Science.gov

Sample records for morselized allograft bone

  1. Mechanical behaviour of Bioactive Glass granules and morselized cancellous bone allograft in load bearing defects.

    PubMed

    Hulsen, D J W; Geurts, J; van Gestel, N A P; van Rietbergen, B; Arts, J J

    2016-05-03

    Bioactive Glass (BAG) granules are osteoconductive and possess unique antibacterial properties for a synthetic biomaterial. To assess the applicability of BAG granules in load-bearing defects, the aim was to compare mechanical behaviour of graft layers consisting of BAG granules and morselized cancellous bone allograft in different volume mixtures under clinically relevant conditions. The graft layers were mechanically tested, using two mechanical testing modalities with simulated physiological loading conditions: highly controllable confined compression tests (CCT) and more clinically realistic in situ compression tests (ISCT) in cadaveric porcine bone defects. Graft layer impaction strain, residual strain, aggregate modulus, and creep strain were determined in CCT. Graft layer porosity was determined using micro computed tomography. The ISCT was used to determine graft layer subsidence in bone environment. ANOVA showed significant differences (p<0.001) between different graft layer compositions. True strains absolutely decreased for increasing BAG content: impaction strain -0.92 (allograft) to -0.39 (BAG), residual strain -0.12 to -0.01, and creep strain -0.09 to 0.00 respectively. Aggregate modulus increased with increasing BAG content from 116 to 653MPa. Porosity ranged from 66% (pure allograft) to 15% (pure BAG). Subsidence was highest for allograft, and remarkably low for a 1:1 BAG-allograft volume mixture. Both BAG granules and allograft morsels as stand-alone materials exhibit suboptimal mechanical behaviour for load-bearing purpose. BAG granules are difficult to handle and less porous, whereas allograft subsides and creeps. A 1:1 volume mixture of BAG and allograft is therefore proposed as the best graft material in load-bearing defects.

  2. Cavitary acetabular defects treated with morselized cancellous bone graft and cementless cups

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, G. C.T.; Kubiak, E. N.; Levine, B.; Chen, F. S.

    2006-01-01

    The use of impacted morselized cancellous bone grafts in conjunction with cementless hemispherical acetabular cups for treatment of AAOS type II acetabular cavitary deficiencies was evaluated in a retrospective study of 23 primary and 24 revision total hip arthroplasties, at a mean follow-up of 7.9 and 8.1 years, respectively. All primary hips received autografts, while all revision hips received allografts. Modified Harris Hip Scores for primary and revision hip replacements increased from a pre-operative mean of 37 and 47 to a postoperative mean of 90 and 86, respectively. All 23 autografts and 23 out of 24 cancellous allografts were radiographically incorporated without evidence of resorption. There were no instances of infection, component migration, or cases requiring subsequent acetabular revision. We conclude that impacted morselized cancellous bone-graft augmentation of cementless cups is a viable surgical option for AAOS type II cavitary acetabular defects. PMID:16988799

  3. [Comparative study on repairing rabbit radius segmental defects with two different proportions of chitosan combined with allogeneic morselized bone].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuquing; Su, Lixin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiyong; Kang, Yue; Lei, Jun

    2011-07-01

    To give a preliminary experimental evidence and to prove chitosan and allogeneic morselized bone as potential bone substitutions in repairing rabbit radius segmental defect. Chitosan and allogeneic morselized bone were mixed with various ratios (1:5, 1:10, 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100). After preparation, the physical and chemical properties of the composites were preliminary detected; the composites at the ratios of 1:50 and 1:25 had good physical and chemical properties and were used for the animal experiment. The radius segmental defects of 15 mm in length were made in 50 adult New Zealand white rabbits (weighing 2.5-3.0 kg), then the animals were divided into 2 groups. In groups A and B, chitosan/allogeneic morselized bone composites were implanted at the ratio of 1:50 and 1:25, respectively. After 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of operation, the gross, histological, immunohistochemical observations were performed. Before the rabbits were sacrificed, X-ray films were taken; the serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration were measured; and the biomechanical measurement was carried out at 12 weeks. The results of gross observation were essentially consistent with those of the X-ray films. The histological observation showed that the bone formation was earlier in group A than in group B; the amount of new bone formation in group A was more than that in group B; and the bone forming area in group A was bigger than that in group B (P < 0.05) at 4 and 8 weeks after operation. The immunohistochemical staining showed that vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor receptor II proteins expressed in the cytoplasm of 2 groups after 4 and 8 weeks, and the expression in group A was higher than that in group B (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the serum calcium concentration between 2 groups at each time point (P > 0.05). After 4 and 8 weeks, the ALP concentration in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (P < 0

  4. Biomechanical properties of bone allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Markham, T.C.

    1983-04-01

    The biomechanical properties of allograft bone can be altered by the methods chosen for its preservation and storage. These effects are minimal with deep-freezing or low-level radiation. Freeze-drying, however, markedly diminishes the torsional and bending strength of bone allografts but does not deleteriously affect the compressive or tensile strength. Irradiation of bone with more than 3.0 megarad or irradiation combined with freeze-drying appears to cause a significant reduction in breaking strength. These factors should be considered when choosing freeze-dried or irradiated allogeneic bone that will be subjected to significant loads following implantation.

  5. Influence of water and fat content on compressive stiffness properties of impacted morsellized bone: an experimental ex vivo study on bone pellets.

    PubMed

    Fosse, Lars; Rønningen, Helge; Benum, Pål; Sandven, Rolf B

    2006-02-01

    The initial stability of an exchanged hip arthroplasty is crucial for the survival of the revised joint. Several factors can affect the outcome. The amount of liquid in morsellized bone has a major influence on the constrained stiffness properties of impacted bone applied in revision joint surgery. To determine whether water or fat is the main contributing liquid, we performed an experimental study on impacted morsellized cortico-cancellous bovine bone to compare the constrained e-moduli in native bone and bone with modified water and fat content. The bone was impacted into bone pellets by a standardized method by which the construction procedure was monitored. Other stiffness properties were recorded during subsequent load testing. Low water content significantly increased the constrained stiffness moduli during load, while high water content significantly reduced it. Low fat content increased stiffness significantly only during the initial phase of loading. Our findings indicate that the preparation and usage of morsellized bone in revision joint surgery should be performed under dry conditions to improve the initial stability of the revised prosthesis.

  6. Vancomycin iontophoresis of allograft bone

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, M. C.; Day, R.; Wood, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The most concerning infection of allografts and operative procedures is methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and no current iontophoresed antibiotics effectively combat this microbe. It was initially hypothesised that iontophoresis of vancomycin through bone would not be effective due to its large molecular size and lack of charge. The aim of this study was to determine whether this was a viable procedure and to find the optimum conditions for its use. Methods An iontophoresis cell was set up with varying concentrations of Vancomycin within the medulla of a section of sheep tibia, sealed from an external saline solution. The cell was run for varying times, Vancomycin concentrations and voltages, to gain information on optimisation of conditions for impregnating the graft. Each graft was then sectioned and dust ground from the exposed surface. The dust was serially washed to extract the Vancomycin and concentrations measured and plotted for all variables tested. Results Vancomycin was successfully delivered and impregnated to the graft using the iontophoresis technique. The first order fit to the whole data set gave a significant result (p = 0.0233), with a significant concentration (p = 0.02774) component. The time component was the next most significant (p = 0.0597), but did not exceed the 95% confidence level. Conclusions Iontophoresis is an effective method for delivering Vancomycin to allograft bone. The concentrations of the vancomycin solution affected the bone concentration, but results were highly variable. Further study should be done on the effectiveness of delivering different antibiotics using this method. PMID:24729101

  7. [Comparison of clinical efficacies of single segment transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with cage versus autogenous morselized bone for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective randomized controlled study].

    PubMed

    Liu, Peisheng; Liu, Xiaozhen; Qiao, Xuejing; Du, Wennan; Luo, Dawei; Zheng, Xiujun

    2014-09-23

    To compare the clinical efficacies of single segment transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with cage versus autogenous morselized bone for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. A total of 87 patients undergoing single segment TLIF were randomly divided into 2 groups. A cage was implanted into intervertebral space in group A patients while autogenous morselized bone in group B patients. Operative duration, blood loss, length of stay and cost of hospitalization of two groups were recorded. They were followed up at 1 week, 12, 24 months post-operation. Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS) fusion rates, intervertebral space and foramen height restoration, lumbar lordosis and postoperative complications were compared between two groups. No significant inter-group difference existed in operative duration, blood loss or length of stay. However, the average hospitalization cost in group A were 18% higher than that of group B (P < 0.05). Both groups achieved excellent clinical outcomes within 2 years. ODI, VAS score improvement rates and postoperative complication rates were not statistically different. Lumbar fusion rate was 86.7% in group A versus 85.7% in group B after 2 years. And there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). The heights of intervertebral space and foramen in group A achieved a better recovery than those of group B. Both groups had similar improvements of lumbar lordosis. For degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis, usage of interbody cage is more effective in terms of recovery of intervertebral space and foraminal height compared with usage of bone graft. However it brings no better clinical efficacy while the usage of autogenous morselized bone is more cost-effective. Two grafting methods yield similar overall clinical outcomes.

  8. Efficient use of a limited resource femoral head allograft: A comparison of allograft preparation methods.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Timothy; Chow, Jason; Sivakumar, Brahman; Ahmed, Nushin; Smith, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the yield and compressed volume of femoral head allograft prepared by either hand morselization or a bone mill. Twenty human femoral head allografts were donated from a bone bank and morselized by two different methods. The heads were divided in half and split into two sample groups. One group underwent hand morselization with large bone nibblers, while the other was prepared using a bone mill. The volume of graft produced was measured. Ten-gram aliquots of each sample then underwent 30 impactions in a contained cavity, with the volume of graft compression measured. Bone milling yielded approximately 31% more usable graft than hand morselization (81% to 50%; p = 0.0001). There was no difference between the compressed volume of graft prepared by either method ( p = 0.14). This study demonstrates the efficacy of preparation of allograft with a bone mill and assists the clinician in determining the yield of graft by the weight of femoral head, thereby potentially minimizing excessive ordering and wastage.

  9. Scintigraphy of lower extremity cadaveric bone allografts in osteosarcoma patients.

    PubMed

    Bar-Sever, Z; Connolly, L P; Gebhardt, M C; Treves, S T

    1997-08-01

    To describe scintigraphic characteristics of bone allografts used in limb salvage reconstruction after resection of lower extremity osteosarcoma. The authors reviewed 85 skeletal scintigrams of 20 pediatric patients followed up for 0.5-5.7 years after resection of lower extremity osteosarcoma and allograft reconstruction. Uptake in the allograft and adjacent host tissues was assessed visually. Lack of tracer uptake in the allografts was seen in 99% of the studies and a faint rim of tracer localization outlining the allograft's periphery was seen in 95% of the studies. Increased uptake was noted at the allograft-host bone junction in 78% of the studies. Uptake was increased in the joint surfaces of native bones articulating with allografts (97% of studies), including the patella (93% of studies) when the knee was involved. These findings were stabilized as time passed. Cadaveric bone allografts have a characteristic scintigraphic appearance in this selected patient group that reflects the physiology of their incorporation process.

  10. PECULIAR IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF BONE MARROW ALLOGRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Cudkowicz, Gustavo; Bennett, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Mice are capable of rejecting H-2-incompatible bone marrow grafts after a single lethal exposure to X-rays. The onset of rejection begins 18–24 hr after transplantation and is completed by 96 hr. Maturation of this type of allograft reactivity does not occur until the 22nd day of life. In adult mice, the resistance to marrow allografts can be weakened by administration of cyclophosphamide or dead cultures of Corynebacterium parvum, but not heterologous anti-thymocyte serum. Sublethal exposures to X-rays 7 or 14 days before transplantation also weaken resistance. There is considerable interstrain variation in the ability of mice to resist allografts, even when H-2 differences between hosts and donor are kept identical. Although H-2 incompatibility is a necessary prerequisite for resistance, additional genetic factors influence the outcome of marrow allografts, presumably by controlling recognition. The regulator genes are determinant specific and the alleles for resistance or responder status appear to be dominant. The responder phenotype is expressed by hemopoietic cells and not by the environment. Accordingly, resistance is conferred to otherwise susceptible mice upon transfer of bone marrow cells but not of serum. The production and differentiation of effector cells for marrow graft rejection are thymus independent. In conclusion, bone marrow allografts elicit a particular transplantation reaction, previously unknown, in irradiated mice. Peculiar features of this reaction are the lack of proliferation of host lymphoid cells, tissue specificity, thymus independence, and regulation by genetic factors which apparently do not affect the fate of other grafts. PMID:4397663

  11. Arthroscopic meniscal allograft transplantation without bone plugs.

    PubMed

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Seijas Vázquez, Roberto; García Balletbó, Montserrat; Álvarez Díaz, Pedro; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Cuscó Segarra, Xavier; Rius Vilarrubia, Marta; Cugat Bertomeu, Ramón

    2011-02-01

    Partial or total meniscectomy are common procedures performed at Orthopedic Surgery departments. Despite providing a great relief of pain, it has been related to early onset knee osteoarthritis. Meniscal allograft transplantation has been proposed as an alternative to meniscectomy. The purposes of this study were to describe an arthroscopic meniscal allograft transplantation without bone plugs technique and to report the preliminary results. All meniscal allograft transplantations performed between 2001 and 2006 were approached for eligibility, and a total of 35 patients (involving 37 menisci) were finally engaged in the study. Patients were excluded if they had ipsilateral knee ligament reconstruction or cartilage repair surgery before meniscal transplantation or other knee surgeries after the meniscal transplantation. Scores on Lysholm, Subjective IKDC Form, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scale for pain were obtained at a mean follow-up of 38.6 months and compared to pre-operative data. Data on chondral lesions were obtained during the arthroscopic procedure and through imaging (radiographs and MRI) studies pre-operatively. Two graft failures out of 59 transplants (3.4%) were found. Daily life accidents were responsible for all graft failures. Significant improvements for Lysholm, Subjective IKDC Form, and VAS for pain scores following the meniscal allograft transplantation were found (P < 0.0001). Controlling for chondral lesion, there was no significant interactions for Lysholm (n.s.), Subjective IKDC Form (n.s.), and VAS for pain scores (n.s.). This study demonstrated that an arthroscopic meniscal allograft transplantation without bone plugs improved knee function and symptoms after a total meniscectomy. Improvements were observed independently of the degree of chondral lesion.

  12. [Functionality and osteointegration of bone allografts in long bone osteosarcomas].

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, J J; García-Sandoval, P P; Fernández-Hernández, J A; Valcárcel-Díaz, A

    2012-01-01

    In patients undergoing long bone resection for osteosarcoma the use of bone allografts is a treatment option. How do they behave functionally and what is their long term osteointegration? A retrospective, observational, longitudinal study was conducted to obtain clinical and radiologic data of the sample composed of a group of 15 patients with a diagnosis of limb osteosarcoma treated at our hospital with structural bone allografts. The Mankin and ISOLS (International Symposium on Limb Salvage) scales were applied to assess allograft functionality and osteointegration, respectively, from 1993 to 2006. Functional results were as follows: excellent, 10 patients (66.6%); good, one patient (6.6%), and poor, 4 patients (26%). The osteointegration assessment reported excellent results in 77% of cases at 18 months and in 87% at 2 years. Surgical wound infection was reported as a complication in only 2 patients (13.3%). Functionality and osteointegration in patients undergoing conservative surgery with bone allografts are excellent in most cases, and this is the technique of choice for the treatment of long bone osteosarcomas.

  13. PTH promotes allograft integration in a calvarial bone defect.

    PubMed

    Sheyn, Dmitriy; Cohn Yakubovich, Doron; Kallai, Ilan; Su, Susan; Da, Xiaoyu; Pelled, Gadi; Tawackoli, Wafa; Cook-Weins, Galen; Schwarz, Edward M; Gazit, Dan; Gazit, Zulma

    2013-12-02

    Allografts may be useful in craniofacial bone repair, although they often fail to integrate with the host bone. We hypothesized that intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) would enhance mesenchymal stem cell recruitment and differentiation, resulting in allograft osseointegration in cranial membranous bones. Calvarial bone defects were created in transgenic mice, in which luciferase is expressed under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. The mice were given implants of allografts with or without daily PTH treatment. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed to monitor host osteprogenitor differentiation at the implantation site. Bone formation was evaluated with the aid of fluorescence imaging (FLI) and microcomputed tomography (μCT) as well as histological analyses. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to evaluate the expression of key osteogenic and angiogenic genes. Osteoprogenitor differentiation, as detected by BLI, in mice treated with an allograft implant and PTH was over 2-fold higher than those in mice treated with an allograft implant without PTH. FLI also demonstrated that the bone mineralization process in PTH-treated allografts was significantly higher than that in untreated allografts. The μCT scans revealed a significant increase in bone formation in allograft + PTH treated mice comparing to allograft + PBS treated mice. The osteogenic genes osteocalcin (Oc/Bglap) and integrin binding sialoprotein (Ibsp) were upregulated in the allograft + PTH treated animals. In summary, PTH treatment enhances osteoprogenitor differentiation and augments bone formation around structural allografts. The precise mechanism is not clear, but we show that infiltration pattern of mast cells, associated with the formation of fibrotic tissue, in the defect site is significantly affected by the PTH treatment.

  14. Bacterial colonization of bone allografts: establishment and effects of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ketonis, Constantinos; Barr, Stephanie; Adams, Christopher S; Hickok, Noreen J; Parvizi, Javad

    2010-08-01

    Bone grafts are frequently used to supplement bone stock and to establish structural stability. However, graft-associated infection represents a challenging complication leading to increased patient morbidity and healthcare costs. We therefore designed this study to (1) determine if increasing initial S. aureus inoculation of bone allograft results in a proportionate increase in colonization; (2) assess if antibiotics decrease colonization and if antibiotic tethering to allograft alters its ability to prevent bacterial colonization; and (3) determine if covalent modification alters the allograft topography or its biological properties. Allograft bone and vancomycin-modified bone (VAN-bone) was challenged with different doses of S. aureus for times out to 24 hours in the presence or absence of solution vancomycin. Bacterial colonization was assessed by fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by direct colony counting. Cell density and distribution of osteoblast-like cells on control and modified allograft were then compared. Bacterial attachment was apparent within 6 hours with colonization and biofilm formation increasing with time and dose. Solution vancomycin failed to prevent bacterial attachment whereas VAN-bone successfully resisted colonization. The allograft modification did not affect the attachment and distribution of osteoblast-like cells. Allograft bone was readily colonized by S. aureus and covered by a biofilm with especially florid growth in natural topographic niches. Using a novel covalent modification, allograft bone was able to resist colonization by organisms while retaining the ability to allow adhesion of osteoblastic cells. Generation of allograft bone that can resist infection in vivo would be important in addressing one of the most challenging problems associated with the use of allograft, namely infection.

  15. Sterilization of bone allografts by microwave and gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer

    2012-09-01

    Bone allografts are used to enhance healing in osteotomies, arthrodesis, fractures and to replace bone loss resulting from tumour or trauma. However, a major concern associated with the bone allografts is the potential for disease transmission. Various sterilization techniques have been developed to prevent infection through allografts. This study was undertaken with the aim of exploring the use of microwave radiation for sterilization of bone allografts and to compare with gamma radiation sterilization. Bone allografts were processed from femoral heads obtained from living donors. The effect of microwave and gamma radiation on the bacteria isolated from bone allograft was evaluated. The microwave radiation treatment was performed at 2450 MHz (frequency) for varying lengths of time at maximum power 900 Watts (W). Viability of three Gram-positive bacteria - Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus aureus and three Gram-negative bacteria - Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was examined after irradiation of bacterial suspensions and contaminated processed bone allografts. The sterility test of microwave and gamma irradiated bone allograft was carried out in accordance with ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 11737-2. Microwave irradiation (2450 MHz and 900 W) of bacterial isolates resulted in complete inactivation within 60 seconds. The contaminated bone samples showed no growth of organisms after 2 minutes of exposure to microwave irradiation. No viable counts were detected in bone grafts inoculated with Gram-negative bacterial species on gamma irradiation to a dose of 15 kGy. Bones contaminated with Gram-positive bacteria required a higher dose of 20 kGy for complete inactivation. The study shows that sterilization of contaminated femoral head bone allografts can be achieved by short exposure of 2 min to 2450 MHz and 900 W microwave radiation.

  16. Bone allograft and implant fixation tested under influence of bio-burden reduction, periosteal augmentation and topical antibiotics. Animal experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Barckman, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Loosening of an artificial joint prosthesis is a painful and debilitating condition that can be treated only by re-operation. Re-operations accounted for approximately 15% of all hip replacement operations performed in Denmark between the year 1995 and 2010. The process of loosening is often accompanied by destructive inflammation and osteolysis, which leads to insufficient bone stock that often requires extensive bone grafting. Impacted morselized bone graft is a well-established method for improving the amount and quality of bone stock that ensures sufficient stability and anchorage of the revision implants. Among bone graft options, the autologous bone graft is considered the gold standard. It is naturally biocompatible, but its use in revision surgery is curtailed by its limited volume and by considerable donor site morbidity. Allograft bone is readily available and is the most commonly used graft material. However, it has been shown that the incorporation of allograft bone into the host bone is not always complete, and substantial fibrous tissue formation has been described. A reason for this may be that allograft bone is a foreign tissue, which, contrary to autogenic bone, may induce an immunogenic response that leads to increased fibrous tissue formation. Furthermore, the fresh-frozen allograft has minimal osteoinductive and no osteogenic capacity. The studies in this thesis have investigated ways of improving the incorporation of allograft bone by adding osteoinductive cells from the periosteum and reducing the immunogenic load of the allograft bone by rinsing. Furthermore, the impact of antibiotic protection of the bone graft has been evaluated. The same experimental implant model was used in all three studies. This model enables evaluation of early implant fixation and osseointegration of an uncemented implant surrounded by impacted morselized bone graft. Unloaded gap implants were inserted into the metaphysis of the proximal tibia (Study I) and distal

  17. Porous allograft bone scaffolds: doping with strontium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28 ± 0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60 ± 0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes.

  18. Porous Allograft Bone Scaffolds: Doping with Strontium

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28±0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60±0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes. PMID:23922703

  19. Three-Dimensional Virtual Bone Bank System Workflow for Structural Bone Allograft Selection: A Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Ritacco, Lucas Eduardo; Farfalli, German Luis; Milano, Federico Edgardo; Ayerza, Miguel Angel; Muscolo, Domingo Luis

    2013-01-01

    Structural bone allograft has been used in bone defect reconstruction during the last fifty years with acceptable results. However, allograft selection methods were based on 2-dimensional templates using X-rays. Thanks to preoperative planning platforms, three-dimensional (3D) CT-derived bone models were used to define size and shape comparison between host and donor. The purpose of this study was to describe the workflow of this virtual technique in order to explain how to choose the best allograft using a virtual bone bank system. We measured all bones in a 3D virtual environment determining the best match. The use of a virtual bone bank system has allowed optimizing the allograft selection in a bone bank, providing more information to the surgeons before surgery. In conclusion, 3D preoperative planning in a virtual environment for allograft selection is an important and helpful tool in order to achieve a good match between host and donor. PMID:23690733

  20. Cefuroxime, rifampicin and pulse lavage in decontamination of allograft bone.

    PubMed

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Pirkkalainen, S; Vuento, R

    2004-03-01

    The risk of bacterial infection through allogenic bone transplantation is one of the major problems facing tissue banks. Different screening methods and decontamination procedures are being used to achieve a safe surgical result. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contamination rate in fresh frozen bone allografts after treating them with different decontamination methods. The allografts were contaminated by rubbing on the operating theatre floor for 60 min, after which they were rinsed either with sterile physiological saline, cefuroxime or rifampicin solution or they were washed with low-pressure pulse lavage of sterile physiological saline. Our findings show that low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution is very effective in removing bacteria from bone allograft, when compared with the antibiotic solutions tested.

  1. Viable cells survive in fresh frozen human bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Simpson, David; Kakarala, Gopikrishna; Hampson, Karen; Steele, Niall; Ashton, Brian

    2007-02-01

    Fresh frozen bone allograft is available for human recipients after at least 6 months of quarantine at -80 degrees C. It is assumed that cryopreservation without cryoprotectant removes all viable donor cells. We studied the in vitro cell growth from samples of fresh frozen human femoral head allografts after they had been released for patient use, and compared it with cell growth from a control group of fresh cancellous bone specimens from excised femoral heads (8 samples in each group). Cell outgrowths were seen in all of the fresh cancellous bone specimens (100% of replicates, 48 replicates per specimen) but only in a small minority of replicates from 4 of the allograft samples (mean 3.1%). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) investigations revealed that cell outgrowths from both groups contained mRNA for transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix, and also for matrix proteins collagen type I, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein. This is consistent with the cells being osteoblast-related. This study confirms that fresh frozen human bone allograft cells have the potential to grow in vitro, but the significance of this in recipients is currently unknown.

  2. Mechanical integrity of subchondral bone in osteochondral autografts and allografts

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, Greg; Goplen, Gordon; Ford, Jason; Novak, Kelli; Hurtig, Mark; McPherson, Roger; McGann, Locksley; Schachar, Norman; Zernicke, Ronald F.

    1998-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of osteochondral graft preservation techniques on post-transplant biomechanics of graft and host subchondral bone in the knee joint. Design An experimental animal model (sheep), specifically the weight-bearing articular surface of the medial femoral condyle of the knee joints. Intervention Each sheep received, in the ipsilateral knee, an allograft that was (a) frozen without dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), (b) snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen or (c) frozen with DMSO. The contralateral knee received an autograft that was (a) snap-frozen, (b) treated with DMSO or (c) left untreated (fresh). Main outcome measures Mechanical and material properties of bone, including maximal compression stress, modulus of elasticity and bone mineral ash content of subchondral bone cores (from the graft centre and surrounding host bone). Results No significant differences were found in the mechanical properties of the subchondral bone under the graft, but there were significant changes in surrounding bone. Bone surrounding the grafts that were snap-frozen or frozen without DMSO was significantly stronger than the normal control bone. However, bone surrounding fresh autografts and cryoprotected allografts was not significantly different from normal control bone. Conclusions The changes in the mechanical behaviour of the host bone may be associated with graft cell viability. The greater stiffness of the subchondral host bone may have consequences for long-term graft integrity and for the development of degenerative osteoarthritis. PMID:9627549

  3. Impact of freezing on immunology and incorporation of bone allograft.

    PubMed

    Reikerås, Olav; Sigurdsen, Ulf W; Shegarfi, Hamid

    2010-09-01

    With an increasing clinical use of deep frozen allograft for bone reconstruction, it is important to understand the immunological and biological events of allograft incorporation. In this study, we have investigated the impact of deep freezing on immunology and biopotency for incorporation of bone allografts. Deep frozen bone grafts matched or mismatched for major histoscompatibilty complex (MHC) were implanted in an 8-mm segmental defect in the tibia in rats. The construct was stabilized with intramedullary nailing. The immune response was evaluated by determination of serum antibody against the grafts MHC molecules at day 1 and after 2 and 4 months. Incorporation of the graft was compared with fresh syngeneic grafts and assessed with the use of conventional radiography, biomechanical testing and measurement of bone mineral content and density after 4 months. The analyses revealed no antibody responses in the rats that received grafts from donors differing at histocompatibility loci, and at 4 months the frozen grafts showed an overall reconstruction that was not significantly different from the fresh grafts. This study indicates that in the long run there are no significant consequences; either immunological or biomechanical, of the use of deep frozen allogenous bone as compared to fresh autogenous bone grafts in this animal model.

  4. Chest wall reconstruction using iliac bone allografts and muscle flaps.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tutor, Emilio; Yeste, Luis; Murillo, Julio; Aubá, Cristina; Sanjulian, Mikel; Torre, Wenceslao

    2004-01-01

    Technically we can divide full-thickness thoracic reconstruction into 2 parts: providing a rigid support and ensuring well-vascularized coverage. Since 1986, the authors' center has had ample experience with bone banks and the use of cryopreserved bone grafts, which led them to consider the possibility of using these grafts for full-thickness chest wall reconstruction. They describe 3 patients in whom resection of the tumor and reconstruction of the thorax were carried out using iliac bone allografts covered with muscle flaps (1 pectoralis major and 2 rectus abdominis). None of the patients experienced breathing difficulties, pain, or instability after 14 months, 18 months, and 11 years of follow-up. The result of the reconstruction was excellent in all 3 patients in terms of function and aesthetics. The advantage of allografts compared with synthetic materials is their potential integration; they can become part of the host patient's living tissue.

  5. The use of deep frozen and irradiated bone allografts in the reconstruction of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Fu, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Dongsong; Qi, Xin

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the clinical behavior of deep frozen and irradiated bone allografts in the treatment of depressed tibial plateau fractures. Twenty-two patients with a tibial plateau fracture were treated with cancellous bone allografts. The bone allograft preparation process included fresh-freezing at -70 °C for 4 weeks and gamma-irradiation at 25 kGy. All of the patients were followed for 1-2 years. The clinical effects were assessed using the Rasmussen score for tibial head fractures and X-rays. Postoperatively, the average excellent and fair Rasmussen scores were 88.9%. Only one patient developed an infection, with no integration between allograft and recipient bone observed. All of the other bone allografts were incorporated successfully, and no osteoporosis or sclerosis was observed. The frozen and gamma-irradiated bone allograft is a good alternative in the treatment of tibial plateau fractures, which we have shown can integrate with the surrounding host bone.

  6. Development of a Three-Dimensional (3D) Printed Biodegradable Cage to Convert Morselized Corticocancellous Bone Chips into a Structured Cortical Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ying-Chao; Lee, Demei; Chang, Tzu-Min; Hsu, Yung-Heng; Yu, Yi-Hsun; Liu, Shih-Jung; Ueng, Steve Wen-Neng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new biodegradable polymeric cage to convert corticocancellous bone chips into a structured strut graft for treating segmental bone defects. A total of 24 adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent a left femoral segmental bone defect creation. Twelve rabbits in group A underwent three-dimensional (3D) printed cage insertion, corticocancellous chips implantation, and Kirschner-wire (K-wire) fixation, while the other 12 rabbits in group B received bone chips implantation and K-wire fixation only. All rabbits received a one-week activity assessment and the initial image study at postoperative 1 week. The final image study was repeated at postoperative 12 or 24 weeks before the rabbit scarification procedure on schedule. After the animals were sacrificed, both femurs of all the rabbits were prepared for leg length ratios and 3-point bending tests. The rabbits in group A showed an increase of activities during the first week postoperatively and decreased anterior cortical disruptions in the postoperative image assessments. Additionally, higher leg length ratios and 3-point bending strengths demonstrated improved final bony ingrowths within the bone defects for rabbits in group A. In conclusion, through this bone graft converting technique, orthopedic surgeons can treat segmental bone defects by using bone chips but with imitate characters of structured cortical bone graft. PMID:27104525

  7. Structural bone allograft combined with genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells as a novel platform for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chao; Reynolds, David; Awad, Hani; Rubery, Paul T; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan; Guldberg, Robert E; Schwarz, Edward M; O'Keefe, Regis J; Zhang, Xinping

    2007-03-01

    The presence of live periosteal progenitor cells on the surface of bone autografts confers better healing than devitalized allograft. We have previously demonstrated in a murine 4 mm segmental femoral bone-grafting model that live periosteum produces robust endochondral and intramembraneous bone formation that is essential for effective healing and neovascularization of structural bone grafts. To the end of engineering a live pseudo-periosteum that could induce a similar response onto devitalized bone allograft, we seeded a mesenchymal stem cell line stably transfected with human bone morphogenic protein-2/beta-galactosidase (C9) onto devitalized bone allografts or onto a membranous small intestinal submucosa scaffold that was wrapped around the allograft. Histology showed that C9-coated allografts displayed early cartilaginous tissue formation at day 7. By 6 and 9 weeks, a new cortical shell was found bridging the segmental defect that united the host bones. Biomechanical testing showed that C9-coated allografts displayed torsional strength and stiffness equivalent to intact femurs at 6 weeks and superior to live isografts at 9 weeks. Volumetric and histomorphometric micro-computed tomography analyses demonstrated a 2-fold increase in new bone formation around C9-coated allografts, which resulted in a substantial increase in polar moment of inertia (pMOI) due to the formation of new cortical shell around the allografts. Positive correlations between biomechanics and new bone volume and pMOI were found, suggesting that the biomechanical function of the grafted femur relates to both morphological parameters. C9-coated allograft also exhibited slower resorption of the graft cortex at 9 weeks than live isograft. Both new bone formation and the persistent allograft likely contributed to the improved biomechanics of C9-coated allograft. Taken together, we propose a novel strategy to combine structural bone allograft with genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells as

  8. Consolidation of massive bone allografts in limb-preserving operations for bone tumours.

    PubMed

    San Julian Aranguren, M; Leyes, M; Mora, G; Cañadell, J

    1995-01-01

    This study analysed the influence of several factors affecting the consolidation time of 83 massive bone allografts in 79 patients with malignant bone tumours: osteosarcoma 57; Ewing's sarcoma 8; malignant fibrous histiocytoma 3; chondrosarcoma 4; fibrosarcoma 5; and giant cell tumours 2. The mean age of the patients was 19 years and the mean length of the allografts was 18 cm. The minimum follow up was for 12 months. The mean consolidation time for metaphyseal and diaphyseal osteotomies was 6.5 and 16 months respectively. Fifteen diaphyseal osteotomies required autologous cancellous grafting. There were 8 allograft fractures after consolidation. The following factors which might influence consolidation were analysed: age of the host and donor; allograft length and site; type of osteotomy and osteosynthesis; intra-arterial and systemic chemotherapy; intraoperative and external radio-therapy. In diaphyseal osteotomies there were statistically significant differences in consolidation time with the use of systemic chemotherapy, external radiotherapy and the recipient's age.

  9. Studies on the antigenicity of bone. I. Freeze-dried and deep-frozen bone allografts in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, G E; Strong, D M; Sell, K W

    1976-09-01

    The antigenicity of deep-frozen and freeze-dried cortical and corticocancellous bone allografts placed orthotopically in rabbits was studied using a sensitive microcytotoxicity assay. Target cells were phytohemagglutinin-P-stimulated, 51chromium-labeled peripheral blood lymphocytes from the bone donors (Dutch belted rabbits), and sera or peripheral blood lymphocytes from the graft recipients (New Zealand white rabbits) were used as effectors of cytotoxicity. Fresh allografts and deep-frozen corticocancellous bone evoked detectable humoral and cell-mediated immunity,, whereas freeze-dried cortical bone allografts failed to sensitize the recipients and were the least antigenic of the allografts examined.

  10. First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Arthrodesis Technique With Interposition Allograft Bone Block.

