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Sample records for morphological factors influencing

  1. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  2. Factors Influencing Occurrence, Scale, Mobility, Runout, and Morphology of Mass Movements on the Continental Slope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    0035 LONG-TERM GOAL Achieve an improved understanding of the relationships between sedimentation, environment , and the morphology of continental slopes...processes. APPROACH Our research focuses on the factors that lead to variations in the sedimentological and environmental conditions determining slope...properties, environmental factors, and slope stability within the framework of a GIS; at Laval: Jacques Locat, Jean-Marie Konrad, Éric Boulanger, Priscilla

  3. Leaf morphological and anatomical traits from tropical to temperate coniferous forests: Mechanisms and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Miao; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Hou, Jihua

    2016-01-22

    Leaf traits may reflect the adaptation mechanisms of plants to the environment. In this study, we investigated leaf morphological and anatomical traits in nine cold-temperate to tropical forests along a 4,200-km transect to test how they vary across latitudinal gradients. The results showed that leaf dry weight decreased (P < 0.05), while specific leaf area (SLA) increased (P < 0.05) with increasing latitude. Stomatal length and stomatal density did not change significantly, while stomatal pore area index increased (P < 0.05) with increasing latitude. The palisade-leaf mesophyll thickness ratio increased (P < 0.01), while the spongy-leaf mesophyll thickness ratio decreased, with increasing latitude (P < 0.01). Climate and leaf nutrients were the main factors that regulated leaf morphological and anatomical traits. Furthermore, we identified positive correlations between leaf area and leaf dry weight, leaf thickness and palisade mesophyll thickness, but negative correlations between stomatal length and stomatal density (all P < 0.01). The observed negative correlations represented the adaptive mechanisms of leaves through their morphological and anatomical traits. These findings provided new insights into the responses of leaf morphological and anatomical traits to climate changes and important parameters for future model optimization.

  4. Leaf morphological and anatomical traits from tropical to temperate coniferous forests: Mechanisms and influencing factors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Miao; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Hou, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Leaf traits may reflect the adaptation mechanisms of plants to the environment. In this study, we investigated leaf morphological and anatomical traits in nine cold-temperate to tropical forests along a 4,200-km transect to test how they vary across latitudinal gradients. The results showed that leaf dry weight decreased (P < 0.05), while specific leaf area (SLA) increased (P < 0.05) with increasing latitude. Stomatal length and stomatal density did not change significantly, while stomatal pore area index increased (P < 0.05) with increasing latitude. The palisade-leaf mesophyll thickness ratio increased (P < 0.01), while the spongy-leaf mesophyll thickness ratio decreased, with increasing latitude (P < 0.01). Climate and leaf nutrients were the main factors that regulated leaf morphological and anatomical traits. Furthermore, we identified positive correlations between leaf area and leaf dry weight, leaf thickness and palisade mesophyll thickness, but negative correlations between stomatal length and stomatal density (all P < 0.01). The observed negative correlations represented the adaptive mechanisms of leaves through their morphological and anatomical traits. These findings provided new insights into the responses of leaf morphological and anatomical traits to climate changes and important parameters for future model optimization. PMID:26796339

  5. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  6. A quantitative study of factors influencing lamellar eutectic morphology during solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F. S.

    1981-01-01

    The factors that influence the shape of the solid-liquid interface of a lamellar binary eutectic alloy are evaluated. Alloys of carbon tetrabromide and hexachloroethane which serve as a transparent analogue of lamellar metallic eutectics are used. The observed interface shapes are analyzed by computer-aided methods. The solid-liquid interfacial free energies of each of the individual phases comprising the eutectic system are measured as a function of composition using a 'grain boundary groove' technique. The solid-liquid interfacial free energy of the two phases are evaluated directly from the eutectic interface. The phase diagram for the system, the heat of fusion as a function of composition, and the density as a function of composition are measured. The shape of the eutectic interface is controlled mainly by the solid-liquid and solid-solid interfacial free energy relationships at the interface and by the temperature gradient present, rather than by interlamellar diffusion in the liquid at the interface, over the range of growth rates studied.

  7. Influence of basement membrane proteins and endothelial cell-derived factors on the morphology of human fetal-derived astrocytes in 2D.

    PubMed

    Levy, Amanda F; Zayats, Maya; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Searson, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are the most prevalent type of glial cell in the brain, participating in a variety of diverse functions from regulating cerebral blood flow to controlling synapse formation. Astrocytes and astrocyte-conditioned media are widely used in models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), however, very little is known about astrocyte culture in 2D. To test the hypothesis that surface coating and soluble factors influence astrocyte morphology in 2D, we quantitatively analyzed the morphology of human fetal derived astrocytes on glass, matrigel, fibronectin, collagen IV, and collagen I, and after the addition soluble factors including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), laminin, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Matrigel surface coatings, as well as addition of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to the media, were found to have the strongest effects on 2D astrocyte morphology, and may be important in improving existing BBB models. In addition, the novel set of quantitative parameters proposed in this paper provide a test for determining the influence of compounds on astrocyte morphology, both to screen for new endothelial cell-secreted factors that influence astrocytes, and to determine in a high-throughput way which factors are important for translation to more complex, 3D BBB models.

  8. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the prostate of coalminers of Donbas--liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-12-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in prostate of Donbas's coalminer-non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a prostatic gland changes.

  9. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  10. Eutrophication in the Yunnan Plateau lakes: the influence of lake morphology, watershed land use, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenzhi; Li, Siyue; Bu, Hongmei; Zhang, Quanfa; Liu, Guihua

    2012-03-01

    Lakes play an important role in socioeconomic development and ecological balance in China, but their water quality has deteriorated considerably in recent decades. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal variations of eutrophication parameters (secchi depth, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll-a, trophic level index, and trophic state index) and their relationships with lake morphology, watershed land use, and socioeconomic factors in the Yunnan Plateau lakes. Results indicated that about 77.8% of lakes were eutrophic according to trophic state index. The plateau lakes showed spatial variations in water quality and could be classified into high-nutrient and low-nutrient groups. However, because watersheds were dominated by vegetation, all eutrophication parameters except chlorophyll-a showed no significant differences between the wet and dry seasons. Lake depth, water residence time, volume, and percentage of built-up land were significantly related to several eutrophication parameters. Agricultural land use and social-economic factors had no significant correlation with all eutrophication parameters. Stepwise regression analyses demonstrated that lake depth and water residence time accounted for 73.8% to 87.6% of the spatial variation of single water quality variables, respectively. Redundancy analyses indicated that lake morphology, watershed land use, and socioeconomic factors together explained 74.3% of the spatial variation in overall water quality. The results imply that water quality degradation in the plateau lakes may be mainly due to the domestic and industrial wastewaters. This study will improve our understanding of the determinants of lake water quality and help to design efficient strategies for controlling eutrophication in the plateau region.

  11. Microscopic image analysis techniques for the morphological characterization of pharmaceutical particles: influence of the software, and the factor algorithms used in the shape factor estimation.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Prieto, Sergio; Blanco-Méndez, José; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2007-11-01

    The present report highlights the difficulties of particle shape characterizations of multiparticulate systems obtained using different image analysis techniques. The report describes and discusses a number of shape factors that are widely used in pharmaceutical research. Using photographs of 16 pellets of different shapes, obtained by extrusion-spheronization, we investigated how shape factor estimates vary depending on method of calculation, and among different software packages. The results obtained indicate that the algorithms used (both for estimation of basic dimensions such as perimeter and maximum diameter, and for estimation of shape factors on the basis of these basic dimensions) have marked influences on the shape factor values obtained. These findings suggest that care is required when comparing results obtained using different image analysis programs.

  12. Genetic Factors and Orofacial Motor Learning Selectively Influence Variability in Central Sulcus Morphology in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Coulon, Oliver; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Autrey, Michelle; Davidek, Kendall; Mahovetz, Lindsay; Pope, Sarah; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Schapiro, Steven J

    2017-05-31

    Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been shown to learn the use of novel attention-getting (AG) sounds to capture the attention of humans as a means of requesting or drawing their attention to a desired object or food. There are significant individual differences in the use of AG sounds by chimpanzees and, here, we examined whether changes in cortical organization of the central sulcus (CS) were associated with AG sound production. MRI scans were collected from 240 chimpanzees, including 122 that reliably produced AG sounds and 118 that did not. For each subject, the depth of CS was quantified along the superior-inferior plane with specific interest in the inferior portion corresponding to the region of the motor cortex where the mouth and orofacial movements are controlled. Results indicated that CS depth in the inferior, but not superior, portion was significantly greater in chimpanzees that reliably produced AG sounds compared with those who did not. Quantitative genetic analyses indicated that overall CS surface area and depth were significantly heritable, particularly in the superior regions, but less so in the inferior and central portions. Further, heritability in CS depth was altered as a function of acquisition of AG sounds. The collective results suggest that learning to produce AG sounds resulted in region-specific cortical reorganization within the inferior portion of the CS, a finding previously undocumented in chimpanzees or any nonhuman primate.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent studies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have shown that some can learn to produce novel sounds by configuring different orofacial movement patterns and these sounds are used in communicatively relevant contexts. Here, we examined the neuromorphological correlates in the production of these sounds in chimpanzees. We show that chimpanzees that have learned to produce these sounds show significant differences in central sulcus (CS) morphology, particularly in the inferior

  13. Influence of lake morphology on water quality.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sheela A; Janaki, Letha; Joseph, Sabu; Justus, J; Vimala, Sheeja Ramakrishnan

    2011-11-01

    Lakes are seriously affected due to urban pollution. The study of the morphological features of a lake system helps to identify its environmental status. The objective of the present study is to analyse the influence of morphometry on water quality in a lake (Akkulam-Veli Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala). The morphological features namely mean depth, surface area, volume, shoreline length, shoreline development and index of basin permanence have been evaluated. Correlation analysis has been conducted to determine the relationship between morphological features and water quality. Regression analysis has been conducted to find out the extent of influence of morphometric features on water quality. The study revealed that the lake is less affected by wind-induced wave action due to various reasons. The depth and volume have significant role in the water quality. The nitrogen fixation of blue green algae can be observed from the morphological features. The morphology has greater role in the water quality of a lake system.

  14. Factors Influencing Army Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    ARI Research Note 89-11 (N 00 Factors Influencing Army Maintenance LOloD Debra C. Evans and J. Thomas Roth Applied Science Associates, Inc. for...1.2.7 .2.7.C.1 11. TITLE (Include Security ClassifIcarIon) Factors Influencing Army Maintenance i2. FERSONAL AuTtiOR(S) Evans, Debra C., and Roth, J...y • ’ Factors and variables that influence maintenance for systems and related manpower, per- sonnel, and training (MPT) characteristics were

  15. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  16. Factors affecting spermatozoa morphology in beef bulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting sperm morphology of bulls (n=908) collected at 320 days of age. Bulls were a composite breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, and 25% Tarentaise) born from 2002 to 2008 to dams fed levels of feed during mid and late gestation that were expe...

  17. Neuron Morphology Influences Axon Initial Segment Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gulledge, Allan T; Bravo, Jaime J

    2016-01-01

    In most vertebrate neurons, action potentials are initiated in the axon initial segment (AIS), a specialized region of the axon containing a high density of voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. It has recently been proposed that neurons use plasticity of AIS length and/or location to regulate their intrinsic excitability. Here we quantify the impact of neuron morphology on AIS plasticity using computational models of simplified and realistic somatodendritic morphologies. In small neurons (e.g., dentate granule neurons), excitability was highest when the AIS was of intermediate length and located adjacent to the soma. Conversely, neurons having larger dendritic trees (e.g., pyramidal neurons) were most excitable when the AIS was longer and/or located away from the soma. For any given somatodendritic morphology, increasing dendritic membrane capacitance and/or conductance favored a longer and more distally located AIS. Overall, changes to AIS length, with corresponding changes in total sodium conductance, were far more effective in regulating neuron excitability than were changes in AIS location, while dendritic capacitance had a larger impact on AIS performance than did dendritic conductance. The somatodendritic influence on AIS performance reflects modest soma-to-AIS voltage attenuation combined with neuron size-dependent changes in AIS input resistance, effective membrane time constant, and isolation from somatodendritic capacitance. We conclude that the impact of AIS plasticity on neuron excitability will depend largely on somatodendritic morphology, and that, in some neurons, a shorter or more distally located AIS may promote, rather than limit, action potential generation.

  18. Secreted or nonsecreted forms of acidic fibroblast growth factor produced by transfected epithelial cells influence cell morphology, motility, and invasive potential.

    PubMed Central

    Jouanneau, J; Gavrilovic, J; Caruelle, D; Jaye, M; Moens, G; Caruelle, J P; Thiery, J P

    1991-01-01

    Addition of exogenous acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) to NBT-II epithelial carcinoma cells results in fibroblastic transformation and cell motility. We have generated aFGF-producing NBT-II cells by transfection with recombinant expression vectors containing human aFGF cDNA, or the human aFGF cDNA coupled to a signal peptide (SP) sequence. The effects of the nonsecreted and the secreted 16-kDa growth factor on the morphology, motility, and cell invasive potential (gelatinase activity) were compared. aFGF coupled to a SP was actively secreted out of the producing cells. The secretion of aFGF was not necessary for induction of gelatinase activity, as this was observed in NBT-II cells producing aFGF with or without SP. Production of aFGF, whether secreted or not secreted, resulted in increased in vitro motility of most isolated clones; however, there was no correlation between aFGF level and motility rate. The data suggest that expression of aFGF in NBT-II cells induces metastatic potential through an autocrine or intracrine mechanism. Images PMID:1707175

  19. [METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF CHORNOBYL FACTOR INFLUENCE ON PROSTATE GLAND OF COAL MINERS-- THE CHERNOBYL DISASTER FIGHTERS].

    PubMed

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 25 parameters in a prostate gland at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of prostate gland was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of a prostate gland tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine.

  20. [Methods of mathematical modeling in morphological diagnostics of Chernobyl factor influence on the testes of coal miners of Donbas--the Chernobyl disaster fighters].

    PubMed

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 29 parameters in testicles at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of testicles was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of testicles tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine.

  1. Influence of sulfur in coals on char morphology and combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, H.

    1991-01-01

    During coal carbonization (pyrolysis), as during the combustion process of pulverized coal in a combustor, not all of the sulfur is released. Significant proportions become pat of the structure of the resultant coke and char. The combustion process of the char within the flames of the combustor in influenced dominantly by char morphology. This, in turn, controls the accessibility of oxidizing gases to the surfaces of the carbonaceous substance of the char. Mineral matter content, its extent and state of distribution, also exerts an influence on char morphology created during pyrolysis/carbonization. This complexity of coal renders it a very difficult material to study, systematically, to distinguish and separate out the contributing factors which influence combustion characteristics. Therefore, in such circumstances, it is necessary to simplify the systems by making use of model chars/cokes/carbons which can be made progressively more complex, but in a controlled way. In this way complicating influence in chars from coals can be eliminated, so enabling specific influences to be studied independently. It is important to note that preliminary work by Marsh and Gryglewicz (1990) indicated that levels of sulfur of about 3 to 5 wt % can reduce reactivities by 10 to 25%. The overall purpose of the study is to provide meaningful kinetic data to establish, quantitatively, the influence of organically-bound sulfur on the reactivity of carbons, and to ascertain if gasification catalysts are effective in the preferential removal of sulfur from the chars.

  2. Influence of prepolymer composition on polyurethane morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Jayaraman; Jeong, Young Gyu; Hashida, Tomoko; Hsu, Shaw Ling

    2004-03-01

    Polyurethane chemistry is one of the most studied subjects. Yet many aspects remain unexplained. Polyurethanes are synthesized by the reaction of diisocyanate with diol in the presence of nucleophilic catalysts. Polyurethane prepolymers are obtained by reacting the polyester diol / polyether diol with diisocyanate, with [NCO] / [OH] > 1, resulting in isocyanate-terminated polyester/polyether mixture. Prepolymers thus synthesized can be cured at a later stage to realize various morphologies and structures. Though the initial composition and the final morphology are known, little is known about the intermediate prepolymer mixture. Due to the different reactivity of primary and secondary hydroxyl groups in the polyester and polyether towards isocyanate, prepolymer has a non-random distribution in terms of composition as blends and copolymers. Our aim is to characterize the prepolymer by different techniques and study how the different prepolymer composition, with varying polyester and polyether ratio, affects the morphology and phase separation kinetics of the final product.

  3. The influence of morphology on cervical injury characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A; Rao, Raj D

    2011-12-01

    Review of peer-reviewed literature. Outline the effects of neck and cervical spine morphology on soft tissue injury Potential during low velocity automotive rear impacts. Automotive rear impacts are mechanical events and the response of the human head-neck complex can be thought of in biomechanical terms. This manuscript reviews evidence from peer-reviewed studies implicating occupant-related factors in the onset and severity of cervical spine soft-tissue injury. Effects of anatomical characteristics, head-neck and spine orientation, facet joints, and neck muscles were reviewed. On the basis of existing biomechanically based research, the following occupant-related characteristics can influence the response of the cervical spine during automotive rear impacts: anatomical dimensions of the cervical spine, head-neck and cervical spine orientation at the time of impact, facet joint orientation, and neck muscle size and orientation. The response of the cervical spine to rear impacts can be described using biomechanical concepts. This review has identified occupant-related factors that can influence injury susceptibility and cited biomechanically related research to outline the method by which those factors affect the overall head-neck and cervical spine response in such a way as to increase the susceptibility or severity of injury for a given rear impact event.

  4. Physiological and morphological factors associated with successful fencing performance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, K J; Peredo, A R; Williams, C M

    1977-09-01

    The relation between fencing success during a season of intercollegiate competition and various physiological and morphological variables were determined in 14 fencers. Bivariate and multiple regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which the independent variables, individually and collectively, accounted for the variance in two measures of fencing success. The fencing scores correlated significantly with VE max, Vo2 max, the 2 km run, and weight, while there was no significant correlation between the fencing scores and submaximal heart rate at 6 mph, and 1 min steptest score, or other morphological measurements. Cardiorespiratory fitness variables of Vo2 max and VE max accounted for the greatest variance in each of the two fencing scores (57.7 and 58.1%, respectively). Although morphological factors play a role in fencing success, their influence is small when physiological factors are accounted for. Future energy-cost studies are suggested to determine the physiological basis for the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and fencing success.

  5. Factors influencing plant invasiveness

    Treesearch

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...

  6. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  7. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  8. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  9. Factors influencing permanent teeth eruption. Part one--general factors.

    PubMed

    Almonaitiene, Ruta; Balciuniene, Irena; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the normal eruption of teeth is a common finding, but significant deviation from established norms should alert the clinician to take some diagnostic procedures in order to evaluate patient health and development. Disturbance in tooth eruption time could be a symptom of general condition or indication of altered physiology and craniofacial development. The aim of this review is to analyze general factors that could influence permanent teeth eruption. The articles from 1965 to 2009 in English related to topic were identified. 84 articles were selected for data collection. Although permanent teeth eruption is under significant genetic control, various general factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, craniofacial morphology, body composition can influence this process. Most significant disturbance in teeth emergence is caused by systemic diseases and syndromes.

  10. Habitat influence in the morphological diversity of coastal fish assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farré, Marc; Lombarte, Antoni; Recasens, Laura; Maynou, Francesc; Tuset, Victor M.

    2015-05-01

    Ecological diversity based on quantitative data is widely used to characterize biological communities, but recently morphological and functional traits have also been used to analyse the structure of fish assemblages. This diversity and structure is usually linked to variables such as habitat complexity and composition, depth, and spatial and temporal variations. In this study, several fish assemblages off the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) were ecologically and morphologically analysed and compared. The morphological analysis was performed from body shape of fish species using geometric morphology. Moreover, a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to analyse the effect of local environmental variables such as habitat, locality and depth on the composition and abundance of assemblages. The results revealed greater differences among assemblages in the clustering performed from morphological data, which is linked to habitat complexity, than those shown by the ecological analysis. Moreover, the CCA analysis indicated that type of substratum and the location significantly influenced the composition and structure of the fish assemblages. These results evidenced that morphology provides different and complementary information than ecological analysis because it allows to predict the ecological and functional habits of species within the community, helping to improve the understanding of the fish assemblages structure.

  11. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses…

  12. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  13. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  14. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses…

  15. Factors influencing susceptibility to metals.

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, M

    1997-01-01

    Although the long-neglected field of human susceptibility to environmental toxicants is currently receiving renewed attention, there is only scant literature on factors influencing susceptibility to heavy metals. Genetic factors may influence the availability of sulfhydryl-containing compounds such as glutathione and metallothionein, which modify the distribution and toxicity of certain metals. Age and gender play a role in modifying uptake and distribution, although the mechanisms are often obscure. Concurrent exposure to divalent cations may enhance or reduce the toxicity of certain metals through competition for receptor-mediated transport or targets. Increasing use of biomarkers of exposure should greatly increase our understanding of the underlying distribution of susceptibility to various environmental agents. PMID:9255566

  16. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  17. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  18. Coupling factor B affects the morphology of mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic expression of coupling factor B in animal cells resulted in altered mitochondrial morphology. Cells expressing factor B fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) contained fragmented, balloon-shaped or thinned, filamentous mitochondria, terminating at one end with balloon-like structures. Ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy revealed changes in the organization of mitochondrial cristae in cells expressing factor B-GFP fusion protein. PMID:20069349

  19. Factors influencing children's food choice.

    PubMed

    Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

    1999-01-01

    Although food habits arc not stable and unchanging during a person's lifetime, a base for healthy food habits can be created in early childhood. Children's food habits can be assumed to be influenced by their parents' food habits and choices. The aim of this article is to review factors influencing food choice in children as well as in adults. The results demonstrate that the development of children's food habits is influenced by a multitude of factors. Parents play an important role in the formation of food habits and preferences of young children. They can influence their children's food choice by making specific foods available, by acting as models for their children and by their behaviour in specific situations. Children tend to be afraid of new foods and do not readily accept them. However, experience is known to enhance preference, and earlier experiences of a particular food are the major determinants of the development of children's food acceptance patterns. Thus, parents should be encouraged to make healthy foods easily available to the child and serve these foods in positive mealtime situations in order to help their child to develop healthy food habits.

  20. Factors influencing children's food choice.

    PubMed

    Koivisto Hursti, U K

    1999-04-01

    Although food habits are not stable and unchanging during a person's lifetime, a base for healthy food habits can be created in early childhood. Children's food habits can be assumed to be influenced by their parents' food habits and choices. The aim of this article is to review factors influencing food choice in children as well as in adults. The results demonstrate that the development of children's food habits is influenced by a multitude of factors. Parents play an important role in the formation of food habits and preferences of young children. They can influence their children's food choice by making specific foods available, by acting as models for their children and by their behaviour in specific situations. Children tend to be afraid of new foods and do not readily accept them. However, experience is known to enhance preference, and earlier experiences of a particular food are the major determinants of the development of children's food acceptance patterns. Thus, parents should be encouraged to make healthy foods easily available to the child and serve these foods in positive mealtime situations in order to help their child to develop healthy food habits.

  1. Characterising natural bedform morphology and its influence on flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Paarlberg, Andries J.; Winter, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Bedforms such as dunes and ripples are ubiquitous in rivers and coastal seas, and commonly described as triangular shapes from which height and length are calculated to estimate hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic parameters. Natural bedforms, however, present a far more complicated morphology; the difference between natural bedform shape and the often assumed triangular shape is usually neglected, and how this may affect the flow is unknown. This study investigates the shapes of natural bedforms and how they influence flow and shear stress, based on four datasets extracted from earlier studies on two rivers (the Rio Paraná in Argentina, and the Lower Rhine in The Netherlands). The most commonly occurring morphological elements are a sinusoidal stoss side made of one segment and a lee side made of two segments, a gently sloping upper lee side and a relatively steep (6 to 21°) slip face. A non-hydrostatic numerical model, set up using Delft3D, served to simulate the flow over fixed bedforms with various morphologies derived from the identified morphological elements. Both shear stress and turbulence increase with increasing slip face angle and are only marginally affected by the dimensions and positions of the upper and lower lee side. The average slip face angle determined from the bed profiles is 14°, over which there is no permanent flow separation. Shear stress and turbulence above natural bedforms are higher than above a flat bed but much lower than over the often assumed 30° lee side angle.

  2. Influence of digestive morphology on resource partitioning in Amazonian ungulates.

    PubMed

    Bodmer, Richard E

    1991-01-01

    Resource partitioning of diet and habitat use was studied in the entire Amazonian ungulate community of Northeastern Peru, which comprises the red brocket deer (Mazama americana), grey brocket deer (M. gouazoubira), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (T. pecari), and lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris). Each ungulate species partitioned at least one type of resource from every other species. Digestive morphology had a greater influence on resource partitioning of diet than body size. Neither digestive morphology nor body size were related to segregation of habitats. However, species with similar diets partitioned habitats, whereas species with different diets often used the same type of forest. Increases in habitat breadth of ungulates were positively correlated with increases in dietary breadth.

  3. Coastal Foredune Evolution, Part 1: Environmental Factors and Forcing Processes Affecting Morphological Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    ERDC/CHL CHETN-II-56 February 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Coastal Foredune Evolution , Part 1: Environmental...Factors and Forcing Processes Affecting Morphological Evolution by Katherine L. Brodie1, Margaret L. Palmsten2, Nicholas J. Spore1 PURPOSE: This... evolution . Part 1 summarizes the short-, meso-, and multi-decadal-timescale environmental factors and forcing processes that influence the

  4. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  5. Dynamic and reversible surface topography influences cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Jennifer D; Wen, Jessica H; del Álamo, Juan C; Engler, Adam J

    2013-08-01

    Microscale and nanoscale surface topography changes can influence cell functions, including morphology. Although in vitro responses to static topography are novel, cells in vivo constantly remodel topography. To better understand how cells respond to changes in topography over time, we developed a soft polyacrylamide hydrogel with magnetic nickel microwires randomly oriented in the surface of the material. Varying the magnetic field around the microwires reversibly induced their alignment with the direction of the field, causing the smooth hydrogel surface to develop small wrinkles; changes in surface roughness, ΔRRMS , ranged from 0.05 to 0.70 μm and could be oscillated without hydrogel creep. Vascular smooth muscle cell morphology was assessed when exposed to acute and dynamic topography changes. Area and shape changes occurred when an acute topographical change was imposed for substrates exceeding roughness of 0.2 μm, but longer-term oscillating topography did not produce significant changes in morphology irrespective of wire stiffness. These data imply that cells may be able to use topography changes to transmit signals as they respond immediately to changes in roughness. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Influence of engineering variables upon the morphology of filamentous molds

    SciTech Connect

    Van Suijdam, J.C.; Metz, B.

    1981-01-01

    A model has been described for the influence of growth rate and shear stresses in the fermentor upon the morphology of filamentous molds. The main concept of this model is the dynamic equilibrium between growth and breakup of the hyphae. The latter has been approached according to well-known engineering theories for dispersion of physical systems. Experiments to verify the model with a strain of Tenicillium chrysogenum in batch and continuous culture revealed that the length of the mycelial particles increased with increasing' growth rate and decreased with increasing power input per unit mass in the fermentor. Although this was qualitatively in agreement with the presented model, quantitatively the model had to be rejected. Variation of the tensile strength of the hyphae with age and culturing conditions could have been one of the causes of disagreement. Oxygen tension, varied independently from stirrer speed, in the range of 12-300 mm Hg was shown to have no influence upon the morphology. With respect to the question of possibly using high-energy inputs in industrial mold fermentation in order to decrease hyphal length and suspension viscosity, it was concluded that this is of little practical value. A substantial decrease in hyphal length requires an enormous increase in energy input.

  7. Genetic diversity of seagrass seeds influences seedling morphology and biomass.

    PubMed

    Randall Hughes, A; Hanley, Torrance C; Schenck, Forest R; Hays, Cynthia G

    2016-12-01

    Genetic diversity can influence ecological processes throughout ontogeny, yet whether diversity at early life history stages is important in long-lived taxa with overlapping generations is unclear. Seagrass systems provide some of the best evidence for the ecological effects of genetic diversity among adult shoots, but we do not know if the genetic diversity of seeds and seedlings also influences seagrass ecology. We tested the effects of seagrass (Zostera marina) seed diversity and relatedness on germination success, seedling morphology, and seedling production by comparing experimental assemblages of seeds collected from single reproductive shoots ("monocultures") to assemblages of seeds collected from multiple reproductive shoots ("polycultures"). There was no difference in seedling emergence, yet seedlings from polycultures had larger shoots above and below ground than seedlings from monocultures at the end of the 1-yr experiment. Genetic relatedness of the seedlings predicted some aspects of shoot morphology, with more leaves and longer roots and shoots at intermediate levels of relatedness, regardless of seed diversity. Our results suggest that studies of only adult stages may underestimate the importance of genetic diversity if the benefits at early life history stages continue to accrue throughout the life cycle.

  8. [Etiology of bruxism: morphological, pathophysiological and psychological factors].

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2000-07-01

    Bruxism is a controversial phenomenon, but there is consensus about the multifactorial nature of the etiology. Besides peripheral (morphological) factors, central (pathophysiological and psychological) factors can be distinguished. In the past, morphological factors, like occlusal discrepancies and the anatomy of the bony structures of the orofacial region, have been considered the main causative factors for bruxism. Nowadays, these factors play only a minor role, if any. Recent focus is more on the pathophysiological factors. For example, bruxism has been suggested to be part of a sleep arousal response. In addition, bruxism appears to be modulated by various neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. More specifically, disturbances in the central dopaminergic system have been linked to bruxism. Further, factors like smoking, alcohol, drugs, diseases, and trauma may be involved in the bruxism etiology. Psychological factors like stress and personality are frequently mentioned in relation to bruxism as well, but research shows controversial results. Taken all evidence together, bruxism appears to be mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally.

  9. The Influence of Topographic Obstacles on Basaltic Lava Flow Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Meerscheidt, H. C.; Brand, B. D.; deWet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hamilton, C. W.; Samuels, R.

    2014-12-01

    Smooth pāhoehoe and jagged ´áā represent two end-members of a textural spectrum that reflects the emplacement characteristics of basaltic lava flows. However, many additional textures (e.g., rubbly and slabby pāhoehoe) reflect a range of different process due to lava flow dynamics or interaction with topography. Unfortunately the influence of topography on the distribution of textures in basaltic lava flows is not well-understood. The 18 ± 1.0 ka Twin Craters lava flow in the Zuni-Bandera field (New Mexico, USA) provides an excellent site to study the morphological changes of a lava flow that encountered topographic obstacles. The flow field is 0.2-3.8 km wide with a prominent central tube system that intersects and wraps around a 1000 m long ridge, oriented perpendicular to flow. Upstream of the ridge, the flow has low-relief inflation features extending out and around the ridge. This area includes mildly to heavily disrupted pāhoehoe with interdispersed agglutinated masses, irregularly shaped rubble and lava balls. Breakouts of ´áā and collapse features are also common. These observations suggest crustal disruption due to flow-thickening upstream from the ridge and the movement of lava out and around the obstacle. While the ridge influenced the path of the tube, which wraps around the southern end of the ridge, the series of collapse features and breakouts of ´áā along the tube system are more likely a result of changes in flux throughout the tube system because these features are found both upstream and downstream of the obstacle. This work demonstrates that topography can significantly influence the formation history and surface disruption of a flow field, and in some cases the influence of topography can be separated from the influences of changes in flux along a tube system.

  10. [Factors influencing vitality among nurses].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Soon; Oh, Won-Oak

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to understand the degree of vitality, meaning in life and self-efficacy and to elucidate the factors influencing this vitality in the nurses of Korea. A cross-sectional survey of nurses from 4 hospitals was conducted by convenience sampling. Data collection was conducted through the use of questionnaires which were constructed to include a Vitality Self Test, Purpose in Life Test and Self-efficacy Scale. The degree of vitality in nurses was in the middle range. The nurses of this study had few goals towards meaning in life, and an existential vacuum state. A positive relationship was found between vitality and the research variables. The significant predictors influencing vitality in nurses were meaning in life, self-efficacy, and clinical career, and these variables accounted for 28.7% of the variance in vitality. This results support that vitality is an important link with meaning in life and self-efficacy. There should be a comprehensive study in the future for in-depth understanding of the vitality of nurses.

  11. Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

    2013-09-01

    Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs.

  12. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    PubMed

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  13. Influence of changing carbonate chemistry on morphology and weight of coccoliths formed by Emiliania huxleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, L. T.; Bauke, C.; Meier, K. J. S.; Riebesell, U.; Schulz, K. G.

    2012-05-01

    The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is a marine phytoplankton species capable of forming small calcium carbonate scales (coccoliths) which cover the organic part of the cell. Calcification rates of E. huxleyi are known to be sensitive to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. It is, however, not yet understood how these changes are reflected in the morphology of coccoliths. Here, we compare data on coccolith size, weight, and malformation from a~set of five experiments with a large diversity of carbonate chemistry conditions. This diversity allows distinguishing the influence of individual carbonate chemistry parameters such as carbon dioxide (CO2), bicarbonate (HCO3-), carbonate (CO32-), and protons (H+) on the measured parameters. Measurements of fine-scale morphological structures reveal an increase of coccolith malformation with decreasing pH suggesting that H+ is the major factor causing malformations. Coccolith distal shield area varies from about 5 to 11 μm2. Changes in size seem to be mainly induced by varying [HCO3-] and [H+] although influence of [CO32-] cannot be entirely ruled out. Changes in coccolith weight were proportional to changes in size. Increasing CaCO3 production rates are reflected in an increase in coccolith weight and an increase of the number of coccoliths formed per unit time. The combined investigation of morphological features and coccolith production rates presented in this study may help to interpret data derived from sediment cores, where coccolith morphology is used to reconstruct calcification rates in the water column.

  14. Swimming efficiency and the influence of morphology on swimming costs in fishes.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, J; Staaks, G; Hölker, F

    2006-01-01

    Swimming performance is considered a main character determining survival in many aquatic animals. Body morphology highly influences the energetic costs and efficiency of swimming and sets general limits on a species capacity to use habitats and foods. For two cyprinid fishes with different morphological characteristics, carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), optimum swimming speeds (U(mc)) as well as total and net costs of transport (COT, NCOT) were determined to evaluate differences in their swimming efficiency. Costs of transport and optimum speeds proved to be allometric functions of fish mass. NCOT was higher but U(mc) was lower in carp, indicating a lower swimming efficiency compared to roach. The differences in swimming costs are attributed to the different ecological demands of the species and could partly be explained by their morphological characteristics. Body fineness ratios were used to quantify the influence of body shape on activity costs. This factor proved to be significantly different between the species, indicating a better streamlining in roach with values closer to the optimum body form for efficient swimming. Net swimming costs were directly related to fish morphology.

  15. The influence of morphology on excitons in single conjugated molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, Alexander

    The electronic properties of pi-conjugated molecules are strongly related to their molecular shape and morphology of assembly in three-dimensional space. Understanding the various structure-property relationships is relevant to the applications of these materials in optoelectronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes, field effect transistors and photovoltaic cells. The fact that conjugated systems interact with visible light opens these materials to a plethora of noninvasive spectroscopic investigation techniques. In this work, electronic properties of different pi-conjugated systems are studied spectroscopically on the ensemble and the single molecule levels. Single molecule spectroscopy is advantageous in that it allows the investigation of the individual nuclear building blocks that contribute to the properties of the ensemble. Additionally, transient photoluminescence spectroscopy methods can provide useful insight into the temporal evolution of the emissive states. In combination with these methods, novel pi-conjugated model molecules are used to probe processes related to exciton dynamics. For the first time, the spatial localization of excited states is probed experimentally in a molecule with a circular chromophoric structure. In addition, a set of model molecules with different geometries is employed to study exciton relaxation in pi-conjugated systems. The molecular morphology is utilized to distinguish between processes such as nuclear reorganization and torsional relaxation. Furthermore, single molecule spectroscopy is used to study the electronic structure of individual polymer chains in the photovoltaic cell material poly-(3-hexylthiophene). Optical spectra of this polymer are known to change with the morphology of the bulk film. Single molecule studies reveal that individual polymer chains exhibit similar behavior and indicate that spectral diversity is an intrinsic property of single P3HT molecules. The main results of this work are the

  16. Factors Influencing Odor Sensitivity in the Dog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Natsual Techuical Imfwmatmi Suuwie AD-A024 267 FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN THE DOG PENNSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY...PREPARED FOR AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OCTOBER 1975 138097 FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN THE DOG Final report - October, 1975...Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN FIP.1 Scientific Report TlE DOG "Ś. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7

  17. Morphological influence of cellulose nanoparticles (CNs) from cottonseed hulls on rheological properties of polyvinyl alcohol/CN suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; He, Hui; Li, Mei-Chun; Song, Kunlin; Cheng, H N; Wu, Qinglin

    2016-11-20

    The present work describes the isolation of cellulose nanoparticles (CNs) with different morphologies and their influence on rheological properties of CN and CN-poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) suspensions. Cottonseed hulls were used for the first time to extract three types of CNs, including fibrous cellulose nanofibers, rod-like cellulose nanocrystals and spherical cellulose nanoparticles through mechanical and chemical methods. Rheology results showed that the rheological behavior of the CN suspensions was strongly dependent on CN concentration and particle morphology. For PVA/CN systems, concentration of PVA/CN suspension, morphology of CNs, and weight ratio of CN to PVA were three main factors that influenced their rheology behaviors. This research reveals the importance of CN morphology and composition concentration on the rheological properties of PVA/CN, providing new insight in preparing high performance hydrogels, fibers and films base on PVA/CN suspension systems.

  18. The parameters influencing the morphology of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) microspheres and the resulting release of encapsulated drugs.

    PubMed

    Bile, Jessica; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Vigne, Charlène; Boyron, Olivier; Valour, Jean-Pierre; Fessi, Hatem; Chevalier, Yves

    2015-10-15

    Polymer microparticles used for drug encapsulation and delivery have various surface morphologies depending on the type of formulation ingredients and parameters of the manufacture process. This works aims at investigating the critical parameters governing the morphology of microparticles and to underline the influence of their surface state on the drug release. The classical fabrication process by the "emulsion-solvent evaporation" is addressed using poly(ɛ-caprolactone) as the polymer and methylene chloride as the volatile organic solvent. The typical surfactants poly(vinyl alcohol) and polysorbate 80 have been considered. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed the various surface morphologies mainly depending on the stirring rate, the viscosity of the oil phase and by the presence of inappropriate surfactants. Because of arrested coalescence during solvent evaporation, the evaporation of the organic solvent causing particles hardening is the most important parameter that controls the morphology. Indeed, slow evaporation allows partial coalescence of the soft particles swollen by the organic solvent, whereas the particles morphology is frozen rapidly upon fast evaporation, thus preventing damaged surface states. Moreover, an effective stabilizing system for the primary emulsion is also a determining factor to control the final morphology. The morphology of the particles has a definite influence on the drug delivery of cholecalciferol. The surface morphology should be taken into consideration in the design of polymer microparticles because it allows a control over the drug release kinetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  20. Predation risk influences adaptive morphological variation in fish populations.

    PubMed

    Eklöv, Peter; Svanbäck, Richard

    2006-03-01

    Predators can cause a shift in both density and frequency of a prey phenotype that may lead to phenotypic divergence through natural selection. What is less investigated is that predators have a variety of indirect effects on prey that could potentially have large evolutionary responses. We conducted a pond experiment to test whether differences in predation risk in different habitats caused shifts in behavior of prey that, in turn, would affect their morphology. We also tested whether the experimental data could explain the morphological variation of perch in the natural environment. In the experiment, predators caused the prey fish to shift to the habitat with the lower predation risk. The prey specialized on habitat-specific resources, and there was a strong correlation between diet of the prey fish and morphological variation, suggesting that resource specialization ultimately affected the morphology. The lack of differences in competition and mortality suggest that the morphological variation among prey was induced by differences in predation risk among habitats. The field study demonstrated that there are differences in growth related to morphology of perch in two different habitats. Thus, a trade-off between foraging and predator avoidance could be responsible for adaptive morphological variation of young perch.

  1. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  2. Influence of Copolymer Composition on Morphology Development in Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishanmoorthy, Jayaraman

    2005-03-01

    Blends involving a crystallizable polyester [poly(hexamethylene adipate) (PHMA)] with an amorphous polyether has been studied. These systems have hydroxyl end groups which can react with diisocyanate in the presence of nucleophilic catalysts. These functionalized (isocyanate-terminated) polymer blends form the fundamental structure of polyurethanes. These prepolymers can then be cured at a later stage due to ambient water molecules. Thus the migration of water molecules through the morphology formed needs to be understood well. The morphology development (i.e. phase separation occurring concurrently with crystallization) of nascent polymer blends has been characterized. The morphology of functionalized polymers exhibit very different kinetics due to the presence of the small amount of copolymers formed. The ultimate morphology formed can be ``tuned'' by varying blend composition and crystallization conditions. The structures of prepolymers will be reported. The presence of this copolymer can significantly alter the structural transformation in either binary or ternary blends.

  3. Environmental influence on the evolution of morphological complexity in machines.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Joshua E; Bongard, Josh C

    2014-01-01

    Whether, when, how, and why increased complexity evolves in biological populations is a longstanding open question. In this work we combine a recently developed method for evolving virtual organisms with an information-theoretic metric of morphological complexity in order to investigate how the complexity of morphologies, which are evolved for locomotion, varies across different environments. We first demonstrate that selection for locomotion results in the evolution of organisms with morphologies that increase in complexity over evolutionary time beyond what would be expected due to random chance. This provides evidence that the increase in complexity observed is a result of a driven rather than a passive trend. In subsequent experiments we demonstrate that morphologies having greater complexity evolve in complex environments, when compared to a simple environment when a cost of complexity is imposed. This suggests that in some niches, evolution may act to complexify the body plans of organisms while in other niches selection favors simpler body plans.

  4. Environmental Influence on the Evolution of Morphological Complexity in Machines

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Joshua E.; Bongard, Josh C.

    2014-01-01

    Whether, when, how, and why increased complexity evolves in biological populations is a longstanding open question. In this work we combine a recently developed method for evolving virtual organisms with an information-theoretic metric of morphological complexity in order to investigate how the complexity of morphologies, which are evolved for locomotion, varies across different environments. We first demonstrate that selection for locomotion results in the evolution of organisms with morphologies that increase in complexity over evolutionary time beyond what would be expected due to random chance. This provides evidence that the increase in complexity observed is a result of a driven rather than a passive trend. In subsequent experiments we demonstrate that morphologies having greater complexity evolve in complex environments, when compared to a simple environment when a cost of complexity is imposed. This suggests that in some niches, evolution may act to complexify the body plans of organisms while in other niches selection favors simpler body plans. PMID:24391483

  5. Influence of changing carbonate chemistry on morphology and weight of coccoliths formed by Emiliania huxleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, L. T.; Bauke, C.; Meier, K. J. S.; Riebesell, U.; Schulz, K. G.

    2012-08-01

    The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is a marine phytoplankton species capable of forming small calcium carbonate scales (coccoliths) which cover the organic part of the cell. Calcification rates of E. huxleyi are known to be sensitive to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. It has, however, not yet been clearly determined how these changes are reflected in size and weight of individual coccoliths and which specific parameter(s) of the carbonate system drive morphological modifications. Here, we compare data on coccolith size, weight, and malformation from a set of five experiments with a large diversity of carbonate chemistry conditions. This diversity allows distinguishing the influence of individual carbonate chemistry parameters such as carbon dioxide (CO2), bicarbonate (HCO3-), carbonate ion (CO32-), and protons (H+) on the measured parameters. Measurements of fine-scale morphological structures reveal an increase of coccolith malformation with decreasing pH suggesting that H+ is the major factor causing malformations. Coccolith distal shield area varies from about 5 to 11 μm2. Changes in size seem to be mainly induced by varying [HCO3-] and [H+] although influence of [CO32-] cannot be entirely ruled out. Changes in coccolith weight were proportional to changes in size. Increasing CaCO3 production rates are reflected in an increase in coccolith weight and an increase of the number of coccoliths formed per unit time. The combined investigation of morphological features and coccolith production rates presented in this study may help to interpret data derived from sediment cores, where coccolith morphology is used to reconstruct calcification rates in the water column.

