brains of human dyslexics. However, further changes to the structure of the brain have not been studied following this genetic disruption. The current study sought to determine the effects of embryonic Kiaa0319 knockdown on volume

  5. Knockdown of pre-mRNA cleavage factor Im 25 kDa promotes neurite outgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Soumiya, Hitomi; Furukawa, Shoei

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFIm25 knockdown promoted NGF-induced neurite out growth from PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of CFIm25 did not influence the morphology of proliferating PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFIm regulated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth via coordinating RhoA activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFIm25 knockdown increase the number of primary dendrites of hippocampal neurons. -- Abstract: Mammalian precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) cleavage factor I (CFIm) plays important roles in the selection of poly(A) sites in a 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR), producing mRNAs with variable 3 Prime ends. Because 3 Prime -UTRs often contain cis elements that impact stability or localization of mRNA or translation, alternative polyadenylation diversifies utilization of primary transcripts in mammalian cells. However, the physiological role of CFIm remains unclear. CFIm acts as a heterodimer comprising a 25 kDa subunit (CFIm25) and one of the three large subunits-CFIm59, CFIm68, or CFIm72. CFIm25 binds directly to RNA and introduces and anchors the larger subunit. To examine the physiological roles of CFIm, we knocked down the CFIm25 gene in neuronal cells using RNA interference. Knockdown of CFIm25 increased the number of primary dendrites of developing hippocampal neurons and promoted nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite extension from rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells without affecting the morphology of proliferating PC12 cells. On the other hand, CFIm25 knockdown did not influence constitutively active or dominantly negative RhoA suppression or promotion of NGF-induced neurite extension from PC12 cells, respectively. Taken together, our results indicate that endogenous CFIm may promote neuritogenesis in developing neurons by coordinating events upstream of NGF-induced RhoA inactivation.

  6. Muscarinic receptor 1 agonist activity of novel N-aryl carboxamide substituted 3-morpholino arecoline derivatives in Alzheimer's presenile dementia models.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Manish; Kumar, Y C Sunil; Mythri, R B; Venkateshappa, C; Subhash, M N; Rangappa, K S

    2009-08-01

    Earlier we have reported the effect of arecoline thiazolidinone and morpholino arecoline derivatives as muscarinic receptor 1 agonists in Alzheimer's presenile dementia models. To elucidate further our Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) studies on the chemistry and muscarinic receptor 1 binding efficacy, a series of novel carboxamide derivatives of 2-(1-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-3-yl)morpholine molecule have been designed and synthesized as a new class of M1 receptor agonists with a low toxicity effect profile that enhances memory function in animal models of Alzheimer's presenile dementia and also modulates the APP secretion from rat brain cerebrocortical slices by activating M1 receptor in vitro. Results suggest that compound 9b having methyl group at the para position of the aryl group attached to the carboxamide of morpholino arecoline could emerge as a potent molecule having antidementia activity.

  7. Cooperative non-cell and cell autonomous regulation of Nodal gene expression and signaling by Lefty/Antivin and Brachyury in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Cha, Young Ryun; Takahashi, Shuji; Wright, Christopher V E

    2006-02-15

    Dynamic spatiotemporal expression of the nodal gene and its orthologs is involved in the dose-dependent induction and patterning of mesendoderm during early vertebrate embryogenesis. We report loss-of-function studies that define a high degree of synergistic negative regulation on the Xenopus nodal-related genes (Xnrs) by extracellular Xenopus antivin/lefty (Xatv/Xlefty)-mediated functional antagonism and Brachyury-mediated transcriptional suppression. A strong knockdown of Xlefty/Xatv function was achieved by mixing translation- and splicing-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides that target both the A and B alloalleles of Xatv. Secreted and cell-autonomous inhibitors of Xnr signaling were used to provide evidence that Xnr-mediated induction was inherently long-range in this situation in the large amphibian embryo, essentially being capable of spreading over the entire animal hemisphere. There was a greater expansion of the Organizer and mesendoderm tissues associated with dorsal specification than noted in previous Xatv knockdown experiments in Xenopus, with consequent exogastrulation and long-term maintenance of expanded axial tissues. Xatv deficiency caused a modest animal-ward expansion of the marginal zone expression territory of the Xnr1 and Xnr2 genes. In contrast, introducing inhibitory Xbra-En(R) fusion constructs into Xatv-deficient embryos caused a much larger increase in the level and spatial extent of Xnr expression. However, in both cases (Xatv/Xlefty-deficiency alone, or combined with Xbra interference), Xnr2 expression was constrained to the superficial cell layer, suggesting a fundamental tissue-specific competence in the ability to express Xnrs, an observation with direct implications regarding the induction of endodermal vs. mesodermal fates. Our experiments reveal a two-level suppressive mechanism for restricting the level, range, and duration of Xnr signaling via extracellular inhibition by Xatv/Xlefty coupled with potent indirect

  8. Combination of valproic acid and morpholino splice-switching oligonucleotide produces improved outcomes in spinal muscular atrophy patient-derived fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Farrelly-Rosch, Anna; Lau, Chew Ling; Patil, Nitin; Turner, Bradley J; Shabanpoor, Fazel

    2017-09-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic cause of infant mortality worldwide, is characterised by the homozygous loss of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. The consequent degeneration of spinal motor neurons and progressive atrophy of voluntary muscle groups results in paralysis and eventually premature infantile death. Humans possess a second nearly identical copy of SMN1, known as SMN2. However, SMN2 produces only 10-20% functional SMN protein due to aberrant splicing of its pre-mRNA that leads to the exclusion of exon 7. This level of SMN is insufficient to rescue the phenotype. Recently developed splice-switching antisense oligonuclotides (SSO) have shown great promise in correcting the aberrant splicing of SMN2 towards producing functional SMN protein. Several FDA approved drugs are being repurposed for SMA treatment including valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, which has been shown to increase overall SMN2 expression. In this study, we have characterised the effects of single and combined treatment of VPA and a SSO based on phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) chemistry. We conjugated both VPA and PMO to a single cell-penetrating peptide (Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)) for their simultaneous intracellular delivery. Treatment of SMA Type I patient-derived fibroblasts with the conjugates showed no additive increase in the level of full-length SMN2 mRNA expression over both 4 and 16 h treatments indicating that conjugation of VPA to ApoE-PMO has limited benefit. However, treatment with a combination of VPA and ApoE-PMO induced more favourable splice switching activity than either agent alone, promoting exon 7 inclusion in SMN2 transcripts. Our results suggest that combination therapy of VPA and ApoE-PMO is superior in upregulating SMN2 production in vitro, as compared to singular treatment of each compound at both transcriptional and protein levels. This study provides the first indication of a novel dual therapy approach

  9. One-year Treatment of Morpholino Antisense Oligomer Improves Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Functions in Dystrophic mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bo; Xiao, Bin; Cloer, Caryn; Shaban, Mona; Sali, Arpana; Lu, Peijuan; Li, Juan; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Xiao, Xiao; Lu, Qi Long

    2011-01-01

    Antisense therapy has been successful to skip targeted dystrophin exon with correction of frameshift and nonsense mutations of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Systemic production of truncated but functional dystrophin proteins has been achieved in animal models. Furthermore, phase I/II clinical trials in United Kingdom and the Netherlands have demonstrated dystrophin induction by local and systemic administrations of antisense oligomers. However, long-term efficacy and potential toxicity remain to be determined. The present study examined 1-year systemic effect of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO) treatment targeting mutated dystrophin exon 23 in mdx mice. PMO induced dystrophin expression dose-dependently and significantly improved skeletal muscle pathology and function with reduced creatine kinase (CK) levels by a regimen of 60 mg/kg biweekly administration. This regimen induced <2% dystrophin expression in the heart, but improved cardiac functions demonstrated by hemodynamics analysis. The results suggest that low levels of dystrophin induction may be able to provide detectable benefit to cardiac muscle with limited myopathy. Body weight, serum enzyme tests, and histology analysis showed no sign of toxicity in the mice treated with up to 1.5 g/kg PMO for 6 months. These results indicate that PMO could be used safely as effective drugs for long-term systemic treatment of DMD. PMID:21179007

  10. Polyquaternium-mediated delivery of morpholino oligonucleotides for exon-skipping in vitro and in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxing; Wu, Bo; Shah, Sapana N; Lu, Peijuan; Lu, Qilong

    2017-11-01

    Antisense oligonucleotide therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy has shown great potential in preclinical and clinical trials, but its therapeutic applications are still limited due to inefficient delivery. In this study, we investigated a few polyquaterniums (PQs) with different size and composition for their potential to improve delivery performance of an antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that Luviquat(TM) series, especially PQ-1 and PQ-3, promoted the exon-skipping efficiency comparable to Endoporter-mediated PMO delivery in vitro. Significant enhancement in skipping dystrophin exon 23 has also been achieved with PQ-3 up to seven-fold when compared to PMO alone in mdx mice. Cytotoxicity of the PQs was lower than Endoporter and PEI 25 K in vitro and muscle damage not clearly detected in vivo under the tested concentrations. These results together demonstrate that the optimization of PQ in molecular size, composition and distribution of positive charges is the key factor to achieve enhanced PMO exon-skipping efficiency. The higher efficiency and lower toxicity endow polyquaternium series as AO delivery enhancing agents for treating muscular dystrophy and other diseases.

  11. Discovery of Novel and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of PI3 Kinase Based on Indazole Substituted Morpholino-Triazines.

    PubMed

    Dugar, Sundeep; Hollinger, Frank P; Mahajan, Dinesh; Sen, Somdutta; Kuila, Bilash; Arora, Reena; Pawar, Yogesh; Shinde, Vaibhav; Rahinj, Mahesh; Kapoor, Kamal K; Bhumkar, Rahul; Rai, Santosh; Kulkarni, Rakesh

    2015-12-10

    A new class of potent PI3Kα inhibitors is identified based on aryl substituted morpholino-triazine scaffold. The identified compounds showed not only a high level of enzymatic and cellular potency in nanomolar range but also high oral bioavailability. The three lead molecules (based on their in vitro potency) when evaluated further for in vitro metabolic stability as well as pharmacokinetic profile led to the identification of 26, as a candidate for further development. The IC50 and EC50 value of 26 is 60 and 500 nM, respectively, for PI3Kα enzyme inhibitory activity and ovarian cancer (A2780) cell line. The identified lead also showed a high level of microsomal stability and minimal inhibition activity for CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 at 10 μM concentrations. The lead compound 26, demonstrated excellent oral bioavailability with an AUC of 5.2 μM at a dose of 3 mpk in mice and found to be well tolerated in mice when dosed at 30 mpk BID for 5 days.

  12. Pharmacologic Evaluation of Antidepressant Activity and Synthesis of 2-Morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine Hydrobromide

    PubMed Central

    Sarapultsev, Alexey P.; Chupakhin, Oleg N.; Sarapultsev, Petr A.; Sidorova, Larisa P.; Tseitler, Tatiana A.