    PubMed

    Luk, Pamela C; Johnson, Jeffrey E; McCormick, Jeremy J; Klein, Sandra E

    2015-08-01

    We present a technique of first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis utilizing an interposition allograft bone block with a bipolar reaming technique that creates congruent fusion surfaces on both ends of the graft-host bone interface. In addition, we examined the union rates, fusion position, patient satisfaction, and functional outcome of this technique. Fifteen patients underwent first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis with an interposition allograft bone block between September 2004 and October 2013. Charts and radiographs were reviewed. Six measures were compared on preoperative and postoperative radiographs. Clinical outcomes were measured using a telephone questionnaire, pre- and postoperative visual analog scale pain scale, and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Average follow-up was 46 weeks (range, 19 to 97). Thirteen of 15 (87%) patients achieved bony union at an average of 21 weeks. One patient underwent revision arthrodesis for their nonunion. Symptomatic hardware was removed in 3 cases. Improvement was noted in visual analog scale pain scores (6 to 2) and functional scores as measured by the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. There were no postoperative wound complications or infections. Average length of the first ray on anteroposterior radiograph increased from 10.7 to 11.3 cm and from 10.0 to 10.7 cm on the lateral radiograph. Thirteen of 14 patients were very satisfied or satisfied. One patient expressed dissatisfaction with the procedure. One patient was not available for clinical follow-up. First metatarsophalangeal joint allograft bone block arthrodesis using the bipolar reaming technique achieved high bony union rates and satisfactory radiographic and clinical outcomes. This procedure was an effective salvage option for managing bone loss on 1 or both sides of the joint. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Intraoperative culture positive allograft bone and subsequent postoperative infections: a retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Laura; Kulyk, Paul; Woo, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Background Obtaining intraoperative cultures of allograft bone just before use in orthopedic procedures is standard practice in many centres; however, the association between positive cultures and subsequent surgical infections is unknown. Our study had 3 goals: to determine the prevalence of positive intraoperative allograft culture and subsequent infection; to determine if, in cases of subsequent infection, organisms isolated at reoperation were the same as those cultured from the allograft at the time of the index procedure; and to assess the costs associated with performing intraoperative allograft cultures. Methods In this retrospective case series, we obtained data on patients receiving allograft bone between 2009 and 2012. Patients receiving allograft with positive cultures were reviewed to identify cases of significant infection. Organisms isolated at reoperation were compared with the allograft culture taken at the time of implantation, and we performed a cost assessment. Results Of the 996 allograft bone grafts used, 43 (4.3%) had positive intraoperative cultures and significant postoperative infections developed in 2, requiring reoperation. Antibiotics based on culture results were prescribed in 24% of cases. Organisms cultured at the time of reoperation differed from those isolated initially. The cost of performing 996 allograft cultures was $169 320. Conclusion This series suggests that rates of positive intraoperative bone allograft culture are low, and subsequent infection is rare. In cases of postoperative infection, primary allograft culture and secondary tissue cultures isolated different organisms. Costs associated with performing cultures are high. Eliminating initial culture testing could save $42 500 per year in our health region. PMID:28234217

  12. Fresh-frozen vs. irradiated allograft bone in orthopaedic reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Costain, D J; Crawford, R W

    2009-12-01

    The use of allograft bone is increasingly common in orthopaedic reconstruction procedures. The optimal method of preparation of allograft bone is subject of great debate. Proponents of fresh-frozen graft cite improved biological and biomechanical characteristics relative to irradiated material, whereas fear of bacterial or viral transmission warrants some to favour irradiated graft. Careful review of the literature is necessary to appreciate the influence of processing techniques on bone quality. Whereas limited clinical trials are available to govern the selection of appropriate bone graft, this review presents the argument favouring the use of fresh-frozen bone allograft as compared to irradiated bone.

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using cryopreserved irradiated bone-ACL-bone-allograft transplants.

    PubMed

    Goertzen, M J; Clahsen, H; Schulitz, K P

    1994-01-01

    Bone-ACL-bone allograft transplantation has been investigated as a potential solution to reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). To minimize disease transmission (e.g. the acquired immuno deficiency syndrome), bony and collagenous tissues should be sterilized. Recent animal studies indicate that gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide sterilization result in diminished histological and biomechanical properties. The purpose of the present study was biomechanical and histological determination of the fate of deep-frozen gamma-irradiated (2.5 Mrad) canine bone-ACL-bone allografts with argon gas protection. Particular attention was paid to collagenous and neuroanatomical morphology 3, 6 and 12 months after implantation, by comparison to a non-irradiated control group. Sixty skeletally mature foxhounds were operated on in this study, divided up in two groups of 30 dogs each. In group A animals the ACL was replaced by a deep-frozen (-80 degrees C) bone-ACL-bone LAD-augmented allograft subjected to 2.5 Mrad gamma irradiation with argon gas protection. The animals in group B received an LAD-augmented ACL-allograft transplant without gamma irradiation. All knees from both groups were evaluated 3, 6 and 12 months after implantation in regard to biomechanical properties, collagen morphology and routine histology (haematoxylin and eosin stain, polarization microscopy), neuroanatomical morphology (silver and gold chloride stain) and microvasculature (modified Spalteholz technique). The irradiated ACL allografts withstood a maximum load that was 63.8% (718.3 N) of the maximum load of normal ACLs after 12 months. By contrast, the non-irradiated allografts failed at 69.1% (780.1 N) of the maximum load of normal control ACLs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. A comparative study of calcium sulfate artificial bone graft versus allograft in the reconstruction of bone defect after tumor curettage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongkun; Niu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Qing; Hao, Lin; Ding, Yi; Xu, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Cavity reconstruction after benign bone tumor removal is varied and controversial. Allograft is widely used but is associated with complications. New bone substitutes, such as calcium sulfate artificial bone, have been introduced for bone tumor operation. However, the bone healing response of artificial bone has not been compared with allograft bone. We therefore compared calcium sulfate grafts (study group) with bone allografts (control group) for the treatment of benign bone tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 50 patients who underwent calcium sulfate reconstruction and 50 patients who underwent allograft cancellous bone reconstruction. The two groups were well matched. The mean follow-up time of the study group was 19.9 (12-55) months. We investigated bone healing response, complications, and factors affecting bone healing. At the last follow-up, 84% (42/50) of cases in the study group and 62% (31/50) of cases in the control group had achieved clinical healing (P = 0.013). The initial healing rate showed no significant difference between the two groups (100% vs. 96%, P = 0.153). The mean healing times for calcium sulfate and allograft bone were 9.6 (3-42) months and 13.8 (3-36) months, respectively (P < 0.01). Complications in the study group were minor and resolved. Implant volume was a significant factor affecting bone healing. The calcium sulfate bone substitute showed a satisfactory healing outcome and safety profile in reconstruction of bone defects after benign bone tumor curettage, especially in smaller cavities.

  15. Revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft and extra-articular iliotibial band tenodesis.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Randy; McConkey, Mark O; Forsythe, Brian; Harner, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a technically demanding procedure with outcomes that generally fail to reach those seen with primary ACL reconstruction. With most index procedures using autograft tissue, it is not uncommon for allograft tissue to be required for revision ACL reconstruction. Compared with autografts, allografts take longer to incorporate and lead to more episodes of instability. In this article, we describe ipsilateral iliotibial band tenodesis performed to augment use of bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft in revision ACL reconstruction. This technique adds rotational stability to protect the allograft tissue while it incorporates.

  16. Bone marrow-derived T lymphocytes responsible for allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Senjanovic, M.; Marusic, M.

    1984-08-01

    Lethally irradiated mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells were grafted with allogeneic skin grafts 6-7 weeks after irradiation and reconstitution. Mice with intact thymuses rejected the grafts whereas the mice thymectomized before irradiation and reconstitution did not. Thymectomized irradiated mice (TIR mice) reconstituted with bone marrow cells from donors immune to the allografts rejected the grafts. Bone marrow cells from immunized donors, pretreated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C', did not confer immunity to TIR recipients. To determine the number of T lymphocytes necessary for the transfer of immunity by bone marrow cells from immunized donors, thymectomized irradiated mice were reconstituted with nonimmune bone marrow cells treated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C' and with various numbers of splenic T lymphocytes from nonimmune and immune donors. Allogeneic skin graft rejection was obtained with 10(6) nonimmune or 10(4) immune T cells. The effect of immune T cells was specific: i.e., immune T cells accelerated only rejection of the relevant skin grafts whereas against a third-party skin grafts acted as normal T lymphocytes.

  17. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  18. The use of cement in osteoarticular allografts for proximal humeral bone tumors.

    PubMed

    DeGroot, Henry; Donati, Davide; Di Liddo, Michele; Gozzi, Enrico; Mercuri, Mario

    2004-10-01

    In a proximal humerus resection for a bone tumor, the use of an osteoarticular allograft is considered the best restoration of shoulder function. We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 31 patients who had an intraarticular resection of the proximal humerus for a bone tumor. Twenty-three of the allografts were filled with cement. The average followup was 5.3 years. Of the 31 patients with more than 24 months followup, seven had revision surgery or removal of the allograft. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the probability of survival of the reconstruction was 78% at 5 years. Fracture was the main complication in 11 patients (37%) of whom seven were in the noncemented group. Four of these patients had successful surgery for conversion to an allograft-prosthetic composite, whereas one patient had a new allograft. Allografts that were filled with cement had four fractures (18%); three were subchondral fractures discovered by routine CT scans. None of these patients had pain or needed revision surgery. Osteochondral allograft in proximal humerus replacement is a reliable reconstructive technique if the allograft is augmented by filling the intramedullary space with cement. Moreover, cement augmented allografts are less expensive and technically easier than allograft-prosthetic composites.

  19. The Effect of Cementation and Autogenous Bone Grafting on Allograft Union and Incorporation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-09

    Cameron Station Alexandria, VA 22304-6145 RE: Grant no. N00014-93-1-0745; The effect of cementation and autogenous bone grafting on allograft union...of Wisconsin System Title of Project: The Effect of Cementation and Autogenous Bone Grafting on Allograft Union and Incorporation Grant Number...cantilever bending, and torsion tests. 94-05018 94 2 1 5 004 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII The Effect of Cementation and Autogenous Bone Grafting

  20. [Bone defects in revision knee arthroplasty: filling with bone allograft plus platelet-derived growth factors].

    PubMed

    Macule-Beneyto, Francisco; Segur-Vilalta, Josep; Vilchez-Cavazos, Felix; Esteban-Navarro, Pedro; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Acosta-Olivo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of a revision knee arthroplasty is the management of bone loss. The OBJECTIVE of the study is to show the capability to augment bone mineral density in areas with bone loss with platelet-derived growth factors. Randomized, prospective, blinded study in patients who underwent a total knee replacement revision with tibial-damaged metaphyseal bone were randomly allocated to have a revision total knee arthroplasty and to fill the bone defects with lyophilized bone allograft mixed with platelet growth factors (experimental group, n= 9) or with lyophilized bone allograft alone (control group, n= 7). To evaluate bone mineral density between groups, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed preoperatively, at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. The study was comprised of a total of 16 patients. We found no significant differences observed during the follow-up between groups in mineral bone density. Use of platelet-derived growth factors does not improve bone mineral density in patients with revision knee arthroplasty.

  1. Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Bone Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Parashis, Andreas O.; Kalaitzakis, Charalampos J.; Tatakis, Dimitris N.; Tosios, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) has been shown to prevent postextraction bone loss. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical, radiographic, and histological outcomes following use of a bilayer xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM) in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) for ARP. Nine patients were treated after extraction of 18 teeth. Following minimal flap elevation and atraumatic extraction, sockets were filled with FDBA. The XCM was adapted to cover the defect and 2-3 mm of adjacent bone and flaps were repositioned. Healing was uneventful in all cases, the XCM remained in place, and any matrix exposure was devoid of further complications. Exposed matrix portions were slowly vascularized and replaced by mature keratinized tissue within 2-3 months. Radiographic and clinical assessment indicated adequate volume of bone for implant placement, with all planned implants placed in acceptable positions. When fixed partial dentures were placed, restorations fulfilled aesthetic demands without requiring further augmentation procedures. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis from 9 sites (4 patients) indicated normal mucosa with complete incorporation of the matrix and absence of inflammatory response. The XCM + FDBA combination resulted in minimal complications and desirable soft and hard tissue therapeutic outcomes, suggesting the feasibility of this approach for ARP. PMID:25328523

  2. Remodeling of cortical bone allografts mediated by adherent rAAV-RANKL and VEGF gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Koefoed, Mette; Tiyapatanaputi, Prarop; Gromov, Kirill; Goater, J Jeffrey; Carmouche, Jonathan; Zhang, Xinping; Rubery, Paul T; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Samulski, R Jude; Nakamura, Takashi; Soballe, Kjeld; O'Keefe, Regis J; Boyce, Brendan F; Schwarz, Edward M

    2006-01-01

    Structural allograft healing is limited because of a lack of vascularization and remodeling. To study this we developed a mouse model that recapitulates the clinical aspects of live autograft and processed allograft healing. Gene expression analyses showed that there is a substantial decrease in the genes encoding RANKL and VEGF during allograft healing. Loss-of-function studies showed that both factors are required for autograft healing. To determine whether addition of these signals could stimulate allograft vascularization and remodeling, we developed a new approach in which rAAV can be freeze-dried onto the cortical surface without losing infectivity. We show that combination rAAV-RANKL- and rAAV-VEGF-coated allografts show marked remodeling and vascularization, which leads to a new bone collar around the graft. In conclusion, we find that RANKL and VEGF are necessary and sufficient for efficient autograft remodeling and can be transferred using rAAV to revitalize structural allografts. PMID:15711561

  3. Osteoinductive effect of bone bank allografts on human osteoblasts in culture.

    PubMed

    de la Piedra, Concepción; Vicario, Carlos; de Acuña, Lucrecia Rodríguez; García-Moreno, Carmen; Traba, Maria Luisa; Arlandis, Santiago; Marco, Fernando; López-Durán, Luis

    2008-02-01

    Incorporation of a human bone allograft requires osteoclast activity and growth of recipient osteoblasts. The aim of this work was to study the effects produced by autoclavated and -80 degrees C frozen bone allografts on osteoblast proliferation and synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL6), activator of bone resorption, aminoterminal propeptide of procollagen I (PINP), marker of bone matrix formation, and osteoprotegerin (OPG), inhibitor of osteoclast activity and differentiation. Allografts were obtained from human femoral heads. Human osteoblasts were cultured in the presence (problem group) or in the absence (control group) of allografts during 15 days. Allografts produced a decrease in osteoblast proliferation in the first week of the experiment, and an increase in IL6 mRNA, both at 3 h and 2 days, and an increase in the IL6 released to the culture medium the second day of the experiment. We found a decrease in OPG released to the culture on the 2nd and fourth days. These results suggest an increase in bone resorption and a decrease in bone formation in the first week of the experiment. In the second week, allografts produced an increase in osteoblast proliferation and PINP release to the culture medium, indicating an increase in bone formation; an increase in OPG released to the culture medium, which would indicate a decrease in bone resorption; and a decrease in IL6, indicating a decrease in bone resorption stimulation. These results demonstrate that autoclavated and -80 degrees C frozen bone allografts produce in bone environment changes that regulate their own incorporation to the recipient bone.

  4. Nasal dorsal augmentation with freeze-dried allograft bone.

    PubMed

    Clark, Richard P; Wong, Granger; Johnson, Loche M; Hagge, Rosalie J; Ciminello, Frank; Lee, John; Stone, Kiki I; Clark, Isabel A

    2009-10-01

    Properly prepared freeze-dried bone has been used with impunity by orthopedic surgeons since 1992 without a single report of disease transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-dried cortical allograft bone for nasal dorsal augmentation. Freeze-dried human cortical bone was obtained from DCI Donor Services, Nashville, Tennessee. Standards recommended by the American Association of Tissue Banks, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were followed. Objective evaluation of the persistence of graft volume was obtained by cephalometric radiography. Vascularization and incorporation of new bone elements within the grafts were demonstrated by using fluorine-18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomographic/computed tomographic scanning. The average persistence of projection in 18 patients was 87 percent at 6 months. Thereafter, 10 patients showed 100 percent maintenance of projection at 12 to 36 months. Vascularization and incorporation of new bone elements within the grafts were demonstrated by using fluorine-18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomographic/computed tomographic scanning in four patients. The initial loss of 13 percent of projection is most likely attributable to resolution of early surgical edema. The authors postulate that there are two pathways based on whether the recipient bed allows vascular access to the graft. The revascularization or inductive pathway involves stem cell conversion to eventual osteoblasts. The scar bed barrier or noninductive pathway involves the preservation of the graft as an unchanged alloimplant. This report is the first of a series that will include a 5-year and a 10-year follow-up.

  5. Effect of two cleaning processes for bone allografts on gentamicin impregnation and in vitro antibiotic release.

    PubMed

    Coraça-Huber, D C; Hausdorfer, J; Fille, M; Steidl, M; Nogler, M

    2013-06-01

    Bone allografts are a useful and sometimes indispensable tool for the surgeon to repair bone defects. Microbial contamination is a major reason for discarding allografts from bone banks. To improve the number of safe allografts, we suggest chemical cleaning of the grafts followed by antibiotic impregnation. Comparison of two chemical cleaning processes for bone allografts aiming for antibiotic impregnation and consequently delivery rates in vitro. Bone chips of 5-10 mm were prepared from human femoral heads. Two cleaning methods (cleaning A and cleaning B) based on solutions containing hydrogen peroxide, paracetic acid, ethanol and biological detergent were carried out and compared. After the cleaning processes, the bone chips were impregnated with gentamicin. Bacillus subtilis bioassay was used to determine the gentamicin release after intervals of 1-7 days. Differences were compared with non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests. The zones of inhibition obtained from the bone grafts cleaned with both cleaning processes were similar between the groups. The concentration of the released antibiotic was decreasing gradually over time, following a similar pattern for both groups. The cleaning procedure A as well as the cleaning procedure B for bone allografts allowed the impregnation with gentamicin powder in the same concentrations in both groups. The delivery of gentamicin was similar for both groups. Both cleaning procedures were easy to be carried out, making them suitable for routine use at the bone banks.

  6. Optimizing the grain size distribution of allografts in bone impaction grafting.

    PubMed

    Putzer, David; Coraça-Huber, Debora; Wurm, Alexander; Schmoelz, Werner; Nogler, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In bone impaction grafting, allografts in the form of bone chips are used for reconstruction of defects and to induce bone remodeling. Optimizing grain size distribution of this allograft material should help prevent implant subsidence by achieving higher primary stability of the graft. We evaluated the influence of grain size distribution on the mechanical stability of allograft material. Bone tissue was rinsed, and the grain size distribution of the allograft material was determined by performing a sieve analysis. Uniaxial compression tests were carried out before and after a standardized compaction procedure for samples with controlled grain size distribution and a control group. Allografts with controlled grain size distribution showed a yield limit almost twice as high as in the control group after a standardized compaction procedure. A better interlocking between bone particles was observed compared to the control group. Thus, grain size distribution has a major impact on the mechanical stability of bone grafts. By controlling the grain size distribution of allograft material, a tighter packing can be achieved and subsequently implant subsidence of implants could be avoided. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effects of vitamin D analog, 22-oxa-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), on bone reconstruction by vascularized bone allograft.

    PubMed

    Merida, L; Shigetomi, M; Ihara, K; Tsubone, T; Ikeda, K; Yamaguchi, A; Sugiyama, T; Kawai, S

    2002-02-01

    We previously reported that vascularized bone allograft using immunosuppressants, such as cyclosporine A (CsA), is one approach for reconstruction of large bone defects in both experimental animals (Microsurgery 15:663; 1994) and clinically in humans (Lancet 347:970, 1996). Because immunosuppressive agents such as CsA induce significant side effects, including bone loss, other therapeutic agents supporting successful vascularized bone allografts have been sought after. We investigated the effects of 22-oxa-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (OCT) on vascularized bone allograft, and compared its effects with CsA. Twelve-week-old DA rats with the major histocompatibility antigen (MHC) RT-1(a) were used as donors and age-matched Lewis rats with MHC RT-1(l) used as recipients. Allografted bones in rats treated with vehicle were rejected completely. Soft X-ray examination demonstrated that administration of OCT (0.5 microg/kg per day) for 12 weeks after bone graft induced bone union as effective as treatment for 12 weeks with CsA (10 mg/kg per day). Transplanted bones in OCT-treated rats showed higher bone mineral density than that in CsA-treated rats. Histologically, transplanted bones in OCT-treated rats at 12 weeks were nonvital, but these bones united with recipient vital bones. After cessation of 12 week treatment with OCT, new bone formation occurred around the grafted nonvital bones during a 9 month period. Transplanted bones in CsA-treated rats were vital and formed union with recipient bones, whereas cortical bones became thin when compared with nonvital bones in OCT-treated rats. Urinary deoxypyridinoline levels in rats treated with CsA were significantly higher than levels in rats treated with OCT, suggesting accelerated bone resorption in CsA-treated rats. These results suggest that OCT exerts an anabolic action on bone reconstruction by allogeneic bone transplantation.

  8. The effect of gamma irradiation on the osteoinductivity of demineralized human bone allograft.

    PubMed

    Arjmand, Babak; Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Larijani, Bagher; Sahebjam, Mehrnaz; Ghaderi, Firoozeh; Goodarzi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    The gamma irradiation has been used for end sterilization of allograft bones and its effects with a 25 kGy dosage on the osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone allograft powder was studied. This work carried out using an experimental method in an animal model. In this study the demineralized bone allograft powder which had been sterilized and prepared with gamma irradiation in a 25 kGy dosage in 18 hours, was used as a study group and the demineralized bone allograft powder which had been prepared aseptically was used as the reference group. 30 mg of bone powder from each group were implanted into right and left paravertebral muscles of eighteen rats, separately. After four weeks, the implanted samples were harvested with a 0.5 cm border and then the osteoinductivity of implants in two groups were compared with histopathologic studies. In 94.4% of the reference samples a new bone formation was observed. In the study group, this difference was observed only in 27.7% of samples (P<0.002). It appears that using gamma irradiation may lead to a reduction in osteoinduction properties of demineralized bone allograft powder.

  9. Histomorphometric analysis following augmentation of the anterior atrophic maxilla with cancellous bone block allograft.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Joseph; Marilena, Vered; Gross, Ora; Mardinger, Ofer; Chaushu, Gavriel

    2012-01-01

    Grafting with bone blocks may be required to restore the alveolar process in extremely atrophic maxillae prior to implant placement to ensure both function and esthetics. The present study was conducted to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate the application of allograft cancellous bone blocks for the augmentation of the anterior atrophic maxilla. Consecutive patients with severe atrophy in the anterior maxilla underwent augmentation with cancellous bone block allografts. Bony deficiencies of at least 3 mm horizontally and up to 3 mm vertically according to computed tomographic para-axial reconstructions served as inclusion criteria. After 6 months, implants were placed and a cylindric sample core from the graft area was collected. All specimens were prepared for histologic and histomorphometric examination. Forty patients were included in the study. Eighty-three implants were placed in bone that was augmented with 60 cancellous freeze-dried bone block allografts. The implant survival rate was 98.8%. Mean follow-up was 48 ± 22 months (range, 14 to 82 months). The mean percentage of newly formed bone was 33% ± 18%, that of the residual cancellous block allograft was 26% ± 17%, and marrow and connective tissue comprised 41% ± 2%. Statistically significant histomorphometric differences regarding newly formed bone and residual cancellous block allograft were found between younger (< 40 years) and older (≥ 40 years) patients, respectively. Age did not appear to influence the percentage of marrow and connective tissue. Cancellous bone block allograft is biocompatible and osteoconductive, permitting new bone formation following augmentation of extremely atrophic anterior maxillae in a two-stage implant placement procedure. New bone formation was age-dependent.

  10. The use of freeze-dried bone allograft as an alternative to autogenous bone graft in the atrophic maxilla: a 3-year clinical follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Marco Aurélio; Buttendorf, André R; Benfatti, César A M; Bez, Leonardo Vieira; Ferreira, Cimara Fortes; de Andrade, Rafael Fonseca

    2009-12-01

    Freeze-dried bone allograft is an interesting treatment alternative to autogenous bone grafts. This clinical report presents a 3-year follow-up of an atrophic maxilla treated with freeze-dried bone allograft. Ridge augmentation was conducted with freeze-dried tibial allografts. Eight implants were used to support a full-arch prosthesis. Three years later, clinical and radiographic follow-up showed bone surrounding the dental implants. Histologic sections showed the presence of biologically active bone. This clinical case supports the use of freeze-dried allograft as an alternative for the reconstruction of the atrophic maxilla.

  11. Arthroscopically assisted medial meniscal allograft transplantation using a modified bone plug to facilitate passage: surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Goo; Lee, Yong Seuk; Lee, Soo Won; Kim, Young Jae; Kong, Doo Hwan; Ko, Min Soo

    2009-07-01

    This article describes a novel medial meniscal allograft transplantation method that permits easy passage of posterior bone plugs and facilitates bone-to-bone healing. With this method, an anterior bone plug with a long cylindrical shape is prepared, and the posterior bone plug is prepared using only a 2-mm deep, flat bone shell containing cancellous material with 6 baseball Ethibond stitches placed around it. The graft is divided into 3 portions, and boundaries of each are marked. Using a posteromedial portal, the posterior bony bed is prepared directly, and the exact anatomic location is visualized. This modified method facilitates graft passage as well as bone-to-bone healing.

  12. Meniscal Allograft Transplantation With Soft Tissue in Bone Socket Fixation: Arthroscopic Technique With Technical Pearls.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Troy A; Wyland, Douglas J

    2017-04-01

    Meniscal allograft transplantation may slow the progression of degenerative changes in the meniscus-deficient knee. The current literature suggests patients can experience good early to mid-term satisfaction and patient-reported outcomes with reasonable expectations of return to work. More ambitious applications in athletes have also shown good results although long-term data are lacking. Traditionally, meniscal allograft transplantation has been considered an open procedure with incorporation of bone blocks from the allograft source. However, as arthroscopic techniques have advanced, it has become possible to perform this procedure through a predominantly arthroscopic approach while securing the soft tissue graft in bone tunnels. The current demonstration provides this background and technical pearls for success in arthroscopic meniscal allograft transplantation.

  13. Bone marrow concentrate with allograft equivalent to autograft in lumbar fusions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert G

    2014-04-20

    Prospective randomized study. To compare autologous bone marrow concentrate mixed with allograft cancellous bone to iliac crest autograft in lumbar fusions. Bone marrow has been shown to be a rich source of osteoprogenitor cells. Osteoprogenitor cells have been shown in animals, and some human studies, to have potential in use as a bone graft substitute. Twenty-five patients underwent from 1- to 3-level lumbar fusions. One patient was lost to follow-up. On one half of the spine, allograft plus autologous bone marrow concentrate was used, whereas on the other half, autologous iliac crest bone was used. Cellular analysis, consisting of nucleated cell count, mononuclear cell count, CD34+ count, and colony-forming-units-fibroblast count, was done on marrow aspirates and concentrates. At 1 year postoperation, computed tomographic scans of the fusions were evaluated on a blinded basis by 2 neuroradiologists independent of each other. Radiographical fusion was the primary outcome measure. There was no statistical difference in fusion scores between allograft and autograft in the lateral gutters, interbody cages, or facet joints. There was a positive trend between CD34+ counts and radiographical fusion. The study shows equivalence between cancellous allograft mixed with bone marrow concentrate and autologous iliac crest bone for lumbar fusions. 2.

  14. Histomorphometric analysis after maxillary sinus floor augmentation using cancellous bone-block allograft.

    PubMed

    Chaushu, Gavriel; Vered, Marilena; Mardinger, Ofer; Nissan, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Cancellous bone-block allografts may contribute to improved initial implant stability during sinus augmentation in cases with posterior atrophic maxillary ridge height < or =4 mm. The present study histologically and histomorphometrically evaluates the application of cancellous bone-block allografts for maxillary sinus-floor augmentation. Thirty-one consecutive patients, 16 females and 15 males (age range, 25 to 65 years; mean age: 54 +/- 9 years) underwent sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement with cancellous bone-block allografts. After 9 months, a second-stage surgery was performed. The previous window location was determined. A cylindrical sample core was collected. All specimens were prepared for histologic and histomorphometric examinations. Seventy-two of 76 implants were clinically osseointegrated (94.7%). All patients received a fixed implant-supported prosthesis. The mean t values of newly formed bone, residual cancellous bone-block allograft, marrow and connective tissue were 26.1% +/- 15% (range: 10% to 58%); 24.7% +/- 19.4% (range: 0.6% to 71%), and 49.2% +/- 20.4% (range: 14.9% to 78.9%), respectively. No statistically significant histomorphometric differences regarding newly formed bone were found between genders (27.02% in males versus 25.68% in females; P = 0.446), ages (29.82% in subjects < or =40 years old versus 24.43% in subjects >40 years old; P = 0.293), presence of membrane perforations (25.5% in non-perforated sinuses versus 27.3% in perforated sinuses; P = 0.427), and residual alveolar bone height (25.85% for residual alveolar bone height <2 mm versus 26.48% for residual alveolar bone height of 2 to 4 mm; P = 0.473). The cancellous bone-block allograft is biocompatible and osteoconductive and permits new bone formation in sinus augmentations with simultaneous implant-placement procedures in extremely atrophic posterior maxillae.

  15. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Otavio Machado de; Jorgetti, Wanda; Oksman, Denis; Jorgetti, Camilo; Rocha, Diógenes Laércio; Gemperli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide) over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control group, and less fibrosis than the control group. Grafts that underwent sterilization in autoclave presented less presence of multinucleated giant cells, although not statistically significant. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding mineralization on the three groups. The three sterilization methods cause similar effects on bone allografts regarding macroscopic and histomorphometric parameters.

  16. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone allografts. A biological and biomechanical evaluation in goats.

    PubMed

    Drez, D J; DeLee, J; Holden, J P; Arnoczky, S; Noyes, F R; Roberts, T S

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-eight goats underwent ACL reconstruction with freeze-dried bone-patellar tendon-bone allografts in one knee, the opposite knee serving as a control. One group of 16 knees was evaluated, in groups of four, at 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks by histologic and vascular injection techniques. The other group of 12 knees was evaluated in two groups of six at 26 and 52 weeks by morphological and biomechanical techniques of analysis. Within the first 12 weeks these allografts were revascularized; in the first 26 weeks they had matured to resemble normal connective tissue. Graft stiffness was 29% of the control value and maximum force to failure was 43% of the control value. The results of this study indicated that freeze-dried bone-patellar tendon-bone allografts are biomechanically and biologically similar to patellar tendon autografts.

  17. Biomechanical Evaluation of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Quadriceps Versus Achilles Tendon Bone Block Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Brian; Haro, Marc S.; Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Collins, Michael J.; Arns, Thomas A.; Trella, Katie J.; Shewman, Elizabeth F.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Long-term studies of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction suggest that normal stability is not restored in the majority of patients. The Achilles tendon allograft is frequently utilized, although recently, the quadriceps tendon has been introduced as an alternative option due to its size and high patellar bone density. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical strength of PCL reconstructions using a quadriceps versus an Achilles allograft. The hypothesis was that quadriceps bone block allograft has comparable mechanical properties to those of Achilles bone block allograft. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty-nine fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) intact PCL, (2) PCL reconstruction with Achilles tendon allograft, or (3) PCL reconstruction with quadriceps tendon allograft. After reconstruction, all supporting capsular and ligamentous tissues were removed. Posterior tibial translation was measured at neutral and 20° external rotation. Each specimen underwent a preload, 2 cyclic loading protocols of 500 cycles, then load to failure. Results: Construct creep deformation was significantly lower in the intact group compared with both Achilles and quadriceps allograft (P = .008). The intact specimens reached the greatest ultimate load compared with both reconstructions (1974 ± 752 N, P = .0001). The difference in ultimate load for quadriceps versus Achilles allograft was significant (P = .048), with the quadriceps group having greater maximum force during failure testing. No significant differences were noted between quadriceps versus Achilles allograft for differences in crosshead excursion during cyclic testing (peak-valley [P-V] extension stretch), creep deformation, or stiffness. Construct stiffness measured during the failure test was greatest in the intact group (117 ± 9 N/mm, P = .0001) compared with the Achilles (43 ± 11 N/mm) and quadriceps (43

  18. The effect of bone allografts combined with bone marrow stromal cells on the healing of segmental bone defects in a sheep model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The repair of large bone defects is a major orthopedic challenge because autologous bone grafts are not available in large amounts and because harvesting is often associated with donor-site morbidity. Considering that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) are responsible for the maintenance of bone turnover throughout life, we investigated bone repair at a site of a critically sized segmental defect in sheep tibia treated with BMSCs loaded onto allografts. The defect was created in the mid-portion of the tibial diaphysis of eight adult sheep, and the sheep were treated with ex-vivo expanded autologous BMSCs isolated from marrow aspirates and loaded onto cortical allografts (n = 4). The treated sheep were compared with control sheep that had been treated with cell-free allografts (n = 4) obtained from donors of the same breed as the receptor sheep. Results The healing response was monitored by radiographs monthly and by computed tomography and histology at six, ten, fourteen, and eighteen weeks after surgery. For the cell-loaded allografts, union was established more rapidly at the interface between the host bone and the allograft, and the healing process was more conspicuous. Remodeling of the allograft was complete at 18 weeks in the cell-treated animals. Histologically, the marrow cavity was reestablished, with intertrabecular spaces being filled with adipose marrow and with evidence of focal hematopoiesis. Conclusions Allografts cellularized with AOCs (allografts of osteoprogenitor cells) can generate great clinical outcomes to noncellularized allografts to consolidate, reshape, structurally and morphologically reconstruct bone and bone marrow in a relatively short period of time. These features make this strategy very attractive for clinical use in orthopedic bioengineering. PMID:24495743

  19. [Experimental study of the thermic effect on bone at 60 degrees C, as applied to bone allograft].

    PubMed

    Le Huec, J C

    1992-01-01

    Bone reconstruction methods increasingly often require using bank bone. These massive bone fragments can be taken only from dead subjects or those in irreversible coma. Surgical sterility of the samples does not always guarantee the absence of an HIV infection, for which seroconversion often occurs very late. B. Spire's work has shown the effectiveness of a 30-minute heat treatment at 56 degrees C to inactivate HIV in blood products. Our study has therefore evaluated the effectiveness of a heat treatment method for bone to inactivate HIV on one hand, and the mechanical and histologic consequences of this treatment on rabbit bone. All bone fragments in this study were frozen at -80 degrees C to reproduce the same conditions of use as in current bone banks. Heating deep-frozen fragments of spongious tissue and of bone marrow from seropositive subjects in a 60 degrees C humid heat allowed confirming thermal sterilization of HIV, but a greater number of case is required to support this technique, as well as a verification with cortical bone. Thermal sterilization of bone allografts does not alter the mechanical properties nor the possibilities of bone regrowth in allografts. Application to human bone allografts should be confirmed by a greater number of cases, but it appears as a simple means to suppress the current disadvantage of late seroconversion control.

  20. Trafficking of donor-derived bone marrow correlates with chimerism and extension of composite allograft survival across MHC barrier.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, S; Ulusal, B G; Ulusal, A E; Izycki, D; Yoder, B; Siemionow, M

    2006-06-01

    We proposed to evaluate differences between recipient's immune response to vascularized skin and combined vascularized skin/bone allografts, under a 7-day alphabeta-TCR plus cyclosporine (CsA) treatment protocol. Thirty-six transplantations were performed in six groups: group I (isograft control-vascularized skin graft; n=6); group II (isograft control-combined vascularized skin/bone graft; n=6); group III (allograft rejection control group-vascularized skin graft; n=6); group IV (allograft rejection control-combined vascularized skin/bone graft; n=6); group V (allograft treatment-vascularized skin graft; n=6); and group VI (allograft treatment-combined vascularized skin/bone graft; n=6). Isograft transplantations were performed between Lewis rats and allografts were transplanted across the MHC barrier from Brown Norway to Lewis rats. In the allograft treatment group, a combined alphabeta-TCR+CsA protocol was applied for 7 days. All groups were compared clinically, immunologically and histologically. Statistical significance was determined with two-tailed Student's t test. Indefinite graft survival was achieved in the isograft control group (>300 days). Allograft rejection controls rejected within 5 to 9 days posttransplant; chimerism levels were undetectable (<.5%). Allografts under the alphabeta-TCR+CsA protocol had significantly extended survival when skin was combined with bone (61-125 days) compared to vascularized skin allografts (43-61 days). Lymphoid macrochimerism was significantly higher in group VI than group V. Histology confirmed skin and bone viability. Combined vascularized skin/bone allografts had higher and sustained levels of donor-specific chimerism and extended allograft survival.