  6. The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villella, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

  7. Influence of Alluvial Morphology on Upscaled Hydraulic Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Jha, Sanjeev Kumar; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Mathews, George; Vial, John; Kelly, Bryce F J

    2016-05-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of aquifers is a key parameter controlling the interactions between resource exploitation activities, such as unconventional gas production and natural groundwater systems. Furthermore, this parameter is often poorly constrained by typical data used for regional groundwater modeling and calibration studies performed as part of impact assessments. In this study, a systematic investigation is performed to understand the correspondence between the lithological descriptions of channel-type formation and the bulk effective hydraulic conductivities at a larger scale (Kxeff , Kyeff , and Kzeff in the direction of channel cross section, along the channel and in the vertical directions, respectively). This will inform decisions on what additional data gathering and modeling of the geological system can be performed to allow the critical bulk properties to be more accurately predicted. The systems studied are conceptualized as stacked meandering channels formed in an alluvial plain, and are represented as two facies. Such systems are often studied using very detailed numerical models. The main factors that may influence Kxeff , Kyeff , and Kzeff are the proportion of the facies representing connected channels, the aspect ratio of the channels, and the difference in hydraulic conductivity between facies. Our results show that in most cases, Kzeff is only weakly dependent on the orientations of channelized structures, with the main effects coming from channel aspect ratio and facies proportion.

  8. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  9. Factors influencing perfect surgical outcome.

    PubMed

    Lim, A S

    1997-03-01

    With affluence and education, the population of Asia will be demanding quality surgical care. The energetic, affluent and educated Asian professionals and business communities in the cities demand the best; and in surgery, they seek perfect results. Perfect results require a combination of 3 factors: the skill, knowledge and experience of the surgeon. He must be a skilled surgeon with good basic surgical techniques and also technical skills in the management of his discipline combined with meticulous attention to details. Furthermore, he must have a clear knowledge of the basic physiopathology of surgical principles of the condition he is to manage. Experience with difficult situations and intrasurgical problems are essential for success.

  10. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  11. Imitation, genetic lineages, and time influenced the morphological evolution of the violin.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Violin design has been in flux since the production of the first instruments in 16th century Italy. Numerous innovations have improved the acoustical properties and playability of violins. Yet, other attributes of the violin affect its performance less, and with fewer constraints, are potentially more sensitive to historical vagaries unrelated to quality. Although the coarse shape of violins is integral to their design, details of the body outline can vary without significantly compromising sound quality. What can violin shapes tell us about their makers and history, including the degree that luthiers have influenced each other and the evolution of complex morphologies over time? Here, I provide an analysis of morphological evolution in the violin family, sampling the body shapes of over 9,000 instruments over 400 years of history. Specific shape attributes, which discriminate instruments produced by different luthiers, strongly correlate with historical time. Linear discriminant analysis reveals luthiers who likely copied the outlines of their instruments from others, which historical accounts corroborate. Clustering of averaged violin shapes places luthiers into four major groups, demonstrating a handful of discrete shapes predominate in most instruments. Violin shapes originating from multi-generational luthier families tend to cluster together, and familial origin is a significant explanatory factor of violin shape. Together, the analysis of four centuries of violin shapes demonstrates not only the influence of history and time leading to the modern violin, but widespread imitation and the transmission of design by human relatedness.

  12. Imitation, Genetic Lineages, and Time Influenced the Morphological Evolution of the Violin

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Violin design has been in flux since the production of the first instruments in 16th century Italy. Numerous innovations have improved the acoustical properties and playability of violins. Yet, other attributes of the violin affect its performance less, and with fewer constraints, are potentially more sensitive to historical vagaries unrelated to quality. Although the coarse shape of violins is integral to their design, details of the body outline can vary without significantly compromising sound quality. What can violin shapes tell us about their makers and history, including the degree that luthiers have influenced each other and the evolution of complex morphologies over time? Here, I provide an analysis of morphological evolution in the violin family, sampling the body shapes of over 9,000 instruments over 400 years of history. Specific shape attributes, which discriminate instruments produced by different luthiers, strongly correlate with historical time. Linear discriminant analysis reveals luthiers who likely copied the outlines of their instruments from others, which historical accounts corroborate. Clustering of averaged violin shapes places luthiers into four major groups, demonstrating a handful of discrete shapes predominate in most instruments. Violin shapes originating from multi-generational luthier families tend to cluster together, and familial origin is a significant explanatory factor of violin shape. Together, the analysis of four centuries of violin shapes demonstrates not only the influence of history and time leading to the modern violin, but widespread imitation and the transmission of design by human relatedness. PMID:25295734

  13. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  14. Morphology of pulp fiber from hardwoods and influence on paper strength

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Horn

    1978-01-01

    The results of this investigation showed that physical properties of sheets made from hardwood fiber are very dependent upon fiber morphology. Chemical variation of pulp fibers did not exhibit an influence on sheet strength. Of the morphological characteristics investigated, those contributing the most were fiber length, L/T ratio, and fibril angle. Hardwood fines (...

  15. Interactions between fluvial forces and vegetation size, density and morphology influence plant mortality during experimental floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, J. C.; Kui, L.; Manners, R.; Wilcox, A. C.; Lightbody, A.; Sklar, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Introduction and methods Fluvial disturbance is a key driver of riparian vegetation dynamics in river corridors. Despite an increasing understanding of ecohydraulic interactions between plants and fluvial forces, the interactive influences of plant morphology and sediment supply on plant mortality, a key demographic factor, are largely unknown. To better understand these processes, we designed and conducted a series of flume experiments to: (1) quantify effects of plant traits that interact with flow and sediment transport on plant loss to scour during floods; and (2) predict plant dislodgement for different species across a range of plant sizes, patch densities, and sediment condition (equilibrium transport versus sediment deficit). We ran ten experimental floods in a 28 m long × 0.6 m wide × 0.71 m tall flume, using live, 1-3 year-old tamarisk and cottonwood seedlings with contrasting morphologies with varied combinations of size and density. Results and discussion Both sediment supply and plant traits (morphology and composition) have significant impacts on plant vulnerability during floods. Sediment deficit resulted in bed degradation and a 35% greater risk of plant loss compared to equilibrium sediment conditions. The probability of plant dislodgement in sparse patches was 4.5 times greater than in dense patches. Tamarisk plants and patches had greater frontal area, basal diameter and longer roots compared to cottonwood across all seedling heights. These traits, as well as its lower crown position reduced tamarisk's vulnerability to scour by 75%. Compared with cottonwood, tamarisk exhibits better resistance to floods, due to its greater root biomass and longer roots that stabilize soil, and its greater frontal area and lower crown that effectively trap sediment. These traits likely contribute to riverscape-scale changes in channel morphology that are evident where tamarisk has invaded native riparian communities, and explain the persistence of tamarisk

  16. Differential Influence of Clonal Integration on Morphological and Growth Responses to Light in Two Invasive Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Schooler, Shon S.; Van Klinken, Rieks D.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims In contrast to seeds, high sensitivity of vegetative fragments to unfavourable environments may limit the expansion of clonal invasive plants. However, clonal integration promotes the establishment of propagules in less suitable habitats and may facilitate the expansion of clonal invaders into intact native communities. Here, we examine the influence of clonal integration on the morphology and growth of ramets in two invasive plants, Alternanthera philoxeroides and Phyla canescens, under varying light conditions. Methods In a greenhouse experiment, branches, connected ramets and severed ramets of the same mother plant were exposed under full sun and 85% shade and their morphological and growth responses were assessed. Key results The influence of clonal integration on the light reaction norm (connection×light interaction) of daughter ramets was species-specific. For A. philoxeroides, clonal integration evened out the light response (total biomass, leaf mass per area, and stem number, diameter and length) displayed in severed ramets, but these connection×light interactions were largely absent for P. canescens. Nevertheless, for both species, clonal integration overwhelmed light effect in promoting the growth of juvenile ramets during early development. Also, vertical growth, as an apparent shade acclimation response, was more prevalent in severed ramets than in connected ramets. Finally, unrooted branches displayed smaller organ size and slower growth than connected ramets, but the pattern of light reaction was similar, suggesting mother plants invest in daughter ramets prior to their own branches. Conclusions Clonal integration modifies light reaction norms of morphological and growth traits in a species-specific manner for A. philoxeroides and P. canescens, but it improves the establishment of juvenile ramets of both species in light-limiting environments by promoting their growth during early development. This factor may be partially

  17. Differential influence of clonal integration on morphological and growth responses to light in two invasive herbs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Schooler, Shon S; Van Klinken, Rieks D

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to seeds, high sensitivity of vegetative fragments to unfavourable environments may limit the expansion of clonal invasive plants. However, clonal integration promotes the establishment of propagules in less suitable habitats and may facilitate the expansion of clonal invaders into intact native communities. Here, we examine the influence of clonal integration on the morphology and growth of ramets in two invasive plants, Alternanthera philoxeroides and Phyla canescens, under varying light conditions. In a greenhouse experiment, branches, connected ramets and severed ramets of the same mother plant were exposed under full sun and 85% shade and their morphological and growth responses were assessed. The influence of clonal integration on the light reaction norm (connection×light interaction) of daughter ramets was species-specific. For A. philoxeroides, clonal integration evened out the light response (total biomass, leaf mass per area, and stem number, diameter and length) displayed in severed ramets, but these connection×light interactions were largely absent for P. canescens. Nevertheless, for both species, clonal integration overwhelmed light effect in promoting the growth of juvenile ramets during early development. Also, vertical growth, as an apparent shade acclimation response, was more prevalent in severed ramets than in connected ramets. Finally, unrooted branches displayed smaller organ size and slower growth than connected ramets, but the pattern of light reaction was similar, suggesting mother plants invest in daughter ramets prior to their own branches. Clonal integration modifies light reaction norms of morphological and growth traits in a species-specific manner for A. philoxeroides and P. canescens, but it improves the establishment of juvenile ramets of both species in light-limiting environments by promoting their growth during early development. This factor may be partially responsible for their ability to successfully colonize

  18. ESR (Electroslag Refining) Steel Deoxidation and Slag Practice - Influence on Inclusion Morphology,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    VICTORIA I REPORT MRL-R-915 ESR STEEL DEOXIDATION AND SLAG PRACTICE - INFLUENCE ON INCLUSION MORPHOLOGY G.M. Weston and R.C. Andrew THE UNITED...Commonweallh of Austaii eJA3UAY, 1984 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORIES REPORT MRL-R-915 ESR STEEL DEOXIDATION AND SLAG PRACTICE...TLE ESR STEEL DEOXIDATION AND SLAG PRACTICE - INFLUENCE ON INCLUSION MORPHOLOGY AUTHOR(S) CORPORATE AUTHOR Materials Research Laboratories G.M. Weston

  19. The influence of morphological awareness on the literacy development of first-grade children.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Julie A; Wood, Alexis; D'zatko, Kim W

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we investigated whether first-grade children evidenced morphological awareness and whether they used their knowledge of morphological relations to guide their spelling. Second, we sought to determine whether children's morphological awareness abilities were predictive of their performance on word-level reading and spelling measures. At the beginning of the academic school year, 43 first-grade children were administered an oral morphological awareness production task, a series of single-word morphological spelling tasks, and a battery of language and literacy tasks. The first-grade children were able to generate words reflecting morphological relations before they received explicit instruction regarding morphological relations between words. In addition, the children used morphological information to guide their spelling of single words, as evidenced by a difference in patterns of spellings between 1- and 2-morpheme words. Regression analyses revealed that the children's performance on the oral morphological production task explained unique variance on their reading and spelling measures above and beyond the variance that was accounted for by phonological awareness. Children as young as first graders evidenced morphological awareness, and morphological awareness influenced the children's literacy development. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. The influence of morphology on charge transport/recombination dynamics in planar perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Man; Wang, Yi; Wang, Hao-Yi; Han, Jun; Qin, Yujun; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Ai, Xi-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    The photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cell is significantly influenced by the morphology of perovskite film. In this work, five kinds of devices with different perovskite film morphologies were prepared by varying the concentration of CH3NH3Cl in precursor solutions. We found that best morphology of perovskite film results in the excellent photovoltaic performance with an average efficiency of 15.52% and a champion efficiency of 16.38%. Transient photovoltage and photocurrent measurements are performed to elucidate the mechanism of photoelectric conversion processes, which shows that the charge recombination is effectively suppressed and the charge transport is obviously promoted by optimized morphology.

  1. Thin Ag films. Influence of substrate and postdeposition treatment on morphology and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, S.E.; Rowlen, K.L. )

    1994-01-15

    In an effort to understand the experimental parameters that influence thin metal film morphology and optical characteristics, thin Ag films are examined with a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The morphology of 5 nm of Ag vapor deposited onto glass, derivatized glass, Formvar-coated glass, and mica is explored. The substrate is found to have a large effect on both Ag film surface morphology and optical properties. In addition, micrographs of a Ag film before and after exposure to solvent suggest solvent-induced morphological changes. 32 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Watson, Liana M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.

  3. Career Satisfaction as a Factor Influencing Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-14

    the influence of job satisfaction on first-term nt behavi ntent to reenlist as a criterion. Factors found to I related included not liking the work...benefits have been curtailed, largely due to the recent recession . When the economy brightens and civilian jobs become more plentiful, dissatisfactions...Satisfaction also his exchange power in the market place. Because economic value is influenced by consumer tastes and preferences, individual motivations

  4. Influence of urban morphology on total noise pollution: multifractal description.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Villaverde, Ana B; Jiménez-Hornero, Francisco J; Gutiérrez De Ravé, Eduardo

    2014-02-15

    Exposure to ambient noise levels above 65 dB can cause public health problems. The spatial distribution of this kind of pollution is linked to various elements which make up the urban form, such as construction density, the existence of open spaces and the shape and physical position of buildings. Since urban morphology displays multifractal behaviour, the present research studies for the first time the relationship between total noise pollution and urban features, such as street width and building height by means of a joint multifractal spectrum in two neighbourhoods of the city of Cordoba (Andalusia, Spain). According to the results, the joint multifractal spectrum reveals a positive correlation between the total noise pollution and the street width to building height ratio, this being more evident when urban morphology is regular. The information provided by the multifractal analysis completes the description obtained by using urban indexes and landscape metrics and might be useful for urban planning once the linkage between both frameworks has been done.

  5. Natural selection on floral morphology can be influenced by climate

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Diane R.; Powers, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate has the potential to influence evolution, but how it influences the strength or direction of natural selection is largely unknown. We quantified the strength of selection on four floral traits of the subalpine herb Ipomopsis sp. in 10 years that differed in precipitation, causing extreme temporal variation in the date of snowmelt in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The chosen floral traits were under selection by hummingbird and hawkmoth pollinators, with hawkmoth abundance highly variable across years. Selection for flower length showed environmental sensitivity, with stronger selection in years with later snowmelt, as higher water resources can allow translation of pollination success into fitness based on seed production. Selection on corolla width also varied across years, favouring narrower corolla tubes in two unusual years with hawkmoths, and wider corollas in another late snowmelt year. Our results illustrate how changes in climate could alter natural selection even when the primary selective agent is not directly influenced. PMID:25972465

  6. Factors influencing households' participation in recycling.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Paula; Reis, Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    The success of a recycling programme depends on the active and sustained participation of citizens in the correct separation and collection of recyclable waste. An effective study of strategies aimed at augmenting people's involvement in recycling involves understanding which factors influence the decision to co-operate with a recycling programme. This research investigates the influence of attitudes, incentives, presence of children in household and information through direct media, on households' participation in recycling. The results suggest that positive attitudes toward recycling and information are important factors in explaining recycling participation. Some guidelines that may be considered in future communication and intervention strategies designed to promote recycling participation are discussed.

  7. Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.

    PubMed

    Hill, Marie C; Cox, Carol L

    Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

  8. Reach-Scale Hydraulic Influence on Sediment Dynamics and Morphological Development in a Bedrock Influenced River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entwistle, N. S.; Heritage, G. L.; Milan, D. J.; Tooth, S.

    2014-12-01

    Many large rivers in southern Africa are characterised by a macro-channel cut 10 - 20 m into the ancient planation surface. This has resulted in a variable channel morphology strongly influenced by bedrock outcrops. The influence of bedrock upon flow hydraulics and sediment transport often results in a repeat sequence of alluvial channel types behind bedrock obstructions. This study investigates the hydraulic controls on channel type sequencing on the Sabie River, which drains a 6500 km2 semi-arid catchment of the Lowveld of South Africa and Mozambique. Aerial LIDAR data within the Kruger National Park was interrogated to isolate a bedrock influenced anastomosing reach, together with its associated alluvial sequences up- and downstream. These data were used to create a 2m DEM and a 2D flow model (JFLOW) was used to simulate a sequence of flows from 20 m3s-1 to 5000 m3s-1, with spatial data on water surface, flow depth and channel velocity extracted from the model. Water surface data revealed the strong gradient control exerted by the bedrock influenced anastomosed channel, creating hydraulic conditions suitable for deposition upstream and restricting sedimentation downstream. Steepening of the gradient through the anastomosing reach resulted in altered hydraulics and a changed pattern of sedimentation. At moderate discharges, flow is distributed efficiently across numerous interconnected channels, over low berms and islands, promoting sedimentation. Similarly the backwater effect encourages deposition of fine sediments upstream to create and maintain the alluvial sequence. Under higher flows, water levels rise significantly in the confined upstream reach and shear stress exceeds the threshold necessary to strip stored sediment. In contrast, conditions within the anastomosed reach remain less energetic due to the continued effect of flow distribution. Under extreme flow conditions the bedrock influence is drowned out resulting in dramatically increased energy levels

  9. Media formulation influences chemical effects on neuronal growth and morphology.

    PubMed

    Harrill, Joshua A; Robinette, Brian L; Freudenrich, Theresa M; Mundy, William R

    2015-06-01

    Screening for developmental neurotoxicity using in vitro, cell-based systems has been proposed as an efficient alternative to performing in vivo studies. One tool currently used for developmental neurotoxicity screening is automated high-content imaging of neuronal morphology. While high-content imaging (HCI) has been demonstrated to be useful in detection of potential developmental neurotoxicants, comparison of results between laboratories or assays can be complicated due to methodological differences. In order to determine whether high-content imaging-based developmental neurotoxicity assays can be affected by differences in media formulation, a systematic comparison of serum-supplemented (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media (DMEM) + 10% serum) and serum-free (Neurobasal A + B27) culture media on neuronal morphology was performed using primary rat cortical neurons. Concentration-response assays for neuritogenesis, axon and dendrite outgrowth, and synaptogenesis were performed in each media type using chemicals with previously demonstrated effects. Marked qualitative and quantitative differences in the characteristics of neurons cultured in the two media types were observed, with increased neuronal growth and less basal cell death in Neurobasal A + B27. Media formulation also affected assay sensitivity and selectivity. Increases in assay sensitivity were observed in Neurobasal A + B27 media as compared to serum-supplemented DMEM. In some instances, a greater difference between effective concentrations for cell death and neurodevelopmental-specific endpoints was also observed in Neurobasal A + B27 media as compared to serum-supplemented DMEM. These data show that media formulation must be considered when comparing data for similar endpoints between studies. Neuronal culture maintained in Neurobasal A + B27 media had several features advantageous for HCI applications including less basal cell death, less cell clustering and neurite fasciculation, and a tendency

  10. Factors Influencing the Fatigue Strength of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, F

    1941-01-01

    A number of factors are considered which influence the static and fatigue strength of materials under practical operating conditions as contrasted with the relations obtaining under conditions of the usual testing procedure. Such factors are interruptions in operation, periodically fluctuating stress limits and mean stresses with periodic succession of several groups and stress states, statistical changes and succession of stress limits and mean stresses, frictional corrosion at junctures, and notch effects.

  11. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction among Army Chaplains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-20

    or 20 MAY 1976 STUDY ’ PROJECT FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION AMONG ARMY CHAPLAINS BY CHAPLAIN(COLONEL) KERMIT D. JOHNSON US ARMY WAR...job •atUfaction among US kxmy chaplain« it b«aad CO • mail aurvay raaponao of 998 chap Ulna out of 1411 in tha Army chaplaincy. Factors which...chaplaincy, and cosseand. Certain professional Irritants were singled out. By means of demographic information, comparisons were made as to how

  12. Variation at genes influencing facial morphology are not associated with developmental imprecision in human faces.

    PubMed

    Windhager, Sonja; Schaschl, Helmut; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Huber, Susanne; Wallner, Bernard; Fieder, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Facial asymmetries are commonly used as a proxy for human developmental imprecision resulting from inbreeding, and thus reduced genetic heterozygosity. Several environmental factors influence human facial asymmetry (e.g., health care, parasites), but the generalizability of findings on genetic stressors has been limited in humans by sample characteristics (island populations, endogamy) and indirect genetic assessment (inference from pedigrees). In a sample of 3215 adult humans from the Rotterdam Study, we therefore studied the relationship of facial asymmetry, estimated from nine mid-facial landmarks, with genetic variation at 102 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci recently associated with facial shape variation. We further tested whether the degree of individual heterozygosity is negatively correlated with facial asymmetry. An ANOVA tree regression did not identify any SNP relating to either fluctuating asymmetry or total asymmetry. In a general linear model, only age and sex--but neither heterozygosity nor any SNP previously reported to covary with facial shape--was significantly related to total or fluctuating asymmetry of the midface. Our study does not corroborate the common assumption in evolutionary and behavioral biology that morphological asymmetries reflect heterozygosity. Our results, however, may be affected by a relatively small degree of inbreeding, a relatively stable environment, and an advanced age in the Rotterdam sample. Further large-scale genetic studies, including gene expression studies, are necessary to validate the genetic and developmental origin of morphological asymmetries.

  13. Variation at Genes Influencing Facial Morphology Are Not Associated with Developmental Imprecision in Human Faces

    PubMed Central

    Windhager, Sonja; Schaschl, Helmut; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Huber, Susanne; Wallner, Bernard; Fieder, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Facial asymmetries are commonly used as a proxy for human developmental imprecision resulting from inbreeding, and thus reduced genetic heterozygosity. Several environmental factors influence human facial asymmetry (e.g., health care, parasites), but the generalizability of findings on genetic stressors has been limited in humans by sample characteristics (island populations, endogamy) and indirect genetic assessment (inference from pedigrees). In a sample of 3215 adult humans from the Rotterdam Study, we therefore studied the relationship of facial asymmetry, estimated from nine mid-facial landmarks, with genetic variation at 102 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci recently associated with facial shape variation. We further tested whether the degree of individual heterozygosity is negatively correlated with facial asymmetry. An ANOVA tree regression did not identify any SNP relating to either fluctuating asymmetry or total asymmetry. In a general linear model, only age and sex—but neither heterozygosity nor any SNP previously reported to covary with facial shape—was significantly related to total or fluctuating asymmetry of the midface. Our study does not corroborate the common assumption in evolutionary and behavioral biology that morphological asymmetries reflect heterozygosity. Our results, however, may be affected by a relatively small degree of inbreeding, a relatively stable environment, and an advanced age in the Rotterdam sample. Further large-scale genetic studies, including gene expression studies, are necessary to validate the genetic and developmental origin of morphological asymmetries. PMID:24914781

  14. [Contingent nurses' burnout and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Ock; Moon, Sook Ja; Han, Sang Sook

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to identify burnout and factors influencing burnout in contingent nurses. A cross-sectional design was conducted with a sample of 228 contingent nurses randomly selected from 25 general hospitals in Korea. The tools used for this study were scales measuring burnout (8 items), job stress (8 items), job satisfaction (9 items), self efficacy (9 items), organizational commitment (9 items), empowerment (9 items), autonomy (7 items) and social support (8 items). The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 employing Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The mean score for burnout in contingent nurses was 3.05 points. Factors influencing burnout in contingent nurses were identified as job stress (β=.40), satisfaction level with current ward (β=-.25), organizational commitment (β=-.21), job satisfaction (β=-.19) and empowerment (β=-.16). These factors explained 65.0% of burnout reported by contingent nurses. The results indicate which factors are major factors influencing burnout in contingent nurses in general hospitals. Therefore, these factors may serve as predictors of burnout in contingent nurses.

  15. Natural selection on floral morphology can be influenced by climate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Diane R; Powers, John M

    2015-06-07

    Climate has the potential to influence evolution, but how it influences the strength or direction of natural selection is largely unknown. We quantified the strength of selection on four floral traits of the subalpine herb Ipomopsis sp. in 10 years that differed in precipitation, causing extreme temporal variation in the date of snowmelt in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The chosen floral traits were under selection by hummingbird and hawkmoth pollinators, with hawkmoth abundance highly variable across years. Selection for flower length showed environmental sensitivity, with stronger selection in years with later snowmelt, as higher water resources can allow translation of pollination success into fitness based on seed production. Selection on corolla width also varied across years, favouring narrower corolla tubes in two unusual years with hawkmoths, and wider corollas in another late snowmelt year. Our results illustrate how changes in climate could alter natural selection even when the primary selective agent is not directly influenced. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  17. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Treesearch

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  18. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Treesearch

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  19. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  20. Factors Influencing Temperature Fields during Combustion Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-20

    Block 13 ARO Report Number Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2014 . Published in Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics , Vol. Ed. 0 39, (3) (2014), (, (3...DOl : 10.1 002/prep .201300154 Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics Factors Influencing Temperature Fields during Combustion Reactions Keerti...energetic formulations, in- cluding pyrotechnics , explosives, and propellants. One ap- proach was to add particulate media to conventional high explosives

  1. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  2. Factors Which Influence Community College Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerardi, Steven

    This report explores factors influencing the persistence and graduation of students at New York City Technical College. Part 1 presents an overview of an 8-semester study conducted of 307 freshmen from September 1989 through June 1994, while part 2 describes the research procedure utilized, indicating that the following types of data were…

  3. Landscape characteristics influence morphological and genetic differentiation in a widespread raptor (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Hull, Joshua M; Hull, Angus C; Sacks, Benjamin N; Smith, Jeff P; Ernest, Holly B

    2008-02-01

    Landscape-scale population genetic structure in vagile vertebrates was commonly considered to be a contradiction in terms whereas recent studies have demonstrated behaviour and habitat associated structure in several such species. We investigate whether landscape features influence morphological and genetic differentiation in a widespread, mobile raptor. To accurately describe genetic differentiation associated with regional landscape factors, we first investigated subspecies relationships at a continental scale. We used 17 microsatellite loci and five morphological measurements to investigate differentiation between eastern and western subspecies of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and to identify patterns between differentiation and habitat within western North America. Bayesian and frequency-based analyses of microsatellite data revealed clear distinctions between B. j. borealis (eastern) and B. j. calurus (western) samples. Furthermore, hawks sampled in Texas were stouter than those collected from the Rocky Mountains and farther west. Among western samples, birds from the Great Basin, Rocky Mountains, and Washington were significantly different in morphology than those from Oregon and California. We identified a pattern of isolation by distance among western breeding sites around the Sierra Nevada. Given the long-range dispersal capabilities of raptors, this pattern suggests that population-specific habitat preferences, corresponding with habitat breaks between eastern and western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, and/or regionally variable population densities limit migration between the Mediterranean habitat of central California and the xeric habitats of southern California and interior west. We suggest habitat preferences and regionally disparate population densities may play a role in shaping genetic structure in vagile avian taxa.

  4. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  5. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  6. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  7. Factors Affecting the Acquisition of Plural Morphology in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the development of plural morphology in Jordanian Arab children, and explores the role of the predictability, transparency, productivity, and frequency of different plural forms in determining the trajectory that children follow in acquiring this complex inflectional system. The study also re-examines the development of the…

  8. Factors Affecting the Acquisition of Plural Morphology in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the development of plural morphology in Jordanian Arab children, and explores the role of the predictability, transparency, productivity, and frequency of different plural forms in determining the trajectory that children follow in acquiring this complex inflectional system. The study also re-examines the development of the…

  9. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication.

    PubMed

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations.

  10. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations. PMID:28660238

  11. Consideration of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Discuss a variety of factors that influence the simulated fuel economy and GHG emissions that are often overlooked and updates made to ALPHA based on actual benchmarking data observed across a range of vehicles and transmissions. ALPHA model calibration is also examined, focusing on developing generic calibrations for driver behavior, transmission gear selection and torque converter lockup. In addition, show the derivation of correction factors needed to estimate cold start emission results. To provide an overview of the ALPHA tool with additional focus on recent updates by presenting the approach for validating and calibrating ALPHA to match particular vehicles in a general sense, then by looking at the individual losses, and calibration factors likely to influence fuel economy.

  12. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Influence of urea additives on micellar morphology/protein conformation.

    PubMed

    Gull, Nuzhat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Ahmad, Basir; Khan, Rizwan Hassan; Kabir-ud-Din

    2006-08-01

    The present study highlights the fact that the effect of additives (urea, monomethylurea, thiourea) on the supramolecular assemblies and proteins is strikingly similar. To investigate the effect, a viscometeric study on sphere-to-rod transition (s-->r) was undertaken in a system (3.5% tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide+0.05 M NaBr + 1-pentanol [P.M. Lindemuth, G.L. Bertand, J. Phys. Chem. 97 (1993) 7769]) in the presence and absence of the said additives. [1-pentanol] needed for s-->r (i.e. [1-pentanol]s-->r) was determined from the relative viscosity versus [1-pentanol] profiles. It was observed that the additives preponed as well as postponed s-->r depending upon their nature and concentrations. These effects are explained in terms of increased polarity of the medium and the adsorption ability of urea/monomethylurea on the charged surfactant monomers of the micelle. In case of thiourea, postponement of s-->r was observed throughout which is attributed to its structure. To derive an analogy between micelles and proteins the additive-induced conformational changes of the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was taken to monitor secondary structural changes and tryptophanyl fluorescence. A marked increase in secondary structure (far-UVCD) and increased tryptophanyl fluorescence with a marked blue shift in lambdamax was observed in presence of low concentrations of urea or alkylurea. This indicates that a more compact environment is created in presence of these additives, if added judiciously. Addition of thiourea to BSA caused a marked quenching without any significant change in lambdamax. The large decrease in tryptophanyl emission in presence of low thiourea concentrations seems to be specific and related to thiourea structure as no corresponding changes were observed in urea/alkylurea. All these effects pertaining to protein behavior fall in line with that of morphological observations on the present as well as surfactant systems studied earlier [S. Kumar, N

  14. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle.

  15. Influencing factor on the prognosis of arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Tae Min; Pang, Kang Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to evaluate factors influencing prognosis of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Materials and Methods The subjects included 145 patients treated with arthrocentesis at the Dental Center of Ajou University Hospital from 2011 to 2013 for the purpose of recovering mouth opening limitation (MOL) and pain relief. Prognosis of arthrocentesis was evaluated 1 month after the operation. Improvement on MOL was defined as an increase from below 30 mm (MOL ≤30 mm) to above 40 mm (MOL ≥40 mm), and pain relief was defined as when a group with TMJ pain with a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 4 or more (VAS ≥4) decreased to a score of 3 or more. The success of arthrocentesis was determined when either mouth opening improved or pain relief was fulfilled. To determine the factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis, the patients were classified by age, gender, diagnosis group (the anterior disc displacement without reduction group, the anterior disc displacement with reduction group, or other TMJ disorders group), time of onset and oral habits (clenching, bruxism) to investigate the correlations between these factors and prognosis. Results One hundred twenty out of 145 patients who underwent arthrocentesis (83.4%) were found to be successful. Among the influencing factors mentioned above, age, diagnosis and time of onset had no statistically significant correlation with the success of arthrocentesis. However, a group of patients in their fifties showed a lower success rate (ANOVA P=0.053) and the success rate of the group with oral habits was 71% (Pearson's chi-square test P=0.035). Conclusion From this study, we find that factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis include age and oral habits. We also conclude that arthrocentesis is effective in treating mouth opening symptoms and for pain relief. PMID:25247144

  16. Influence of sulfur in coals on char morphology and combustion. Technical report, 1 September 1991--30 November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, H.

    1991-12-31

    During coal carbonization (pyrolysis), as during the combustion process of pulverized coal in a combustor, not all of the sulfur is released. Significant proportions become pat of the structure of the resultant coke and char. The combustion process of the char within the flames of the combustor in influenced dominantly by char morphology. This, in turn, controls the accessibility of oxidizing gases to the surfaces of the carbonaceous substance of the char. Mineral matter content, its extent and state of distribution, also exerts an influence on char morphology created during pyrolysis/carbonization. This complexity of coal renders it a very difficult material to study, systematically, to distinguish and separate out the contributing factors which influence combustion characteristics. Therefore, in such circumstances, it is necessary to simplify the systems by making use of model chars/cokes/carbons which can be made progressively more complex, but in a controlled way. In this way complicating influence in chars from coals can be eliminated, so enabling specific influences to be studied independently. It is important to note that preliminary work by Marsh and Gryglewicz (1990) indicated that levels of sulfur of about 3 to 5 wt % can reduce reactivities by 10 to 25%. The overall purpose of the study is to provide meaningful kinetic data to establish, quantitatively, the influence of organically-bound sulfur on the reactivity of carbons, and to ascertain if gasification catalysts are effective in the preferential removal of sulfur from the chars.

  17. Relevance of hemostatic risk factors on coronary morphology in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    PubMed

    Jax, Thomas W; Peters, Ansgar J; Plehn, Gunnar; Schoebel, Frank-Chris

    2009-05-06

    The influence hemostatitc parameters on the morphological extent and severity of coronary artery disease were studied in patients with and without DM type 2. It is known that patients with diabetes (DM) have abnormal metabolic and hemostatic parameters Of 150 consecutive patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease 29 presented with DM. Additionally to parameters of lipid-metabolism fibrinogen, tissue-plasminogenactivator (t-PA), plasminogen-activator-inhibitor (PAI), plasmin-a-antiplasmin (PAP), prothrombin-fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), von-willebrand-factor (vWF), platelet factor 4 (PF4), glykomembranproteine 140 (GMP140) and the rheologic parameters plasma viscosity and red blood cell aggregation were evaluated. The extent and severity of CAD was evaluated according to the criteria of the American Heart Association. Patients with DM presented with a higher number of conventional risk factors as compared to non-diabetic patients. Additionally there were significant differences for F1+2, red blood cell aggregation and PAI. Diabetic patients showed a more severe extent of coronary arteriosclerosis, which also could be found more distally. A significant relationship between blood-glucose, thrombocyte-activation (vWF), endogenous fibrinolysis (PAI) and the severity of CAD and a more distal location of stenoses could be found (r = 0.6, p < 0.001). Patients with coronary artery disease and DM type 2 showed marked alterations of metabolic, hemostatic, fibrinolytic and rheologic parameters, which can produce a prothrombogenic state. A direct association of thrombogenic factors on coronary morphology could be shown. This can be the pathophysiologic mechanism of more severe and distal pronounced coronary atherosclerosis in these patients.

  18. Influence of processing parameters on morphology of polymethoxyflavone in emulsions.

    PubMed

    Ting, Yuwen; Li, Colin C; Wang, Yin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2015-01-21

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) are groups of compounds isolated from citrus peels that have been documented with wide arrays of health-promoting bioactivities. Because of their hydrophobic structure and high melting point, crystallized PMFs usually have poor systemic bioavailability when consumed orally. To improve the oral efficiency of PMFs, a viscoelastic emulsion system was formulated. Because of the crystalline nature, the inclusion of PMFs into the emulsion system faces great challenges in having sufficient loading capacity and stabilities. In this study, the process of optimizing the quality of emulsion-based formulation intended for PMF oral delivery was systematically studied. With alteration of the PMF loading concentration, processing temperature, and pressure, the emulsion with the desired droplet and crystal size can be effectively fabricated. Moreover, storage temperatures significantly influenced the stability of the crystal-containing emulsion system. The results from this study are a good illustration of system optimization and serve as a great reference for future formulation design of other hydrophobic crystalline compounds.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity and Resistance: Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Xie, Shuyu; Ahmed, Saeed; Wang, Funan; Gu, Yufeng; Zhang, Chaonan; Chai, Ximan; Wu, Yalan; Cai, Jinxia; Cheng, Guyue

    2017-01-01

    Rational use of antibiotic is the key approach to improve the antibiotic performance and tackling of the antimicrobial resistance. The efficacy of antimicrobials are influenced by many factors: (1) bacterial status (susceptibility and resistance, tolerance, persistence, biofilm) and inoculum size; (2) antimicrobial concentrations [mutant selection window (MSW) and sub-inhibitory concentration]; (3) host factors (serum effect and impact on gut micro-biota). Additional understandings regarding the linkage between antimicrobial usages, bacterial status and host response offers us new insights and encourage the struggle for the designing of antimicrobial treatment regimens that reaching better clinical outcome and minimizing the emergence of resistance at the same time. PMID:28659799

  20. Factors Influencing Odor Sensitivity in the Dog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    AD-A008 942 FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN THE DOG D. G. Moulton Pennsylvania University Prepared for: Air Force Office of Scientific...developed Tor the quartitative analysis of the relation between odor detection and sniff parameters. Thirsty dogs are rewarded with water for identifying...winch of two ports is associated with an odor . Sniff flow rate, frequency and amplitude are recorded from the output of a pn.^u.Tiotachometer

  1. Factors Influencing the Eicosanoids Synthesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Sobczak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    External factors activate a sequence of reactions involving the reception, transduction, and transmission of signals to effector cells. There are two main phases of the body's reaction to harmful factors: the first aims to neutralize the harmful factor, while in the second the inflammatory process is reduced in size and resolved. Secondary messengers such as eicosanoids are active in both phases. The discovery of lipoxins and epi-lipoxins demonstrated that not all arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have proinflammatory activity. It was also revealed that metabolites of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins also take part in the resolution of inflammation. Knowledge of the above properties has stimulated several clinical trials on the influence of EPA and DHA supplementation on various diseases. However, the equivocal results of those trials prevent the formulation of guidelines on EPA and DHA supplementation. Prescription drugs are among the substances with the strongest influence on the profile and quantity of the synthesized eicosanoids. The lack of knowledge about their influence on the conversion of EPA and DHA into eicosanoids may lead to erroneous conclusions from clinical trials. PMID:25861641

  2. Specification of individual adult motor neuron morphologies by combinatorial transcription factor codes

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez, Jonathan; Venkatasubramanian, Lalanti; Baek, Myungin; Peterson, Meredith; Aghayeva, Ulkar; Mann, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary How the highly stereotyped morphologies of individual neurons are genetically specified is not well understood. We identify six transcription factors (TFs) expressed in a combinatorial manner in seven post-mitotic adult leg motor neurons (MNs) that are derived from a single neuroblast in Drosophila. Unlike TFs expressed in mitotically active neuroblasts, these TFs do not regulate each other's expression. Removing the activity of a single TF resulted in specific morphological defects, including muscle targeting and dendritic arborization, and in a highly specific walking defect in adult flies. In contrast, when the expression of multiple TFs was modified nearly complete transformations in MN morphologies were generated. These results show that the morphological characteristics of a single neuron are dictated by a combinatorial code of morphology TFs (mTFs). mTFs function at a previously unidentified regulatory tier downstream of factors acting in the NB, but independently of factors that act in terminally differentiated neurons. PMID:25959734

  3. Specification of individual adult motor neuron morphologies by combinatorial transcription factor codes.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Jonathan; Venkatasubramanian, Lalanti; Baek, Myungin; Peterson, Meredith; Aghayeva, Ulkar; Mann, Richard S

    2015-05-20

    How the highly stereotyped morphologies of individual neurons are genetically specified is not well understood. We identify six transcription factors (TFs) expressed in a combinatorial manner in seven post-mitotic adult leg motor neurons (MNs) that are derived from a single neuroblast in Drosophila. Unlike TFs expressed in mitotically active neuroblasts, these TFs do not regulate each other's expression. Removing the activity of a single TF resulted in specific morphological defects, including muscle targeting and dendritic arborization, and in a highly specific walking defect in adult flies. In contrast, when the expression of multiple TFs was modified, nearly complete transformations in MN morphologies were generated. These results show that the morphological characteristics of a single neuron are dictated by a combinatorial code of morphology TFs (mTFs). mTFs function at a previously unidentified regulatory tier downstream of factors acting in the NB but independently of factors that act in terminally differentiated neurons.

  4. The appositional articular morphology of the talo-crural joint: the influence of substrate use on joint shape.

    PubMed

    Turley, Kevin; Frost, Stephen R

    2014-04-01

    The appositional articular morphology of the talo-crural joint is the third component of the joint complex. It is a site of internal integration of this highly stable functional evolutionary unit. Prior studies of the other two components, tibia and talus, demonstrated that substrate preference influenced their articular shape. This effect was unrelated to physical attributes (size and mass) and phylogeny (superfamily). The effect of this behavioral factor, substrate preference, on shape and integration of the appositional articular morphology was investigated. Two hundred forty-five matched distal tibial and proximal talar landmarked surfaces from 12 diverse Catarrhine taxa were studied. Shape effects due to the same factors previously studied were examined in the tibial and talar subsets and were highly significant (P < 0.0001). These were assessed using Multivariate Regression and Relative Warps analysis, and Permutation tests, with results consistent with prior unmatched cohorts. Substrate preference influenced shape and was unrelated to the other factors across taxa. Singular Warp analysis of the cross-covariance matrix revealed sorting of taxa by substrate use, unrelated to physical attributes and phylogeny. Finally, the sorting demonstrated a signal of convergent evolution among distantly related taxa and divergent evolution among closely related taxa reflecting substrate use. Results were consistent with a behavioral influence, substrate use, affecting articular shape and integration in this highly stable functional evolutionary unit, and signals with evolutionary implications.

  5. How are River Discharge - Suspended Sediment Relations Influenced by Watershed and Channel-Floodplain Morphology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, A. A.; Belmont, P.