    2016-01-01

    Substituted thiadiazines exert a reliable therapeutic effect in treating stress, and a schematic description of their ability to influence all aspects of a stress response has been depicted. This study was conducted to pharmacologically evaluate compound L-17, a substituted thiadiazine, (2-morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine, hydrobromide) for possible anti-psychotic/antidepressant activity. Compound L-17 was synthesized by cyclocondensation of α-bromoacetophenone with the original morpholine-4-carbothionic acid hydrazide. Pharmacologic evaluations were conducted using methods described by E.F. Lavretskaya (1985), and in accordance with published guidelines for studying drugs for neuroleptic activity. Compound L-17 was evaluated for various possible mechanisms of action, including its effects on cholinergic system agonists/antagonists, dopaminergic neurotransmission, the adrenergic system, and 5-HT3 serotonin receptors. One or more of these mechanisms may be responsible for the beneficial effects shown by thiadiazine compounds in experiments conducted to evaluate their activity in models of acute stress and acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27213404

  13. Synthesis of linear and angular aryl-morpholino-naphth-oxazines, their DNA-PK, PI3K, PDE3A and antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Rick; Zheng, Zhaohua; Jennings, Ian G; Thompson, Philip E; Al-Rawi, Jasim M A

    2016-11-15

    To continue our study of 2-morpholino-benzoxazine based compounds, which show useful activity against PI3K family enzymes or antiplatelet activity, we designed and synthesized a series of linear 6.7-fused, 5,6-angular fused and 7,8-angular fused-aryl-morpholino-naphth-oxazines. The compounds were prepared from substituted 2-hydroxynaphthoic acid to give the corresponding thioxo analogues 8, 9, 15 and 19. The thioxo products were then converted to the morpholino substituted analogue. The aryl group was introduced by Suzuki coupling of bromo precursors. The products were evaluated for activity at PI3K family enzymes and as platelet aggregation inhibitors and compared to reported unsubstituted analogues. The linear 6.7-fused product 13a and 13b were moderated potent but selective PI3Kδ isoform inhibitors (IC50=7.7 and 5.61μM). Good antiplatelet activity was noticed for the angular 7,8-fused compounds 22a, b, k and l with IC50=3.0,14.0, 2.0 and 5.0μM respectively. The antiplatelet activity is independent of PDE3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Persistence of RNAi-Mediated Knockdown in Drosophila Complicates Mosaic Analysis Yet Enables Highly Sensitive Lineage Tracing

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Justin A.; Sumabat, Taryn M.; Hariharan, Iswar K.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful way of reducing gene function in Drosophila melanogaster tissues. By expressing synthetic short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) using the Gal4/UAS system, knockdown is efficiently achieved in specific tissues or in clones of marked cells. Here we show that knockdown by shRNAs is so potent and persistent that even transient exposure of cells to shRNAs can reduce gene function in their descendants. When using the FLP-out Gal4 method, in some instances we observed unmarked “shadow RNAi” clones adjacent to Gal4-expressing clones, which may have resulted from brief Gal4 expression following recombination but prior to cell division. Similarly, Gal4 driver lines with dynamic expression patterns can generate shadow RNAi cells after their activity has ceased in those cells. Importantly, these effects can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the cell autonomy of knockdown phenotypes. We have investigated the basis of this phenomenon and suggested experimental designs for eliminating ambiguities in interpretation. We have also exploited the persistence of shRNA-mediated knockdown to design a sensitive lineage-tracing method, i-TRACE, which is capable of detecting even low levels of past reporter expression. Using i-TRACE, we demonstrate transient infidelities in the expression of some cell-identity markers near compartment boundaries in the wing imaginal disc. PMID:26984059

  15. Persistence of RNAi-Mediated Knockdown in Drosophila Complicates Mosaic Analysis Yet Enables Highly Sensitive Lineage Tracing.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Justin A; Sumabat, Taryn M; Hariharan, Iswar K

    2016-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful way of reducing gene function in Drosophila melanogaster tissues. By expressing synthetic short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) using the Gal4/UAS system, knockdown is efficiently achieved in specific tissues or in clones of marked cells. Here we show that knockdown by shRNAs is so potent and persistent that even transient exposure of cells to shRNAs can reduce gene function in their descendants. When using the FLP-out Gal4 method, in some instances we observed unmarked "shadow RNAi" clones adjacent to Gal4-expressing clones, which may have resulted from brief Gal4 expression following recombination but prior to cell division. Similarly, Gal4 driver lines with dynamic expression patterns can generate shadow RNAi cells after their activity has ceased in those cells. Importantly, these effects can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the cell autonomy of knockdown phenotypes. We have investigated the basis of this phenomenon and suggested experimental designs for eliminating ambiguities in interpretation. We have also exploited the persistence of shRNA-mediated knockdown to design a sensitive lineage-tracing method, i-TRACE, which is capable of detecting even low levels of past reporter expression. Using i-TRACE, we demonstrate transient infidelities in the expression of some cell-identity markers near compartment boundaries in the wing imaginal disc.

  16. Functional VEGFA knockdown with artificial 3′-tailed mirtrons defined by 5′ splice site and branch point

    PubMed Central

    Kock, Kian Hong; Kong, Kiat Whye; Hoon, Shawn; Seow, Yiqi

    2015-01-01

    Mirtrons are introns that form pre-miRNA hairpins after splicing to produce RNA interference (RNAi) effectors distinct from Drosha-dependent intronic miRNAs, and will be especially useful for co-delivery of coding genes and RNAi. A specific family of mirtrons – 3′-tailed mirtrons – has hairpins precisely defined on the 5′ end by the 5′ splice site and 3′ end by the branch point. Here, we present design principles for artificial 3′-tailed mirtrons and demonstrate, for the first time, efficient gene knockdown with tailed mirtrons within eGFP coding region. These artificial tailed mirtrons, unlike canonical mirtrons, have very few sequence design restrictions. Tailed mirtrons targeted against VEGFA mRNA, the misregulation of which is causative of several disorders including cancer, achieved significant levels of gene knockdown. Tailed mirtron-mediated knockdown was further shown to be splicing-dependent, and at least as effective as equivalent artificial intronic miRNAs, with the added advantage of very defined cleavage sites for generation of mature miRNA guide strands. Further development and exploitation of this unique mirtron biogenesis pathway for therapeutic RNAi coupled into protein-expressing genes can potentially enable the development of precisely controlled combinatorial gene therapy. PMID:26089392

  17. Induction of leg-shaking, knock-down and killing responses by gamma-ray irradiation in Shaker mutants of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Megumi, T; Gamo, S; Ohonishi, T; Tanaka, Y

    1995-06-01

    Induction of membrane-associated responses, a leg-shaking, a knock-down and a killing, by gamma-ray irradiation was investigated in Shaker (Sh) mutants of Drosophila melanogaster in which the gene cords for the A-current K+ channel. Sh mutants were more sensitive in the knock-down response after gamma-ray irradiation than wild types. There were a great amount of sex difference in the knock-down response, males being more sensitive than females, but not in the killing response. The sex difference was larger than gene dosage effect on X chromosome in females. Genetical analysis revealed that the sensitivity of the knock-down response is an incompletely dominant character without maternal effects. The leg-shaking response, which had previously been reported to be induced by ether treatment, was demonstrated in the head-removed flies of Sh mutants. It was found to be the most sensitive among the responses tested, and may involve changes in K+ channel. The knock-down response may be related to expansion of the leg-shaking response. The killing response should have causes different from the leg-shaking and the knock-down responses judging from the lack of correlation with them.

  18. Identification of ter94, Drosophila VCP, as a strong modulator of motor neuron degeneration induced by knockdown of Caz, Drosophila FUS.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Yumiko; Tokuda, Takahiko; Shimamura, Mai; Kyotani, Akane; Sasayama, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tomokatsu; Mizuta, Ikuko; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Fujikake, Nobuhiro; Ueyama, Morio; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2014-07-01

    In humans, mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene have been identified in sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Cabeza (Caz) is the Drosophila ortholog of human FUS. Previously, we established Drosophila models of ALS harboring Caz-knockdown. These flies develop locomotive deficits and anatomical defects in motoneurons (MNs) at neuromuscular junctions; these phenotypes indicate that loss of physiological FUS functions in the nucleus can cause MN degeneration similar to that seen in FUS-related ALS. Here, we aimed to explore molecules that affect these ALS-like phenotypes of our Drosophila models with eye-specific and neuron-specific Caz-knockdown. We examined several previously reported ALS-related genes and found genetic links between Caz and ter94, the Drosophila ortholog of human Valosin-containing protein (VCP). Genetic crossing the strongest loss-of-function allele of ter94 with Caz-knockdown strongly enhanced the rough-eye phenotype and the MN-degeneration phenotype caused by Caz-knockdown. Conversely, the overexpression of wild-type ter94 in the background of Caz-knockdown remarkably suppressed those phenotypes. Our data demonstrated that expression levels of Drosophila VCP ortholog dramatically modified the phenotypes caused by Caz-knockdown in either direction, exacerbation or remission. Our results indicate that therapeutic agents that up-regulate the function of human VCP could modify the pathogenic processes that lead to the degeneration of MNs in ALS.

  19. Knock-down of pantothenate kinase 2 severely affects the development of the nervous and vascular system in zebrafish, providing new insights into PKAN disease.

    PubMed

    Zizioli, Daniela; Tiso, Natascia; Guglielmi, Adele; Saraceno, Claudia; Busolin, Giorgia; Giuliani, Roberta; Khatri, Deepak; Monti, Eugenio; Borsani, Giuseppe; Argenton, Francesco; Finazzi, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Pantothenate Kinase Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN) is an autosomal recessive disorder with mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene (PANK2), encoding an essential enzyme for Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. The molecular connection between defects in this enzyme and the neurodegenerative phenotype observed in PKAN patients is still poorly understood. We exploited the zebrafish model to study the role played by the pank2 gene during embryonic development and get new insight into PKAN pathogenesis. The zebrafish orthologue of hPANK2 lies on chromosome 13, is a maternal gene expressed in all development stages and, in adult animals, is highly abundant in CNS, dorsal aorta and caudal vein. The injection of a splice-inhibiting morpholino induced a clear phenotype with perturbed brain morphology and hydrocephalus; edema was present in the heart region and caudal plexus, where hemorrhages with reduction of blood circulation velocity were detected. We characterized the CNS phenotype by studying the expression pattern of wnt1 and neurog1 neural markers and by use of the Tg(neurod:EGFP/sox10:dsRed) transgenic line. The results evidenced that downregulation of pank2 severely impairs neuronal development, particularly in the anterior part of CNS (telencephalon). Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis of the endothelial markers cadherin-5 and fli1a, and use of Tg(fli1a:EGFP/gata1a:dsRed) transgenic line, confirmed the essential role of pank2 in the formation of the vascular system. The specificity of the morpholino-induced phenotype was proved by the restoration of a normal development in a high percentage of embryos co-injected with pank2 mRNA. Also, addition of pantethine or CoA, but not of vitamin B5, to pank2 morpholino-injected embryos rescued the phenotype with high efficiency. The zebrafish model indicates the relevance of pank2 activity and CoA homeostasis for normal neuronal development and functioning and provides evidence of an unsuspected role for this

  20. Knock-down of pantothenate kinase 2 severely affects the development of the nervous and vascular system in zebrafish, providing new insights into PKAN disease

    PubMed Central

    Zizioli, Daniela; Tiso, Natascia; Guglielmi, Adele; Saraceno, Claudia; Busolin, Giorgia; Giuliani, Roberta; Khatri, Deepak; Monti, Eugenio; Borsani, Giuseppe; Argenton, Francesco; Finazzi, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Pantothenate Kinase Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN) is an autosomal recessive disorder with mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene (PANK2), encoding an essential enzyme for Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. The molecular connection between defects in this enzyme and the neurodegenerative phenotype observed in PKAN patients is still poorly understood. We exploited the zebrafish model to study the role played by the pank2 gene during embryonic development and get new insight into PKAN pathogenesis. The zebrafish orthologue of hPANK2 lies on chromosome 13, is a maternal gene expressed in all development stages and, in adult animals, is highly abundant in CNS, dorsal aorta and caudal vein. The injection of a splice-inhibiting morpholino induced a clear phenotype with perturbed brain morphology and hydrocephalus; edema was present in the heart region and caudal plexus, where hemorrhages with reduction of blood circulation velocity were detected. We characterized the CNS phenotype by studying the expression pattern of wnt1 and neurog1 neural markers and by use of the Tg(neurod:EGFP/sox10:dsRed) transgenic line. The results evidenced that downregulation of pank2 severely impairs neuronal development, particularly in the anterior part of CNS (telencephalon). Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis of the endothelial markers cadherin-5 and fli1a, and use of Tg(fli1a:EGFP/gata1a:dsRed) transgenic line, confirmed the essential role of pank2 in the formation of the vascular system. The specificity of the morpholino-induced phenotype was proved by the restoration of a normal development in a high percentage of embryos co-injected with pank2 mRNA. Also, addition of pantethine or CoA, but not of vitamin B5, to pank2 morpholino-injected embryos rescued the phenotype with high efficiency. The zebrafish model indicates the relevance of pank2 activity and CoA homeostasis for normal neuronal development and functioning and provides evidence of an unsuspected role for this

  1. [Knockdown of Puma protects cord blood CD34(+) cells against γ- irradiation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Pang, Ya-Kun; Gu, Hai-Hui; Xu, Jing; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Cheng, Tao

    2014-04-01

    Puma (P53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) is a BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only BCL-1 family member and a critical mediator of P53-dependent and -independent apoptosis. Puma plays an essential role in the apoptosis of hematopoietic stem cells exposed to irradiation without an increased risk of malignancies. This study was purposed to develop an effective lentiviral vector to target Puma in human hematopoietic cells and to investigate the effect of Puma gene knockdown on the biological function of human cord blood CD34(+) cells. SF-LV-shPuma-EGFP and control vectors were constructed, and packaged with the pSPAX2/pMD2.G packaging plasmids via 293T cells to produce pseudo-type lentiviruses. SF-LV-shPuma-EGFP or control lentiviruses were harvested within 72 hours after transfection and then were used to transduce human cord blood CD34(+) cells. GFP(+) transduced cells were sorted by flow cytometry (FCM) for subsequent studies. Semi-quantitative real time RT PCR, Western blot, FCM with Annexin V-PE/7-AAD double staining, Ki67 staining, colony forming cell assay (CFC), CCK-8 assay and BrdU incorporation were performed to determine the expression of Puma and its effect on the cord blood CD34(+) cells. The results showed that Puma was significantly knocked down in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the low expression of Puma conferred a radio-protective effect on the cord blood CD34(+) cells. This effect was achieved through reduced apoptosis and sustained quiescence after irradiation due to Puma knockdown. It is concluded that knockdown of puma gene in CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells of human cord blood possesses the radioprotective effect, maintains the cells in silence targeting Puma in human hematopoietic cells may have a similar effect with that on mouse hematopoietic cells as previously shown, and our lentiviral targeting system for Puma provides a valuable tool for future translational studies with human cells.