  1. Gamma Radiation Sterilization Reduces the High-cycle Fatigue Life of Allograft Bone.

    PubMed

    Islam, Anowarul; Chapin, Katherine; Moore, Emily; Ford, Joel; Rimnac, Clare; Akkus, Ozan

    2016-03-01

    Sterilization by gamma radiation impairs the mechanical properties of bone allografts. Previous work related to radiation-induced embrittlement of bone tissue has been limited mostly to monotonic testing which does not necessarily predict the high-cycle fatigue life of allografts in vivo. We designed a custom rotating-bending fatigue device to answer the following questions: (1) Does gamma radiation sterilization affect the high-cycle fatigue behavior of cortical bone; and (2) how does the fatigue life change with cyclic stress level? The high-cycle fatigue behavior of human cortical bone specimens was examined at stress levels related to physiologic levels using a custom-designed rotating-bending fatigue device. Test specimens were distributed among two treatment groups (n = 6/group); control and irradiated. Samples were tested until failure at stress levels of 25, 35, and 45 MPa. At 25 MPa, 83% of control samples survived 30 million cycles (run-out) whereas 83% of irradiated samples survived only 0.5 million cycles. At 35 MPa, irradiated samples showed an approximately 19-fold reduction in fatigue life compared with control samples (12.2 × 10(6) ± 12.3 × 10(6) versus 6.38 × 10(5) ± 6.81 × 10(5); p = 0.046), and in the case of 45 MPa, this reduction was approximately 17.5-fold (7.31 × 10(5) ± 6.39 × 10(5) versus 4.17 × 10(4) ± 1.91 × 10(4); p = 0.025). Equations to estimate high-cycle fatigue life of irradiated and control cortical bone allograft at a certain stress level were derived. Gamma radiation sterilization severely impairs the high cycle fatigue life of structural allograft bone tissues, more so than the decline that has been reported for monotonic mechanical properties. Therefore, clinicians need to be conservative in the expectation of the fatigue life of structural allograft bone tissues. Methods to preserve the fatigue strength of nonirradiated allograft bone tissue are needed. As opposed to what monotonic tests might suggest, the cyclic

  2. Ankle arthrodesis fusion rates for mesenchymal stem cell bone allograft versus proximal tibia autograft.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John J; Boone, Joshua J; Hansen, Myron; Brady, Chad; Gough, Adam; Swayzee, Zflan

    2014-01-01

    Ankle arthrodesis is commonly used in the treatment of ankle arthritis. The present study compared mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) bone allografts and proximal tibia autografts as adjuncts in performing ankle arthrodesis. A total of 109 consecutive ankle fusions performed from 2002 to 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. Of the 109 fusions, 24 were excluded from the present study, leaving 85 patients who had undergone ankle arthrodesis. Of the 85 patients, 41 had received a proximal tibia autograft and 44, an MSC bone allograft. These 2 groups were reviewed and compared retrospectively at least 2 years postoperatively for the overall fusion rate, interval to radiographic fusion, and interval to clinical fusion. A modified and adjusted American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons ankle scale was used to measure patient satisfaction. The overall fusion rate was 84.1% in the MSC bone allograft group and 95.1% in the proximal tibia autograft group (p = .158). The corresponding mean intervals to radiographic fusion were 13.0 ± 2.5 weeks and 11.3 ± 2.8 weeks (p ≤ .001). The interval to clinical fusion was 13.1 ± 2.1 weeks and 11.0 ± 1.5 weeks (p ≤ .001) in the MSC bone allograft and proximal tibia autograft group, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found in the fusion rates between the MSC bone allograft and proximal tibia autograft groups. Also, no statistically significant difference was found between the preoperative and postoperative scores using a modified and adjusted American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons ankle scale between the 2 groups (p = .41 and p = .44, respectively). A statistically significant delay to radiographic and clinical fusion was present in the MSC bone allograft group compared with the proximal tibia autograft group; however, no difference was found in patient satisfaction.

  3. Iliac Crest Bone Graft versus Local Autograft or Allograft for Lumbar Spinal Fusion: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tuchman, Alexander; Brodke, Darrel S.; Youssef, Jim A.; Meisel, Hans-Jörg; Dettori, Joseph R.; Park, Jong-Beom; Yoon, S. Tim; Wang, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design  Systematic review. Objective  To compare the effectiveness and safety between iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) and local autologous bone and allograft in the lumbar spine. Methods  A systematic search of multiple major medical reference databases identified studies evaluating spinal fusion in patients with degenerative joint disease using ICBG, local autograft, or allograft in the thoracolumbar spine. Results  Six comparative studies met our inclusion criteria. A “low” strength of the overall body of evidence suggested no difference in fusion percentages in the lumbar spine between local autograft and ICBG. We found no difference in fusion percentages based on low evidence comparing allograft with ICBG autograft. There were no differences in pain or functional results comparing local autograft or allograft with ICBG autograft. Donor site pain and hematoma/seroma occurred more frequently in ICBG autograft group for lumbar fusion procedures. There was low evidence around the estimate of patients with donor site pain following ICBG harvesting, ranging from 16.7 to 20%. With respect to revision, low evidence demonstrated no difference between allograft and ICBG autograft. There was no evidence comparing patients receiving allograft with local autograft for fusion, pain, functional, and safety outcomes. Conclusion  In the lumbar spine, ICBG, local autograft, and allograft have similar effectiveness in terms of fusion rates, pain scores, and functional outcomes. However, ICBG is associated with an increased risk for donor site-related complications. Significant limitations exist in the available literature when comparing ICBG, local autograft, and allograft for lumbar fusion, and thus ICBG versus other fusion methods necessitates further investigation. PMID:27556001

  4. Increased Risk of Revision After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Allografts Compared With Autografts.

    PubMed

    Maletis, Gregory B; Chen, Jason; Inacio, Maria C S; Love, Rebecca M; Funahashi, Tadashi T

    2017-05-01

    The use of allograft tissue for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) remains controversial. To compare the risk of aseptic revision between bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autografts and BPTB allografts. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data was conducted using the Kaiser Permanente ACLR Registry. A cohort of patients who underwent primary unilateral ACLR with BPTB autografts and BPTB allografts was identified. Aseptic revision was the endpoint. The type of graft and allograft processing method (nonprocessed, <1.8-Mrad, and ≥1.8-Mrad irradiation) were the exposures of interest evaluated. Age (≤21 and ≥22 years) was evaluated as an effect modifier. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and race. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models were employed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs are provided. The BPTB cohort consisted of 5586 patients: 3783 (67.7%) were male, 2359 (42.2%) were white, 1029 (18.4%) had allografts (nonprocessed: 155; <1.8 Mrad: 525; ≥1.8 Mrad: 288), and 4557 (81.6%) had autografts. The median age was 34.9 years (interquartile range [IQR], 25.4-44.0) for allograft cases and 22.0 years (IQR, 17.6-30.0) for autograft cases. The estimated cumulative revision rate at 2 years was 4.1% (95% CI, 2.9%-5.9%) for allografts and 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%-2.2%) for autografts. BPTB allografts had a significantly higher adjusted risk of revision than BPTB autografts (HR, 4.54; 95% CI, 3.03-6.79; P < .001). This higher risk of revision was consistent with all allograft processing methods when compared with autografts and was also consistently higher in patients with allografts regardless of age. When BPTB allograft tissue was used for ACLR, an overall 4.54 times adjusted higher risk of revision was observed compared with surgery performed with a BPTB autograft. Whether the tissue was irradiated with either high- or low-dose radiation, chemically processed, or not processed at

  5. The revision acetabulum--allograft and bone substitutes: vestigial organs for bone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, J J; Liu, S S; Phruetthiphat, O-A

    2014-11-01

    A common situation presenting to the orthopaedic surgeon today is a worn acetabular liner with substantial acetabular and pelvic osteolysis. The surgeon has many options for dealing with osteolytic defects. These include allograft, calcium based substitutes, demineralised bone matrix, or combinations of these options with or without addition of platelet rich plasma. To date there are no clinical studies to determine the efficacy of using bone-stimulating materials in osteolytic defects at the time of revision surgery and there are surprisingly few studies demonstrating the clinical efficacy of these treatment options. Even when radiographs appear to demonstrate incorporation of graft material CT studies have shown that incorporation is incomplete. The surgeon, in choosing a graft material for a surgical procedure must take into account the efficacy, safety, cost and convenience of that material.

  6. Decalcified allograft in repair of lytic lesions of bone: A study to evolve bone bank in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anil Kumar; Keshav, Kumar; Kumar, Praganesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The quest for ideal bone graft substitutes still haunts orthopedic researchers. The impetus for this search of newer bone substitutes is provided by mismatch between the demand and supply of autogenous bone grafts. Bone banking facilities such as deep frozen and freeze-dried allografts are not so widely available in most of the developing countries. To overcome the problem, we have used partially decalcified, ethanol preserved, and domestic refrigerator stored allografts which are economical and needs simple technology for procurement, preparation, and preservation. The aim of the study was to assess the radiological and functional outcome of the partially decalcified allograft (by weak hydrochloric acid) in patients of benign lytic lesions of bone. Through this study, we have also tried to evolve, establish, and disseminate the concept of the bone bank. Materials and Methods: 42 cases of lytic lesions of bone who were treated by decalcified (by weak hydrochloric acid), ethanol preserved, allografts were included in this prospective study. The allograft was obtained from freshly amputated limbs or excised femoral heads during hip arthroplasties under strict aseptic conditions. The causes of lytic lesions were unicameral bone cyst (n = 3), aneurysmal bone cyst (n = 3), giant cell tumor (n = 9), fibrous dysplasia (n = 12), chondromyxoid fibroma, chondroma, nonossifying fibroma (n = 1 each), tubercular osteomyelitis (n = 7), and chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis (n = 5). The cavity of the lesion was thoroughly curetted and compactly filled with matchstick sized allografts. Results: Quantitative assessment based on the criteria of Sethi et al. (1993) was done. There was complete assimilation in 27 cases, partial healing in 12 cases, and failure in 3 cases. Functional assessment was also done according to which there were 29 excellent results, 6 good, and 7 cases of failure (infection, recurrence, and nonunion of pathological fracture). We observed that after

  7. Reducing the radiation sterilization dose improves mechanical and biological quality while retaining sterility assurance levels of bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huynh; Cassady, Alan I; Bennett, Michael B; Gineyts, Evelyne; Wu, Andy; Morgan, David A F; Forwood, Mark R

    2013-11-01

    Bone allografts carry a risk of infection, so terminal sterilization by gamma irradiation at 25kGy is recommended; but is deleterious to bone quality. Contemporary bone banking significantly reduces initial allograft bioburden, questioning the need to sterilize at 25kGy. We inoculated allograft bone with Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus pumilus, then exposed them to gamma irradiation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy. Mechanical and biological properties of allografts were also assessed. Our aim was to determine an optimal dose that achieves sterility assurance while minimizing deleterious effects on allograft tissue. 20-25kGy eliminated both organisms at concentrations from 10(1) to 10(3)CFU, while 10-15kGy sterilized bone samples to a bioburden concentration of 10(2)CFU. Irradiation did not generate pro-inflammatory bone surfaces, as evidenced by macrophage activation, nor did it affect attachment or proliferation of osteoblasts. At doses ≥10kGy, the toughness of cortical bone was reduced (P<0.05), and attachment and fusion of osteoclasts onto irradiated bone declined at 20 and 25kGy (P<0.05). There was no change in collagen cross-links, but a significant dose-response increase in denatured collagen (P<0.05). Our mechanical and cell biological data converge on 15kGy as a threshold for radiation sterilization of bone allografts. Between 5 and 15kGy, bone banks can undertake validation that provides allografts with an acceptable sterility assurance level, improving their strength and biocompatibility significantly. The application of radiation sterilization doses between 5 and 15kGy will improve bone allograft mechanical performance and promote integration, while retaining sterility assurance levels. Improved quality of allograft bone will promote superior clinical outcomes. © 2013.

  8. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles do not alter the biomechanical properties of fibular allograft bone.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joshua M; Hunter, Shawn A; Gayton, J Christopher; Boivin, Gregory P; Prayson, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Allograft tissues can undergo several freeze-thaw cycles between donor tissue recovery and final use by surgeons. However, there are currently no standards indicating the number of reasonable freeze-thaw cycles for allograft bone and it is unclear how much a graft may be degraded with multiple cycles. We therefore asked whether (1) the mechanical properties of fibular allograft bone would remain unchanged with increasing numbers of freeze-thaw cycles and (2) histologic alterations from increased numbers of freeze-thaw cycles would correspond to any mechanical changes. Fibular allograft segments were subjected to two, four, and eight freeze-thaw cycles and compared biomechanically and histologically with a control group (one freeze-thaw cycle). Two freeze-dried treatments, one after being subjected to one freeze-thaw cycle and the other after being subjected to three freeze-thaw cycles, also were compared with the control group. For all segments, the average ultimate stress was 174 MPa, average modulus was 289 MPa, average energy was 2.00 J, and the average stiffness was 1320 N/mm. The material properties of the freeze-thaw treatment groups were similar to those of the control group: ultimate stress and modulus were a maximum of 16% and 70% different, respectively. Both freeze-dried treatments showed increased stiffness (maximum 53% ± 71%) and energy to failure (maximum 117% ± 137%) but did not exhibit morphologic differences. There were no alterations in the histologic appearance of the bone sections in any group. Fibular allograft segments can be refrozen safely up to eight times without affecting the biomechanical or morphologic properties. Freeze-dried treatments require further study to determine whether the detected differences are caused by the processing. Cryopreserved cortical allografts are thawed by surgeons in preparation for procedures and then occasionally discarded when not used. Refreezing allograft tissues can result in a cost savings because of a

  9. Bone transplantation and tissue engineering, part III: allografts, bone grafting and bone banking in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    During the 20th century, allograft implantation waned in popularity as a clinical activity. Reports appeared in the literature describing several small series of patients in whom bone was obtained from amputation specimens or recently deceased individuals. The concept of bone banking became a reality during and after World War II when the National Naval Tissue Bank was established in Bethesda and a number of small banks sprang up in hospitals throughout the world. Small fragments, either of cortical or medullary bone, from these banks were used heterotopically to augment spinal fusions, to implant into cyst cavities, or to serve as a scaffolding for repair of non- or delayed union of fractures of the long bones.

  10. Lower Limb Reconstruction with Tibia Allograft after Resection of Giant Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, expansible, nonneoplastic lesions of the bone, characterized by channels of blood and spaces separated by fibrous septa, which occur in young patients and, occasionally, with aggressive behavior. Giant ABC is an uncommon pathological lesion and can be challenging because of the destructive effect of the cyst on the bones and the pressure on the nearby structures, especially on weight-bearing bones. In this scenario, en bloc resection is the mainstay treatment and often demands complex reconstructions. This paper reports a difficult case of an unusual giant aneurysmal bone cyst, which required extensive resection and a knee fusion like reconstruction with tibia allograft. PMID:27413565

  11. Preclinical Evaluation of Zoledronate to Maintain Bone Allograft and Improve Implant Fixation in Revision Joint Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Mette; Barckman, Jeppe; Bechtold, Joan E.; Søballe, Kjeld; Baas, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Revision arthroplasty surgery is often complicated by loss of bone stock that can be managed by the use of bone allograft. The allograft provides immediate stability for the revision implant but may be resorbed, impairing subsequent implant stability. Bisphosphonates can delay allograft resorption. We hypothesized that zoledronate-impregnated allograft impacted around revision implants would improve implant fixation as characterized by mechanical push-out testing and histomorphometry. Methods: Twenty-four axially pistoning micromotion devices were inserted bilaterally into the knees of twelve dogs according to our revision protocol. This produced a standardized revision cavity with a loose implant, fibrous tissue, and a sclerotic bone rim. Revision surgery was performed eight weeks later; after stable titanium revision components were implanted, saline solution-soaked allograft was impacted around the component on the control side and allograft soaked in 0.005 mg/mL zoledronate was impacted on the intervention side. The results were evaluated after four weeks. Results: The zoledronate treatment resulted in a 30% increase in ultimate shear strength (p = 0.023), a 54% increase in apparent shear stiffness (p = 0.002), and a 12% increase in total energy absorption (p = 0.444). The quantity of allograft in the gap was three times greater in the zoledronate group compared with the control group (p < 0.001). The volume fraction of new bone in the zoledronate group (25%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 22% to 28%) was similar to that in the control group (23%; 95% CI, 19% to 26%) (p = 0.311). Conclusions: The data obtained in this canine model suggest that pretreating allograft with zoledronate may be beneficial for early stability of grafted revision arthroplasty implants, without any adverse effect on bone formation. Clinical studies are warranted. Clinical Relevance: The zoledronate treatment is simple to apply in the clinical setting. The treatment could

  12. The influence of bone allograft processing on osteoblast attachment and function.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A; Konrad, L; Hessmann, M H; Küchle, R; Korner, J; Rompe, J D; Rommens, P M

    2005-07-01

    In order to assess the influence of eight different sterilisation and disinfection methods for bone allografts on adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC), cells were grown in culture and then plated onto pieces of human bone allografts. Following processing methods were tested: autoclavation (AUT), low-temperature-plasma sterilisation of demineralised allografts (D-LTP), ethylene oxide sterilisation (EtO), fresh frozen bone (FFB), 80 degrees C-thermodisinfection (80 degrees C), gamma-irradiation (Gamma), chemical solvent disinfection (CSD), and Barrycidal-disinfection (BAR). The seeding efficiency was determined after one hour to detect the number of attached cells before mitosis started. The cell viability was determined after 3, 7, and 21 days. Tests to confirm the osteoblastic differentiation included histochemical alkaline phosphatase staining and RT-PCR for osteocalcin. Human BMSC showed greatest attachment affinities for D-LTP-, 80 degrees C-, and CSD-allografts, whereas less cells were found attached to AUT-, EtO-, FFB-, Gamma-, and BAR-probes. Cell viability assays at day 3 revealed highest proliferation rates within the FFB- and 80 degrees C-groups, whereas after 21 days most viable cells were found in D-LTP-, 80 degrees C-, CSD-, and Gamma-groups. BAR-treatment showed a considerably toxic effect and therefore was excluded from all further experiments. Highest AP-activity and gene expression of osteocalcin were detected in the D-LTP-group in comparison with all other groups. In summary, our results demonstrate that cell adhesion, final population, and function of BMSC are influenced by different disinfection and sterilisation methods. Therefore, processing-related alterations of BMSC-function may be important for the success of bone grafting. The experimental setup used in the present work may be useful for further optimisation of bone allograft processing.

  13. Induction of tolerance to cardiac allografts in lethally irradiated rats reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    Generally, organ grafts from one individual animal to another are rejected in one-two weeks. However, if the recipients are given Total Body Irradiation (TBI) just prior to grafting, followed by reconstitution of hemopoietic function with syngeneic (recipient-type) bone marrow cells, then vascularized organ grafts are permanently accepted. Initially after irradiation, it is possible to induce tolerance to many strain combinations in rats. This thesis examines the system of TBI as applied to the induction of tolerance in LEW recipients of WF cardiac allografts. These two rat strains are mismatched across the entire major histocompatibility complex. When the LEW recipient are given 860 rads, a WF cardiac allograft and LEW bone marrow on the same day, 60% of the grafts are accepted. Methods employed to improve the rate of graft acceptance include: treating either donor or recipient with small amounts of methotrexate, or waiting until two days after irradiation to repopulate with bone marrow. It seems from these investigations of some of the early events in the induction of tolerance to allografts following TBI and syngeneic marrow reconstitution that an immature cell population in the bone marrow interacts with a radioresistant cell population in the spleen to produce tolerance to completely MHC-mismatched allografts.

  14. The use of bone allografts for limb salvage in high-grade extremity osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, M C; Flugstad, D I; Springfield, D S; Mankin, H J

    1991-09-01

    Limb preservation is increasingly being employed in the local treatment of high-grade extremity osteosarcoma. Bone allografts used to reconstruct the bony defects following tumor resection offer many advantages, including joint reconstruction and incorporation of the graft to the host bone in these relatively young patients. The results of 53 patients 30 years of age or younger were assessed to determine functional outcome. Fresh-frozen allografts were employed as osteoarticular grafts, allograft-arthrodeses, allograft-prosthesis composites, or intercalary grafts. Follow-up intervals averaged 25 months (range, two to 63 months). Life-table analysis showed that the probability of a satisfactory functional result was 73% if local tumor recurrences were excluded. Complications included 16 infections, six fractures, 12 nonunions, and six unstable joints. There were five local recurrences. Eighteen grafts ultimately failed, and in six patients, this resulted in an above-knee amputation. An additional five received a second graft. The functional "end results" of the 38 patients with two or more years of follow-up examinations were 70% satisfactory in those without a local recurrence. There was no statistically significant difference in functional outcome or local or distant relapse in those patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy. The authors conclude that allografts can be used for limb reconstruction in patients with high-grade osteosarcoma who receive aggressive adjuvant chemotherapy. The functional results are comparable to other methods of reconstruction, and once incorporated by the host, offer the advantage of longevity, compared with metallic implants.

  15. The effect of recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 (bone morphogenetic protein-7) impregnation on allografts in a canine intercalary bone defect.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, Dennis M; Lietman, Steven A; Inoue, Nozomu; Deitz, Luke W; Chao, Edmund Y S

    2002-11-01

    The utility of cortical allografts in repairing large bone defects is limited by their slow and incomplete incorporation into host bone. In order to determine the effects of recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 (rhOP-1) impregnation on allograft incorporation, we used a canine intercalary bone defect model. Bilateral resection of a 4 cm segment of the femoral diaphysis and reconstruction with structural bone allografts were performed. In one limb, the allograft was soaked in solution with rhOP-1 for 1 h before implantation. In the other limb, the allograft was soaked in the same solution without rhOP-1. Dynamic load-bearing, radiographic analysis, biomechanical testing, and histomorphometric analysis were conducted. Radiographic analysis showed significantly larger periosteal callus area in the rhOP-1 treated group at week 2. The rhOP-1 significantly increased allograft bone porosity and significantly increased the number of active osteons in the allografts. There were no significant differences between the rhOP-1 treated and non-treated allografts in load bearing and biomechanical analyses. These findings indicate that rhOP- I increases intercalary allograft remodeling without deleterious effects in mechanical and functional strength.

  16. Multipotential stromal cell abundance in cellular bone allograft: comparison with fresh age-matched iliac crest bone and bone marrow aspirate

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Yasser M; Moseley, Timothy A; Cuthbert, Richard J; Giannoudis, Peter V; McGonagle, Dennis; Jones, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Aim To enumerate and characterize multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) in a cellular bone allograft and compare with fresh age-matched iliac crest bone and bone marrow (BM) aspirate. Materials & methods MSC characterization used functional assays, confocal/scanning electron microscopy and whole-genome microarrays. Resident MSCs were enumerated by flow cytometry following enzymatic extraction. Results Allograft material contained live osteocytes and proliferative bone-lining cells defined as MSCs by phenotypic and functional capacities. Without cultivation/expansion, the allograft displayed an ‘osteoinductive’ molecular signature and the presence of CD45−CD271+CD73+CD90+CD105+ MSCs; with a purity over 100-fold that of iliac crest bone. In comparison with BM, MSC numbers enzymatically released from one gram of cellular allograft were equivalent to approximately 45 ml of BM aspirate. Conclusion Cellular allograft bone represents a unique nonimmune material rich in MSCs and osteocytes. This osteoinductive graft represents an attractive alternative to autograft bone or composite/synthetic grafts in orthopedics and broader regenerative medicine settings. PMID:24617969

  17. The Clinical Use of Allografts, Demineralized Bone Matrices, Synthetic Bone Graft Substitutes and Osteoinductive Growth Factors: A Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Seigerman, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of new bone grafting options and alternatives has led to significant uncertainty when determining the most appropriate product for surgical procedures requiring bone graft in orthopedics. Allografts, demineralized bone matrices, synthetic bone graft substitutes, and osteoinductive growth factors are all viable options, yet there is a lack of data reporting clinical usage of these products. This correspondence reports on the use of bone grafting products at the Hospital for Special Surgery for a 27-month period and makes recommendations based on surgical usage, safety, and cost. Approximately half (48.6%) of all bone graft substitutes were implanted during spinal surgery. Arthroplasty, trauma, and foot/hand cases all used considerable amounts of bone grafting products as well (20.1%, 19.0%, 12.1%, respectively). Considerable differences were noticed in usage of bone grafting products among each orthopedic discipline. Of all bone graft substitutes used in arthroplasty, 14.4% were demineralized bone matrices, whereas 56.8% were allografts. Demineralized bone matrix grafts were used in 82% of trauma surgery and 89% of foot/hand cases. An increase in synthetic bone graft alternatives was noticed near the end of our investigation period. PMID:18751803

  18. Local delivery of FTY720 accelerates cranial allograft incorporation and bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cynthia; Das, Anusuya; Barker, Daniel; Tholpady, Sunil; Wang, Tiffany; Cui, Quanjun; Ogle, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous stem cell recruitment to the site of skeletal injury is key to enhanced osseous remodeling and neovascularization. To this end, this study utilized a novel bone allograft coating of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) to sustain the release of FTY720, a selective agonist for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, from calvarial allografts. Uncoated allografts, vehicle-coated, low dose FTY720 in PLAGA (1:200 w:w) and high dose FTY720 in PLAGA (1:40) were implanted into critical size calvarial bone defects. The ability of local FTY720 delivery to promote angiogenesis, maximize osteoinductivity and improve allograft incorporation by recruitment of bone progenitor cells from surrounding soft tissues and microcirculation was evaluated. FTY720 bioactivity after encapsulation and release was confirmed with sphingosine kinase 2 assays. HPLC-MS quantified about 50% loaded FTY720 release of the total encapsulated drug (4.5 µg) after 5 days. Following 2 weeks of defect healing, FTY720 delivery led to statistically significant increases in bone volumes compared to controls, with total bone volume increases for uncoated, coated, low FTY720 and high FTY720 of 5.98, 3.38, 7.2 and 8.9 mm3, respectively. The rate and extent of enhanced bone growth persisted through week 4 but, by week 8, increases in bone formation in FTY720 groups were no longer statistically significant. However, micro-computed tomography (microCT) of contrast enhanced vascular ingrowth (MICROFIL®) and histological analysis showed enhanced integration as well as directed bone growth in both high and low dose FTY720 groups compared to controls. PMID:21863314

  19. Clinical and Histomorphometric Evaluation of Fresh Frozen Bone Allograft in Sinus Lift Surgery.

    PubMed

    de Castilho, Tatiana Regina Ramos Nantes; Tortamano, Pedro; Marotti, Juliana; de Andrade, José Carlos Silva; Chilvarquer, Israel; Ximenez, Michel Eli Lipiec; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the clinical and histomorphometric data of newly formed bone tissue from fresh frozen human allograft in sinus lift surgery. Thirty-three sinus lift procedures were performed in 20 patients, divided into two groups. The control group (n = 8) received autogenous bone from the mandibular ramus, and the experimental group (n = 12) received fresh frozen bone (FFB) allograft in chips. After 6 months, 52 implants were placed and 50 biopsies were collected for histomorphometric analysis. Cone beam computed tomography scans were performed at preoperative, immediate postoperative, and delayed postoperative time intervals to assess the degree of graft volume loss. There was no statistically significant difference between groups as regards degree of graft volume loss (p = .983), total bone area (p = .191), remaining particles (p = .348), and proportion of active osteoblasts (p = .867). There was a statistically significant difference in the vitality rate between the groups (p = .043). In both groups, all implants were clinically osseointegrated after 4 months. FFB allograft was shown to be a feasible substitute for autogenous bone graft in sinus lift surgery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Analysis of predisposing factors for contamination of bone and tendon allografts.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Thomas; Bigaré, Elisa; Van Isacker, Tom; Gigi, Jacques; Delloye, Christian; Cornu, Olivier

    2012-08-01

    Bone and tissue allografts are widely used in transplantation. The increasing demand for safe allografts must be met, while minimizing disease transmission. We analysed the incidence and potential risk factors of allograft contamination and the effectiveness of disinfection, by reviewing 22 years of tissue bank activity and 474 donor procurements. We also compared different disinfection procedures used over the 22 years. The overall contamination rate was 10.1%. Risk factors were related to the donor or procurement method. Immediate culture at the tissue recovery site diminished the rate of false positives by reducing later sample manipulation. High-virulence allograft contamination was mainly related to donor factors, while low-virulence contamination was related to procurement methods. Analysis of donor-related risk factors showed no statistical differences for age, sex, or cause of death. An intensive care unit stay was associated with less contamination with high-virulence microbes. Procurement in a setting other than an operating theatre was associated with higher contamination rate. Team experience reduced contamination. Pelvic and tendon allografts were most frequently contaminated. Proper disinfection considerably reduced the contamination rate to 3.6%. We conclude that procurement must be performed under aseptic conditions, with short delays, and by trained personnel. Grafts should be disinfected and packed as soon as possible.

  1. Reconstruction of severe atrophic jaws with Fresh Frized Bone Allografts: clinical histologic and histomorphometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Boniello, R; Gasparini, G; D'Amato, G; Torroni, A; Marianetti, T M; Foresta, E; Azzuni, C; Cervelli, D; Pelo, S

    2013-05-01

    Rehabilitation of maxillary edentulism with implant-supported prostheses has come into common clinical practice. Although autologous bone has osteoinductive, osteoconductive and osteogenetic properties, its use is subject to certain disadvantages such as: Increased morbidity Limited amount of bone harvested from each donor site. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical, histological and histomorphometric results of homologous bone for implantoprosthetic rehabilitation in severe atrophic jaws. Twenty consecutive patients, 14 female and 6 males, were treated with homologous bone bank. Treatment protocol consist of: first surgycal step, trasversal and vertical volume restore, second surgycal step: screw remove, specimen biopsy and insert implant fixtures. Data show that Fresh Frozen Bone Allografts (FFBA) could be a valuable substitute for autologous bone, in as much as histological and histomorphometric results are widely overlapping. Homologous bone is a valuable option for its large availability with a low cost, good versatility, no morbidity at the donor site, shorter surgical time and hospital stay.

  2. Supercharging allografts with mesenchymal stem cells in the operating room during hip revision.

    PubMed

    Homma, Yasuhiro; Kaneko, Kazuo; Hernigou, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been proposed to improve allografts used during hip revision. However, no study has reported the number of MSCs that could be associated with the allograft and the best technique to load MSCs in allografts. The optimal loading technique should combine methods to increase the initial cell density and create an appropriate environment to accelerate the efficiency of the cell-allograft constructs into clinically applicable grafts. We designed a study to evaluate the number of MSCs in an autograft femoral head considered as the gold standard and to determine the best operating room procedure for loading in allograft with MSCs to approach the same number as in an autograft femoral head. Therefore this study explored a potential of charging whole femoral head allografts with autologous MSCs from iliac crest aspirate for hip revision procedures. First, the study evaluated the total number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in 1 cc of an average autograft femoral head; this number then serves as a target for loading allografts, in order to achieve the same density of MSCs. For the loading technique itself, several questions were asked and hence several options were investigated. For example, is it better to load the whole allograft or break it up into several fragments? Which way of injecting works best for the whole femoral head allograft (through cartilage or femoral neck)? How concentrated (in terms of MSCs) should the injected iliac crest marrow be? Bone marrow for injection in allografts was obtained from residual marrow from patients undergoing surgical procedures with concentrated bone marrow. With this bone marrow (with and without concentration) we tested different techniques (injection and soaking) to load stem cells in allografts of different sizes: bulk allografts, pieces or blocks (8 or 1 cm(3) blocks) and morselized fragments (from 125 to 8 mm(3)) or particules (1 mm(3)). We also evaluated the release of

  3. Sandwich allografts for long-bone nonunions in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Puvanesarajah, Varun; Shapiro, Jay R; Sponseller, Paul D

    2015-02-18

    Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta often develop nonunions, as internal fixation has limited applicability in this condition. We report the outcomes of a modified "sandwich technique" in the treatment of long-bone nonunions in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta; this technique brings circumferential stabilization and normal collagen to the nonunion site. From May 2003 through February 2012, twelve patients (eight females, four males; median age, 39.0 years; range, eleven to seventy-eight years) who had osteogenesis imperfecta (Sillence type I [three], type III [eight], and type IV [one]) and a combined total of thirteen nonunions (two humeral, two radial, three femoral, four tibial, and two ulnar; median duration, 15.0 months; range, six to 204 months) were treated at our institution with compressed sandwich allograft cortical struts. The struts were fashioned to be wide enough to allow for increased osteoconductive surface area and to approximate a hemicylindrical shape. Treatment history and demographics data were acquired through retrospective chart review. Follow-up radiographs were analyzed by two attending orthopaedic surgeons to determine radiographic findings. The median follow-up time was 4.6 years (range, 2.1 to 10.3 years). All thirteen nonunions, including one requiring a second graft procedure, healed with abundant, smooth allograft incorporation, resulting in an initial healing rate of 92% because of a refracture in one patient. This patient's nonunion ultimately healed with additional allograft struts and a new intramedullary rod. One patient required removal of prominent screws. The final follow-up examinations revealed no pain or refracture at the original nonunion site. All patients regained their prefracture level of function. Sandwich allograft struts constitute a durable, safe method for the stabilization and healing of persistent long-bone nonunions in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. All patients showed incorporation of the

  4. Arthroscopic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with six-strand hamstring tendon allograft versus bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chengliang; Wang, Fei; Wang, Xiaomeng; Wang, Ruipeng; Wang, Shengjie; Tang, Shiyu

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with six-strand hamstring tendon (HT) allograft versus bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) allograft. The prospective randomized controlled trial was included 129 patients. Sixty-nine patients received reconstruction with six-strand HT allografts (HT group), whereas 60 patients with BPTB allografts (BPTB group). Outcome assessment included re-rupture findings, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores, Lysholm scores, KT-1000 arthrometer, Lachman test, pivot-shift test, range of motion (ROM) and single-leg hop test. At a mean follow-up of 52 months, 113 patients (HT group, 61 patients; BPTB group, 52 patients) completed a minimum 4-year follow-up. Four patients in HT group and six in BPTB group experienced ACL re-rupture (6.2 vs. 10.3 %) and received revision surgery. Significant between-group differences were observed in KT-1000 outcomes and pivot-shift test 1 (1.2 ± 1.5 vs. 1.8 ± 1.3, p = 0.025; positive rate 6.5 vs. 18.9 %, p = 0.036), 2 (1.1 ± 1.4 vs. 1.6 ± 1.2, p = 0.044; 8.1 vs. 20.7 %, p = 0.039), 4 (1.1 ± 1.5 vs. 1.7 ± 1.4, p = 0.031; 9.7 vs. 25 %, p = 0.012) years postoperatively. The outcomes between the two groups were comparable in terms of IKDC scores, Lysholm scores, Lachman test, ROM and single-leg hop test. Six-strand HT allograft achieved superior anteroposterior and rotational stability after single-bundle ACL reconstruction. It is a reasonable graft substitute for ACL reconstruction. II.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and remodeling of weight-bearing allograft bone/polyurethane composites in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Jerald E; Davis, Thomas; Holt, Ginger E; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Perrien, Daniel S; Nyman, Jeffry S; Boyce, Todd; Guelcher, Scott A

    2010-07-01

    The process of bone healing requires the restoration of both anatomy and physiology, and there is a recognized need for innovative biomaterials that facilitate remodeling throughout this complex process. While porous scaffolds with a high degree of interconnectivity are known to accelerate cellular infiltration and new bone formation, the presence of pores significantly diminishes the initial mechanical properties of the materials, rendering them largely unsuitable for load-bearing applications. In this study, a family of non-porous composites has been fabricated by reactive compression molding of mineralized allograft bone particles (MBPs) with a biodegradable polyurethane (PUR) binder, which is synthesized from a polyester polyol and a lysine-derived polyisocyanate. At volume fractions exceeding the random close-packing limit, the particulated allograft component presented a nearly continuous osteoconductive pathway for cells into the interior of the implant. By varying the molecular weight of the polyol and manipulating the surface chemistry of the MBP via surface demineralization, compressive modulus and strength values of 3-6 GPa and 107-172 MPa were achieved, respectively. When implanted in bilateral femoral condyle plug defects in New Zealand White rabbits, MBP/PUR composites exhibited resorption of the allograft and polymer components, extensive cellular infiltration deep into the interior of the implant, and new bone formation at 6 weeks. While later in vivo timepoints are necessary to determine the ultimate fate of the MBP/PUR composites, these observations suggest that allograft bone/polymer composites have potential for future development as weight-bearing devices for orthopedic applications. Copyright 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coating cortical bone allografts with periosteum-mimetic scaffolds made of chitosan, trimethyl chitosan, and heparin.