    2015-12-01

    Erosion, transport and deposition of fine sediment (clay, silt and fine sand) influence the form and function of river systems. Excess suspended sediment degrades stream ecosystems and is implicated as a leading cause of water quality and aquatic life impairment. Consequently, understanding the factors that control fine sediment transport regimes is an interesting topic for basic science and one that has important management and policy implications. Fine sediment is mostly transported in suspension as a non-capacity load; transport rates are dependent on sediment supply in addition to a river's transport capacity. Many studies have investigated watershed-scale topographic, hydrologic, climatic, and land use influences on fine sediment erosion and transport regimes. Several recent studies in a wide range of landscapes have demonstrated that the majority of suspended sediment may be sourced from the near-channel environment; therefore, near-channel morphological characteristics may provide better predictive power compared to watershed averages. This study analyzes recent total suspended solids (TSS) data from 45 gages on 35 separate rivers. The rivers span the state of Minnesota, draining basins ranging from 33 km2 to 68100 km2 with distinct settings in terms of topography, land cover, hydrology and geologic history. We generate rating curves of the form TSS = aQb, where Q is normalized discharge and a and b are parameters that describe the shape of the relations. Values of a range from 4 to 138 mg/L; b values range from -0.53 to 1.86. We use high resolution lidar topography data to characterize the near-channel environment upstream of gages. In addition to commonly studied metrics describing the topographic, climatic/hydrologic and land use setting of the basin, we extract near-channel morphometrics that we hypothesize to influence fine sediment generation and transport: the difference in height of banks/bluffs (a measure of the amount of material available to be

  6. Influence of light curing units and fluoride mouthrinse on morphological surface and color stability of a nanofilled composite resin.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Ana Luísa Botta Martins; Botta, Ana Carolina; Campos, Juliana Álvares Duarte Bonini; Garcia, Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso

    2014-11-01

    Composite resin is a dental material susceptible to color change over time which limits the longevity of restorations made with this material. The influence of light curing units and different fluoride mouthrinses on superficial morphology and color stability of a nanofilled composite resin was evaluated. Specimens (N = 150) were prepared and polished. The experimental groups were divided according to the type of light source (halogen and LED) and immersion media (artificial saliva, 0.05% sodium fluoride solution-manipulated, Fluordent Reach, Oral B, Fluorgard). Specimens remained in artificial saliva for 24-h baseline. For 60 days, they were immersed in solutions for 1 min. Color readout was taken at baseline and after 60 days of immersion. Surface morphology was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after 60 days of immersion. Color change data were submitted to two-way Analysis of Variance and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). Surface morphology was qualitatively analyzed. The factor light source presented no significant variability (P = 0.281), the immersion media, significant variability (P < 0.001) and interaction between factors, no significant variability (P = 0.050). According to SEM observations, no difference was noted in the surface of the specimens polymerized by different light sources, irrespective of the immersion medium. It was concluded that the light source did not influence the color stability of composite, irrespective of the immersion media, and among the fluoride solutions analyzed, Fluorgard was the one that promoted the greatest color change, however, this was not clinically perceptible. The immersion media did not influence the morphology of the studied resin. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Jaw-muscle architecture and mandibular morphology influence relative maximum jaw gapes in the sexually dimorphic Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Claire E; Hylander, William L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-05-01

    Maximum jaw gape is a performance variable related to feeding and non-feeding oral behaviors, such as canine gape displays, and is influenced by several factors including jaw-muscle fiber architecture, muscle position on the skull, and jaw morphology. Maximum gape, jaw length, and canine height are strongly correlated across catarrhine primates, but relationships between gape and other aspects of masticatory apparatus morphology are less clear. We examine the effects of jaw-adductor fiber architecture, jaw-muscle leverage, and jaw form on gape in an intraspecific sample of sexually dimorphic crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis). As M. fascicularis males have relatively larger maximum gapes than females, we predict that males will have muscle and jaw morphologies that facilitate large gape, but these morphologies may come at some expense to bite force. Male crab-eating macaques have relatively longer jaw-muscle fibers, masseters with decreased leverage, and temporomandibular joint morphologies that facilitate the production of wide gapes. Because relative canine height is correlated with maximum gape in catarrhines, and males have relatively longer canines than females, these results support the hypothesis that male M. fascicularis have experienced selection to increase maximum gape. The sexes do not differ in relative masseter physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA), but males compensate for a potential trade-off between muscle excursion versus muscle force with increased temporalis weight and PCSA. This musculoskeletal configuration is likely functionally significant for behaviors involving aggressive canine biting and displays in male M. fascicularis and provides additional evidence supporting the multifactorial nature of the catarrhine masticatory apparatus. Our results have implications for the evolution of craniofacial morphology in catarrhine primates and reinforce the importance of evaluating additional factors other than feeding behavior and diet

  8. Locomotor activity influences muscle architecture and bone growth but not muscle attachment site morphology

    PubMed Central

    Rabey, Karyne N.; Green, David J.; Taylor, Andrea B.; Begun, David R.; Richmond, Brian G.; McFarlin, Shannon C.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make behavioural inferences from skeletal remains is critical to understanding the lifestyles and activities of past human populations and extinct animals. Muscle attachment site (enthesis) morphology has long been assumed to reflect muscle strength and activity during life, but little experimental evidence exists to directly link activity patterns with muscle development and the morphology of their attachments to the skeleton. We used a mouse model to experimentally test how the level and type of activity influences forelimb muscle architecture of spinodeltoideus, acromiodeltoideus, and superficial pectoralis, bone growth rate and gross morphology of their insertion sites. Over an 11-week period, we collected data on activity levels in one control group and two experimental activity groups (running, climbing) of female wild-type mice. Our results show that both activity type and level increased bone growth rates influenced muscle architecture, including differences in potential muscular excursion (fibre length) and potential force production (physiological cross-sectional area). However, despite significant influences on muscle architecture and bone development, activity had no observable effect on enthesis morphology. These results suggest that the gross morphology of entheses is less reliable than internal bone structure for making inferences about an individual’s past behaviour. PMID:25467113

  9. Locomotor activity influences muscle architecture and bone growth but not muscle attachment site morphology.

    PubMed

    Rabey, Karyne N; Green, David J; Taylor, Andrea B; Begun, David R; Richmond, Brian G; McFarlin, Shannon C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make behavioural inferences from skeletal remains is critical to understanding the lifestyles and activities of past human populations and extinct animals. Muscle attachment site (enthesis) morphology has long been assumed to reflect muscle strength and activity during life, but little experimental evidence exists to directly link activity patterns with muscle development and the morphology of their attachments to the skeleton. We used a mouse model to experimentally test how the level and type of activity influences forelimb muscle architecture of spinodeltoideus, acromiodeltoideus, and superficial pectoralis, bone growth rate and gross morphology of their insertion sites. Over an 11-week period, we collected data on activity levels in one control group and two experimental activity groups (running, climbing) of female wild-type mice. Our results show that both activity type and level increased bone growth rates influenced muscle architecture, including differences in potential muscular excursion (fibre length) and potential force production (physiological cross-sectional area). However, despite significant influences on muscle architecture and bone development, activity had no observable effect on enthesis morphology. These results suggest that the gross morphology of entheses is less reliable than internal bone structure for making inferences about an individual's past behaviour.

  10. Influence of block copolymer compatibilizers on the morphologies of semiflexible polymer/solvent blends.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Dylan; Ganesan, Venkat

    2014-04-24

    We study the influence of block copolymer (BCP) compatibilizers on the domain and interfacial characteristics of the equilibrium morphological structures of semiflexible polymer/solvent blends. Our study is motivated by the question of whether block copolymer compatibilizers can be used to influence the phase separation morphologies resulting in conjugated polymer/fullerene blends. Toward this objective, we use a single chain in mean field Monte Carlo simulations for the phase behavior of semiflexible polymer/solvent blends and study the influence of BCP compatibilizers on the morphologies. Our results reveal a range of blend compositions and molecular chemistries that result in equilibrium structures with domain sizes on the order of 5-20 nm. To elucidate the morphological characteristics of these structures, we first present a series of ternary phase diagrams and then present results demonstrating that the blend composition, semiflexible chain rigidity, BCP composition, and component miscibility each provide unique handles to control the phase separation morphologies and interfacial characteristics in such blends.

  11. Factors influencing severity of peri-implantitis.

    PubMed

    Saaby, Martin; Karring, Eva; Schou, Søren; Isidor, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively assess the influence of potential risk factors, primarily smoking and a prior history of periodontitis, on the severity of peri-implantitis in patients referred for treatment of peri-implantitis. Among 98 patients referred for treatment of peri-implantitis, 34 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: one or several implants with peri-implant marginal bone loss ≥2 mm concomitant with bleeding and/or pus on probing. Information about health status, smoking habits, reason for tooth loss, and performed implant treatment were obtained from the patient charts and interviews. Moreover, a detailed extra- and intraoral examination was performed, including intraoral radiographs of all implants. Risk factors were evaluated by a two-way anova at patient level. Smoking and a prior history of periodontitis were significant risk factors for increased severity of peri-implantitis. Furthermore, the presence of both smoking and a prior history of periodontitis did not further increase the severity of peri-implantitis, as compared to either of these two factors alone. Poor marginal fit of the suprastructure and extensive gingival imitations on implant-supported fixed full prostheses may also be potential risk factors. The study indicated that smoking and a prior history of periodontitis were important risk factors for increased severity of peri-implantitis, while concomitant presence of these two risk factors did not further increase the severity of peri-implantitis, as compared to either of these two risk factors alone. Therefore, early diagnosis and adequate treatment of peri-implantitis are important in patients with a prior history of periodontitis and in smokers to minimize the risk of advanced peri-implantitis in conjunction with focus on known risk factors, including meticulous infection control before implant treatment and a systematic maintenance care program. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Factors influencing micronutrient bioavailability in biofortified crops.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2017-02-01

    Dietary and human factors have been found to be the major factors influencing the bioavailability of micronutrients, such as provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC), iron, and zinc, in biofortified crops. Dietary factors are related to food matrix structure and composition. Processing can improve pVAC bioavailability by disrupting the food matrix but can also result in carotenoid losses. By degrading antinutrients, such as phytate, processing can also enhance mineral bioavailability. In in vivo interventions, biofortified crops have been shown to be overall efficacious in reducing micronutrient deficiency, with bioconversion factors varying between 2.3:1 and 10.4:1 for trans-β-carotene and amounts of iron and zinc absorbed varying between 0.7 and 1.1 mg/day and 1.1 and 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Micronutrient bioavailability was dependent on the crop type and the presence of fat for pVACs and on antinutrients for minerals. In addition to dietary factors, human factors, such as inflammation and disease, can affect micronutrient status. Understanding the interactions between micronutrients is also essential, for example, the synergic effect of iron and pVACs or the competitive effect of iron and zinc. Future efficacy trials should consider human status and genetic polymorphisms linked to interindividual variations.

  13. Influence of substrate miscut angle on surface morphology and luminescence properties of AlGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Kusch, Gunnar Edwards, Paul R.; Bruckbauer, Jochen; Martin, Robert W.; Li, Haoning; Parbrook, Peter J.; Sadler, Thomas C.

    2014-03-03

    The influence of substrate miscut on Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5} N layers was investigated using cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging and secondary electron imaging in an environmental scanning electron microscope. The samples were also characterized using atomic force microscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction. It was found that small changes in substrate miscut have a strong influence on the morphology and luminescence properties of the AlGaN layers. Two different types are resolved. For low miscut angle, a crack-free morphology consisting of randomly sized domains is observed, between which there are notable shifts in the AlGaN near band edge emission energy. For high miscut angle, a morphology with step bunches and compositional inhomogeneities along the step bunches, evidenced by an additional CL peak along the step bunches, are observed.

  14. WETLAND MORPHOLOGIC AND BIOGEOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES ON ALGAL RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are testing the influence of wetland morphology (protected vs. riverine) and biogeography (upper vs. lower Great Lakes) on algal responses to nutrients in Great Lakes Coastal wetlands. Principal components analysis using nutrient-specific GIS data was used to select sites wit...

  15. The Influence of Morphological Structure Information on the Memorization of Chinese Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Duo

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of morphological structure information on the memorization of Chinese subordinate and coordinative compound words using the memory conjunction error paradigm. During the Study Phase, Hong Kong Chinese college students were asked to either judge the word class (Exp. 1, N = 25) or the orthographic…

  16. WETLAND MORPHOLOGIC AND BIOGEOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES ON ALGAL RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are testing the influence of wetland morphology (protected vs. riverine) and biogeography (upper vs. lower Great Lakes) on algal responses to nutrients in Great Lakes Coastal wetlands. Principal components analysis using nutrient-specific GIS data was used to select sites wit...

  17. Factors influencing laboratory animal spontaneous tumor profiles.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, J F

    1985-01-01

    In chemical carcinogenicity and drug-safety testing, a carcinogen is defined as an agent that when administered by an appropriate route causes an increased incidence of tumors in experimental animals as compared to unexposed control animals. Although a carcinogen may cause the appearance of tumors in organs where tumors do not usually occur in a given strain, the usual response is to increase the types of tumors seen spontaneously and to shorten the period of latency. The use of carcinogenesis experiments for research and safety assessment requires properly designed and well-conducted experiments and a knowledge of background data and variations in tumor incidences of control animals. Many factors can influence the reported incidences of spontaneous tumors. These include species, strain, sex, age, and source of the experimental test animal; study duration; extent of the pathology examination; dietary and environmental conditions; qualifications and experience of the study pathologist; diagnostic criteria and nomenclature conventions; and quality assurance and review procedures. This paper discusses several factors which may influence the incidence of tumors in control and test animals, and provides examples to illustrate the potential for these factors to affect the data.

  18. Factors Influencing Likelihood of Voice Therapy Attendance.

    PubMed

    Misono, Stephanie; Marmor, Schelomo; Roy, Nelson; Mau, Ted; Cohen, Seth M

    2017-03-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with the likelihood of attending voice therapy among patients referred for it in the CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research) practice-based research network infrastructure. Study Design Prospectively enrolled cross-sectional study. Setting CHEER network of community and academic sites. Methods Data were collected on patient-reported demographics, voice-related diagnoses, voice-related handicap (Voice Handicap Index-10), likelihood of attending voice therapy (VT), and opinions on factors influencing likelihood of attending VT. The relationships between patient characteristics/opinions and likelihood of attending VT were investigated. Results A total of 170 patients with various voice-related diagnoses reported receiving a recommendation for VT. Of those, 85% indicated that they were likely to attend it, regardless of voice-related handicap severity. The most common factors influencing likelihood of VT attendance were insurance/copay, relief that it was not cancer, and travel. Those who were not likely to attend VT identified, as important factors, unclear potential improvement, not understanding the purpose of therapy, and concern that it would be too hard. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with greater likelihood of attending VT included shorter travel distance, age (40-59 years), and being seen in an academic practice. Conclusions Most patients reported plans to attend VT as recommended. Patients who intended to attend VT reported different considerations in their decision making from those who did not plan to attend. These findings may inform patient counseling and efforts to increase access to voice care.

  19. Neonatal thyroid function: influence of perinatal factors.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, R C; Carpenter, L M; O'Grady, C M

    1985-01-01

    Indices of thyroid function were measured in 229 healthy term neonates at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Results were analysed to assess whether maternal diabetes mellitus, toxaemia of pregnancy, intrapartum fetal distress, duration of labour, method of delivery, asphyxia at birth, race, sex, birthweight, birth length, head circumference, or method of feeding influenced any index. Thyroxine, the free thyroxine index, and free thyroxine concentrations at birth correlated with birthweight. Method of delivery influenced mean thyroxine and free thyroxine index values at birth and at age 5 days. Mean values of triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, thyroxine binding globulin, and thyroid stimulating hormone were not affected by any of the perinatal factors studied. Birthweight and perhaps method of delivery should be taken into account when interpreting neonatal thyroxine parameters but determination of thyroid stimulating hormone as a screen for congenital hypothyroidism in healthy term neonates circumvents these considerations. PMID:3977386

  20. Contextual factors influencing research use in nursing.

    PubMed

    French, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Contextual factors are perceived to be significant barriers to research-utilisation-related activity, but little is known about how context impacts on specific research-based decisions, or how the individual interacts with the organisation in the requirement for research-based change. This study describes the impact of contextual factors on the practical reasoning of nurse specialists in the construction of policy for practice. Three groups of clinical nurse specialists were observed during a series of meetings convened to construct evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. Transcripts of the meetings were analysed to identify and categorise the physical, social, political, and economic influences on 31 nursing issues. Multiple contextual factors influenced each decision made, with decisions about nursing practice bounded by setting and system considerations, relationships with others in the care team, and resource constraints. Practitioners were involved in weighing up alternative scenarios, contexts, and contingencies for each decision, requiring strategies to adapt and reconstruct the nature of care, to influence others, and to affect organisational decision-making processes. The practical accomplishment of evidence-based practice required diverse skills: translating between evidence and practice; mediating the values, preferences, and working practices of multiple stakeholders; negotiating organisational complexity and the management of boundaries; and coordinating inter-organisational and inter-agency working. Nurse specialists in this study had a significant role in instigating, fuelling, and coordinating policy review, predominantly by communication across professional and organisational boundaries. Clinical specialists acting as organisational boundary spanners require skills in the informal cultural work of organising, facilitating, and maintaining links across professional, team, and organisational boundaries. If their role in the negotiation of

  1. [Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba].

    PubMed

    Quesada, Eddy Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba. The foliar morphology of representative antophytes in four rainforest types of Eastern Cuba was studied in relation to the main abiotic factors. Although there are several leaf types in these forests, the microphyll type is the most important among endemic species in the ophiolites complex and the Montane rainforest. At the Lowland rainforest (metamorphic complex) the mesophyll leaf was the most important. Most foliar epidermis had structures normally found in mesomorphic plants, but xeromorphic and higromorphic morphologies were also present.

  2. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  3. The influence factors of medical professionalism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yifei; Yin, Senlin; Lai, Sike; Tang, Ji; Huang, Jin; Du, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the relationship between physicians and patients deteriorated in China recently, medical conflicts occurred more frequently now. Physicians, to a certain extent, also take some responsibilities. Awareness of medical professionalism and its influence factors can be helpful to take targeted measures and alleviate the contradiction. Through a combination of physicians’ self-assessment and patients’ assessment in ambulatory care clinics in Chengdu, this research aims to evaluate the importance of medical professionalism in hospitals and explore the influence factors, hoping to provide decision-making references to improve this grim situation. From February to March, 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 tier 3 hospitals, 5 tier 2 hospitals, and 10 community hospitals through a stratified-random sampling method on physicians and patients, at a ratio of 1/5. Questionnaires are adopted from a pilot study. A total of 382 physicians and 1910 patients were matched and surveyed. Regarding the medical professionalism, the scores of the self-assessment for physicians were 85.18 ± 7.267 out of 100 and the scores of patient-assessment were 57.66 ± 7.043 out of 70. The influence factors of self-assessment were physicians’ working years (P = 0.003) and patients’ complaints (P = 0.006), whereas the influence factors of patient-assessment were patients’ ages (P = 0.001) and their physicians’ working years (P < 0.01) and satisfaction on the payment mode (P = 0.006). Higher self-assessment on the medical professionalism was in accordance with physicians of more working years and no complaint history. Higher patient-assessment was in line with elder patients, the physicians’ more working years, and higher satisfaction on the payment mode. Elder patients, encountering with physicians who worked more years in health care services or with higher satisfaction on the payment mode, contribute to higher scores in patient assessment part. The

  4. Morphology Analysis and Optimization: Crucial Factor Determining the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wenjin; Liu, Xingming; Guo, Xiangru; Niu, Qiaoli; Yi, Jianpeng; Xia, Ruidong; Min, Yong

    2017-03-24

    This review presents an overall discussion on the morphology analysis and optimization for perovskite (PVSK) solar cells. Surface morphology and energy alignment have been proven to play a dominant role in determining the device performance. The effect of the key parameters such as solution condition and preparation atmosphere on the crystallization of PVSK, the characterization of surface morphology and interface distribution in the perovskite layer is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the analysis of interface energy level alignment by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is presented to reveals the correlation between morphology and charge generation and collection within the perovskite layer, and its influence on the device performance. The techniques including architecture modification, solvent annealing, etc. were reviewed as an efficient approach to improve the morphology of PVSK. It is expected that further progress will be achieved with more efforts devoted to the insight of the mechanism of surface engineering in the field of PVSK solar cells.

  5. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits. PMID:27830152

  6. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment.

    PubMed

    Coene, Martine; Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert; Govaerts, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits.

  7. Gait mechanics influence healthy cartilage morphology and osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Andriacchi, Thomas P; Koo, Seungbum; Scanlan, Sean F

    2009-02-01

    The response of healthy and diseased cartilage of the knee to the mechanics of walking is examined, with the goal of providing insight into the relationship between the kinematics and kinetics of the knee during walking and the maintenance of cartilage health. The combination of information from three-dimensional thickness models of cartilage derived from magnetic resonance imaging and the analysis of the interaction between load at the knee and kinematic changes during walking associated with loss of the anterior cruciate ligament demonstrated the importance of considering walking mechanics as an important factor in the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. In particular, this material suggests that knee cartilage becomes conditioned to loading and to the large number of repetitive cycles of loading that occur during walking and that healthy cartilage homeostasis is maintained as long as there are no changes to the normal patterns of locomotion, the structure of the knee joint, or cartilage biology. Thus, there is the potential for a degenerative pathway to be initiated when a condition such as anterior cruciate ligament injury causes the repetitive loading during walking to shift to a new location. The sensitivity of cartilage to the kinematic changes is illustrated with the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee and the regional variations in cartilage morphology. The material presented here supports the conclusion that individual variations in the range of loading and kinematics at the knee during walking can have a profound influence on the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis of the knee.

  8. [Influence of weather factors on suicidal hangings].

    PubMed

    Trepińska, Janina; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Bakowski, Rafał; Bolechała, Filip; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a certain biometeorological problem. The evaluation of influence of weather factors on frequency of suicidal cases by hanging in the area of Cracow City during 1991-2002 was examined. Rapid changes of air pressure, air temperature, hot, sweltering and sultry days, very frosty days, days with strong or foehn wind, days with thunderstorms, fog and haze were selected as unfavourable weather factors. They give an occasion for strong psychical stress. The results of detailed investigations are next: more frequency of cases of suicide during the advance of cold fronts, rapid decreases of air pressure during hot, sweltering and sultry days, days with thunderstorms and foehn winds in the Tatra Mountains.

  9. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Forsythe, Steven; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2009-11-18

    Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.

  10. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. Methods An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Results Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. Conclusion One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful

  11. Automation bias: empirical results assessing influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Kate; Roudsari, Abdul; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the rate of automation bias - the propensity of people to over rely on automated advice and the factors associated with it. Tested factors were attitudinal - trust and confidence, non-attitudinal - decision support experience and clinical experience, and environmental - task difficulty. The paradigm of simulated decision support advice within a prescribing context was used. The study employed within participant before-after design, whereby 26 UK NHS General Practitioners were shown 20 hypothetical prescribing scenarios with prevalidated correct and incorrect answers - advice was incorrect in 6 scenarios. They were asked to prescribe for each case, followed by being shown simulated advice. Participants were then asked whether they wished to change their prescription, and the post-advice prescription was recorded. Rate of overall decision switching was captured. Automation bias was measured by negative consultations - correct to incorrect prescription switching. Participants changed prescriptions in 22.5% of scenarios. The pre-advice accuracy rate of the clinicians was 50.38%, which improved to 58.27% post-advice. The CDSS improved the decision accuracy in 13.1% of prescribing cases. The rate of automation bias, as measured by decision switches from correct pre-advice, to incorrect post-advice was 5.2% of all cases - a net improvement of 8%. More immediate factors such as trust in the specific CDSS, decision confidence, and task difficulty influenced rate of decision switching. Lower clinical experience was associated with more decision switching. Age, DSS experience and trust in CDSS generally were not significantly associated with decision switching. This study adds to the literature surrounding automation bias in terms of its potential frequency and influencing factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Splat Morphology and Influence of Feeding Rate During Reactive Plasma Spray of Aluminum Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-12-01

    Fabrication of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings using conventional plasma spraying processes directly has been deemed impossible. It is attributed to the thermal decomposition of the AlN feedstock particles during spraying without a stable melting phase. Using the reactivity of the plasma (reactive plasma spraying: RPS) showed a promising consideration for in situ formation of AlN thermally sprayed coatings. Several AlN-based coatings were fabricated through the RPS of aluminum powders in the N2/H2 plasma. The focus of this study is in discussing the morphology of splat deposition during the nitriding of Al particles. Furthermore, the influence of the feeding rate during the RPS and nitriding of Al powders will be investigated. The nitride content, as well as the unreacted molten Al phase, strongly influences splat deposition and morphology during the RPS of Al. The collected splats can be divided into reacted, partially reacted, and unreacted splats. The reacted splats tend to show a disk or egg-shell shape. The partially reacted mainly had outside nitride shells and an unreacted molten Al part in the center. The unreacted splats tended to show a splash shape. The main controlling factor is the time of the droplet impact on the substrate during the reaction sequence. The particle size and spray distance showed significant effects on the splat formation due to their effect on the nitriding conversion and the melting behavior of the particles during RPS nitriding. The powder feeding rate was investigated through increasing the injection rate and by using a low carrier gas flow rate. Increasing the powder feeding rate significantly improved the coating thickness. However, it suppressed the nitriding conversion of the large Al particles. Thus, with increasing the amount of the powder in the plasma, the Al molten particles are easily aggregated and agglomerate together upon colliding on the substrate with an AlN shell on the surface. This prevents the N2 from having

  13. Factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chen-Chung; Samuels, Michael E; Alexander, Judith W

    2003-05-01

    To examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of registered nurses (RNs). A growing recognition of job dissatisfaction among RNs in South Carolina hospitals has contributed to current problems with recruitment and retention. If administrators identify factors influencing RNs' job satisfaction in hospitals and implement strategies to address these factors, RN turnover rates will decrease and recruiting and retention rates will increase. A cross-sectional study of secondary data was designed to identify the individual, work, and geographic factors that impact nursing job satisfaction at the state level. A 27-question self-administered survey was sent to 17,500 RNs in South Carolina with postage-paid envelopes for their responses. Surveys from 3472 nurses were completed anonymously. Univariate statistics were used to describe the study sample. One-way and multivariable Analysis of Variance were used to determine which variables contributed the most to job satisfaction. For about two thirds of the RNs, job satisfaction remained the same or had lessened over the past 2 years. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between job satisfaction and years of service, job position, hospital retirement plan, and geographic area. The findings have implications for nurse managers and hospital administrators for planning and implementing effective health policies that will meet the unique needs of their staffs and organizations. Such research is particularly relevant in this difficult time of nursing shortages throughout the healthcare industry.

  14. The fiber diameter of synthetic bioresorbable extracellular matrix influences human fibroblast morphology and fibronectin matrix assembly.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Henry C; Nair, Mohan R; Mintz, R Candida; Corbett, Siobhan A

    2011-06-01

    The ideal scaffold material should provide immediate capacity to bear mechanical loads and also permit eventual resorption and replacement with native tissue of similar mechanical integrity. Scaffold characteristics such as fiber diameter provide environmental cues that can influence cell function and differentiation. In this study, the impact of fiber diameter of scaffolds constructed from a tyrosine-based bioresorbable polymer on cellular response was investigated. Electrospun bioresorbable poly(desamino tyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester carbonate) scaffolds composed of microfibers or nanofibers were constructed and seeded with human dermal fibroblasts. The impact of fiber diameter on actin cytoskeletal morphology, focal adhesion size, fibronectin matrix assembly, and cell proliferation was evaluated using immunofluorescent microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis. Actin stress fibers were more easily observed in cells on microfiber scaffolds compared with those on nanofiber scaffolds. Cells on nanofiber scaffolds developed smaller focal adhesion complexes compared with those on microfiber scaffolds (p < 0.0001). The temporal patterns of fibronectin matrix assembly were affected by scaffold fiber diameter, with cells on microfiber scaffolds showing a delayed response in dense fibril formation compared with nanofiber scaffolds. Cells on nanofiber scaffolds showed higher proliferation compared with microfiber scaffolds at time points under 1 week (p < 0.01), but by 2 weeks significantly higher cell proliferation was observed on microfiber scaffolds (p < 0.01). The fiber diameter of bioresorbable scaffolds can significantly influence cell response and suggests that the ability of scaffolds to elicit consistent biological responses depends on factors beyond scaffold composition. Such findings have important implications for the design of clinically useful engineered constructs.

  15. Influence of different solvents on the morphology of APTMS-modified silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakša, G.; Štefane, B.; Kovač, J.

    2014-10-01

    In this study 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) was used for the modification of single-crystal silicon wafers (1 1 1). We deposited the self-assembled layers from a solution of APTMS in five solvents with different polarities under various reaction conditions. The influence of the different solvents on the morphology of the modified surfaces was studied, since the possible heterogeneity may significantly influence the application of such surfaces. The surface composition and the chemical bonding were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the morphology of the modified surfaces was investigated using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that the amount of coatings and the morphology of the modified surface strongly depend on the type of solvent. Silanization carried out in acetonitrile and toluene leads to the formation of a rough surface with a large density of APTMS polymerized molecules in the form of islands. The surfaces modified in N,N-dimethylformamide were smoother, with a lower density of APTMS islands. When using acetone and ethanol as a solvent we prepared a smooth, thin, modified surface, with a very low density of the APTMS islands. We discuss the influence of the polarity/nature of the solvents on the morphology of the modified surfaces.

  16. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur; Yagci Acar, Havva

    2012-03-15

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism was discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  17. Audit in general practice: factors influencing participation.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, R.; Robertson, N.; Farooqi, A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the factors influencing participation in a single topic audit initiated by a medical audit advisory group. DESIGN--Interview and questionnaire survey of general practitioners who had been invited to take part in an audit of vitamin B-12. SETTING--All 147 general practices in Leicestershire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Aspects of structure, attitude, and behaviour that influenced participation or non-participation. RESULTS--75 practices completed the audit, 49 withdrew after initial agreement, and 23 refused to take part at the outset. Participants were more likely than those who refused to view the advisory group as useful or a threat and to have positive thoughts about audit but less likely to have previously undertaken audit entailing implementation of change. Participants were more likely than those who withdrew to have positive thoughts about audit and to have discussed whether to take part within the practice but were less likely to view the advisory group as useful. The most common reason given for withdrawal was lack of time. CONCLUSIONS--Participation was influenced by attitudes towards audit in general and the advisory group in particular and by aspects of behaviour such as communication within the practice. Practical support and resources may help some practices undertake audit, but advisory groups must also deal with attitudes and unsatisfactory communication in practice teams. PMID:7613323

  18. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  19. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer

  20. Incidence, risk factors, and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Khwarg, S.G.; Linstone, F.A.; Daniels, S.A.; Isenberg, S.J.; Hanscom, T.A.; Geoghegan, M.; Straatsma, B.R.

    1987-03-15

    A review of 135 consecutive cataract operations identified ten cases (7.4%) of operating microscope light retinopathy. Ophthalmoscopically, these light retinopathy lesions appeared as a focal pigment epithelial change with varying degrees of pigment clumping in the center. Fluorescein angiography accentuated the lesion by demonstrating a sharply demarcated transmission defect, occasionally with multiple satellite lesions. The shape of the lesion matched the shape of the illuminating source of the particular operating microscope used during the surgery. The most significant risk factor associated with the production of these light retinopathy lesions was prolonged operating time. Mean total operating time for the ten patients with light retinopathy was 51 minutes longer than for those without (P less than .0001). Other significant associated factors were the presence of diabetes mellitus (P less than .03), younger age (P less than .05), and the use of hydrochlorothiazide (P less than .04).

  1. Predictive influence of phonological processing, morphological/syntactic skill, and naming speed on spelling performance.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Monique; Cohen, Henri

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the predictive influence of phonological awareness, morphological/syntactic skill, and naming speed on spelling. The retrospective study correlated spelling performance in a group of 199 French-speaking children at the end of grade 2 with earlier capacities for phonemic manipulation, morphological/syntactic correction, and naming speed, assessed at the end of grade 1. The results are consistent with an integrative model that challenges the unitary phonological disorder hypothesis and confirmed that in French, as in other languages, naming speed is an independent predictor of reading performance.

  2. Does body shaping influence brain shape? Habitual physical activity is linked to brain morphology independent of age.

    PubMed

    Demirakca, Traute; Brusniak, Wencke; Tunc-Skarka, Nuran; Wolf, Isabella; Meier, Sandra; Matthäus, Franziska; Ende, Gabriele; Schulze, Thomas G; Diener, Carsten

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) was found to influence human brain morphology. However, the impact of PA on brain morphology was mainly demonstrated in seniors. We investigated healthy individuals across a broad age range for the relation between habitual PA and brain morphology. Ninety-five participants (19-82 years) were assessed for self-reported habitual PA with the "Baecke habitual physical activity questionnaire", and T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were evaluated with whole brain voxel based morphometry for gray and white matter volumes and densities. Regression analyses revealed a positive relation between the extent of physical activity and gray matter volume bilaterally in the anterior hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus independent of age and gender. Age as well as leisure and locomotion activities were linked to enhanced white matter volumes in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, suggesting a positive interaction especially in seniors. Habitual physical activity is associated with regional volumetric gray and white matter alterations. The positive relation of hippocampal volume and physical activity seems not to be restricted to seniors. Thus, habitual physical activity should be generally considered as an influencing factor in studies investigating medial temporal lobe volume and associated cognitive functions (memory), especially in psychiatric research.

  3. Interpersonal Factors That Influence Principals' Rating of Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, William, Jr.; Davis, Joseph

    1985-01-01

    A study to determine whether principals are influenced by attraction factors in teacher evaluations found that principals are affected by nonperformance factors when they evaluate teacher performance. (MD)

  4. Factors controlling growth and morphology of early Miocene stromatolites from Montaigu-le-Blin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Barilaro, Federica; McKenzie, Judith A.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2015-04-01

    A large variety of stromatolite morphotypes are present in the early Miocene sedimentary sequence that outcrops in the region of Montaigu-le-Blin, France. Thanks to its good degree of preservation, this formation is an ideal place to evaluate the key factors controlling the occurrence and morphology of the stromatolites, as well as to study the diagenetic processes that transform a soft, slimy lithifying microbialite into a solid, laminated sedimentary rock. Facies analysis suggests that the Montaigu-le-Blin stromatolites formed in shallow waters, in a restricted, laterally heterogeneous basin. Various evidence suggests a biological origin for the stromatolites, whose formation cannot be explained through abiotic background precipitation driven by evaporation, temperature changes, or migration of metamorphic fluids. Microscopic observations revealed that the Montaigu-le-Blin stromatolites are mainly comprised of authigenic calcite that precipitated directly from the basin waters (no evidence for trapping and binding) in close association with algae, microbial cells, and exopolymeric substances. Well-preserved microfossils of photosynthetic organisms are widespread within the thin sections. The calcite constituting the stromatolites is characterized by positive δ13C values (1.7 to 4.4 o), suggesting that microbial mediation of calcite was mainly related to the metabolic activity of photosynthetic organisms or anoxygenic phototrophs, and not to metabolisms in which organic material is degraded (e.g. sulfate reduction). The laminated habit of the stromatolites results from alternating layers of porous, digit-like sparite and more compacted organic-rich micrite. No correlation was identified, through isotopic analysis, between these two types of laminae and external environmental factors (i.e. temperature, salinity, eutrophication state). Rather, we hypothesize that periodic fluctuations in the dominant microbial/algal species within the mat influenced the morphology

  5. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole. PMID:27942134

  6. [Progress report. Factors influencing nutritional toxic effects].

    PubMed

    Bleyl, D W

    1989-01-01

    The basis of the requirement for nutrio-toxicological model investigations is the result of many years of international experience. They are, however, limited for pragmatic reasons to standardized one-dimensional test conditions and can only be partially compared with the variable exposure conditions of man. Therefore, we have tried to review the practical significance of factors influencing nutrio-toxic effects. It has been shown that due to physiological and genetic differences, different lifestyle, biogeochemical and nutritional factors, additional occupational exposure as well as spontaneous diseases individual sensitivity shows a great variation range in man and laboratory animals. The multiple exposure which is common practice makes it difficult to provide proven evidence. The safety factor used for the extrapolation of results obtained in animal experiments as compared with man is a suitable pragmatic safety measure, but in the case of 1:100 as to the order of magnitude it is not always in accordance with the range of response to xenobiotics in a human population. This fact raises the necessity of searching for so-called "risk-groups" in the population. Additionally, the possible acceleration of spontaneous diseases by exposure to xenobiotics has to be taken into consideration.

  7. Olecranon fractures: factors influencing re-operation.

    PubMed

    Snoddy, Mark Christopher; Lang, Maximilian Frank; An, Thomas J; Mitchell, Phillip Michael; Grantham, William Jeffrey; Hooe, Benjamin Scoot; Kay, Harrison Ford; Bhatia, Ritwik; Thakore, Rachel V; Evans, Jason Michael; Obremskey, William Todd; Sethi, Manish Kumar

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated factors influencing re-operation in tension band and plating of isolated olecranon fractures. Four hundred eighty-nine patients with isolated olecranon fractures who underwent tension band (TB) or open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) from 2003 to 2013 were identified at an urban level 1 trauma centre. Medical records were reviewed for patient information and complications, including infection, nonunion, malunion, loss of function or hardware complication requiring an unplanned surgical intervention. Electronic radiographs of these patients were reviewed to identify Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) fracture classification and patients who underwent TB or ORIF. One hundred seventy-seven patients met inclusion criteria of isolated olecranon fractures. TB was used for fixation in 43 patients and ORIF in 134. No statistical significance was found when comparing complication rates in open versus closed olecranon fractures. In a multivariate analysis, the key factor in outcome was method of fixation. Overall, there were higher rates of infection and hardware removal in the TB compared with the ORIF group. Our results demonstrate that the dominant factor driving re-operation in isolated olecranon fractures is type of fixation. When controlling for all variables, there is an increased chance of re-operation in patients with TB fixation.

  8. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    PubMed

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  9. Influence of palatal morphology on strain in maxillary complete dentures: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshihito; Gonda, Tomoya; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to assess the influence of palatal morphology on deformation of maxillary complete dentures in vivo. The palatal morphology of the maxillae of eight edentulous subjects was measured. Experimental dentures were fabricated, and a strain gauge was attached at the first molar position at the midline of the polished surface of each denture. Subjects were instructed to bite a metal bar placed bilaterally at the denture's first molar region with a force of 49 N. The resultant strains were recorded, and the correlation between strain and palatal morphology was evaluated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. A strong correlation between strain and both palatal depth and radius of curvature was noted, suggesting that edentulous patients with wide, shallow palates have a higher risk of denture deformation, which may lead to material fracture.

  10. Influence of interphase morphology on adhesion and composite durability in semicrystalline polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.L. Jr.; Kander, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    The microstructure of the interphase in semicrystalline polymer matrix composites has a dramatic influence on their mechanical properties. Studies have been performed to alter this region and to correlate various interphase morphologies with changes in fiber-matrix adhesion. A reinforced nylon 66 composite, when subjected to specific thermal histories, contains an interphase composed of transcrystallinity. This region has been altered by coating fibers with a diluent, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), and/or adding the diluent to the matrix material in very small quantities. Interphase morphology was investigated with optical microscopy, and adhesion was measured using a modified fiber pull-out test. It was found that transcrystallinity increases the interfacial shear strength. The effect different interphase morphologies have on the durability of bulk composite samples is currently under investigation.

  11. On the influence of substrate morphology and surface area on phytofauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becerra-Munoz, S.; Schramm, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    The independent effects and interactions between substrate morphology and substrate surface area on invertebrate density or biomass colonizing artificial plant beds were assessed in a clear-water and a turbid playa lake in Castro County, Texas, USA. Total invertebrate density and biomass were consistently greater on filiform substrates than on laminar substrates with equivalent substrate surface areas. The relationship among treatments (substrates with different morphologies and surface areas) and response (invertebrate density or biomass) was assessed with equally spaced surface areas. Few statistically significant interactions between substrate morphology and surface area were detected, indicating that these factors were mostly independent from each other in their effect on colonizing invertebrates. Although infrequently, when substrate morphology and surface area were not independent, the effects of equally spaced changes in substrate surface area on the rate of change of phytofauna density or biomass per unit of substrate surface area were dependent upon substrate morphology. The absence of three-way interactions indicated that effects of substrate morphology and substrate area on phytofauna density or biomass were independent of environmental conditions outside and inside exclosures. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  13. [Bioavailability and factors influencing its rate].

    PubMed

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability can be defined as the rate and range of active ingredient absorption, when it becomes available in the systemic circulation or at the desired site of drug action, respectively. Drug bioavailability after oral administration is affected by anumber of different factors, including physicochemical properties of the drug, physiological aspects, the type of dosage form, food intake, biorhythms, and intra- and interindividual variability of the human population. This article is the first from the series dealing with the bioavailability and methods leading to its improvement. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of aspects influencing the rate of bioavailability after oral administration of the active ingredient. Subsequentarticles will provide detailed descriptions of methods used for dug bioavailability improvement, which are here only summarized.

  14. Factors influencing the morbidity of colostomy closure.

    PubMed

    Demetriades, D; Pezikis, A; Melissas, J; Parekh, D; Pickles, G

    1988-04-01

    A series consisting of 110 patients who had colostomy closure was studied in an attempt to define the role of various factors in causing colon-related morbidity. The overall complication rate was 14.5 percent (wound sepsis 11.8 percent and anastomotic leak 2.7 percent). Patient age, the underlying pathologic abnormality (trauma versus nontrauma), the type of colostomy (loop versus end colostomy), the site of the stoma (right side, left side, or transverse), whether a drain was inserted or not, and the timing of the operation did not influence morbidity. Oral preoperative antibiotics appeared to be associated with less morbidity than parenteral antibiotics (p less than 0.01), and experienced surgeons had less complications than junior surgeons (p less than 0.05).

  15. Factors influencing acrylamide formation in gingerbread.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Thomas M; Schönbächler, Barbara; Escher, Felix; Amadò, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The influence of ingredients, additives, and process conditions on the acrylamide formation in gingerbread was investigated. The sources for reducing sugars and free asparagine were identified and the effect of different baking agents on the acrylamide formation was evaluated. Ammonium hydrogencarbonate strongly enhanced the acrylamide formation, but its N-atom was not incorporated into acrylamide, nor did acrylic acid form acrylamide in gingerbread. Acrylamide concentration and browning intensity increased both with baking time and correlated with each other. The use of sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent reduced the acrylamide concentration by more than 60%. Free asparagine was a limiting factor for acrylamide formation, but the acrylamide content could also be lowered by replacing reducing sugars with sucrose or by adding moderate amounts of organic acids. A significant reduction of the acrylamide content in gingerbread can be achieved by using sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent, minimizing free asparagine, and avoiding prolonged baking.

  16. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Meyrick C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of “being there” in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users’ attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds. PMID:24199058

  17. Competing influences on morphological modularity in biomechanical systems: a case study in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Philip S L; Smith, Danielle C; Patek, S N

    2016-05-01

    Related species that share similar biomechanical systems and segmentation patterns may exhibit different patterns of morphological covariation. We examined morphological covariation of the potent prey capture appendage of two mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) species-a spearer (Squilla empusa) and smasher (Gonodactylaceus falcatus). We assessed three frameworks for modularity, two based on the biomechanics of the appendage and one based on its segmentation as a proxy for shared developmental pathways. We collected morphometric data from S. empusa, and compared morphological covariation patterns across the raptorial appendage with patterns from a new analysis of previously published morphometric data from G. falcatus. The relative importance of the different hypothetical influences differed between the two species, and was dependent on whether specimens were analyzed all together or subdivided based on sex or sub-populations, including one particularly distinct population in the Gulf of Mexico. We also found an intriguing handedness pattern in which right-hand appendages had a variable number of spines, whereas the left had a constant number of spines. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of testing multiple, alternative frameworks for morphological covariation and suggest that mantis shrimp experience contrasting influences on covariation depending on their feeding mechanisms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated

  19. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours.

    PubMed

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to

  20. Factors influencing women's decision making in hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Janda, Monika; Armfield, Nigel R; Page, Katie; Kerr, Gayle; Kurz, Suzanne; Jackson, Graeme; Currie, Jason; Weaver, Edward; Yazdani, Anusch; Obermair, Andreas

    2017-09-12

    To explore factors influencing how well-informed women felt about hysterectomy, influences on their decision making, and on them receiving a less-invasive alternative to open surgery. Online questionnaire, conducted in 2015-2016, of women who had received a hysterectomy in Australia, in the preceding two years. Questionnaires were completed by 2319/6000 women (39% response). Most women (n=2225; 96%) felt well-informed about hysterectomy. Women were more aware of the open abdominal approach (n=1798; 77%), than of less-invasive vaginal (n=1552; 67%), laparoscopic (n=1540; 66%), laparoscopic-assisted (n=1303; 56%), and robotic approaches (n=289; 12%). Most women (n=1435; 62%) reported their gynaecologist was the most influential information source. Women who received information about hysterectomy from a GP (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.15-1.90), or from a gynaecologist (OR=1.3; 95% CI 1.06-1.58), were more likely to feel better informed (p<0.01). This study is important because it helps clinicians, researchers and health policy makers to understand why many women still receive an open abdominal approach despite many learned societies recommending to avoid it if possible. Additional information, or education about avoiding open abdominal approach where possible may lead to a greater number of women receiving less-invasive types of hysterectomy in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trigger sequence can influence final morphology in the self-assembly of asymmetric telechelic polymers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aatish; Lowe, Christopher P; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Bolhuis, Peter G

    2016-02-21

    We report on a numerical study of polymer network formation of asymmetric biomimetic telechelic polymers with two reactive ends based on a self-assembling collagen, elastin or silk-like polypeptide sequence. The two reactive ends of the polymer can be activated independently using physicochemical triggers such as temperature and pH. We show, using a simple coarse grained model that the order in which this triggering occurs influences the final morphology. For both of collagen-silk and elastin-silk topologies we find that for relatively short connector chains the morphology of the assembly is greatly influenced by the order of the trigger, whereas for longer chains the equilibrium situation is more easily achieved. Moreover, self-assembly is greatly enhanced at moderate collagen interaction strength, due to facilitated binding and unbinding of the peptides. This finding indicates that both the trigger sequence and strength can be used to steer self-assembly in these biomimetic polymer systems.

  2. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  3. Ectopic beats and their influence on the morphology of subsequent waves in the electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Lenis, Gustavo; Baas, Tobias; Dössel, Olaf

    2013-04-01

    Ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs) trigger a characteristic response of the heart called heart rate turbulence(HRT). The HRT can be used to predict sudden cardiac death in patients with a history of myocardial infarction. In this work, we present a reliable algorithm to detect and classify ectopic beats. Every electrocardiogram(ECG) is processed with innovative filtering techniques, artifact detection methods, and a robust multichannel analysis to produce accurate annotation results. For the classification task, a support vector machine was used. Furthermore, a new approach to the analysis of HRT is proposed. The HRT is interpreted as the response of a second-order system to an external perturbation. The system theoretical parameters were estimated. The influence of VEB on the morphology of subsequent T waves was also analyzed. A strong influence was detected in the study with 14 patients experiencing frequent VEB. The evolution of the morphology of the T wave with every new beat was studied, and it could be concluded that an exponential shape underlies this dynamic process and was called morphological heart rate turbulence (MHRT). Parameters were defined to quantify the MHRT. The analysis of the MHRT could help to understand the influence of an ectopic beat on the repolarization processes of the heart and more accurately stratify the risk of sudden cardiac death.