  2. Insecticidal potency of RNAi-based catalase knockdown in Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Al-Ayedh, Hassan; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Hussain, Abid; Aljabr, Ahmed M

    2016-11-01

    Palm trees around the world are prone to notorious Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, which causes heavy losses of palm plantations. In Middle Eastern countries, this pest is a major threat to date palm orchards. Conventional pest control measures with the major share of synthetic insecticides have resulted in insect resistance and environmental issues. Therefore, in order to explore better alternatives, the RNAi approach was employed to knock down the catalase gene in fifth and tenth larval instars with different dsRNA application methods, and their insecticidal potency was studied. dsRNA of 444 bp was prepared to knock down catalase in R. ferrugineus. Out of the three dsRNA application methods, dsRNA injection into larvae was the most effective, followed by dsRNA application by artificial feeding. Both methods resulted in significant catalase knockdown in various tissues, especially the midgut. As a result, the highest growth inhibition of 123.49 and 103.47% and larval mortality of 80 and 40% were observed in fifth-instar larvae, whereas larval growth inhibition remained at 86.83 and 69.08% with larval mortality at 30 and 10% in tenth-instar larvae after dsRNA injection and artificial diet treatment. The topical application method was the least efficient, with the lowest larval growth inhibition of 57.23 and 45.61% and 0% mortality in fifth- and tenth-instar larvae. Generally, better results were noted at the high dsRNA dose of 5 µL. Catalase enzyme is found in most insect body tissues, and thus its dsRNA can cause broad-scale gene knockdown within the insect body, depending upon the application method. Significant larval mortality and growth inhibition after catalase knockdown in R. ferrugineus confirms its insecticidal potency and suggests a bright future for RNAi-based bioinsecticides in pest control. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Mutations in the RNA exosome component gene EXOSC3 cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia and spinal motor neuron degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jijun; Yourshaw, Michael; Mamsa, Hafsa; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Menezes, Manoj P.; Hong, Ji Eun; Leong, Derek W.; Senderek, Jan; Salman, Michael S.; Chitayat, David; Seeman, Pavel; von Moers, Arpad; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Kornberg, Andrew J.; Castro-Gago, Manuel; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Shieh, Perry B.; Salamon, Noriko; Kim, Ronald C.; Vinters, Harry V.; Chen, Zugen; Zerres, Klaus; Ryan, Monique M.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Jen, Joanna C.

    2012-01-01

    RNA exosomes are multi-subunit complexes conserved throughout evolution1 and emerging as the major cellular machinery for processing, surveillance, and turnover of a diverse spectrum of coding and non-coding RNA substrates essential for viability2. By exome sequencing, we discovered recessive mutations in exosome component 3 (EXOSC3) in four siblings with infantile spinal motor neuron disease, cerebellar atrophy, progressive microcephaly, and profound global developmental delay, consistent with pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1 [PCH1; OMIM 607596]3–6. We identified mutations in EXOSC3 in an additional 8 of 12 families with PCH1. Morpholino knockdown of exosc3 in zebrafish embryos caused embryonic maldevelopment with small brain and poor motility, reminiscent of human clinical features and largely rescued by coinjected wildtype but not mutant exosc3 mRNA. These findings represent the first example of an RNA exosome gene responsible for a human disease and further implicate dysregulation of RNA processing in cerebellar and spinal motor neuron maldevelopment and degeneration. PMID:22544365

  4. Pax4 is not essential for beta-cell differentiation in zebrafish embryos but modulates alpha-cell generation by repressing arx gene expression.

    PubMed

    Djiotsa, Joachim; Verbruggen, Vincianne; Giacomotto, Jean; Ishibashi, Minaka; Manning, Elisabeth; Rinkwitz, Silke; Manfroid, Isabelle; Voz, Marianne L; Peers, Bernard

    2012-12-17

    Genetic studies in mouse have demonstrated the crucial function of PAX4 in pancreatic cell differentiation. This transcription factor specifies β- and δ-cell fate at the expense of α-cell identity by repressing Arx gene expression and ectopic expression of PAX4 in α-cells is sufficient to convert them into β-cells. Surprisingly, no Pax4 orthologous gene can be found in chicken and Xenopus tropicalis raising the question of the function of pax4 gene in lower vertebrates such as in fish. In the present study, we have analyzed the expression and the function of the orthologous pax4 gene in zebrafish. pax4 gene is transiently expressed in the pancreas of zebrafish embryos and is mostly restricted to endocrine precursors as well as to some differentiating δ- and ε-cells but was not detected in differentiating β-cells. pax4 knock-down in zebrafish embryos caused a significant increase in α-cells number while having no apparent effect on β- and δ-cell differentiation. This rise of α-cells is due to an up-regulation of the Arx transcription factor. Conversely, knock-down of arx caused to a complete loss of α-cells and a concomitant increase of pax4 expression but had no effect on the number of β- and δ-cells. In addition to the mutual repression between Arx and Pax4, these two transcription factors negatively regulate the transcription of their own gene. Interestingly, disruption of pax4 RNA splicing or of arx RNA splicing by morpholinos targeting exon-intron junction sites caused a blockage of the altered transcripts in cell nuclei allowing an easy characterization of the arx- and pax4-deficient cells. Such analyses demonstrated that arx knock-down in zebrafish does not lead to a switch of cell fate, as reported in mouse, but rather blocks the cells in their differentiation process towards α-cells. In zebrafish, pax4 is not required for the generation of the first β- and δ-cells deriving from the dorsal pancreatic bud, unlike its crucial role in the

  5. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the voltage gated sodium ion channel TcNav causes mortality in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Abd El Halim, Hesham M; Alshukri, Baida M H; Ahmad, Munawar S; Nakasu, Erich Y T; Awwad, Mohammed H; Salama, Elham M; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Edwards, Martin G

    2016-07-14

    The voltage-gated sodium ion channel (VGSC) belongs to the largest superfamily of ion channels. Since VGSCs play key roles in physiological processes they are major targets for effective insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used to analyse gene function, but recently, it has shown potential to contribute to novel strategies for selectively controlling agricultural insect pests. The current study evaluates the delivery of dsRNA targeted to the sodium ion channel paralytic A (TcNav) gene in Tribolium castaneum as a viable means of controlling this insect pest. Delivery of TcNav dsRNA caused severe developmental arrest with larval mortalities up to 73% post injection of dsRNA. Injected larvae showed significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression between 30-60%. Expression was also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in pupae following injection causing 30% and 42% knockdown for early and late pupal stages, respectively. Oral delivery of dsRNA caused dose-dependant mortalities of between 19 and 51.34%; this was accompanied by significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression following 3 days of continuous feeding. The majority of larvae injected with, or fed, dsRNA died during the final larval stage prior to pupation. This work provides evidence of a viable RNAi-based strategy for insect control.

  6. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the voltage gated sodium ion channel TcNav causes mortality in Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Abd El Halim, Hesham M.; Alshukri, Baida M. H.; Ahmad, Munawar S.; Nakasu, Erich Y. T.; Awwad, Mohammed H.; Salama, Elham M.; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Edwards, Martin G.

    2016-01-01

    The voltage-gated sodium ion channel (VGSC) belongs to the largest superfamily of ion channels. Since VGSCs play key roles in physiological processes they are major targets for effective insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used to analyse gene function, but recently, it has shown potential to contribute to novel strategies for selectively controlling agricultural insect pests. The current study evaluates the delivery of dsRNA targeted to the sodium ion channel paralytic A (TcNav) gene in Tribolium castaneum as a viable means of controlling this insect pest. Delivery of TcNav dsRNA caused severe developmental arrest with larval mortalities up to 73% post injection of dsRNA. Injected larvae showed significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression between 30–60%. Expression was also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in pupae following injection causing 30% and 42% knockdown for early and late pupal stages, respectively. Oral delivery of dsRNA caused dose-dependant mortalities of between 19 and 51.34%; this was accompanied by significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression following 3 days of continuous feeding. The majority of larvae injected with, or fed, dsRNA died during the final larval stage prior to pupation. This work provides evidence of a viable RNAi-based strategy for insect control. PMID:27411529

  7. Novel siRNA formulation to effectively knockdown mutant p53 in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Anup K; Iyer, Swathi V; Chandra, Sruti; Adhikari, Amit S; Iwakuma, Tomoo; Mandal, Tarun K

    2017-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays a crucial role in the development of osteosarcoma. The primary objective of this study is to develop and optimize lipid based nanoparticle formulations that can carry siRNA and effectively silence mutant p53 in 318-1, a murine osteosarcoma cell line. The nanoparticles were composed of a mixture of two lipids (cholesterol and DOTAP) and either PLGA or PLGA-PEG and prepared by using an EmulsiFlex-B3 high pressure homogenizer. A series of studies that include using different nanoparticles, different amount of siRNAs, cell numbers, incubation time, transfection media volume, and storage temperature was performed to optimize the gene silencing efficiency. Replacement of lipids by PLGA or PLGA-PEG decreased the particle size and overall cytotoxicity. Among all lipid-polymer nanoformulations, nanoparticles with 10% PLGA showed highest mutant p53 knockdown efficiency while maintaining higher cell viability when a nanoparticle to siRNA ratio equal to 6.8:0.66 and 75 nM siRNA was used. With long term storage the mutant p53 knockdown efficiency decreased to a greater extent. This study warrants a future evaluation of this formulation for gene silencing efficiency of mutant p53 in tissue culture and animal models for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  8. Identification of a Peptide for Systemic Brain Delivery of a Morpholino Oligonucleotide in Mouse Models of Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Shabanpoor, Fazel; Hammond, Suzan M; Abendroth, Frank; Hazell, Gareth; Wood, Matthew J A; Gait, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides are emerging treatments for neuromuscular diseases, with several splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) currently undergoing clinical trials such as for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). However, the development of systemically delivered antisense therapeutics has been hampered by poor tissue penetration and cellular uptake, including crossing of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to reach targets in the central nervous system (CNS). For SMA application, we have investigated the ability of various BBB-crossing peptides for CNS delivery of a splice-switching phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO) targeting survival motor neuron 2 (SMN2) exon 7 inclusion. We identified a branched derivative of the well-known ApoE (141-150) peptide, which as a PMO conjugate was capable of exon inclusion in the CNS following systemic administration, leading to an increase in the level of full-length SMN2 transcript. Treatment of newborn SMA mice with this peptide-PMO (P-PMO) conjugate resulted in a significant increase in the average lifespan and gains in weight, muscle strength, and righting reflexes. Systemic treatment of adult SMA mice with this newly identified P-PMO also resulted in small but significant increases in the levels of SMN2 pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) exon inclusion in the CNS and peripheral tissues. This work provides proof of principle for the ability to select new peptide paradigms to enhance CNS delivery and activity of a PMO SSO through use of a peptide-based delivery platform for the treatment of SMA potentially extending to other neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. In vivo comparison of 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate and morpholino antisense oligonucleotides for Duchenne muscular dystrophy exon skipping.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Hans A; de Winter, Christa L; de Kimpe, Sjef J; van Kuik-Romeijn, Petra; Heuvelmans, Niki; Platenburg, Gerard J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; van Deutekom, Judith C T; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke

    2009-03-01

    Antisense-mediated exon skipping is a putative treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs), the disrupted DMD reading frame is restored, allowing generation of partially functional dystrophin and conversion of a severe Duchenne into a milder Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype. In vivo studies are mainly performed using 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate (2OMePS) or morpholino (PMO) AONs. These compounds were never directly compared. mdx and humanized (h)DMD mice were injected intramuscularly and intravenously with short versus long 2OMePS and PMO for mouse exon 23 and human exons 44, 45, 46 and 51. Intramuscular injection showed that increasing the length of 2OMePS AONs enhanced skipping efficiencies of human exon 45, but decreased efficiency for mouse exon 23. Although PMO induced more mouse exon 23 skipping, PMO and 2OMePS were more comparable for human exons. After intravenous administration, exon skipping and novel protein was shown in the heart with both chemistries. Furthermore, PMO showed lower intramuscular concentrations with higher exon 23 skipping levels compared to 2OMePS, which may be due to sequestration in the extracellular matrix. Finally, two mismatches rendered 2OMePS but not PMO AONs nearly ineffective. The results obtained in the present study indicate that increasing AON length improves skipping efficiency in some but not all cases. It is feasible to induce exon skipping and dystrophin restoration in the heart after injection of 2OMePS and unconjugated PMO. Furthermore, differences in efficiency between PMO and 2OMePS appear to be sequence and not chemistry dependent. Finally, the results indicate that PMOs may be less sequence specific than 2OMePS.