    PubMed

    Romero, Raimundo; Chubb, Laura; Travers, John K; Gonzales, Timothy R; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Kipper, Matt J

    2015-05-20

    Bone allografts have very limited healing leading to high rates of failure from non-union, fracture, and infection. The limited healing of bone allografts is due in large part to devitalization and removal of the periosteum, which removes osteogenic cells and osteoinductive signals. Here we report techniques for directly coating cortical bone with tissue scaffolds, and evaluate the scaffolds' capacity to support osteoprogenitor cells. Three types of coatings are investigated: N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan-heparin polyelectrolyte multilayers, freeze-dried porous chitosan foam coatings, and electrospun chitosan nanofibers. The freeze-dried and electrospun scaffolds are also further modified with polyelectrolyte multilayers. All of the scaffolds are durable to subsequent aqueous processing, and are cytocompatible with adipose-derived stem cells. Alkaline phosphatase and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand expression at days 7 and 21 suggest that these scaffolds support an osteoprogenitor phenotype. These scaffolds could serve as periosteum mimics, deliver osteoprogenitor cells, and improve bone allograft healing.

  7. Development of heating method by microwave for sterilization of bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Ujihira, Masanobu; Mabuchi, Kiyoshi; Takahira, Naonobu; Komiya, Koichiro; Itoman, Moritoshi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a disinfection method using a microwave apparatus to treat large bone allografts. Heating of a bone allograft is an effective method for the disinfection of bacteria or inactivation of viruses. However, the size of the bone we can treat is limited, and following the popular method of using a bathtub is a lengthy process. The experimental system described here was designed using a microwave oven, an optical-fiber thermometer, and a power regulator. Large and small specimens, a femoral head, and a metatarsal were harvested from a bovine femur. The influence of size and the electrical or thermal characteristics of the specimens were assessed regarding temperature distribution after microwave irradiation. The effects of humidity or hot-air supply were also assessed. The average temperature of the bovine femoral head became 80 degrees C throughout the 15 min of microwave irradiation, although the temperature in the metatarsal did not attain uniformity. Microwave irradiation with a hot-air supply realized a uniform distribution of temperature at 83.0 degrees +/- 0.4 degrees C in the metatarsal within 15 min. Use of microwave irradiation enables quick heating for disinfection of large allograft bones when a hot-air supply was used as well.

  8. Increased Release Time of Antibiotics from Bone Allografts through a Novel Biodegradable Coating

    PubMed Central

    Madácsi, Edit; Kalugyer, Pálma; Vácz, Gabriella; Horváthy, Dénes B.; Szendrői, Miklós; Han, Weiping; Lacza, Zsombor

    2014-01-01

    The use of bone allografts is contraindicated in septic revision surgery due to the high risk of graft reinfection. Antibiotic release from the graft may solve the problem and these combinations can theoretically be used for prevention or even therapy of infection. The present study investigated whether amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin alone or in combination with chitosan or alginate are suitable for short-term or long-term bone coating. Human bone allografts were prepared from femoral head and lyophilized. Antibiotic coating was achieved by incubating the grafts in antibiotic solution and freeze-drying again. Two biopolymers chitosan and alginate were used for creating sustained-release implantable coatings and the drug release profile was characterized in vitro by spectrophotometry. Using lyophilization with or without chitosan only resulted in short-term release that lasted up to 48 hours. Alginate coating enabled a sustained release that lasted for 8 days with amoxicillin, 28 days with ciprofloxacin coating, and 50 days with vancomycin coating. Using only implantable biodegradable allograft and polymers, a sustained release of antibiotics was achieved with ciprofloxacin and vancomycin for several weeks. Since the calculated daily release of the antibiotic was lower than the recommended IV dose, the calcium alginate coated bone graft can support endoprosthesis revision surgery. PMID:25045678

  9. Effects of Trypsinization and Mineralization on Intrasynovial Tendon Allograft Healing to Bone

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Jin; van Alphen, Nick A.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.; Schmid, Thomas M.; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a novel technology to enhance tendon-to-bone interface healing by trypsinizing and mineralizing (TM) an intrasynovial tendon allograft in a rabbit bone tunnel model. Eight rabbit flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were used to optimize the trypsinization process. An additional 24 FDP tendons were stratified into control and TM groups; in each group, 4 tendons were used for in vitro evaluation of TM and 8 were transplanted into proximal tibial bone tunnels in rabbits. The samples were evaluated histologically and with mechanical testing at postoperative week 8. Maximum failure strength and linear stiffness were not significantly different between the control and TM tendons. A thin fibrous band of scar tissue formed at the graft-to-bone interface in the control group. However, only the TM group showed obvious new bone formation inside the tendon graft and a visible fibrocartilage layer at the bone tunnel entrance. This study is the first to explore effects of TM on the intrasynovial allograft healing to a bone tunnel. TM showed beneficial effects on chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and integration of the intrasynovial tendon graft, but mechanical strength was the same as the control tendons in this short-term in vivo study. PMID:25611186

  10. Effects of trypsinization and mineralization on intrasynovial tendon allograft healing to bone.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jin; van Alphen, Nick A; Thoreson, Andrew R; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Schmid, Thomas M; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a novel technology to enhance tendon-to-bone interface healing by trypsinizing and mineralizing (TM) an intrasynovial tendon allograft in a rabbit bone tunnel model. Eight rabbit flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were used to optimize the trypsinization process. An additional 24 FDP tendons were stratified into control and TM groups; in each group, 4 tendons were used for in vitro evaluation of TM and 8 were transplanted into proximal tibial bone tunnels in rabbits. The samples were evaluated histologically and with mechanical testing at postoperative week 8. Maximum failure strength and linear stiffness were not significantly different between the control and TM tendons. A thin fibrous band of scar tissue formed at the graft-to-bone interface in the control group. However, only the TM group showed obvious new bone formation inside the tendon graft and a visible fibrocartilage layer at the bone tunnel entrance. This study is the first to explore effects of TM on the intrasynovial allograft healing to a bone tunnel. TM showed beneficial effects on chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and integration of the intrasynovial tendon graft, but mechanical strength was the same as the control tendons in this short-term in vivo study.

  11. Biocompatibility and Chemical Reaction Kinetics of Injectable, Settable Polyurethane/Allograft Bone Biocomposites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-05

    the reactions of water (a blowing agent resulting in the generation of pores), polyester triol, dipropylene glycol (DPG), and allograft bone particles...known urethane gelling catalyst, it was found to preferentially catalyze the blowing reaction with water relative to the gelling reactions by a ratio...17:1. Thus the kinetic model predicted that the prepolymer and water proceeded to full conversion, while the conversions of polyester triol and DPG

  12. Diabetic limb salvage procedure with bone allograft and free flap transfer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Godoy-Santos, Alexandre L.; Amodio, Daniel T.; Pires, André; Lima, Ana L. M.; Wei, Teng H.; de Cesar-Netto, Cesar; Armstrong, David G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this case report was to describe a successful diabetic limb salvage procedure in the treatment of an infected diabetic foot ulcer through a multidisciplinary team approach and complex surgical reconstruction involving a femoral head bone allograft and musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi free flap. The decision to proceed with aggressive staged efforts at diabetic limb salvage should be made only after careful consultation with the patient, his or her family, and the rest of the multidisciplinary healthcare team. PMID:28326158

  13. Comparison of tendon-bone healing between autografts and allografts after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yunshen; Li, Hong; Tao, Hongyue; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Jiwu; Chen, Shiyi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare tendon-bone healing between autograft tendons and allograft tendons after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 36 participants (18 with autograft and 18 with allograft reconstruction) underwent MRI scans at least 2 years after the ACL reconstruction operation. Oblique axial images were obtained on three-dimensional dual-echo steady-state images and imported into solid modelling software for three-dimensional model reconstruction of the bone tunnel. The graft signal intensity in the tunnel, tendon-bone interface, tunnel morphology, and tunnel area was analysed using the Siemens software packages to determine the tendon-bone healing between the groups. For the tunnel morphology, both groups exhibited bone tunnel enlargement either at the femoral or tibial tunnel aperture. For the tendon-bone interface, one patient in the autograft group and two patients in the allograft group exhibited a significant fibrous scar tissue bands at the tendon-bone interface. The graft signal/noise quotient values of the allograft group were higher than the autograft group. However, there was no significant difference in the tunnel area between the allograft group and the autograft group. Although the autograft tendons exhibited a better remodelling effect than did the allograft tendons in the bone tunnel, there was no significant difference in the tendon-bone healing between the autograft tendons and the allograft tendons postoperatively. These findings indicate that the biomechanical effect of graft motion may play a significant role in the tunnel aperture. III.

  14. [ANATOMICAL PLATE COMBINED WITH CORTICAL BONE PLATE ALLOGRAFTS FOR TREATMENT OF COMMINUTED FRACTURES OF FEMORAL CONDYLES].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhimin; Gong, Xingxing; Li, Yanwei; Qiu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Meng; Shangguan, Tiancheng; Ao, Qingfang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the effectiveness of anatomical plate combined with cortical bone plate allografts in the treatment of comminuted fractures of the femoral condyles. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 18 patients with comminuted fractures of the femoral condyles were treated, including 13 males and 5 females with an average age of 45 years (range, 23-65 years). Fractures were caused by traffic accident in 11 cases, by falling from height in 4 cases, and by the other in 3 cases. The locations were the left side in 7 cases and the right side in 11 cases. Of 18 fractures, 12 were open fractures and 6 were closed fractures. The mean time from injury to operation was 6 days (range, 4-15 days). The fixation was performed by anatomical plate combined with cortical bone plate allografts, and autograft bone or allogeneic bone grafting were used. Superficial local skin necrosis occurred in 1 case, and was cured after skin graft, and other incisions achieved primary healing. All patients were followed up 12-36 months (mean, 23 months). X-ray films showed that bone union was achieved within 3-12 months (5.6 months on average). No related complication occurred, such as fixation loosening, refracture, infection, or immunological rejection. According to Merchan et al. criteria for knee joint function evaluation, the results were excellent in 7 cases, good in 9 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 1 case at last follow-up; the excellent and good rate was 88.9%. Anatomical plate combined with cortical bone plate allograft fixation is a good method to treat comminuted fractures of the femoral condyles. This method can effectively achieve complete cortical bone on the inside of the femur as well as provide rigid fixation.

  15. Adjuvant therapies of bone graft around non-cemented experimental orthopedic implants stereological methods and experiments in dogs.

    PubMed

    Baas, Jørgen

    2008-08-01

    Revision arthroplasty is a challenging aspect of the otherwise quite successful area of joint replacement surgery. The instable interaction between implant and host bone has often initiated a destructive process of inflammation and osteolysis, rendering the revision site sclerotic and with insufficient bone stock. One way of dealing with this is to build up a bed of tightly packed morselized bone graft to support the revision implant in a procedure often referred to as impaction grafting. Fresh frozen morselized femoral head allograft is the gold standard material for impaction grafting of the large defects usually involved in revision arthroplasty. The clinical outcome does not match that of primary arthroplasties. Implant subsidence is greater, implant survival shorter, and the bone graft is often not incorporated into living bone. The studies constituting this thesis have investigated ways of improving early implant fixation and bone graft incorporation. All studies used the same experimental canine model of early fixation and osseointegration of uncemented implant components inserted into a bed of impacted bone graft. Study I compared bone grafted implants where the morselized allograft was used alone or had been added rhBMP-2, the bisphosphonate pamidronate or a combination of the two. The main object was to see wether the previously observed growth factor related accelerated allograft resorption could be counteracted by the addition of an anti-catabolic drug. The study also compared HA-coated and non-coated porous Ti implants. The untreated control implants had better mechanical fixation than all other treatment groups. RhBMP-2 raised the total metabolic turnover of bone within the allograft with a net negative result on implant fixation. Pamidronate virtually blocked bone metabolism, also when combined with rhBMP-2. The HA-coated implants had more than twice as good mechanical fixation and improved osseointegration compared to the corresponding Ti implants

  16. Treatment of Periradicular Bone Defect by Periosteal Pedicle Graft as a Barrier Membrane and Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Anurag

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the usefulness of Periosteal Pedicle Graft (PPG) as a barrier membrane and Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft (DFDBA) for bone regeneration in periradicular bone defect. A patient with intraoral discharging sinus due to carious exposed pulp involvement was treated by PPG and DFDBA. Clinical and radiological evaluations were done immediately prior to surgery, three months, six months and one year after surgery. Patient was treated using split-thickness flap, PPG, apicoectomy, defect fill with DFDBA and lateral displacement along with suturing of the PPG prior to suturing the flap, in order to close the communication between the oral and the periapical surroundings through sinus tract opening. After one year, successful healing of periradicular bone defect was achieved. Thus, PPG as a barrier membrane and DFDBA have been shown to have the potential to stimulate bone formation when used in periradicular bone defect. PMID:28274066

  17. Effects of Particle Size and Porosity on In Vivo Remodeling of Settable Allograft Bone/Polymer Composites

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Edna M.; Talley, Anne D.; Gould, Nicholas R.; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J.; Drapeau, Susan J.; Kalpakci, Kerem N.

    2014-01-01

    Established clinical approaches to treat bone voids include the implantation of autograft or allograft bone, ceramics, and other bone void fillers (BVFs). Composites prepared from lysine-derived polyurethanes and allograft bone can be injected as a reactive liquid and set to yield BVFs with mechanical strength comparable to trabecular bone. In this study, we investigated the effects of porosity, allograft particle size, and matrix mineralization on remodeling of injectable and settable allograft/polymer composites in a rabbit femoral condyle plug defect model. Both low viscosity (LV) and high viscosity (HV) grafts incorporating small (<105 μm) particles only partially healed at 12 weeks, and the addition of 10% demineralized bone matrix did not enhance healing. In contrast, composite grafts with large (105 – 500 μm) allograft particles healed at 12 weeks post-implantation, as evidenced by radial μCT and histomorphometric analysis. This study highlights particle size and surface connectivity as influential parameters regulating the remodeling of composite bone scaffolds. PMID:25581686

  18. Activity of bone morphogenetic protein-7 after treatment at various temperatures: freezing vs. pasteurization vs. allograft.

    PubMed

    Takata, Munetomo; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Nishida, Hideji; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Kimura, Hiroaki; Miwa, Shinji; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Insufficient bone union is the occasional complication of biomechanical reconstruction after malignant bone tumor resection using temperature treated tumor bearing bone; freezing, pasteurization, and autoclaving. Since bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) plays an important role in bone formation, we assessed the amount and activity of BMP preserved after several temperature treatments, including -196 and -73°C for 20 min, 60 and 100°C for 30 min, 60°C for 10h following -80°C for 12h as an allograft model, and 4°C as the control. The material extracted from the human femoral bone was treated, and the amount of BMP-7 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then, the activity of recombinant human BMP-7 after the treatment was assessed using a bioassay with NIH3T3 cells and immunoblotting analysis to measure the amount of phospho-Smad, one of the signaling substrates that reflect the intracellular reaction of BMPs. Both experiments revealed that BMP-7 was significantly better preserved in the hypothermia groups. The percentages of the amount of BMP-7 in which the control group was set at 100% were 114%, 108%, 70%, 49%, and 53% in the -196, -73, 60, 100°C, and the allograft-model group, respectively. The percentages of the amount of phospho-Smad were 89%, 87%, 24%, 4.9%, and 14% in the -196, -73, 60, 100°C, and the allograft-model group, respectively. These results suggested that freezing possibly preserves osteoinductive ability than hyperthermia treatment.

  19. Detection of hepatitis B virus in bone allografts from donors with occult hepatitis B infection.

    PubMed

    Mirabet, Vicente; Álvarez, Manuel; Luis-Hidalgo, Mar; Galán, Juan; Puig, Nieves; Larrea, Luis; Arbona, Cristina

    2017-07-26

    The implementation of nucleic acid testing in donor screening has improved the safety of tissue allografts. Although infectious disease transmission can be considered a rare event, the detection of occult hepatitis B infection remains challenging. The studies concerning this risk are mainly based on testing blood specimens. This work shows the correlation between results of samples obtained from donor blood and the corresponding tissue washing solution. Hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid was detected both in bone allografts from donors with serological profiles associated to active hepatitis B infection and occult hepatitis B infection. These results suggest that hepatitis B virus seems to concentrate in bone marrow even when a low viral load is present in peripheral blood. Even detection at molecular level is not enough to avoid the risk of hepatitis B virus transmission and a multiparametrical evaluation is required in tissue donor screening. The role of clinicians in recognition and reporting of allograft-associated infections is a major concern for the acquisition of experience to be applied in risk control of disease transmission.

  20. Development of a bacteriophage model system to investigate virus inactivation methods used in the treatment of bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Bienek, Carol; MacKay, Lynsay; Scott, Gillian; Jones, Anthony; Lomas, Richard; Kearney, John N; Galea, George

    2007-01-01

    Bone allografts are commonly used in a variety of surgical procedures, to reconstruct lost bone stock and to provide mechanical support during the healing process. Due to concerns regarding the possibility of disease transmission from donor to recipient, and of contamination of grafts during retrieval and processing procedures, it is common practice to sterilise bone allografts prior to issue for clinical use. It is vital that the sterilisation processes applied to allografts are validated to demonstrate that they achieve the required level of bioburden reduction, and by extension that validated models are used for these studies. Two common sterilisation protocols applied to bone allografts are gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide gas sterilisation, and there are currently no validated models available for measuring the anti-viral efficacy of ethylene oxide treatment with regard to bone allografts or readily useable models for assessing the anti-viral efficiency of gamma irradiation treatment. We have developed and validated models for both these sterilisation processes, using the bacteriophage varphix174, and utilised the models to measure the antiviral activity of the standard ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation sterilisation processes applied to bone allografts by the National Blood Service. For the irradiation model, we also utilised bacterial spores (Bacillus pumilus). Our results show that ethylene oxide sterilisation (which can only be applied to lyophilised grafts) inactivated > 6.1 log(10) of the model virus, and gamma irradiation (at 25 -40 kGy and applied to frozen allografts) inactivated 3.6 - 4.0 log(10) of the model virus and > 4 log(10) of the bacterial spores. Gamma irradiation at this dosage is therefore not in itself a sterilisation process with respect to viruses.

  1. Bioactive lipid coating of bone allografts directs engraftment and fate determination of bone marrow-derived cells in rat GFP chimeras.

    PubMed

    Das, Anusuya; Segar, Claire E; Chu, Yihsuan; Wang, Tiffany W; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chunxi; Du, Xeujun; Ogle, Roy C; Cui, Quanjun; Botchwey, Edward A

    2015-09-01

    Bone grafting procedures are performed to treat wounds incurred during wartime trauma, accidents, and tumor resections. Endogenous mechanisms of repair are often insufficient to ensure integration between host and donor bone and subsequent restoration of function. We investigated the role that bone marrow-derived cells play in bone regeneration and sought to increase their contributions by functionalizing bone allografts with bioactive lipid coatings. Polymer-coated allografts were used to locally deliver the immunomodulatory small molecule FTY720 in tibial defects created in rat bone marrow chimeras containing genetically-labeled bone marrow for monitoring cell origin and fate. Donor bone marrow contributed significantly to both myeloid and osteogenic cells in remodeling tissue surrounding allografts. FTY720 coatings altered the phenotype of immune cells two weeks post-injury, which was associated with increased vascularization and bone formation surrounding allografts. Consequently, degradable polymer coating strategies that deliver small molecule growth factors such as FTY720 represent a novel therapeutic strategy for harnessing endogenous bone marrow-derived progenitors and enhancing healing in load-bearing bone defects.

  2. A retrospective study on annual evaluation of radiation processing for frozen bone allografts complying to quality system requirements.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Saravana; Mohd, Suhaili; Samsuddin, Sharifah Mazni; Min, N G Wuey; Yusof, Norimah; Mansor, Azura

    2015-12-01

    Bone allografts have been used widely to fill up essential void in orthopaedic surgeries. The benefit of using allografts to replace and reconstruct musculoskeletal injuries, fractures or disease has obtained overwhelming acceptance from orthopaedic surgeons worldwide. However, bacterial infection and disease transmission through bone allograft transplantation have always been a significant issue. Sterilization by radiation is an effective method to eliminate unwanted microorganisms thus assist in preventing life threatening allograft associated infections. Femoral heads procured from living donors and long bones (femur and tibia) procured from cadaveric donors were sterilized at 25 kGy in compliance with international standard ISO 11137. According to quality requirements, all records of bone banking were evaluated annually. This retrospective study was carried out on annual evaluation of radiation records from 1998 until 2012. The minimum doses absorbed by the bones were ranging from 25.3 to 38.2 kGy while the absorbed maximum doses were from 25.4 to 42.3 kGy. All the bones supplied by our UMMC Bone Bank were sterile at the required minimum dose of 25 kGy. Our analysis on dose variation showed that the dose uniformity ratios in 37 irradiated boxes of 31 radiation batches were in the range of 1.003-1.251, which indicated the doses were well distributed.

  3. Synthetic bone graft versus autograft or allograft for spinal fusion: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Buser, Zorica; Brodke, Darrel S; Youssef, Jim A; Meisel, Hans-Joerg; Myhre, Sue Lynn; Hashimoto, Robin; Park, Jong-Beom; Tim Yoon, S; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to compare the efficacy and safety of synthetic bone graft substitutes versus autograft or allograft for the treatment of lumbar and cervical spinal degenerative diseases. Multiple major medical reference databases were searched for studies that evaluated spinal fusion using synthetic bone graft substitutes (either alone or with an autograft or allograft) compared with autograft and allograft. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and cohort studies with more than 10 patients were included. Radiographic fusion, patient-reported outcomes, and functional outcomes were the primary outcomes of interest. The search yielded 214 citations with 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. For the patients with lumbar spinal degenerative disease, data from 19 comparative studies were included: 3 RCTs, 12 prospective, and 4 retrospective studies. Hydroxyapatite (HA), HA+collagen, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), calcium sulfate, or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were used. Overall, there were no differences between the treatment groups in terms of fusion, functional outcomes, or complications, except in 1 study that found higher rates of HA graft absorption. For the patients with cervical degenerative conditions, data from 8 comparative studies were included: 4 RCTs and 4 cohort studies (1 prospective and 3 retrospective studies). Synthetic grafts included HA, β-TCP/HA, PMMA, and biocompatible osteoconductive polymer (BOP). The PMMA and BOP grafts led to lower fusion rates, and PMMA, HA, and BOP had greater risks of graft fragmentation, settling, and instrumentation problems compared with iliac crest bone graft. The overall quality of evidence evaluating the potential use and superiority of the synthetic biological materials for lumbar and cervical fusion in this systematic review was low or insufficient, largely due to the high potential for bias and small sample sizes. Thus, definitive conclusions or recommendations regarding the use of these

  4. Inability of donor total body irradiation to prolong survival of vascularized bone allografts: Experimental study in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J. )

    1990-07-01

    At the present time, the toxic side effects of recipient immunosuppression cannot be justified for human non-vital organ transplantation. Total body irradiation has proven effective in ablating various bone-marrow-derived and endothelial immunocompetent cellular populations, which are responsible for immune rejection against donor tissues. Irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy was given to donor rats six days prior to heterotopic transplantation of vascularized bone allografts to host animals. Another group of recipient rats also received a short-term (sixth to fourteenth day after grafting), low dose of cyclosporine. Total body irradiation was able merely to delay rejection of grafts across a strong histocompatibility barrier for one to two weeks, when compared to nonirradiated allografts. The combination of donor irradiation plus cyclosporine did not delay the immune response, and the rejection score was similar to that observed for control allografts. Consequently, allograft viability was quickly impaired, leading to irreversible bone damage. This study suggest that 10 Gy of donor total body irradiation delivered six days prior to grafting cannot circumvent the immune rejection in a vascularized allograft of bone across a strong histocompatibility barrier.

  5. Surgical Guides (Patient-Specific Instruments) for Pediatric Tibial Bone Sarcoma Resection and Allograft Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bellanova, Laura; Paul, Laurent; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2013-01-01

    To achieve local control of malignant pediatric bone tumors and to provide satisfactory oncological results, adequate resection margins are mandatory. The local recurrence rate is directly related to inappropriate excision margins. The present study describes a method for decreasing the resection margin width and ensuring that the margins are adequate. This method was developed in the tibia, which is a common site for the most frequent primary bone sarcomas in children. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) were used for preoperative planning to define the cutting planes for the tumors: each tumor was segmented on MRI, and the volume of the tumor was coregistered with CT. After preoperative planning, a surgical guide (patient-specific instrument) that was fitted to a unique position on the tibia was manufactured by rapid prototyping. A second instrument was manufactured to adjust the bone allograft to fit the resection gap accurately. Pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens showed tumor-free resection margins in all four cases. The technologies described in this paper may improve the surgical accuracy and patient safety in surgical oncology. In addition, these techniques may decrease operating time and allow for reconstruction with a well-matched allograft to obtain stable osteosynthesis. PMID:23533326

  6. Surgical guides (patient-specific instruments) for pediatric tibial bone sarcoma resection and allograft reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bellanova, Laura; Paul, Laurent; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2013-01-01

    To achieve local control of malignant pediatric bone tumors and to provide satisfactory oncological results, adequate resection margins are mandatory. The local recurrence rate is directly related to inappropriate excision margins. The present study describes a method for decreasing the resection margin width and ensuring that the margins are adequate. This method was developed in the tibia, which is a common site for the most frequent primary bone sarcomas in children. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) were used for preoperative planning to define the cutting planes for the tumors: each tumor was segmented on MRI, and the volume of the tumor was coregistered with CT. After preoperative planning, a surgical guide (patient-specific instrument) that was fitted to a unique position on the tibia was manufactured by rapid prototyping. A second instrument was manufactured to adjust the bone allograft to fit the resection gap accurately. Pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens showed tumor-free resection margins in all four cases. The technologies described in this paper may improve the surgical accuracy and patient safety in surgical oncology. In addition, these techniques may decrease operating time and allow for reconstruction with a well-matched allograft to obtain stable osteosynthesis.

  7. Reconstruction of Chest Wall by Cryopreserved Sternal Allograft after Resection of Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of Sternum

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhy, Kambiz; Abbasi Dezfouli, Azizollah

    2017-01-01

    A 20-year-old female was referred to our hospital due to deformity and bulging in anterior aspect of chest wall in sternal area. Chest X-ray and CT scan confirmed a large mass with destruction of sternum. Pathologic diagnosis after incisional biopsy was compatible with aneurysmal bone cyst. We resected sternum completely and reconstructed large anterior defect by a cryopreserved sternal allograft. In follow-up of patient there was no unstability of chest wall with good cosmetic result. PMID:28299230

  8. Benefits of mineralized bone cortical allograft for immediate implant placement in extraction sites: an in vivo study in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a mineralized bone cortical allograft (MBCA), with or without a resorbable collagenous membrane derived from bovine pericardium, on alveolar bone remodeling after immediate implant placement in a dog model. Methods Six mongrel dogs were included. The test and control sites were randomly selected. Four biradicular premolars were extracted from the mandible. In control sites, implants without an allograft or membrane were placed immediately in the fresh extraction sockets. In the test sites, an MBCA was placed to fill the gap between the bone socket wall and implant, with or without a resorbable collagenous membrane. Specimens were collected after 1 and 3 months. The amount of residual particles and new bone quality were evaluated by histomorphometry. Results Few residual graft particles were observed to be closely embedded in the new bone without any contact with the implant surface. The allograft combined with a resorbable collagen membrane limited the resorption of the buccal wall in height and width. The histological quality of the new bone was equivalent to that of the original bone. The MBCA improved the quality of new bone formation, with few residual particles observed at 3 months. Conclusions The preliminary results of this animal study indicate a real benefit in obtaining new bone as well as in enhancing osseointegration due to the high resorbability of cortical allograft particles, in comparison to the results of xenografts or other biomaterials (mineralized or demineralized cancellous allografts) that have been presented in the literature. Furthermore, the use of an MBCA combined with a collagen membrane in extraction and immediate implant placement limited the extent of post-extraction resorption. PMID:27800212

  9. Histologic Evaluation of Bone Healing Capacity Following Application of Inorganic Bovine Bone and a New Allograft Material in Rabbit Calvaria

    PubMed Central

    Paknejad, Mojgan; Rokn, AmirReza; Rouzmeh, Nina; Heidari, Mohadeseh; Titidej, Azadehzeinab; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mehrfard, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Considering the importance of bone augmentation prior to implant placement in order to obtain adequate bone quality and quantity, many studies have been conducted to evaluate different techniques and materials regarding new bone formation. In this study, we investigated the bone healing capacity of two different materials deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM with the trade name of Bio-Oss) and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA with the trade name of DynaGraft). Materials and Methods: This randomized blinded prospective study was conducted on twelve New Zealand white rabbits. Three cranial defects with an equal diameter were created on their calvarium. Subsequently, they were distributed into three groups: 1. The control group without any treatment; 2. The Bio-Oss group; 3. The DynaGraft group. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed for histologic and histomorphometric analysis. Results: Substantial new bone formation was observed in both groups. DynaGraft: 56/1 % ± 15/1 and Bio-Oss: 53/55 % ± 13/5 compared to the control group: 28/6 % ± 11/2. All groups showed slight inflammation and a small amount of residual biomaterial was observed. Conclusion: Considerable new bone formation was demonstrated in both DynaGraft and Bio-Oss groups in comparison with the control group. Both materials are considered biocompatible regarding the negligible foreign body reaction. PMID:26005452

  10. Enhancement by dimethyl myleran of donor type chimerism in murine recipients of bone marrow allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidot, T.; Terenzi, A.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Reisner, Y. )

    1989-05-15

    A major problem in using murine models for studies of bone marrow allograft rejection in leukemia patients is the narrow margin in which graft rejection can be analyzed. In mice irradiated with greater than 9 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) rejection is minimal, whereas after administration of 8 Gy TBI, which spares a significant number of clonable T cells, a substantial frequency of host stem cells can also be detected. In current murine models, unlike in humans, bone marrow allograft rejection is generally associated with full autologous hematopoietic reconstitution. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the myeloablative drug dimethyl myleran (DMM) on chimerism status following transplantation of T cell-depleted allogenic bone marrow (using C57BL/6 donors and C3H/HeJ recipients, conditioned with 8 Gy TBI). Donor type chimerism 1 to 2 months post-transplant of 1 to 3 x 10(6) bone marrow cells was markedly enhanced by using DMM one day after TBI and prior to transplantation. Conditioning with cyclophosphamide instead of DMM, in combination with 8 Gy TBI, did not enhance engraftment of donor type cells. Artificial reconstitution of T cells, after conditioning with TBI plus DMM, by adding mature thymocytes, or presensitization with irradiated donor type spleen cells 1 week before TBI and DMM, led to strong graft rejection and consequently to severe anemia. The anti-donor responses in these models were proportional to the number of added T cells and to the number of cells used for presensitization, and they could be neutralized by increasing the bone marrow inoculum.

  11. Pullout strength of bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft bone plugs: a comparison of cadaver tibia and rigid polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan

    2013-09-01

    To compare the load-to-failure pullout strength of bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) allografts in human cadaver tibias and rigid polyurethane foam blocks. Twenty BPTB allografts were trimmed creating 25 mm × 10 mm × 10 mm tibial plugs. Ten-millimeter tunnels were drilled in 10 human cadaver tibias and 10 rigid polyurethane foam blocks. The BPTB anterior cruciate ligament allografts were inserted into these tunnels and secured with metal interference screws, with placement of 10 of each type in each material. After preloading (10 N), cyclic loading (500 cycles, 10 to 150 N at 200 mm/min) and load-to-failure testing (200 mm/min) were performed. The endpoints were ultimate failure load, cyclic loading elongation, and failure mode. No difference in ultimate failure load existed between grafts inserted into rigid polyurethane foam blocks (705 N) and those in cadaver tibias (669 N) (P = .69). The mean rigid polyurethane foam block elongation (0.211 mm) was less than that in tibial bone (0.470 mm) (P = .038), with a smaller standard deviation (0.07 mm for foam) than tibial bone (0.34 mm). All BPTB grafts successfully completed 500 cycles. The rigid polyurethane foam block showed less variation in test results than human cadaver tibias. Rigid polyurethane foam blocks provide an acceptable substitute for human cadaver bone tibia for biomechanical testing of BPTB allografts and offer near-equivalent results. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Repopulation of Intrasynovial Flexor Tendon Allograft with Bone Marrow Stromal Cells: An Ex Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Amadio, Peter C.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; An, Kai-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed healing is a common problem whenever tendon allografts are used for tendon or ligament reconstruction. Repopulating the allograft with host cells may accelerate tendon regeneration, but cell penetration into the allograft tendon is limited. Processing the tendon surface with slits that guide cells into the allograft substrate may improve healing. The purpose of this study was to describe a surface modification of allograft tendon that includes slits to aid cell repopulation and lubrication to enhance tendon gliding. Methods: Canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were used for this study. Cyclic gliding resistance was measured over 1000 cycles. Tensile stiffness was assessed for normal tendon, tendon decellularized with trypsin and Triton X-100 (decellularized group), tendon decellularized and perforated with multiple slits (MS group) and tendon decellularized, perforated with slits and treated with a carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and gelatin (cd-HA-gelatin) surface modification (MS-SM group). To assess tendon repopulation, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were used in the decellularized and MS groups. DNA concentration and histology were evaluated and compared to normal tendons and nonseeded decellularized tendons. Results: The gliding resistance of the decellularized and MS groups was significantly higher compared with the normal group. There was no significant difference in gliding resistance between the decellularized and MS group. Gliding resistance of the normal group and MS-SM group was not significantly different. The Young's modulus was not significantly different among the four groups. The DNA concentration in the MS group was significantly lower than in normal tendons, but significantly higher than in decellularized tendons, with or without BMSCs. Viable BMSCs were found in the slits after 2 weeks in tissue culture. Conclusions: Tendon slits can successfully harbor BMSCs without compromising their survival and without

  13. Anti-HLA antibodies and kidney allograft outcomes in recipients with donor bone marrow cell infusion.

    PubMed

    Solgi, Ghasem; Pourmand, Gholamreza; Mehrsai, Abdorasool; Taherimahmoudi, Mohsen; Nicknam, Mohmmad Hossein; Ebrahimi Rad, Mohmmad R; Seraji, Ali; Asadpoor, Amirabbas; Ansaripor, Bita; Nikbin, Behrouz; Amirzargar, Aliakbar

    2010-03-01

    Anti-HLA-antibodies are known to affect the allograft survival in transplant recipient patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between anti-HLA antibodies and kidney allograft outcomes, particularly in recipients with concurrent donor bone marrow cell infusion (DBMI). Between June 2006 and May 2007, forty living unrelated donor kidney transplants consisting of 20 recipients with DBMI and 20 without infusion entered into the study and were monitored prospectively for one year. Pre- and post-transplant (days 14, 30, and 90) sera were screened for the presence of anti-HLA class-I and II antibodies, and subsequently positive sera retested with ELISA specific panel for antibody specification. Of 40 patients, 9 (22.5%) experienced acute rejection episodes (ARE) (6/20 cases in non-infused versus 3/20 in DBMI patients). The prevalence of anti-HLA antibodies before and after transplantation were higher in patients with ARE compared to non-rejecting ones (88.8% vs. 38.7%, p=0.01 and 66.6% vs. 25.8%, p=0.04, respectively). A total of 10% (4/40) of patients developed donor specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) and in this regard 2 patients from the control group experienced ARE. All 3 rejecting patients in DBMI group were negative for DSA and positive for non-DSA. The lower titer of post-transplant anti-HLA antibodies were shown in DBMI patients compared to pre-transplantation titer. Additionally, the average serum creatinine levels during one year follow up and even in those patients with ARE were lower compared to controls. Our findings reveal an association between pre- and post-transplant anti-HLA antibodies, and ARE and also early allograft dysfunction. It suggests that lower incidence of ARE, undetectable DSA, lower titer of antibodies concomitant with a decrease in serum creatinine level, better allograft function and lower percentages of PRA in DBMI patients, could be the probable manifestations of partial hypo-responsiveness against allografts.