  4. Burkholderia cenocepacia ShvR-regulated genes that influence colony morphology, biofilm formation, and virulence.

    PubMed

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Nguyen, David T; Sokol, Pamela A

    2011-08-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that primarily infects cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Previously, we reported that ShvR, a LysR regulator, influences colony morphology, virulence, and biofilm formation and regulates the expression of an adjacent 24-kb genomic region encoding 24 genes. In this study, we report the functional characterization of selected genes in this region. A Tn5 mutant with shiny colony morphology was identified with a polar mutation in BCAS0208, predicted to encode an acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase. Mutagenesis of BCAS0208 and complementation analyses revealed that BCAS0208 is required for rough colony morphology, biofilm formation, and virulence on alfalfa seedlings. It was not possible to complement with BCAS0208 containing a mutation in the catalytic site. BCAS0201, encoding a putative flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidoreductase, and BCAS0207, encoding a putative citrate synthase, do not influence colony morphology but are required for optimum levels of biofilm formation and virulence. Both BCAS0208 and BCAS0201 contribute to pellicle formation, although individual mutations in each of these genes had no appreciable effect on pellicle formation. A mutant with a polar insertion in BCAS0208 was significantly less virulent in a rat model of chronic lung infection as well as in the alfalfa model. Genes in this region were shown to influence utilization of branched-chain fatty acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle substrates, l-arabinose, and branched-chain amino acids. Together, our data show that the ShvR-regulated genes BCAS0208 to BCAS0201 are required for the rough colony morphotype, biofilm and pellicle formation, and virulence in B. cenocepacia.

  5. Factors that influence recurrent lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Yaman, M E; Kazancı, A; Yaman, N D; Baş, F; Ayberk, G

    2017-06-01

    The most common cause of poor outcome following lumbar disc surgery is recurrent herniation. Recurrence has been noted in 5% to 15% of patients with surgically treated primary lumbar disc herniation. There have been many studies designed to determine the risk factors for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. In this study, we retrospectively analysed the influence of disc degeneration, endplate changes, surgical technique, and patient's clinical characteristics on recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Patients who underwent primary single-level L4-L5 lumbar discectomy and who were reoperated on for recurrent L4-L5 disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. All these operations were performed between August 2004 and September 2009 at the Neurosurgery Department of Ataturk Education and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey. During the study period, 126 patients were reviewed, with 101 patients underwent primary single-level L4-L5 lumbar discectomy and 25 patients were reoperated on for recurrent L4-L5 disc herniation. Preoperative higher intervertebral disc height (P<0.001) and higher body mass index (P=0.042) might be risk factors for recurrence. Modic endplate changes were statistically significantly greater in the recurrent group than in the non-recurrent group (P=0.032). Our study suggests that patients who had recurrent lumbar disc herniation had preoperative higher disc height and higher body mass index. Modic endplate changes had a higher tendency for recurrence of lumbar disc herniation. Well-planned and well-conducted large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm this and enable convenient treatment modalities to prevent recurrent disc pathology.

  6. Influence of biochar and nitrogen on fine root morphology, physiology, and chemistry of Acer mono.

    PubMed

    Razaq, Muhammad; Salahuddin; Shen, Hai-Long; Sher, Hassan; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-14

    Fine roots play an important role in the overall functions of individual plants. Previous studies showed that fertilization and available soil resources have a notably profound effect on fine root, but there is lack of study centered on how fine root morphology, physiology, and chemistry respond to biochar with N additions. Different levels of biochar (0, 10, 15, and 20 g) and N (0, 2, 4 and 6 g) were applied to Acer mono seedling plants in a field nursery. The root system morphology and root chemistry and physiology were evaluated in line with root length, root diameter, SRL, N and N: C and root respiration. Biochar and N significantly affected root morphology, chemistry and root respiration. Morphological, chemical and physiological parameters were found to be at their maximum with 20 g biochar and 6 g N; however, no significant effect was noted on fourth- and fifth-order roots. Furthermore, a significant increase in root respiration was recognized with the increase in root tissue N concentration and the negative relationship of root respiration with higher branch order. Thus, overall, study parameters indicate that biochar and nitrogen positively influence the Acer mono fine root, and therefore should be used to improve fine root health.

  7. AIM 2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence anxiety and memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Jung; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are the protein assemblies that consist of inflammasome sensors, adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) and inflammasome caspase. Inflammasomes sense multiple danger signals via various inflammasome sensors and consequently use caspase to trigger proteolytic processing and secretion of IL-1β cytokines. Recent studies have suggested that neurons use their own innate immune system to detect danger signals and regulate neuronal morphology. Here, we investigate whether inflammasomes, the critical components of innate immunity, participate in regulation of neuronal morphology and function. Among various sensors, Absent in melanoma 2 (Aim2) expression in neurons is most prominent. Adding synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to cultured neurons induces IL-1β secretion in an AIM2-dependent manner and consequently downregulates dendritic growth but enhances axon extension. The results of Aim2 knockout and knockdown show that AIM2 acts cell-autonomously to regulate neuronal morphology. Behavioral analyses further reveal that Aim2−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity, increased anxious behaviors and reduced auditory fear memory. In conclusion, our study suggests that AIM2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence mouse behaviors. PMID:27561456

  8. Influence of morphology on survival for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sant, Milena; Allemani, Claudia; De Angelis, Roberta; Carbone, Antonino; de Sanjosè, Silvia; Gianni, Alessandro M; Giraldo, Pilar; Marchesi, Francesca; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Martos-Jiménez, Carmen; Maynadié, Marc; Raphael, Martine; Berrino, Franco

    2008-03-01

    We explored the influence of morphology on geographic differences in 5-year survival for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed in 1990-1994 and followed for 5years: 16,955 cases from 27 EUROCARE-3 cancer registries, and 22,713 cases from 9 US SEER registries. Overall 5-year relative survival was 56.1% in EUROCARE west, 47.1% in EUROCARE east and 56.3% in SEER. Relative excess risk (RER) of death was 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.10) in EUROCARE west, 1.52 (95% CI 1.44-1.60) in EUROCARE east (SEER reference). Excess risk of death was significantly above reference (diffuse B lymphoma) for Burkitt's and NOS lymphoma; not different for lymphoblastic and other T-cell; significantly below reference (in the order of decreasing relative excess risk) for NHL NOS, mantle cell/centrocytic, lymphoplasmacytic, follicular, small lymphocytic/chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, other specified NHL and cutaneous morphologies. Interpretation of marked variation in survival with morphology is complicated by classification inconsistencies. The completeness and standardisation of cancer registry morphology data needs to be improved.

  9. [Factors influencing the decision to seek abortion].

    PubMed

    af Geijerstam, G

    1980-02-13

    In 1974, a law was passed in Sweden allowing abortion on demand. Studies are now being undertaken to determine the effect of this law in 3 important areas: abortion counselling, abortion frequency, and possible means of psychological assistance for those who undergo abortions. Abortion must be studied as it affects the entire reproductive chain, in which there are 4 main links: frequency of sexual intercourse, physiological fertility, motivation to have children, and measures taken for birth control. In an agricultural society, children have a value as part of the work force and for retirement security; in a modern society, children have a much more abstract value. The reproductive chain is also affected by the increasing number of unmarried couples living together. There is a need to interview individuals and families to determine "fertility choice behavior", which can help to illuminate motivations for becoming pregnant or seeking abortion. These studies could help determine the perceived advantages and disadvantages of having children and what factors influence "fertility choice behavior".

  10. Factors influencing the immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Huub

    2005-06-01

    Several diseases and disorders are treatable with therapeutic proteins, but some of these products may induce an immune response, especially when administered as multiple doses over prolonged periods. Antibodies are created by classical immune reactions or by the breakdown of immune tolerance; the latter is characteristic of human homologue products. Many factors influence the immunogenicity of proteins, including structural features (sequence variation and glycosylation), storage conditions (denaturation, or aggregation caused by oxidation), contaminants or impurities in the preparation, dose and length of treatment, as well as the route of administration, appropriate formulation and the genetic characteristics of patients. The clinical manifestations of antibodies directed against a given protein may include loss of efficacy, neutralization of the natural counterpart and general immune system effects (including allergy, anaphylaxis or serum sickness). An upsurge in the incidence of antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) among patients taking one particular formulation of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin-alpha, marketed as Eprex(R)/Erypo(R); Johnson & Johnson) in Europe caused widespread concern. The PRCA upsurge coincided with removal of human serum albumin from epoetin-alpha in 1998 and its replacement with glycine and polysorbate 80. Although the immunogenic potential of this particular product may have been enhanced by the way the product was stored, handled and administered, it should be noted that the subcutaneous route of administration does not confer immunogenicity per se. The possible role of micelle (polysorbate 80 plus epoetin-alpha) formation in the PRCA upsurge with Eprex is currently being investigated.

  11. Influences of palatoplasty by the push-back procedure on craniofacial morphology and growth.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Kudo, Motonori; Yamamoto, Yuko

    2012-12-01

    For patients with a cleft palate, the push-back procedure which accompanies posterior shifting of palatal flap is thought to be most effective way of. achieving adequate velopharyngeal function. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influences of the push-back procedure on the craniofacial morphology and its growth. Using cephalometry we compared the craniofacial morphology and growth of three groups of Japanese children, living in the same region (Hokkaido, Japan). 1) 28 children (13 girls and 15 boys) with operated submucous cleft palates at the ages of 9 and 14 respectively. 2) 12 age-matched children (7 girls and 5 boys) with unoperated submucous cleft palates. 3) 60 age-matched non-cleft children (30 girls and 30 boys) with normal occlusion. None of them received dentofacial orthopaedic treatment. While the patients who had been operated on had significant differences in posterior upper facial height and inclination of the palatal plane when compared with non-cleft children or unoperated cleft children, they showed no statistically significant difference in anteroposterior positioning of anterior part of the maxilla, compared with the unoperated. The influences of palatoplasty by the push-back procedure with posterior positioning of the palatal flaps on craniofacial morphology are additional to the cleft palate, and of minor concern. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of curvature on the morphology of brain microvascular endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Mao; Yang, Zhen; Wong, Andrew; Searson, Peter; Searson Group Team

    2013-03-01

    There are hundreds or thousands of endothelial cells around the perimeter of a single artery or vein, and hence an individual cell experiences little curvature. In contrast, a single endothelial cell may wrap around itself to form the lumen of a brain capillary. Curvature plays a key role in many biological, chemical and physical processes, however, its role in dictating the morphology and polarization of brain capillary endothelial cells has not been investigated. We hypothesize that curvature and shear flow play a key role in determining the structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have developed the ``rod'' assay to study the influence of curvature on the morphology of confluent monolayers of endothelial cells. In this assay cells are plated onto glass rods pulled down to the desired diameter in the range from 5 - 500 μm and coated with collagen. We show that curvature has a significant influence on the morphology of endothelial cells and may have an important role in blood-brain barrier function.

  13. Artificial water sediment regulation scheme influences morphology, hydrodynamics and nutrient behavior in the Yellow River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bochao; Yang, Disong; Burnett, William C.; Ran, Xiangbin; Yu, Zhigang; Gao, Maosheng; Diao, Shaobo; Jiang, Xueyan

    2016-08-01

    Anthropogenic controls on water and sediment may play important roles in river system transformations and morphological evolution, which could further affect coastal hydrodynamics and nutrient behavior. We used geochemical tracers to evaluate the influence of an intentional large release of water and sediment during the so-called "Water Sediment Regulation Scheme" (WSRS) on estuarine morphology, hydrodynamics and nutrients in the Yellow River estuary, China. We discovered that there was a newly formed small delta in the river mouth after the 2013 WSRS. This new morphologic feature altered terrestrial material distribution patterns from a single plume to a two-plume pattern within the estuary. Our results show that the WSRS significantly influenced the study area in the following ways: (1) Radium and nutrient concentrations were significantly elevated (two to four times), especially along the two river outlets. (2) Estuarine mixing was about two times stronger during WSRS than before. Average aerial mixing rates before and during WSRS were 50 ± 26 km2 d-1 and 89 ± 51 km2 d-1, respectively. (3) Our data is consistent with P limitation and suggest that stoichiometrically based P limitation was even more severe during WSRS. (4) All river-derived nutrients were thoroughly consumed within one to two weeks after entry to near-shore waters. (5) The extent of the area influenced by terrestrial nutrients was two to three times greater during WSRS. Human influence, such as triggered by WSRS regulations, should thus be considered when studying biogeochemical processes and nutrient budgets in situations like the Yellow River estuary.

  14. Influence of carbon fillers nature on the structural and morphological properties of polyurethane-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, S. V.; Malinovskaya, T. D.; Pavlov, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to studying structural and morphological properties of the resistive composite materials based on the polyurethane binder. The paper shows the influence of nature, size, shape, concentration of conductive carbon fillers (channel black K-163, graphite element GE-3, colloidal-graphite preparation C-1) and the method of their introduction into the binder to form the electrical conductivity of composites. Experimentally it was found out that a homogeneous composite structure reaches dispersive mixing filler and binder within 120 min. The analysis of the morphological pattern surfaces and chipping resistance materials has demonstrated that composites with colloidal-graphite preparation C-1 are more unimodal with the same concentrations of the investigated fillers.

  15. The influence of morphology on geldanamycin production in submerged fermentations of Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Lynne F; O'Cleirigh, Cormac C; O'Shea, Daniel G

    2008-07-01

    The diverse morphology of the filamentous organism Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus was characterised by image analysis under various environmental conditions. In the presence of surfactant compounds, a significant decrease in the mean pellet diameter was observed. Cell aggregation was also influenced by spore inoculum level, with high concentrations reducing pellet size. In addition, the dispersion of pellets was found to increase with the inclusion of glass beads to submerged shake-flask cultures. In all cases, production of the secondary metabolite geldanamycin was determined to be dependent on the morphological profile of the organism, with a concomitant increase of 88% in geldanamycin yield observed as the mean pellet diameter was reduced by 70%. Thus, to maximise the yield of geldanamycin, it is necessary to limit pellet formation in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus to an appropriate size.

  16. Influence of collagen addition on the thermal and morphological properties of chitosan/xanthan hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Horn, Marilia M; Martins, Virginia C A; Plepis, Ana Maria de Guzzi

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the collagen influence on thermal and morphological characteristics of chitosan/xanthan hydrogels for potential tissue engineering applications. Anionic collagen was prepared by selective hydrolysis of type I collagen found in bovine tendons. Chitosan was obtained from the partial deacetylation of squid pen β-chitin and xanthan was acquired from Fluka. The hydrogels were obtained in different ratios and were characterized by thermal and morphological analysis. FT-IR suggested only electrostatic interactions between NH3(+) groups of chitosan and COO(-) groups of xanthan and collagen. Thermogravimetric curves showed that hydrogels contain a great amount of water (above 98%) and the presence of collagen does not change this characteristic. Freezing-bound water transition in DSC curves was shifted to higher values due to the increase of water/polymer interaction, mainly when different ratios of chitosan and xanthan were used. SEM images showed sheet-form structures with the presence of collagen promoting an increase in pore size.

  17. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  18. Influence of botanic origin and amylose content on the morphology of starch nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeCorre, Déborah; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain

    2011-12-01

    Starch nanocrystals (SNC) are crystalline platelets resulting from the disruption of the semi-crystalline structure of starch granules by the acid hydrolysis of amorphous parts. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of botanic origin and amylose content of native starches on the morphology and properties of resulting nanoparticles. SNC were prepared from five different starches normal maize, high amylose maize, waxy maize, potato, and wheat; covering three botanic origins, two crystalline types, and three range of amylose content (0, 25, and 70%) for maize starch. Different types of nanocrystals were obtained with a thickness ranging between 4 and 8 nm and diameter from about 50 to 120 nm depending on the source. The comparison of their morphology, crystallinity, and rheological properties is proposed for the first time. For the same amylose content, maize, potato, and wheat resulted in rather similar size and crystallinity of SNC proving the limited influence of the botanic origin. For the same botanic origin (maize), differences in size were more important indicating the influence of the amylopectin content. Also, particles tended to show square shapes with increasing native starch's amylopectin content and A-type crystalinity. Thus, only high amylose content starches should be avoided to prepare SNC.

  19. Chondrocyte Morphology in Stiff and Soft Agarose Gels and the Influence of Fetal Calf Serum.

    PubMed

    Karim, Asima; Hall, Andrew C

    2017-05-01

    Changes to chondrocyte volume/morphology may have deleterious effects on extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism potentially leading to cartilage deterioration and osteoarthritis (OA). The factors controlling chondrocyte properties are poorly understood, however, pericellular matrix (PCM) weakening may be involved. We have studied the density, volume, morphology, and clustering of cultured bovine articular chondrocytes within stiff (2% w/v) and soft (0.2% w/v) three-dimensional agarose gels. Gels with encapsulated chondrocytes were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM; fetal calf serum (FCS) 1-10%;380 mOsm) for up to 7 days. Chondrocytes were fluorescently labeled after 1, 3, and 7 days with 5-chloromethylfluorescein-diacetate (CMFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) or 1,5-bis{[2-(di-methylamino)ethyl]amino}-4,8-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (DRAQ5) to identify cytoplasmic space or DNA and imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Chondrocyte density, volume, morphology, and clustering were quantified using Volocity™ software. In stiff gels after 7 d with 10% FCS, chondrocyte density remained unaffected and morphology was relatively normal with occasional cytoplasmic processes. However, in soft gels by day 1, chondrocyte volume increased (P = 0.0058) and by day 7, density increased (P = 0.0080), along with the percentage of chondrocytes of abnormal morphology (P < 0.0001) and enhanced clustering (P < 0.05), compared to stiff gels. FCS exacerbated changes to density (P < 0.01), abnormal morphology (P < 0.001) and clustering (P < 0.01) compared to lower concentrations at the same gel strength. Reduced gel stiffness and/or increased FCS concentrations promoted chondrocyte proliferation and clustering, increased cell volume, and stimulated abnormal morphology, producing similar changes to those occurring in OA. The increased penetration of factors in FCS into soft gels may be important in the development of

  20. Factors influencing breast-feeding among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Neifert, M; Gray, J; Gary, N; Camp, B

    1988-11-01

    During a 15-month study period, 244 adolescent mothers under 18 years of age were surveyed, of whom 53% elected to breast-feed. A subset of 60 primiparous breast-feeding adolescents were studied regarding the influence of several factors on the duration of breast-feeding. An attitude questionnaire was administered in the hospital within 48 hours of delivery. Follow-up interviews were obtained by telephone or in person at approximately 2 weeks and 2 months after birth. Eighty-three percent made the decision to breast-feed before the third trimester. Thirty-five percent discontinued breast-feeding within the first postpartum month, the most common reason being "nipple confusion" in the infant; 22% nursed for more than 1 month but less than 2 months, and 43% breast-fed for 2 months or more. None of the variables examined (maternal age, ethnic group, education level, involvement of the baby's father, timing of the breast-feeding decision, intended duration of breast-feeding, age at which formula supplementation was started, or availability of maternal support) was predictive of the duration of breast-feeding. Contrary to adolescent stereotypes, 65% of mothers chose breast-feeding because it was "good for the baby," and 67% identified the "closeness" of the nursing relationship as the most enjoyable part of breast-feeding. Twenty-eight percent cited modesty issues about breast-feeding as the greatest disadvantage, and 17% returned to work or school within the first 2 postpartum months, posing additional obstacles to breast-feeding. Our data suggest that adolescents are receptive to breast-feeding, but they may require close follow-up and anticipatory guidance tailored to their individual needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Antibacterial behavior of polypyrrole: The influence of morphology and additives incorporation.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fernando A G; Queiroz, Jefferson C; Macedo, Ericleiton R; Fernandes, Antonio W C; Freire, Naiana B; da Costa, Mateus M; de Oliveira, Helinando P

    2016-05-01

    The antibacterial behavior of polypyrrole (PPy) depends on a diversity of structural parameters such as surface area, aggregation level and additives (metal nanoparticles) incorporation. This paper summarizes the influence of different preparation procedures of PPy on action of resulting antibacterial composite against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The bactericidal action has been assigned to morphology (size of polypyrrole nanoparticles). The electrostatic interaction established between polymer nanoparticles and bacteria provokes the bacterial cell death and returns advantages in comparison with conventional composites of polypyrrole decorated with metal nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Computational analysis of nonlinear creep of polyphase aggregates: Influence of phase morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A. C.; Vel, S. S.; Gerbi, C.; Johnson, S. E.

    2014-09-01

    The constitutive laws of polyphase aggregates dominantly depend on the operative deformation mechanisms, phase morphology and modes, and environmental conditions. Each of these factors has the potential to dramatically affect bulk mechanical properties as well as the local stress and strain rate distributions. To focus on the effects of phase morphology, we have developed a rigorous multiscale approach based on asymptotic expansion homogenization. The proposed methodology has two fundamental goals: (1) accurately predict bulk behavior in aggregates by explicitly taking into account phase morphology and (2) calculate detailed distributions of strain rates, stresses, and viscosities in heterogeneous materials. The methodology is able to consider general nonlinear phase constitutive laws that relate strain rates to stresses, temperature, and other factors such as water fugacity and grain size. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing power law creep of computer-generated and natural polyphase systems and benchmarking the results against analytical solutions. As an outcome of this analysis, we find that the approximation of an aggregate as a power law material is reasonable for isotropic, homogeneous phase distributions but breaks down significantly with high degrees of phase organization. We also present distributions in strain rate, stress, and viscosity for different applied loading conditions. Results exhibit areas of high internal stresses and substantial localization. We describe and provide a freely available software package supporting these calculations.

  3. Growth factor signaling alters the morphology of the zebrafish ethmoid plate.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Brian J; Parsons, Trish E; Weinberg, Seth M; Vieira, Alexandre R; Szabo-Rogers, Heather L

    2017-02-28

    Craniofacial development relies on coordinated tissue interactions that allow for patterning and growth of the face. We know a priori that the Wingless, fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog and transforming growth factor-beta growth factor signaling pathways are required for the development of the face, but how they contribute to the shape of the face is largely untested. Here, we test how each signaling pathway contributes to the overall morphology of the zebrafish anterior neurocranium. We tested the contribution of each signaling pathway to the development of the ethmoid plate during three distinct time periods: the time of neural crest migration [10 hour post fertilization (hpf)]; once the neural crest is resident in the face (20 hpf); and finally at the time at which the cartilaginous condensations are being initiated (48 hpf). Using geometric morphometric analysis, we conclude that each signaling pathway contributes to the shape, size and morphology of the ethmoid plate in a dose-, and time-dependent fashion.

  4. Pangolin expression influences the development of a morphological novelty: beetle horns.

    PubMed

    Wasik, Bethany R; Moczek, Armin P

    2012-05-01

    Morphological diversity arises during development through the actions and interactions of diverse developmental pathways. Among those, the Wnt pathway is known to contribute to diverse developmental processes such as segmentation and the morphogenesis of appendages. Here, we characterize a transcription factor in the Wnt pathway, pangolin (pan), to investigate the role of Wnt signaling in the development of evolutionarily novel body structures: the horns of beetles. Beetle horns are highly diverse in size, shape, and number and develop principally from two major body regions: the head and prothorax. We investigate horns in two species of the genus Onthophagus using comparative in situ hybridization, larval RNA interference, and allometric measurements to analyze whether horn formation is regulated by pan and by extension the Wnt pathway. Our results illustrate that pan expression affects beetle horn growth in a species-, sex-, and location-specific manner in two morphologically distinct, yet closely-related, Onthophagus species.

  5. pangolin expression influences the development of a morphological novelty: beetle horns

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, Bethany R.; Moczek, Armin P.

    2011-01-01

    Morphological diversity arises during development through the actions and interactions of diverse developmental pathways. Among those, the Wnt pathway is known to contribute to diverse developmental processes such as segmentation and the morphogenesis of appendages. Here, we characterize a transcription factor in the Wnt pathway, pangolin (pan), to investigate the role of Wnt signaling in the development of evolutionarily novel body structures: the horns of beetles. Beetle horns are highly diverse in size, shape and number and develop principally from two major body regions: the head and prothorax. We investigate horns in two species of the genus Onthophagus using comparative in situ hybridization, larval RNA interference, and allometric measurements to analyze whether horn formation is regulated by pan and by extension the Wnt pathway. Our results illustrate that pan expression affects beetle horn growth in a species-, sex-, and location-specific manner in two morphologically distinct, yet closely-related, Onthophagus species. PMID:21998033

  6. What is the Main Potential Factor Influencing Ocular Protrusion?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinwei; Su, Yun; Song, Xuefei; Zhou, Huifang; Fan, Xianqun

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to establish the normal-range orbital parameters and to explore the relationships between ocular protrusion and various orbital morphological factors. Material/Methods A retrospective, non-comparative case series was conducted from January 2014 to December 2015. We recruited 56 subjects (112 orbits), including 27 males (21 to 87 years of age) and 29 females (22 to 88 years of age) in this study. Nine length measurements, 2 angle measurements, and 2 volume measurements of various aspects of the orbit were obtained using Mimics v18.0 software. The data were collected manually using a 3D measurement technique. Statistical analyses using t tests and Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the differences and relationships between the parameters, respectively. Results Ocular protrusion in both sexes was closely related to the following values: orbital soft tissue volume (OSTV) (males: r=0.61, p<0.001; females: r=0.39, p=0.003), orbital soft tissue volume/bony orbital volume (OSTV/BOV) (males: r=0.90, p<0.001; females: r=0.87, p<0.001), orbital width (males: r=0.40, p=0.003; females: r=0.53, p<0.001), orbital height (males: r=0.29, p=0.038; females: r=0.45, p<0.001), and globe diameter (males: r=0.52, p<0.001; females: r=0.48, p<0.001). No differences were found between the right and left orbits. Conclusions The study provides insight into the potential factors that influence ocular protrusion, which include the OSTV/BOV ratio, the shape of the orbital aperture, and the ocular axial length. The results of orbital surgery can be made more predictable by accounting for these 3 factors. The database and regression formula might provide support for surgical planning in the future. PMID:28053301

  7. Growth Hormone Influence on the Morphology and Size of the Mouse Meibomian Gland

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Sullivan, David A.; List, Edward O.; Kopchick, John J.; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that growth hormone (GH) plays a significant role in the regulation of the meibomian gland. To test our hypothesis, we examined the influence of GH on mouse meibomian gland structure. Methods. We studied four groups of mice, including (1) bovine (b) GH transgenic mice with excess GH; (2) GH receptor (R) antagonist (A) transgenic mice with decreased GH; (3) GHR knockout (−/−) mice with no GH activity; and (4) wild type (WT) control mice. After mouse sacrifice, eyelids were processed for morphological and image analyses. Results. Our results show striking structural changes in the GH-deficient animals. Many of the GHR−/− and GHA meibomian glands featured hyperkeratinized and thickened ducts, acini inserting into duct walls, and poorly differentiated acini. In contrast, the morphology of WT and bGH meibomian glands appeared similar. The sizes of meibomian glands of bGH mice were significantly larger and those of GHA and GHR−/− mice were significantly smaller than glands of WT mice. Conclusions. Our findings support our hypothesis that the GH/IGF-1 axis plays a significant role in the control of the meibomian gland. In addition, our data show that GH modulates the morphology and size of this tissue. PMID:26981277

  8. The potential influence of morphology on the evolutionary divergence of an acoustic signal

    PubMed Central

    Pitchers, W. R.; Klingenberg, C.P.; Tregenza, Tom; Hunt, J.; Dworkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of acoustic behaviour and that of the morphological traits mediating its production are often coupled. Lack of variation in the underlying morphology of signalling traits has the potential to constrain signal evolution. This relationship is particularly likely in field crickets, where males produce acoustic advertisement signals to attract females by stridulating with specialized structures on their forewings. In this study, we characterise the size and geometric shape of the forewings of males from six allopatric populations of the black field cricket (Teleogryllus commodus) known to have divergent advertisement calls. We sample from each of these populations using both wild-caught and common-garden reared cohorts, allowing us to test for multivariate relationships between wing morphology and call structure. We show that the allometry of shape has diverged across populations. However, there was a surprisingly small amount of covariation between wing shape and call structure within populations. Given the importance of male size for sexual selection in crickets, the divergence we observe among populations has the potential to influence the evolution of advertisement calls in this species. PMID:25223712

  9. The influence of slope on Spartium junceum root system: morphological, anatomical and biomechanical adaptation.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Fabio; Scippa, G S; Lasserre, B; Montagnoli, A; Tognetti, R; Marchetti, M; Chiatante, D

    2017-05-01

    Root systems have a pivotal role in plant anchorage and their mechanical interactions with the soil may contribute to soil reinforcement and stabilization of slide-prone slopes. In order to understand the responses of root system to mechanical stress induced by slope, samples of Spartium junceum L., growing in slope and in plane natural conditions, were compared in their morphology, biomechanical properties and anatomical features. Soils sampled in slope and plane revealed similar characteristics, with the exception of organic matter content and penetrometer resistance, both higher in slope. Slope significantly influenced root morphology and in particular the distribution of lateral roots along the soil depth. Indeed, first-order lateral roots of plants growing on slope condition showed an asymmetric distribution between up- and down-slope. Contrarily, this asymmetric distribution was not observed in plants growing in plane. The tensile strength was higher in lateral roots growing up-slope and in plane conditions than in those growing down-slope. Anatomical investigations revealed that, while roots grown up-slope had higher area covered by xylem fibers, the ratio of xylem and phloem fibers to root diameter did not differ among the three conditions, as also, no differences were found for xylem fiber cell wall thickness. Roots growing up-slope were the main contributors to anchorage properties, which included higher strength and higher number of fibers in the xylematic tissues. Results suggested that a combination of root-specific morphological, anatomical and biomechanical traits, determines anchorage functions in slope conditions.

  10. Influence of the marinating type on the morphological and sensory properties of horse meat.

    PubMed

    Vlahova-Vangelova, Dessislava B; Abjanova, Sholpan; Dragoev, Stefan G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of acid, alkaline and water-oil marinating on morphological changes and sensory properties of horse meat (m. Longissimus dorsi). Nine samples (C - control stored in air, AL - alkaline marinated in 2% polyphosphates and 2% sodium chloride brine solution, AC - acid marinated in 2% sodium lactate and 2% sodium chloride brine solution, WO - marinated in water-oil emulsion (50/50) contained and 2% sodium chloride and SC - marinated in 2% sodium chloride brine solution) were examined. After 24 h and 48 h of marinating changes in morphology of marinated meat, pH and sensory properties of raw and roasted samples were established. It was determined that sensory properties (aroma, flavor and tenderness) after roasting were classified as follows: AL48 > AL24 > AC24 > AC48 > SC48 > SC24 > WO24 > WO48 > С. Meat tenderness in AL48, AL24, AC24 and AC48 showed better results due to stronger morphological changes in connective and muscle tissues. Alkaline solutions were more suitable for horse meat marinating compared to acid solutions and the possible reason for strong action of alkaline solutions was lower internal meat pH. Alkaline marinating should be conducted for 24 h because after 48 h the meat acquires a soft and unusually tender texture. Water-oil marinating was not appropriate for horse meat.

  11. The influence of amphiphilic additional agents on the morphology and photoluminescence properties of calcium carbonate phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Yongren; Kang, Ming; Liu, Min; Wang, Feng; Chen, Kexu; Sun, Rong

    2017-06-01

    In order to investigate the effect of amphiphilic additional agents on the morphology (particle shape, particle size and particle size distribution) and photoluminescence performance of calcium carbonate phosphor, the phosphors AA-CaCO3:Eu3+ (AA = glycerol or sodium dodecyl sulfate) were synthesized by the microwave-assisted co-precipitation method using glycerol (Gly) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as amphiphilic additional agents (AA), respectively. The phase structure, morphology and luminescent properties of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, laser diffraction particle size analyzer and Fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The results showed that the phase structure and morphology of AA-CaCO3:Eu3+ changed along with different types and amount of amphiphilic additional agents evidently. The particle size of Gly-CaCO3 decreased to 1.383 µm when the volume ratio reached 8:2 (Gly:H2O). Photoluminescence (PL) spectra show that all the AA-CaCO3:Eu3+ phosphors exhibit strong red emission peak originating from electric-dipole transition 5D0 → 7F2 (614 nm) of Eu3+ ions and the amphiphilic molecules (Gly and SDS) had a huge influence on photoluminescence intensity.

  12. Silver nanoparticles: Influence of the temperature synthesis on the particles’ morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñero, S.; Camero, S.; Blanco, S.

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in the medical field, textile and food industries. These and other applications can be found due to the relation between its size and morphology. In this study the influence of bath temperature on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles are evaluated, which are obtained by chemical reduction of AgNO3 using three reducing agents: sodium borohydride, ascorbic acid and sodium citrate. The evaluation carried out by the traditional UV-vis Spectrophotometric analysis and with High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. The UV-vis spectrum of the silver colloids obtained by chemical reduction using three different reducing agents shows the effect of the temperature change on the growing and aggregative process. The final effect on the morphology, size and aggregation of the particles was confirmed by TEM. The result suggests a change in the growing mechanism, conducted by aggregation of atoms at 5 and 20°C degrees and aggregation of clusters at higher temperatures. Moreover in this work the main synthesis methods of nanomaterials are described.

  13. GROUP AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING CREATIVITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOCIAL COMMUNICATION, GROUP DYNAMICS, MOTIVATION, SOCIOMETRICS, MEASUREMENT, BEHAVIOR, CULTURE, PERSONALITY, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, APTITUDE TESTS, COMPUTERS, LEADERSHIP, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, FACTOR ANALYSIS.

  14. COX assembly factor ccdc56 regulates mitochondrial morphology by affecting mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1.

    PubMed

    Ban-Ishihara, Reiko; Tomohiro-Takamiya, Shiho; Tani, Motohiro; Baudier, Jacques; Ishihara, Naotada; Kuge, Osamu

    2015-10-07

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that alter their morphology in response to cellular signaling and differentiation through balanced fusion and fission. In this study, we found that the mitochondrial inner membrane ATPase ATAD3A interacted with ccdc56/MITRAC12/COA3, a subunit of the cytochrome oxidase (COX)-assembly complex. Overproduction of ccdc56 in HeLa cells resulted in fragmented mitochondrial morphology, while mitochondria were highly elongated in ccdc56-repressed cells by the defective recruitment of the fission factor Drp1. We also found that mild and chronic inhibition of COX led to mitochondrial elongation, as seen in ccdc56-repressed cells. These results indicate that ccdc56 positively regulates mitochondrial fission via regulation of COX activity and the mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1, and thus, suggest a novel relationship between COX assembly and mitochondrial morphology.

  15. Influence of transbilayer area asymmetry on the morphology of large unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Mui, B L; Döbereiner, H G; Madden, T D; Cullis, P R

    1995-01-01

    The morphological consequences of differences in the monolayer surface areas of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) have been examined employing cryoelectron microscopy techniques. Surface area was varied by inducing net transbilayer transport of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) in dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC):DOPG (9:1, mol:mol) LUVs in response to transmembrane pH gradients. It is shown that when DOPG is transported from the inner to the outer monolayer, initially invaginated LUVs are transformed to long narrow tubular structures, or spherical structures with one or more protrusions. Tubular structures are also seen in response to outward DOPG transport in DOPC:DOPG:Chol (6:1:3, mol:mol:mol) LUV systems, and when lyso-PC is allowed to partition into the exterior monolayer of DOPC:DOPG (9:1, mol:mol) LUVs in the absence of DOPG transport. Conversely, when the inner monolayer area is expanded by the transport of DOPG from the outer monolayer to the inner monolayer of non-invaginated LUVs, a reversion to invaginated structures is observed. The morphological changes are well described by an elastic bending theory of the bilayer. Identification of the difference in relaxed monolayer areas and of the volume-to-area ratio of the LUVs as the shape-determining factors allows a quantitative classification of the observed morphologies. The morphology seen in LUVs supports the possibility that factors leading to differences in monolayer surface areas could play important roles in intracellular membrane transport processes. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:8519993

  16. Variations in leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) skull morphology and body size: sexual and geographic influences

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion B.

    2015-01-01

    foot of male leopard cats is the main feature of sexual dimorphism among P. b. bengalensis (and probably among P. b. horsfieldii too). External body measurements also indicated the absence of sexual dimorphism among individuals of P. b. borneoensis. Inter-subspecific skull comparisons provided a morphometric basis for differentiating some subspecies. Prionailurus b. horsfieldii and P. b. bengalensis were distinguished only by a subtle difference in PM4 size, indicating that overall skull morphology does not appear to support their separate taxonomical status, in spite of the marked differences reported in their coat patterns. Geological events affecting the Sunda Shelf connection between the Sunda Islands and the mainland during the Last Glacial Maximum seem to have influenced directly the morphological pattern shown by leopard cat subspecies nowadays. PMID:26500818

  17. Variations in leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) skull morphology and body size: sexual and geographic influences.

    PubMed

    Sicuro, Fernando L; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion B

    2015-01-01

    foot of male leopard cats is the main feature of sexual dimorphism among P. b. bengalensis (and probably among P. b. horsfieldii too). External body measurements also indicated the absence of sexual dimorphism among individuals of P. b. borneoensis. Inter-subspecific skull comparisons provided a morphometric basis for differentiating some subspecies. Prionailurus b. horsfieldii and P. b. bengalensis were distinguished only by a subtle difference in PM(4) size, indicating that overall skull morphology does not appear to support their separate taxonomical status, in spite of the marked differences reported in their coat patterns. Geological events affecting the Sunda Shelf connection between the Sunda Islands and the mainland during the Last Glacial Maximum seem to have influenced directly the morphological pattern shown by leopard cat subspecies nowadays.

  18. Effects of Magma Supply on Volcanic Morphology along the Hotspot-Influenced Galapagos Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. M.; Meyer, J. D.; Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P.; MacDonald, K. C.

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between lava morphology and spreading rate, with a predominance of pillows at slow- spreading ridges and sheets at fast-spreading ridges, is well known although not well understood. New EM300 and DSL-120A sonar data collected along the GSC from {94.5°}-{89.5°} W in 2006 reveals that increasing magma supply decreases the tendency for eruptions to focus to point-source volcanic vents, and ultimately produces fissure-fed sheet flow eruptions. The change in spreading rate is insignificant over this area, thus the additional magma supply provided by the Galapagos hotspot is the main variable. The high- resolution sonar data images volcanic vents clearly so that their morphology may be analyzed. Approaching the focus of hotspot influence on the GSC at {91.5°}W from {95°}W, volcanic vents become progressively lower in relief and more elongate. Volcanic vent morphology consists primarily of individual cones from {95°}-{92.5°}W presumably produced by eruptions that focus quickly to point-source vents, although the average size of the cones decreases toward the east, as magma supply increases. Where the ridge topography changes from an axial valley to axial rise, the volcanic morphology also becomes dominated by axial volcanic ridges rather than cones. Finally, along the ridge segment farthest east we find that the volcanic vents are simply expressed as fissures. Although the volcanic vent morphology progressively changes, it is only along this last, easternmost segment at {91.5°}W that we find a significant abundance of sheet lava flows based on extensive visual coverage with Medea. Elsewhere, the ridge is composed almost exclusively of pillow lava flows. These results suggest that magma supply, rather than other variables, is responsible for the relationship between lava morphology and spreading rate. Unlike true fast-spreading ridges, each ridge segment on the GSC from {93°}- {91°}W contains a single large volcanic cone centered at the segment

  19. Assessing Morphological Changes due to Hydrometeorologic Influences in Mehendiganj Island, Meghna Estuary, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, A.; Ahmed, K. M.; Overeem, I.; Rogers, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river system is the largest river system in the world with massive discharge rates and sediment loads (annually over one billion tons). Sediment from these rivers has formed one of the largest and most densely populated deltas in the world. The combined rivers discharge through the Meghna estuary into the Bay of Bengal. The study area, Mehendiganj Island, is located in the morphologically dynamic Meghna estuary region of the delta and is characterized by rapid accretion and erosion. The net effect of erosion-accretion processes between the years 1987-2012 was analyzed using Landsat satellite imagery. Time-lapse series were generated over consecutive monsoon periods to estimate net erosion, and reveal that morphological changes are influenced by hydrological conditions (e.g. areal extent of flooding surface, hydrometeorology) driven by high river and sediment discharge, mainly during the seasonal monsoon (wet) period. The hydrological conditions and, consequently, the morphological changes exhibit a skewed pattern in annual distribution on account of high-energy condition prevailing during the monsoon. Total erosion and accretion within the study area was estimated to be about 5997 hectares and 2922 hectares, respectively. The measured annual erosion rates were as high as 1493 hectares, which were about 15% of the existing land surface within the study area. Discharge rates and sediment loads over the course of the study period were calculated using a numerical model (WBMsed) and was validated by comparisons with field-measured values. Moreover, hydrological parameters were analyzed in the context of statistical hydrology in order to obtain trends and were correlated with annual accretion and erosion rates attained from the satellite image analysis. Anomalies in the patterns of annual accretion and erosion rates were detected during extreme hydrometeorological events such as high floodwater years and cyclones. The morphological changes

  20. Influence of Morphology on Electrical Properties of Syndiotactic Polypropylene Compared with Those of Isotactic Polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong; Yoshino, Katsumi; Inoue, Takeo; Abe, Masaru; Uchikawa, Nobutaka

    1999-06-01

    The influence of morphology on the electrical properties of syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP) has been investigated in comparison with those of conventional isotactic polypropylene (iPP). The evolution of spherulite in sPP occurred at a lower temperature than in iPP, and the size of spherulites in sPP is much smaller than those of iPP, though the number of spherulites increases drastically. The influence of heat treatment on the electrical properties of sPP, such as conductivity and current density-electric field characteristics, is negligible in contrast to iPP, in which the conductivity increased drastically and breakdown strength decreased markedly due to growth of large spherulites upon heat treatment. These results are discussed in terms of morphological change upon heat treatment. As a result, sPP is confirmed to be an excellent candidate for a new insulating polymer for cables which can be used at a much higher operating temperature than that of widely used cables with cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) (90°C), because of its thermal stability, stable electrical properties even following heating treatment and mechanical flexibility due to the small spherulite size and low crystallinity under any preparation and treatment conditions.

  1. The influence of slope morphology on gullies: Terrestrial gullies in Lake George as analogues for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, S. W.; Paull, D. J.; Clarke, J. D. A.

    2013-06-01

    Terrestrial gullies provide a useful benchmark to compare martian gully forms against. We compare pole and equator facing gullies in an unnamed crater located in the martian southern mid-latitudes with gullies located on the Lake George escarpment south of Gearys Gap, New South Wales, Australia. Our investigations showed gully morphology at both sites is greatly influenced by thickness of readily erodable regolith, local slope and the presence or absence of bedrock exposures in the gullies. We found that the martian pole-facing gullies are the most similar to those of Lake George and both systems are therefore likely to have been eroded by liquid water. Although the martian gullies possessed much greater volumes of eroded sediment, they had not eroded to underlying bedrock. This contrasts with the smaller Lake George gully channels where numerous bedrock exposures, observed during our survey, affected their slope and overall morphology. Similarly, although dominated by dry processes, multiple bedrock exposures are present within the equator facing martian gullies affecting their cross sectional area and hence sediment transport. The studied sites all showed significant influence from initial slope angles, indicating that interpretation of gully forms such as slopes below the angle of repose, curved profiles and sinuosity must be placed in context of local environments. This analysis can be applied to other regions of Mars and Earth and provide a greater understanding of how geomorphologic processes operate on both worlds.

  2. Effect of childhood maltreatment and brain-derived neurotrophic factor on brain morphology

    PubMed Central

    Schmaal, Lianne; Jansen, Rick; Milaneschi, Yuri; Opmeer, Esther M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with altered brain morphology, which may partly be due to a direct impact on neural growth, e.g. through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. Findings on CM, BDNF and brain volume are inconsistent and have never accounted for the entire BDNF pathway. We examined the effects of CM, BDNF (genotype, gene expression and protein level) and their interactions on hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) morphology. Data were collected from patients with depression and/or an anxiety disorder and healthy subjects within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) (N = 289). CM was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Interview. BDNF Val66Met genotype, gene expression and serum protein levels were determined in blood and T1 MRI scans were acquired at 3T. Regional brain morphology was assessed using FreeSurfer. Covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed. Amygdala volume was lower in maltreated individuals. This was more pronounced in maltreated met-allele carriers. The expected positive relationship between BDNF gene expression and volume of the amygdala is attenuated in maltreated subjects. Finally, decreased cortical thickness of the ACC was identified in maltreated subjects with the val/val genotype. CM was associated with altered brain morphology, partly in interaction with multiple levels of the BNDF pathway. Our results suggest that CM has different effects on brain morphology in met-carriers and val-homozygotes and that CM may disrupt the neuroprotective effect of BDNF. PMID:27405617

  3. Spatial variability of factors influencing coastal change in the Western Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, G. K.; Solomon, S. M.; Forbes, D. L.; Atkinson, D. E.; Craymer, M.