  10. Identification of a Peptide for Systemic Brain Delivery of a Morpholino Oligonucleotide in Mouse Models of Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Shabanpoor, Fazel; Hammond, Suzan M; Abendroth, Frank; Hazell, Gareth; Wood, Matthew J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides are emerging treatments for neuromuscular diseases, with several splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) currently undergoing clinical trials such as for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). However, the development of systemically delivered antisense therapeutics has been hampered by poor tissue penetration and cellular uptake, including crossing of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to reach targets in the central nervous system (CNS). For SMA application, we have investigated the ability of various BBB-crossing peptides for CNS delivery of a splice-switching phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO) targeting survival motor neuron 2 (SMN2) exon 7 inclusion. We identified a branched derivative of the well-known ApoE (141–150) peptide, which as a PMO conjugate was capable of exon inclusion in the CNS following systemic administration, leading to an increase in the level of full-length SMN2 transcript. Treatment of newborn SMA mice with this peptide-PMO (P-PMO) conjugate resulted in a significant increase in the average lifespan and gains in weight, muscle strength, and righting reflexes. Systemic treatment of adult SMA mice with this newly identified P-PMO also resulted in small but significant increases in the levels of SMN2 pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) exon inclusion in the CNS and peripheral tissues. This work provides proof of principle for the ability to select new peptide paradigms to enhance CNS delivery and activity of a PMO SSO through use of a peptide-based delivery platform for the treatment of SMA potentially extending to other neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28118087

  11. Enhancing the speed of morpholino-DNA biosensor by electrokinetic concentration of DNA in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Martins, Diogo; Levicky, Rastislav; Song, Yong-Ak

    2015-10-15

    Electrokinetic methods that conveniently concentrate charged analytes by orders of magnitude are highly attractive for nucleic acid assays where they can bypass the complexity and costs of enzyme-based amplification. The present study demonstrates an electrokinetic concentration device incorporating charge-neutral morpholino (MO) probes: as DNA analyte is concentrated in a microfluidic channel using ion concentration polarization (ICP) it is simultaneously hybridized to spots of complementary MO probes immobilized on the channel floor. This approach is uniquely favored by the match between the optimum buffer ionic strength of approximately 10mM for both MO-DNA surface hybridization and electrokinetic concentration. The simple and easily scalable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device was fabricated using soft lithography and contact printing of a conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate ( PSS) as a cation-selective membrane material. Using the microfluidic concentrator, we could increase the concentration of DNA by three orders of magnitude in less than 5 min at an electric field of 75 Vcm(-1). The 1000-fold increase in concentration of DNA led to an increase in the speed of MO-DNA hybridization by two orders of magnitude and enabled a detection sensitivity of ~1 nM within 15 min of concentration. Using the proposed microfluidic concentrator, we also demonstrated a rapid hybridization with a binary DNA mixture, containing a fully complementary and a non-complementary sequence to mimic molecular backgrounds present in real DNA samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adseverin knockdown inhibits osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    QI, WENTING; GAO, YAN; TIAN, JUN; JIANG, HONGWEI

    2014-01-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is a complex process that is highly dependent on the dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Adseverin (Ads), a member of the gelsolin superfamily of actin-binding proteins, regulates actin remodeling by severing and capping actin filaments. The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of Ads during osteoclastogenesis by assessing Ads expression and using a knockdown strategy. Immunoblot analyses were used to examine Ads expression during osteoclastogenesis. A stable Ads knockdown macrophage cell line was generated using a retroviral shRNA construct. Osteoclast differentiation was morphologically examined via cell staining with osteoclast specific markers and light microscopy. The results showed that Ads expression was significantly increased in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand during osteoclastogenesis, and Ads was highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. Ads-knockdown macrophages showed major osteoclastogenesis defects, most likely caused by a pre-osteoclast fusion defect. These results indicate that Ads deficiency in monocytes inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Thus, in future studies it could be noteworthy to investigate the function of Ads in bone marrow monocytes during osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25339151

  13. SoxE gene duplication and development of the lamprey branchial skeleton: Insights into development and evolution of the neural crest.

    PubMed

    Lakiza, Olga; Miller, Sarah; Bunce, Ashley; Lee, Eric Myung-Jae; McCauley, David W

    2011-11-01

    SoxE genes are multifunctional transcriptional regulators that play key roles in specification and differentiation of neural crest. Three members (Sox8, Sox9, Sox10) are expressed in the neural crest and are thought to modulate the expression and activity of each other. In addition to regulating the expression of other early neural crest marker genes, SoxE genes are required for development of cartilage. Here we investigated the role of SoxE genes in development of the neural crest-derived branchial skeleton in the sea lamprey. Using a morpholino knockdown approach, we show that all three SoxE genes described in lamprey are required for branchial basket development. Our results suggest that SoxE1 and SoxE2 are required for specification of the chondrogenic neural crest. SoxE3 plays a morphogenetic role in patterning of the branchial basket and may be required for the development of mucocartilage, a tissue unique to larval lampreys. While the lamprey branchial basket develops primarily from an elastin-like major extracellular matrix protein that is specific to lampreys, fibrillar collagen is also expressed in developing branchial cartilage and may be regulated by the lamprey SoxE genes. Our data suggest that the regulation of Type II collagen by Sox9 might have been co-opted by the neural crest in development of the branchial skeleton following the divergence of agnathan and gnathostome vertebrates. Finally, our results also have implications for understanding the independent evolution of duplicated SoxE genes among agnathan and gnathostome vertebrates.

  14. Rescue of impaired long-term facilitation at sensorimotor synapses of Aplysia following siRNA knockdown of CREB1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yili; Liu, Rong-Yu; Smolen, Paul; Cleary, Leonard J; Byrne, John H

    2015-01-28

    Memory impairment is often associated with disrupted regulation of gene induction. For example, deficits in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP; an essential cofactor for activation of transcription by CREB) impair long-term synaptic plasticity and memory. Previously, we showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of CBP in individual sensory neurons significantly reduced levels of CBP and impaired 5-HT-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) in sensorimotor cocultures from Aplysia. Moreover, computational simulations of the biochemical cascades underlying LTF successfully predicted training protocols that restored LTF following CBP knockdown. We examined whether simulations could also predict a training protocol that restores LTF impaired by siRNA-induced knockdown of the transcription factor CREB1. Simulations based on a previously described model predicted rescue protocols that were specific to CREB1 knockdown. Empirical studies demonstrated that one of these rescue protocols partially restored impaired LTF. In addition, the effectiveness of the rescue protocol was enhanced by pretreatment with rolipram, a selective cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor. These results provide further evidence that computational methods can help rescue disruptions in signaling cascades underlying memory formation. Moreover, the study demonstrates that the effectiveness of computationally designed training protocols can be enhanced with complementary pharmacological approaches.

  15. Rescue of Impaired Long-Term Facilitation at Sensorimotor Synapses of Aplysia following siRNA Knockdown of CREB1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yili; Liu, Rong-Yu; Smolen, Paul; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Memory impairment is often associated with disrupted regulation of gene induction. For example, deficits in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP; an essential cofactor for activation of transcription by CREB) impair long-term synaptic plasticity and memory. Previously, we showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of CBP in individual sensory neurons significantly reduced levels of CBP and impaired 5-HT-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) in sensorimotor cocultures from Aplysia. Moreover, computational simulations of the biochemical cascades underlying LTF successfully predicted training protocols that restored LTF following CBP knockdown. We examined whether simulations could also predict a training protocol that restores LTF impaired by siRNA-induced knockdown of the transcription factor CREB1. Simulations based on a previously described model predicted rescue protocols that were specific to CREB1 knockdown. Empirical studies demonstrated that one of these rescue protocols partially restored impaired LTF. In addition, the effectiveness of the rescue protocol was enhanced by pretreatment with rolipram, a selective cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor. These results provide further evidence that computational methods can help rescue disruptions in signaling cascades underlying memory formation. Moreover, the study demonstrates that the effectiveness of computationally designed training protocols can be enhanced with complementary pharmacological approaches. PMID:25632137

  16. Effect of knockdown of ezrin, radixin, and moesin on P-glycoprotein function in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kano, Takashi; Wada, Sho; Morimoto, Kaori; Kato, Yukio; Ogihara, Takuo

    2011-12-01

    Ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) proteins regulate functional expression of certain transporters, but little is known about their effect on P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Here, we investigated the influence of ERM proteins on the expression and activity of P-gp at the transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels, using HepG2 as a model cell line. Knockdown of ezrin with RNA interference decreased the level of P-gp messenger RNA. On the contrary, knockdown of radixin caused a decrease of the P-gp gene product at the cell surface, but not in whole cell lysate. Furthermore, a significant increase in accumulation of rhodamine123, a typical P-gp substrate, was observed in radixin knockdown cells, compared with control cells. Knockdown of moesin did not influence the expression or function of P-gp. These results indicate that ezrin influences the expression of P-gp at the translational level, whereas radixin is involved in membrane localization of P-gp in HepG2 cells.

  17. Knockdown of eIF4E suppresses cell proliferation, invasion and enhances cisplatin cytotoxicity in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jing; Shi, Fang; Xu, Zhanzhan; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) plays an important role in cap-dependent translation. The overexpression of eIF4E gene has been found in a variety of human malignancies. In this study, we attempted to identify the potential effects of eIF4E and explore the possibility of eIF4E as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human ovarian cancer. First the activation of eIF4E protein was detected with m7-GTP cap binding assays in ovarian cancer and control cells. Next, the eIF4E-shRNA expression plasmids were used to specifically inhibit eIF4E activity in ovarian cancer cells line A2780 and C200. The effects of knockdown eIF4E gene on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in vitro. Moreover, the changes of cell cycle and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells were detected by flow cytometry. Finally, we investigated the effect of knockdown of eIF4E on the chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin in vitro. Our results show there is elevated activation of eIF4E in ovarian cancer cells compared with normal human ovarian epithelial cell line. The results of BrdU incorporation and FCM assay indicate that knockdown of eIF4E efficiently suppressed cell growth and induce cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and subsequent apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. From Transwell assay analysis, knockdown eIF4E significantly decrease cellular migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. We also confirmed that knockdown eIF4E could synergistically enhance the cytotoxicity effects of cisplatin to cancer cells and sensitized cisplatin-resistant C200 cells in vitro. This study demonstrates that the activation of eIF4E gene is an essential component of the malignant phenotype in ovarian cancer, and aberration of eIF4E expression is associated with proliferation, migration, invasion and chemosensitivity to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown eIF4E gene can be used as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human ovarian cancer.