  14. The Use of Cryopreserved Human Skin Allograft for the Treatment of Wounds With Exposed Muscle, Tendon, and Bone.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas C; Wilson, Jessica A; Crim, Brandon; Lowery, Nicholas J

    2016-04-01

    Wounds with exposed bone or tendon continue to be a challenge for wound care physicians, and there is little research pertaining to the treatment of these particular wounds with allograft skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a biologically active cryopreserved human skin allograft for treating wounds with exposed bone and/or tendon in the lower extremities. Fifteen patients with 15 wounds at a single hospital-based wound care center were included in the study. Eleven wounds had exposed bone, 1 wound had exposed ten- don, and 3 wounds had exposed bone and tendon. Standard treatment principles with adjunctive cadaveric allograft application were performed on all wounds in the study. In this study 14/15 (93.3%) of the wounds healed completely. The mean duration of days until coverage of the bone and/or tendon with granulation tissue was 36.14 (5.16 weeks) (range 5-117 days). Mean duration to complete healing of the wound was 133 days (19 weeks) (range 53-311 days). The mean number of grafts applied was 2. There were no adverse events directly related to the graft. Zero major amputations and 1 minor amputation occurred. This study found biologically active cryopreserved human skin allografts to be safe and effective in treating difficult wounds with exposed bone and/or tendon. To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest study to date focused on the utilization of allograft skin as an adjunct therapy for lower extremity wounds with exposed tendon and/or bone.

  15. Periacetabular bone metabolism following hip revision surgery. PET-based evaluation of allograft osteointegration.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, P; Beuthien-Baumann, B; Kotzerke, J; Hofheinz, F; Zessin, J; Stiehler, M; Günther, K-P

    2014-08-06

    The treatment of loosened total hip replacement (THR) acetabular components may require the management of severe bone defects. Although being applied for decades, there is only limited scientific data about the osteointegration of cancellous bone allografts (CBA) and other void fillers. Monitoring of periprosthetic bone regeneration could possibly help to optimize this process thereby reducing late failure rates. The aim of this study was to show osteometabolic changes in periprosthetic CBA after THR revision with the use of sodium-[18F]-fluoride (NaF) and positron emission tomography (PET). Twelve patients undergoing THR revision with the use of CBA were prospectively enrolled in the study. Nine patients completed all necessary examinations and were included in the evaluation. The temporal pattern of osteointegration was assessed via NaF-PET at one (PET1) and six weeks (PET2) after surgery. CBA, tantalum implants, supraacetabular regions ipsilateral and contralateral, and parasymphyseal pubic bones were delineated as volumes of interest (VOI) in postop CT scans, which were then merged with the PET data. In comparison to the contralateral supraacetabular reference bone, a significant 1.5-fold increase of osteometabolic activity from PET1 to PET2 was seen in the CBA region. Also, the ipsilateral supraacetabular host bone showed a higher NaF-influx in week 6, compared to the first postoperative week. The supraacetabular site exhibited a significantly 1.8- to 2-fold higher influx and uptake than bone regions in non-operated sites. Tantalum implants had a low NaF influx at both time points investigated. Using NaF-PET osteometabolic changes of CBA and implant-bone-interfaces can be monitored. Applying this method we demonstrated early periprosthetic temporal bone regeneration patterns in THR cup revision patients.

  16. Knockdown of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathways ameliorate bone graft rejection in a mouse model of allograft transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Jeng-Long; Shen, Po-Chuan; Wu, Po-Ting; Jou, I-Ming; Wu, Chao-Liang; Shiau, Ai-Li; Wang, Chrong-Reen; Chong, Hao-Earn; Chuang, Shu-Han; Peng, Jia-Shiou; Chen, Shih-Yao

    2017-01-01

    Non-union occurring in structural bone grafting is a major problem in allograft transplantation because of impaired interaction between the host and graft tissue. Activated toll-like receptor (TLR) induces inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and triggers cell-mediated immune responses. The TLR-mediated signal pathway is important for mediating allograft rejection. We evaluated the effects of local knockdown of the TLR4 signaling pathway in a mouse segmental femoral graft model. Allografts were coated with freeze-dried lentiviral vectors that encoded TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) short-hairpin RNA (shRNA), which were individually transplanted into the mice. They were assessed morphologically, radiographically, and histologically for tissue remodeling. Union occurred in autografted but not in allografted mice at the graft and host junctions after 4 weeks. TLR4 and MyD88 expression was up-regulated in allografted mice. TLR4 and MyD88 shRNAs inhibited TLR4 and MyD88 expression, which led to better union in the grafted sites. More regulatory T-cells in the draining lymph nodes suggested inflammation suppression. Local inhibition of TLR4 and MyD88 might reduce immune responses and ameliorate allograft rejection. PMID:28393847

  17. Successful apexification with resolution of the periapical lesion using mineral trioxide aggregate and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Singbal, Kiran P; Kamat, Sharad

    2010-01-01

    Immature teeth with necrotic pulp and large periapical lesion are difficult to treat via conventional endodontic therapy. The role of materials such as calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate in apexification is indispensable. This case report presents the successful healing and apexification with combined use of white mineral trioxide aggregate and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft. PMID:20859486

  18. The effect of mesenchymal stem cells delivered via hydrogel-based tissue engineered periosteum on bone allograft healing

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michael D.; Xie, Chao; Zhang, Xinping; Benoit, Danielle S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Allografts remain the clinical “gold standard” for treatment of critical sized bone defects despite minimal engraftment and ~60% long-term failure rates. Therefore, the development of strategies to improve allograft healing and integration are necessary. The periosteum and its associated stem cell population, which are lacking in allografts, coordinate autograft healing. Herein we utilized hydrolytically degradable hydrogels to transplant and localize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to allograft surfaces, creating a periosteum mimetic, termed a ‘tissue engineered periosteum’. Our results demonstrated that this tissue engineering approach resulted in increased graft vascularization (~2.4-fold), endochondral bone formation (~2.8-fold), and biomechanical strength (1.8-fold), as compared to untreated allografts, over 16 weeks of healing. Despite this enhancement in healing, the process of endochondral ossification was delayed compared to autografts, requiring further modifications for this approach to be clinically acceptable. However, this bottom-up biomaterials approach, the engineered periosteum, can be augmented with alternative cell types, matrix cues, growth factors, and/or other small molecule drugs to expedite the process of ossification. PMID:23958029

  19. Results of free vascularized fibula grafting for allograft nonunion after limb salvage surgery for malignant bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Donald S; Waters, Peter M; Gebhardt, Mark C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the results of free vascularized fibula grafting (FVFG) in the treatment of allograft fracture nonunion after limb salvage surgery for malignant bone tumors.A retrospective study was performed on 8 patients who underwent FVFG for allograft fracture nonunions. All had prior tumor resection and allograft reconstruction for osteosarcoma (n = 6) or Ewing sarcoma (n = 2) of the femur (n = 3), tibia (n = 2), humerus (n = 2), or ulna (n = 1). All patients failed an initial course of immobilization; 4 patients failed prior open reduction and internal fixation with autogenous nonvascularized bone grafting. Average age at the time of FVFG was 14 years. Average follow-up was 44 months. The FVFG resulted in successful bony healing in 7 of 8 patients, providing pain relief, limb preservation, and restoration of function. One patient developed an infection requiring fibula removal and staged prosthetic reconstruction. Additional complications requiring further treatment included limb-length discrepancy, additional allograft fracture, and wound infection. The FVFG is an effective treatment option for allograft nonunion after limb salvage surgery because it provides both the mechanical stability and biological stimulus for bony healing. Attention to internal fixation, limb alignment, and microvascular principles is essential to prevent complications and allow for the best functional outcomes.

  20. Engineering nanocages with polyglutamate domains for coupling to hydroxyapatite biomaterials and allograft bone.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, Bonnie K; Morris, David S; Prevelige, Peter E; Bellis, Susan L

    2013-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the principal constituent of bone mineral, and synthetic HA is widely used as a biomaterial for bone repair. Previous work has shown that polyglutamate domains bind selectively to HA and that these domains can be utilized to couple bioactive peptides onto many different HA-containing materials. In the current study we have adapted this technology to engineer polyglutamate domains into cargo-loaded nanocage structures derived from the P22 bacteriophage. P22 nanocages have demonstrated significant potential as a drug delivery system due to their stability, large capacity for loading with a diversity of proteins and other types of cargo, and ability to resist degradation by proteases. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify the primary coding sequence of the P22 coat protein to incorporate glutamate-rich regions. Relative to wild-type P22, the polyglutamate-modified nanocages (E2-P22) exhibited increased binding to ceramic HA disks, particulate HA and allograft bone. Furthermore, E2-P22 binding was HA selective, as evidenced by negligible binding of the nanocages to non-HA materials including polystyrene, agarose, and polycaprolactone (PCL). Taken together these results establish a new mechanism for the directed coupling of nanocage drug delivery systems to a variety of HA-containing materials commonly used in diverse bone therapies.

  1. Engineering nanocages with polyglutamate domains for coupling to hydroxyapatite biomaterials and allograft bone

    PubMed Central

    Culpepper, Bonnie K.; Morris, David S.; Prevelige, Peter E.; Bellis, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the principal constituent of bone mineral, and synthetic HA is widely used as a biomaterial for bone repair. Previous work has shown that polyglutamate domains bind selectively to HA and that these domains can be utilized to couple bioactive peptides onto many different HA-containing materials. In the current study we have adapted this technology to engineer polyglutamate domains into cargo-loaded nanocage structures derived from the P22 bacteriophage. P22 nanocages have demonstrated significant potential as a drug delivery system due to their stability, large capacity for loading with a diversity of proteins and other types of cargo, and ability to resist degradation by proteases. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify the primary coding sequence of the P22 coat protein to incorporate glutamate-rich regions. Relative to wild-type P22, the polyglutamate-modified nanocages (E2-P22) exhibited increased binding to ceramic HA disks, particulate HA and allograft bone. Furthermore, E2-P22 binding was HA selective, as evidenced by negligible binding of the nanocages to non-HA materials including polystyrene, agarose, and polycaprolactone (PCL). Taken together these results establish a new mechanism for the directed coupling of nanocage drug delivery systems to a variety of HA-containing materials commonly used in diverse bone therapies. PMID:23312905

  2. Prolonging survival in vascularized bone allograft transplantation: developing specific immune unresponsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Paskert, J.P.; Yaremchuk, M.J.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J.

    1987-04-01

    Vascularized bone allografts (VBAs) could be useful adjuncts to the clinical reconstructive surgeon's arsenal. These grafts are known experimentally to be subject to host rejection. One way to control the rejection problem would be to develop specific immune unresponsiveness via host conditioning. Using a proven reliable model in inbred rats for studying heterotopic VBA transplantation, recipient animals were conditioned preoperatively with third-party unrelated blood, donor-specific blood (DSB) alone and with cyclosporine, and ultraviolet irradiated donor-specific blood. The combination of DSB plus cyclosporine delayed rejection of grafts across a strong histocompatibility barrier for three to four weeks. However, rejection was delayed across a weak histocompatibility barrier for five to six weeks using this same host pretreatment. The implications are that specific immunosuppression, although possible, is difficult to achieve in VBA transplantation, and that such techniques will rely on tissue-matching to minimize the genetic disparity between graft and host.

  3. Fractionated sublethal total body irradiation and donor bone marrow infusion for induction of specific allograft tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, G.E.; Kimler, B.F.; Thomas, J.H.; Watts, L.M.; Kinnaman, M.L.

    1981-03-01

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (FT-lymphoid-I) plus donor bone marrow (BM) can induce tolerance to skin allografts. In the present study, fractionated total body irradiation (FT-body-I) was studied as an alternative to FT-lymphoid-I. FT-body-I produces less pulmonary and gastrointestinal injury than does single exposure total body irradiation, but because of the decreased capacity of lymphoid tissues to recover from the effects of irradiation between fractions, the effect of FT-body-I on lymphoid cells, when delivered within 24 h, is approximately the same as an equivalent single exposure of total body irradiation. Therefore, FT-body-I, like FT-lymphoid-I, has some selectivity for lymphoid tissues and has the advantage that it can be delivered within the time constraints of ex vivo organ preservation.

  4. Reconstruction of bone defects with impacted allograft in femoral stem revision surgery

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Enrique; Cebrian, Juan-Luis; Marco, Fernando; García-López, Antonio; Serfaty, David; López-Durán, Luis

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective clinical review was done on 54 revision hip patients. Radiological analysis examined the Gross and AAOS classifications, stem position, cement mantles, allograft and evolution (subsidence, resorption and remodelling). The Harris Hip score was used for clinical assessment. We used bone bank allograft and a polished non-collared stem LD. The follow-up period was 60.5 months (19.4–152.4), and the average age 68.5 (range: 22–85). There were 21 females and 33 males. The surgical approach was: lateral (5.56%) posterior (91.4%); trochanteric osteotomy: 25.9%; associated acetabular revision: 59.3%; previous operations: 1.9. The preoperative Harris score was 35 (28–40) and rose to 81 (50–99) postoperatively. The stem alignment was neutral (44.44%), varus (38.89%) and valgus (16.67%). The femur/stem diameter relationship was 1.8 (1.2–2.7). There were no changes in stem alignment in 94.4%. An adequate cement mantle was: proximal zone (61.1%), medium zone (27.8%) and distal zone (16.7%). The rate of any subsidence was 38.9% (progressive: 12.96%). The rate of complications was 40.7% and included periprosthetic fracture: 14.8%; superficial infection: 1.9%; deep late infection: 1.9%; dislocation: 3.7%; heterotopic ossification: 13%. The rate of new stem revision was 16.6%. The clinical and radiological success rate was 77.78%. A greater incidence of revisions has been found in stem malalignment, progressive subsidence, a Harris increase of <20 points, allograft resorption, small diameter stems and inadequate cement mantle. We recommend hard impaction and a cement mantle of at least 2 mm. Non-progressive subsidence does not increase stem loosening. The technique has been useful in recovering bone stock in a severely defective femur and achieves a stable reconstruction. The level of evidence was therapeutic study level III-2 (retrospective cohort study; see the instructions to the authors for a complete description of the levels of evidence). PMID

  5. Histological evaluation of an impacted bone graft substitute composed of a combination of mineralized and demineralized allograft in a sheep vertebral bone defect.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Takaaki; Bauer, Thomas W; Kobayashi, Naomi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Sunwoo, Moon Hae; Seim, Howard B; Turner, A Simon

    2007-09-01

    Demineralized bone matrix (DBMs) preparations are a potential alternative or supplement to autogenous bone graft, but many DBMs have not been adequately tested in clinically relevant animal models. The aim of current study was to compare the efficacy of a new bone graft substitute composed of a combination of mineralized and demineralized allograft, along with hyaluronic acid (AFT Bone Void Filler) with several other bone graft materials in a sheep vertebral bone void model. A drilled defect in the sheep vertebral body was filled with either the new DBM preparation, calcium sulfate (OsteoSet), autologous bone graft, or left empty. The sheep were euthanized after 6 or 12 weeks, and the defects were examined by histology and quantitative histomorphometry. The morphometry data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with the post hoc Tukey-Kramer test or the Student's t-test. All of the bone defects in the AFT DBM preparation group showed good new bone formation with variable amounts of residual DBM and mineralized bone graft. The DBM preparation group at 12 weeks contained significantly more new bone than the defects treated with calcium sulfate or left empty (respectively, p < 0.05, p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the DBM and autograft groups. No adverse inflammatory reactions were associated with any of the three graft materials. The AFT preparation of a mixture of mineralized and demineralized allograft appears to be an effective autograft substitute as tested in this sheep vertebral bone void model.

  6. Arthroscopic Treatment for Shoulder Instability with Glenoid Bone Loss Using Distal Tibia Allograft Augmentation - Short Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ivan; Amar, Eyal; Coady, Catherine M.; Dilman, Daryl B.; Smith, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Background: The results of arthroscopic anterior labral (Bankart) repair have been shown to have high failure rate in patients with significant glenoid bone loss. Several reconstruction procedures using bone graft have been described to overcome the bone loss, including autogenous coracoid transfer to the anterior glenoid (Latarjet procedure) as well as iliac crest autograft and tibial allografts. In recent years, trends toward minimally invasive shoulder surgery along with improvements in technology and technique have led surgeons to expand the application of arthroscopic treatment. Purpose: This study aims to perform a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data to evaluate the clinical and radiological follow up of patient who underwent anatomic glenoid reconstruction using distal tibia allograft for the treatment of shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss at 1-year post operation time point. Methods: Between December 2011 and January 2015, 55 patients underwent arthroscopic stabilization of the shoulder by means of capsule-labral reattachment to glenoid ream and bony augmentation of glenoid bone loss with distal tibial allograft for recurrent instability of the shoulder. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation included general assessment by the western Ontario shoulder instability index (WOSI) questionnaire, preoperative and postoperative radiographs and CT scans. Results: Fifty-five patients have been evaluated with mean age of 29.73 years at time of the index operation. There were 40 males (mean age of 29.66) and 15 female (mean age of 29.93). Minimum follow up time was 12 months. The following adverse effects were recorded: none suffered from recurrent dislocation, 2 patients suffered from bone resorption but without overt instability, 1 patient had malunion due to screw fracture, none of the patients had nonunion. The mean pre-operative WOSI score was 36.54 and the mean postoperative WOSI score was 61.0. Conclusion: Arthroscopic

  7. Histologic healing following tooth extraction with ridge preservation using mineralized versus combined mineralized-demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Borg, Tyler D; Mealey, Brian L

    2015-03-01

    Mineralized and demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (FDBAs) are used in alveolar ridge (AR) preservation; however, each material has advantages and disadvantages. Combinations of allografts aimed at capitalizing on the advantages each offers are available. To date, there is no evidence to indicate if a combination allograft is superior in this application. The primary objective of this study is to histologically evaluate and compare healing of non-molar extraction sites grafted with either mineralized FDBA or a 70:30 mineralized:demineralized FDBA combination allograft in AR preservation. The secondary objective is to compare dimensional changes in ridge height and width after grafting with these two materials. Forty-two patients randomized into two equal groups received ridge preservation with either 100% mineralized FDBA (active control group) or the combination 70% mineralized: 30% demineralized allograft (test group). Sites were allowed to heal for 18 to 20 weeks, at which time core biopsies were obtained and dental implants were placed. AR dimensions were evaluated at the time of extraction and at implant placement, including change in ridge width and change in buccal and lingual ridge height. Histomorphometric analysis was performed to determine percentage of vital bone, residual graft, and connective tissue/other non-bone components. There was no significant difference between groups in AR dimensional changes. Combination allograft produced increased vital bone percentage (36.16%) compared to the FDBA group (24.69%; P = 0.0116). The combination allograft also had a significantly lower mean percentage of residual graft particles (18.24%) compared to FDBA (27.04%; P = 0.0350). This study provides the first histologic evidence showing greater new bone formation with a combination mineralized/demineralized allograft compared to 100% mineralized FDBA in AR preservation in humans. Combination allograft results in increased vital bone formation while

  8. Endoscopic procurement of allograft tympano-ossicular systems: valuable to replace the Schuknecht bone plug technique?

    PubMed

    Caremans, Jeroen; Hamans, Evert; Muylle, Ludo; Van de Heyning, Paul; Van Rompaey, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Recently, our group demonstrated the technical feasibility of allograft tympano-ossicular systems (ATOS) procurement directly through the external auditory canal by using a rigid endoscope. This novel technique has several advantages compared to the traditional transcranial Schuknecht bone plug technique: it avoids contact with the dura mater, it is less time-consuming and it doesn't require a thorough reconstruction of the donor. In our tissue bank, we are currently transitioning from the transcranial procurement technique to the endoscopic procurement technique. The learning curve to master the endoscopic technique is steep but our preliminary results suggest that the percentage of good quality endoscopically procured ATOS is at least similar to the percentage of good quality transcranially procured ATOS dissected from the temporal bone plug. Additionally, the number of donations has increased significantly. By avoiding contact with the dura mater and therefore eliminating the risk of potential prion disease transmission, this technical evolution in procurement technique might allow dedicated tissue banks to (re-)introduce ATOS procurement and implantation.

  9. Fusion rates after thoracoscopic release and bone graft substitutes in idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Weinzapfel, Brett; Son-Hing, Jochen P; Armstrong, Douglas G; Blakemore, Laurel C; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Thompson, George H

    2008-05-01

    A retrospective assessment of fusion rates using either morselized allograft bone or demineralized bone matrix (DBM) following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in idiopathic scoliosis. To compare fusion rates between allograft bone and demineralized bone matrix (Grafton DBM Flex) following VATS using on standard standing lateral spine radiographs. Both VATS and bone graft substitutes are accepted surgical techniques. However, their concomitant use in spinal deformity surgery has not been previously reported. Bone graft substitute has the advantage of decreasing operative time, blood loss, and donor site morbidity associated with autografts. Anterior thoracic discectomies were performed using VATS. Forty patients with 1 year or more follow-up were evaluated-12 with morselized allograft bone (Allograft group) and 28 with folded Grafton DBM Flex (DBM group). Factors analyzed included age, number of anterior levels fused, operative time, anterior perioperative blood loss, curve correction, and fusion rates. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed before surgery and at month, 1 year, and at most recent follow-up. Interbody fusion was assessed on standing lateral radiographs using the Newton et al 4-level grading scale. There were no significant differences in age at surgery, number of anterior vertebral levels fused, anterior operative time per level, anterior intraoperative blood loss, chest tube drainage and duration, or total perioperative anterior blood loss between the 2 groups. Percent curve correction from before surgery to the most recent follow-up were very similar in both Allograft (68%) and DBM groups (67%). At most recent assessment, 60 of 73 disc spaces (82%) in the Allograft group and 100 of 109 disc spaces (92%) in the DBM group were rated as radiographically fused (Newton et al Grade I and II). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.088). No patients were observed to have crankshaft, pseudoarthrosis or

  10. Fabric-mechanical property relationships of trabecular bone allografts are altered by supercritical CO₂ treatment and gamma sterilization.

    PubMed

    Schwiedrzik, J J; Kaudela, K-H; Burner, U; Zysset, P K

    2011-06-01

    Tissue grafts are implanted in orthopedic surgery every day. In order to minimize infection risk, bone allografts are often delipidated with supercritical CO₂ and sterilized prior to implantation. This treatment may, however, impair the mechanical behavior of the bone graft tissue. The goal of this study was to determine clinically relevant mechanical properties of treated/sterilized human trabecular bone grafts, e.g. the apparent modulus, strength, and the ability to absorb energy during compaction. They were compared with results of identical experiments performed previously on untreated/fresh frozen human trabecular bone from the same anatomical site (Charlebois, 2008). We tested the hypothesis that the morphology-mechanical property relationships of treated cancellous allografts are similar to those of fresh untreated bone. The morphology of the allografts was determined by μCT. Subsequently, cylindrical samples were tested in unconfined and confined compression. To account for various morphologies, the experimental data was fitted to phenomenological mechanical models for elasticity, strength, and dissipated energy density based on bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the fabric tensor determined by MIL. The treatment/sterilization process does not appear to influence bone graft stiffness. However, strength and energy dissipation of the bone grafts were found to be significantly reduced by 36% to 47% and 66% to 81%, respectively, for a broad range of volume fraction (0.14bone in monotonic compression. In applications where graft stiffness needs to be matched and strength is not a concern

  11. Comparison between mineralized cancellous bone allograft and an alloplast material for sinus augmentation: A split mouth histomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Kolerman, Roni; Nissan, Joseph; Rahmanov, Marina; Vered, Hana; Cohen, Omer; Tal, Haim

    2017-07-27

    Several grafting materials have been used in sinus augmentation procedures including autogenous bone, demineralized freeze-dried bone, hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate, anorganic deproteinized bovine bone, and combination of these and others. Yet, the issue of the optimal graft material for sinus floor augmentation is controversial. This prospective, randomized split-mouth study was undertaken to histomorphometrically compare a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) alloplastic bone substitute and a human bone mineral allograft (freeze-dried bone allograft, FDBA) in patients undergoing bilateral maxillary lateral sinus floor augmentation. Apico-coronal core biopsies were harvested at 9 months from 26 bilateral sites in 13 treated patients. Specimens were processed for histological and histomorphometrical analyses. Newly formed bone (NB) was evident in all specimens with values of 27.5% and 24.0% at the FDBA and BCP sites, respectively (P = .331). The residual graft particle values were 12.5% and 25.4% (P = .001), and the connective tissue values were 60.0% and 50.6%, respectively. The osteoconductive value was 52.6% for the FDBA and 26.7% for the alloplast (P = .001). The values for the measured residual graft particles, connective tissue, and osteoconductivity, but not for NB, showed highly significant differences between the two groups. All sections in the alloplast material showed evidence of a light chronic inflammatory infiltrate, mainly comprising lymphocytes and multinucleated giant cells. Both graft materials are suitable for sinus floor augmentation, with the allograft material being more osteoconductive. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A biomechanical assessment of superior shoulder translation after reconstruction of anterior glenoid bone defects: The Latarjet procedure versus allograft reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Degen, Ryan M; Giles, Joshua W; Boons, Harm W; Litchfield, Robert B; Johnson, James A; Athwal, George S

    2013-01-01

    The coracoacromial ligament (CAL) is an important restraint to superior shoulder translation. The effect of CAL release on superior stability following the Latarjet is unknown; therefore, our purpose was to compare the effect of two Latarjet techniques and allograft reconstruction on superior instability. Eight cadaveric specimens were tested on a simulator. Superior translation was monitored following an axial force in various glenohumeral rotations (neutral, internal, and external) with and without muscle loading. Three intact CAL states were tested (intact specimen, 30% glenoid bone defect, and allograft reconstruction) and two CAL deficient states (classic Latarjet (classicLAT) and congruent-arc Latarjet (congruentLAT)). In neutral without muscle loading, a significant increase in superior translation occurred with the classicLAT as compared to 30% defect (P = 0.046) and allograft conditions (P = 0.041). With muscle loading, the classicLAT (P = 0.005, 0.002) and the congruentLAT (P = 0.018, 0.021) had significantly greater superior translation compared to intact and allograft, respectively. In internal rotation, only loaded tests produced significant results; specifically, classicLAT increased translation compared to all intact CAL states (P < 0.05). In external rotation, only unloaded tests produced significant results with classicLAT and congruentLAT allowing greater translations than intact (P ≤ 0.028). For all simulations, the allograft was not significantly different than intact (P > 0.05) and no differences (P = 1.0) were found between classicLAT and congruentLAT. In most simulations, CAL release with the Latarjet lead to increased superior humeral translation. The choice of technique for glenoid bone loss reconstruction has implications on the magnitude of superior humeral translation. This previously unknown effect requires further study to determine its clinical and kinematic outcomes.

  13. A biomechanical assessment of superior shoulder translation after reconstruction of anterior glenoid bone defects: The Latarjet procedure versus allograft reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Ryan M.; Giles, Joshua W.; Boons, Harm W.; Litchfield, Robert B.; Johnson, James A.; Athwal, George S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The coracoacromial ligament (CAL) is an important restraint to superior shoulder translation. The effect of CAL release on superior stability following the Latarjet is unknown; therefore, our purpose was to compare the effect of two Latarjet techniques and allograft reconstruction on superior instability. Materials and Methods: Eight cadaveric specimens were tested on a simulator. Superior translation was monitored following an axial force in various glenohumeral rotations (neutral, internal, and external) with and without muscle loading. Three intact CAL states were tested (intact specimen, 30% glenoid bone defect, and allograft reconstruction) and two CAL deficient states (classic Latarjet (classicLAT) and congruent-arc Latarjet (congruentLAT)). Results: In neutral without muscle loading, a significant increase in superior translation occurred with the classicLAT as compared to 30% defect (P = 0.046) and allograft conditions (P = 0.041). With muscle loading, the classicLAT (P = 0.005, 0.002) and the congruentLAT (P = 0.018, 0.021) had significantly greater superior translation compared to intact and allograft, respectively. In internal rotation, only loaded tests produced significant results; specifically, classicLAT increased translation compared to all intact CAL states (P < 0.05). In external rotation, only unloaded tests produced significant results with classicLAT and congruentLAT allowing greater translations than intact (P ≤ 0.028). For all simulations, the allograft was not significantly different than intact (P > 0.05) and no differences (P = 1.0) were found between classicLAT and congruentLAT. Discussion: In most simulations, CAL release with the Latarjet lead to increased superior humeral translation. Conclusion: The choice of technique for glenoid bone loss reconstruction has implications on the magnitude of superior humeral translation. This previously unknown effect requires further study to determine its clinical and kinematic

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on the initial mechanical and material properties of goat bone-patellar tendon-bone allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, M.J.; Butler, D.L.; Grood, E.S.; Bylski-Austrow, D.I.; Levy, M.S.; Noyes, F.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation on the initial mechanical properties of the composite bone-patellar tendon-bone unit (CU) and the tendon midsubstance (TM) were studied. Frozen specimens were exposed to either 2 or 3 Mrad of gamma irradiation. Paired frozen specimens served as intraanimal controls. Treatment effects on the CU were assessed using four mechanical parameters. Effects on the TM were assessed using four material parameters measured using an optical surface-strain analysis system. The maximum force and strain energy to maximum force of the composite unit were significantly reduced 27% and 40%, respectively, after 3 Mrad of irradiation (p less than .05). Mechanical properties of the CU were not significantly altered, however, following 2 Mrad of irradiation. Based on individual paired contrasts between treatment and control, significant differences were also found in the material properties of the tendon midsubstance. The maximum stress, maximum strain, and strain energy density to maximum stress were significantly reduced following 3 Mrad, but not 2 Mrad, of irradiation. The results provide important time zero material property data, which will be useful for later anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction studies using irradiated allograft patellar tendons in the goat model and other animal models as well.

  15. Development and validation of new model for microvascular transplantation of epiphyseal plate allografts with minimal adjoining epiphyseal and metaphyseal bone.

    PubMed

    Bray, Peter W; Neligan, Peter C; Bowen, C Vaughan A; Danska, Jayne S; Boyer, Martin I

    2003-01-01

    A model for the free allograft microvascular transplantation of rabbit proximal tibial epiphyseal plate allografts was developed, validated, and tested in an in vivo animal model. Transplants contained the minimum amount of adjacent epiphyseal and metaphyseal bone compatible with preservation of the epiphyseal-plate vascular supply, as determined by corrosion casting. Perfusion to this graft was evaluated quantitatively using radioactive microspheres, and qualitatively using India-ink injection. Female New Zealand White rabbits at 12 weeks of age were utilized. Vascularized transplantation of epiphyseal plate allografts was performed either into a defect of matched size in the iliac crest or into a soft-tissue pocket without bone contact. Cyclosporine A immunosuppression (CSA) was administered daily for 6 weeks. Two control groups underwent identical surgical procedures, but had no postoperative immunosuppression. Epiphyseal plates both with and without bone contact, in rabbits immunosuppressed postoperatively with CSA, demonstrated longitudinal growth and preserved viability as determined by positive bromodeoxyuridine uptake. Control epiphyseal plates transferred without postoperative immunosuppression were uniformly nonviable. This new model has value as a basis for further studies into the clinical applicability of isolated epiphyseal-plate transplants.

  16. The use of bone block allografts in sinus augmentation, followed by delayed implant placement: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Aloja, Eurico D.; Ricci, Massimiliano; Caso, Guerino; Santi, Enrico; Paolo, Tonelli; Antono, Barone; Covani, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article reports the clinical outcomes observed in a large number of patients receiving block bone allograft used for sinus augmentation and delayed implant placement. Patients and Methods: In total, 28 patients (13 males) with a mean age of 49.8 ± 10.1 years (range: 33-67 years) were included in this case series. All selected patients suffered from severe alveolar ridge atrophy in the posterior maxilla and required bone augmentation procedures, followed by implant placement after 6 months. All patients were followed for 18 months after the grafting, with scheduled monthly visits and/or more frequent visits if required. The survival rates for both the bone blocks and placed implants were then evaluated. Results: A total of 42 blocks and 90 implants were placed. Only one bone graft and 5 implants failed; the survival rate was 97.2% and 95.5% for the bone grafts and implants, respectively. The graft failed due to the onset of post-surgical infectious sinusitis, while in some patients’ implants showed absence of osteointegration at the end of the healing phase. Of note, all failed implants were observed in heavy smokers; in all other patients, blocks and implants were successful. Conclusions: This preliminary case series suggests that the grafting of bone allograft followed by delayed implant placement may be a promising strategy for sinus augmentation. More extended and larger follow-up studies are needed to confirm this preliminary data. PMID:23853446

  17. No red cell alloimmunization or change of clinical outcome after using fresh frozen cancellous allograft bone for acetabular reconstruction in revision hip arthroplasty: a follow up study.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Falk; Straub, Matthias; Schäfer, Richard; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2012-09-25

    Possible immunization to blood group or other antigens and subsequent inhibition of remodeling or incorporation after use of untreated human bone allograft was described previously. This study presents the immunological, clinical and radiological results of 30 patients with acetabular revisions using fresh frozen non-irradiated bone allograft. AB0-incompatible (donor-recipient) bone transplantation was performed in 22 cases, Rh(D) incompatible transplantation in 6 cases. The mean follow up of 23 months included measuring Harris hip score and radiological examination with evaluation of remodeling of the bone graft, implant migration and heterotopic ossification. In addition, all patients were screened for alloimmunization to Rh blood group antigens. Compared to the whole study group, there were no differences in clinical or radiological measurements for the groups with AB0- or Rh(D)-incompatible bone transplantation. The mean Harris Hip Score was 80.6. X-rays confirmed total remodeling of all allografts with no acetabular loosening. At follow up, blood tests revealed no alloimmunization to Rh blood group donor antigens. The use of fresh frozen non-irradiated bone allograft in acetabular revision is a reliable supplement to reconstruction. The risk of alloimmunization to donor-blood group antigens after AB0- or Rh-incompatible allograft transplantation with a negative long-term influence on bone-remodeling or the clinical outcome is negligible.

  18. Intra-operative washing of morcellised bone allograft with pulse lavage: how effective is it in reducing blood and marrow content?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, T; Qureshi, A; McQuillan, T A; Thomson, J; Galea, G; Power, R A

    2012-03-01

    The use of unprocessed bone carries a risk of transmission of blood borne diseases. Although models of infectivity are unproven, a theoretical risk of transmission of variant Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease, a human prion disease, exists as probable blood borne transmission has been reported in three cases. The aim of our study was to determine the effectiveness of standard operating theatre pulse lavage in removing protein, fat and double stranded Deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) from morcellised bone allograft. Twelve donated femoral heads were divided into halves and milled into bone chips. One half of the bone chips were washed with pulse lavage, whereas, the other half acted as control. In order to determine the amount of protein, fat and dsDNA present in the washed and unwashed samples, a validated multistep washing protocol was used. Using the validated technique, simple intra-operative washing of morcellised unprocessed bone allograft removed a significant amount of the protein (70.5%, range: 39.5-85%), fat (95.2%, range: 87.8-98.8%) and DNA (68.4%, range: 31.4-93.1%) content. Intra-operative washing of morcellised bone allograft with pulse lavage may thereby reduce the theoretical risk of prion and other blood borne disease transmission. Combined with the known improved mechanical characteristics of washed allograft, we would recommend pulse lavage as a routine part of bone allograft preparation.