    2005-06-01

    Coastal change in the western Canadian Arctic is influenced by coastal morphology, relative sea-level trend and sea-ice and storm climates. The spatial variability of these factors tends to follow general east west trends suggesting similar trends in coastal erosion hazard, processes and rates of coastal change. The spatial variability in the causes of coastal change is examined in the communities of Tuktoyaktuk, Sachs Harbour, Holman and Kugluktuk.

  4. Factors influencing selection of office furniture by corporations and universities

    Treesearch

    R. Bruce Anderson

    1976-01-01

    Evaluation of the factors that influence the selection of office furniture by large corporations and universities shows that quality, appearance, and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the appearance of the furniture were the key factors in the purchase of wooden furniture.

  5. Marketing Factors Influencing the Overall Satisfaction of Marriage Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael Lane; Cooper, Catherine; Gross, Kevin H.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-one married couples attending marriage education workshops were surveyed regarding price, product, place, people, and promotional marketing factors influencing their overall satisfaction as workshop participants. Findings suggest both similar and unique marketing factors influenced husbands' and wives' satisfaction. Recommendations for…

  6. Influence of laser irradiating energy on optical properties and morphology of TiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fang; Xu, Junqi; Su, Junhong; Dang, Shaokun

    2013-12-01

    The optical thin film parts are important components used in the laser systems. In practice, the electromagnetic field generated by the laser will make complex and diverse changes on the films, but the fundamental related with properties changing is not clear. For the purpose of recognizing the variation of TiO2 films irradiated by the laser, TiO2 films were prepared on K9 substrates at the same experimental conditions with the exception that the irradiating laser energy was different to investigate effects about the film's properties and morphology between the before and after irradiation. The following film's factors: transmittance, refractive index, extinction coefficient, film thickness and laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) are included in experimental results, also, morphology and roughness by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and a Taylor Surf CCI 2000 non-contact instrument are needed. The result showed that irradiating laser can decrease TiO2 films' transmittance and roughness, and increases the films' refractive index and LIDT. Furthermore, the results indicated that different laser energy cause the different morphology of films.

  7. Influence of Rheological and Thermal Properties of Polymers During Melt Spinning on Bicomponent Fiber Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayad, Esma; Cayla, Aurélie; Rault, François; Gonthier, Anne; LeBlan, Thierry; Campagne, Christine; Devaux, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Microfibers can be obtained by bicomponent spinning, followed by subsequent mechanical splitting. During process, two materials are coextruded in a die to form a unique complex morphology. Many factors affect these morphologies: melt viscosity and difference of crystallization temperature combined with polymers position. Consequently, fiber splitting can be improved by choosing an association of polymers with a stable interface and a poor adhesion. The aim of this study is to understand which intrinsic parameters of polymers allow to enhance bicomponent fiber's splitting. Bicomponent fibers (side-by-side and sheath/core) have been made with two grades of polypropylene and polyamide 6. Instable interface happens when a low-viscosity polymer flows around and encapsulates a high-viscosity material. Possible mechanism responsible of interface deformation is variation of shear rates through the morphology (highest shear rate is at the fiber periphery). DMA analysis reveals that fiber with polyamide as core exceeds the strength of fiber with polyamide as sheath. This increase of strength can be attributed to a better adhesion than fibers with PA6 in sheath. From experimental results, the position combined with the difference crystallization temperature shows poor or strong interface.

  8. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  9. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  10. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  11. Morphological Factor Estimation via High-Dimensional Reduction: Prediction of MCI Conversion to Probable AD

    PubMed Central

    Duchesne, Simon; Mouiha, Abderazzak

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel morphological factor estimate from structural MRI for disease state evaluation. We tested this methodology in the context of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with 349 subjects. The method consisted in (a) creating a reference MRI feature eigenspace using intensity and local volume change data from 149 healthy, young subjects; (b) projecting MRI data from 75 probable AD, 76 controls (CTRL), and 49 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in that space; (c) extracting high-dimensional discriminant functions; (d) calculating a single morphological factor based on various models. We used this methodology in leave-one-out experiments to (1) confirm the superiority of an inverse-squared model over other approaches; (2) obtain accuracy estimates for the discrimination of probable AD from CTRL (90%) and the prediction of conversion of MCI subjects to probable AD (79.4%). PMID:21755033

  12. Influence of flow regime and channel morphology on larval drift and dispersion in a large regulated river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, S.; Jacobson, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Larval drift is a critical phase of ontogenetic development for many species of lotic fishes. Downstream advection and dispersion of passively drifting larvae or eggs is controlled by the complex interaction of flow regime, channel planform, local channel morphology, and the resulting hydraulic gradients. In many regulated rivers, channel engineering and perturbations to the flow regime may disrupt natural drift processes and impact successful recruitment of native fishes. Here we explore the influence of flow regime and channel morphology on the downstream transport, dispersion, and retention of Pallid Sturgeon larvae, an endangered species endemic to the Mississippi River basin and the focus of significant conservation effort on the Missouri River. The transition from drifting free embryo to exogenously feeding larvae has been identified as a potential life stage bottleneck for the Pallid Sturgeon. Previous studies have indicated that river regulation and fragmentation may contribute to mortality of larval Pallid Sturgeon by reducing the extent of free-flowing river required by free embryos to complete the transition to exogenous feeding. Additionally, channelization may have increased the rate at which larvae are advected downstream out of the Missouri River basin. We describe the complex interactions and influence of morphologic and hydraulic factors on larval drift using an extensive library of hydroacoustic data collected along more than 1300 km of the Lower Missouri River. We use a one-dimensional advection-dispersion model to estimate total drift distance and employ the longitudinal dispersion coefficient as a measure to quantify the tendency towards dispersion or retention of passively drifting larvae in geomorphically distinct segments of river. We use a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to evaluate the sensitivity of drift and dispersion to in-channel navigation structures and flood hydrology. Based on insights gained from the analysis of field data and

  13. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  15. Environmental factors influencing the risk of autism

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Padideh; Kamali, Elahe; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Karahmadi, Mojgan

    2017-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability with age of onset in childhood (under 3 years old), which is characterized by definite impairments in social interactions, abnormalities in speech, and stereotyped pattern of behaviors. Due to the progress of autism in recent decades, a wide range of studies have been done to identify the etiological factors of autism. It has been found that genetic and environmental factors are both involved in autism pathogenesis. Hence, in this review article, a set of environmental factors involved in the occurrence of autism has been collected, and finally, some practical recommendations for reduction of the risk of this devastating disease in children are represented. PMID:28413424

  16. The influence of swimming demand on phenotypic plasticity and morphological integration: a comparison of two polymorphic charr species.

    PubMed

    Peres-Neto, Pedro R; Magnan, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    In northern freshwater lakes, several fish species have populations composed of discrete morphs, usually involving a divergence between benthic and limnetic morphs. Although it has been suggested that swimming demand plays an important role in morphological differentiation, thus influencing habitat selection, it is unclear how it affects reaction norms, patterns in character correlation, and levels of morphological integration. We examined whether swimming demand could induce morphological plasticity in the directions expected under divergent habitat selection, and evaluated its influence on the morphological integration in Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus) and brook charr ( S. fontinalis), two congeneric species exhibiting conspicuous and subtle resource polymorphism, respectively. We found that changes in morphology were induced by differential swimming demands in both species. The length of the pectoral fin was the character that responded most strongly according to the predicted morphological expectations under divergent habitat selection. High levels of morphological plasticity, relatively low levels of integration, and differences found in the morphological correlation structure among water velocity treatments suggest that constraints on morphological change are unlikely in either species, thus allowing great potential for phenotypic flexibility in both species. The magnitude of character integration, however, was larger for Arctic charr than for brook charr. This latter result is discussed in the light of the differences in the level of polymorphism between the two species in the wild. The results of the present study indicate that swimming demand alone may not be sufficient to generate the polymorphism encountered in nature. Given that both diet and swimming demands can induce morphological changes, it would be important to conduct experiments targeting the interaction between the morphological modules related to trophic and swimming demands.

  17. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Margaretha J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J

    2011-02-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the effects of endogenous and exogenous local dermal changes by body creams, hyperemia, vasoconstriction, and hydration. SAF was measured before and after local administration of body lotion, day cream, sunscreen, or self-browning cream and after attempts to remove these effects with alcohol swabs and washing. SAF was measured before and during three hyperemia maneuvers: vasoconstriction and on a dry and wet skin. The body lotion increased SAF by 18%. Day cream, sunscreen, and self-browning cream gave an increase of >100%. Except for body lotion, subsequent cleaning with alcohol swabs and washing with soap did not return SAF to baseline values. The effect of self-browning cream persisted for 2 weeks and that of sunscreen for 4 days. Hyperemia caused by a hot bath, capsicum cream, or postocclusive reactive hyperemia gave a decrease in SAF of, respectively, 18%, 22%, and 2.3%. Vasoconstriction caused by immersing the arm in cold water gave a 10% increase. Hydration state did not influence SAF. Measurement of SAF is strongly affected by several skin creams. This effect was often not fully corrected by alcohol swabs and washing with soap and may persist for many days. Marked hyperemia and vasoconstriction also influence SAF. We advise avoiding these potential error sources.

  18. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fan; van der Lijn, Fedde; Schurmann, Claudia; Zhu, Gu; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Hysi, Pirro G.; Wollstein, Andreas; Lao, Oscar; de Bruijne, Marleen; Ikram, M. Arfan; van der Lugt, Aad; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J.; Homuth, Georg; de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Daboul, Amro; Puls, Ralf; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Bevan, Liisa; Pausova, Zdenka; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Wright, Margaret J.; Wicking, Carol; Boehringer, Stefan; Spector, Timothy D.; Paus, Tomáš; Martin, Nicholas G.; Biffar, Reiner; Kayser, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes—PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1—in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications. PMID:23028347

  19. Early B cell factor 1 regulates adipocyte morphology and lipolysis in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Mejhert, Niklas; Fretz, Jackie A; Arner, Erik; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Ehrlund, Anna; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Gong, Xiaowei; Strömblad, Staffan; Douagi, Iyadh; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Dahlman, Ingrid; Daub, Carsten O; Rydén, Mikael; Horowitz, Mark C; Arner, Peter

    2014-06-03

    White adipose tissue (WAT) morphology characterized by hypertrophy (i.e., fewer but larger adipocytes) associates with increased adipose inflammation, lipolysis, insulin resistance, and risk of diabetes. However, the causal relationships and the mechanisms controlling WAT morphology are unclear. Herein, we identified EBF1 as an adipocyte-expressed transcription factor with decreased expression/activity in WAT hypertrophy. In human adipocytes, the regulatory targets of EBF1 were enriched for genes controlling lipolysis and adipocyte morphology/differentiation, and in both humans and murine models, reduced EBF1 levels associated with increased lipolysis and adipose hypertrophy. Although EBF1 did not affect adipose inflammation, TNFα reduced EBF1 gene expression. High-fat diet intervention in Ebf1(+/-) mice resulted in more pronounced WAT hypertrophy and attenuated insulin sensitivity compared with wild-type littermate controls. We conclude that EBF1 is an important regulator of adipose morphology and fat cell lipolysis and may constitute a link between WAT inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, adipose hypertrophy, and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early B-cell Factor 1 Regulates Adipocyte Morphology and Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Mejhert, Niklas; Fretz, Jackie A.; Arner, Erik; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Ehrlund, Anna; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Gong, Xiaowei; Strömblad, Staffan; Douagi, Iyadh; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Dahlman, Ingrid; Daub, Carsten O.; Rydén, Mikael; Horowitz, Mark C.; Arner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary White adipose tissue (WAT) morphology characterized by hypertrophy (i.e. fewer but larger adipocytes) associates with increased adipose inflammation, lipolysis, insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. However, the causal relationships and the mechanisms controlling WAT morphology are unclear. Herein, we identified EBF1 as an adipocyte-expressed transcription factor with decreased expression/activity in WAT hypertrophy. In human adipocytes, the regulatory targets of EBF1 were enriched for genes controlling lipolysis and adipocyte morphology/differentiation and in both humans and murine models, reduced EBF1 levels associated with increased lipolysis and adipose hypertrophy. Although EBF1 did not affect adipose inflammation, TNFα reduced EBF1 gene expression. High fat diet-intervention in Ebf1+/− mice resulted in more pronounced WAT hypertrophy and attenuated insulin sensitivity compared with wild-type littermate controls. We conclude that EBF1 is an important regulator of adipose morphology and fat cell lipolysis and may constitute a link between WAT inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, adipose hypertrophy and insulin resistance. PMID:24856929

  1. Influence of genetic and environmental factors on oral diseases and function in aged twins.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Y; Ikebe, K; Matsuda, K; Enoki, K; Ogata, S; Yamashita, M; Murakami, S; Hayakawa, K; Maeda, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantify the genetic and environmental contributions to oral disease and function in twins. Participants were middle-aged and old twins, 116 monozygotic and 16 dizygotic pairs whose mean age was 66·1 ± 10·3 (SD) years. Number of teeth, percentage of decayed, filled and missing teeth and periodontal status were recorded as indicators of oral disease. The widths of upper and lower dental arch served as indicators of morphological figures. Furthermore, stimulated salivary flow rate, occlusal force and masticatory performance were measured as indicators of oral function. Univariate genetic analysis with monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs was conducted to detect the fittest structural equation model of each outcome. Both number of teeth and periodontal status fitted the model composed of common environmental factor and unique environmental factor. Decayed, filled and missing teeth, morphological figures and measurements of oral function fitted the model composed of additive genetic factor and unique environmental factor. The model fitting of each measurement suggested that periodontal disease was mainly affected by environmental factors, while morphological figures and oral functions were influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.

  2. What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' oral health?

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of oral-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and oral health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, oral health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional limitations, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how oral health affects young people's daily lives.

  3. The influence of metal Mg on micro-morphology and crystallinity of spherical hexagonal boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ning Liu, Huan; Kan, Hongmin; Wang, Xiaoyang; Long, Haibo; Zhou, Yonghui

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The action mechanism of Mg to the synthesis of spherical BN was explored. • The influence of Mg content on the crystallinity of h-BN powders was studied. • Even if not added any template, the spherical h-BN could be prepared. - Abstract: This search used the boric acid and borax as a source of boron, urea as a nitrogen source, Mg as metal catalyst, and thus prepared different micro-morphology and crystallinity hexagonal boron nitride powders under a flowing ammonia atmosphere at a nitriding temperature of 750 °C. The effect of Mg content on the crystallinity and micro-morphology of hexagonal boron nitride powders was studied, and the Mg action mechanism was explored. Without the added surfactant, the graphitization index (GI) was 6.87, and the diameter of the spherical h-BN was bigger. When the added Mg were 0.1 g, 0.3 g, 0.5 g and 0.7 g, the (GI) decreased to 6.04, 5.67, 4.62 and 4.84, respectively. When the Mg content was higher (0.9 g), GI value increased rapidly, and the crystallinity became bad. When the Mg content was 0.5 g, the dispersion of h-BN powders was at its optimum and refinement apparently, and the crystallinity at its highest.

  4. Alginate based hybrid copolymer hydrogels--influence of pore morphology on cell-material interaction.

    PubMed

    Gnanaprakasam Thankam, Finosh; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2014-11-04

    Alginate based hybrid copolymer hydrogels with unidirectional pore morphology were prepared to achieve synergistic biological performance for cardiac tissue engineering applications. Alginate based hybrid copolymer (ALGP) were prepared using alginate and poly(propylene fumarate) (HT-PPF) units. Different hybrid bimodal hydrogels were prepared by covalent crosslinking using poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) and vinyl monomer viz acrylic acid, methyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate and N-N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide and ionic crosslinking with calcium. The morphologically modified hydrogels (MM-hydrogels) with unidirectional elongated pores and high aspect ratio were prepared. MM-hydrogels favour better mechanical properties; it also enhances cell viability and infiltration due to unidirectional pores. However, the crosslinkers influence the fibroblast infiltration of these hydrogels. Synthesis of collagen and fibroblast infiltration was greater for alginate copolymer crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate-acrylic acid (ALGP-PA) even after one month (288%). This hybrid MM-hydrogel promoted cardiomyoblast growth on to their interstices signifying its potent applications in cardiac tissue engineering.

  5. Corolla morphology influences diversification rates in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Gómez, José M.; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The role of flower specialization in plant speciation and evolution remains controversial. In this study the evolution of flower traits restricting access to pollinators was analysed in the bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores), a monophyletic group of ∼30 species and subspecies with highly specialized corollas. Methods A time-calibrated phylogeny based on both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences was obtained using a coalescent-based method, and flower morphology was characterized by means of morphometric analyses. Directional trends in flower shape evolution and trait-dependent diversification rates were jointly analysed using recently developed methods, and morphological shifts were reconstructed along the phylogeny. Pollinator surveys were conducted for a representative sample of species. Key Results A restrictive character state (narrow corolla tube) was reconstructed in the most recent common ancestor of Linaria sect. Versicolores. After its early loss in the most species-rich clade, this character state has been convergently reacquired in multiple lineages of this clade in recent times, yet it seems to have exerted a negative influence on diversification rates. Comparative analyses and pollinator surveys suggest that the narrow- and broad-tubed flowers are evolutionary optima representing divergent strategies of pollen placement on nectar-feeding insects. Conclusions The results confirm that different forms of floral specialization can lead to dissimilar evolutionary success in terms of diversification. It is additionally suggested that opposing individual-level and species-level selection pressures may have driven the evolution of pollinator-restrictive traits in bifid toadflaxes. PMID:24142920

  6. Sediment replenishment: Influence of the geometrical configuration on the morphological evolution of channel-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisacco, E.; Franca, M. J.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    Dams trap sediment in the upstream reservoir, which may lead to river bed armoring, streambank erosion and failure, channel incision and reduction of the morphological diversity in the downstream river reaches. The replenishment of sediment is a mitigation measure for this problem to be applied in river reaches downstream of dams. Previously performed field experiments always used one single volume of sediment replenishment. To explore different alternatives, the replenished volume was here divided in four deposits with the motivation to influence also the morphological evolution downstream. Six different geometrical configurations together with three submergence conditions of sediment replenishment were tested for the first time in a laboratory experiment and are herein discussed. The results of the sediment replenishment mitigation technique are described in terms of occupied surface of the flume bed and the temporal evolution of erosion and transport of the introduced sediments. It is shown that, under our experimental conditions, complete submersion of the replenishment volume results in complete erosion of the placed sediment, with a high persistence of the added material along the channel length. The geometrical configuration of the replenishment volume plays a key role for the evolution of bed-forms downstream. Parallel configurations lead to a wider spread of material across the channel. Alternated configurations are suitable to produce sediment clustering and high persistence of placed material in the channel. Observed periodic mounds, considered as the initiating condition for alternate bars, follow a wavelength related to the length of the replenishment when the replenishment volumes are alternating.

  7. Male genital morphology and its influence on female mating preferences and paternity success in guppies.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Pilastro, Andrea; Evans, Jonathan P

    2011-01-01

    In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively) with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice) and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice). We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced) matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species.

  8. Influence of aggregated morphology on carbon dioxide uptake of polythiophene conjugated organic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Shanlin; Du, Zhengkun; Huang, Wei; Yang, Renqiang

    2014-04-01

    Two novel thiophene-based conjugated networks CMPs-TTT and CMPs-DTBT were designed and prepared with different steric configuration building blocks by FeCl{sub 3} oxidative coupling polymerization. UV–vis spectra, FE-SEM and TEM images showed CMPs-TTT and CMPs-DTBT having the different aggregated morphologies. After porous analysis and gas adsorption test, the result showed CO{sub 2} uptake capacity of CMPs-DTBT with amorphous aggregation model is 2.88 times and 2.66 times greater than that of CMPs-TTT with large lamellar structure model at 273 K and 298 K (1.0 bar), respectively. As a result, this communication proved that change the topological structure of the polymer can influence the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity significantly. - Graphical abstract: Two thiophene-based conjugated networks were prepared with different steric configuration building blocks, and they show various CO{sub 2} uptake capacity and sorption isosteric enthalpies, although they have identical chemical constitution. - Highlights: • Topological-directed design and synthesis two conjugated porous polymers. • Two thiophene-based CMPs show different aggregated morphologies. • They exhibit similar porosity structure and different CO{sub 2} uptake capacity.

  9. Did Adult Diurnal Activity Influence the Evolution of Wing Morphology in Opoptera Butterflies?

    PubMed

    Penz, C M; Heine, K B

    2016-02-01

    The butterfly genus Opoptera includes eight species, three of which have diurnal habits while the others are crepuscular (the usual activity period for members of the tribe Brassolini). Although never measured in the field, it is presumed that diurnal Opoptera species potentially spend more time flying than their crepuscular relatives. If a shift to diurnal habits potentially leads to a higher level of activity and energy expenditure during flight, then selection should operate on increased aerodynamic and energetic efficiency, leading to changes in wing shape. Accordingly, we ask whether diurnal habits have influenced the evolution of wing morphology in Opoptera. Using phylogenetically independent contrasts and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, we confirmed our expectation that the wings of diurnal species have higher aspect ratios (ARs) and lower wing centroids (WCs) than crepuscular congeners. These wing shape characteristics are known to promote energy efficiency during flight. Three Opoptera wing morphotypes established a priori significantly differed in AR and WC values. The crepuscular, cloud forest dweller Opoptera staudingeri (Godman & Salvin) was exceptional in having an extended forewing tip and the highest AR and lowest WC within Opoptera, possibly to facilitate flight in a cooler environment. Our study is the first to investigate how butterfly wing morphology might evolve as a response to a behavioral shift in adult time of activity.

  10. Influences of semiconductor morphology on the mechanical fatigue behavior of flexible organic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Joo; Uk Lee, Yong; Yeon, Han-Wool; Shin, Hae-A.-Seul; Evans, Louise A.; Joo, Young-Chang

    2013-12-01

    The influence of crystalline morphology on the mechanical fatigue of organic semiconductors (OSCs) was investigated using 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) as a crystalline OSC and poly(triarylamine) (PTAA) as an amorphous OSC. During cyclic bending, resistances of the OSCs were monitored using the transmission-line method on a metal-semiconductor-metal structure. The resistance of the TIPS-pentacene increased under fatigue damage in tensile-stress mode, but no such degradation was observed in the PTAA. Both OSCs were stable under compressive bending fatigue. The formation of intergranular cracks at the domain boundaries of the TIPS-pentacene was responsible for the degradation of its electrical properties under tensile bending fatigue.

  11. Influence of additives on the growth morphology of γ-aminobutyric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. H.; Gabas, N.; Canselier, J. P.; Hiquily, N.

    1996-09-01

    Specific growth rates of the two main faces (120) and (001) of single γ-aminobutyric (GABA) crystals are measured in a cell under a laminar flow of supersaturated solution within a narrow temperature interval. In the non-diffusion-controlled region with respect to fluid velocity, the effect of supersaturation (σ) on face growth rates, Vhkl, fits the BCF model; furthermore, the crossing of the two curves V120( σ) and V001( σ) gives rise to morphological changes. Crystal growth studies in the presence of various types of additives show the pronounced influence of positively charged species, such as Cr 3+ and dodecyltrimethylammonium ions, on the relative growth rate {V 120}/{V 001}. This phenomenon is well explained by strong cation adsorption on the (001) face exposing the carboxylic groups of GABA zwitterions.

  12. Influences of semiconductor morphology on the mechanical fatigue behavior of flexible organic electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young-Joo; Yeon, Han-Wool; Shin, Hae-A-Seul; Joo, Young-Chang; Uk Lee, Yong; Evans, Louise A.

    2013-12-09

    The influence of crystalline morphology on the mechanical fatigue of organic semiconductors (OSCs) was investigated using 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) as a crystalline OSC and poly(triarylamine) (PTAA) as an amorphous OSC. During cyclic bending, resistances of the OSCs were monitored using the transmission-line method on a metal-semiconductor-metal structure. The resistance of the TIPS-pentacene increased under fatigue damage in tensile-stress mode, but no such degradation was observed in the PTAA. Both OSCs were stable under compressive bending fatigue. The formation of intergranular cracks at the domain boundaries of the TIPS-pentacene was responsible for the degradation of its electrical properties under tensile bending fatigue.

  13. RNA Polymerase Sigma Factor That Blocks Morphological Differentiation by Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Amy M.; Yoo, Narie J.; Losick, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor undergoes a complicated process of morphological differentiation that begins with the formation of an aerial mycelium and culminates in sporulation. Genes required for the initiation of aerial mycelium formation have been termed bld (bald), describing the smooth, undifferentiated colonies of mutant strains. By using an insertional mutagenesis protocol that relies on in vitro transposition, we have isolated a bld mutant harboring an insertion in a previously uncharacterized gene, SCE59.12c, renamed here rsuA. The insertion mutant exhibited no measurable growth defect but failed to produce an aerial mycelium and showed a significant delay in the production of the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin. The rsuA gene encodes an apparent anti-sigma factor and is located immediately downstream of SCE59.13c, renamed here sigU, whose product is inferred to be a member of the extracytoplasmic function subfamily of RNA polymerase sigma factors. The absence of rsuA in a strain that contained sigU caused a block in development, and the overexpression of sigU in an otherwise wild-type strain caused a delay in aerial mycelium formation. However, a strain in which both rsuA and sigU had been deleted was able to undergo morphological differentiation normally. We conclude that the rsuA-encoded anti-sigma factor is responsible for antagonizing the function of the sigma factor encoded by sigU. We also conclude that the sigU-encoded sigma factor is not normally required for development but that its uncontrolled activity obstructs morphological differentiation at an early stage. PMID:11566999

  14. The influence of tissue procurement procedures on RNA integrity, gene expression, and morphology in porcine and human liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Kap, Marcel; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Kubista, Mikael; Oomen, Monique; Arshad, Shazia; Riegman, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The advent of molecular characterization of tissues has brought an increasing emphasis on the quality of biospecimens, starting with the tissue procurement process. RNA levels are particularly affected by factors in the collection process, but the influence of different pre-analytical factors is not well understood. Here we present the influence of tissue specimen size, as well as the transport and freezing protocols, on RNA quality. Large, medium, and smaller porcine liver samples were stored either dry, on moist gauze, or in salt solution for various times, and then frozen in either liquid nitrogen or in pre-cooled isopentane. Large and small human liver samples were frozen in pre-cooled isopentane either immediately or after one hour at room temperature. The small samples were stored dry, on moist gauze, or in salt solution. RNA was isolated and RIN values were measured. The RNA for six standard reference genes from human liver was analyzed by RT-qPCR, and tissue morphology was assessed for artifacts of freezing. Experiments using porcine liver samples showed that RNA derived from smaller samples was more degraded after one hour of cold ischemia, and that cooled transport is preferable. Human liver samples showed significant RNA degradation after 1 h of cold ischemia, which was more pronounced in smaller samples. RNA integrity was not significantly influenced by the transport or freezing method, but changes in gene expression were observed in samples either transported on gauze or in salt solution. Based on observations in liver samples, smaller samples are more subject to gene expression variability introduced by post-excision sample handling than are larger samples. Small biopsies should be transported on ice and snap frozen as soon as possible after acquisition from the patient.

  15. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  16. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  17. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  18. Factors Influencing Young People's Conceptions of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughland, Tony; Reid, Anna; Walker, Kim; Petocz, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explains the importance of environmental education in schools for achieving environmental protection and improvement. Statistically examines factors that incline students to a 'relation' rather than an 'object' conception of the environment. Concludes that development of the former would seem to be an important aim of environmental education and…

  19. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation…

  20. Factors influencing large wildland fire suppression expenditures

    Treesearch

    Jingjing Liang; Dave E. Calkin; Krista M. Gebert; Tyron J. Venn; Robin P. Silverstein

    2008-01-01

    There is an urgent and immediate need to address the excessive cost of large fires. Here, we studied large wildland fire suppression expenditures by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Among 16 potential nonmanagerial factors, which represented fire size and shape, private properties, public land attributes, forest and fuel conditions, and geographic...

  1. Organizational factors influencing pharmacy practice change.

    PubMed

    Doucette, William R; Nevins, Justin C; Gaither, Caroline; Kreling, David H; Mott, David A; Pedersen, Craig A; Schommer, Jon C

    2012-01-01

    Some pharmacists have changed the focus of their practice from solely dispensing. Emerging services they have added include medication therapy management and other pharmacy services. To assess the effect of entrepreneurial orientation, resource adequacy, and pharmacy staffing on pharmacy practice change. A total of 1847 licensed U.S. pharmacists received 2 mail surveys as part of a larger national pharmacist survey. The core survey collected information about practice setting, prescription volume, and staffing. The supplemental survey assessed how the pharmacy had changed over the past 2 years to enable the delivery of pharmacy services. The amount of change was assessed by 12 items, which were summed to provide an aggregate change index. Five variables from organizational change literature were assessed as influences on practice change: proactiveness, risk taking, autonomy, work ethic, and adequacy of resources. In addition, the associations of pharmacist and technician staffing with practice change were assessed. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the aggregate change index as the dependent variable and the 7 potential influences on change as the independent variables. Four hundred usable surveys were analyzed. At least some level of practice change was reported in 60% of pharmacies surveyed. The linear regression analysis of the model was significant (P<.001) with an R-square value of 0.276. Significant influences on change were 2 dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation-proactiveness and autonomy-as well as adequacy of resources and pharmacy technician staffing. Many pharmacies reported that some aspects of their practice have changed, such as collecting patient information and documenting care. Few reported changes in asking patients to pay for pharmacy services. These findings support previous results, which show that the capacity for organizational change can be augmented by increasing proactiveness, autonomy among employees, and the

  2. Factors influencing nurses' participation in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Ann F; Warner, Andrea M; Fleming, Eileen; Schmidt, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Clinical research is necessary for developing nursing's body of knowledge and improving the quality of gastroenterology nursing care. The support and participation of nursing staff are crucial to conducting interventional research. Identification of characteristics of nurses and their work settings that facilitate or impede participation in research is needed. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine the effect of personal and professional characteristics and attitudes about nursing research on staff nurses' participation in a clinical nursing research project. A questionnaire measuring nurses' attitudes, perceptions of availability of support, and research use was distributed to staff nurses working on an endoscopy lab and two same-day surgery units where a nursing research study had recently been conducted. Investigator-developed items measured nurses' attitudes about the utility and feasibility of the interventions tested in the original study. A total of 36 usable questionnaires comprised the sample. Factor analysis of the two questionnaires resulted in three-factor (Importance of Research, Interest in Research, and Environment Support of Research) and two-factor (Value of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions [CBIs] and Participation in Study) solutions, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for the five factors between nurses who did (n = 19) and those who did not (n = 17) participate in the original study. The Participation in Research Factor was significantly negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.336, p < .05) and positively correlated with the importance of research factor (r = .501, p < .01). Importance of research was negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.435, p < .01) and positively correlated with value of CBI (r = .439, p < .01) and participation in study (r = .501, p < .01). Findings from the study will contribute to the body of knowledge about factors that

  3. Factors influencing workplace health promotion intervention: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rojatz, Daniela; Merchant, Almas; Nitsch, Martina

    2016-03-22

    Although workplace health promotion (WHP) has evolved over the last 40 years, systematically collected knowledge on factors influencing the functioning of WHP is scarce. Therefore, a qualitative systematic literature review was carried out to systematically identify and synthesize factors influencing the phases of WHP interventions: needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Research evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, ERIC, IBBS and PsycINFO) from 1998 to 2013, as well as by cross-checking reference lists of included peer-reviewed articles. The inclusion criteria were: original empirical research, description of WHP, description of barriers to and/or facilitators of the planning, implementation and/or evaluation of WHP. Finally, 54 full texts were included. From these, influencing factors were extracted and summarized using thematic analysis. The majority of influencing factors referred to the implementation phase, few dealt with planning and/or evaluation and none with needs assessment. The influencing factors were condensed into topics with respect to factors at contextual level (e.g. economic crisis); factors at organizational level (e.g. management support); factors at intervention level (e.g. quality of intervention concept); factors at implementer level (e.g. resources); factors at participant level (e.g. commitment to intervention) and factors referring to methodological and data aspects (e.g. data-collection issues). Factors regarding contextual issues and organizational aspects were identified across three phases. Therefore, future research and practice should consider not only the influencing factors at different levels, but also at different phases of WHP interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Factors that influence student ratings of instruction].

    PubMed

    Chae, Su Jin; Choung, Yun Hoon; Chung, Yoon Sok

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of student ratings of instruction by analyzing their relationships with several variables, including gender, academic rank, specialty, teaching time, and teaching method, at a medical school. This study analyzed the student ratings of 297 courses at Ajou University School of Medicine in 2013. SPSS version 12.0 was used to analyze the data and statistics by t-test, analysis of variance, and Scheffe test. There were no statistically significant differences in student ratings between gender, rank, and specialty. However, student ratings were significantly influenced by teaching times and methods (p<0.05). Student ratings were high for teaching times of 10 hours or more and small-group learning, compared with lectures. There was relatively mean differences in students ratings by teaching times, specialty and rank, although the difference in ratings was not statistically significant. Student ratings can be classified by teaching time and method for summative purposes. To apply student ratings to the evaluation of the performance of faculty, further studies are needed to analyze the variables that influence student ratings.

  5. Morphological models of radiate accretive growth and the influence of hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kaandorp, J A; Sloot, P M

    2001-04-07

    In many marine sessile organisms (for example sponges and stony corals) the skeleton is formed by an accretive growth process, where layers of material are secreted on top of each other in a surface normal deposition process. In many of these organisms the growth process exhibits a strong morphological plasticity due to differences in exposure to water movement. In general, many of these organisms tend to form thin-branching growth forms under sheltered conditions, while the growth form gradually transforms into a more compact shape when the exposure of water movement increases. In this paper, we investigate this phenomenon by combining a three-dimensional simulation model of radiate accretive growth driven by the local availability of simulated food particles and a model, based on the lattice Boltzmann method, for simulating food particle distributions caused by a combination of flow and diffusion. In the simulations two different models of a suspension feeder with accretive growth were compared. In the first model, the deposition process is exclusively driven by the local availability of food particles, in the second model the deposition process was determined by the combination of local amount of contact to the environment and availability of food particles. In the simulations it was found that hydrodynamics has a strong impact on the overall morphologies which develop in the accretive growth process. In the model exclusively driven by the local availability of food particles, column-shaped objects emerged under diffusion conditions, while more spherical and lobed object were found for the flow-dominated case. In the simulations, the Péclet number was varied independently from the Reynolds number, which was kept at a relatively low constant value. In a range of increasing Péclet numbers, indicating an increasing influence of hydrodynamics, the simulated morphologies gradually transformed from thin-branching ones into more spherical and compact morphologies in

  6. Morphological characteristics influencing the orthodontic extraction strategies for Angle's class II division 1 malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongwen; Han, Xianglong; Xu, Hui; Ai, Dongqing; Zeng, Huan; Bai, Ding

    2014-07-09

    Extraction has now been accepted widely in various malocclusions including Angle's class II division 1. However, the levels of scientific evidence in orthodontic treatment planning have been weak, and it is unlikely to systematically provide a rationale and consistent basis in decisions of extraction. This study was retrospectively designed to investigate the initial morphologic characteristics of class II division 1 subjects involving four different extraction strategies, to determine the relevant influential factors when choosing extraction strategies with the most commonly used mechanics and the principle of simplicity in orthodontic treatment based on cases diagnosed and treated by an experienced orthodontist. One hundred and ten samples of Angle's class II division 1 malocclusion with good facial and occlusal outcomes after orthodontic treatment were selected and divided into four groups according to different extraction patterns. For each case, pretreatment models and the lateral radiographs were analyzed. Significant variables of models and craniofacial structures of each group were identified by comparing the measurements using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of P < 0.05. Then, binary logistic regression analysis was used and a regression equation was established to quantify the correlations among the significant variables and their contributions to the extraction decisions. Molar relationship, lower anterior crowding, anterior Bolton index, and anterior overjet measured from models, as well as ANS-Xi-Pm, NBa-PtGn, Li-NsPog', U1-NPog and L1-NPog measured from lateral radiographs were found to be statistically significant. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that lower anterior crowding, molar relationship, and growth pattern were the three most relevant influential factors with a declining impact contributing to the extraction decisions for Angle's class II division 1 malocclusions. Angle's class II division 1

  7. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards midwifery: Tool validation.

    PubMed

    Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Automated morphological classification of galaxies based on projection gradient nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, I. M.; Abd El Aziz, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    The development of automated morphological classification schemes can successfully distinguish between morphological types of galaxies and can be used for studies of the formation and subsequent evolution of galaxies in our universe. In this paper, we present a new automated machine supervised learning astronomical classification scheme based on the Nonnegative Matrix Factorization algorithm. This scheme is making distinctions between all types roughly corresponding to Hubble types such as elliptical, lenticulars, spiral, and irregular galaxies. The proposed algorithm is performed on two examples with different number of image (small dataset contains 110 image and large dataset contains 700 images). The experimental results show that galaxy images from EFIGI catalog can be classified automatically with an accuracy of ˜93% for small and ˜92% for large number. These results are in good agreement when compared with the visual classifications.

  9. Automated morphological classification of galaxies based on projection gradient nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, I. M.; Abd El Aziz, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    The development of automated morphological classification schemes can successfully distinguish between morphological types of galaxies and can be used for studies of the formation and subsequent evolution of galaxies in our universe. In this paper, we present a new automated machine supervised learning astronomical classification scheme based on the Nonnegative Matrix Factorization algorithm. This scheme is making distinctions between all types roughly corresponding to Hubble types such as elliptical, lenticulars, spiral, and irregular galaxies. The proposed algorithm is performed on two examples with different number of image (small dataset contains 110 image and large dataset contains 700 images). The experimental results show that galaxy images from EFIGI catalog can be classified automatically with an accuracy of ˜93% for small and ˜92% for large number. These results are in good agreement when compared with the visual classifications.

  10. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, "male65," "female65" and "male85," that differed in talker (male/female) and presentation level (65/85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26 test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed.

  11. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.

  12. Clinically important factors influencing endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Vapaatalo, H; Mervaala, E

    2001-01-01

    The endothelium, a continuous cellular monolayer lining the blood vessels, has an enormous range of important homeostatic roles. It serves and participates in highly active metabolic and regulatory functions including control of primary hemostasis, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, platelet and leukocyte interactions with the vessel wall, interaction with lipoprotein metabolism, presentation of histocompatibility antigens, regulation of vascular tone and growth and further of blood pressure. Many crucial vasoactive endogenous compounds like prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide, endothelin, angiotensin, endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor, free radicals and bradykinin are formed in the endothelial cells to control the functions of vascular smooth muscle cells and of circulating blood cells. These versatile and complex systems and cellular interactions are extremely vulnerable. The balances may be disturbed by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors including psychological and physical stress, disease states characterized by vasospasm, inflammation, leukocyte and platelet adhesion and aggregation, thrombosis, abnormal vascular proliferation, atherosclerosis and hypertension. The endothelial cells are also the site of action of many drugs and exogenous toxic substances (e.g. smoking, alcohol). As markers and assays for endothelial dysfunction, direct measurement of nitric oxide, its metabolites from plasma and urine, functional measurement of vascular nitric oxide dependent responses and assay of different circulating markers have been used. In numerous pathological conditions (e.g. atherosclerosis, hypertension, congestive heart failure, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, renal failure, transplantation, liver cirrhosis) endothelial dysfunction has been described to exist. Some of them, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors and drug treatment will be discussed in this short review.

  13. Factors influencing early survival after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stock, P G; Estrin, J A; Fryd, D S; Payne, W D; Belani, K G; Elick, B A; Najarian, J S; Ascher, N L

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from all adult and pediatric liver transplants performed between January 1, 1983 and January 15, 1986 at the University of Minnesota Hospital and identify perioperative variables that predict patient survival and could aid in patient selection. Charts, intraoperative anesthesia records, blood bank records, flow sheets, outpatient records, and autopsy reports were examined in 45 pediatric and 15 adult patients who underwent primary orthotopic liver transplantation. Analysis of the data can be summarized as follows: (1) Pediatric patients whose coagulation parameters could not be corrected prior to operation and who consequently required preoperative exchange transfusion had poorer outcomes than those not requiring an exchange to correct coagulation parameters. (2) The rapid infusion technique for massive blood transfusion resulted in significantly decreased blood loss and intraoperative blood product replacement. (3) Twenty-four hour postoperative factor V levels were good predictors of survival. Patients with poor factor V levels required rigorous replacement of coagulation factors. (4) Pediatric patients with uncorrectable coagulopathies requiring immediate postoperative exchange transfusion had extremely high mortality.

  14. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, “male65,” “female65” and “male85,” that differed in talker (male∕female) and presentation level (65∕85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed. PMID:20968381

  15. During vertebrate development, arteries exert a morphological control over the venous pattern through physical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kilani, Alia; Lorthois, Sylvie; Nguyen, Thi-Hanh; Le Noble, Ferdinand; Cornelissen, Annemiek; Unbekandt, Mathieu; Boryskina, Olena; Leroy, Loïc; Fleury, Vincent

    2008-05-01

    The adult vasculature is comprised of three distinct compartments: the arteries, which carry blood away from the heart and display a divergent flow pattern; the capillaries, where oxygen and nutrient delivery from blood to tissues, as well as metabolic waste removal, occurs; and the veins, which carry blood back to the heart and are characterized by a convergent flow pattern. These compartments are organized in series as regard to flow, which proceeds from the upstream arteries to the downstream veins through the capillaries. However, the spatial organization is more complex, as veins may often be found paralleling the arteries. The factors that control the morphogenesis of this hierarchically branched vascular network are not well characterized. Here, we explain how arteries exert a morphological control on the venous pattern. Indeed, during vertebrate development, the following transition may be observed in the spatial organization of the vascular system: veins first develop in series with the arteries, the arterial and venous territories being clearly distinct in space (cis-cis configuration). But after some time, new veins grow parallel to the existing arteries, and the arterial and venous territories become overlapped, with extensive and complex intercalation and interdigitation. Using physical arguments, backed up by experimental evidence (biological data from the literature and in situ optical and mechanical measurements of the chick embryo yolk-sac and midbrain developing vasculatures), we explain how such a transition is possible and why it may be expected with generality, as organisms grow. The origin of this transition lies in the remodeling of the capillary tissue in the vicinity of the growing arteries. This remodeling lays down a prepattern for further venous growth, parallel to the existing arterial pattern. Accounting for the influence of tissue growth, we show that this prepatterned path becomes favored as the body extends. As a consequence, a

  16. Debris-covered glacier anomaly? Morphological factors controlling changes of Himalayan glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartari, Gianni; Salerno, Franco

    2017-04-01

    What are the main morphological factors that control the heterogeneous responses of debris-covered glaciers to climate change in the southern central Himalaya? A debate is open on the thinning rates of debris-covered glaciers compared to those of clean ones. Previous studies have adopted a deterministic approach, which is indispensable, but is also limiting in that only a few glaciers can be monitored. In this context, we propose a statistical analysis based on a wider glacier population as a complement (not an alternative) to these deterministic studies. We analysed 28 glaciers situated on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (central southern Himalaya) during the period 1992-2008. This study combines data that refer to the same glaciers over the same period that come from three recent published works (Nuimura et al., 2012, Salerno et al., 2012, Thakuri et al., 2014) in a unique statistical analysis. Generally, slope was the main morphological factor controlling the features and responses of the glaciers to climate change. In particular, the key points that emerged are as follows. 1) Reduced downstream slope is responsible for increased glacier elevation lowering. 2) The development of supraglacial ponds is a further controlling factor of glacier elevation change; that is, where supraglacial ponds develop, the glaciers register further surface lowering. 3) Debris coverage was not found to be significantly responsible for the development of supraglacial ponds, changes in elevation, or shifts in snow line altitude. However, we noted that this analysis is limited in that it considers, as a morphological factor, only the surface coverage and not the thickness of debris.

  17. Surface factors influencing burnout on flat heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ramilison, J.M.; Sadasivan, P.; Lienhard, J.H. )

    1992-02-01

    Ever since Kutateladze (1951) and Zuber (1958) proposed hydrodynamic descriptions of the burnout heat flux, q{sub max}, confusion has marked the scope of their agreed-upon equation. The problem stems from Kutateladze's original correlation. The mischief in all of this is that Zuber's sketches and other aspects of his derivation suggested that he was deriving an expression applicable to a flat heater. In fact, Zuber operated under the premise - later disproved by many investigators - that the geometry did not affect burnout. His comparison of his prediction with Kutateladze's correlation did not reflect a lack of care. It reflected the conviction that geometry did not matter. As one looks more closely, surface conditions become more important than once thought. The objective of this paper is to take into account the influence of the condition of the heater surface in recreating a correlation of q{sub max} for horizontal heaters.