  18. Cloning, expression pattern and essentiality of the high-affinity copper transporter 1 (ctr1) gene in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Natalia C; Brito, Mónica; Reyes, Ariel E; Allende, Miguel L

    2004-03-17

    The high-affinity copper transporter 1 (Ctr1) is a highly conserved transmembrane protein that mediates the internalization of copper ions from the extracellular medium. In this study, we have isolated the zebrafish ctr1 gene. The zebrafish ctr1 cDNA encodes a protein with 69% identity to the human orthologue and shows conservation of specific amino acid residues involved in copper transport. We find only a single ctr1 gene in the zebrafish genome which maps to linkage group 5. The genomic structure of the zebrafish gene shows that it consists of five exons and that exon-intron boundaries are absolutely conserved with the mammalian ctr1 genes. Expression in embryos was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by in situ hybridization. Zebrafish ctr1 is maternally loaded, and transcripts can be detected throughout development and in adult fish. Distribution of ctr1 message appears ubiquitous during early stages becoming restricted to the brain and ventral tissues by 24 h post fertilization (hpf). Beginning at 3 days post fertilization (dpf), expression is found mainly in the developing intestine. Specific knockdown of ctr1 by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) causes early larval lethality. Defects include cell death in tissues where ctr1 is most heavily expressed, a finding similar to that described for a mouse knockout of mCtr1. Despite the existence of at least one other copper transport mechanism in the fish, our studies show that zebrafish ctr1 is an essential gene for development.

  19. In Vivo Imaging of Transgenic Gene Expression in Individual Retinal Progenitors in Chimeric Zebrafish Embryos to Study Cell Nonautonomous Influences.

    PubMed

    Dudczig, Stefanie; Currie, Peter D; Poggi, Lucia; Jusuf, Patricia R

    2017-03-22

    The genetic and technical strengths have made the zebrafish vertebrate a key model organism in which the consequences of gene manipulations can be traced in vivo throughout the rapid developmental period. Multiple processes can be studied including cell proliferation, gene expression, cell migration and morphogenesis. Importantly, the generation of chimeras through transplantations can be easily performed, allowing mosaic labeling and tracking of individual cells under the influence of the host environment. For example, by combining functional gene manipulations of the host embryo (e.g., through morpholino microinjection) and live imaging, the effects of extrinsic, cell nonautonomous signals (provided by the genetically modified environment) on individual transplanted donor cells can be assessed. Here we demonstrate how this approach is used to compare the onset of fluorescent transgene expression as a proxy for the timing of cell fate determination in different genetic host environments. In this article, we provide the protocol for microinjecting zebrafish embryos to mark donor cells and to cause gene knockdown in host embryos, a description of the transplantation technique used to generate chimeric embryos, and the protocol for preparing and running in vivo time-lapse confocal imaging of multiple embryos. In particular, performing multiposition imaging is crucial when comparing timing of events such as the onset of gene expression. This requires data collection from multiple control and experimental embryos processed simultaneously. Such an approach can easily be extended for studies of extrinsic influences in any organ or tissue of choice accessible to live imaging, provided that transplantations can be targeted easily according to established embryonic fate maps.

  20. Knockdown of the putative Lifeguard homologue CG3814 in neurons of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    M'Angale, P G; Staveley, B E

    2016-12-19

    Lifeguard is an integral transmembrane protein that modulates FasL-mediated apoptosis by interfering with the activation of caspase 8. It is evolutionarily conserved, with homologues present in plants, nematodes, zebra fish, frog, chicken, mouse, monkey, and human. The Lifeguard homologue in Drosophila, CG3814, contains the Bax inhibitor-1 family motif of unknown function. Downregulation of Lifeguard disrupts cellular homeostasis and disease by sensitizing neurons to FasL-mediated apoptosis. We used bioinformatic analyses to identify CG3814, a putative homologue of Lifeguard, and knocked down CG3814/LFG expression under the control of the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc-Gal4) transgene in Drosophila melanogaster neurons to investigate whether it possesses neuroprotective activity. Knockdown of CG3814/LFG in Ddc-Gal4-expressing neurons resulted in a shortened lifespan and impaired locomotor ability, phenotypes that are strongly associated with the degeneration and loss of dopaminergic neurons. Lifeguard interacts with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and possibly pro-apoptotic proteins to exert its neuroprotective function. The co-expression of Buffy, the sole anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene family member in Drosophila, and CG3814/LFG by stable inducible RNA interference, suppresses the shortened lifespan and the premature age-dependent loss in climbing ability. Suppression of CG3814/LFG in the Drosophila eye reduces the number of ommatidia and increases disruption of the ommatidial array. Overexpression of Buffy, along with the knockdown of CG3814/LFG, counteracts the eye phenotypes. Knockdown of CG3814/LFG in Ddc-Gal4-expressing neurons in Drosophila diminishes its neuroprotective ability and results in a shortened lifespan and loss of climbing ability, phenotypes that are improved upon overexpression of the pro-survival Buffy.

  1. OAZ1 knockdown enhances viability and inhibits ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rong; He, Hui; Yi, Zhixin; Chen, Ziyu

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1), which is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene, regulates follicular development, ovulation, and steroidogenesis. The granulosa cells in the ovary play a critical role in these ovarian functions. However, the action of OAZ1 mediating physiological functions of granulosa cells is obscure. OAZ1 knockdown in granulosa cells of geese was carried out in the current study. The effect of OAZ1 knockdown on polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone receptor transcription of primary granulosa cells in geese was measured. The viability of granulosa cells transfected with the shRNA OAZ1 at 48 h was significantly higher than the control (p<0.05). The level of putrescine and spermidine in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 was 7.04- and 2.11- fold higher compared with the control, respectively (p<0.05). The CCND1, SMAD1, and BCL-2 mRNA expression levels in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 were each significantly higher than the control, respectively (p<0.05), whereas the PCNA and CASPASE 3 expression levels were significantly lower than the control (p<0.05). The estradiol concentration, ER and LHR mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 compared with the control (p<0.05). Taken together, our results indicated that OAZ1 knockdown elevated the putrescine and spermidine contents and enhanced granulosa cell viability and inhibited ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese. PMID:28362829

  2. Synthesis, structural elucidation, DNA-PK inhibition, homology modelling and anti-platelet activity of morpholino-substituted-1,3-naphth-oxazines.

    PubMed

    Ihmaid, Saleh; Al-Rawi, Jasim; Bradley, Christopher; Angove, Michael J; Robertson, Murray N; Clark, Rachel L

    2011-07-01

    A number of new angular 2-morpholino-(substituted)-naphth-1,3-oxazines (compound 10b), linear 2-morpholino-(substituted)-naphth-1,3-oxazines (compounds 13b-c), linear 6, 7 and 9-O-substituted-2-morpholino-(substituted)-naphth-1,3-oxazines (compounds 17-22, 24, and 25) and angular compounds 14-16 and 23 were synthesised. The O-substituent was pyridin-2yl-methyl (15, 18, and 21) pyridin-3yl-methyl (16, 19, and 22) and 4-methylpipreazin-1-yl-ethoxy (23-25). Twelve compounds were tested for their inhibitory effect on collagen induced platelet aggregation and it was found that the most active compounds were compounds 19 and 22 with IC(50)=55±4 and 85±4 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the compounds were also assayed for their ability to inhibit DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. The most active compounds were 18 IC(50)=0.091 μM, 24 IC(50)=0.191 μM, and 22 IC(50)=0.331 μM. Homology modelling was used to build a 3D model of DNA-PK based on the X-ray structure of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks). Docking of synthesised compounds within the binding pocket and structure-activity relationships (SAR) analyses of the poses were performed and results agreed well with observed activity. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. miRNA-embedded shRNAs for Lineage-specific BCL11A Knockdown and Hemoglobin F Induction.

    PubMed

    Guda, Swaroopa; Brendel, Christian; Renella, Raffaele; Du, Peng; Bauer, Daniel E; Canver, Matthew C; Grenier, Jennifer K; Grimson, Andrew W; Kamran, Sophia C; Thornton, James; de Boer, Helen; Root, David E; Milsom, Michael D; Orkin, Stuart H; Gregory, Richard I; Williams, David A

    2015-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) expressed via RNA polymerase (pol) III promoters has been widely exploited to modulate gene expression in a variety of mammalian cell types. For certain applications, such as lineage-specific knockdown, embedding targeting sequences into pol II-driven microRNA (miRNA) architecture is required. Here, using the potential therapeutic target BCL11A, we demonstrate that pol III-driven shRNAs lead to significantly increased knockdown but also increased cytotoxcity in comparison to pol II-driven miRNA adapted shRNAs (shRNA(miR)) in multiple hematopoietic cell lines. We show that the two expression systems yield mature guide strand sequences that differ by a 4 bp shift. This results in alternate seed sequences and consequently influences the efficacy of target gene knockdown. Incorporating a corresponding 4 bp shift into the guide strand of shRNA(miR)s resulted in improved knockdown efficiency of BCL11A. This was associated with a significant de-repression of the hemoglobin target of BCL11A, human γ-globin or the murine homolog Hbb-y. Our results suggest the requirement for optimization of shRNA sequences upon incorporation into a miRNA backbone. These findings have important implications in future design of shRNA(miR)s for RNAi-based therapy in hemoglobinopathies and other diseases requiring lineage-specific expression of gene silencing sequences.

  4. Inhibition of Intracellular Growth of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Tissue Culture by Antisense Peptide-Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomer ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mitev, Georgi M.; Mellbye, Brett L.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Geller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Two types of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) were tested for inhibition of growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Both PMOs have the same 11-base sequence that is antisense to the region near the start codon of acpP, which is essential for lipid biosynthesis and viability. To the 3′ end of each is attached the membrane-penetrating peptide (RXR)4XB (R, X, and B indicate arginine, 6-aminohexanoic acid, and β-alanine, respectively). One peptide-PMO (AcpP PPMO) has no charge on the PMO moiety. The second PPMO has three cations (piperazine) attached to the phosphorodiamidate linkages (3+Pip-AcpP PPMO). A scrambled-sequence PPMO (Scr PPMO) was synthesized for each type of PMO. The MICs of AcpP PPMO, 3+Pip-AcpP PPMO, and either one of the Scr PPMOs were 1.25 μM (7 μg/ml), 0.156 μM (0.94 μg/ml), and >160 μM (>900 μg/ml), respectively. 3+Pip-AcpP PPMO at 1.25 or 2.5 μM significantly reduced the growth rates of pure cultures, whereas AcpP PPMO or either Scr PPMO had no effect. However, the viable cell count was significantly reduced at either concentration of 3+Pip-AcpP PPMO or AcpP PPMO, but not with either Scr PPMO. In other experiments, macrophages were infected intracellularly with S. enterica and treated with 3 μM 3+Pip-AcpP PPMO. Intracellular bacteria were reduced >99% with 3+Pip-AcpP PPMO, whereas intracellular bacteria increased 3 orders of magnitude in untreated or Scr PPMO-treated cultures. We conclude that either AcpP PPMO or 3+Pip-AcpP PPMO inhibited growth of S. enterica in pure culture and that 3+Pip-AcpP PPMO reduced intracellular viability of S. enterica in macrophages. PMID:19581453

  5. Knockdown of GPR137 by RNAi inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xianping; Liu, Yanguo; Wang, Bo; Xian, Guozhe; Liu, Xin; Tian, Xingsong; Qin, Chengkun

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest family of cell-surface molecules involved in a number of biological and pathological processes, have recently emerged as key players in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Orphan G protein-coupled receptors (oGPCRs) are a group of proteins lacking endogenous ligands. GPR137, one of the novel oGPCR genes, was discovered by homology screening. However, the biological role of GPR137 in cancers has not yet been discussed and is of great therapeutic interest. In this study, we knocked down GPR137 via a lentivirus system in two human pancreatic cancer cell lines BXPC-3 and PANC-1. Knockdown of GPR137 strongly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation. Flow cytometry showed that cell cycle was arrested in the sub-G1 phase and apoptotic cells were significantly increased after GPR137 knockdown. Western blotting confirmed that GPR137 silencing induced apoptosis due to cleavage of PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase) and upregulation of caspase 3. Furthermore, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of GPR137 promoted the proliferation of PANC-1 cells, suggesting GPR137 as a potential oncogene in pancreatic cancer cells. Taken together, our results prove the importance of GPR137 as a crucial regulator in controlling cancer cell growth and apoptosis.