  19. Development of a cyclosporin-A-induced immune tolerant rat model to test marrow allograft cell type effects on bone repair.

    PubMed

    Espitalier, Florent; Durand, Nicolas; Rémy, Séverine; Corre, Pierre; Sourice, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Weiss, Pierre; Guicheux, Jérôme; Malard, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    Bone repair is an important concept in tissue engineering, and the ability to repair bone in hypotrophic conditions such as that of irradiated bone, represents a challenge for this field. Previous studies have shown that a combination of bone marrow and (BCP) was effective to repair irradiated bone. However, the origin and role played by each cell type in bone healing still remains unclear. In order to track the grafted cells, the development of an animal model that is immunotolerant to an allograft of bone marrow would be useful. Furthermore, because the immune system interacts with bone turnover, it is of critical importance to demonstrate that immunosuppressive drugs do not interfere with bone repair. After a preliminary study of immunotolerance, cyclosporin-A was chosen to be used in immunosuppressive therapy. Ten rats were included to observe qualitative and quantitative bone repair 8 days and 6 weeks after the creation of bone defects. The defects were filled with an allograft of bone marrow alone or in association with BCP under immunosuppressive treatment (cyclosporin-A). The results showed that there was no significant interaction of cyclosporin-A with osseous regeneration. The use of this new immunotolerant rat model of bone marrow allograft in future studies will provide insight on how the cells within the bone marrow graft contribute to bone healing, especially in irradiated conditions.

  20. Reconstruction of compound loss of lateral malleolus and lateral ankle ligaments with double-bundle Achilles tendon-bone allograft.

    PubMed

    Ko, Dukhwan; Jung, Hong-Geun; Kim, Hyeung-June; Cha, Seung-Han; Nam, Kyoung-Mo

    2014-01-01

    Open ankle fracture, including compound loss of the lateral malleolus, lateral ankle ligaments, and overlying skin, is a severe injury and can result in ankle instability and permanent disability. Treatment of this injury is challenging and requires bone grafting and soft tissue reconstruction. In the present report, we describe a unique reconstruction technique for compound loss of the lateral malleolus, lateral ankle ligaments, and the overlying skin using a double-bundle Achilles tendon-bone allograft combined with a reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap. The patient obtained a stable ankle with nearly full range of motion and displayed satisfactory function during the follow-up period.

  1. Cardiac allograft acceptance after localized bone marrow transplantation by isolated limb perfusion in nonmyeloablated recipients.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, Nadir; Yolcu, Esma S; Shirwan, Haval; Wang, Zhiliang; Farkas, Daniel L; Yoleuk, Esma S

    2003-01-01

    Donor-specific tolerance to cardiac grafts may be induced by hematopoietic chimerism. This study evaluates the potential of localized bone marrow transplantation (BMT) performed by isolated limb (IL) perfusion to induce tolerance to secondary cardiac grafts without myeloablative conditioning. BALB/c recipients (H2d) preconditioned with lethal and sublethal doses of busulfan were injected i.v. and IL with 10(7) whole bone marrow cells (wBMCs) from B10 donors (H2(b)). Two hours after IL infusion of PKH-labeled wBMCs into myeloablated hosts, there were few labeled cells in the host peripheral blood (p < 0.001 versus i.v.) and femurs of the infused limb contained 57% +/- 7% PKH-labeled blasts (p < 0.001 versus 8% +/- 0.6% after i.v.). Femurs of the noninfused limbs contained 60-70 PKH-labeled blasts (p < 0.001 versus i.v.-BMT) after 2 days and 47% +/- 5% of 0.32 x 10(7) donor cells (p < 0.001 versus 78% +/- 4% of 1.2 x 10(7) donor cells in infused femurs) after 4 weeks. The survival rates of myeloablated hosts were 90% and 80% after i.v. and IL infusion, respectively, and the chimeras had 78%-84% donor peripheral blood cells. In recipients conditioned with 35 mg/g busulfan, the levels of donor chimerism in peripheral blood were 33% +/- 4% and 21% +/- 4% at 3 weeks after i.v.- and IL-BMT, respectively. Transplantation of donor-matched (H2(b)) secondary vascularized hearts in these chimeras after 3 weeks resulted in graft survival for periods exceeding 8 weeks, while third-party (H2(k)) allografts were acutely rejected (p < 0.001 versus H2(b)). These data indicate that IL perfusion is a reliable alternative procedure for establishment of hematopoietic chimerism and donor-specific tolerance without myeloablative conditioning.

  2. The role of stainless steel wire mesh and cement in bone allograft incorporation in impaction grafting technique: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Roidis, Nikolaos; Karachalios, Theofilos; Khaldi, Lubna; Stamos, Konstantinos; Lyritis, George P

    2003-06-01

    Cages of flexible stainless steel wire mesh were filled with impacted morcellized cancellous allograft. Bone defects were created in both tibial metaphyseal regions of 10 adult white New Zealand rabbits. The base of both defects was plugged with a small amount of bone cement. The cages were implanted in the right tibia while the left tibia was filled with impacted bone allograft. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of the retrieved specimens at 3 months showed a statistically significant difference in active bone formation parameters between the 2 groups. Active bone formation was more prominent away from the bone cement. The biological process of bone graft incorporation in the "impaction grafting" technique seems to be adversely affected by stainless steel wire mesh and in areas adjacent to bone cement.

  3. Retesting of bone donors 2 months after donation guarantees sufficient safety of bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Hirn, M Y; Krusius, T

    1998-12-01

    Both allogeneic bone grafting and blood transfusion may transmit infections from the donor to the recipient. The most effective means to reduce the risk of infection is careful donor selection and screening of donors for markers of infection. The risk of blood transfusion-transmitted HIV infection in Finland, calculated with the incidence/window period model, is approximately 1:3,300,000. The calculated risk for hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) is 1:217,000 and 1:147,000 donations, respectively. In bone banking we can further reduce the risks by retesting the living donors. Retesting 2 months after donation seems to be sufficient, at least in countries with a low incidence of transplantation-transmitted infections.

  4. Assay method for polymer-controlled antibiotic release from allograft bone to target orthopaedic infections - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Sevy, Justin O; Slawson, Matthew H; Grainger, David W; Brooks, Amanda E

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate and circumvent orthopaedic-associated infection, systematic oral and parenteral antibiotic therapy is often used; however, efficacy is limited due to dosing, systemic side-effects, patient compliance, effective delivery, treatment length, and resistant bacteria. A more effective method may be sustained local drug delivery of antibiotics at the wound site, using delivery vehicles that control release rates. In the case of bone for example, this could be clinically familiar bone graft. Unfortunately, without a rate-control strategy, local antibiotic delivery from allograft displays a prominent burst release: a large amount of drug payload is released as a bolus within 72 hours and depleted. Although his offers effective immediate killing, persitor bacteria remain an infection risk. Notably, drug resistance is a problem at reduced antibiotic levels. To allow better local dosing modulation, a degradable polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer allograft coating is used to modulate local delivery of the antibiotic, tobramycin. This polymer/antibiotic hybrid coats the porous structure of the cancellous bone graft, providing a substantial drug reservoir and allowing controlled release of antibiotic over extended time. PCL/tobramycin-coated bone fragments of different PCL molecular weights and variable drug loads are assayed in vitro for drug release. Tobramycin concentration is determined based on derivatization of its 5 primary amine groups with a fluorescent reagent, phthaldialdehyde (OPA). Tobramycin concentrations in release media can be calculated based on a standard curve with a reasonable accuracy and dynamic range.

  5. The revitalisation of flexor tendon allografts with bone marrow stromal cells and mechanical stimulation: An ex vivo model revitalising flexor tendon allografts.

    PubMed

    Wu, J H; Thoreson, A R; Gingery, A; An, K N; Moran, S L; Amadio, P C; Zhao, C

    2017-03-01

    , mechanical stimulation of a cell-seeded tendon can promote cell proliferation and enhance expression of collagen types I and III in vitro.Cite this article: J. H. Wu, A. R. Thoreson, A. Gingery, K. N. An, S. L. Moran, P. C. Amadio, C. Zhao. The revitalisation of flexor tendon allografts with bone marrow stromal cells and mechanical stimulation: An ex vivo model revitalising flexor tendon allografts. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:179-185. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.63.BJR-2016-0207.R1. © 2017 Zhao et al.

  6. Clinical and Histomorphometric Assessment of Lateral Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Using a Corticocancellous Freeze-Dried Allograft Bone Block.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Roya Shariatmadar; Sayar, Ferena; Rakhshan, Vahid; Iranpour, Babak; Jahanbani, Jahanfar; Toumaj, Ahmad; Akhoondi, Nasrin

    2017-06-01

    Horizontal ridge augmentation with allografts has attracted notable attention because of its proper success rate and the lack of disadvantages of autografts. Corticocancellous block allografts have not been adequately studied in humans. Therefore, this study clinically and histomorphometrically evaluated the increase in ridge width after horizontal ridge augmentation using corticocancellous block allografts as well as implant success after 12 to 18 months after implantation. In 10 patients receiving implants (3 women, 7 men; mean age = 45 years), defective maxillary alveolar ridges were horizontally augmented using freeze-dried bone allograft blocks. Ridge widths were measured before augmentation, immediately after augmentation, and ∼6 months later in the reentry surgery for implantation. This was done at points 2 mm (A) and 5 mm (B) apically to the crest. Biopsy cores were acquired from the implantation site. Implant success was assessed 15.1 ± 2.7 months after implantation (range = 12-18 months). Data were analyzed using Friedman and Dunn tests (α = 0.05). At point A, ridge widths were 2.77 ± 0.37, 8.02 ± 0.87, and 6.40 ± 0.66 mm, respectively, before surgery, immediately after surgery, and before implantation. At point B, ridge widths were 3.40 ± 0.39, 9.35 ± 1.16, and 7.40 ± 1.10 mm, respectively, before surgery, immediately after surgery, and before implantation. The Friedman test showed significant increases in ridge widths, both at point A and point B (both P = .0000). Postaugmentation resorption was about 1.5-2 mm and was statistically significant at points A and B (P < .05, Dunn). The percentage of newly formed bone, residual graft material, and soft tissue were 33.0% ± 11.35% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 24.88%-41.12%), 37.50% ± 19.04% (95% CI = 23.88%-51.12%), and 29.5%, respectively. The inflammation was limited to grades 1 or zero. Twelve to 18 months after implantation, no implants caused pain or showed exudates or pockets. Radiographic

  7. Dental Implant Placement with Simultaneous Anterior Maxillary Reconstruction with Block and Particulate Fresh Frozen Allograft Bone: A Case Report with 24-Month Follow-Up Data.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J S; Brandão-Filho, E M; Deliberador, F R; Zielak, J C; Giovanini, A F; Deliberador, T M

    2017-01-01

    Fresh frozen allograft bone is routinely used in orthopedic surgery for the reconstruction of large bone defects, and its use in oral and maxillofacial surgery is increasing. The purpose of this case was to demonstrate the installation of dental implants and the use of fresh frozen bone for reconstruction of anterior maxilla in the same surgery. This case report presents the insertion of dental implants followed immediately by a placement of fresh frozen allograft in block and particle for a reconstruction of atrophic anterior maxillary in the same surgery. Ten months subsequent to this procedure, provisional fixed prosthesis was installed on the implants. Four months later (postoperative month 14), the final fixed prosthesis was installed and the clinical success was observed. The insertion of dental implants followed immediately by a placement of fresh frozen allograft is a safe and efficient process that results in the successful return of dental function and aesthetic rehabilitation for the patient.

  8. Dental Implant Placement with Simultaneous Anterior Maxillary Reconstruction with Block and Particulate Fresh Frozen Allograft Bone: A Case Report with 24-Month Follow-Up Data

    PubMed Central

    Brandão-Filho, E. M.; Deliberador, F. R.; Giovanini, A. F.; Deliberador, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Fresh frozen allograft bone is routinely used in orthopedic surgery for the reconstruction of large bone defects, and its use in oral and maxillofacial surgery is increasing. The purpose of this case was to demonstrate the installation of dental implants and the use of fresh frozen bone for reconstruction of anterior maxilla in the same surgery. This case report presents the insertion of dental implants followed immediately by a placement of fresh frozen allograft in block and particle for a reconstruction of atrophic anterior maxillary in the same surgery. Ten months subsequent to this procedure, provisional fixed prosthesis was installed on the implants. Four months later (postoperative month 14), the final fixed prosthesis was installed and the clinical success was observed. The insertion of dental implants followed immediately by a placement of fresh frozen allograft is a safe and efficient process that results in the successful return of dental function and aesthetic rehabilitation for the patient. PMID:28299226

  9. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of defects in the wall of the orbit of children and adults using demineralized bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Ryabov, Alexey; Lekishvili, Mikhail

    2016-09-01

    Accuracy of diagnosis defines the quality of treatment in patients with traumatic damage to eyelet walls. In this area, complex functional and anatomical breaches are typical and require full characterization of pathological changes in bone and soft tissue structures. A new plastic material with a high degree level of demineralization called "Perfoost" can be used to treat defects in the bones of the face of children and adults. In the present study, 79 patients with fractured eyelet walls were treated between 1999 and 2006 by grafting the defect wall with demineralized bone allografts. Grafts were applied from 2 days to 18 months after trauma. Magnetic resonance computer CT was used to check the realignment of allografts every 6 months after the reconstructive operation. The post-operative period of the observation was from 6 months to 7 years after the operation. Good or satisfactory results were obtained for 97.47 % of patients.

  10. Survivorship Analysis of Eighty Revised Hip Arthroplasties With the Impaction Grafting Technique Using Whole Femoral Head Allografts With the Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Fadulelmola, Ahmed; Drampalos, Efstathios; Hodgkinson, John; Hemmady, Mukesh

    2017-06-01

    Acetabular impaction bone grafting aims to restore anatomy in hip revision surgery. This is an effective but expensive and time-consuming technique. Usually, the articular cartilage is removed from the femoral head allograft. We aimed to reproduce the same results retaining the cartilage of the allograft. Eighty acetabular revisions using impacted morselized bone graft retaining the articular cartilage and a cemented cup were studied retrospectively. Six were lost during follow-up. The mean follow-up was 6.5 years (range 1-13). Clinical and radiological assessment was made using the Oxford Hip Score, Hodgkinson's criteria for socket loosening, and the Gie classification for evaluation of allograft incorporation. Sixty-three sockets (85.1%) were considered radiologically stable (type 0, 1, and 2 demarcations), 8 (10.8%) were radiologically loose (type 3), and 3 (4.1%) presented with migration. Fifty-one (68.9%) cases showed good trabecular remodeling (grade 3), 20 (27%) showed trabecular incorporation (grade 2), and 3 (4.1%) showed poor allograft incorporation. Mean preoperative hip score was 43 and postoperative score was 28. Six (8.1%) cases presented heterotopic ossification around the revised implants, 2 patients (2.7%) had periprosthetic fractures, and 4 (5.4%) had dislocations. The Kaplan-Meier survivorship at a mean of 6.5 years with revision of the cup for any reason was 95.9% (95% confidence interval 5.6-7.5). The mid-term results of our technique are promising. Particularly when the supply of fresh-frozen allografts and surgical time is limited, using whole femoral head with articular cartilage is both safe and effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-complementary AAV2.5-BMP2-coated Femoral Allografts Mediated Superior Bone Healing Versus Live Autografts in Mice With Equivalent Biomechanics to Unfractured Femur

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Cemal; Takahata, Masahiko; Reynolds, David G; Xie, Chao; Samulski, R Jude; Samulski, Jade; Beecham, E Jeffrey; Gertzman, Arthur A; Spilker, Mark; Zhang, Xinping; O'Keefe, Regis J; Awad, Hani A; Schwarz, Edward M

    2011-01-01

    Structural allografts used for critical bone defects have limited osteogenic properties for biointegration. Although ex vivo tissue-engineered constructs expressing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) have demonstrated efficacy in critical defect models, similar success has not been achieved with off-the-shelf acellular approaches, including allografts coated with freeze-dried single-stranded adeno-associated virus (ssAAV-BMP2). To see whether the self-complementary AAV serotype 2.5 vector (scAAV2.5-BMP2) could overcome this, we performed side-by-side comparisons in vitro and in the murine femoral allograft model. Although ssAAV-BMP2 was unable to induce BMP2 expression and differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells in culture, scAAV2.5-BMP2 transduction led to dose-dependent BMP2 expression and alkaline phosphatase activity, and displayed a 25-fold increased transduction efficiency in vivo. After 6 weeks, the ssAAV-BMP2 coating failed to demonstrate any significant effects. However, all allografts coated with 1010 scAAV2.5-BMP2 formed a new cortical shell that was indistinguishable to that formed by live autografts. Additionally, coated allografts experienced reduced resorption resulting in a threefold increase in graft bone volume versus autograft. This led to biomechanical superiority versus both allografts and autografts, and equivalent torsional rigidity to unfractured femur. Collectively, these results demonstrate that scAAV2.5-BMP2 coating overcomes the major limitations of structural allografts, which can be used to heal critical defects of any size. PMID:21206485

  12. Subcutaneous emphysema of the leg after hardware removal and bone allografting for infected non-union of the distal femur.

    PubMed

    Denaro, Vincenzo; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Candela, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-08-15

    Infected non-unions of the supracondylar region of the femur are uncommon. Even though hardware removal is a common procedure, it may lead to complications, including neurovascular injury, refracture, worsening pain or recurrence of deformity. We report on a male who developed subcutaneous emphysema of the leg after hardware removal and bone allografting for an infected non-union of the distal femur. He was managed by debridement of the surgical wound, antibiotic therapy, multiple fasciotomies, and application of a VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) system. Although subcutaneous emphysema of the leg after hardware removal and bone allografting for infected non-union of the distal femur is extremely rare, the potential life treating complications and their potential impact on the functional status of the patient have to be taken into consideration when counseling patients about this procedure. Even when it is not possible to identify a bacterial pathogen responsible for the subcutaneous emphysema of the leg, prompt intervention may save the limb of the patient.

  13. Bone graft

    MedlinePlus

    Autograft - bone; Allograft - bone; Fracture - bone graft; Surgery - bone graft; Autologous bone graft ... Fuse joints to prevent movement Repair broken bones (fractures) that have bone loss Repair injured bone that ...

  14. Socket preservation using freeze-dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factors in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Samandari, Mohammad Hasan; Haghighat, Abbas; Torabinia, Nakisa; Taghian, Mehdi; Sadri, Leyli; Naemy, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) and freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) are shown to promote bone healing. This study was aimed to histologically and histomorphometrically investigate the effect of combined use of PRGF and FDBA on bone formation, and compare it to FDBA alone and control group. Materials and Methods: The distal roots of the lower premolars were extracted bilaterally in four female dogs. Sockets were randomly divided into FDBA + PRGF, FDBA, and control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 4 weeks. Sockets were assessed histologically and histomorphometrically. Data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis test followed by Mann–Whitney U-tests utilizing the SPSS software version 20. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: While the difference in density of fibrous tissue in three groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.343), the bone density in grafted groups was significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.021). The least decrease in all socket dimensions was observed in the FDBA group. However, these differences were only significant in coronal portion at week 4. Regarding socket dimensions and bone density, the difference between FDBA and FDBA+PRGF groups was not significant in middle and apical portions. Conclusion: The superiority of PRGF+FDBA overFDBA in socket preservation cannot be concluded from this experiment. PMID:27857769

  15. Allograft arthrodesis treatment of bone tumors: a two-center study.

    PubMed

    Donati, D; Giacomini, S; Gozzi, E; Salphale, Y; Mercuri, M; Mankin, Henry J; Springfield, Dempsy S; Gebhardt, Mark C

    2002-07-01

    The current study consists of an outcome review of a consecutive series of 92 patients with knee arthrodesis using an allograft, done for malignant or aggressive tumors in two centers on different continents during a period of 18 years (mean followup, 5 +/- 4 years). The data were compiled by creating a computerized file using the information provided by both centers. Seventy-five of the patients (81%) had high-grade nonmetastatic tumors (Stage II), mostly osteosarcoma. In addition seven (8%) had metastases at outset (Stage III) and the remaining 10 (11%) had benign disease, mostly giant cell tumor or revision procedures for failed allograft or total joint replacement. Seventy-two patients (78%) had distal femoral lesions (78%) whereas the proximal tibia was the site of the tumor in 20 patients (22%). The average age of the patients was 23 +/- 16 years; 51 were males and 41 were females. Tumor complications were a major problem for patients in the series. Thirty-four percent of the patients died, 47% had metastases develop, and 9% had a local recurrence. Allograft complications included an infection rate of 20%, a fracture rate of 25%, and a nonunion rate of 44%. Repeat surgery was required for more than 50% of the patients with 26 requiring one additional operation, 11 requiring two, and 10 requiring three or more operations. Nineteen of the patients required an amputation (20%), only four of which were for recurrent tumor. When these data were compared with data for a control series of 880 patients with allografts other than allograft arthrodeses, the complications were greater and the outcome less successful, suggesting that other approaches should be considered unless there are special indications for this procedure.

  16. Efficacy of combined therapy of periosteum and bone allograft in a critical-sized defect model in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; Huang, Dong; Huang, Yongjun; Liu, Yuanhang; Lin, Bochuan; Yu, Chaoqun; Mou, Yong; Wu, Weichi; Zhang, Huiru; Lin, Hao

    2014-11-23

    Large segmental bone defects caused by trauma, infection, or bone tumor resection are difficult to cure and have been a problem in the field of bone repair for decades. The objective of this study was to discuss the efficacy of combined therapy of free periosteum and bone allograft in treating bone defects and to provide a theoretical basis for clinical application of this therapy. A unilateral tibia cortical defect model in New Zealand white rabbits was established according to Girolamo method. Total 48 rabbits were randomized into 3 groups: a simple bone defect group (n=16), an autogenous bone graft group (n=16), and a periosteum and bone allograft combined therapy group (n=16). The efficacy was evaluated by imaging inspections and scoring, HE staining, and RT-PCR in postoperative weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. The results of imaging and histopathological inspections in the study indicated that in postoperative weeks 4, 8, and 12 the experimental and control groups had statistically significant differences in Lane-Sandhu radiographic scoring and relative bone density when compared with the simple bone defect group (P<0.05). The RT-PCR results suggested that the expression of SPP-1, BMP-2, and VEGF in the experimental group was higher than in the control group (P<0.05) and the expression of Col Ia1 in the control group was higher than in the experimental group (P<0.05). Efficacies of the combined therapy (periosteum combined with bone allografting) and the criterion standard therapy (autogenous bone grafting) are equivalent in treating bone defects in New Zealand white rabbits.

  17. Placement of implants in an ossifying fibroma defect obliterated with demineralized, freeze-dried bone allograft and Plasma-rich growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Umashankar; Mishra, Niraj

    2012-01-01

    There has been considerable clinical interest in combining the grafts, particularly bone allografts for support for dental implants, soft-tissue support, periodontal maintenance, and ovate pontic formation. The use of demineralized, freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) offers certain advantages over other graft materials and can avoid the need for a second-site surgery for autogenous donor bone. The advantages of DFDBA include handling properties, osteoinductivity, membrane tenting, and less susceptibility to migration after placement. This article will review available grafting materials and demonstrate a case of ossifying fibroma of the mandible, which was treated by curettage and hollow cavity filled with DFDBA. Six months follow-up period showed successful graft result and this grafted bone form was utilized for implant supported prosthesis. PMID:23633812

  18. A clinical and histomorphometric study of calcium sulfate compared with freeze-dried bone allograft for alveolar ridge preservation.

    PubMed

    Toloue, Samira M; Chesnoiu-Matei, Ioana; Blanchard, Steven B

    2012-07-01

    Many materials have been found to be effective in ridge preservation. The purpose of this study is to determine whether calcium sulfate (CS) is as effective as freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) in preserving postextraction ridge dimensions and to evaluate the amount of new bone formation and graft clearance through histologic analysis. Thirty-one extraction sites were selected. Postextraction clinical measurements were made, and sites were divided randomly into the test group (CS) or the control group (FDBA). After graft placement, all individuals received the same postoperative treatment and instructions. Participants were recalled after 3 months, measurements were made, and sites were re-entered. Bone samples were harvested and analyzed with histologic methodology for new bone formation and remaining residual graft. Thirteen test and 15 control sites were evaluated. There was no significant change in vertical ridge height before or after surgery within the test and control groups (P = 0.57, P = 0.68, respectively). There was a significant decrease in bucco-lingual ridge width for both groups (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0075, respectively), but the difference between groups was not significant (P = 0.11). Histologic analysis revealed an average of 32% new bone formation with 2.5% graft remaining for the test group and 16.7% new bone formation with 21% graft remaining for the control. Results indicate that CS is as effective as FDBA in preserving postextraction ridge dimensions in non-molar extraction sites. There is greater clearance of CS with more new bone formation after ≈3 months compared with FDBA in these sites. This paper received the Maynard K. Hine Award for Excellence in Dental Research presented by the Indiana Section of the American Association for Dental Research and supported by Procter & Gamble.

  19. Implication of Ia-positive bone marrow interstitial stem cells in the induction of unresponsiveness to canine renal allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Rapaport, F.T.; Arnold, A.N.; Asari, H.; Sato, K.; Miura, S.; Chanana, A.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1987-02-01

    The removal from stored autologous host bone marrow of a monocytoid cell population by exposure to methylprednisolone is associated with successful introduction of unresponsiveness to renal allografts in irradiated recipients reconstituted with such treated marrow. The eliminated cells are a prominent component of the canine long bone marrow interstitium and share a number of important properties with dendritic cells (DC), including size and shape; poor or nonadherence to plastic or glass surfaces; negative staining for neutral esterase, acid phosphatase, or peroxidase; nonphagocytic; Ia positive, but negative for IgG or IgM; ability to act as accessory cells in augmenting the intensity of allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reactions. Both cell types are of bone marrow origin and are susceptible to steroids in vitro. The results suggest that the bone marrow interstitial cells identified in the course of this study may be enriched with populations of canine dendritic cell precursors and dendritic cells at various stages of differentiation. The detection of a receptor site for Helix promatia on the surface of such cells may be of usefulness in their further characterization and in the analysis of their precise role in the modulation of allogeneic unresponsiveness.

  20. Vertical ridge augmentation of the atrophic posterior mandible with sandwich technique: bone block from the chin area versus corticocancellous bone block allograft--clinical and histological prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Laino, Luigi; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Cicciù, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the histological aspects of bone formation in atrophic posterior mandibles augmented by autologous bone block from chin area with corticocancellous bone block allograft used as inlays with the sandwich technique. Sixteen patients with bilateral partial edentulism in the posterior mandible were selected. The residual bone height, preliminarily measured by computed tomography scans, ranged between 5 and 7 mm from the inferior alveolar nerve. All patients required regeneration procedure with autologous bone block from chin area (control group) versus bone block allograft Puros (Zimmer Dental, 1900 Aston Avenue, Carlsbad, CA, USA) (test group). Histological and histomorphometric samples were collected at the time of implant positioning in order to analyze the percentage of newly formed bone, the residual graft material, and marrow spaces/soft tissue. No statistically significant differences between the two groups were found regarding the percentage of newly formed bone. The percentage of residual grafted material was significantly higher in the test group, whilst the percentage of marrow spaces was higher in control group. In conclusion, both procedures supported good results, although the use of bone blocks allograft was less invasive and preferable than harvesting bone from the mental symphysis.

  1. Bone cysts after osteochondral allograft repair of cartilage defects in goats suggest abnormal interaction between subchondral bone and overlying synovial joint tissues.

    PubMed

    Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D; Sah, Robert L

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCAs) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12months in vivo. The objectives of this study were to further analyze OCAs and contralateral non-operated (Non-Op) CONTROLS from the medial femoral condyle to (1) determine the effect of OCA storage on local subchondral bone (ScB) and trabecular bone (TB) structure, (2) characterize the location and structure of bone cysts and channels, and (3) assess the relationship between cartilage and bone properties. (1) Overall bone structure after OCAs was altered compared to Non-Op, with OCA samples displaying bone cysts, ScB channels, and ScB roughening. ScB BV/TV in FROZEN OCAs was lower than Non-Op and other OCAs. TB BV/TV in FRESH, 4°C/14d, and 4°C/28d OCAs did not vary compared to Non-Op, but BS/TV was lower. (2) OCAs contained "basal" cysts, localized to deeper regions, some "subchondral" cysts, localized near the bone-cartilage interface, and some ScB channels. TB surrounding basal cysts exhibited higher BV/TV than Non-Op. (3) Basal cysts occurred (a) in isolation, (b) with subchondral cysts and ScB channels, (c) with ScB channels, or (d) with subchondral cysts, ScB channels, and ScB erosion. Deterioration of cartilage gross morphology was strongly associated with abnormal μCT bone structure. Evidence of cartilage-bone communication following OCA repair may favor fluid intrusion as a mechanism for subchondral cyst formation, while bone resorption at the graft-host interface without affecting overall bone and cartilage structure may favor bony contusion mechanism for basal cyst formation. These

  2. Bipolar Bone Loss of the Shoulder Joint due to Recurrent Instability: Use of Fresh Osteochondral Distal Tibia and Humeral Head Allografts.

    PubMed

    Haber, Daniel B; Sanchez, Anthony; Sanchez, George; Ferrari, Marcio B; Ferdousian, Sami; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    With increasing shoulder instability events, the likelihood of a bony lesion of the glenoid and/or humeral head rises. Although bone loss of either the glenoid or humeral head may result in recurrent instability, bipolar lesions have been shown, in particular, to result in a negative and additive effect on glenohumeral stability. In the case of a bipolar lesion comprising severe glenoid bone loss and an engaging, "off-track" Hill-Sachs lesion, the bony foundation of the glenohumeral joint is compromised and bony augmentation is necessary. We present our preferred technique, made up of the application of a distal tibia allograft to address the glenoid bone loss and humeral head allograft to address the Hill-Sachs lesion, for the treatment of a severe bipolar lesion in the setting of recurrent anterior shoulder instability after a failed Latarjet procedure.

  3. The effects of hydroxyapatite coating and bone allograft on fixation of loaded experimental primary and revision implants

    PubMed Central

    Søballe, Kjeld; Mouzin, Olivier R G; Kidder, Louis A; Overgaard, Søren; Bechtold, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    We used our established experimental model of revision joint replacement to examine the roles of hydroxyapatite coating and bone graft in improving the fixation of revision implants. The revision protocol uses the Søballe micromotion device in a preliminary 8-week period of implant instability for the presence of particulate polyethylene. During this procedure, a sclerotic endosteal bone rim forms, and a dense fibrous membrane is engendered, having macrophages with ingested polyethylene and high levels of inflammatory cytokines. At the time of revision after 8 weeks, the cavity is revised with either a titanium alloy (Ti) or a hydroxyapatite (HA) 6.0 mm plasma-sprayed implant, in the presence or absence of allograft packed into the initial 0.75 mm peri-implant gap. The contralateral limb is subjected to primary surgery with the same implant configuration, and serves as control. 8 implants were included in each of the 8 treatment groups (total 64 implants in 32 dogs). The observation period was 4 weeks after revision. Outcome measures are based on histomorphometry and mechanical pushout properties. The revision setting was always inferior to its primary counterpart. Bone graft improved the revision fixation in all treatment groups, as also did the HA coating. The sole exception was revision-grafted HA implants, which reached the same fixation as primary Ti and HA grafted implants. The revision, which was less active in general, seems to need the dual stimulation of bone graft and HA implant surface, to obtain the same level of fixation associated with primary implants. Our findings suggest that the combination of HA implant and bone graft may be of benefit in the clinical revision implant setting. PMID:12899541

  4. Demand and supply of bone allograft and the role of orthopaedic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Bali, Subir L; Abbas, Neelam; Dalton, David J

    2007-08-01

    This study assessed factors responsible for exclusion of patients from bone donation at primary hip arthroplasty in order to improve bone banking. Fifty-five patients underwent screening in preoperative clinics assessing their suitability for femoral head donation. Records at the bone bank were then reviewed post operatively to check whether bone had been harvested from these individuals during surgery. Overall, 95% of the patients screened did not proceed to bone banking. After the initial screening stage 60% of patients were excluded. The majority of exclusions (70%) were unacceptable as donors because of their potential risk of transmission of disease to recipients. Although 40% were consented for donation, femoral heads from only 5% were harvested and sent for storage in the bone bank during hip arthroplasty. Orthopaedic surgeons must take an active part in bone banking and alternative sources of bone grafts require exploration in the future to meet the increasing demand.

  5. A prospective, randomized, controlled cervical fusion study using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 with the CORNERSTONE-SR allograft ring and the ATLANTIS anterior cervical plate.

    PubMed

    Baskin, David S; Ryan, Patrick; Sonntag, Volker; Westmark, Richard; Widmayer, Marsha A

    2003-06-15

    A prospective, randomized, pilot clinical trial compared recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with iliac crest autograft bone for the treatment of human cervical disc disease. To examine the safety and effectiveness of using INFUSE Bone Graft (rhBMP-2 applied to an absorbable collagen sponge), as compared with an autogenous iliac crest bone graft placed inside the CORNERSTONE-SR fibular allograft, in anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 is an osteoinductive protein that induces a reliable fusion in the lumbar spine, but it has not been studied in patients with degenerative cervical disc disease. For this study, 33 patients with degenerative cervical disc disease were randomly assigned to investigational or control groups. The investigational group received a fibular allograft (CORNERSTONE-SR Allograft Ring) with an rhBMP-2-laden collagen carrier inside the graft along with an ATLANTIS anterior cervical plate. The control group received a fibular allograft with cancellous iliac crest autograft placed inside it, along with an ATLANTIS anterior cervical plate. The patients underwent plain radiographs at 6 weeks, then at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, and CT scans at 3 and 6 months after surgery. They also completed general health profiles and self-evaluation scales. Adverse events were evaluated for severity, duration, association with the implant, and the need for a second surgical procedure. All the patients evaluated had solid fusions 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. There were no device-related adverse events. At 24 months, the investigational group had mean improvement superior to that of the control group in neck disability and arm pain scores (P < 0.03 each). This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of using rhBMP-2 safely and effectively in the cervical spine.