  18. Factors Influencing Haptic Perception of Complex Shapes.

    PubMed

    Ehrich, Jonathan M; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of an object by arm movement and somatosensation is a serial process that relies on memories and expectations. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that this process involves breaking the object into component shapes (primitives). This was tested by having human subjects explore shapes composed of semicircular arcs, as well as quarter circles or quarter ellipses. The subjects' perception was reported using a visual display. In the first experiment, in which a series of semicircular arcs was presented, with offsets that differed from trial to trial, performance was consistent with the perception of two (left and right) semicircles. In the second experiment, subjects often failed to detect the quarter circles or quarter ellipses and again behaved as if the object was composed of two (top and bottom) semicircles. The results suggest that the synthesis of haptically sensed shapes is biased toward simple geometric objects and that it can be strongly influenced by expectations.

  19. Influence of psychological factors on grip strength.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jeffrey; Ring, David

    2008-12-01

    Grip strength is widely used to assess upper-extremity function. Although grip strength is a quantitative measure of function, grip strength is a reflection of both physical impairment as well as subjective, psychological factors. We investigated the determinants of grip strength with the hypothesis that psychological factors are associated with diminished grip strength. One hundred thirty-four patients with an isolated, discrete upper-extremity condition had grip strength measurements, and, as part of one of several prospective clinical studies, during the same visit they completed 2 or more of the following surveys: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Univariate and multivariable statistical analysis sought determinants of absolute grip strength and grip strength as a percentage of the opposite, uninvolved limb. Determinants of absolute grip strength included gender and grip strength of the uninvolved limb. The association between CES-D score and absolute grip strength was near significant but very weak. Multivariable regression analysis produced a best-fit model that retained grip strength of the uninvolved limb and CES-D scores. When grip strength of the involved limb was evaluated as a percentage of grip strength of the uninvolved limb, CES-D score was a weak but significant predictor, and patients recovering from a fracture of the distal radius had weaker grip strength than did patients with nontraumatic conditions. Depression scores were minimally associated with diminished grip strength. Psychological factors appear to affect disability (patient-reported health status) more than they affect performance-based measures of function. Prognostic II.

  20. Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.

  1. Developmental factors that influence sow longevity.

    PubMed

    Hoge, M D; Bates, R O

    2011-04-01

    The length of adult sow life is now recognized as both an economic and a welfare concern. However, there are no consistent definitions to measure sow longevity. This study assessed 6 different descriptions of longevity and determined their relationship with developmental performance factors. Longevity definitions included stayability (probability of a sow producing 40 pigs or probability of her reaching 4 parities), lifespan (number of parities a female has accumulated before culling), lifetime prolificacy (number of pigs born alive during the productive lifetime of a female), herd life (time from first farrowing to culling), and pigs produced per day of life. Data consisted of 14,262 records of Yorkshire females from both nucleus and multiplication herds across 21 farms from 4 seedstock systems. Within a subset of the data, information was available on the litter birth record of the female and her growth and composition data. Therefore, data were subdivided into 2 data sets, consisting of 1) data A, data from the farrowing records of a female, and 2) data B, data A and information from the litter birth record of a female and the growth and backfat data from a female. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the relationship of developmental factors and first farrowing record with longevity. Those factors that were significantly (P < 0.0001) associated with longevity, regardless of definition, were age at first farrowing, litter size at first farrowing and last farrowing, number of stillborn in the first litter, adjusted 21-d litter weight of the first litter, herd type, backfat, and growth. Within a contemporary group, fatter, slower growing gilts had a decreased risk of being culled. Additionally, sows that had more pigs born alive, fewer stillborn pigs, and heavier litters at 21 d of lactation in their first litter had a decreased risk of being culled. Furthermore, sows from nucleus herds experienced a greater risk of being culled. Many factors

  2. The influence of chloride on interface kinetics and morphology of copper electrodeposits on copper single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qunwei

    The influence of chloride on the kinetics and morphology of copper electrodeposition on copper single crystal in acidified copper sulfate solution was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by electro-analytical methods. AFM was employed to image deposits on low-index single crystal copper surface formed under potential control in a fluid electrolyte. The kinetic parameters for cathodic deposition of copper on the same surface from acid sulfate and chloride solution were measured by galvanostatic polarization. Chloride has a great influence on the morphology of copper deposits Isotropic structures were obtained only in high purity sulfate solution, whereas anisotropic structures emerged when even trace amounts of chloride were present. Chloride ion stabilizes terraces oriented along preferred directions on single crystal surfaces. While deposition in pure sulfate solution is uniform and isotropic, in chloride solution it is source (or nucleation) limited. As a result, step propagation is an important mechanism of growth in chloride solution. Spiral growth in particular was observed only in chloride solution. Chloride changes the reaction mechanism of copper deposition as well. When chloride is present, the reduction of the intermediate Cu+ to Cu becomes rate limiting. Additional effects of chloride include adsorption, desorption, and CuCl precipitation on the substrate. Three regions in the polarization curve were observed. The appearance of a limiting current in the second region is due to Precipitation of a film of CuCl, which blocks deposition. Charge transfer was not the rate-controlling step in this region. At higher current densities, in the third region, the dissolution of the CuCl film follows the Tafel form in dilute chloride solution. The Tafel slopes are 40 to 120 mV/decade in the Tafel region depending on chloride and cupric ion concentration. Chloride and oxygen are competitors in the copper cathodic reduction process. Chloride ions stabilize the

  3. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A

    2013-06-01

    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.

  4. Factors influencing the spinal motoneurons in development.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    The development of the spinal cord needs a concerted interaction of transcription factors activating diverse genes and signals from outside acting on the specification of the different cells. Signals have to act on the segments of the embryo as well as on the cranial-caudal axis and the dorso-ventral axis. Additionally the axons of the motoneurons have to cross the central nervous system barrier to connect to the periphery. Intensive anatomical studies have been followed by molecular characterization of the different subsets of transcription factors that are expressed by cells of the developing spinal cord. Here, intensive studies for the most important appearing cells, the motoneurons, have resulted in a good knowledge on the expression patterns of these proteins. Nonetheless motoneurons are by far not the only important cells and the concert activity of all cells besides them is necessary for the correct function and integrity of motoneurons within the spinal cord. This article will briefly summarize the different aspects on spinal cord development and focuses on the differentiation as well as the functionalization of motoneurons.

  5. Factors influencing the spinal motoneurons in development

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The development of the spinal cord needs a concerted interaction of transcription factors activating diverse genes and signals from outside acting on the specification of the different cells. Signals have to act on the segments of the embryo as well as on the cranial-caudal axis and the dorso-ventral axis. Additionally the axons of the motoneurons have to cross the central nervous system barrier to connect to the periphery. Intensive anatomical studies have been followed by molecular characterization of the different subsets of transcription factors that are expressed by cells of the developing spinal cord. Here, intensive studies for the most important appearing cells, the motoneurons, have resulted in a good knowledge on the expression patterns of these proteins. Nonetheless motoneurons are by far not the only important cells and the concert activity of all cells besides them is necessary for the correct function and integrity of motoneurons within the spinal cord. This article will briefly summarize the different aspects on spinal cord development and focuses on the differentiation as well as the functionalization of motoneurons. PMID:26807112

  6. Factors influencing consumer satisfaction with health care.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care.

  7. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on phenotypic partitioning of wing morphology and development in Sclerodermus pupariae (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Wei, Ke; Yang, Zhongqi; Jennings, David E; Duan, Jian J

    2016-05-19

    Wing phenotype polymorphism is commonly observed in insects, yet little is known about the influence of environmental cues on the development or expression of the alternative phenotypes. Here, we report how both biotic and abiotic factors affect the wing morph differentiation of a bethylid parasitoid Sclerodermus pupariae. The percentage of winged female parasitoid progeny increased exponentially with temperature between 20 °C to 30 °C. Low intensity light and short-day photoperiod conditions also significantly induced the development of winged morphs. Interestingly, wingless maternal parasitoids produced more winged progeny. Furthermore, the degree of wing dimorphism was significantly influenced by the interactions between light intensity and maternal wing morphs. The percentage of winged female progeny was not significantly influenced by foundress densities, but increased significantly with parasitoid brood sizes. However, the percentage of male progeny increased significantly with the densities of maternal parasitoids. Our findings highlight the phenotypic partitioning of wing morphology and development in the parasitoid S. pupariae under varied environmental cues, and reveal the most favourable conditions for the production of winged females in this bethylid wasp. It is thus possible to increase winged female parasitoid production for the purposes of biological control by manipulation of biotic and abiotic conditions.

  8. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on phenotypic partitioning of wing morphology and development in Sclerodermus pupariae (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Wei, Ke; Yang, Zhongqi; Jennings, David E.; Duan, Jian J.

    2016-01-01

    Wing phenotype polymorphism is commonly observed in insects, yet little is known about the influence of environmental cues on the development or expression of the alternative phenotypes. Here, we report how both biotic and abiotic factors affect the wing morph differentiation of a bethylid parasitoid Sclerodermus pupariae. The percentage of winged female parasitoid progeny increased exponentially with temperature between 20 °C to 30 °C. Low intensity light and short-day photoperiod conditions also significantly induced the development of winged morphs. Interestingly, wingless maternal parasitoids produced more winged progeny. Furthermore, the degree of wing dimorphism was significantly influenced by the interactions between light intensity and maternal wing morphs. The percentage of winged female progeny was not significantly influenced by foundress densities, but increased significantly with parasitoid brood sizes. However, the percentage of male progeny increased significantly with the densities of maternal parasitoids. Our findings highlight the phenotypic partitioning of wing morphology and development in the parasitoid S. pupariae under varied environmental cues, and reveal the most favourable conditions for the production of winged females in this bethylid wasp. It is thus possible to increase winged female parasitoid production for the purposes of biological control by manipulation of biotic and abiotic conditions. PMID:27194095

  9. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  10. Metal speciation in salt marsh sediments: Influence of halophyte vegetation in salt marshes with different morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Duarte, Bernardo; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro; Caçador, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes provide environmental conditions that are known to affect metal speciation in sediments. The elevational gradient along the marsh and consequent differential flooding are some of the major factors influencing halophytic species distribution and coverage due to their differential tolerance to salinity and submersion. Different species, in turn, also have distinct influences on the sediment's metal speciation, and its metal accumulation abilities. The present work aimed to evaluate how different halophyte species in two different salt marshes could influence metal partitioning in the sediment at root depth and how that could differ from bare sediments. Metal speciation in sediments around the roots (rhizosediments) of Halimione portulacoides, Sarcocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima was determined by sequentially extracting operationally defined fractions with solutions of increasing strength and acidity. Rosário salt marsh generally showed higher concentrations of all metals in the rhizosediments. Metal partitioning was primarily related to the type of metal, with the elements' chemistry overriding the environment's influence on fractionation schemes. The most mobile elements were Cd and Zn, with greater availability being found in non-vegetated sediments. Immobilization in rhizosediments was predominantly influenced by the presence of Fe and Mn oxides, as well as organic complexes. In the more mature of both salt marshes, the differences between vegetated and non-vegetated sediments were more evident regarding S. fruticosa, while in the younger system all halophytes presented significantly different metal partitioning when compared to that of mudflats.

  11. Factors influencing the, selection of state office furniture

    Treesearch

    R. Bruce Anderson; R. Bruce Anderson

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of the factors influencing the selection of office furniture by nine state governments shows that quality and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the purchasing regulations of the states were key f8CbrS in the use of wood furniture.

  12. Factors Influencing Agricultural Education Students' Choice to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawver, Rebecca Grace

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence senior level agricultural education students' choice to become secondary agriculture teachers. This study focused on the extent to which beliefs and attitude influenced students' intent to select a teaching secondary agricultural education as a career. The Agricultural…

  13. The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteath, Sheryl A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the influence of societal factors on Western women's perceptions of their bodies. Finds that women typically underestimate their body size and want smaller bodies; two-fifths of women expressed negative feelings about their bodies; and that body satisfaction is best explained by societal influences, self-esteem and body mass index.…

  14. Physical factors influence for biologic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Physical methods are widely spread in diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies, especially in oncology. The application of lasers occurred to be the perspective approach for combined methods application in medicine. Our work is devoted to investigation of thermal effect of focused laser beam in the model of Garding-Passi melanoma and also to the study of free radicals activity after the radiation with non-focused laser beam. The histologic alterations correlated with theoretical calculations of temperature distribution in irradiated tissue for energies 30-60 J attracted our interest. The values of maximal temperatures in depths of tissue for energies 30-60 J were carried out. In the model of permanent magnetic field (PMF) effect for mice ascites sarcoma 37 we have showed the linear dependence of tumor growth inhibition from the period of PMF treatment. Simultaneously we investigated PMF influence for free radical"s (FR) concentrations in mice organs and tissues and potentially appearing questions of PMF effect for biopotential in connection with FR formation. We have also studied the alterations of K, Na and Ca ions concentrations in ascetic fluids after animal"s PMF treatment. We revealed some reasons of biopotential generation and concluded that biopotential is not the result of specific ions gradient only but its generation can be followed by free radicals states appearance and occurrence of semi-conductivity in biostructures.

  15. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  16. Factors influencing subjective ranking of driver distractions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayesh; Ball, David J; Jones, Huw

    2008-01-01

    Driver distraction is recognised as a significant cause of road traffic incidents. However, the more objective measurement and ranking of the relative importance of individual distractions in contributing to incidents tend to differ from subjectively-held rankings. To investigate this, the present study examines qualitative characteristics of 14 driver distractions to determine if these characteristics might explain the discrepancy. The conclusion is that for laypersons, qualitative characteristics, such as equity and familiarity, do contribute to their ranking of driver distractions. This poses some interesting issues for risk managers. For example, should safety interventions aimed at driver distractions be based purely on factual data and life-saving potential, or should they accommodate qualitative factors of salience to the public?

  17. Factors influencing the genesis of neurosurgical technology.

    PubMed

    Bergman, William C; Schulz, Raymond A; Davis, Deanna S

    2009-09-01

    For any new technology to gain acceptance, it must not only adequately fill a true need, but must also function optimally within the confines of coexisting technology and concurrently available support systems. As an example, over the first decades of the 20th century, a number of drill designs used to perform cranial bone cuts appeared, fell out of favor, and later reappeared as certain supportive technologies emerged. Ultimately, it was the power source that caused one device to prevail. In contrast, a brilliant imaging device, designed to demonstrate an axial view of the lumbar spine, was never allowed to gain acceptance because it was immediately superseded by another device of no greater innovation, but one that performed optimally with popular support technology. The authors discuss the factors that have bearing on the evolution of neurosurgical technology.

  18. Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  19. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  20. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists.

    PubMed

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2017-06-19

    Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with

  1. Optical factors influencing the amplitude of accommodation.

    PubMed

    López-Alcón, Diego; Marín-Franch, Iván; Fernández-Sánchez, Vicente; López-Gil, Norberto

    2016-09-23

    The purpose of this work was to find plausible predictors among optical parameters that may explain the inter-individual differences in subjective amplitude of accommodation not explained by age. An exploratory multivariable regression analysis was carried out retrospectively on a dataset with 180 eyes from 97 subjects (ages ranged from 20 to 58years). Subjective amplitudes of accommodation were recorded with the use of a custom-made Badal system. A commercial aberrometer was used to obtain each eye's wavefront during the full range of accommodation. The plausible predictors under study were pupil diameter in the unaccommodated eye, its reduction with accommodation; fourth- and six-order Zernike spherical aberration, their reduction with accommodation, and subjective refraction. At a significance level of 0.05, only fourth- and sixth-order Zernike spherical aberration were found to be predictors of subjective amplitude of accommodation not explained by age, each explaining on their own less than 5% of the variance, and about 9% together. All other optical parameters explained less than 2%. Spherical aberration did not explain the greater variability for younger eyes than for older eyes. The remainder variability in amplitude of accommodation not explained by age or spherical aberration was about ±2.6D for 20year-old subjects, ±1.5D for 40year-old subjects, and about ±0.6D for 55year-old subjects. Optical factors do not seem to account for much of the inter-individual differences in subjective amplitude of accommodation. Most of the variability not explained by age must be due to anatomical differences and physiological, psychological, or other factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors that influence the career goals of pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Savage, Laney M; Beall, Jennifer W; Woolley, Thomas W

    2009-04-07

    To identify pharmacy students' short- and long-term career goals, including projected areas of practice, and evaluate the factors that influence these goals. A 19-question survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in each of the 4 professional pharmacy years. The results were analyzed to determine factors influencing students' career goals and to compare choices among the different classes. The most important factor considered by pharmacy students was work environment. Their career goals upon graduation were predominantly in the retail chain setting. However, 5 years after graduation, their projected areas of practice were divided between retail and clinical settings. Specific factors influence pharmacy students' short- and long-term career goals and identifying these factors may provide insights to faculty members in planning the experiential curriculum and assist prospective employers in increasing job retention among new pharmacists and improving their overall job satisfaction.

  3. HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome.

  4. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  5. Factors influencing single mother's employment status.

    PubMed

    Youngblut, J M; Brady, N R; Brooten, D; Thomas, D J

    2000-03-01

    Changes in the welfare system limit the length of time a person can receive welfare benefits, thus mandating employment for many current welfare recipients. Single mothers with young children who do not become employed will lose financial support for housing, food, clothing, and health care and place their own and their children's health and safety at risk. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore women's experiences of being unemployed and to examine the barriers to employment perceived by single mothers who expressed a desire to be employed. Nine mothers were recruited from a larger sample of single mothers who had participated in a quantitative study about employment conducted 1 to 2 years earlier. Using focus group interviews, mothers were asked what it was like to be a single mother, and then what barriers to their employment they perceived. Two dimensions were identified from the mothers' statements. The first, a sense of obligation, included themes of "being there" for their own and their child's benefit and doing what it takes to optimize the child's growth and development. The second, negotiating the obstacles, referred to problems regarding child care, lack of involvement of the child's father and lack of support from relatives and friends for the mother's efforts toward securing employment. These findings have important implications for welfare reform, namely, that efforts aimed at moving nonemployed single mothers into the workforce will fail if these factors are not considered.

  6. Colorectal anastomosis: factors influencing success1

    PubMed Central

    Tagart, R E B

    1981-01-01

    Preservation of the anal sphincters is now consistent with adequate extirpation of the majority of rectal neoplasms. However, there is still a troublesome incidence of leakage through colorectal anastomoses. A number of different factors, working in combination, are responsible for this. Although most problems have been solved, and the mortality is low, the anastomotic leak rate described in the present series, and in the hands of most surgeons, remains high. Efficient suturing without tension, adequate filling and drainage of the presacral space, and antimicrobial prophylaxis effective enough to abolish abdominal wound sepsis, have been applied. The large vessel arterial blood supply to the suture line is good but the microcirculation of the left colon and rectum, upon which suture line healing ultimately depends, is suspect. Reduction of blood viscosity by deliberate lowering of the haemoglobin level before operation has been practised in the hope of improving the microcirculatory flow. The results so far are encouraging and suggest that the method is worth a continued trial. PMID:7009860

  7. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  8. Depression Following Hysterectomy and the Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, Narjes; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Larki, Mona; Amini, Thoraya; Askari Sartavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecological surgeries performed worldwide. However, women undergoing this surgery often experience negative emotional reactions. Objectives This study was done with the aim of investigating the relationship between hysterectomy and postoperative depression, three months after the procedure. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the province of Khorasan-Razavi in Iran, using multistage sampling. At first, three cities were selected from the province by cluster sampling; then, five hospitals were randomly selected from these cities. The participants included 53 women who were hysterectomy candidates in one of the five selected hospitals. The participants’ demographics and hysterectomy procedure information were entered into two separate questionnaires, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was employed to measure their severity of depression before and three months after the surgery. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for the statistical analysis, and a P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The means and standard deviations of the participants’ depression scores before and three months after their hysterectomies were 13.01 ± 10.1 and 11.02 ± 10.3, respectively. Although the mean score of depression decreased three months after the hysterectomy, the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant relationship was found between the satisfaction with the outcome of the hysterectomy and the postoperative depression score (P = 0.04). Conclusions In this study, undergoing a hysterectomy did not show a relationship with postoperative depression three months after the surgery. Moreover, the only factor related to depression following a hysterectomy was satisfaction with the surgery. PMID:27066267

  9. Factors influencing lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration

    PubMed Central

    Stöhr, Wolfgang; Back, David; Dunn, David; Sabin, Caroline; Winston, Alan; Gilson, Richard; Pillay, Deenan; Hill, Teresa; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Gazzard, Brian; Leen, Clifford; Bansi, Loveleen; Fisher, Martin; Orkin, Chloe; Anderson, Jane; Johnson, Margaret; Easterbrook, Philippa; Gibbons, Sara; Khoo, Saye

    2010-01-01

    Background The protease inhibitors lopinavir and atazanavir are both recommended for treatment of HIV-infected patients. Considerable inter-individual variability in plasma concentration has been observed for both drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate which demographic factors and concomitant drugs are associated with lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration. Methods Data from the Liverpool TDM (therapeutic drug monitoring) Registry were linked with the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) study. For each patient, the first measurement of lopinavir (twice daily) or atazanavir [once daily, ritonavir boosted (/r) or unboosted] plasma concentration was included. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association of dose, gender, age, weight, ethnicity and concomitant antiretroviral drugs or rifabutin with log-transformed drug concentration, adjusted for time since last intake. Results Data from 439 patients on lopinavir (69% 400 mg/r, 31% 533 mg/r; 3% concomitant rifabutin) and 313 on atazanavir (60% 300 mg/r, 32% 400 mg/r, 8% 400 mg) were included. Multivariable models revealed the following predictors for lopinavir concentration: weight (11% decrease per additional 10 kg; P = 0.001); dose (25% increase for 533 mg/r; P = 0.024); and rifabutin (116% increase; P < 0.001). For atazanavir the predictors were dose (compared with 300 mg/r: 40% increase for 400 mg/r, 67% decrease for 400 mg; overall P < 0.001) and efavirenz (32% decrease; P = 0.016) but not tenofovir (P = 0.54). Conclusions This analysis confirms that efavirenz decreases atazanavir concentrations, and there was a negative association of weight and lopinavir concentrations. The strong impact of rifabutin on lopinavir concentration should be studied further. PMID:19897506

  10. Factors influencing lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Wolfgang; Back, David; Dunn, David; Sabin, Caroline; Winston, Alan; Gilson, Richard; Pillay, Deenan; Hill, Teresa; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Gazzard, Brian; Leen, Clifford; Bansi, Loveleen; Fisher, Martin; Orkin, Chloe; Anderson, Jane; Johnson, Margaret; Easterbrook, Philippa; Gibbons, Sara; Khoo, Saye

    2010-01-01

    The protease inhibitors lopinavir and atazanavir are both recommended for treatment of HIV-infected patients. Considerable inter-individual variability in plasma concentration has been observed for both drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate which demographic factors and concomitant drugs are associated with lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration. Data from the Liverpool TDM (therapeutic drug monitoring) Registry were linked with the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) study. For each patient, the first measurement of lopinavir (twice daily) or atazanavir [once daily, ritonavir boosted (/r) or unboosted] plasma concentration was included. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association of dose, gender, age, weight, ethnicity and concomitant antiretroviral drugs or rifabutin with log-transformed drug concentration, adjusted for time since last intake. Data from 439 patients on lopinavir (69% 400 mg/r, 31% 533 mg/r; 3% concomitant rifabutin) and 313 on atazanavir (60% 300 mg/r, 32% 400 mg/r, 8% 400 mg) were included. Multivariable models revealed the following predictors for lopinavir concentration: weight (11% decrease per additional 10 kg; P = 0.001); dose (25% increase for 533 mg/r; P = 0.024); and rifabutin (116% increase; P < 0.001). For atazanavir the predictors were dose (compared with 300 mg/r: 40% increase for 400 mg/r, 67% decrease for 400 mg; overall P < 0.001) and efavirenz (32% decrease; P = 0.016) but not tenofovir (P = 0.54). This analysis confirms that efavirenz decreases atazanavir concentrations, and there was a negative association of weight and lopinavir concentrations. The strong impact of rifabutin on lopinavir concentration should be studied further.

  11. Factors Influencing Patient Experience in Pediatric Neurology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suprit C; Sheth, Raj D; Burrows, James F; Rosen, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Hospitals have begun to shift toward patient-centered care because of the pay-for-performance system that was established by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In pediatrics, the needs of both the caregiver and the pediatric patient have to be taken into account. Pediatric practices have been shifting toward a family-centered approach, although the primary drivers have not been well defined. Identifying the key patient experiences that lead to higher patient satisfaction would enable a more meaningful clinical encounter. To better understand patient experience, we examined waiting time and the elements of the physician-patient interaction in pediatric neurology. We predict that the determining factor in patient satisfaction is the physician-patient interaction. Patient satisfaction surveys were sent to families via mail or e-mail after their ambulatory pediatric neurology visit. The visits took place between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, at one of multiple locations in a children's health system spanning four states. A Likert scale was used for these surveys, and a top-box method (measuring percent of survey questions were rated 5 out of 5) was used to filter data from this database. Statistical analysis using a Pearson correlation was used for data analysis, with likelihood to recommend practice as the dependent variable. The five survey questions that correlated most with overall likelihood to recommend the practice were cheerfulness of practice (r = 0.79); staff working together (r = 0.76); cleanliness of practice (r = 0.70); wait time at clinic, from entering to leaving (r = 0.66); and likelihood of recommending care provider (r = 0.65). Pediatric neurologists striving to enhance overall patient satisfaction in their practices should work toward providing an atmosphere that supports office staff cheerfulness, teamwork, and visit efficiency provided in a clean and friendly environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Influence of Morphological Awareness on College Students' Literacy Skills: A Path Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Fowler, Elizabeth B.; Apel, Kenn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to create a measure of morphological awareness with college students and to examine effects of morphological awareness on literacy abilities. Three morphological awareness measures, and spelling, word reading, and sentence comprehension tasks were administered to 214 undergraduate college students. Item…

  13. The Influence of Morphological Awareness on the Literacy Development of First-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Julie A.; Wood, Alexis; D'zatko, Kim W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we investigated whether first-grade children evidenced morphological awareness and whether they used their knowledge of morphological relations to guide their spelling. Second, we sought to determine whether children's morphological awareness abilities were predictive of their performance on…

  14. Influence of Morphological Awareness on College Students' Literacy Skills: A Path Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Fowler, Elizabeth B.; Apel, Kenn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to create a measure of morphological awareness with college students and to examine effects of morphological awareness on literacy abilities. Three morphological awareness measures, and spelling, word reading, and sentence comprehension tasks were administered to 214 undergraduate college students. Item…

  15. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  16. Factors Influencing Digital Reference Triage: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a think-aloud study conducted to identify factors that influence the decisions made by digital reference "triagers" when performing triage on questions received by digital reference services. This study follows and expands on a Delphi study that identified factors that triagers agreed on after the fact of their performance…

  17. Using mixed methods to identify factors influencing patient flow.

    PubMed

    Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy

    2009-11-01

    An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects.

  18. A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study surveyed high school personnel regarding high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules. Surveys were analyzed from 345 secondary schools selected at random from the National Center for Educational Statistics database. Factors affecting reported start times included…

  19. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  20. Factors Influencing Digital Reference Triage: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a think-aloud study conducted to identify factors that influence the decisions made by digital reference "triagers" when performing triage on questions received by digital reference services. This study follows and expands on a Delphi study that identified factors that triagers agreed on after the fact of their performance…

  1. A Study of Factors Influencing Teacher Salaries in Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callas, Rosanne; McCormick, Rod

    A study was done of factors affecting differences in teacher salaries among Vermont towns. Data from 181 local education agencies were used for the study and a set of factors was examined that included family, community, and school information to determine what influences teacher salaries. Findings included the following: (1) average teacher's…

  2. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  3. A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study surveyed high school personnel regarding high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules. Surveys were analyzed from 345 secondary schools selected at random from the National Center for Educational Statistics database. Factors affecting reported start times included…

  4. Professional Identity Development in Higher Education: Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarà-i-Molinero, Alba; Cascón-Pereira, Rosalía; Hernández-Lara, Ana beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the last few years, the interest on professional identity development (PID) and the factors that influence PID has become central in higher education (HE) literature. However, the knowledge developed in this domain has focussed on a factor at a time and on a degree or discipline, thus being difficult to have a general picture of all…

  5. Professional Identity Development in Higher Education: Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarà-i-Molinero, Alba; Cascón-Pereira, Rosalía; Hernández-Lara, Ana beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the last few years, the interest on professional identity development (PID) and the factors that influence PID has become central in higher education (HE) literature. However, the knowledge developed in this domain has focussed on a factor at a time and on a degree or discipline, thus being difficult to have a general picture of all…

  6. From Hospital to Nursing Facility: Factors Influencing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.; Auerbach, Charles; LaPorte, Heidi Heft

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the factors influencing decisions to send medicine-surgical (med-surg) patients home or to nursing facilities (NFs). The sample (n = 7,852) was taken from a large, urban, teaching, med-surg unit where discharges were documented and data collected over a two-and-a-half-year period. Using logistical regression, the factors found…

  7. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  8. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  9. From Hospital to Nursing Facility: Factors Influencing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.; Auerbach, Charles; LaPorte, Heidi Heft

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the factors influencing decisions to send medicine-surgical (med-surg) patients home or to nursing facilities (NFs). The sample (n = 7,852) was taken from a large, urban, teaching, med-surg unit where discharges were documented and data collected over a two-and-a-half-year period. Using logistical regression, the factors found…

  10. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  11. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  12. Factors influencing preferences of Korean people toward advance directives.

    PubMed

    Su Hyun Kim

    2011-07-01

    Although Korean society has begun to seek a way of utilizing advance directives, there is not much known about the factors influencing the average Korean person's preference toward advance directives. The purpose of this study was to examine factors, in addition to demographic variables, influencing preferences regarding advance directives. These include: to what extent people's awareness of advance directives, preferences of extending their life at the end of life, experience of illness and medical care, and family functioning independently influence the preferences toward advance directives. The participants were 382 community-dwelling Korean people. The data analysis was performed using hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. The findings showed that a majority of Korean people had a positive preference on advance directives and the factors influencing their preferences for advance directives were the preferences against the use of life-sustaining treatment at the end of life, a good self-rated heath status, and an unsatisfactory family functioning.

  13. Influence of morphology and surface conditions on defect properties of nanocrystalline zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, Jorge Antonio

    Performance of nanoscale ZnO-based systems depends on the nanomorphology and surface conditions, in particular surface defect states. We investigated the impact of the surface/interface phenomena on the defect-related properties for ZnO-containing nanocrystalline systems. To probe these surface-related effects we employed photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Among others, we studied ZnO-containing nanocrystalline specimens grown by wet precipitation with size and morphology controlled by the synthesis parameters. We observed a strong correlation between defect-related luminescence and morphological sample variations. For example, there was a consistent relationship between the surface/volume ratio and the relative intensity of the PL defect emission, indicating strong influence of the optically-active surface states. Commercially available ZnO nanopowders from several vendors were investigated by PL. Observation of the size effects was somewhat overshadowed by the sample-to-sample differences in quality, and thus defects' content and abundance. Temperature-dependent PL measurements in the bound-exciton (BEx) range were performed to elucidate surface-related corrections to the excitons thermodynamics. Specially, calculations for the excitonic activation energies indicated strong dependences of the nanocrystal size on the predominant BEx dissociation channels. Also, we observed nonlinear dependences of BEx peak broadening on temperature suggesting surface phonon contributions. We used remote plasma treatments to tailor surface defect properties of ZnO nanopowders. We report on the plasma-driven modifications of defect optical signatures such as BEx and visible luminescence. Besides, plasma treatments revealed size-dependent effects in the studied specimens. PL was used to study ZnO nanoparticles embedded into a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix by bulk polymerization. We found that the polymer encapsulation enhances room-temperature excitonic luminescence by

  14. Anatomy of the ulnar tunnel and the influence of wrist motion on its morphology.

    PubMed

    Ombaba, Jackson; Kuo, Meiying; Rayan, Ghazi

    2010-05-01

    To examine the anatomy of the ulnar tunnel, with emphasis on the pisohamate arcade and pisohamate hiatus, and study the influence of wrist kinematics on the morphology of these structures. Ten fresh-frozen cadaveric hands were dissected. The dimensions and relationships of the ulnar tunnel, pisohamate arcade, and pisohamate hiatus were recorded. The effect of 4 wrist positions on these dimensions and relationships was investigated. The ulnar tunnel has 3 compartments--proximal, middle, and distal relative to the pisiform-with variable morphologies, dimensions, and boundaries. In wrist neutral position, the length of the ulnar tunnel was 45 mm (range, 42 to 51 mm). The middle compartment was found to be the narrowest; the proximal, the widest, averaging 5.0 mm; and the pisohamate hiatus that separates the middle and distal compartments, highly dynamic. The length of the pisohamate arcade was 21.5 mm (range, 18.0 to 26.0 mm), and the length and width of the pisohamate hiatus were 11.0 mm (range, 9.8-11.5 mm) and 6.0 mm (range, 5.3 to 7.2 mm), respectively. During wrist extension, the ulnar nerve was under tension. Wrist flexion was the position that caused the most change in ulnar tunnel and pisohamate arcade and hiatus anatomy, causing the width of the proximal compartment to increase from 5.0 to 10.0 mm. During this motion, the shape of the pisohamate arcade changed from a C shape to linear, and the length increased to 24.5 mm (range, 19.3 to 28.5 mm). The pisohamate hiatus narrowed, its width decreased to 1.5 mm, and the deep branch of the ulnar nerve was somewhat compressed. The ulnar tunnel is a dynamic space with dimensions and relationships that are influenced by wrist motion. During ulnar tunnel surgery, all 3 compartments of the ulnar tunnel should be explored and decompressed, including the pisohamate hiatus, by releasing the pisohamate arcade. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effect of environmental change on the morphology of tidally influenced deltas over multi-decadal timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angamuthu, Balaji; Darby, Stephen; Nicholls, Robert

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of the geomorphological processes affecting deltas is essential to improve our understanding of the risks that deltas face, especially as human impacts are likely to intensify in the future. Unfortunately, there is limited reliable data on river deltas, meaning that the task of demonstrating the links between morphodynamic and environmental change is challenging. This presentation aims to answer the questions of how delta morphology evolves over multi-decadal timescales under multiple drivers, focussing on tidally-influenced deltas, as some of these, such as the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta are heavily populated. A series of idealised model simulations over 102 years were used to explore the influence of three key drivers on delta morphodynamics, both individually and together: (i) varying combinations of water and sediment discharges from the upstream catchment, (ii) varying rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR), and (iii) selected human interventions within the delta, such as polders, cross-dams and changing land cover. Model simulations revealed that delta progradation rates are more sensitive to variations in water discharge than variations in fluvial sediment supply. Unlike mere aggradation during RSLR, the delta front experienced aggradational progradation due to tides. As expected, the area of the simulated sub-aerial delta increases with increasing sediment discharge, but decreases with increasing water discharge. But, human modifications are important. For example, the sub-aerial delta shrinks with increasing RSLR, but it does not when the sub-aerial delta is polderised, provided the polders are restricted from erosion. However, the polders are vulnerable to flooding as they lose relative elevation and can make the delta building process unsustainable. Cross-dams built to steer zones of land accretion within the delta accomplish their local goal, but may not result in net land gain at the scale of the delta. Applying these

  16. The Influence of Variable Discharge on the Morphology of a Model Meandering River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverich, G. T.; Braudrick, C. A.; Sklar, L. S.; Dietrich, W.

    2006-12-01

    influencing restoration design methods that, in the past, have rarely considered the role of higher magnitude flows in shaping the channel and influencing rates of morphologic change.

  17. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  18. Hydrogeologic factors affecting cavern morphology within rocks of Mississippian age in northwestern Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, B.J. . Dept. of Geology); Brahana, J.V. . Geological Survey)

    1993-02-01

    Cavern development within rocks of Mississippian age in northwestern Arkansas is associated with two Pleistocene erosional features, the Boston Mountains Plateau and the Springfield Plateau. Each plateau is characterized by a distinct stratigraphic sequence with unique lithologies. Cavern morphology (both cross-sectional and planimetric) in each plateau is the result of the complex interaction of numerous hydrogeologic factors. Four of the most dominant factors which affect cavern morphology appear to be: (1) composition and continuity of the confining units; (2) percentage of noncarbonate components in rocks of the cavern-forming interval; (3) nature and distribution of ground-water recharge to the cavern-forming interval; and (4) nature and distribution of fractures within the cavern-forming interval. Network maze patterns typically develop in the Pitkin Limestone, the formation in which most caverns form beneath the Boston Mountains Plateau. The Pitkin, a bioclastic limestone, is confined above by siltstones of the Cane Hill member of the Hale Formation and below by shales of the Fayetteville Formation. The maze pattern indicates that these caverns probably were formed by dissolution of the rock matrix by diffuse recharge moving vertically through leaky confining units. Single rooms are the dominant cavern morphology in the chert-dominated Boone Formation of the Springfield Plateau. Where the concentration of chert is greater than 50 percent, the Boone lacks structural integrity and fails to develop well-integrated conduit networks. Point recharge features in outcrop areas of the Boone Formation are not visible in most of the Springfield Plateau because the insoluble residuum masks the upper bedrock surface. Where the Boone Formation is less than 7 meters thick, surface karst features are more prevalent.

  19. A morphological survey of root grooves and their influence on periodontal attachment loss

    PubMed Central

    Bhusari, Prashant A.; Chopra, Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal health reflects a balance between harmful and protective elements in the gingival marginal area. The total plaque mass, specific periodontopathogens, the tooth morphology, and local environmental factors may challenge this balance. The periodontal ligament attachment loss shifts this balance adversely toward the periodontal disease. Objectives The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the significance of proximal root grooves as a risk factor in the periodontal attachment loss; the effect of their dimensions and locations has been evaluated. Materials and methods One hundred (100) extracted formalin stored single rooted permanent anterior teeth were studied by staining with 0.1% toludine blue to visualize attached periodontal ligament remnants. On each tooth, the loss of attachment was measured from the cemento–enamel junction to the most coronal level of the stained periodontal ligament remnants. Results The prevalence of proximal root grooves was found to be 81% and a statistically significant greater loss of attachment was present on grooved than on non-grooved surfaces (p < 0.01). Conclusions Generally, there was direct relationship between groove location, its dimensions, and maximum loss of attachment. The results suggest that proximal root grooves should be considered in periodontal diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. PMID:23960505

  20. Quantitative Characterization of the Influence of the Nanoscale Morphology of Nanostructured Surfaces on Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay Vikram; Vyas, Varun; Patil, Rajendra; Sharma, Vimal; Scopelliti, Pasquale Emanuele; Bongiorno, Gero; Podestà, Alessandro; Lenardi, Cristina; Gade, Wasudev Namdev; Milani, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial infection of implants and prosthetic devices is one of the most common causes of implant failure. The nanostructured surface of biocompatible materials strongly influences the adhesion and proliferation of mammalian cells on solid substrates. The observation of this phenomenon has led to an increased effort to develop new strategies to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, primarily through nanoengineering the topology of the materials used in implantable devices. While several studies have demonstrated the influence of nanoscale surface morphology on prokaryotic cell attachment, none have provided a quantitative understanding of this phenomenon. Using supersonic cluster beam deposition, we produced nanostructured titania thin films with controlled and reproducible nanoscale morphology respectively. We characterized the surface morphology; composition and wettability by means of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. We studied how protein adsorption is influenced by the physico-chemical surface parameters. Lastly, we characterized Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus adhesion on nanostructured titania surfaces. Our results show that the increase in surface pore aspect ratio and volume, related to the increase of surface roughness, improves protein adsorption, which in turn downplays bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. As roughness increases up to about 20 nm, bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are enhanced; the further increase of roughness causes a significant decrease of bacterial adhesion and inhibits biofilm formation. We interpret the observed trend in bacterial adhesion as the combined effect of passivation and flattening effects induced by morphology-dependent protein adsorption. Our findings demonstrate that bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on nanostructured titanium oxide surfaces are significantly influenced by nanoscale morphological features. The

  1. Quantitative characterization of the influence of the nanoscale morphology of nanostructured surfaces on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay Vikram; Vyas, Varun; Patil, Rajendra; Sharma, Vimal; Scopelliti, Pasquale Emanuele; Bongiorno, Gero; Podestà, Alessandro; Lenardi, Cristina; Gade, Wasudev Namdev; Milani, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial infection of implants and prosthetic devices is one of the most common causes of implant failure. The nanostructured surface of biocompatible materials strongly influences the adhesion and proliferation of mammalian cells on solid substrates. The observation of this phenomenon has led to an increased effort to develop new strategies to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, primarily through nanoengineering the topology of the materials used in implantable devices. While several studies have demonstrated the influence of nanoscale surface morphology on prokaryotic cell attachment, none have provided a quantitative understanding of this phenomenon. Using supersonic cluster beam deposition, we produced nanostructured titania thin films with controlled and reproducible nanoscale morphology respectively. We characterized the surface morphology; composition and wettability by means of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. We studied how protein adsorption is influenced by the physico-chemical surface parameters. Lastly, we characterized Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus adhesion on nanostructured titania surfaces. Our results show that the increase in surface pore aspect ratio and volume, related to the increase of surface roughness, improves protein adsorption, which in turn downplays bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. As roughness increases up to about 20 nm, bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are enhanced; the further increase of roughness causes a significant decrease of bacterial adhesion and inhibits biofilm formation. We interpret the observed trend in bacterial adhesion as the combined effect of passivation and flattening effects induced by morphology-dependent protein adsorption. Our findings demonstrate that bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on nanostructured titanium oxide surfaces are significantly influenced by nanoscale morphological features. The

  2. Main Non-Clinical Factors Influencing Endodontic Referral.

    PubMed

    Broome, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Specialisation in endodontics allows for endodontic referrals by general dental practitioner (GDPs) and the study of factors influencing referral. These centre on a triad consisting of the referral process, non-clinical and clinical reasons for referral. Many non-clinical factors have been identified which may influence the referral process to the endodontist. A systematic review study was undertaken into the main non-clinical factors influencing endodontic referral by general dental practitioners to endodontists. Such awareness and appreciation of these factors benefits the commercial aspect of the referral practice, increases access by reducing barriers to care, and ultimately improves patient care. A literature search yielded three papers that met the eligibility criteria. All studies included were cross sectional survey studies completed by GDPs. The main non-clinical factors seen from the studies include: Availability. Personality, relationships and communication. Availability presented as a common thread throughout all the studies. In conclusion, endodontic referral is multifactorial and influenced by several factors, that are not related to the nature of the endodontic disease, and this is a dynamic process. Due to the lack of high level studies, and limitations of the available studies, further research is suggested into the relevant area of non-clinical endodontic factors for endodontic referral and thus allowing for further analysis.