  6. Focal adhesion kinase knockdown modulates the response of human corneal epithelial cells to topographic cues.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Britta; Raghunathan, Vijaya Krishna; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly expanding literature broadly documents the impact of biophysical cues on cellular behaviors. In spite of increasing research efforts in this field, the underlying signaling processes are poorly understood. One of the candidate molecules for being involved in mechanotransduction is focal adhesion kinase (FAK). To examine the role of FAK in the response of immortalized human corneal epithelial (hTCEpi) cells to topographic cues, FAK was depleted by siRNA transfection. Contrary to expectations, FAK knockdown resulted in an enhanced response with a greater number of hTCEpi cells aligned to the long axis of anisotropically ordered surface ridges and grooves. Both underlying topographic features and FAK depletion modulated the migration of corneal epithelial cells. The impact of FAK knockdown on both migration and alignment varied depending on the topographic cues to which the cells were exposed, with the most significant change observed on the biologically relevant size scale (400nm). Additionally, a change in expression of genes encoding perinuclear Nesprins 1 and 2 (SYNE1, 2) was observed in response to topographic cues. SYNE1/2 expression was also altered by FAK depletion, suggesting that these proteins might represent a link between cytosolic and nuclear signaling processes. The data presented here have relevance to our understanding of the fundamental processes involved in corneal cell behavior to topographic cues. These results highlight the importance of incorporating biophysical cues in the conduction of in vitro studies and into the design and fabrication of implantable prosthetics.

  7. A Simple Alternative to Stereotactic Injection for Brain Specific Knockdown of miRNA.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Hemant; Sarangdhar, Mayuresh Anant; Vij, Manika; Roshan, Reema; Singh, Vijay Pal; Ganguli, Munia; Pillai, Beena

    2015-12-26

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression. In the brain, vital processes like neurodevelopment and neuronal functions depend on the correct expression of microRNAs. Perturbation of microRNAs in the brain can be used to model neurodegenerative diseases by modulating neuronal cell death. Currently, stereotactic injection is used to deliver miRNA knockdown agents to specific location in the brain. Here, we discuss strategies to design antagomirs against miRNA with locked nucleotide modifications (LNA). Subsequently describe a method for brain specific delivery of antagomirs, uniformly across different regions of the brain. This method is simple and widely applicable since it overcomes the surgery, associated injury and limitation of local delivery in stereotactic injections. We prepared a complex of neurotropic, cell-penetrating peptide Rabies Virus Glycoprotein (RVG) with antagomir against miRNA-29 and injected through tail vein, to specifically deliver in the brain. The antagomir design incorporated features that allow specific targeting of the miRNA and formation of non-covalent complexes with the peptide. The knock-down of the miRNA in neuronal cells, resulted in apoptotic cell death and associated behavioural defects. Thus, the method can be used for acute models of neuro-degeneration through the perturbation of miRNAs.

  8. Knockdown of Mediator Complex Subunit 19 Suppresses the Growth and Invasion of Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongwei; Lv, Wei; Chen, Jian; Wan, Fengchun; Liu, Dongfu; Gao, Zhenli; Wu, Jitao

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in elderly men. Mediator Complex Subunit 19 (Med19) is overexpressed and plays promotional roles in many cancers. However, the roles of Med19 in PCa are still obscure. In this study, by using immunohistochemical staining, we found higher expression level of Med19 in PCa tissues than in adjacent benign prostate tissues. We then knocked down the Med19 expression in PCa cell lines LNCaP and PC3 by using lentivirus siRNA. Cell proliferation, anchor-independent growth, migration, and invasion were suppressed in Med19 knockdown PCa cells. In nude mice xenograft model, we found that Med19 knockdown PCa cells formed smaller tumors with lower proliferation index than did control cells. In the mechanism study, we found that Med19 could regulate genes involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, including P27, pAKT, pPI3K, IGF1R, E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin, Vimentin, ZEB2, Snail-1 and Snail-2. Targeting Med19 in PCa cells could inhibit the PCa growth and metastasis, and might be a therapeutic option for PCa in the future. PMID:28125713

  9. SMARCAD1 knockdown uncovers its role in breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Al Kubaisy, Elham; Arafat, Kholoud; De Wever, Olivier; Hassan, Ahmed H; Attoub, Samir

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer seen in women worldwide and breast cancer patients are at high risk of recurrence in the form of metastatic disease. Identification of genes associated with invasion and metastasis is crucial in order to develop novel anti-metastasis targeted therapy. It has been demonstrated that the DEAD-BOX helicase DP103 was implicated in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. SMARCAD1 is also a DEAD/H box-containing helicase, suggested to play a role in genetic instability. However, its involvement in cancer migration, invasion, and metastasis has never been explored. Using two different designs of shRNA targeting SMARCAD1, we investigated the impact of SMARCAD1 knockdown on the migration, invasion, and metastasis potential of the breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and T47D. We observed that SMARCAD1 knockdown in the invasive breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231, unlike in the non-invasive breast cancer cells T47D, was associated with an increased cell-cell adhesion and a significant decrease in cell migration, invasion, and metastasis due at least in part to a strong inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. These results indicate that SMARCAD1 is involved in breast cancer metastasis and can be a promising target for metastatic breast cancer therapy.

  10. Mutations in c10orf11, a melanocyte-differentiation gene, cause autosomal-recessive albinism.

    PubMed

    Grønskov, Karen; Dooley, Christopher M; Østergaard, Elsebet; Kelsh, Robert N; Hansen, Lars; Levesque, Mitchell P; Vilhelmsen, Kaj; Møllgård, Kjeld; Stemple, Derek L; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2013-03-07

    Autosomal-recessive albinism is a hypopigmentation disorder with a broad phenotypic range. A substantial fraction of individuals with albinism remain genetically unresolved, and it has been hypothesized that more genes are to be identified. By using homozygosity mapping of an inbred Faroese family, we identified a 3.5 Mb homozygous region (10q22.2-q22.3) on chromosome 10. The region contains five protein-coding genes, and sequencing of one of these, C10orf11, revealed a nonsense mutation that segregated with the disease and showed a recessive inheritance pattern. Investigation of additional albinism-affected individuals from the Faroe Islands revealed that five out of eight unrelated affected persons had the nonsense mutation in C10orf11. Screening of a cohort of autosomal-recessive-albinism-affected individuals residing in Denmark showed a homozygous 1 bp duplication in C10orf11 in an individual originating from Lithuania. Immunohistochemistry showed localization of C10orf11 in melanoblasts and melanocytes in human fetal tissue, but no localization was seen in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Knockdown of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) homolog with the use of morpholinos resulted in substantially decreased pigmentation and a reduction of the apparent number of pigmented melanocytes. The morphant phenotype was rescued by wild-type C10orf11, but not by mutant C10orf11. In conclusion, we have identified a melanocyte-differentiation gene, C10orf11, which when mutated causes autosomal-recessive albinism in humans. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutations in C10orf11, a Melanocyte-Differentiation Gene, Cause Autosomal-Recessive Albinism

    PubMed Central

    Grønskov, Karen; Dooley, Christopher M.; Østergaard, Elsebet; Kelsh, Robert N.; Hansen, Lars; Levesque, Mitchell P.; Vilhelmsen, Kaj; Møllgård, Kjeld; Stemple, Derek L.; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive albinism is a hypopigmentation disorder with a broad phenotypic range. A substantial fraction of individuals with albinism remain genetically unresolved, and it has been hypothesized that more genes are to be identified. By using homozygosity mapping of an inbred Faroese family, we identified a 3.5 Mb homozygous region (10q22.2–q22.3) on chromosome 10. The region contains five protein-coding genes, and sequencing of one of these, C10orf11, revealed a nonsense mutation that segregated with the disease and showed a recessive inheritance pattern. Investigation of additional albinism-affected individuals from the Faroe Islands revealed that five out of eight unrelated affected persons had the nonsense mutation in C10orf11. Screening of a cohort of autosomal-recessive-albinism-affected individuals residing in Denmark showed a homozygous 1 bp duplication in C10orf11 in an individual originating from Lithuania. Immunohistochemistry showed localization of C10orf11 in melanoblasts and melanocytes in human fetal tissue, but no localization was seen in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Knockdown of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) homolog with the use of morpholinos resulted in substantially decreased pigmentation and a reduction of the apparent number of pigmented melanocytes. The morphant phenotype was rescued by wild-type C10orf11, but not by mutant C10orf11. In conclusion, we have identified a melanocyte-differentiation gene, C10orf11, which when mutated causes autosomal-recessive albinism in humans. PMID:23395477

  12. Synthesis, structure elucidation, DNA-PK, PI3K, anti-platelet and anti-bacteria activity of linear 5, 6, and 10-substituted-2-morpholino-chromen-oxazine-dione and angular 3, 4, 6-substituted-8-morpholino-chromen-oxazine-2,10-dione.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Rick; Al-Rawi, Jasim M A

    2016-01-01

    Coumarin, a naturally occurring or synthesised phytochemical, displays a wide range of biological activities. However, chromen-2-ones fused with 1,3-benzoxazine rings is not well documented and there is a gap in the literature which required engaging. The substituted-2-thioxo-chromen-oxazine linear compounds 14a-i and angular compounds 16a-e were synthesised from the reaction of hydroxy-substituted-chromene-carboxylic 10-13 with freshly prepared Ph3P(SCN)2. 2-Morpholino-substituted-chromen-oxazine-4,8-dione and 8-morpholino-substituted-chromen-oxazine-2,10-dione 15a-f and 17 were synthesised from the reaction of the corresponding oxazines 14 and 16 with morpholine. PI3K activity was observed for the hydroxy-substituted-chromene-carboxylic acid of which compound 13b showed moderate PI3Kγ (IC50 = 5.56 μM) and PI3Kα (IC50 = 14.7 μM) activity. Additionally, 8-morpholino-chromen-oxazine-2,10-dione 17a showed isoform selective PI3Kδ activity with IC50 = 5.08 μM with non-DNA-PK ≥ 100 μM. Consequently compound 17a can be considered as a selective PI3Kδ inhibitor with non-DNA-PK at compound concentrations ≥100 μM.

  13. Knockdown of transient receptor potential canonical-1 reduces the proliferation and migration of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Chun-yan; Yu, Yang; Wang, Kui; Qian, De-hui; Den, Meng-yang; Huang, Lan

    2012-02-10

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in accelerating endothelial repair after vascular injury. The proliferation and migration of EPCs is a critical first step in restoring endothelial. However, mechanisms for modulating EPC proliferation and migration are still being elucidated. Our previous study found that transient receptor potential canonical-1 (TRPC1) is involved in regulating store-operated Ca(2+) entry in EPCs through stromal interaction molecule 1. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to further investigate the regulation of proliferation and migration of EPCs by TRPC1. We found that the silencing of TRPC1 by 2 different RNA interference methods suppressed the proliferation and migration of EPCs. In addition, knockdown of TRPC1 significantly reduced of the amplitude of store-operated Ca(2+) entry and caused arrest of the EPC cell cycle in G1 phase. Analysis of the expression of 84 cell cycle genes by microarray showed that 9 genes were upregulated and 4 were downregulated by >2-fold in EPCs following TRPC1 silencing. The genes with expression changes were Ak1, Brca2, Camk2b, p21, Ddit3, Inha, Slfn1, Mdm2, Prm1, Bcl2, Mki67, Pmp22, and Ppp2r3a. Finally, we found that a Schlafen 1-blocking peptide partially reversed the abnormal cell cycle distribution and proliferation induced by TRPC1 knockdown, suggesting that Schlafen 1 is downstream of TRPC1 silencing in regulating EPC proliferation. In summary, these findings provide a new mechanism for modulating the biological properties of EPCs and suggest that TRPC1 may be a new target for inducing vascular repair by EPCs.