  6. Analysis of new bone, cartilage, and fibrosis tissue in healing murine allografts using whole slide imaging and a new automated histomorphometric algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longze; Chang, Martin; Beck, Christopher A; Schwarz, Edward M; Boyce, Brendan F

    2016-01-01

    Histomorphometric analysis of histologic sections of normal and diseased bone samples, such as healing allografts and fractures, is widely used in bone research. However, the utility of traditional semi-automated methods is limited because they are labor-intensive and can have high interobserver variability depending upon the parameters being assessed, and primary data cannot be re-analyzed automatically. Automated histomorphometry has long been recognized as a solution for these issues, and recently has become more feasible with the development of digital whole slide imaging and computerized image analysis systems that can interact with digital slides. Here, we describe the development and validation of an automated application (algorithm) using Visiopharm’s image analysis system to quantify newly formed bone, cartilage, and fibrous tissue in healing murine femoral allografts in high-quality digital images of H&E/alcian blue-stained decalcified histologic sections. To validate this algorithm, we compared the results obtained independently using OsteoMeasureTM and Visiopharm image analysis systems. The intraclass correlation coefficient between Visiopharm and OsteoMeasure was very close to one for all tissue elements tested, indicating nearly perfect reproducibility across methods. This new algorithm represents an accurate and labor-efficient method to quantify bone, cartilage, and fibrous tissue in healing mouse allografts. PMID:26816658

  7. Balancing the Rates of New Bone Formation and Polymer Degradation Enhances Healing of Weight-Bearing Allograft/Polyurethane Composites in Rabbit Femoral Defects

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Jerald E.; Prieto, Edna M.; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J.; Guda, Teja; Wenke, Joseph C.; Bible, Jesse; Holt, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    There is a compelling clinical need for bone grafts with initial bone-like mechanical properties that actively remodel for repair of weight-bearing bone defects, such as fractures of the tibial plateau and vertebrae. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating remodeling of weight-bearing bone grafts in preclinical models, and consequently there is limited understanding of the mechanisms by which these grafts remodel in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of the rates of new bone formation, matrix resorption, and polymer degradation on healing of settable weight-bearing polyurethane/allograft composites in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model. The grafts induced progressive healing in vivo, as evidenced by an increase in new bone formation, as well as a decrease in residual allograft and polymer from 6 to 12 weeks. However, the mismatch between the rates of autocatalytic polymer degradation and zero-order (independent of time) new bone formation resulted in incomplete healing in the interior of the composite. Augmentation of the grafts with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 not only increased the rate of new bone formation, but also altered the degradation mechanism of the polymer to approximate a zero-order process. The consequent matching of the rates of new bone formation and polymer degradation resulted in more extensive healing at later time points in all regions of the graft. These observations underscore the importance of balancing the rates of new bone formation and degradation to promote healing of settable weight-bearing bone grafts that maintain bone-like strength, while actively remodeling. PMID:23941405

  8. Crestal bone resorption in augmented bone using mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft or pristine bone during submerged implant healing: a prospective study in humans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiang-yun; Ogata, Yumi; Hanley, James; Finkelman, Matthew; Hur, Yong

    2016-02-01

    There is limited evidence on the crestal bone level changes around implants placed in bone augmented by guided bone regeneration (GBR) during submerged healing. The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare radiographic crestal bone changes around implants placed in augmented bone with changes around implants placed in pristine bone. Patients receiving dental implants in the augmented or pristine mandibular posterior edentulous ridge were included in the study. The digital standardized radiographs from the implant placement procedure were compared to the radiographs from the second-stage procedure to evaluate the peri-implant marginal bone level changes. The soft tissue thickness (ST), width of keratinized mucosa (wKM), and early cover screw exposure (eIE) were measured at the time of the second-stage procedure. A total of 29 implants in 26 patients, 11 in augmented bone (test group) and 18 in pristine bone (control group), were analyzed. The mean peri-implant bone loss (ΔBL) was 0.74 ± 0.74 mm (mean ± SD) in the test group and 0.25 ± 0.55 mm (mean ± SD) in the control group. The differences between the test and control groups in the mesial, distal, and mean peri-implant crestal bone level changes were statistically significant (P = 0.009, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively). The confounding factors (ST, wKM, and eIE) were adjusted. More peri-implant crestal bone loss during the submerged healing period was observed in augmented bone than in pristine bone. Augmented bone may not exhibit the same characteristics as pristine bone during the implant submerged healing period. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Treatment of a large postextraction buccal wall defect with mineralized allograft, β-TCP, and rhPDGF-BB: a growth factor-mediated bone regenerative approach.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    Buccal wall defects following tooth removal are frequent in the anterior portions of the mandible and maxilla. Common reasons for such defects include thin buccal bone, preexisting periodontal disease, bundle bone resorption, difficult orthodontic movement, and traumatic extractions. Regeneration of the postextraction defect with vital, well-vascularized, dense bone is critical to a successful implant-supported restoration. This case report examines the effectiveness of using a composite graft of freeze-dried bone allograft and β-tricalcium phosphate plus recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB to regenerate healthy, dense bone in a large mandibular anterior buccal wall defect. The importance of access to the overlying periosteum as a readily available source of osteogenic cells in growth factor-mediated bone regenerative procedures is emphasized.

  10. Proximal femoral replacement and allograft prosthesis composite in the treatment of periprosthetic fractures with significant proximal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Mohammad R; Porat, Manny D; Hozack, William J; Parvizi, Javad

    2012-11-01

    Femoral bone loss due to periprosthetic fracture, a challenging problem in total hip arthroplasty (THA), is increasingly encountered due to a rise in the number of revision THAs performed. Allograft prosthesis composite (APC) and proximal femoral replacement (PFR) are two available options for management of patients with difficult type-B3 Vancouver periprosthetic fractures. The treatment algorithm for patients with these fractures has been extensively studied and is influenced by the age and activity level of the patient. APC is often preferred in young and active patients in an attempt to preserve bone stock while older and less active patients are considered candidates for PFR. In spite of the high rate of overall complications with these two procedures, reported survivorship is acceptable. Treating patients with these complicated fractures is fraught with complications and, even with successful treatment, the outcomes are not as promising as those associated with primary hip replacement. In this paper, we aimed to review available published reports about PFR and APC for treatment of periprosthetic fractures around THAs.

  11. Severe tibial bone loss in revision total knee replacement managed with structural femoral head allograft: a prospective case series from the Royal London Hospital.

    PubMed

    Lyall, H S; Sanghrajka, A; Scott, G

    2009-10-01

    Large tibial bone defects may cause problems at the time of revision total knee replacement. We report on 15 patients (15 knees) followed at a mean of 5.4 years (33-115 months) who underwent revision total knee replacement for severe tibial bone loss using shaped femoral head allograft and Freeman-Samuelson revision components (Zimmer, Winterthur, Switzerland). The mean American Knee Society Score pre-operatively was 22.7 points (0-45) increasing to a mean of 77.2 points (15-95) after operation. The survivorship for the series at 6 years was seven out of nine knees. One patient required an above knee amputation at 3.5 years, whilst another underwent a second revision TKR procedure at 3.4 years. Thirteen knees did not require further surgery and showed a mean time for allograft incorporation of 1.9 years (12-36 months) with no component migration. Severe tibial bone loss at the time of revision TKR surgery is a difficult problem to treat. Our case series demonstrates that when shaped femoral heads are used as structural allograft along with long stemmed components a successful result can be achieved.

  12. [Mid-term radiographic results in Th12 and L1 fractures after anterior column reconstruction with tibial shaft bone allograft].

    PubMed

    Wendsche, P; Kočiš, J; Chmelová, J; Kelbl, M; Stursa, V

    2013-01-01

    Frozen tibial shaft bone allografts filled with autologous cancellous bone chips were used for anterior column reconstruction in Th12 and L1 fractures. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the five-year results of the treatment on the basis of radiographic findings. Twenty-six patients treated in 2005 and 2006 for isolated Th12 or L1 fractures, with no neurological deficit, were evaluated. In all patients, the spine was stabilised from an isolated anterior approach or through a combined posterior and anterior approach, and angle-stable implants were used. On radiographic examination the loss of correction and lateral compression of the segment involved were measured on standard X-ray views. Data on bone union at graft-bone interfaces were obtained from spiral CT scans. For assessment of the stage of bone healing, a scale of 0-25-50-75-100 % was established, and each patient was evaluated by two independent radiologists. Based on the average results, bone union was defined as non-union, 0-24 %; incomplete union, 25-74 %; complete union, 75-100 %. The average loss of correction measured by Beck's method was 0.77 degree. In four patients, the lateral compression angle deteriorated on the average by 1.1 degree (range, 0.7°-1.8°) during the treatment. The proximal graft-bone interface showed complete union in 19 patients (73 %), and the distal interface was completely healed in 20 patients (77 %). Incomplete bone union at the proximal and the distal interface was found in seven (27 %) and six (23 %) patients, respectively. Nonunion was not recorded. No complications occurred. The use of tibial shaft bone allografts filled with autologous cancellous bone chips resulted in stable reconstruction of the anterior column of the thoracolumbar spine which showed a low loss of correction and good bone union.

  13. Use of lincomycin-impregnated demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft in the periodontal defect after third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Reza; Khorshidi, Hooman; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Gholami, Mehdi; Kalbasi, Saman; Khayati, Adell

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the periodontal regenerative capacity of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) alone or used with local lincomycin. In the present single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 20 subjects 26 years old or older, requiring extraction of bilateral third molars (M3s), were included. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive either DFDBA or DFDBA plus lincomycin therapy. Within the subjects, 1 M3 site was randomly selected to be the experimental site and the contralateral served as the control and was permitted to heal without intervention. The primary variables were changes in the probing depth (PD), clinical alveolar bone levels (ABLs), and radiographic alveolar bone density (ABD) on the distal aspect of second molar between baseline (immediately postoperatively) and 26 weeks postoperatively (T26). Appropriate sample sizes and descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate statistics were computed. For both treatment and control sites, between T0 and T26, statistically significant improvements were seen in the ABLs and ABD (P < .05). Within-subject comparisons showed no significant differences in PD, ABL, or ABD between the treatment and control M3 sites at T0 or T26 (P > .05). Also, no significant differences were found in the PD, ABL, or ABD between the 2 treatment M3 sites at T26 (P > .05). The results of the present study have revealed that the PD, ABL, and ABD improved after M3 removal in subjects 26 years old or older, irrespective of the treatment or control group. Reconstructive procedures (e.g., DFDBA with or without lincomycin therapy) did not offer predictable benefits compared with a no-treatment protocol in patients younger than 30 years old. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of endodontic perforations using guided tissue regeneration and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft: two case reports with 2-4 year post-surgical evaluations.

    PubMed

    Zenobio, Elton Golçalves; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2004-08-15

    Clinicians often have difficulty with the diagnosis and treatment of root perforation. This paper reports two patients with root perforation treated with periodontal surgery associated with guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). This combined treatment resulted in minimal probing depths, minimal attachment loss, and radiographic evidence of bone gain after follow-up evaluations that ranged from 2 to 4 years. These case reports show a correct diagnosis and removal of etiologic factors can restore both periodontal and endodontic health.

  15. Balancing the Rates of New Bone Formation and Polymer Degradation Enhances Healing of Weight-Bearing Allograft/Polyurethane Composites in Rabbit Femoral Defects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-03

    cement chitosan fibre composite. Proc Inst Mech Eng [ H ] 222, 347, 2008. Epub 2008/05/22. 24. Kim, J., McBride, S., Fulmer, M., Harten, R., Garza , Z., Dean...0 6 6 ABPs 0 6 6 BC 0 9 10 BC +BMP-L 105 9 10 BC +BMP- H 420 9 8 rhBMP 2, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2; ABPs, allograft bone...Cylinders were cured in a vacuum oven at 37C overnight, removed from the plastic cups, and cut using a Buehler saw to a length of 12 mm. After 24 h

  16. The comparison of the viability of crushed, morselized and diced cartilage grafts: a confocal microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kayabasoglu, Gurkan; Ozbek, Elvan; Yanar, Sevinc; Sahin, Fikrettin; Keles, Osman Nuri; Yilmaz, Mahmut Sinan; Guven, Mehmet

    2015-05-01

    To compare the cellular viability of diced, crushed, and morselized cartilage used in nasal surgeries. In this study, cartilage was extracted from the ears of seven New Zealand rabbits and was subsequently either diced, crushed or morselized to an amorphous state, or left unmodified. The four types of grafts were then implanted in the back regions of the rabbits. After 3 months, the cellular viability from four groups was compared to a control group using confocal microscopy. Analysis of the data obtained from the enumeration of live cells showed no statistically significant difference between the unmodified graft group and the control group. The diced, crushed, and morselized cartilage groups did show a statistically significant difference in terms of live cell count with the highest number of live cells in diced cartilage group. A statistically significant decrease in live cell count was detected in crushed cartilage group. Our study shows that the viability of cells in diced cartilage grafts is greater than those in crushed or morselized cartilage grafts.

  17. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of radiation-sterilized bone allografts in reconstructive oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Krasny, Marta; Krasny, Kornel; Kamiński, Artur; Zadurska, Małgorzata; Piekarczyk, Piotr; Fiedor, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Bone grafting allows reconstruction of the atrophied or destroyed alveolar process. In orthopaedics and traumatology allogeneic grafting has been used to restore defects of osseous tissue for over 60 years. In order to improve safety of the graft recipient, sterilized allogeneic grafts have been use. The aim of the study was to assess the direct and long-term outcomes following augmentation of atrophied alveolar processes with the use of radiation-sterilized allogeneic bone grafts. Sixty-eight patients were surgically treated between 2004 and 2011: 29 underwent open sinus floor elevation, post-extraction alveoli augmentation was performed in 16 subjects and 23 underwent reconstruction of the atrophied alveolar process. Augmentation of bone defects used bone granulate in 63 patients and bone blocks stabilized with titanium screws in 5 patients. PRF membranes collected from the patient's blood were also used in all the procedures. In each of the cases optimal dimensions of the alveolar process were obtained allowing embedment of BIOMET 3I dental implant/-s. In all the patients the defects were successfully restored with implant-supported prostheses. Radiation-sterilized allogeneic bone grafts proved to be safe and effective for the patients and manageable for the surgeon constituting a good alternative to autogeneic material.

  18. Synergistic effects of ultrashort wave and bone marrow stromal cells on nerve regeneration with acellular nerve allografts.

    PubMed

    Pang, Chao-Jian; Tong, Lei; Ji, Li-Li; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Hai; Jia, Hua; Zhang, Li-Xin; Tong, Xiao-Jie

    2013-10-01

    Acellular nerve allografts (ANA) possess bioactivity and neurite promoting factors in nerve tissue engineering. Previously we reported that low dose ultrashort wave (USW) radiation could enhance the rate and quality of peripheral nerve regeneration with ANA repairing sciatic nerve defects. Meanwhile, ANA implanted with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) exhibited a similar result. Thus, it is interesting to know whether it might yield a synergistic effect when USW radiation is combined with BMSCs-laden ANA. Here we investigated the effectiveness of ANA seeded with BMSCs, combined with USW therapy on repairing peripheral nerve injuries. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) control group, BMSCs-laden group, ultrashort wave (USW) group and BMSC + USW group. The regenerated nerves were assayed morphologically and functionally, and growth-promoting factors in the regenerated tissues following USW administration or BMSCs integration were also detected. The results indicated that the combination therapy caused much better beneficial effects evidenced by increased myelinated nerve fiber number, myelin sheath thickness, axon diameter, sciatic function index, nerve conduction velocity, and restoration rate of tibialis anterior wet weight. Moreover, the mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the spinal cord and muscles were elevated significantly. In conclusion, we found a synergistic effect of USW radiation and BMSCs treatment on peripheral nerve regeneration, which may help establish novel strategies for repairing peripheral nerve defects. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The biomechanical properties of deep freezing and freeze drying bones and their biomechanical changes after in-vivo allograft.

    PubMed

    Kang, J S; Kim, N H

    1995-09-01

    This study measured the physical properties in bending of the rat femur and compression of the rat first tail vertebra subjected to deep freezing at -80 degrees C for 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and freeze drying. This study also measured the mechanical changes after in vivo allograft of fresh bone, deep freezing(2, 6, 12 weeks) and freeze drying. Analysis for deep freezing groups showed a mean 7.2% decrease in bending strength and 11.0% decrease in compressive strength when compared with the control group, but there was no statistical difference in the duration of deep freezing. The groups of in vivo graft after deep freezing showed 23.1% and 22.2% decrease in bending and compressive strength. There was no statistical difference in the duration of deep freezing. The freeze drying group showed a 9.7% decrease in bending strength and no significant difference in compressive strength. The group of in vivo graft after freeze drying showed a 30.1% and a 41.3% decrease in bending and compressive strength. The above results suggested that there would be some mechanical limitation in using freeze dried graft for supporting implants.

  20. Multipotent adult progenitor cells on an allograft scaffold facilitate the bone repair process

    PubMed Central

    LoGuidice, Amanda; Houlihan, Alison; Deans, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. Research has demonstrated the potential of multipotent adult progenitor cells for treating ischemic injury and cardiovascular repair; however, understanding of multipotent adult progenitor cells in orthopedic applications remains limited. In this study, we evaluate the osteogenic and angiogenic capacity of multipotent adult progenitor cells, both in vitro and loaded onto demineralized bone matrix in vivo, with comparison to mesenchymal stem cells, as the current standard. When compared to mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited a more robust angiogenic protein release profile in vitro and developed more extensive vasculature within 2 weeks in vivo. The establishment of this vascular network is critical to the ossification process, as it allows nutrient exchange and provides an influx of osteoprogenitor cells to the wound site. In vitro assays confirmed the multipotency of multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and demonstrated the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral deposits by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells demonstrated enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized bone matrix or demineralized bone matrix–only control groups. The potent combination of angiogenic and osteogenic properties provided by multipotent adult progenitor cells appears to create a synergistic amplification of the bone healing process. Our results indicate that multipotent adult progenitor cells have the potential to better promote tissue regeneration and healing and to be a functional cell source for use in orthopedic applications

  1. Tolerance to MHC class II disparate allografts through genetic modification of bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Jindra, Peter T.; Tripathi, Sudipta; Tian, Chaorui; Iacomini, John; Bagley, Jessamyn

    2012-01-01

    Induction of molecular chimerism through genetic modification of bone marrow is a powerful tool for the induction of tolerance. Here we demonstrate for the first time that expression of an allogeneic MHC class II gene in autologous bone marrow cells, resulting in a state of molecular chimerism, induces tolerance to MHC class II mismatched skin grafts, a stringent test of transplant tolerance. Reconstitution of recipients with syngeneic bone marrow transduced with retrovirus encoding H-2I-Ab (I-Ab) resulted the long-term expression of the retroviral gene product on the surface of MHC class II-expressing bone marrow derived cell types. Mechanistically, tolerance was maintained by the presence of regulatory T cells, which prevented proliferation and cytokine production by alloreactive host T cells. Thus, the introduction of MHC class II genes into bone marrow derived cells through genetic engineering results in tolerance. These results have the potential to extend the clinical applicability of molecular chimerism for tolerance induction. PMID:22833118

  2. Socket preservation using demineralized freezed dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factor: A canine study

    PubMed Central

    Mogharehabed, Ahmad; Birang, Reza; Torabinia, Nakisa; Nasiri, Saman; Behfarnia, Parichehr

    2014-01-01

    Background: The accelerating effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGFs) in the healing of extraction sockets has been demonstrated by some studies. The aim of the present study was to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate whether bone formation would increase by the combined use of PRGF and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). Materials and Methods: In four female dogs, the distal root of the second, third and fourth lower premolars were extracted bilaterally and the mesial roots were preserved. The extraction sockets were randomly divided into DFDBA + PRGF, DFDBA + saline or control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 6 weeks. The extraction sockets were evaluated from both histological and histomorphometrical aspects. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Significant levels were set at 0.05. Results: The least decrease in socket height was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (0.73 ± 0.42 mm). The least decrease in the coronal portion was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (1.38 ± 1.35 mm²). The least decrease in the middle surface was observed in the DFDBA group (0.61 ± 0.80 mm²). The least decrease in the apical portion was observed in the DFDBA group (0.34 ± 0.39 mm²). Conclusion: The present study showed better socket preservation subsequent to the application of DFDBA and PRGF combination in comparison with the two other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:25225559

  3. Clinical evaluation of demineralized bone allograft for sinus lifts in humans: a clinical and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Won, Young-Hoon; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Lim, Sung-Chul

    2011-12-01

    Severe alveolar bony resorption in the edentulous posterior maxilla and pneumatization of the maxillary sinus wall make traditional implant placement impossible in the posterior maxilla. To reconstruct the severely resorbed maxilla for dental implant placement, 1 successful technique is to elevate the maxillary sinus floor using demineralized bone matrix (DBM) grafts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of DBM grafts in the human maxilla. Nine months after grafting, at the time of dental implantation, biopsy samples were taken from the grafted areas of 8 patients and were analyzed histologically. All the sinus lifts were successful in the clinical study conducted after implantation. Resorption of the graft materials and new bone formation were observed, and there was direct deposition of bone on the surface of the graft particles. The results of this study indicate that limited maxillary sinus lift with DBM graft material is a clinically reliable preimplant procedure.

  4. The Effect of Cementation and Autogenous Bone Grafting on Allograft Union and Incorporation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-30

    assay has been working well since then. (ii) Radiographic and bone mineral density base line evaluation has been completed on all dogs. Force plate gait ... analysis has been completed on 20 of 32 dogs. The remaining dogs will be completed over the next 3 weeks. B. Surgical procedures - segmental

  5. A randomized controlled evaluation of alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction using deproteinized bovine bone mineral and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Babaei, Maryam; Miremadi, S. Asghar; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alveolar ridge preservation could be performed immediately following tooth extraction to limit dimensional changes of alveolar process due to bone resorption. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and histologic outcomes of socket preservation using two different graft materials; deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) with absorbable collagen membrane. Materials and Methods: Twenty extraction sockets in 20 patients were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups: 10 sockets were augmented with DBBM and collagen membrane whereas 10 sockets were filled with DFDBA and covered by collagen membrane. Primary closure was achieved over extraction sockets by flap advancement. Horizontal and vertical ridge dimensional changes were assessed at baseline and after 4-6 months at the time of implant placement. For histological and histomorphometrical analysis, bone samples were harvested from the augmented sites with trephine during implant surgery. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 (α=0.05). Results: Clinical measurements revealed that average horizontal reduction was 2.3 ± 0.64 mm for DFDBA and 2.26 ± 0.51 mm for DBBM. Mean vertical ridge resorption at buccal side was 1.29 ± 0.68 mm for DFDBA and 1.1 ± 0.17 mm for DBBM. Moreover, mean vertical ridge reduction at lingual site was 0.41 ± 0.38 mm and 0.35 ± 0.34 mm for DFDBA and DBBM, respectively. No significant differences were seen between two groups in any of those clinical parameters. Histologic analysis showed statistically significant more new bone deposition for DFDBA compared to DBBM (34.49 ± 3.19 vs. 18.76 ± 3.54) (P < 0.01). Residual graft particles were identified significantly more in DBBM (12.77 ± 1.85) than DFDBA (6.06 ± 1.02). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, both materials have positive effect on alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction, but there was more new bone formation and less

  6. Surface Properties and MC3T3-E1 Cell Response of Cortical Bone Allografts Modified with Low-Concentration Phosphoric Acid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zengfa; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Jing; Wei, Hui; Liu, Xianzhe; Yan, Xinxin; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yunlu; Yang, Shuhua

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-concentration phosphoric acid on the surface structure of cortical allografts. Allogenic cortical bones were obtained from femurs and tibias of New Zealand white rabbits. The bones were modified by treatment with various concentrations of phosphoric acid (10%, 20% or 30%) for 10, 30 or 60 minutes, then evaluated by the following methods: 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and LIVE/DEAD assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, biomechanical properties testing, contact angle detection, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), western blotting and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared with the other groups, the group modified with 10% H3PO4 for 10 minutes had lower cytotoxicity according to MTT and LIVE/DEAD assays, higher hydrophilicity in the contact angle detection test and greater stability in the biomechanical properties test. Moreover, an up-regulation of osteopontin (OPN) in bones modified with 10% H3PO4 was observed by Q-PCR and western blotting. In addition, ALP assay and SEM showed that surface porosity and osteoinductivity were increased in the group modified with 10% H3PO4. Low-concentration phosphoric acid may be a potential method for surface modification of cortical allografts. Further animal experiments and animal infection model studies are required to validate the efficacy of surface-modified cortical allografts to repair large segmental bone defects. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Comparative clinical and radiographic evaluation of mineralized cancellous bone allograft (puros®) and autogenous bone in the treatment of human periodontal intraosseous defects: 6-months follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, B. Ravinder; Sudhakar, J.; Rajesh, Nichenametla; Sandeep, V.; Reddy, Y. Muralidhar; Gnana Sagar, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Several materials have been introduced as bone grafts, i.e., autografts, allograft, xenografts, and alloplastic grafts, and studies have shown them to produce greater clinical bone defect fill than open flap debridement alone. The aim of this clinical and radiological 6-month study was to compare and evaluate the clinical outcome of deep intraosseous defects following reconstructive surgery with the use of mineralized cancellous bone allograft (Puros®) or autogenous bone. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with 12 sites exhibiting signs of moderate generalized chronic periodontitis were enrolled in the study. The investigations were confined to two and three-walled intra bony defects with a preoperative probing depth of ≥5 mm. Six of these defects were treated with Puros® (group A) the remaining six were treated with autogenous bone graft (group B). Allocation to the two groups was randomized. The clinical parameters, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bone fill, were recorded at different time intervals at the baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Intraoral radiographs were taken using standardized paralleling cone technique at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months. Statistical analysis was done by using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey highly significant difference. Results: Both groups resulted in decrease in probing depth (group A, 3.0 mm; group B, 2.83 mm) and gain in clinical attachment level (group A, 3.33 mm; group B, 3.0 mm) over a period of 6 months, which was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that both mineralized cancellous bone allograft (Puros®) or autogenous bone result in significant clinical improvements. PMID:28217545

  8. Properties of the "Orgamax" osteoplastic material made of a demineralized allograft bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podorognaya, V. T.; Kirilova, I. A.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Uvarkin, P. V.; Zhelezny, P. A.; Zheleznaya, A. P.; Akimova, S. E.; Novoselov, V. P.; Tupikova, L. N.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated properties of the "Orgamax" osteoplastic material, which was produced from a demineralized bone, in the treatment of extensive caries, in particular chronic pulpitis of the permanent teeth with unformed roots in children. The "Orgamax" osteoplastic material consists of demineralized bone chips, a collagen additive, and antibiotics. The surface morphology of the "Orgamax" osteoplastic material is macroporous, with the maximum pore size of 250 µm, whereas the surface morphology of the major component of "Orgamax", demineralized bone chips, is microporous, with a pore size of 10-20 µm. Material "Orgamax" is used in the treatment of complicated caries, particularly chronic pulpitis of permanent teeth with unformed roots in children. "Orgamax" filling a formed cavity exhibits antimicrobial properties, eliminates inflammation in the dental pulp, and, due to its osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties, undergoes gradual resorption, stimulates regeneration, and provides replacement of the defect with newly formed tissue. The dental pulp viability is completely restored, which ensures the complete formation of tooth roots with root apex closure in the long-term period.

  9. Molecular examination of bone marrow stromal cells and chondroitinase ABC-assisted acellular nerve allograft for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jia, Hua; Li, Wen-Yuan; Guan, Li-Xin; Deng, Lingxiao; Liu, Yan-Cui; Liu, Gui-Bo

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying combinatorial bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation and chondroitinase ABC (Ch-ABC) therapy in a model of acellular nerve allograft (ANA) repair of the sciatic nerve gap in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=24) were used as nerve donors and Wistar rats (n=48) were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) control group (ANA treated with DMEM only); Group II, Ch-ABC group (ANA treated with Ch-ABC only); Group III, BMSC group (ANA seeded with BMSCs only); Group IV, Ch-ABC + BMSCs group (Ch-ABC treated ANA then seeded with BMSCs). After 8 weeks, the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in the regenerated tissues were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Axonal regeneration, motor neuron protection and functional recovery were examined by immunohistochemistry, horseradish peroxidase retrograde neural tracing and electrophysiological and tibialis anterior muscle recovery analyses. It was observed that combination therapy enhances the growth response of the donor nerve locally as well as distally, at the level of the spinal cord motoneuron and the target muscle organ. This phenomenon is likely due to the propagation of retrograde and anterograde transport of growth signals sourced from the graft site. Collectively, growth improvement on the donor nerve, target muscle and motoneuron ultimately contribute to efficacious axonal regeneration and functional recovery. Thorough investigation of molecular peripheral nerve injury combinatorial strategies are required for the optimization of efficacious therapy and full functional recovery following ANA.

  10. Molecular examination of bone marrow stromal cells and chondroitinase ABC-assisted acellular nerve allograft for peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Jia, Hua; Li, Wen-Yuan; Guan, Li-Xin; Deng, Lingxiao; Liu, Yan-Cui; Liu, Gui-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying combinatorial bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation and chondroitinase ABC (Ch-ABC) therapy in a model of acellular nerve allograft (ANA) repair of the sciatic nerve gap in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=24) were used as nerve donors and Wistar rats (n=48) were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) control group (ANA treated with DMEM only); Group II, Ch-ABC group (ANA treated with Ch-ABC only); Group III, BMSC group (ANA seeded with BMSCs only); Group IV, Ch-ABC + BMSCs group (Ch-ABC treated ANA then seeded with BMSCs). After 8 weeks, the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in the regenerated tissues were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Axonal regeneration, motor neuron protection and functional recovery were examined by immunohistochemistry, horseradish peroxidase retrograde neural tracing and electrophysiological and tibialis anterior muscle recovery analyses. It was observed that combination therapy enhances the growth response of the donor nerve locally as well as distally, at the level of the spinal cord motoneuron and the target muscle organ. This phenomenon is likely due to the propagation of retrograde and anterograde transport of growth signals sourced from the graft site. Collectively, growth improvement on the donor nerve, target muscle and motoneuron ultimately contribute to efficacious axonal regeneration and functional recovery. Thorough investigation of molecular peripheral nerve injury combinatorial strategies are required for the optimization of efficacious therapy and full functional recovery following ANA. PMID:27698684

  11. Combination of bone allograft, barrier membrane and doxycycline in the treatment of infrabony periodontal defects: A comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashish; Gupta, N.D.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the present study was to compare the regenerative potential of noncontained periodontal infrabony defects treated with decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) and barrier membrane with or without local doxycycline. Methods This study included 48 one- or two-wall infrabony defects from 24 patients (age: 30–65 years) seeking treatment for chronic periodontitis. Defects were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with a combination of DFDBA and barrier membrane, either alone (combined treatment group) or with local doxycycline (combined treatment + doxycycline group). At baseline (before surgery) and 3 and 6 months after surgery, the pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), radiological bone fill (RBF), and alveolar height reduction (AHR) were recorded. Analysis of variance and the Newman–Keuls post hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results In the combined treatment group, the PPD reduction was 2.00 ± 0.38 mm (32%), CAL gain was 1.25 ± 0.31 mm (17.9%), and RBF was 0.75 ± 0.31 mm (20.7%) after 6 months. In the combined treatment + doxycycline group, these values were 2.75 ± 0.37 mm (44%), 1.5 ± 0.27 mm (21.1%), and 1.13 ± 0.23 mm (28.1%), respectively. AHR values for the groups without and with doxycycline were 12.5% and 9.4%, respectively. Conclusion There was no significant difference in the regeneration of noncontained periodontal infrabony defects between groups treated with DFDBA and barrier membrane with or without doxycycline. PMID:26236130

  12. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): a second-generation platelet concentrate. Part V: histologic evaluations of PRF effects on bone allograft maturation in sinus lift.

    PubMed

    Choukroun, Joseph; Diss, Antoine; Simonpieri, Alain; Girard, Marie-Odile; Schoeffler, Christian; Dohan, Steve L; Dohan, Anthony J J; Mouhyi, Jaafar; Dohan, David M

    2006-03-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) belongs to a new generation of platelet concentrates, with simplified processing and without biochemical blood handling. The use of platelet gel to improve bone regeneration is a recent technique in implantology. However, the biologic properties and real effects of such products remain controversial. In this article, we therefore attempt to evaluate the potential of PRF in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) (Phoenix; TBF, France) to enhance bone regeneration in sinus floor elevation. Nine sinus floor augmentations were performed. In 6 sites, PRF was added to FDBA particles (test group), and in 3 sites FDBA without PRF was used (control group). Four months later for the test group and 8 months later for the control group, bone specimens were harvested from the augmented region during the implant insertion procedure. These specimens were treated for histologic analysis. Histologic evaluations reveal the presence of residual bone surrounded by newly formed bone and connective tissue. After 4 months of healing time, histologic maturation of the test group appears to be identical to that of the control group after a period of 8 months. Moreover, the quantities of newly formed bone were equivalent between the 2 protocols. Sinus floor augmentation with FDBA and PRF leads to a reduction of healing time prior to implant placement. From a histologic point of view, this healing time could be reduced to 4 months, but large-scale studies are still necessary to validate these first results.

  13. Femoral impaction bone allografting with an Exeter cemented collarless, polished, tapered stem in revision hip replacement: a mean follow-up of 10.5 years.

    PubMed

    Wraighte, P J; Howard, P W

    2008-08-01

    Femoral impaction bone allografting has been developed as a means of restoring bone stock in revision total hip replacement. We report the results of 75 consecutive patients (75 hips) with a mean age of 68 years (35 to 87) who underwent impaction grafting using the Exeter collarless, polished, tapered femoral stem between 1992 and 1998. The mean follow-up period was 10.5 years (6.3 to 14.1). The median pre-operative bone defect score was 3 (interquartile range (IQR) 2 to 3) using the Endo-Klinik classification. The median subsidence at one year post-operatively was 2 mm (IQR 1 to 3). At the final review the median Harris hip score was 80.6 (IQR 67.6 to 88.9) and the median subsidence 2 mm (IQR 1 to 4). Incorporation of the allograft into trabecular bone and secondary remodelling were noted radiologically at the final follow-up in 87% (393 of 452 zones) and 40% (181 of 452 zones), respectively. Subsidence of the Exeter stem correlated with the pre-operative Endo-Klinik bone loss score (p = 0.037). The degree of subsidence at one year had a strong association with long-term subsidence (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between previous revision surgery and a poor Harris Hip score (p = 0.028), and those who had undergone previous revision surgery for infection had a higher risk of complications (p = 0.048). Survivorship at 10.5 years with any further femoral operation as the end-point was 92% (95% confidence interval 82 to 97).

  14. Cutaneous and bone marrow histoplasmosis after 18 years of renal allograft transplant.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, K Y; Carvalho, N B; Mimicos, E V; Yeh-Li, H; Sotto, M N; França, F O S

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of histoplasmosis among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients appears to be low where there are only a few case series, mostly among renal and liver transplant recipients. Herein we report a case of a 44-year-old woman who underwent a living-related renal transplant 18 years prior to evaluation, developed a nodule after followed by ulceration upon her posterior right leg and a second one upon her left leg 3 months and 2 months before her hospitalisation, respectively. The biopsy of lesion revealed the presence of Histoplasma spp. Bone marrow aspiration was performed and also revealed the same organism. She had initially received itraconazole without improvement of lesions, while a new lesion appeared on her left arm. Healing of all lesions could be observed after 40 days of liposomal amphotericin B when she was submitted to skin grafts on the legs and a surgical treatment on the arms, and the myelosuppression improved simultaneously. Histoplasmosis seems to be very uncommon among patients who underwent to organ solid transplantation. Most cases occur within 12-18 months after transplantation, although unusual cases have been presented many years post-transplant. There are cases reported in the literature, occurring from 84 days to 18 years after organ transplantation, but without cutaneous involvement. Our patient developed lesions on limbs and myelosuppression after 18 years of chronic immunosuppression medication. This case suggests that besides cutaneous histoplasmosis is an uncommon infection following iatrogenic immunosuppression and even rarer over a long period after the transplantation. Clinicians who care SOT recipient patients must bear in mind histoplasmosis infection as differential diagnosis in any case of cutaneous injury with prolonged fever and try to use as many tools as possible to make the diagnosis, once this disease presents a good prognosis if it is diagnosed and treated promptly.

  15. Oral Rehabilitation of a Patient With Ectodermal Dysplasia Treated With Fresh-Frozen Bone Allografts and Computer-Guided Implant Placement: A Clinical Case Report.