  3. Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells

    PubMed Central

    Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Kubera, Marta; Lasoń, Władysław; Popiołek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Mika, Joanna; Wędzony, Krzysztof; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the dysregulation of the immune system is an important factor in the development of depression. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain. We hypothesized that prenatal stress (an animal model of depression) as a priming factor could affect microglial cells and might lead to depressive-like disturbances in adult male rat offspring. We investigated the behavioral changes (sucrose preference test, Porsolt test), the expression of C1q and CD40 mRNA and the level of microglia (Iba1 positive) in 3-month-old control and prenatally stressed male offspring rats. In addition, we characterized the morphological and biochemical parameters of potentially harmful (NO, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL12, CCR2, CXCR4) and beneficial (insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)) phenotypes in cultures of microglia obtained from the cortices of 1–2 days old control and prenatally stressed pups. The adult prenatally stressed rats showed behavioral (anhedonic- and depression-like) disturbances, enhanced expression of microglial activation markers and an increased number of Iba1-immunopositive cells in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The morphology of glia was altered in cultures from prenatally stressed rats, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Moreover, in these cultures, we observed enhanced expression of CD40 and MHC II and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6. Prenatal stress significantly up-regulated levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL12 and altered expression of their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4 while IGF-1 production was suppressed in cultures of microglia from prenatally stressed rats. Our results suggest that prenatal stress may lead to excessive microglia activation and contribute to the behavioral changes observed in depression in adulthood. PMID

  4. Progesterone as a morphological regulatory factor of the male and female gerbil prostate

    PubMed Central

    Fochi, Ricardo A; Santos, Fernanda C A; Goes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and oestrogen are the main active steroid hormones in the male and female reproductive system respectively. In female rodents progesterone (P4), together with testosterone and oestrogen, has an essential role in the regulation of the oestrous cycle, which influences the prostate physiology through their oscillations. In this work we investigated how the male and female prostate gland of Mongolian gerbils responds to surgical castration at the start of puberty and what are the effects of T, oestradiol (E2) and P4 replacement, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. We also examined the location of the main steroid receptors present in the prostate. In the castrated animals of both sexes an intense glandular regression, along with disorganization of the stromal compartment, and abundant hyperplasia was observed. The replacement of P4 secured a mild recovery of the glandular morphology, inducing the growth of secretory cells and restoring the androgen receptor (AR) cells. The administration of P4 and E2 eliminated epithelial hyperplasia and intensified gland hypertrophy, favouring the emergence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). In animals treated with T and P4, even though there are some inflammatory foci and other lesions, the prostate gland revealed morphology closer to that of control animals. In summary, through the administration of P4, we could demonstrate that this hormone has anabolic characteristics, promoting hyperplasia and hypertrophy, mainly in the epithelial compartment. When combined with E2 and T, there is an accentuation of glandular hypertrophy that interrupts the development of hyperplasia and ensures the presence of a less dysplastic glandular morphology. PMID:24205795

  5. Progesterone as a morphological regulatory factor of the male and female gerbil prostate.

    PubMed

    Fochi, Ricardo A; Santos, Fernanda C A; Goes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2013-12-01

    Testosterone (T) and oestrogen are the main active steroid hormones in the male and female reproductive system respectively. In female rodents progesterone (P4), together with testosterone and oestrogen, has an essential role in the regulation of the oestrous cycle, which influences the prostate physiology through their oscillations. In this work we investigated how the male and female prostate gland of Mongolian gerbils responds to surgical castration at the start of puberty and what are the effects of T, oestradiol (E2) and P4 replacement, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. We also examined the location of the main steroid receptors present in the prostate. In the castrated animals of both sexes an intense glandular regression, along with disorganization of the stromal compartment, and abundant hyperplasia was observed. The replacement of P4 secured a mild recovery of the glandular morphology, inducing the growth of secretory cells and restoring the androgen receptor (AR) cells. The administration of P4 and E2 eliminated epithelial hyperplasia and intensified gland hypertrophy, favouring the emergence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). In animals treated with T and P4, even though there are some inflammatory foci and other lesions, the prostate gland revealed morphology closer to that of control animals. In summary, through the administration of P4, we could demonstrate that this hormone has anabolic characteristics, promoting hyperplasia and hypertrophy, mainly in the epithelial compartment. When combined with E2 and T, there is an accentuation of glandular hypertrophy that interrupts the development of hyperplasia and ensures the presence of a less dysplastic glandular morphology. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2013 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  6. Influences on the Morphologic Response to Hurricane Sandy: Fire Island, NY (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, C. J.; Brenner, O.; Schwab, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    evolutionary history (decadal to millennial scale behavior) of the coastal system, which is controlled by the antecedent geology. Morphodynamic time series of decades to a century indicate that the central segment of the island is relatively stable, the eastern portion is experiencing shoreward retreat and the western portion is variable but generally stable. The processes driving the differential response on Fire Island are influenced by the geology/morphology of the inner shelf, which is shallowest offshore of central Fire Island and deepens to the east. Sand ridges dominate the shelf offshore of the western segment of the island and influence the distribution of wave energy reaching the coast. The pattern of differential response along the island to this extreme storm event is strikingly similar to variations documented in longer term behavior, suggesting storm response is predictable if the long-term morphodynamics and geology of a coastal system are fairly well understood.

  7. Influence of Divalent Cation on Morphology and Drug Delivery Efficiency of Mixed Polymer Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Deepika, Ramachandran; Girigoswami, Koyeli; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Girigoswami, Agnishwar

    2017-08-25

    Biopolymeric nanoparticles comprising chitosan-alginate have attracted interest in drug delivery due to their protective nature, biocompatibility, biodegradability and hydrophilicity. The present study was designed to encapsulate levofloxacin in chitosan-alginate hybrid gel for controlled release and to evaluate the effect of divalent alkaline earth metal ions (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+) on encapsulation efficiency and drug release kinetics considering their role in polyelectrolyte gelation method. Divalent metal ions control the rigidity and elasticity of the hydrogels and have ability to change the shape and size of nanostructure formed by chitosan-alginate. The particle size increases and encapsulation efficiency decreases with the size of the divalent ions. Spherical shaped particles were formed from Mg2+ and Ca2+, whereas Sr2+ and Ba2+ produced non-spherical particles. SEM image clearly shows transformation of sphere to truncated tetrahedron by Sr2+ and clear rod shape by Ba2+. Therefore, it is concluded that metal ions have significant influence on the morphology and drug encapsulation and release profile of the chitosan-alginate hybrid polymer nanoparticles. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Influence of different crosslinking systems on the mechanical and morphological properties of thermoplastic vulcanizates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patermann, Simone; Altstädt, Volker

    2015-05-01

    Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) combine the elastic properties of thermoset cross-linked rubbers with the melt processability of thermoplastics. The most representative examples of this class are the TPVs based on polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer rubber (EPDM). The PP/EPDM blends were produced by dynamic vulcanization in a continuous extrusion process. The influence of different crosslinking systems was studied with regard to cross-link density, compression set, tensile strength/elongation at break and morphology. With increasing peroxide concentration, the cross-link density increases, leading to a reduction of the compression set by 50 %. The same improvement is only reachable with twice the concentration of phenolic resin. Only the peroxide cross-linked blends show smaller dispersed EPDM particles with increasing peroxide concentration. With a peroxide concentration between 0.2 and 0.5 wt. %, a maximum in tensile strength and elongation at break was found. For the phenolic resin cross-linked blends, the tensile strength stays almost constant with increasing phenolic resin concentration and the elongation at break shows best results at 0.5 wt. % phenolic resin. Compared to batch processes, the results show different values, but comparable trends.

  9. ECM proteins in a microporous scaffold influence hepatocyte morphology, function, and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Kim, Myung Hee; Shirahama, Hitomi; Lee, Jae Ho; Ng, Soon Seng; Glenn, Jeffrey S.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that a three-dimensional (3D) culture environment and the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins facilitate hepatocyte viability and maintenance of the liver-specific phenotype in vitro. However, it is not clear whether specific ECM components such as collagen or fibronectin differentially regulate such processes, especially in 3D scaffolds. In this study, a series of ECM-functionalized inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) microporous scaffolds were fabricated and their influence on Huh-7.5 cell proliferation, morphology, hepatic-specific functions, and patterns of gene expression were compared. Both collagen and fibronectin promoted albumin production and liver-specific gene expression of Huh-7.5 cells, compared with the bare ICC scaffold. Interestingly, cells in the fibronectin-functionalized scaffold exhibited different aggregation patterns to those in the collagen-functionalized scaffold, a variation that could be related to the distinct mRNA expression levels of cell adhesion-related genes. Based on these results, we can conclude that different ECM proteins, such as fibronectin and collagen, indeed play distinct roles in the phenotypic regulation of cells cultured in a 3D environment. PMID:27897167

  10. Trabecular bone of growth plate origin influences both trabecular and cortical morphology in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingju; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Iuliano-Burns, Sandra; Seeman, Ego

    2011-07-01

    Skeletal fragility is common at metaphyseal regions of long bones. The cortices of this region are derived by coalescence of trabeculae around the periphery of the growth plate, not by periosteal apposition, as occurs in the diaphyses. We therefore hypothesized that trabecular bone in childhood predicted both cortical and trabecular morphology in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, we measured distal radial and tibial structure using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in 61 daughter-mother pairs, mean age 12.5 years (range 7 to 19 years) and 44.1 years (range 32 to 50 years), respectively. The daughters' trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), thickness, number, and separation predicted the corresponding traits in their mothers. Their trabecular BV/TV also predicted their mothers' cortical thickness (r = 0.32, p = .02). By contrast, the daughters' cortical thickness did not predict their mothers' cortical thickness. The daughters had higher trabecular BV/TV than their mothers (mean ± SD, radius 0.134 ± 0.024 versus 0.124 ± 0.033, p = .03; tibia 0.145 ± 0.021 versus 0.135 ± 0.032, p < .01) owing to greater trabecular number, not thickness, and less trabecular separation. Abnormalities in the development of metaphyseal trabecular bone are likely to influence fragility in both trabecular and cortical bone of this region in adulthood.

  11. Flexural properties, morphology and bond strength of fiber-reinforced posts: influence of post pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Braga, Neilor Mateus Antunes; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Messias, Danielle Cristine Furtado; Rached-Junior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Oliveira, Camila Fávero; Silva, Ricardo Gariba; Silva-Sousa, Yara T Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of surface pretreatments of fiber-reinforced posts on flexural strength (FS), modulus of elasticity (ME) and morphology of these posts, as well as the bond strength (BS) between posts and core material. Fifty-two fiber posts (smooth and serrated) were assigned to 4 groups (n=13): no treatment (control), 10% hydrogen peroxide (HP) for 10 min (HP-10), 24% HP for 1 min (HP-24) and airborne-particle abrasion (Al(2)O(3)). To evaluate FS and ME, a 3-point bending test was performed. Three posts of each group were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Composite resin was used as the core build-up and samples were sectioned to obtain microtensile sticks. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). For FS, significant differences were observed between posts type and surface pretreatment (p<0.05), with the highest means for the smooth posts. Al2O3 provided higher FS than HP-24. Al(2)O(3) promoted higher ME than HP-24 and control. SEM images revealed partial dissolution of the resin matrix in all treated groups. The smooth posts had higher BS and FS than serrated posts (p<0.05). Mechanical properties of the glass fiber posts and the bond strength between posts and composite material were not altered by the surface treatments, except for airborne-particle abrasion that increased the post elastic modulus.

  12. ECM proteins in a microporous scaffold influence hepatocyte morphology, function, and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Kim, Myung Hee; Shirahama, Hitomi; Lee, Jae Ho; Ng, Soon Seng; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-11-29

    It is well known that a three-dimensional (3D) culture environment and the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins facilitate hepatocyte viability and maintenance of the liver-specific phenotype in vitro. However, it is not clear whether specific ECM components such as collagen or fibronectin differentially regulate such processes, especially in 3D scaffolds. In this study, a series of ECM-functionalized inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) microporous scaffolds were fabricated and their influence on Huh-7.5 cell proliferation, morphology, hepatic-specific functions, and patterns of gene expression were compared. Both collagen and fibronectin promoted albumin production and liver-specific gene expression of Huh-7.5 cells, compared with the bare ICC scaffold. Interestingly, cells in the fibronectin-functionalized scaffold exhibited different aggregation patterns to those in the collagen-functionalized scaffold, a variation that could be related to the distinct mRNA expression levels of cell adhesion-related genes. Based on these results, we can conclude that different ECM proteins, such as fibronectin and collagen, indeed play distinct roles in the phenotypic regulation of cells cultured in a 3D environment.

  13. Influence of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles on gastrointestinal microflora and morphology of enterocytes of quails.

    PubMed

    Sawosz, Ewa; Binek, Marian; Grodzik, Marta; Zielińska, Marlena; Sysa, Pawel; Szmidt, Maciej; Niemiec, Tomasz; Chwalibog, André

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-nano) on microbial profile of caecum and morphology of enterocytes in duodenum of Japanese quail, as a model animal for poultry. Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) (10 d old) were randomly divided into four groups (15 quails each) and located into four cages for 12 days. Quails were fed with granulated diets given ad libitum and had free access to drinking water. Ag-nano were added to drinking water at concentrations of 0, 5, 15 and 25 mg/kg. At the end of the experiment, the animals were killed and samples of duodenum and caeca microflora were collected. This initial investigation demonstrated that silver nanoparticles did not influence emphatically microflora of quail caecum; however, water containing 25 mg/kg of Ag-nano significantly increased the population of lactic acid bacteria. Furthermore, Ag-nano did not show any damaging properties on enterocytes of duodenal villi.

  14. The wills of older people: risk factors for undue influence.

    PubMed

    Peisah, C; Finkel, S; Shulman, K; Melding, P; Luxenberg, J; Heinik, J; Jacoby, R; Reisberg, B; Stoppe, G; Barker, A; Firmino, H; Bennett, H

    2009-02-01

    As people live longer, there is increasing potential for mental disorders to interfere with testamentary distribution and render older people more vulnerable to "undue influence" when they are making a will. Accordingly, clinicians dealing with the mental disorders of older people will be called upon increasingly to advise the courts about a person's vulnerability to undue influence. A Subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to establish consensus on the definition of undue influence and the provision of guidelines for expert assessment of risk factors for undue influence. International jurisdictions differ in their approach to the notion of undue influence. Despite differences in legal systems, from a clinical perspective, the subcommittee identified some common "red flags" which might alert the expert to risk of undue influence. These include: (i) social or environmental risk factors such as dependency, isolation, family conflict and recent bereavement; (ii) psychological and physical risk factors such as physical disability, deathbed wills, sexual bargaining, personality disorders, substance abuse and mental disorders including dementia, delirium, mood and paranoid disorders; and (iii) legal risk factors such as unnatural provisions in a will, or provisions not in keeping with previous wishes of the person making the will, and the instigation or procurement of a will by a beneficiary. This review provides some guidance for experts who are requested by the courts to provide an opinion on the risk of undue influence. Whilst international jurisdictions require different thresholds of proof for a finding of undue influence, there is good international consensus on the clinical indicators for the concept.

  15. [Factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and improvement strategies].

    PubMed

    López Alonso, Sergio R; Gálvez González, María; Amezcua, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and to find improvement strategies. Qualitative research using SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths, opportunities). Nurses were selected deliberately in eight groups according to predetermined criteria. Analysis included categorization and relationship of factors and strategies. 81 participants were included in groups of 7-12 range. 45 categories were identified with 212 factors: 12 weaknesses (50 factors), 10 strengths (44 factors), 12 threats (68 factors) and 11 opportunities (50 factors). In addition, 32 categories were identified with 53 strategies: 14 categories of W-T strategies (42 strategies), 3 categories of S-T strategies (11 strategies), 5 categories of W-O strategies (13 strategies) and 10 categories of S-O strategies (41 strategies). Nurses identified numerous factors, mainly threats. The strategies are focused on W-T but they also suggest many but weak 5-0 strategies due to the low potential of the opportunities and strengths perceived.

  16. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program.

  17. Which Morphological Characteristics Are Most Influenced by the Host Matrix in Downy Mildews? A Case Study in Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Fabian; Ndambi, Beninweck; Thines, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of molecular phylogenetics, species concepts in the downy mildews, an economically important group of obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogens, have mostly been based upon host range and morphology. While molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed a narrow host range for many downy mildew species, others, like Pseudoperonospora cubensis affect even different genera. Although often morphological differences were found for new, phylogenetically distinct species, uncertainty prevails regarding their host ranges, especially regarding related plants that have been reported as downy mildew hosts, but were not included in the phylogenetic studies. In these cases, the basis for deciding if the divergence in some morphological characters can be deemed sufficient for designation as separate species is uncertain, as observed morphological divergence could be due to different host matrices colonised. The broad host range of P. cubensis (ca. 60 host species) renders this pathogen an ideal model organism for the investigation of morphological variations in relation to the host matrix and to evaluate which characteristics are best indicators for conspecificity or distinctiveness. On the basis of twelve morphological characterisitcs and a set of twelve cucurbits from five different Cucurbitaceae tribes, including the two species, Cyclanthera pedata and Thladiantha dubia, hitherto not reported as hosts of P. cubensis, a significant influence of the host matrix on pathogen morphology was found. Given the high intraspecific variation of some characteristics, also their plasticity has to be taken into account. The implications for morphological species determination and the confidence limits of morphological characteristics are discussed. For species delimitations in Pseudoperonospora it is shown that the ratio of the height of the first ramification to the sporangiophore length, ratio of the longer to the shorter ultimate branchlet, and especially the length and

  18. Factors That Influence the Practice of Elective Induction of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jennifer; Low, Lisa Kane

    2012-01-01

    Elective induction of labor has been linked to increased rates of prematurity and rising rates of cesarean birth. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate current trends in induction of labor scholarship focusing on evidence-based factors that influence the practice of elective induction. A key word search was conducted to identify studies on the practice of elective induction of labor. Analysis of the findings included clustering and identification of recurrent themes among the articles with 3 categories being identified. Under each category, the words/phrases were further clustered until a construct could be named. A total of 49 articles met inclusion criteria: 7 patient, 6 maternity care provider, and 4 organization factors emerged. Only 4 of the articles identified were evidence based. Patient factors were divided into preferences/convenience, communication, fear, pressure/influence, trust, external influences, and technology. Provider factors were then divided into practice preferences/convenience, lack of information, financial incentives, fear, patient desire/demand, and technology. Organization factors were divided into lack of enforcement/accountability, hospital culture, scheduling of staff, and market share issues. Currently, there is limited data-based information focused on factors that influence elective induction of labor. Despite patient and provider convenience/preferences being cited in the literature, the evidence does not support this practice. PMID:22843006

  19. Influence of polychemotherapy on the morphology of metastases and kidney of resistant RLS-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zonov, E V; Voronina, E I; Zenkova, M A; Ageeva, T A; Ryabchikova, E I

    2013-03-01

    Polychemotherapy (PCT), widely used for the antitumor treatment has a pronounced toxic effect on the organism, and its cytostatic effect sometimes is canceled by multidrug resistance of a neoplasia. Comprehension of the nature and development of pathological changes caused by the PCT during the treatment of cancer is very important to improve the efficiency of the therapy and to clarify the mechanisms of tumor-host interactions. This study was aimed to examine PCT impact on kidney cells and tissues in mice with transplanted resistant lymphosacroma (RLS) and to analyze morphology of metastases of the tumor in kidney during PCT. Male mice CBA/LacSto (55 animals) were intramuscularly implanted in the right hind paw by 105 cells/ml of tumor RLS (a diffuse large B-cell lymphosarcoma) with multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype. Mice received combination of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg), oncovin (0.1 mg/kg), hydroxydaunorubicin (4 mg/kg), and prednisone (5 mg/kg) accordingly to CHOP scheme each 7 days after inoculation of the tumor. The kidneys were sampled on days 1, 3 and 7 after each series of injection of PCT preparations and processed for light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 and Apaf-1 proteins also was performed. Tumor RLS produced metastases comprised of small cells in the kidneys of mice after 8 days post inoculation. Application of PCT resulted in destruction of small-cell metastases and development of many large-cell metastases in kidney. Application of PCT induced the development of prominent damage of nephron cells, primarily in S3 segments of proximal tubules. Even one series of PCT caused reduction of basal plasma folds in these cells and alteration of mitochondria. Damage of proximal tubules and involvement of distal tubules, renal bodies and interstitial tissue in the pathologic process, increased during the experiment. This work presents the description of morphological changes in kidney as well as of the tumor metastases

  20. The influence of the San Gregorio fault on the morphology of Monterey Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, C.M.G.; Ryan, William B. F.; Eittreim, S.; Donald, Reed

    1998-01-01

    A side-scan sonar survey was conducted of Monterey Canyon and the San Gregorio fault zone, off shore of Monterey Bay. The acoustic character and morphology of the sonar images, enhanced by SeaBeam bathymetry, show the path of the San Gregorio fault zone across the shelf, upper slope, and Monterey Canyon. High backscatter linear features a few kilometers long and 100 to 200 m wide delineate the sea-floor expression of the fault zone on the shelf. Previous studies have shown that brachiopod pavements and carbonate crusts are the source of the lineations backscatter. In Monterey Canyon, the fault zone occurs where the path of the canyon makes a sharp bend from WNW to SSW (1800 m). Here, the fault is marked by NW-SE-trending, high reflectivity lineations that cross the canyon floor between 1850 m and 1900 m. The lineations can be traced to ridges on the northwestern canyon wall where they have ~ 15 m of relief. Above the low-relief ridges, bowl-shaped features have been excavated on the canyon wall contributing to the widening of the canyon. We suggest that shear along the San Gregorio fault has led to the formation of the low-relief ridges near the canyon wall and that carbonate crusts, as along the shelf, may be the source of the high backscatter features on the canyon floor. The path of the fault zone across the upper slope is marked by elongated tributary canyons with high backscatter floors and 'U'-shaped cross-sectional profiles. Linear features and stepped scarps suggestive of recent crustal movement and mass-wasting, occur on the walls and floors of these canyons. Three magnitude-4 earthquakes have occurred within the last 30 years in the vicinity of the canyons that may have contributed to the observed features. As shown by others, motion along the fault zone has juxtaposed diverse lithologies that outcrop on the canyon walls. Gully morphology and the canyon's drainage patterns have been influenced by the substrate into which the gullies have formed.

  1. Neuronal Survival, Morphology and Outgrowth of Spiral Ganglion Neurons Using a Defined Growth Factor Combination

    PubMed Central

    Schwieger, Jana; Warnecke, Athanasia; Lenarz, Thomas; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Scheper, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The functionality of cochlear implants (CI) depends, among others, on the number and excitability of surviving spiral ganglion neurons (SGN). The spatial separation between the SGN, located in the bony axis of the inner ear, and the CI, which is inserted in the scala tympani, results in suboptimal performance of CI patients and may be decreased by attracting the SGN neurites towards the electrode contacts. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) can support neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. Methods Since brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is well known for its neuroprotective effect and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) increases neurite outgrowth, we evaluated if the combination of BDNF and CNTF leads to an enhanced neuronal survival with extended neurite outgrowth. Both NTFs were added in effective high concentrations (BDNF 50ng/ml, CNTF 100ng/ml), alone and in combination, to cultured dissociated SGN of neonatal rats for 48 hours. Results The neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth were significantly higher in SGN treated with the combination of the two NTFs compared to treatment with each factor alone. Additionally, with respect to the morphology, the combination of BDNF and CNTF leads to a significantly higher number of bipolar neurons and a decreased number of neurons without neurites in culture. Conclusion The combination of BDNF and CNTF shows a great potential to increase the neuronal survival and the number of bipolar neurons in vitro and to regenerate retracted nerve fibers. PMID:26263175

  2. Neuronal Survival, Morphology and Outgrowth of Spiral Ganglion Neurons Using a Defined Growth Factor Combination.

    PubMed

    Schwieger, Jana; Warnecke, Athanasia; Lenarz, Thomas; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Scheper, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The functionality of cochlear implants (CI) depends, among others, on the number and excitability of surviving spiral ganglion neurons (SGN). The spatial separation between the SGN, located in the bony axis of the inner ear, and the CI, which is inserted in the scala tympani, results in suboptimal performance of CI patients and may be decreased by attracting the SGN neurites towards the electrode contacts. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) can support neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. Since brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is well known for its neuroprotective effect and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) increases neurite outgrowth, we evaluated if the combination of BDNF and CNTF leads to an enhanced neuronal survival with extended neurite outgrowth. Both NTFs were added in effective high concentrations (BDNF 50 ng/ml, CNTF 100 ng/ml), alone and in combination, to cultured dissociated SGN of neonatal rats for 48 hours. The neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth were significantly higher in SGN treated with the combination of the two NTFs compared to treatment with each factor alone. Additionally, with respect to the morphology, the combination of BDNF and CNTF leads to a significantly higher number of bipolar neurons and a decreased number of neurons without neurites in culture. The combination of BDNF and CNTF shows a great potential to increase the neuronal survival and the number of bipolar neurons in vitro and to regenerate retracted nerve fibers.

  3. Maturity of hospital information systems: Most important influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Vidal Carvalho, João; Rocha, Álvaro; Abreu, António

    2017-07-01

    Maturity models facilitate organizational management, including information systems management, with hospital organizations no exception. This article puts forth a study carried out with a group of experts in the field of hospital information systems management with a view to identifying the main influencing factors to be included in an encompassing maturity model for hospital information systems management. This study is based on the results of a literature review, which identified maturity models in the health field and relevant influencing factors. The development of this model is justified to the extent that the available maturity models for the hospital information systems management field reveal multiple limitations, including lack of detail, absence of tools to determine their maturity and lack of characterization for stages of maturity structured by different influencing factors.

  4. Factors influencing the purchasing behavior of TCM outpatients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Ma, Tso-Chiang; Chiu, Yen-Lin; Chen, Jin-Tang; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2008-07-01

    To test the factors that influence Chinese medicine outpatients' behavior patterns in purchasing Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) under the National Health Insurance (NHI) system in Taiwan. A structural questionnaire was developed and administered to randomly selected outpatients waiting for Chinese Medicine at pharmacies in two academic hospitals that offered Chinese Medicine services in central Taiwan. A total of 641 effective questionnaires were collected. SPSS 10.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) was used to run descriptive analysis and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, LISREL 8.30 (Analytical Package, Scientific Software International, Inc., Chicago, IL) was used to modify and analyze the relationship between the variables of the hypothetical pathway model. Path analysis showed that "behavioral intention" and "suffering from disease" had positive and direct influences on the outpatients' patterns of purchasing TCM. Furthermore, "usable resources" was an important factor with direct influence on behavioral intention. When there were more usable resources, the behavioral intention became stronger and indirectly influenced the purchasing behavior of TCM outpatients. In addition, one-way ANOVA showed that the purchasing behavior was significantly influenced by the number of diseases that an individual suffered. The results of the pathway model showed that "behavioral intention" and "suffering from disease" had positive and direct influence on the TCM purchasing behavior of Chinese Medicine outpatients. However, "usable resources" was an important factor with direct influence on behavioral intention. When there were more usable resources, the behavioral intention became stronger and indirectly had influence on the TCM purchasing behavior. Furthermore, the analysis result of one-way ANOVA showed that the more chronic diseases the surveyed subject suffered, the more significant the influence on purchasing behavior

  5. Factors influencing US medical students' decision to pursue surgery.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lauren E; Cooper, Clairice A; Guo, Weidun Alan

    2016-06-01

    Interest and applications to surgery have steadily decreased over recent years in the United States. The goal of this review is to collect the current literature regarding US medical students' experience in surgery and factors influencing their intention to pursue surgery as a career. We hypothesize that multiple factors influence US medical students' career choice in surgery. Six electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Education Resources Information Center, Embase, and PsycINFO) were searched. The inclusion criteria were studies published after the new century related to factors influencing surgical career choice among US medical students. Factors influencing US medical student surgical career decision-making were recorded. A quality index score was given to each article selected to minimize risk of bias. We identified 38 relevant articles of more than 1000 nonduplicated titles. The factors influencing medical student decision for a surgical career were categorized into five domains: mentorship and role model (n = 12), experience (clerkship n = 9, stereotype n = 4), timing of exposure (n = 9), personal (lifestyle n = 8, gender n = 6, finance n = 3), and others (n = 2). This comprehensive systemic review identifies mentorship, experience in surgery, stereotypes, timing of exposure, and personal factors to be major determinants in medical students' decisions to pursue surgery. These represent areas that can be improved to attract applicants to general surgery residencies. Surgical faculty and residents can have a positive influence on medical students' decisions to pursue surgery as a career. Early introduction to the field of surgery, as well as recruitment strategies during the preclinical and clinical years of medical school can increase students' interest in a surgical career. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Space-Flight Factors on the Properties of Microorganisms, Producers of Biologically Active Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikova, T. K.; Kanaeva, E. N.; Ukraintsev, A. D.; Smolyanaya, G. L.; Kuznetsov, N. V.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Shcherbakov, G. Ya.

    2001-07-01

    The following substances were isolated under the influence of space-flight factors in cosmic experiments aboard the Mirorbital station: an MIB-90 monoisolant, which is distinguished by its morphological and biochemical properties and enhanced productivity, was isolated from the Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Kurstaki var. Z-52culture, which is a producer of the plant protection agent Lepidocide; and MIA-74 and MIP-89 monoisolants, which are highly active toward heavy petroleum fractions (C23 C33), were isolated from the Arthrobacter OC-1culture, which is a producer of biodegradants for petroleum.

  7. Key factors influencing management decisions concerning safety equipment selection.

    PubMed

    Chinda, Thanwadee; Ammarapala, Veeris; Suanmali, Suthathip

    2017-08-31

    The construction industry involves many hazardous activities that may expose workers to a wide variety of health hazards. Selection of construction safety equipment is crucial in ensuring workers' safety. This article aims to examine key factors influencing management decisions concerning safety equipment selection, utilizing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). A questionnaire survey is conducted in the construction companies in Bangkok, Thailand. The factor analysis extracts 103 sets of data into six key factors - namely supplier agreements, supplier support, personal, equipment design, safety-related policies and cost value factors - with a total of 20 associated items. The AHP results conclude that the safety-related policies, equipment design and personal factors are the most important factors when selecting construction safety equipment. A construction company can use the study results as a checklist to help assess different safety equipment, and to select the best equipment.

  8. Supervising medication administration by undergraduate nursing students: influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Reid-Searl, Kerry; Moxham, Lorna; Walker, Sandra; Happell, Brenda

    2010-03-01

    The administration of medication is an important skill nursing students need to learn in the clinical setting to develop safe practices. Legally within Queensland, registered nurses are required to provide personal supervision for this process. Research undertaken by the authors suggests the supervision students receive frequently falls short of what is legally required. The aim of the study was to examine the factors that influence the experiences of final-year undergraduate nursing students when administering medications in the clinical setting. A grounded theory approach was used with constant comparative analysis to identify categories from the data. The experiences of final-year nursing students were explored using a grounded theory approach. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 final-year undergraduate nursing students in Queensland, Australia. Supervision was found to be the central issue influencing medication administration for students. Three main factors were identified as influencing the supervision provided by registered nurses: attitudes of the registered nurse, communication from the university, and busyness and having time. The extent to which registered nurses provide direct supervision to nursing students when administering medication is influenced by factors inherent within the clinical environment. The factors influencing the supervision provided by registered nurses needs further exploration that effective strategies can be implemented to ensure safe practices in relation to medication administration can be implemented.

  9. What factors influence British medical students' career intentions?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Michael; Fanshawe, Angela; Patel, Vanash; Goswami, Karan; Chilvers, Geoffrey; Ting, Michelle; Pilavakis, Yiannis; Rao, Christopher; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence career choice in UK medical students. Students at seven institutions were invited to rate how important various factors were on influencing their career choices and how interested they were in pursuing different specialties. The influence of interpersonal relationship networks on career choice was also evaluated. 641 responses were collected. 44% (283) were male, 16% (105) were graduates and 41% (263) were final-year students. For Dermatology (p = 0.009), Paediatrics (p = 0.000), Radiology (p = 0.000), Emergency Medicine (p = 0.018) and Cardiothoracic Surgery (p = 0.000), there was a clear correlation between completing a clinical attachment and an interest in pursuing the specialty. Perceived characteristics of the speciality, individually and in clusters were considered important by specific subgroups of students, such as those interested in surgery. These students considered prestige (p = 0.0003), role models (p = 0.014), financial rewards after training (p = 0.0196) and technical challenge (p = 0.0011) as important factors. Demographics such as sex and age played a significant role in career choice. Interpersonal relationship networks do not have a significant influence on career intentions. This study shows that the career intentions of British medical students are influenced by their undergraduate experience and by the weight they place on different specialty-related factors.

  10. Hospital doctors' views of factors influencing their prescribing.

    PubMed

    Ljungberg, Christina; Lindblad, Asa Kettis; Tully, Mary Patricia

    2007-10-01

    Factors influencing doctors in prescribing of drugs have mostly been studied in primary care. Studies performed in hospital care have primarily focused on new drugs, not prescribing in general. An in-depth understanding of the prescribing process in the more specialized secondary care is not only important for secondary care itself, but because it also influences prescribing in primary care. The aim of this study is therefore to identify factors that secondary care doctors believe influence them in prescribing drugs, using a qualitative approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 hospital doctors in different medical specialities and the interviews were analysed from an interpretivist perspective. The information gathered was on how prescribing decisions were made in general and how the doctors chose a specific drug therapy, including information sources used. According to our interviews, the hospital doctors took patient-specific factors and cost into consideration when prescribing, informed by different written information sources and commercial verbal information. Personal practice, colleagues and therapeutic tradition at the hospital or clinic, were influential in the prescribing of drugs. The themes identified should not to be seen as individual influences; many of them probably act in combination. If changes in prescribing behaviour are desired, factors warranting more attention include understanding how to influence therapeutic traditions and the doctor's personal habits for prescribing. The importance of clinical experience and information exchange with colleagues should not be underestimated in providing information about drugs to hospital doctors.

  11. Tooth anatomy risk factors influencing root canal working length accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lu; Sun, Tuo-qi; Gao, Xiao-jie; Zhou, Xue-dong; Huang, Ding-ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the specific influence of root canal anatomy on the accessibility of working length during root canal therapy. Four hundred seventy-six root canal therapy cases (amounting to a total of 1 005 root canals) were examined. The anatomy risk factors assessed in each case included: tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, and root canal calcification, as well as endodontic retreatment. The investigation examined the correlation between each of these anatomic factors and the working length, with statistical analysis consisting of Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. In an independent factor analysis, tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, canal calcification, and endodontic retreatment were determined to be the primary risk factors. In a multiple-factor regression model, root curvature and canal calcification were found to most significantly influence root canal working length accessibility (P<0.05). Root canal anatomy increases the difficulty of root canal preparation. Appropriate consideration of tooth anatomy will assist in accurate determination of preparation difficulty before instrumentation. This study alerts clinical therapists to anatomical factors influencing the working length accessibility, and allows for a direct estimate of success rate given in situ measurements of tooth factors during the root canal treatment procedure. PMID:21789962

  12. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  13. Skull and limb morphology differentially track population history and environmental factors in the transition to agriculture in Europe

    PubMed Central

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Stock, Jay T.; Pinhasi, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The Neolithic transition in Europe was a complex mosaic spatio-temporal process, involving both demic diffusion from the Near East and the cultural adoption of farming practices by indigenous hunter–gatherers. Previous analyses of Mesolithic hunter–gatherers and Early Neolithic farmers suggest that cranial shape variation preserves the population history signature of the Neolithic transition. However, the extent to which these same demographic processes are discernible in the postcranium is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, crania and postcranial elements from the same 11 prehistoric populations are analysed together in an internally consistent theoretical and methodological framework. Results show that while cranial shape reflects the population history differences between Mesolithic and Neolithic lineages, relative limb dimensions exhibit significant congruence with environmental variables such as latitude and temperature, even after controlling for geography and time. Also, overall limb size is found to be consistently larger in hunter–gatherers than farmers, suggesting a reduction in size related to factors other than thermoregulatory adaptation. Therefore, our results suggest that relative limb dimensions are not tracking the same demographic population history as the cranium, and point to the strong influence of climatic, dietary and behavioural factors in determining limb morphology, irrespective of underlying neutral demographic processes. PMID:23902904

  14. Ecological Influences and Morphological Correlates of Resting and Maximal Metabolic Rates across Teleost Fish Species.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S; Glazier, Douglas S; Rezende, Enrico L; Clark, Timothy D; Atkinson, David; Willener, Astrid S T; Halsey, Lewis G

    2016-05-01

    Rates of aerobic metabolism vary considerably across evolutionary lineages, but little is known about the proximate and ultimate factors that generate and maintain this variability. Using data for 131 teleost fish species, we performed a large-scale phylogenetic comparative analysis of how interspecific variation in resting metabolic rates (RMRs) and maximum metabolic rates (MMRs) is related to several ecological and morphological variables. Mass- and temperature-adjusted RMR and MMR are highly correlated along a continuum spanning a 30- to 40-fold range. Phylogenetic generalized least squares models suggest that RMR and MMR are higher in pelagic species and that species with higher trophic levels exhibit elevated MMR. This variation is mirrored at various levels of structural organization: gill surface area, muscle protein content, and caudal fin aspect ratio (a proxy for activity) are positively related with aerobic capacity. Muscle protein content and caudal fin aspect ratio are also positively correlated with RMR. Hypoxia-tolerant lineages fall at the lower end of the metabolic continuum. Different ecological lifestyles are associated with contrasting levels of aerobic capacity, possibly reflecting the interplay between selection for increased locomotor performance on one hand and tolerance to low resource availability, particularly oxygen, on the other. These results support the aerobic capacity model of the evolution of endothermy, suggesting elevated body temperatures evolved as correlated responses to selection for high activity levels.

  15. Finite element analysis of traction force microscopy: influence of cell mechanics, adhesion, and morphology.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Rachel; Mihai, Cosmin; Kniss, Douglas; Ghadiali, Samir N

    2013-07-01

    The interactions between adherent cells and their extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to play an important role in many biological processes, such as wound healing, morphogenesis, differentiation, and cell migration. Cells attach to the ECM at focal adhesion sites and transmit contractile forces to the substrate via cytoskeletal actin stress fibers. This contraction results in traction stresses within the substrate/ECM. Traction force microscopy (TFM) is an experimental technique used to quantify the contractile forces generated by adherent cells. In TFM, cells are seeded on a flexible substrate and displacements of the substrate caused by cell contraction are tracked and converted to a traction stress field. The magnitude of these traction stresses are normally used as a surrogate measure of internal cell contractile force or contractility. We hypothesize that in addition to contractile force, other biomechanical properties including cell stiffness, adhesion energy density, and cell morphology may affect the traction stresses measured by TFM. In this study, we developed finite element models of the 2D and 3D TFM techniques to investigate how changes in several biomechanical properties alter the traction stresses measured by TFM. We independently varied cell stiffness, cell-ECM adhesion energy density, cell aspect ratio, and contractility and performed a sensitivity analysis to determine which parameters significantly contribute to the measured maximum traction stress and net contractile moment. Results suggest that changes in cell stiffness and adhesion energy density can significantly alter measured tractions, independent of contractility. Based on a sensitivity analysis, we developed a correction factor to account for changes in cell stiffness and adhesion and successfully applied this correction factor algorithm to experimental TFM measurements in invasive and noninvasive cancer cells. Therefore, application of these types of corrections to TFM

  16. Factors influencing consumer use of written drug information.

    PubMed

    Koo, Michelle M; Krass, Ines; Aslani, Parisa

    2003-02-01

    To provide an overview of the use and impact of written drug information (WDI) on consumers, and to review the literature on the factors influencing the use of WDI by consumers. Relevant articles published in English since the late 1970s were identified based on searches of on-line databases, texts, and cited references in published articles. Articles reporting findings on the origin, use, and impact of WDI were included. Due to limited literature, articles reporting findings on factors influencing the use of written drug as well as disease information were included. Due to the lack of design consistency between studies and the comparatively small volume of work, subjective assessment rather than a criteria-based objective review was deemed more appropriate. To date, research on WDI has focused on its use and impact. WDI has the potential to increase patients' knowledge, compliance, and satisfaction. However, there is also the potential for anxiety or premature cessation of therapy due to fear of possible adverse effects. Multiple factors may potentially influence the use of WDI by consumers including those associated with the written information document (readability, presentation), the patient (health literacy, role of caregiver, demographic factors, health locus of control, coping style, health belief model), and the environment (timing of provision, experience). WDI has the potential to impact consumers positively and negatively. Although not widely investigated, a number of factors can potentially influence the use of WDI by consumers. The findings of this review can form the basis for much needed further research.

  17. Flare and change of psoriasis morphology during the course of treatment with tumour necrosis factor blockers.

    PubMed

    Goiriz, R; Daudén, E; Pérez-Gala, S; Guhl, G; García-Díez, A

    2007-03-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers represent an exciting advance in the management of psoriasis. However, the safety profile of these drugs is not completely established. We present a review of the literature, and report on eight patients: two with the unexpected appearance of psoriasis, and the remaining six with exacerbation and change in morphology of their existing psoriasis, all of which occurred during treatment with the TNF blockers adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab. The two new cases, neither of whom had any personal or family history of psoriasis, developed pustular psoriasis on the palms and/or soles. The other six patients, previously diagnosed with severe chronic plaque psoriasis (four patients), generalized pustular psoriasis (one) and erythrodermic psoriasis (one), developed eruptive guttate psoriasis between 15 days and 18 months after the beginning of therapy. These patients had never before presented guttate-type psoriatic lesions, and the lesions appeared in areas of the body that were free of psoriatic plaques at baseline.

  18. The influence of refractory ceramic fibres on pulmonary morphology, redox and immune system in rats.

    PubMed

    Tátrai, Erzsébet; Kováciková, Z; Brózik, M; Six, E; Csík, M; Tulinska, J; Drahos, Agnes; Dám, Annamária

    2006-01-01

    Refractory ceramic fibres (RCF) were studied in male SPRD rats by both in vivo long term sequential and in vitro methods. RCF was administered by single intratracheal instillation and the lungs were examined at the end of months 1, 3 and 6 after exposure. In addition, the direct toxicity of the fibres was examined in a primary culture of alveolar macrophages (AM) and in pneumocytes type II (T2). Pulmonary morphological changes, a number of parameters of the redox system, such as activity of extracellular Cu,Zn/superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), total glutathione content of the lungs (GSH) and immunoglobulins in bronchoalveolar lavage (IgA, IgG, IgM) and in the blood were measured. The composition of the original RCF and the elemental content of the lung tissue were compared by energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) before and after exposure. Macrophage alveolitis became confluent and moderate fibrosis developed by the end of month 3, and after 6 months of exposure the intensity decreased to the level of the first month. The RCF did not significantly influence the activity of EC-SOD or the total glutathione content of the lungs. Although aluminium and silicon could be demonstrated by EDXA in the lung tissue at the end of month 3, these elements were no longer detectable by the end of month 6. The RCF decreased IgA significantly in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). The main components of RCF induced pulmonary alterations, whereas no significant change could be detected in EC-SOD and GSH. Injuries caused by direct toxicity could be observed in the cell membranes only at the highest concentration. On the basis of these results RCF can be determined as moderately toxic fibres.

  19. Evidence of niche partitioning under ontogenetic influences among three morphologically similar siluriformes in small subtropical streams.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Karine Orlandi; Fialho, Clarice Bernhardt

    2014-01-01

    Ontogenetic influences in patterns of niche breadth and feeding overlap were investigated in three species of Siluriformes (Heptapterus sp., Rhamdia quelen and Trichomycterus poikilos) aiming at understanding the species coexistence. Samplings were conducted bimonthly by electrofishing technique from June/2012 to June/2013 in ten streams of the northwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The stomach contents of 1,948 individuals were analyzed by volumetric method, with 59 food items identified. In general Heptapterus sp. consumed a high proportion of Aegla sp., terrestrial plant remains and Megaloptera; R. quelen consumed fish, and Oligochaeta, followed by Aegla sp.; while the diet of T. poikilos was based on Simuliidae, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera. Specie segregation was observed in the NMDS. Through PERMANOVA analysis feeding differences among species, and between a combination of species plus size classes were observed. IndVal showed which items were indicators of these differences. Niche breadth values were high for all species. The niche breadth values were low only for the larger size of R. quelen and Heptapterus sp. while T. poikilos values were more similar. Overall the species were a low feeding overlap values. The higher frequency of high feeding overlap was observed for interaction between Heptapterus sp. and T. poikilos. The null model confirmed the niche partitioning between the species. The higher frequency of high and intermediate feeding overlap values were reported to smaller size classes. The null model showed resource sharing between the species/size class. Therefore, overall species showed a resource partitioning because of the use of occasional items. However, these species share resources mainly in the early ontogenetic stages until the emphasized change of morphological characteristics leading to trophic niche expansion and the apparent segregation observed.