  14. Knockdown of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical-1 Reduces the Proliferation and Migration of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Chun-yan; Yu, Yang; Wang, Kui; Qian, De-hui; Den, Meng-yang

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in accelerating endothelial repair after vascular injury. The proliferation and migration of EPCs is a critical first step in restoring endothelial. However, mechanisms for modulating EPC proliferation and migration are still being elucidated. Our previous study found that transient receptor potential canonical-1 (TRPC1) is involved in regulating store-operated Ca2+ entry in EPCs through stromal interaction molecule 1. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to further investigate the regulation of proliferation and migration of EPCs by TRPC1. We found that the silencing of TRPC1 by 2 different RNA interference methods suppressed the proliferation and migration of EPCs. In addition, knockdown of TRPC1 significantly reduced of the amplitude of store-operated Ca2+ entry and caused arrest of the EPC cell cycle in G1 phase. Analysis of the expression of 84 cell cycle genes by microarray showed that 9 genes were upregulated and 4 were downregulated by >2-fold in EPCs following TRPC1 silencing. The genes with expression changes were Ak1, Brca2, Camk2b, p21, Ddit3, Inha, Slfn1, Mdm2, Prm1, Bcl2, Mki67, Pmp22, and Ppp2r3a. Finally, we found that a Schlafen 1-blocking peptide partially reversed the abnormal cell cycle distribution and proliferation induced by TRPC1 knockdown, suggesting that Schlafen 1 is downstream of TRPC1 silencing in regulating EPC proliferation. In summary, these findings provide a new mechanism for modulating the biological properties of EPCs and suggest that TRPC1 may be a new target for inducing vascular repair by EPCs. PMID:21361857

  15. GABAA receptor γ2 subunit knockdown mice have enhanced anxiety-like behavior but unaltered hypnotic response to benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Dev; Korpi, Esa R; Miralles, Celia P; De Blas, Angel L; Homanics, Gregg E

    2005-01-01

    Background Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA-Rs) are the major inhibitory receptors in the mammalian brain and are modulated by a number of sedative/hypnotic drugs including benzodiazepines and anesthetics. The significance of specific GABAA-Rs subunits with respect to behavior and in vivo drug responses is incompletely understood. The γ2 subunit is highly expressed throughout the brain. Global γ2 knockout mice are insensitive to the hypnotic effects of diazepam and die perinatally. Heterozygous γ2 global knockout mice are viable and have increased anxiety-like behaviors. To further investigate the role of the γ2 subunit in behavior and whole animal drug action, we used gene targeting to create a novel mouse line with attenuated γ2 expression, i.e., γ2 knockdown mice. Results Knockdown mice were created by inserting a neomycin resistance cassette into intron 8 of the γ2 gene. Knockdown mice, on average, showed a 65% reduction of γ2 subunit mRNA compared to controls; however γ2 gene expression was highly variable in these mice, ranging from 10–95% of normal. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that γ2 protein levels were also variably reduced. Pharmacological studies using autoradiography on frozen brain sections demonstrated that binding of the benzodiazepine site ligand Ro15-4513 was decreased in mutant mice compared to controls. Behaviorally, knockdown mice displayed enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on the elevated plus maze and forced novelty exploration tests. Surprisingly, mutant mice had an unaltered response to hypnotic doses of the benzodiazepine site ligands diazepam, midazolam and zolpidem as well as ethanol and pentobarbital. Lastly, we demonstrated that the γ2 knockdown mouse line can be used to create γ2 global knockout mice by crossing to a general deleter cre-expressing mouse line. Conclusion We conclude that: 1) insertion of a neomycin resistance gene into intron 8 of the γ2 gene variably reduced the amount of γ2

  16. Effective knockdown of Drosophila long non-coding RNAs by CRISPR interference

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sanjay; Tibbit, Charlotte; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as regulators of gene expression across metazoa. Interestingly, some lncRNAs function independently of their transcripts – the transcription of the lncRNA locus itself affects target genes. However, current methods of loss-of-function analysis are insufficient to address the role of lncRNA transcription from the transcript which has impeded analysis of their function. Using the minimal CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system, we show that coexpression of the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) and guide RNAs targeting the endogenous roX locus in the Drosophila cells results in a robust and specific knockdown of roX1 and roX2 RNAs, thus eliminating the need for recruiting chromatin modifying proteins for effective gene silencing. Additionally, we find that the human and Drosophila codon optimized dCas9 genes are functional and show similar transcription repressive activity. Finally, we demonstrate that the minimal CRISPRi system suppresses roX transcription efficiently in vivo resulting in loss-of-function phenotype, thus validating the method for the first time in a multicelluar organism. Our analysis expands the genetic toolkit available for interrogating lncRNA function in situ and is adaptable for targeting multiple genes across model organisms. PMID:26850642

  17. Stable SREBP-1a knockdown decreases the cell proliferation rate in human preadipocyte cells without inducing senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, María Soledad; Fernandez-Alvarez, Ana; Cucarella, Carme; Casado, Marta

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • SGBS cells mostly expressed SREBP-1a variant. • SREBP-1a knockdown decreased the proliferation of SGBS cells without inducing senescence. • We have identified RBBP8 and CDKN3 genes as potential SREBP-1a targets. - Abstract: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP), encoded by the Srebf1 and Srebf2 genes, are important regulators of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Whereas SREBP-2 controls the cholesterol synthesis, SREBP-1 proteins (-1a and -1c) function as the central hubs in lipid metabolism. Despite the key function of these transcription factors to promote adipocyte differentiation, the roles of SREBP-1 proteins during the preadipocyte state remain unknown. Here, we evaluate the role of SREBP-1 in preadipocyte proliferation using RNA interference technology. Knockdown of the SREBP-1a gene decreased the proliferation rate in human SGBS preadipocyte cell strain without inducing senescence. Furthermore, our data identified retinoblastoma binding protein 8 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 genes as new potential SREBP-1 targets, in addition to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A which had already been described as a gene regulated by SREBP-1a. These data suggested a new role of SREBP-1 in adipogenesis via regulation of preadipocyte proliferation.

  18. Functional analysis of ESM1 by siRNA knockdown in primary and metastatic head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bender, Onur; Gunduz, Mehmet; Cigdem, Sadik; Hatipoglu, Omer Faruk; Acar, Muradiye; Kaya, Mesut; Grenman, Reidar; Gunduz, Esra; Ugur, Kadriye Serife

    2017-10-11

    Genetic factors play a large role in cancer and thus there is a great desire to understand the effects of different genes in cancer and to also develop gene therapy for better treatments. Therefore, the development of alternative diagnosis and therapy modalities are of utmost importance. The aim of our study is to illuminate the role of ESM1 (endothelial cell specific molecule-1, also known as Endocan) in proliferation and migration of head and neck cancer, thus helping to pave the way for new treatment modalities and predictive biomarkers. ESM1 expression was shown with immunofluorescence assay by using confocal laser scanning microscope in primary and metastatic head and neck cancer cells. ESM1 expression was knocked down by RNA interference in head and neck cancer cells. Knockdown efficiency was evaluated by quantitative real time RT-PCR and western blot. Cell proliferation and migration assays were performed by xCELLigence real time cell analysis system. Immunofluorescence assay showed nuclear localization and high expression of ESM1 in primary and metastatic head and neck cancer cells. ESM1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in ESM1-knockdown cells compared to control. ESM1-knockdown cells showed reduced proliferation and migration activity when compared to control cells. These findings suggest that ESM1 has roles on proliferation and migration of head and neck cancer cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. RNAi-mediated knock-down of Dab and Numb attenuate Aβ levels via γ-secretase mediated APP processing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β-protein (Aβ), the key component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, is produced from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by cleavage of β-secretase and then γ-secretase. APP adaptor proteins with phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains, including Dab (gene: DAB) and Numb (gene: NUMB), can bind to and interact with the conserved YENPTY-motif in the APP C-terminus. Here we describe, for the first time, the effects of RNAi knock-down of Dab and Numb expression on APP processing and Aβ production. RNAi knock-down of Dab and Numb in H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express either FL-APP (H4-FL-APP cells) or APP-C99 (H4-APP-C99 cells) increased levels of APP-C-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs) and lowered Aβ levels in both cell lines by inhibiting γ-secretase cleavage of APP. Finally, RNAi knock-down of APP also reduced levels of Numb in H4-APP cells. These findings suggest that pharmacologically blocking interaction of APP with Dab and Numb may provide novel therapeutic strategies of AD. The notion of attenuating γ-secretase cleavage of APP via the APP adaptor proteins, Dab and Numb, is particularly attractive with regard to therapeutic potential, given that side effects of γ-secretase inhibition owing to impaired proteolysis of other γ-secretase substrates, e.g. Notch, might be avoided. PMID:23211096

  20. Knockdown of CXCL14 disrupts neurovascular patterning during ocular development.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Ana F; Munjaal, Ravi P; Lwigale, Peter Y

    2017-03-01

    The C-X-C motif ligand 14 (CXCL14) is a recently discovered chemokine that is highly conserved in vertebrates and expressed in various embryonic and adult tissues. CXCL14 signaling has been implicated to function as an antiangiogenic and anticancer agent in adults. However, its function during development is unknown. We previously identified novel expression of CXCL14 mRNA in various ocular tissues during development. Here, we show that CXCL14 protein is expressed in the anterior eye at a critical time during neurovascular development and in the retina during neurogenesis. We report that RCAS-mediated knockdown of CXCL14 causes severe neural defects in the eye including precocious and excessive innervation of the cornea and iris. Absence of CXCL14 results in the malformation of the neural retina and misprojection of the retinal ganglion neurons. The ocular neural defects may be due to loss of CXCL12 modulation since recombinant CXCL14 diminishes CXCL12-induced axon growth in vitro. Furthermore, we show that knockdown of CXCL14 causes neovascularization of the cornea. Altogether, our results show for the first time that CXCL14 plays a critical role in modulating neurogenesis and inhibiting ectopic vascularization of the cornea during ocular development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal mRNA knockdown studies: antisense experiments using the host-transfer technique in X. laevis and X. tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Olson, David J.; Hulstrand, Alissa M.; Houston, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability to inhibit the activity of maternally stored gene products in Xenopus has led to numerous insights into early developmental mechanisms. Oocytes can be cultured and manipulated in vitro and then implanted into the body cavity of a host female to make them competent for fertilization. Here, we summarize the methods for obtaining, culturing and fertilizing Xenopus oocytes, with the goal of inhibiting maternal gene function through antisense oligonucleotide-mediated mRNA knockdown. We describe a simplified technique for implanting donor oocytes into host females using intraperitoneal injection. Also, we present optimized methods for performing the host-transfer procedure with X. tropicalis oocytes. PMID:22956088

  2. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) Knock-down Induces Apoptosis in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Arzt, Lisa; Halbwedl, Iris; Gogg-Kamerer, Margit; Popper, Helmut H

    2017-07-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common primary tumor of the pleura. Its incidence is still increasing in Europe and the prognosis remains poor. We investigated the oncogenic function of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in MPM in more detail. A miRNA profiling was performed on 52 MPM tissue samples. Upregulated miRNAs (targeting SOCS1/3) were knocked-down using miRNA inhibitors. mRNA expression levels of STAT1/3, SOCS1/3 were detected in MPM cell lines. STAT1 has been knocked-down using siRNA and qPCR was used to detect mRNA expression levels of all JAK/STAT family members and genes that regulate them. An immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the expression of caspases. STAT1 was upregulated and STAT3 was downregulated, SOCS1/3 protein was not detected but it was possible to detect SOCS1/3 mRNA in MPM cell lines. The upregulated miRNAs were successfully knocked-down, however the expected effect on SOCS1 expression was not detected. STAT1 knock-down had different effects on STAT3/5 expression. Caspase 3a and 8 expression was found to be increased after STAT1 knock-down. The physiologic regulation of STAT1 via SOCS1 is completely lost in MPM and it does not seem that the miRNAs identified by now, do inhibit the expression of SOCS1. MPM cell lines compensate STAT1 knock-down by increasing the expression of STAT3 or STAT5a, two genes which are generally considered to be oncogenes. And much more important, STAT1 knock-down induces apoptosis in MPM cell lines and STAT1 might therefore be a target for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Proteomic dataset for altered glycoprotein expression upon GALNT3 knockdown in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sheta, Razan; Roux-Dalvai, Florence; Woo, Christina M; Fournier, Frédéric; Bourassa, Sylvie; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Droit, Arnaud; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2016-09-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published in "Role of the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 in ovarian cancer progression: possible implications in abnormal mucin O-glycosylation" [1]. The data presented here was obtained with the application of a bioorthogonal chemical reporter strategy analyzing differential glycoprotein expression following the knock-down (KD) of the GALNT3 gene in the epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell line A2780s. LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry analysis was then performed and the processed data related to the identified glycoproteins show that several hundred proteins are differentially expressed between control and GALNT3 KD A2780s cells. The obtained data also uncover numerous novel glycoproteins; some of which could represent new potential EOC biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets.