  20. Direct influence of titanium and zirconia particles on the morphology and functionality of mature human osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Pasold, Juliane; Markhoff, Jana; Tillmann, Jenny; Krogull, Martin; Pisowocki, Phillip; Bader, Rainer

    2017-09-01

    Within the last ten years of biomedical implants, the focus is increasingly on bioceramics, specifically on zirconia (ZrO2 ). Hence, we analyzed the impact of ZrO2 particles in comparison to titanium particles on mature human osteoclasts (OCs) as little is known about the direct effect of wear particles on mature OCs and their role in the osteolytic process during aseptic endoprosthesis loosening. Changes in cell morphology and functionality of OCs incubated with particles in different concentrations were investigated in vitro. OCs tend to be enlarged after three days of cultivation with both types of particles, especially with high concentrations of ZrO2 , suggesting increased cell fusion. Further, we identified significantly increased expression of OC specific and bone matrix related genes: VNR, RANK, TRAP, and CTSK pointing on a direct stimulatory particle effect on the functionality of mature OCs. In completion, we quantified the bone resorption activity of particle treated mature OCs but could not detect a significant difference in bone resorption compared to OCs cultivated without particles. However, we could identify significantly higher gene expression of MMP-1 in particle treated OCs compared to untreated control OCs after three days of incubation. We also detected an impaired production of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase, especially for OCs treated with high ZrO2 concentrations. In conclusion, our in vitro data show that abrasion particles could have a direct influence on mature OCs and therefore could promote increased OC-mediated bone resorption during aseptic loosening of total joint replacements. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2608-2615, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evidence of Niche Partitioning under Ontogenetic Influences among Three Morphologically Similar Siluriformes in Small Subtropical Streams

    PubMed Central

    Bonato, Karine Orlandi; Fialho, Clarice Bernhardt

    2014-01-01

    Ontogenetic influences in patterns of niche breadth and feeding overlap were investigated in three species of Siluriformes (Heptapterus sp., Rhamdia quelen and Trichomycterus poikilos) aiming at understanding the species coexistence. Samplings were conducted bimonthly by electrofishing technique from June/2012 to June/2013 in ten streams of the northwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The stomach contents of 1,948 individuals were analyzed by volumetric method, with 59 food items identified. In general Heptapterus sp. consumed a high proportion of Aegla sp., terrestrial plant remains and Megaloptera; R. quelen consumed fish, and Oligochaeta, followed by Aegla sp.; while the diet of T. poikilos was based on Simuliidae, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera. Specie segregation was observed in the NMDS. Through PERMANOVA analysis feeding differences among species, and between a combination of species plus size classes were observed. IndVal showed which items were indicators of these differences. Niche breadth values were high for all species. The niche breadth values were low only for the larger size of R. quelen and Heptapterus sp. while T. poikilos values were more similar. Overall the species were a low feeding overlap values. The higher frequency of high feeding overlap was observed for interaction between Heptapterus sp. and T. poikilos. The null model confirmed the niche partitioning between the species. The higher frequency of high and intermediate feeding overlap values were reported to smaller size classes. The null model showed resource sharing between the species/size class. Therefore, overall species showed a resource partitioning because of the use of occasional items. However, these species share resources mainly in the early ontogenetic stages until the emphasized change of morphological characteristics leading to trophic niche expansion and the apparent segregation observed. PMID:25340614

  2. Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.

    PubMed

    Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site.

  3. Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteome of Trypanosoma brucei Reveals Novel Factors Required to Maintain Mitochondrial Morphology*

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Moritz; Wiese, Sebastian; Mani, Jan; Chanfon, Astrid; Jackson, Christopher; Meisinger, Chris; Warscheid, Bettina; Schneider, André

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a unicellular parasite that causes devastating diseases in humans and animals. It diverged from most other eukaryotes very early in evolution and, as a consequence, has an unusual mitochondrial biology. Moreover, mitochondrial functions and morphology are highly regulated throughout the life cycle of the parasite. The outer mitochondrial membrane defines the boundary of the organelle. Its properties are therefore key for understanding how the cytosol and mitochondria communicate and how the organelle is integrated into the metabolism of the whole cell. We have purified the mitochondrial outer membrane of T. brucei and characterized its proteome using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry for protein abundance profiling in combination with statistical analysis. Our results show that the trypanosomal outer membrane proteome consists of 82 proteins, two-thirds of which have never been associated with mitochondria before. 40 proteins share homology with proteins of known functions. The function of 42 proteins, 33 of which are specific to trypanosomatids, remains unknown. 11 proteins are essential for the disease-causing bloodstream form of T. brucei and therefore may be exploited as novel drug targets. A comparison with the outer membrane proteome of yeast defines a set of 17 common proteins that are likely present in the mitochondrial outer membrane of all eukaryotes. Known factors involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology are virtually absent in T. brucei. Interestingly, RNAi-mediated ablation of three outer membrane proteins of unknown function resulted in a collapse of the network-like mitochondrion of procyclic cells and for the first time identified factors that control mitochondrial shape in T. brucei. PMID:23221899

  4. Mitochondrial outer membrane proteome of Trypanosoma brucei reveals novel factors required to maintain mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Moritz; Wiese, Sebastian; Mani, Jan; Chanfon, Astrid; Jackson, Christopher; Meisinger, Chris; Warscheid, Bettina; Schneider, André

    2013-02-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a unicellular parasite that causes devastating diseases in humans and animals. It diverged from most other eukaryotes very early in evolution and, as a consequence, has an unusual mitochondrial biology. Moreover, mitochondrial functions and morphology are highly regulated throughout the life cycle of the parasite. The outer mitochondrial membrane defines the boundary of the organelle. Its properties are therefore key for understanding how the cytosol and mitochondria communicate and how the organelle is integrated into the metabolism of the whole cell. We have purified the mitochondrial outer membrane of T. brucei and characterized its proteome using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry for protein abundance profiling in combination with statistical analysis. Our results show that the trypanosomal outer membrane proteome consists of 82 proteins, two-thirds of which have never been associated with mitochondria before. 40 proteins share homology with proteins of known functions. The function of 42 proteins, 33 of which are specific to trypanosomatids, remains unknown. 11 proteins are essential for the disease-causing bloodstream form of T. brucei and therefore may be exploited as novel drug targets. A comparison with the outer membrane proteome of yeast defines a set of 17 common proteins that are likely present in the mitochondrial outer membrane of all eukaryotes. Known factors involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology are virtually absent in T. brucei. Interestingly, RNAi-mediated ablation of three outer membrane proteins of unknown function resulted in a collapse of the network-like mitochondrion of procyclic cells and for the first time identified factors that control mitochondrial shape in T. brucei.

  5. Variation in Salamander Tail Regeneration Is Associated with Genetic Factors That Determine Tail Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Gareth J.; Kump, D. Kevin; Walker, John A.; Voss, S. Randal

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander’s tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66–68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

  6. Failure of morphology of (0 deg)8 graphite/epoxy as influenced by environments and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, L. L.; Adamson, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the failure morphology of graphite/epoxy specimens which had been tested until tensile failure. Failure morphology was studied as a function of the quality control variables of specimen preparation technique, prepreg batch, and cure condition, and also as a function of the environmental parameters of temperature and moisture content. Defective specimens were found to exhibit a low energy failure morphology. Poor specimen edge preparation and one batch of prepreg when tested at elevated temperature or moisture content also exhibited energy failure morphology. Postcuring had no effect on strength but did slightly alter failure morphology. Temperature or moisture appeared to decrease flaw sensitivity and thus increase strength; however, moisture also appeared to increase interfacial debonding between filament and matrix. When combined moisture and temperature increased interfacial debonding and made the epoxy matrix more prone to fracture.

  7. Factors influencing return to work after illness in France.

    PubMed

    Pélissier, C; Fontana, L; Chauvin, F

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have been published about the factors influencing return to work after sickness absence. To identify medical and occupational factors influencing the type of fitness certificate given by occupational physicians before employees return to work after sickness absence. A cross-sectional study was undertaken over 3 months in several health services in France. Workers undergoing a medical examination before returning to work after a period of sickness absence of at least 3 weeks were included. Medical and occupational factors were collected using a questionnaire. The relationship between different factors and certification of fitness was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the 402 workers included, 64% were considered fit to return to work. Being older, strenuous work, prolonged sick leave and fear of returning to work appeared to be negative factors influencing the return to a previous job. In contrast, having an education level higher than secondary school, being satisfied at work, perception of very good health and benefitting from satisfactory professional relationships appeared to favour return to work. We developed a predictive score of not being fit to return to work after illness. Our study highlighted the relationship between medical and occupational factors with problems returning to work. The predictive score may be used by occupational physicians as a screening tool to identify those who are likely to have difficulties returning to work after illness, so that their working conditions can be modified to take this into consideration.

  8. Factors influencing the prescription of drugs of different price levels.

    PubMed

    Semark, Birgitta; Engström, Sven; Brudin, Lars; Tågerud, Sven; Fredlund, Kerstin; Borgquist, Lars; Petersson, Göran

    2013-03-01

    Socioeconomic factors have been suggested to influence the prescribing of newer and more expensive drugs. In the present study, individual and health care provider factors were studied in relation to the prevalence of differently priced drugs. Register data for dispensed drugs were retrieved for 18 486 individuals in a county council in Sweden. The prevalence of dispensed drugs was combined with data for the individual's gender, age, education, income, foreign background, and type of caregiver. For each of the diagnostic groups (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], depression, diabetes, and osteoporosis), selected drugs were dichotomized into cost categories, lower and higher price levels. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed using cost category as the dependent variable and the individual and provider factors as independent variables. In all four diagnostic groups, differences were observed in the prescription of drugs of lower and higher price levels with regard to the different factors studied. Age and gender affected the prescription of drugs of lower and higher price levels more generally, except for gender in the osteoporosis group. Income, education, foreign background, and type of caregiver affected prescribing patterns but in different ways for the different diagnostic groups. Certain individual and provider factors appear to influence the prescribing of drugs of different price levels. Because the average price for the cheaper drugs versus more costly drugs in each diagnostic group was between 19% and 69%, there is a risk that factors other than medical needs are influencing the choice of drug. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A review of major factors influencing plant responses to recreation impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuss, Fred R.

    1986-09-01

    This article reviews some of the more important factors found to influence the susceptibility of plants to trampling impacts associated with recreational use of natural areas. A three-way interaction mediates plant responses to impacts: plant x environment x stress level(s). Plant responses vary in part according to the genetic constitution of the plant, life and growth form, the adaptive flexibility of the plant, and anatomical differences inherent to growth habit and morphology. Other factors that influence plant sensitivities to impacts are the habitat environments in which plants grow, since a number of conditions such as moisture excesses or deficiencies, nitrogen or oxygen starvation, late frosts, etc., cause physiological injury and may increase plant sensitivity to impacts. Among the environmental factors that may increase or lessen plant sensitivities to impacts are soil moisture levels, canopy density, elevation, aspect, microclimate, soil drainage, texture, fertility and productivity. Seasonal influences also bear consideration since environmental changes and phonological and physiological events are mediated by time of year. Stresses are caused by both direct and indirect forms of impact and vary according to season of use, frequency and amount of use, and the type of activity. These interactions are further complicated by evidence that inter- and intraspecific competition, antagonism, and commensalism may influence differences in the sensitivity of plant communities to impacts.

  10. Poor Comprehenders in English-Only and English Language Learners: Influence of Morphological Analysis during Incidental Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Shulley, Leah

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether weakness in using morphological analysis to infer new word meanings during reading is a source of poor text comprehension and the relative importance of psycholinguistic and cognitive factors as contributors of poor text comprehension in English-only and English language learners. Thirty-seven poor comprehenders and…

  11. Influence of multi-wavelength laser irradiation of enamel and dentin surfaces on surface morphology and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Nai-Yuan N.; Jew, Jamison; Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Lee, Robert C.; Fried, William A.; Cho, Jinny; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    UV and IR lasers can be used to specifically target protein, water, and the mineral phase of dental hard tissues to produce varying changes in surface morphology. In this study, we irradiated enamel and dentin surfaces with various combinations of lasers operating at 0.355, 2.94, and 9.4 μm, exposed those surfaces to topical fluoride, and subsequently evaluated the influence of these changes on surface morphology and permeability. Digital microscopy and surface dehydration rate measurements were used to monitor changes in the samples overtime. The surface morphology and permeability (dehydration rate) varied markedly with the different laser treatments on enamel. On dentin, fluoride was most effective in reducing the permeability.

  12. Pore morphology: a vital factor in determining electrochemical properties of electrical double layer capacitors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yeru; Li, Zhenghui; Yang, Xiaoqing; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai

    2013-11-04

    The ordered 2D reverse hexagonal pore morphology facilitates rapid ion diffusion more than the disordered wormhole-like pore morphology, thus leading to superior electrochemical properties such as rate capabilities.

  13. Key Factors that Influence Recruiting Young Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenmin

    2007-01-01

    The discussion in this paper is based on the assumption that international education is equated to recruiting and educating international students, even though its true concept goes far beyond this narrow understanding. The purpose of this research is to look at the key factors that influence recruiting young Chinese students, and make sure all…

  14. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  15. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  16. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes.

  17. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  18. Factors Influencing the Institutionalization of Distance Education in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Anthony A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine actions that colleges and universities can take to institutionalize their distance education programs. Thirty factors found to influence the institutionalization of innovations were identified from the literature. These were rated by distance education faculty and leaders as to their importance for…

  19. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  20. Factors Influencing Role Behaviors by Professional Exemplars in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    This basic qualitative study explored factors that influenced the development of professional role behaviors of nurses, occupational and physical therapists who were characterized as exemplars in the acute hospital setting. The participants, four occupational therapists, four nurses, and four physical therapists were interviewed using a…

  1. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  2. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  3. Adolescents Who Drive Under the Influence: Correlates and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; And Others

    This study was designed to determine the correlates or potential risk factors which predict whether an adolescent who drinks or uses drugs will refrain from driving under the influence, or will drive in this condition. A group of 426 rural high school seniors completed a questionnaire which assessed drug use patterns and previously identified risk…

  4. Factors Influencing Knowledge Creation and Innovation in an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merx-Chermin, Mireille; Nijhof, Wim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the innovative power of organisations. The concept of innovation and innovative power was examined by analysing the relationship between the construct of the learning organisation, knowledge organisation and innovative organisation, and has resulted…

  5. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  6. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  7. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  8. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  9. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  10. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  11. Factors that Influence Information Systems Undergraduates to Pursue IT Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, D. Scott; Smith, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    We identify factors that influence the intent of undergraduate information systems majors to pursue IT certification. Previous research has revealed that IT/IS hiring managers may use certification as a job requirement or to differentiate between job candidates with similar levels of education and experience. As well, salary surveys have shown…

  12. Factors Influencing the Development of PTSD in Battered Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimino, Joseph J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    In this study an interactive conceptual model was utilized in an attempt to examine variables which contribute to, and influence, the development of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in battered women. This model considers the individual's response to trauma as being the product of the interaction between factors related to the characteristics…

  13. Leadership Factors Influencing the Performance of Educational Institutions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Fred E.

    This document is the summary report of a study having as its main objectives: (1) an intensive study of organizational and group-structural factors influencing the research and teaching effectiveness of individual faculty members and their relations to the students; (2) research investigating the effect of academic area and technology on…

  14. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  15. An Investigation of Factors Influencing a Relocation Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turban, Daniel B.; And Others

    The present study investigated factors influencing the decision of employees, who, faced with a facility relocation, either relocated to a new location or lost their current jobs. A large chemical company decided to close a research and development laboratory located in New England and to transfer employees to a laboratory located in the…

  16. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  17. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  18. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  19. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  20. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  1. Factors Influencing Student Choice of College and Course of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, W. Rodman; Boruch, Robert

    1970-01-01

    Relates results of a longitudinal study (1958-67) of 16,395 science majors, revealing what grade level (prior to 9th grade through college-6th year) science was chosen as their major interest, when final major was selected, and when highest degree aspiration was decided. Presents discussion of factors influencing students' choice of liberal arts…

  2. Factors Influencing Faculty Engagement--Then, Now, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, author Barbara Holland reflects on her 1999 "Journal of Public Service & Outreach" article, "Factors and Strategies That Influence Faculty Involvement in Public Service" (EJ589785) reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement." In the late…

  3. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  4. Factors Influencing Secondary School Teachers' Adoption of Teaching Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hui-Min; Chen, Chin-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a significant proliferation in the number of teaching blogs; however, little has been explored about what motivates teachers to adopt teaching blogs. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors can significantly influence teacher decisions regarding their teaching blog adoption and the relative importance of…

  5. Factors that Influence Information Systems Undergraduates to Pursue IT Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, D. Scott; Smith, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    We identify factors that influence the intent of undergraduate information systems majors to pursue IT certification. Previous research has revealed that IT/IS hiring managers may use certification as a job requirement or to differentiate between job candidates with similar levels of education and experience. As well, salary surveys have shown…

  6. Factors Influencing Females' Access to the High School Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Rae Ann

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing females' access to the Oklahoma secondary school principalship. Although in the United States federal laws and policies are in place to promote equity, research indicates females are underrepresented in secondary school administration. Regardless of equity…

  7. Sickness Presenteeism of German Teachers: Prevalence and Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudenhöffer, Sarah; Claus, Matthias; Schöne, Klaus; Letzel, Stephan; Rose, Dirk-Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate teachers' sickness presenteeism (SP). We examined the prevalence of SP in a sample of teachers as well as work-related and health-related influencing factors of teachers' SP. We used a cross-sectional study design. Teachers working at different types of schools in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany)…

  8. Factors Influencing the Vocational Aspirations of Victorian Year 9 Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrom, Linda K.

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of family background and attitudinal factors on occupational aspirations of Year 9 students in Victoria, Australia. A survey was made of all Victorian Year 9 students and comparisons were made between groups of students who aspired to different occupations. Discriminant function analyses were…

  9. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  10. Factors Influencing Active Learning in Small Enterprises. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Geof

    The factors influencing active learning in small enterprises were examined. Data from earlier Australian studies were examined in an attempt to provide a framework that might inform the relationship between educational systems and small enterprises. Special attention was paid to a 1988 study of systematic differences between small businesses that…

  11. Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Sharon Leenese

    2012-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly…

  12. Factors influencing occupancy of nest cavities in recently burned forests

    Treesearch

    Victoria A. Saab; Jonathan Dudley; William L. Thompson

    2004-01-01

    Recently burned forests in western North America provide nesting habitat for many species of cavity-nesting birds. However, little is understood about the time frame and the variables affecting occupancy of postfire habitats by these birds. We studied factors influencing the occupancy and reuse of nest cavities from 1–7 years after fire in two burned sites of western...

  13. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  14. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  15. An Investigation of Classroom Factors That Influence Proof Construction Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrone, Sharon Soucy; Martin, Tami S.; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Wallace, Michelle L.

    This paper on classroom factors influencing students' proof construction ability reports findings from the data collected in the first two years of a three-year National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project. Four different classrooms, two from each participating school, were involved in the project. Data sources included videotaped classroom…

  16. Factors that Influence Children's Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terranova, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Children's responses to peer victimization are associated with whether the victimization continues, and its impact on adjustment. Yet little longitudinal research has examined the factors influencing children's responses to peer victimization. In a sample of 140 late elementary school children (n = 140, Mean age = 10 years, 2 months, 55% female,…

  17. Factors That Influence Alumni Major Giving at Doctoral Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of chief development officers about the influence of socio-demographic, alumni involvement, and student experience factors of alumni on major giving to higher education institutions. This study also involved the investigation of differences between institutions with respect to…

  18. Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Sharon Leenese

    2012-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly…

  19. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  20. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  1. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  2. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  3. Factors That Influence Faculty Adoption of Learning-Centered Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a recommended course of action for faculty development based upon Rogers' theory of Diffusion of Innovations and data collected in a study looking at the prevalence of use of learning-centered teaching practices. Specific faculty development strategies are aligned with Rogers' factors influencing decisions to adopt…

  4. Factors Influencing Role Behaviors by Professional Exemplars in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    This basic qualitative study explored factors that influenced the development of professional role behaviors of nurses, occupational and physical therapists who were characterized as exemplars in the acute hospital setting. The participants, four occupational therapists, four nurses, and four physical therapists were interviewed using a…

  5. Factors Influencing Teachers' Engagement in Informal Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Margaret C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing the engagement of public school teachers in informal learning activities. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a survey research design. Findings: Analysis of the data found that teachers rely to a greater degree on interactive than on independent informal learning…

  6. Learning Strategies and Other Factors Influencing Achievement via Web Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Chun; Ingebritsen, Tom; Pleasants, John; Flickinger, Kathleen; Brown, George

    This paper reports the results of a study designed to examine how students with different learning styles functioned in World Wide Web-based courses offered by Project BIO at Iowa State University in the Fall of 1997, and to determine what factors influenced their learning. The objectives of the study were to identify: (1) the demographic…

  7. Factors Influencing Federal Employee Worker Satisfaction: A Baseline Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Wallace V.; And Others

    Utilizing data from the Federal Employee Attitude Survey, 1979, a survey was distributed to a stratified random sample of 20,000 employees to identify and analyze the factors influencing federal employee worker satisfaction. Questions on the survey ranged from demographics to personal evaluations of the work environment as recorded on a…

  8. Factors Influencing Residents' Satisfaction in Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the important factors influencing residents' satisfaction in residential aged care and to provide a better understanding of their interrelationships. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the required information, including resident satisfaction, resident dependency…

  9. Pantomime Production by People with Aphasia: What Are Influencing Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present article aimed to inform clinical practice on whether people with aphasia (PWA) deploy pantomime techniques similarly to participants without brain damage (PWBD) and if not, what factors influence these differences. Method: We compared 38 PWA to 20 PWBD in their use of 6 representation techniques ("handling,"…

  10. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  11. Investigating Factors that Influence Item Performance on ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…

  12. Factors That Influence Faculty Adoption of Learning-Centered Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a recommended course of action for faculty development based upon Rogers' theory of Diffusion of Innovations and data collected in a study looking at the prevalence of use of learning-centered teaching practices. Specific faculty development strategies are aligned with Rogers' factors influencing decisions to adopt…

  13. Factors Influencing Medical School Faculty Disposition Toward Collective Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Thomas G.; Blackburn, Robert T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports that faculties perceive the protection or enhancement of collegiality as the single most important factor influencing their attitudes toward unionization. Faculties see collective bargaining as a means of strengthening their position in the decisionmaking process of the medical school. (Editor/PG)

  14. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  15. Organizational, Financial, and Environmental Factors Influencing Deans' Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Rebecca; Bhak, Karyn; Moy, Ernest; Valente, Ernest; Griner, Paul F.

    1998-01-01

    A study of factors influencing tenure of 382 medical school deans from 1985-1994 found that, at the schools that were less healthy financially, were under the same ownership as the primary teaching hospital, and had small faculties, deans tended to have shorter tenures and higher turnover. Possible reasons for these findings and implications for…

  16. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  17. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  18. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  19. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  20. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  1. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  2. Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Self-Evaluation of Numerical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tariq, Vicki N.; Durrani, Naureen

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study explores factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of their numerical competence, using data from an online survey completed by 566 undergraduates from a diversity of academic disciplines, across all four faculties at a post-1992 UK university. Analysis of the data, which included correlation and multiple regression…

  3. Factors Influencing Females' Access to the High School Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Rae Ann

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing females' access to the Oklahoma secondary school principalship. Although in the United States federal laws and policies are in place to promote equity, research indicates females are underrepresented in secondary school administration. Regardless of equity…

  4. Factors Influencing Residents' Satisfaction in Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the important factors influencing residents' satisfaction in residential aged care and to provide a better understanding of their interrelationships. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the required information, including resident satisfaction, resident dependency…

  5. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  6. Factors influencing employee health plan choice in the corporate setting.

    PubMed

    Risker, D C

    2000-01-01

    This study analyzed the responses of 159 employees making their annual health plan choice. The study also analyzes the factors that influenced the employees' health plan choice. The findings suggest that the distinction made between service and products holds for health plans. They also suggest that demographic variables play an important role in health plan choice.

  7. Against Conventional Wisdom: Factors Influencing Hispanic Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percell, Jay C.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The researchers performed a variable analysis of the 2002 Educational Longitudinal Study data investigating factors that influence students' reading scores on standardized tests. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Scores were analyzed and controlling variables were compared to determine the effect of each on both populations. Certain variables commonly…

  8. Pantomime Production by People with Aphasia: What Are Influencing Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present article aimed to inform clinical practice on whether people with aphasia (PWA) deploy pantomime techniques similarly to participants without brain damage (PWBD) and if not, what factors influence these differences. Method: We compared 38 PWA to 20 PWBD in their use of 6 representation techniques ("handling,"…

  9. Some Factors Influencing Air Force Simulator Training Effectiveness. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    A study of U.S. Air Force simulator training was conducted to identify factors that influence the effectiveness of such training and to learn how its effectiveness is being determined. The research consisted of a survey of ten representative Air Force simulator training programs and a review of the simulator training research literature. A number…

  10. Factors influencing partnerships between higher education and healthcare.

    PubMed

    Häggman-Laitila, Arja; Rekola, Leena

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the factors influencing partnerships between higher education and healthcare. Partnerships have often been studied as organisations' internal processes or multi-professional team activities. However, there has been less research on the partnership as a phenomenon between organisations and, until now, the research has mainly focused on experiences in the US and the UK. The study was carried out in Finland. Staff from a university of applied sciences and a service unit for the elderly took part in nine focus group interviews (n=39) and produced self-evaluations based on diaries (n=13) and essays (n=24). The data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The factors influencing partnerships were: a joint development target, agreeing on collaboration, providing resources for partnership, enhancing mutual understanding, sharing operational culture, commitment and participatory change management and communication. This study updates, and complements, previous reviews on factors influencing partnerships, by providing some new concepts and a new cultural perspective from Finland on a partnership between higher education and healthcare. The results provide information on factors that influence partnerships and develop and manage their sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors Influencing Students' Decisions about Post-Year 10 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Kim; Hay, Ian; Watson, Jane; Allen, Jeanne; Cranston, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports pilot data from an instrument devised as part of a large ARC funded project that aims, among other things, to investigate factors that influence the decisions of students in rural and/or disadvantaged areas to continue their schooling beyond Year 10. One section of the pilot student questionnaire comprised 42 items designed to…

  12. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  13. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  14. [Prevalence and influence factors of hypertension among mechanic factory workers].

    PubMed

    Pang, Li-Juan; Chen, Li-Zhang; Fu, Ben-Yan

    2005-06-01

    To determine the status and influence factors of hypertension on mechanic factory workers and to provide reference for further hypertension prevention and control. A cross-sectional study on 1205 workers (exposed to different noise levels) in Hunan was carried out by using questionaire and measuring the blood pressure of the workers and the noise exposure level in the workplace. The prevalence and the influence factors of hypertension among mechanic factory workers were analysed. The hypertension prevalence was 12.1%. Logistic regression analysis showed the body weight index (BMI), age, and history of hypertension in parents and accumulative noise dose levels influenced the hypertension prevalence. Controlling the body weight, reducing alcohol consumption, decreasing the sound pressure level in workshops and advocating healthy diet may reduce the prevalence rate of hypertension among mechanic factory workers.

  15. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  16. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  17. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    PubMed

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological variation in left atrial transverse orientation does not influence orthogonal P-wave morphology.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Richard; Mosén, Henrik; Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Carlson, Jonas; Faxén, Lisa; Mohtadi, Alan; Platonov, Pyotr G; Holmqvist, Fredrik

    2017-03-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that orthogonal P-wave morphology in healthy athletes does not depend on atrial size, but the possible impact of left atrial orientation on P-wave morphology remains unknown. In this study, we investigated if left atrial transverse orientation affects P-wave morphology in different populations. Forty-seven patients with atrial fibrillation, 21 patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, 67 healthy athletes, and 56 healthy volunteers were included. All underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and the orientation of the left atrium was determined. All had 12-lead electrocardiographic recordings, which were transformed into orthogonal leads and orthogonal P-wave morphology was obtained. The median left atrial transverse orientation was 87 (83, 91) degrees (lower and upper quartiles) in the total study population. There was no difference in left atrial transverse orientation between individuals with different orthogonal P-wave morphologies. The physiological variation in left atrial orientation was small within as well as between the different populations. There was no difference in left atrial transverse orientation between subjects with type 1 and type 2 P-wave morphology, implying that in this setting the P-wave morphology was more dependent on atrial conduction than orientation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Surface EMG of the masticatory muscles (part 2): fatigue testing, mastication analysis and influence of different factors.

    PubMed

    Hugger, S; Schindler, H J; Kordass, B; Hugger, A

    2013-01-01

    The second part of this review of the literature on the clinical significance of surface electromyography (EMG) of the masticatory muscles systematically examines the results of clinical studies in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), preferably randomized controlled trials, investigating relevant aspects of EMG activity during prolonged chewing activity (fatigue effects), during the mastication process, and under the influence of different factors. Studies on the influence of factors such as gender, age, tooth status, orofacial morphology and (acute) pain, the significance of different occlusal relationships during static and dynamic occlusion, and the impact of changes in static occlusion on EMG activity of the masticatory muscles were included in the review.

  20. Influence of surface morphology and microstructure on performance of CVD tungsten coating under fusion transient thermal loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Youyun; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jianbao; Feng, Fan; Lv, Yanwei; Song, Jiupeng; Chen, Jiming

    2016-12-01

    Thick tungsten coatings have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a rapid growth rate. A series of tungsten coatings with different thickness and surface morphology were prepared. The surface morphology, microstructure and preferred orientation of the CVD tungsten coatings were investigated. Thermal shock analyses were performed by using an electron beam facility to study the influence of the surface morphology and the microstructure on the thermal shock resistance of the CVD tungsten coatings. Repetitive (100 pulses) ELMs-like thermal shock loads were applied at various temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C with pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1 GW/m2. The results of the tests demonstrated that the specific surface morphology and columnar crystal structure of the CVD tungsten have significant influence on the surface cracking threshold and crack propagation of the materials. The CVD tungsten coatings with a polished surface show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings with a rough surface.

  1. Influence of dissolved oxygen on the protectiveness and morphological characteristics of calcareous deposits with galvanostatic polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengjie; Du, Min; Gao, Rongjie

    2017-04-01

    The influence of dissolved oxygen on calcareous deposits formed under galvanostatic polarization mode was studied. When the dissolved oxygen concentration was less than 7 mg L-1, the cathodic protection potential showed a plateau at the initial polarization, and then quickly shifted negatively. While the dissolved oxygen was more than 9 mg L-1, the potential shifted negatively in a linear form. After 168 h of polarization, the final protection potential shifted negatively with the decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration. The deposition progress was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and only one single loop was found in Nyquist diagram, indicating deposits of ineffective protectiveness precipitation under the experimental conditions. The protection factor of deposits increased with the decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration which was detected by linear polarization resistance technique. The cathodic electrochemical reaction could change very shortly from oxygen reduction to hydrogen evolution after cathodic protection under very low dissolved oxygen concentration, such as 1 mg L-1, resulting in the hydrogen bubbling from the metallic surface and the decrease of deposits protection factor. Observation by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the deposits were mainly of calcite under the experimental conditions, and that dissolved oxygen had no effect on the crystalline types of calcium carbonate.

  2. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  3. Factors influencing trust and mistrust in health promotion partnerships.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacky; Barry, Margaret M

    2016-07-27

    Partnerships between sectors can achieve better outcomes than can be achieved by individual partners working alone. Trust is necessary for partnerships to function effectively. Mistrust makes partnership working difficult, if not impossible. There has been little research into partnership functioning factors that influence trust and mistrust. This study aimed to identify these factors in health promotion partnerships. Data were collected from 337 partners in 40 health promotion partnerships using a postal survey. The questionnaire incorporated multi-dimensional scales designed to assess the contribution of factors that influence partnership trust and mistrust. Newly validated scales were developed for trust, mistrust and power. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the significance of each factor to partnership trust and mistrust. Power was found to be the only predictor of partnership trust. Power, leadership, and efficiency were the most important factors influencing partnership mistrust. Power in partnerships must be shared or partners will not trust each other. Power-sharing and trust-building mechanisms need to be built into partnerships from the beginning and sustained throughout the collaborative process.

  4. Why neurology? Factors which influence career choice in neurology.

    PubMed

    Albert, Dara V; Hoyle, Chad; Yin, Han; McCoyd, Matthew; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the factors which influence the decision to pursue a career in neurology. An anonymous survey was developed using a Likert scale to rate responses. The survey was sent to adult and child neurology faculty, residents and fellows, as well as medical students applying for neurology. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the factors of influence. Respondents were subsequently categorized into pre-neurology trainees, neurology trainees, child neurologists and adult neurologists, and differences between the groups were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test. One hundred and thirty-three anonymous responses were received. The respondents were neurologists across all levels of training and practice. Across all respondents, the most common factor of high importance was intellectual content of specialty, challenging diagnostic problems, type of patient encountered and interest in helping people. Responses were similar across the groups; however, the earliest trainees cited interest in helping people as most important, while those in neurology training and beyond cite intellectual content of the specialty as most important. As trainees transition from their earliest levels of clinical experience into working as residents and faculty, there is a shift in the cited important factors. Lifestyle and financial factors seem to be the least motivating across all groups. Encouragement from peers, mentors, faculty and practicing physicians is considered high influences in a smaller number of neurologists. This may present an opportunity for practicing neurologists to make connections with medical students early in their education in an effort to encourage and mentor candidates.

  5. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  6. Influence of Landscape Morphology and Vegetation Cover on the Sampling of Mixed Igneous Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugini, Diego; Petrelli, Maurizio; Poli, Giampiero

    2010-05-01

    cover is generated using a random Brownian motion process in 2D. Such an approach allows us to produce vegetation patches that closely match the general topology of natural vegetation (e.g., Mandelbrot, 1982). Results show that the goodness of sampling is strongly dependant on the roughness of the landscape, with highly irregular morphologies being the best candidates to give the most complete information on the whole magma body. Conversely, sampling on flat or nearly flat surfaces should be avoided because they may contain misleading information about the magmatic system. Contrary to common sense, vegetation cover does not appear to significantly influence the representativeness of sampling if sample collection occurs on topographically irregular outcrops. Application of the proposed method for sampling area selection is straightforward. The irregularity of natural landscapes and the percentage of vegetation can be estimated by using natural landscapes extracted from digital elevation models (DEM) of the Earth's surface and satellite images by employing a variety of methods (e.g., Develi and Babadagli, 1998), thus giving one the opportunity to select a priori the best outcrops for sampling. References Bateman R (1995) The interplay between crystallization, replenishment and hybridization in large felsic magma chambers. Earth Sci Rev 39: 91-106 Develi K, Babadagli T (1998) Quantfication of natural fracture surfaces using fractal geometry. Math Geol 30: 971-998 Fournier A, Fussel D, Carpenter L (1982) Computer rendering of stochastic models. Comm ACM 25: 371-384 Galluccio S, Vulpiani A (1994) Stretching of material lines and surfaces in systems with Lagrangian chaos. Physica A 212: 75-98 Mandelbrot BB (1982) The fractal geometry of nature. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco Perugini D, Petrelli M, Poli G (2007) A Virtual Voyage through 3D Structures Generated by Chaotic Mixing of Magmas and Numerical Simulations: a New Approach for Understanding Spatial and Temporal Complexity

  7. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  8. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary factors, genetic and epigenetic influences in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    PELLEGRINI, M.L.; ARGIBAY, P.; GOMEZ, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic influences, together with epigenetic components and dietary factors, play a fundamental role in the initiation and progression of cancer by causing a number of deregulations. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease influenced by dietary factors, for which established genetic and epigenetic alterations have been identified. Within CRC, there are hereditary syndromes that present mutations in the germ-line hMLH1, and also alterations in the methylation of the promoters. Epigenetics has also been established as a pathway of carcinogenesis. In the present review, we analyzed studies conducted to discern the different pathways leading to established CRC, stressing the importance of identifying factors that may predict CRC at an early stage, since it is mostly a silent disease observed at the clinical level in advanced stages. PMID:22993535

  10. Cross-species cloning: influence of cytoplasmic factors on development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Hua; Zhu, Zuo-Yan

    2014-06-01

    It is widely accepted that the crosstalk between naive nucleus and maternal factors deposited in the egg cytoplasm before zygotic genome activation is crucial for early development. This crosstalk may also exert some influence on later development. It is interesting to clarify the relative roles of the zygotic genome and the cytoplasmic factors in development. Cross-species nuclear transfer (NT) between two distantly related species provides a unique system to study the relative role and crosstalk between egg cytoplasm and zygotic nucleus in development. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress of cross-species NT, with emphasis on the cross-species NT in fish and the influence of cytoplasmic factors on development. Finally, we conclude that the developmental process and its evolution should be interpreted in a systemic way, rather than in a way that solely focuses on the role of the nuclear genome. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  11. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors Influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Hövels-Gürich, Hedwig Hubertine

    2016-01-01

    Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples of such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic inflammatory response, and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies. Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called “innate,” less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities, as well as prematurity and low birth weight. Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called “encephalopathy of CHD” is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri-, and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure, and

  13. Influence Of The Microinjection Moulding Process On The Crystalline Orientation And Morphology Of Semicrystalline Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhab, Nada Bou; Régnier, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Microinjection moulding (μIM) seems to be a key for the large scale production of polymer microparts. For semicrystalline polymers, the crystallisation under high shear and cooling rates induces specific morphologies and properties and thus takes tremendous importance in microinjection process compared to classical injection moulding (IM) process where wall thicknesses are generally larger than 1mm. Two semicrystalline polymers were microinjected, a high density polyethylene and a polyamide 12 in plaque cavities having thicknesses of 0.3 and 0.5mm. Analyses obtained by optical microscopy show that the crystalline morphologies vary between micro- and macro- parts. While a `skin-core' morphology is present for the macropart, the μpart exhibits a specific morphology. The X-ray scattering at small angles (SAXS) studies show an orientation of HDPE lamellae whatever the conditions of microinjection whereas the orientation of PA12 lamellae is either isotropic or anisotropic depending on the thickness of molded parts.

  14. Factors influencing medical students’ choice of family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Harbir; McLeod, Scott; Duerksen, Kimberley; Szafran, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify factors that influence medical students’ choice of family medicine versus another specialty and to analyze influential factors by urban versus rural background of students. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire survey conducted in 2010. Setting University of Alberta in Edmonton. Participants A total of 118 first-, 120 second-, and 107 third-year medical students. Main outcome measures Twenty-two factors influencing preferred career choice, type of community lived in (rural vs urban), and student age and sex. Results Overall, 283 (82.0%) students responded to the survey. Those who preferred family medicine rather than another specialty as a career option were older (≥ 25 years) (69.6% vs 40.9%, P < .001), female (69.6% vs 39.3%, P < .001), and had previously lived in rural locations (< 25 000 population) (46.8% vs 23.9%, P < .001). Four factors were significantly associated with students preferring family medicine compared with any other specialty: emphasis on continuity of care (87.3 vs 45.3%, P < .001); length of residency (73.4% vs 25.9%, P < .001); influence of family, friends, or community (67.1% vs 50.2%, P = .011); and preference for working in a rural community (41.8% vs 10.9%, P < .001). For students with urban backgrounds, the preference for family medicine was more strongly influenced by the opportunity to deal with a variety of medical problems; current debt load; and family, friends, or community than for those with rural backgrounds. Practice location preferences also differed between students from rural and urban backgrounds. Conclusion Medical students who prefer family medicine as a career choice appear to be influenced by a different set of factors than those who prefer other specialties. Being female; being older; having previously lived in a rural location; placing importance on continuity of care; desire for a shorter residency; and influence of family, friends, or community are associated with medical students

  15. The influence of collagen support and ionic species on the morphology of collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ficai, Anton; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Voicu, Georgeta; Ghitulica, Cristina; Ficai, Denisa

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the influence of collagenous supports and ionic species on the precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HA) from aqueous solutions. To this end, we obtained hydroxyapatite by co-precipitation from a solution of calcium hydroxide and sodium dihydrogenophosphate. The formation of HA was studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of this study indicate that the morphology of hydroxyapatite is highly influenced by the support material and the ionic species present. The obtained materials were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  16. Influence of Beach Scraping on Beach Profile Morphology: Fire Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzmann, M.; Hapke, C.

    2007-12-01

    Fire Island is part of a barrier island system located just south of Long Island, New York. The island is 50 km long, oriented southwest-northeast, and varies in width from 150 meters to 1 kilometer. Established communities on Fire Island are part of Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) which is managed by the National Park Service. The island is densely populated, and thus mitigating coastal erosion caused by large-scale storm waves has become an important issue. Severe nor'easter storms in 1991, 1992, and 1993 caused substantial erosion and property damage. This prompted communities within FIIS to conduct a pilot study in which the preventative, non-structural practice of beach scraping was employed as a method of erosion control. Beach scraping is the anthropogenic movement of sand from the berm to the back beach creating an artificial foredune. Currently, there is no published research that explores the morphologic influence of beach scraping on Fire Island, although the practice is still in place today for a number of communities. This study assesses changes caused by beach scraping using a temporally robust beach profile dataset of over 150 profiles, spanning thirteen years. Three study areas were chosen based on location (western, central, and eastern parts of Fire Island) and data availability in scraped and adjacent control areas. Analyzed characteristics include beach width, beach volume, slope (dune, beachface, global), berm crest elevation, and dune crest elevation. Initial results indicate a detectable difference in the behavior of the beach between scraped and control areas. Seasonal signals show beach width decreasing substantially westward from the scraped profile location, which is in the direction of net littoral transport. Anthropogenic relocation of berm material to the foredune zone during scraping places sediment in the back beach area that might otherwise be mobilized by storm waves, therefore depriving downcoast beaches of sediment. Longer

  17. Factors influencing validation of ambulatory blood pressure measuring devices.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, E; Atkins, N; Staessen, J

    1995-11-01

    With the introduction of 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring into clinical practice a vast market for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices has been created. To satisfy this market manufacturers are producing an array of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices. There is no obligation on manufacturers to have such devices validated independently, even though two national protocols, one from the British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the other from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), call for independent validation and state the means of doing so. However, many factors can influence the validation procedure. They include compliance to the protocol being employed; the accuracy of the standard; establishing precisely the model being validated; the influences of blood pressure level, age and exercise on device accuracy; the provisions necessary for special populations, such as pregnant women, the elderly and children; the influence of oscillometric versus Korotkoff sound detection and electrocardiographic gating on comparative measurements; the assessment of performance as distinct from accuracy; and the relevance of general factors, such as the algorithm being employed and computer compatibility. Forty-three ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices have been marketed for ambulatory blood pressure measurement and of those only 18 have been validated according to either the BHS or the AAMI protocol. The influence of the factors listed above on the validation studies of those devices will be considered and the relevance of validation procedures to the clinical use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices will be discussed.

  18. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Inventory Management in Manufacturing SMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Shiau Wei; Tasmin, R.; Nor Aziati, A. H.; Zuraidah Rasi, Raja; Ismail, Fadillah Binti; Yaw, Li Ping

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of inventory management is a vital part in the manufacturing organization to be more competitive. The previous studies have indicated that there are several factors influencing the effectiveness of inventory management in the organization but there is lack of researchers who carried out the research in the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Johor. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the problem of inventory management faced by the manufacturing small medium enterprise and also to determine the factors that will influence the effectiveness of inventory management. In completing this research, 80 employees were selected randomly from the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Batu Pahat, Johor and they were requested to complete questionnaires. The result have shown that the problems of inventory management faced by manufacturing organization were underproduction, overproduction, stock out situation, delays in the delivery of raw materials and discrepancy of records. The factors, documentation/store records, planning, knowledge of employees/staff skill have shown to significantly influence the effectiveness of inventory management while the funds have shown slightly significant influence on the inventory management in manufacturing small medium enterprises. This quantitative study is important to the manufacturing organization in Malaysia because it provides the guidelines to the employers of manufacturing small medium enterprises in Batu Pahat, Johor.

  19. Influencing Factors on Life-Cycle Cost of Mooring Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Wataru; Yokota, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Katsufumi; Furuya, Koichi; Kato, Hirotoshi

    It is required that infrastructure should satisfy performance requirement through their service life based on an appropriate life cycle management strategy. Now adays, to determine the maintenance strategy and to consider the appropriate timing and method of intervention, the life-cycle cost (LCC) has been widely used as one of the decision-making indices. However, many factors influence on the estimation of LCC and they have not been adequately investigated. In this paper, the authors have made analytical investigation to quantify the influence of important factors on the results of LCC estimation. Four kinds of mooring facilities are focused; two of them are open-type wharves and the other two are sheet pile type quay walls having different design water depths. Prediction of deterioration progress and performance degradation is made by using the Markov models. The influences of structural sizes, transition probability in the Markov model, design service life, periodic inspection and methods of intervention on LCC were investigated. The influence of those factors has been discussed based on the calculated results of LCC by creating the maintenance scenarios for model mooring facilities.

  20. Influence of social factors on lead exposure and child development.

    PubMed Central

    Bornschein, R L

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of current views of child development is provided, with particular attention given to the role the child's physical and social environment plays in influencing the developmental process. Examples from the recent literature are used to illustrate how these factors can influence lead exposure and most importantly how they might interact with lead to ameliorate or exacerbate possible lead effects. An example is provided which demonstrates that failure to control adequately and to adjust the data statistically to correct for the influence of these factors can lead one erroneously to attribute cognitive and behavioral changes to lead. Finally, data from the Cincinnati Prospective Lead Study are presented to illustrate the application of structural equation modeling as a means for unraveling the complex web of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral influences on childhood lead exposure. The latter analysis indicates that for children less than 24 months of age, lead-containing dust in the home and on the children's hands are important determinates of their blood lead levels. This relationship is influenced by the amount of maternal involvement with their child and other indices of interaction between the child and primary caregiver. PMID:2417831