  4. RIG-I knockdown impedes neurogenesis in a murine model of Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sriparna; Ghosh, Sourish; Nazmi, Arshed; Basu, Anirban

    2015-02-01

    Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a well established pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in neurons infected with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) as reported previously from our laboratory. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus infection in brain has been shown to decrease the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) which has its implications in neurological sequelae in JE survivors. We have found that ablation of RIG-I both in vivo and in vitro models results in significant decrease in NSPC proliferation post JEV infection. We hypothesize that knockdown of RIG-I diminishes the expression of antiviral molecules resulting in an increase in viral replication, which in turn results in enhancement of the expression of cell cycle inhibitors, hence affecting the proliferation of NSPCs. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  5. Lineage-specific BCL11A knockdown circumvents toxicities and reverses sickle phenotype.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Christian; Guda, Swaroopa; Renella, Raffaele; Bauer, Daniel E; Canver, Matthew C; Kim, Young-Jo; Heeney, Matthew M; Klatt, Denise; Fogel, Jonathan; Milsom, Michael D; Orkin, Stuart H; Gregory, Richard I; Williams, David A

    2016-10-03

    Reducing expression of the fetal hemoglobin (HbF) repressor BCL11A leads to a simultaneous increase in γ-globin expression and reduction in β-globin expression. Thus, there is interest in targeting BCL11A as a treatment for β-hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia. Here, we found that using optimized shRNAs embedded within an miRNA (shRNAmiR) architecture to achieve ubiquitous knockdown of BCL11A profoundly impaired long-term engraftment of both human and mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) despite a reduction in nonspecific cellular toxicities. BCL11A knockdown was associated with a substantial increase in S/G2-phase human HSCs after engraftment into immunodeficient (NSG) mice, a phenotype that is associated with HSC exhaustion. Lineage-specific, shRNAmiR-mediated suppression of BCL11A in erythroid cells led to stable long-term engraftment of gene-modified cells. Transduced primary normal or SCD human HSCs expressing the lineage-specific BCL11A shRNAmiR gave rise to erythroid cells with up to 90% reduction of BCL11A protein. These erythrocytes demonstrated 60%-70% γ-chain expression (vs. < 10% for negative control) and a corresponding increase in HbF. Transplantation of gene-modified murine HSCs from Berkeley sickle cell mice led to a substantial improvement of sickle-associated hemolytic anemia and reticulocytosis, key pathophysiological biomarkers of SCD. These data form the basis for a clinical trial application for treating sickle cell disease.

  6. Lineage-specific BCL11A knockdown circumvents toxicities and reverses sickle phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Brendel, Christian; Guda, Swaroopa; Renella, Raffaele; Bauer, Daniel E.; Canver, Matthew C.; Kim, Young-Jo; Heeney, Matthew M.; Klatt, Denise; Fogel, Jonathan; Milsom, Michael D.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Gregory, Richard I.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing expression of the fetal hemoglobin (HbF) repressor BCL11A leads to a simultaneous increase in γ-globin expression and reduction in β-globin expression. Thus, there is interest in targeting BCL11A as a treatment for β-hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia. Here, we found that using optimized shRNAs embedded within an miRNA (shRNAmiR) architecture to achieve ubiquitous knockdown of BCL11A profoundly impaired long-term engraftment of both human and mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) despite a reduction in nonspecific cellular toxicities. BCL11A knockdown was associated with a substantial increase in S/G2-phase human HSCs after engraftment into immunodeficient (NSG) mice, a phenotype that is associated with HSC exhaustion. Lineage-specific, shRNAmiR-mediated suppression of BCL11A in erythroid cells led to stable long-term engraftment of gene-modified cells. Transduced primary normal or SCD human HSCs expressing the lineage-specific BCL11A shRNAmiR gave rise to erythroid cells with up to 90% reduction of BCL11A protein. These erythrocytes demonstrated 60%–70% γ-chain expression (vs. < 10% for negative control) and a corresponding increase in HbF. Transplantation of gene-modified murine HSCs from Berkeley sickle cell mice led to a substantial improvement of sickle-associated hemolytic anemia and reticulocytosis, key pathophysiological biomarkers of SCD. These data form the basis for a clinical trial application for treating sickle cell disease. PMID:27599293

  7. Knockdown of FOXO3 induces primordial oocyte activation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Lee, Jibak; Zengyo, Mai; Miyano, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    Mammalian ovaries are endowed with a large number of primordial follicles, each containing a nongrowing oocyte. Only a small population of primordial oocytes (oocytes in primordial follicles) is activated to enter the growth phase throughout a female's reproductive life. Little is known about the mechanism regulating the activation of primordial oocytes. Here, we found that the primordial oocytes from infant pigs (10- to 20-day-old) grew to full size at 2 months after xenografting to immunodeficient mice, whereas those from prepubertal pigs (6-month-old) survived without initiation of their growth even after 4 months; thereafter, they started to grow and reached full size after 6 months. These results suggest that the mechanism regulating the activation of primordial oocytes in prepubertal pigs is different from that in infant pigs. In this regard, the involvement of FOXO3, a forkhead transcription factor, was studied. In prepubertal pigs, FOXO3 was detected in almost all (94+/-2%) primordial oocyte nuclei, and in infant pigs, 42+/-7% primordial oocytes were FOXO3 positive. At 4 months after xenografting, the percentage of FOXO3-positive primordial oocytes from prepubertal pigs had decreased to the infant level. Further, siRNA was designed to knock down porcine FOXO3. FOXO3-knockdown primordial follicles from prepubertal pigs developed to the antral stage accompanied by oocyte growth at 2 months after xenografting. These results suggest that primordial oocytes are dormant in prepubertal pigs by a FOXO3-related mechanism to establish a nongrowing oocyte pool in the ovary, and that a transient knockdown of the FOXO3 activates the primordial oocytes to enter the growth phase.

  8. Lethality of PAK3 and SGK2 shRNAs to human papillomavirus positive cervical cancer cells is independent of PAK3 and SGK2 knockdown.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nannan; Ding, Bo; Agler, Michele; Cockett, Mark; McPhee, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase 3 (PAK3) and the serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 2 (SGK2) have been previously proposed as essential kinases for human papillomavirus positive (HPV+) cervical cancer cell survival. This was established using a shRNA knockdown approach. To validate PAK3 and SGK2 as potential targets for HPV+ cervical cancer therapy, the relationship between shRNA-induced phenotypes in HPV+ cervical cancer cells and PAK3 or SGK2 knockdown was carefully examined. We observed that the phenotypes of HPV+ cervical cancer cells induced by various PAK3 and SGK2 shRNAs could not be rescued by complement expression of respective cDNA constructs. A knockdown-deficient PAK3 shRNA with a single mismatch was sufficient to inhibit HeLa cell growth to a similar extent as wild-type PAK3 shRNA. The HPV+ cervical cancer cells were also susceptible to several non-human target shRNAs. The discrepancy between PAK3 and SGK2 shRNA-induced apoptosis and gene expression knockdown, as well as cell death stimulation, suggested that these shRNAs killed HeLa cells through different pathways that may not be target-specific. These data demonstrated that HPV+ cervical cancer cell death was not associated with RNAi-induced PAK3 and SGK2 knockdown but likely through off-target effects.

  9. Inactivation of ca10a and ca10b Genes Leads to Abnormal Embryonic Development and Alters Movement Pattern in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Aspatwar, Ashok; Barker, Harlan R.; Saralahti, Anni K.; Bäuerlein, Carina A.; Ortutay, Csaba; Pan, Peiwen; Kuuslahti, Marianne; Parikka, Mataleena; Rämet, Mika; Parkkila, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs) X and XI are highly conserved across species and are predominantly expressed in neural tissues. The biological role of these proteins is still an enigma. Ray-finned fish have lost the CA11 gene, but instead possess two co-orthologs of CA10. We analyzed the expression pattern of zebrafish ca10a and ca10b genes during embryonic development and in different adult tissues, and studied 61 CARP X/XI-like sequences to evaluate their phylogenetic relationship. Sequence analysis of zebrafish ca10a and ca10b reveals strongly predicted signal peptides, N-glycosylation sites, and a potential disulfide, all of which are conserved, suggesting that all of CARP X and XI are secretory proteins and potentially dimeric. RT-qPCR showed that zebrafish ca10a and ca10b genes are expressed in the brain and several other tissues throughout the development of zebrafish. Antisense morpholino mediated knockdown of ca10a and ca10b showed developmental delay with a high rate of mortality in larvae. Zebrafish morphants showed curved body, pericardial edema, and abnormalities in the head and eye, and there was increased apoptotic cell death in the brain region. Swim pattern showed abnormal movement in morphant zebrafish larvae compared to the wild type larvae. The developmental phenotypes of the ca10a and ca10b morphants were confirmed by inactivating these genes with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. In conclusion, we introduce a novel zebrafish model to investigate the mechanisms of CARP Xa and CARP Xb functions. Our data indicate that CARP Xa and CARP Xb have important roles in zebrafish development and suppression of ca10a and ca10b expression in zebrafish larvae leads to a movement disorder. PMID:26218428

  10. Knockdown of nucleophosmin by RNA interference reverses multidrug resistance in resistant leukemic HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Minhui; Hu, Jianda; Liu, Tingbo; Li, Jing; Chen, Buyuan; Chen, Xinji

    2013-09-01

    Nucleophosmin, a multifunctional nucleolar phosphoprotein, is involved in many cellular activities. However, the role of NPM in drug-resistance of leukemia has not yet been explored. We designed and selected one shRNA targeting on NPM gene transduction into HL-60 and HL-60/ADR cell lines (an adriamycin resistant cell line) by lentivirus. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation were assessed. The expressions of the related genes and proteins were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed obvious down-regulation of NPM mRNA and protein levels after NPM RNAi. NPM-targeted RNAi also resulted in many cellular changes, such as, suppressing cell proliferation and inducing cell differentiation. Down-regulation of NPM gene could arrest the cell cycle progression, an increase in the proportion of G0/G1 phase in knockdown groups. NPM gene silencing could also induce pro-apoptotic genes and proteins expression, and inhibit anti-apoptotic genes/proteins expression. Furthermore, IC50 of two chemotherapeutic agents (adriamycin and ADR; daunorubicin and DNR) to HL-60 and HL-60/ADR cells decreased, especially more remarkable on HL-60/ADR cells. IC50 of ADR on HL-60/ADR cells was reduced from 12.544 ± 0.851 μmol/L (before NPM RNAi) to 6.331 ± 0.522 μmol/L (after NPM RNAi), IC50 of DNR was reduced from 2.152 ± 0.143 μmol/L (before NPM RNAi) to 1.116 ± 0.093 μmol/L (after NPM RNAi). The relative reversal rate of HL-60/ADR cells on ADR was 50.2%, and on DNR was 48.9%. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that shRNA expression vectors could effectively reduce NPM expression and restore the drug sensitivity of resistant leukemic cells to conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

  11. The knockdown of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidases reveals its regulatory role in the photosynthesis and protection under photo-oxidative stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Caverzan, Andréia; Bonifacio, Aurenivia; Carvalho, Fabricio E L; Andrade, Claudia M B; Passaia, Gisele; Schünemann, Mariana; Maraschin, Felipe Dos Santos; Martins, Marcio O; Teixeira, Felipe K; Rauber, Rafael; Margis, Rogério; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia

    2014-01-01

    The inactivation of the chloroplast ascorbate peroxidases (chlAPXs) has been thought to limit the efficiency of the water-water cycle and photo-oxidative protection under stress conditions. In this study, we have generated double knockdown rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants in both OsAPX7 (sAPX) and OsAPX8 (tAPX) genes, which encode chloroplastic APXs (chlAPXs). By employing an integrated approach involving gene expression, proteomics, biochemical and physiological analyses of photosynthesis, we have assessed the role of chlAPXs in the regulation of the protection of the photosystem II (PSII) activity and CO2 assimilation in rice plants exposed to high light (HL) and methyl violagen (MV). The chlAPX knockdown plants were affected more severely than the non-transformed (NT) plants in the activity and structure of PSII and CO2 assimilation in the presence of MV. Although MV induced significant increases in pigment content in the knockdown plants, the increases were apparently not sufficient for protection. Treatment with HL also caused generalized damage in PSII in both types of plants. The knockdown and NT plants exhibited differences in photosynthetic parameters related to efficiency of utilization of light and CO2. The knockdown plants overexpressed other antioxidant enzymes in response to the stresses and increased the GPX activity in the chloroplast-enriched fraction. Our data suggest that a partial deficiency of chlAPX expression modulate the PSII activity and integrity, reflecting the overall photosynthesis when rice plants are subjected to acute oxidative stress. However, under normal growth conditions, the knockdown plants exhibit normal phenotype, biochemical and physiological performance.

  12. Molecular Ecology of Pyrethroid Knockdown Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Donghui; Shi, Linna; Zhou, Guofa; Gong, Maoqing; Zhou, Huayun; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; He, Ji; Hong, Shanchao; Zhou, Dan; Xiong, Chunrong; Chen, Chen; Zou, Ping; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun

    2010-01-01