    PubMed

    Maiorana, Carlo; Poli, Pier Paolo; Poggio, Carlo; Barbieri, Paola; Beretta, Mario

    2017-05-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is an inherited disorder characterized by abnormality of ectodermally derived structures. A recurrent oral finding is oligodontia, which in turn leads to a severely hypotrophic alveolar process with typical knife-edge morphology and adverse ridge contours. This unfavorable anatomy can seriously hamper proper implant placement. Fresh-frozen bone (FFB) allografts recently have been proposed to augment the residual bone volume for implant placement purposes; however, scientific evidence concerning the use of FFB to treat ED patients is absent. Similarly, data reporting computer-aided template-guided implant placement in medically compromised patients are limited. Thus the purpose of this report is to illustrate the oral rehabilitation of a female patient affected by ED and treated with appositional FFB block grafts and consecutive computer-guided flapless implant placement in a 2-stage procedure. Fixed implant-supported dental prostheses were finally delivered to the patient, which improved her self-esteem and quality of life. During the follow-up recall 1 year after the prosthetic loading, the clinical examination showed healthy peri-implant soft tissues with no signs of bleeding on probing or pathologic probing depths. The panoramic radiograph confirmed the clinical stability of the result. Peri-implant marginal bone levels were radiographically stable with neither pathologic bone loss at the mesial and distal aspects of each implant nor peri-implant radiolucency. Within the limitations of this report, the use of FFB allografts in association with computer-aided flapless implant surgery might be considered a useful technique in patients affected by ED. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effects of reconstruction with unicondylar osteoarticular allografts with or without prosthesis for bone tumors around knee joint].

    PubMed

    Xue, Y S; Fu, J; Guo, Z; Wang, Z; Pei, Y J; Dang, L L; Fan, H B

    2017-04-01

    Objective: To investigate the survival rate, function outcomes, and complications after using unicondylar osteoarticular allografts with or without prosthesis to reconstruct the knee joint for tumors located in distal femoral or proximal tibial uni-condyle. Methods: Twenty-two patients who underwent unicondylar osteoarticular allografts with or without prosthesis composite reconstructions from January 2007 to December 2015 in Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of Xi Jing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University were retrospectively reviewed. There were 14 males and 8 females and the mean age was 35 years(8-65 years). There were 12 malignent tumors and 10 aggressive benign tumors. The tumors were located in distal femur in 14 cases and proximal tibia in 8 cases. After tumor excision, the distal femur was reconstructed with unicondylar osteoallograft-prosthesis composite, and proximal tibial plate was reconstructed with unicondylar osteoarticular allograft with the help of computer-assisted navigation system. Function and radiograph were documented according to the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) functional scoring system and the International Society of Limb Salvage (ISOLS) radiographic scoring system. The median follow-up time was 60 months (5-116 months). Results: At the latest follow-up, 2 patients had amputation owing to local recurrence in 12 malignant tumors. Three patients had pulmonary metastasis and 1 patient died another 2 alive with disease. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that the disease-free survival rate was 73%. There was no recurrence and metastasis in 10 patients with giant cell tumor. The average MSTS score was 26 points and the radiographic score was 78%-94%(average 90%). The complications included superficial infection in 1 patient and screw broken in 1 patient. There was no broken or collapse allograft in all composite reconstruction patients but 6 cases in allograft reconstruction. Conclusions: Unicondylar osteoarticular allografts

  17. Periodontal Regeneration Of 1-, 2-, and 3-Walled Intrabony Defects Using Accell Connexus (registered trademark) Versus Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft: A Randomized Parallel Arm Clinical Control Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    PERIODONTAL REGENERATION OF 1-, 2-, AND 3-WALLED INTRABONY DEFECTS USING ACCELL CONNEXUS® VERSUS DEMINERALIZED FREEZE- DRIED BONE ALLOGRAFT: A...the Faculty of the Periodontics Graduate Program Naval Postgraduate Dental School Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in partial...June 2015 graduation. Thesis Committee: Matthew B. Miller, CDR, DC, USN Program Director, Periodontics Department Thu Getka, CAPT, DC, USN

  18. Reconstruction of massive uncontained acetabular defects using allograft with cage or ring reinforcement: an assessment of the graft's ability to restore bone stock and its impact on the outcome of re-revision.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemian, M; Sadeghi Naini, M; Tangsataporn, S; Lee, P; Backstein, D; Safir, O; Kuzyk, P; Gross, A E

    2014-03-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 44 consecutive patients (50 hips) who underwent acetabular re-revision after a failed previous revision that had been performed using structural or morcellised allograft bone, with a cage or ring for uncontained defects. Of the 50 previous revisions, 41 cages and nine rings were used with allografts for 14 minor-column and 36 major-column defects. We routinely assessed the size of the acetabular bone defect at the time of revision and re-revision surgery. This allowed us to assess whether host bone stock was restored. We also assessed the outcome of re-revision surgery in these circumstances by means of radiological characteristics, rates of failure and modes of failure. We subsequently investigated the factors that may affect the potential for the restoration of bone stock and the durability of the re-revision reconstruction using multivariate analysis. At the time of re-revision, there were ten host acetabula with no significant defects, 14 with contained defects, nine with minor-column, seven with major-column defects and ten with pelvic discontinuity. When bone defects at re-revision were compared with those at the previous revision, there was restoration of bone stock in 31 hips, deterioration of bone stock in nine and remained unchanged in ten. This was a significant improvement (p < 0.001). Morselised allografting at the index revision was not associated with the restoration of bone stock. In 17 hips (34%), re-revision was possible using a simple acetabular component without allograft, augments, rings or cages. There were 47 patients with a mean follow-up of 70 months (6 to 146) available for survival analysis. Within this group, the successful cases had a minimum follow-up of two years after re-revision. There were 22 clinical or radiological failures (46.7%), 18 of which were due to aseptic loosening. The five and ten year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 75% (95% CI, 60 to 86) and 56% (95% CI, 40 to 70) respectively with aseptic

  19. Biomechanical Evaluation of Different Fixation Methods for Mandibular Anterior Segmental Osteotomy Using Finite Element Analysis, Part Two: Superior Repositioning Surgery With Bone Allograft.

    PubMed

    Kilinç, Yeliz; Erkmen, Erkan; Kurt, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the biomechanical behavior of different fixation methods used to fix the mandibular anterior segment following various amounts of superior repositioning was evaluated by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The three-dimensional finite element models representing 3 and 5 mm superior repositioning were generated. The gap in between segments was assumed to be filled by block bone allograft and resignated to be in perfect contact with the mandible and segmented bone. Six different finite element models with 2 distinct mobilization rate including 3 different fixation configurations, double right L (DRL), double left L (DLL), or double I (DI) miniplates with monocortical screws, correspondingly were created. A comparative evaluation has been made under vertical, horizontal and oblique loads. The von Mises and principal maximum stress (Pmax) values were calculated by finite element solver programme. The first part of our ongoing Finite Element Analysis research has been addressed to the mechanical behavior of the same fixation configurations in nongrafted models. In comparison with the findings of the first part of the study, it was concluded that bone graft offers superior mechanical stability without any limitation of mobilization and less stress on the fixative appliances as well as in the bone.

  20. A Comparision of Two Types of Decalcified Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft in Treatment of Dehiscence Defects around Implants in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Ahmad Moghareh; Pestekan, Rasool Heidari; Yaghini, Jaber; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Tavakoli, Mohammad; Amjadi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) may have the potential to enhance bone formation around dental implants. Our aim in this study was the evaluation and comparison of two types of DFDBA in treatment of dehiscence defects around Euroteknika® implants in dogs. Methods: In this prospective clinical trial animal study, all mandibular premolars of three Iranian dogs were extracted. After 3 months of healing, fifteen SLA type Euroteknika® dental implants (Natea) with 4.1mm diameter and 10mm length were placed in osteotomy sites with dehiscence defects of 5mm length, 4 mm width, and 3mm depth. Guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures were performed using Cenobone and collagen membrane for six implants, the other six implants received Dembone and collagen membrane and the final three implants received only collagen membrane. All implants were submerged. After 4 months of healing, implants were uncovered and stability (Implant Stability Quotient) of all implants was measured. Then, block biopsies of each implant site were taken and processed for ground sectioning and histomorphometric analysis. The data was analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson tests. P value less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: All implants osseointegrated after 4 months. The mean values of bone to implant contact for histomorphometric measurements of Cenobone, Denobone, and control groups were 77.36 ± 9.96%, 78.91 ± 11.9% and 71.56 ± 5.61% respectively, with no significant differences among the various treatment groups. The correlation of Implant Stability Quotient and histomorphometric techniques was 0.692. Conclusion: In treating of dehiscence defects with GBR technique in this study, adding DFDBA did not significantly enhance the percentages of bone-to-implant contact measurements; and Implant Stability Quotient Resonance Frequency Analysis appeared to be a precise technique. PMID:22013476

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: allograft versus autograft.

    PubMed

    Chang, Spencer K Y; Egami, Darren K; Shaieb, Mark D; Kan, Darryl M; Richardson, Allen B

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the minimal 2-year outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) allografts versus autografts, both augmented with an iliotibial band tenodesis. Retrospective review. Forty-six of 52 BPTB ACL reconstructions using allografts and 33 of 37 BPTB ACL reconstructions using autografts were followed up at a mean of 2.75 and 3.36 years, respectively. All patients had an iliotibial band tenodesis. Evaluations included the Lysholm II scale, a questionnaire, physical examination findings, and KT-1000 arthrometry. No statistically significant differences were seen between groups in Lysholm II scores or in any subjective category. Most patients (91% allograft; 97% autograft) had good to excellent Lysholm II scores. Sixty-five percent of allograft patients and 73% of autograft patients returned to their preinjury activity level. More allograft patients complained of retropatellar pain (16% v 9% for autograft patients). Fifty-three percent of allograft patients versus 23% of autograft patients had a flexion deficit of 5 degrees or more when compared with the normal contralateral side. When comparing KT-1000 side-to-side differences, we found no significant differences between groups. Ninety-one percent of both groups had maximum side-to-side differences less than 5 mm. Three allograft patients (6.5%) had traumatic ruptures at 12, 19, and 43 months postoperatively versus none in the autograft group. All three allograft patients who sustained postoperative traumatic ruptures had received fresh frozen, nonirradiated allografts. Results of ACL reconstruction using allografts or autografts augmented with an iliotibial band tenodesis were comparable. The BPTB autograft should remain the gold standard, although the BPTB allograft in ACL reconstruction is a reasonable alternative.

  2. A comparison of radiographic and clinical outcomes of anterior lumbar interbody fusion performed with either a cellular bone allograft containing multipotent adult progenitor cells or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel Dongwhan; Kim, John Yongmin

    2017-08-25

    Both the map3 Cellular Allogeneic Bone Graft® and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2, Infuse®) were developed to provide an alternative to iliac crest autograft, thus eliminating the morbidity associated with its harvest. The recent literature concerning adverse events associated with the use of rhBMP-2, however, highlights the need for a safe and effective alternative. The multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) found in map3 allograft may provide this alternative. The purpose of this study is to report 1-year outcomes of patients treated via anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) using either map3 Cellular Allogeneic Bone Graft or rhBMP-2 for bony fusion. This was a retrospective evaluation of 41 patients treated via ALIF with either map3 or rhBMP-2 in a polyetheretherketone cage with posterior stabilization at 1, 2, or 3 consecutive levels (L3-S1). Patients were equally divided between treatment groups. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scores (VAS) for pain were documented as part of the standard of care. An independent radiologist assessed bridging of bone, disc height, and lordosis. Primary outcome measures included radiographic analysis of fusion by plain film and CTs. Secondary clinical outcomes included visual analogue scale for neck and arm pain and low back disability index scores. The overall fusion rate was 91%, with no significant difference between groups. Improvements in ODI and VAS were observed among all patients (p < 0.001), with no significant difference between groups for ODI (p = 0.966) or VAS (p = 0.251). There was no significant difference in terms of changes to disc height and lordosis between groups (p < 0.05). The rhBMP-2 group had increased post-operative complications when compared to the map3 group, but the low numbers precluded statistical analysis. Improvements in radiographic and clinical findings were observed in both treatment groups one-year postoperatively. Map3 allograft

  3. Five-year clinical effects of donor bone marrow cells infusions in kidney allograft recipients: improved graft function and higher graft survival.

    PubMed

    Solgi, Ghasem; Gadi, Vijayakrishna; Paul, Biswajit; Mytilineos, Joannis; Pourmand, Gholamreza; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Ranjbar, Moslem; Mohammadnia, Mousa; Nikbin, Behrouz; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Augmentation of microchimerism in solid organ transplant recipients by donor bone marrow cells (DBMC) infusion may promote immune hyporesponsiveness and consequently improve long-term allograft survival. Between March 2005 and July 2007, outcomes for 20 living unrelated donor (LURD) primary kidney recipients with concurrent DBMC infusion (an average of 2.19 ± 1.13 x 10⁹ donor cells consisting of 2.66 ± 1.70 x 10⁷ CD34⁺ cells) were prospectively compared with 20 non-infused control allograft recipients given similar conventional immunosuppressive regimens. With five years of clinical follow up, a total of 11 cases experienced rejection episodes (3 DBMI patients vs. 8 controls, p = 0.15). One DBMC-infused patient experienced chronic rejection vs. two episodes (1 biopsy-confirmed) in the control patients. Actuarial and death-censored 5-y graft survival was significantly higher in infused patients compared with controls (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). Long-term graft survival was significantly associated with pre-transplant anti-HLA antibodies (p = 0.01), slightly with peripheral microchimerism (p = 0.09) and CD4⁺CD25⁺FoxP3⁺ T cells (p = 0.09). Immunosuppressant dosing was lower in infused patients than controls, particularly for mycophenolate mofetil (p = 0.001). The current findings as well as our previous reports on these patients indicates clinical improvement in long-term graft survival of renal transplant patients resulting from low-dose DBMC infusion given without induction therapy.

  4. The relevance of Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin and metronidazole during complex maxillary rehabilitations using bone allograft. Part II: implant surgery, prosthodontics, and survival.

    PubMed

    Simonpieri, Alain; Del Corso, Marco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2009-06-01

    Extensive bone grafting remains a delicate procedure, due to the slow and difficult integration of the grafted material into the physiological architecture. The recent use of platelet concentrates aims to improve this process of integration by accelerating bone and mucosal healing. Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a healing biomaterial that concentrates in a single autologous fibrin membrane, most platelets, leukocytes, and cytokines from a 10-mL blood harvest, without artificial biochemical modification (no anticoagulant, no bovine thrombin). In this second part, we describe the implant and prosthetic phases of a complex maxillary rehabilitation, after preimplant bone grafting using allograft, Choukroun's PRF membranes, and metronidazole. Twenty patients were treated using this new technique and followed up during 2.1 years (1-5 years). Finally, 184 dental implants were placed, including 54 classical screw implants (3I, Palm Beach Gardens, FL) and 130 implants with microthreaded collar (46 from AstraTech, Mölndal, Sweden; 84 from Intra-Lock, Boca Raton, FL). No implant or graft was lost in this case series, confirming the validity of this reconstructive protocol. However, the number of implants used per maxillary rehabilitation was always higher with simple screw implants than with microthreaded implants, the latter presenting a stronger initial implant stability. Finally, during complex implant rehabilitations, PRF membranes are particularly helpful for periosteum healing and maturation. The thick peri-implant gingiva is related to several healing phases on a PRF membrane layer and could explain the low marginal bone loss observed in this series. Microthreaded collar and platform-switching concept even improved this result. Multiple healing on PRF membranes seems a new opportunity to improve the final esthetic result.

  5. Bacterial contamination of allografts.

    PubMed

    Barrios, R H; Leyes, M; Amillo, S; Oteiza, C

    1994-01-01

    The risk of bacterial infection through allogenic bone transplantation is one of the major problems facing tissue banks. The purpose of this study is to report the contamination rate in 987 grafts obtained under strictly aseptic conditions, between 1989 and 1992. The grafts were stored at -80 degrees C (cortical bone and tendons) and -40 degrees C (cancellous bone). The overall contamination rate was 6.6%, with Gram-positive bacteria responsible for 80% of the positive cultures. We discuss the sources of contamination, the most frequently isolated bacteria and the steps in the donation and transplantation procedures that help to reduce the risk of contamination. We conclude that the methods of acquisition, processing and storage of tissues are effective in making sterile allografts available.

  6. Bacterial contamination of allografts.

    PubMed

    Barrios, R H; Leyes, M; Amillo, S; Oteiza, C

    1994-01-01

    The risk of bacterial infection through allogeneic bone transplantation is one of the problems facing tissue banks. The purpose of this study is to report the contamination rate in 987 grafts obtained under strictly aseptic conditions, between 1989 and 1992. The grafts were stored at -80 degrees C (cortical bone and tendons) and -40 degrees C (cancellous bone). The overall contamination rate was 6.6%, with Gram-positive bacteria responsible for 80% of the positive cultures. We discuss the sources of contamination, the most frequently isolated bacteria and the steps in the donation and transplantation procedures that help to reduce the risk of contamination. We conclude that the methods of procurement, processing and storage of tissues are effective in making sterile allografts available.

  7. Demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft and platelet-rich plasma vs platelet-rich plasma alone in infrabony defects: a clinical and radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ilgenli, Tunç; Dündar, Nesrin; Kal, Betül Ilhan

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this work is to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA)/platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combination with PRP alone for the treatment of infrabony defects 18 months after surgery and to examine the influence of radiographic defect angle on the clinical and radiographic outcomes. Twenty-eight infrabony defects were treated with DFDBA/PRP combination or PRP alone. Clinical parameters and radiographic measurements were compared at baseline and 18 months. Interquartile range was performed to classify the defect angles. Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon test, and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the data. The DFDBA/PRP combination exhibited more favorable gains in both clinical and radiographic parameters than PRP alone group (p < 0.05). A correlation existed between defect angle, defect depth, and clinical/radiographic outcomes for the defects treated with DFDBA/PRP. The narrow defects presented more favorable clinical attachment level values (CAL) gain, probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction and defect resolution than wide defects in the combination group (p < 0.05). The influence of baseline defect angle was not significant in the PRP-alone group (p > 0.05). The results indicate that DFDBA/PRP combination is more effective than PRP alone for the treatment of infrabony defects, and the amount of CAL gain, PPD reduction, and bone fill increases when the infrabony defect is narrow and deep before DFDBA/PRP combination treatment.

  8. Induction of tolerance to bone marrow allografts by donor-derived host nonreactive ex vivo–induced central memory CD8 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ophir, Eran; Eidelstein, Yaki; Afik, Ran; Bachar-Lustig, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Enabling engraftment of allogeneic T cell–depleted bone marrow (TDBM) under reduced-intensity conditioning represents a major challenge in bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Anti–third-party cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were previously shown to be endowed with marked ability to delete host antidonor T cells in vitro, but were found to be less effective in vivo. This could result from diminished lymph node (LN) homing caused by the prolonged activation, which induces a CD44+CD62L− effector phenotype, and thereby prevents effective colocalization with, and neutralization of, alloreactive host T cells (HTCs). In the present study, LN homing, determined by imaging, was enhanced upon culture conditions that favor the acquisition of CD44+CD62L+ central memory cell (Tcm) phenotype by anti–third-party CD8+ cells. These Tcm-like cells displayed strong proliferation and prolonged persistence in BM transplant recipients. Importantly, adoptively transferred HTCs bearing a transgenic T-cell receptor (TCR) with antidonor specificity were efficiently deleted only by donor-type Tcms. All these attributes were found to be associated with improved efficacy in overcoming T cell–mediated rejection of TDBM, thereby enabling high survival rate and long-term donor chimerism, without causing graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, anti–third-party Tcms, which home to recipient LNs and effectively delete antidonor T cells, could provide an effective and novel tool for overcoming rejection of BM allografts. PMID:20042725

  9. The use of femoral struts and impacted cancellous bone allograft in patients with severe femoral bone loss who undergo revision total hip replacement: a three- to nine-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Buttaro, M A; Costantini, J; Comba, F; Piccaluga, F

    2012-02-01

    We determined the midterm survival, incidence of peri-prosthetic fracture and the enhancement of the width of the femur when combining struts and impacted bone allografts in 24 patients (25 hips) with severe femoral bone loss who underwent revision hip surgery. The pre-operative diagnosis was aseptic loosening in 16 hips, second-stage reconstruction in seven, peri-prosthetic fracture in one and stem fracture in one hip. A total of 14 hips presented with an Endoklinik grade 4 defect and 11 hips a grade 3 defect. The mean pre-operative Merle D'Aubigné and Postel score was 5.5 points (1 to 8). The survivorship was 96% (95% confidence interval 72 to 98) at a mean of 54.5 months (36 to 109). The mean functional score was 17.3 points (16 to 18). One patient in which the strut did not completely bypass the femoral defect was further revised using a long cemented stem due to peri-prosthetic fracture at six months post-operatively. The mean subsidence of the stem was 1.6 mm (1 to 3). There was no evidence of osteolysis, resorption or radiolucencies during follow-up in any hip. Femoral width was enhanced by a mean of 41% (19% to 82%). A total of 24 hips had partial or complete bridging of the strut allografts. This combined biological method was associated with a favourable survivorship, a low incidence of peri-prosthetic fracture and enhancement of the width of the femur in revision total hip replacement in patients with severe proximal femoral bone loss.

  10. Reconstruction with fascia lata allograft of the posterior vertebra elements after resection for aneurysmal bone cyst in a child

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Sergio; Biagini, Roberto; Casadei, Roberto; De Paolis, Massimiliano; Bertoni, Franco; Boriani, Stefano; Mercuri, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of ABC in a child where, after resection of the posterior spinal column of L1, we did a biological reconstruction using a posterior tension band with a segment of fascia lata allograft in tension between T12 and L2. After the long term follow up, X-ray and MRI controls showed a satisfactory alignment of the spine and no local recurrence. The patient now has no sign of spinal instability or deviation, with no kind of discomfort or pain, and has a normal life. In our experience this biological tension band interferes minimally with the growth of the spine, and has a less number of complications in comparison with other more aggressive methods and so is a good option for restoring the stability in young patients with benign spinal tumors that arises on the posterior column without having any kind of potential deviations. PMID:17426986

  11. Morselized Amniotic Membrane Tissue for Refractory Corneal Epithelial Defects in Cicatricial Ocular Surface Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Anny M. S.; Chua, Lorraine; Casas, Victoria; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical efficacy of morselized amniotic membrane and umbilical cord tissue (MAU) in treating refractory corneal epithelial defect in ocular cicatricial diseases. Methods Retrospective review of four patients with ocular cicatricial diseases treated with topical MAU for corneal epithelial defects refractory to conventional treatments including topical lubricants, autologous serum, bandage contact lens, and tarsorraphy. Their symptoms, corneal staining, conjunctival inflammation, and visual acuity were compared before and after treatment. Results After topical application of MAU twice daily, two patients demonstrated rapid corneal epithelialization with prompt visual acuity improvement at the first day. All patients showed corneal epithelialization in 7.3 ± 2.6 days accompanied by a significant relief of symptoms, reduction of ocular surface inflammation, and improvement of visual acuity. Conclusion This pilot study suggests topical MAU can be developed into a novel treatment for treating refractory corneal epithelial defects. Translational Relevance Topical MAU can be an effective novel treatment for refractory corneal epithelial defects. PMID:27226933

  12. Allograft selection for distal femur through cutting contour registration.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Lihui; Niu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Li

    2016-12-01

    Allograft reconstruction is an acceptable procedure for the recovery of normal anatomy after the bone tumor resection. During the past few years, several automated methods have been proposed to select the best anatomically matching allograft from the virtual donor bone bank. The surface-based automated method uses the contralateral healthy bone to obtain the normal surface shape of the diseased bone, which could achieve good matching of the defect and the selected allograft. However, the surface-based method focuses on the matching of the whole bone so that the matching of the contact surface between the allograft and the recipient bone may not be optimal. To deal with the above problem, we propose a cutting contour based method for the allograft selection. Cutting contour from the recipient bone could reflect the structural information of the defect and is seldom influenced by tumor. Thus the cutting contour can be used as the matching template to find the optimal alignment of the recipient bone and the allograft. The proposed method is validated using the data of distal femurs where bone transplantation is commonly performed. Experimental results show that the proposed method generally outperforms the surface-based method within modest extra time. Overall, our contour-based method is an effective complementary technique for allograft selection in the virtual bone bank.

  13. Abrogation of bone marrow allograft resistance in mice by increased total body irradiation correlates with eradication of host clonable T cells and alloreactive cytotoxic precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, E.; Lapidot, T.; Gozes, D.; Singer, T.S.; Reisner, Y.

    1987-01-15

    Host-vs-graft activity presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, conditioned exactly like leukemia patients, it was shown that residual host clonable T cells, as well as alloreactive cytotoxic precursors, were present in peripheral blood and spleen after completion of cytoreduction. We have now extended this study in a mouse model for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. C/sub 3/H/HeJ mice were treated by 9 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and 24 hr later their spleen cells were cultured in the presence of T cell growth factor and phytohemagglutinin according to the limit dilution procedure. After 7 days of culture the average frequency of clonable cells was 2.5 X 10(-3) compared with 37 X 10(-3) in the spleens of normal mice. The T cell derivation of the growing cells was ascertained by complement-mediated cytotoxicity with anti-Thy-1 as well as with anti-Lyt-2 and anti-Ly-3T4. In parallel, we found that the initial engraftment rate of bone marrow allograft in mice given 9 Gy TBI was lower than that found in recipients of syngeneic marrow. The initial engraftment rate was measured by the number of colony-forming units in the spleen and by splenic uptake of /sup 125/IUdR. A slight increase in TBI from 9 Gy to 11 Gy markedly reduced the difference in the number of spleen colony-forming units or the IUdR uptake between recipients of allogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow. This increase in TBI also coincided with eradication of detectable clonable T cells. Moreover, in mice transplanted with T cell-depleted bone marrow after 9 Gy TBI, we also demonstrate that cytotoxicity against donor-type target cells is present in the spleen 10 to 14 days posttransplantation, whereas in mice treated by 11 Gy TBI such alloreactivity could not be detected.

  14. A clinical evaluation of guided tissue regeneration with a bioabsorbable matrix membrane combined with an allograft bone graft. A series of case reports.

    PubMed

    Harris, R J

    1997-06-01

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a surgical technique in treating periodontal defects. The technique combined tetracycline treatment of a root planed root, grafting of the osseous defect with a demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft combined with tetracycline and the placement of a bioabsorbable matrix membrane, made of polylactic acid softened with citric acid ester. Thirty defects were treated in 27 patients. Statistically significant changes, as a result of the surgical procedure, were observed in marginal recession (mean: 0.5 mm), probing depth reductions (mean: 5.7 mm), and attachment level gain (mean: 5.2 mm). No statistically significant difference existed between the results in the furcation and non-furcation groups. The defects with probing depths > or = 10 mm had a greater mean probing depth reduction (7.4 mm) and mean attachment level improvement (7.2 mm) than the defects with < 10 mm probing depths (probing depth reduction 4.5 mm and attachment level gain 3.9 mm). The proposed surgical procedure seemed to be an effective method to treat periodontal defects.

  15. Controlling Arteriogenesis and Mast Cells Are Central to Bioengineering Solutions for Critical Bone Defect Repair Using Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Antebi, Ben; Zhang, Longze; Sheyn, Dmitriy; Pelled, Gadi; Zhang, Xinping; Gazit, Zulma; Schwarz, Edward M.; Gazit, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Although most fractures heal, critical defects in bone fail due to aberrant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards fibrosis rather than osteogenesis. While conventional bioengineering solutions to this problem have focused on enhancing angiogenesis, which is required for bone formation, recent studies have shown that fibrotic non-unions are associated with arteriogenesis in the center of the defect and accumulation of mast cells around large blood vessels. Recently, recombinant parathyroid hormone (rPTH; teriparatide; Forteo) therapy have shown to have anti-fibrotic effects on non-unions and critical bone defects due to inhibition of arteriogenesis and mast cell numbers within the healing bone. As this new direction holds great promise towards a solution for significant clinical hurdles in craniofacial reconstruction and limb salvage procedures, this work reviews the current state of the field, and provides insights as to how teriparatide therapy could be used as an adjuvant for healing critical defects in bone. Finally, as teriparatide therapy is contraindicated in the setting of cancer, which constitutes a large subset of these patients, we describe early findings of adjuvant therapies that may present future promise by directly inhibiting arteriogenesis and mast cell accumulation at the defect site. PMID:27141513

  16. Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived myeloid suppressor cell (MDSC) adoptive transfer in mouse models of autoimmunity and allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Drujont, Lucile; Carretero-Iglesia, Laura; Bouchet-Delbos, Laurence; Beriou, Gaelle; Merieau, Emmanuel; Hill, Marcelo; Delneste, Yves; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Louvet, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic use of immunoregulatory cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of uncontrolled immunity. During the last decade, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as novel key regulatory players in the context of tumor growth, inflammation, transplantation or autoimmunity. Recently, MDSC have been successfully generated in vitro from naive mouse bone marrow cells or healthy human PBMCs using minimal cytokine combinations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of adoptive transfer of such cells to control auto- and allo-immunity in the mouse. Culture of bone marrow cells with GM-CSF and IL-6 consistently yielded a majority of CD11b+Gr1hi/lo cells exhibiting strong inhibition of CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro. However, adoptive transfer of these cells failed to alter antigen-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in vivo. Furthermore, MDSC could not prevent the development of autoimmunity in a stringent model of type 1 diabetes. Rather, loading the cells prior to injection with a pancreatic neo-antigen peptide accelerated the development of the disease. Contrastingly, in a model of skin transplantation, repeated injection of MDSC or single injection of LPS-activated MDSC resulted in a significant prolongation of allograft survival. The beneficial effect of MDSC infusions on skin graft survival was paradoxically not explained by a decrease of donor-specific T cell response but associated with a systemic over-activation of T cells and antigen presenting cells, prominently in the spleen. Taken together, our results indicate that in vitro generated MDSC bear therapeutic potential but will require additional in vitro factors or adjunct immunosuppressive treatments to achieve safe and more robust immunomodulation upon adoptive transfer.

  17. Reducing allograft contamination and disease transmission: intraosseous temperatures of femoral head allografts during autoclaving

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Chay-You; Yew, Andy Khye-Soon; Tay, Darren Keng-Jin; Chia, Shi-Lu; Yeo, Seng-Jin; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Chin, Pak-Lin

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Singapore General Hospital Bone Bank, which exclusively stores femoral head allografts, relies on flash sterilisation to prevent allograft-related disease transmission and wound infection. However, intraosseous temperatures during autoclaving may be lower than required to eliminate human immunodeficiency virus, and hepatitis B and C viruses. The aim of this study is to determine the intraosseous temperatures of femoral head allografts during autoclaving and to assess the adequacy of autoclaving in preventing disease transmission. METHODS Six femoral heads were acquired from patients who underwent hip arthroplasty. The specimens were divided into two groups. The first group underwent flash sterilisation with a sterilisation time of 4 min, while a longer sterilisation time of 22 min was used for the second group. RESULTS The highest core temperature in the first group was 130°C, while the core temperatures in the second group plateaued at 133°C for all allografts. In the first group, only smaller allografts maintained temperatures sufficient for the inactivation of the clinically relevant viral pathogens. In contrast, all allografts in the second group were terminally sterilised. CONCLUSION There is an inverse correlation between the size of allografts and intraosseous temperatures achieved during autoclaving. Therefore, we recommend dividing large allografts into smaller pieces, in order to achieve intraosseous temperatures adequate for the elimination of transmissible pathogens during flash sterilisation. Allografts should not be terminally sterilised, as the resulting allografts will become unusable. Despite modern processing techniques, stringent donor selection remains vital in the effort to prevent allograft-related infections. Autoclaving is an economical and efficacious method of preventing allograft-related disease transmission. PMID:25631893

  18. Reducing allograft contamination and disease transmission: intraosseous temperatures of femoral head allografts during autoclaving.

    PubMed

    Ang, Chay-You; Yew, Andy Khye-Soon; Tay, Darren Keng-Jin; Chia, Shi-Lu; Yeo, Seng-Jin; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Chin, Pak-Lin

    2014-10-01

    The Singapore General Hospital Bone Bank, which exclusively stores femoral head allografts, relies on flash sterilisation to prevent allograft-related disease transmission and wound infection. However, intraosseous temperatures during autoclaving may be lower than required to eliminate human immunodeficiency virus, and hepatitis B and C viruses. The aim of this study is to determine the intraosseous temperatures of femoral head allografts during autoclaving and to assess the adequacy of autoclaving in preventing disease transmission. Six femoral heads were acquired from patients who underwent hip arthroplasty. The specimens were divided into two groups. The first group underwent flash sterilisation with a sterilisation time of 4 min, while a longer sterilisation time of 22 min was used for the second group. The highest core temperature in the first group was 130°C, while the core temperatures in the second group plateaued at 133°C for all allografts. In the first group, only smaller allografts maintained temperatures sufficient for the inactivation of the clinically relevant viral pathogens. In contrast, all allografts in the second group were terminally sterilised. There is an inverse correlation between the size of allografts and intraosseous temperatures achieved during autoclaving. Therefore, we recommend dividing large allografts into smaller pieces, in order to achieve intraosseous temperatures adequate for the elimination of transmissible pathogens during flash sterilisation. Allografts should not be terminally sterilised, as the resulting allografts will become unusable. Despite modern processing techniques, stringent donor selection remains vital in the effort to prevent allograft-related infections. Autoclaving is an economical and efficacious method of preventing allograft-related disease transmission.

  19. Negative association of donor age with CD34⁺ cell dose in mixture allografts of G-CSF-primed bone marrow and G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood harvests.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Chang, Yingjun; Xu, Lanping; Zhang, Xiaohui; Huang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of donor characteristics on CD34(+) cell dose remain controversial. Recently, we developed a novel haploidentical transplant protocol, in which mixture allografts of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-primed bone marrow (G-BM) and G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood (G-PB) were used. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of donor characteristics on CD34(+) cell dose in mixture allografts of G-BM and G-PB. A total of 162 healthy adult donors, who underwent bone marrow harvest and peripheral blood collection between January 2009 and November 2010 in Peking University People's Hospital, were prospectively investigated. G-CSF was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 5 µg/kg once a day for 5-6 consecutive days. Bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells were harvested on the fourth day and fifth day, respectively. A final total CD34(+) cell dose less than 2×10(6) cells/kg recipient body weight was considered a poor mobilization. Of the 162 donors, 31 (19.1%) did not attain this threshold. The obtained median CD34(+) cell doses in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and mixture allografts were 0.83×10(6)/kg, 2.40×10(6)/kg, and 3.47×10(6)/kg, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that donor age had a significant negative effect on CD34(+) cell dose in either G-BM, or G-PB, or mixture allografts of G-BM and G-PB. And a 1-year increase in age was associated with a 5.6% decrease in the odds of achieving mobilization cutoff. No significant correlation was found for donor gender, body mass index (BMI), and weight. Donor age is the only factor among the four parameters, including age, gender, weight, and BMI, that influence CD34(+) cell dose in mixture allografts of G-BM and G-PB, and younger donors should be chosen to obtain sufficient CD34(+) cells for transplantation.

  20. Low-dose donor bone marrow cells and splenocytes plus adenovirus encoding for CTLA4Ig gene promote stable mixed chimerism and long-term survival of rat cardiac allografts.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y-Z; Zhang, Q-Y; Xie, S-S

    2003-12-01

    Co-stimulatory blockade combined with donor bone marrow transfusion engenders stable mixed chimerism and robust tolerance to various organ and cell transplants. However, repeated administration of costly agents to block the co-stimulatory pathway and the high doses of donor bone marrow cells (BMCs) used in most protocols are impeding clinical development of this strategy. To circumvent these shortcomings, we developed a plan in which repeated administration of costly agents was replaced by a single injection of adenovirus containing the gene of interest, and the high dose of donor BMCs replaced by a mixture of low-dose donor BMCs and splenocytes (SPLCs). Cardiac allografts from DA(RT-1(a)) rats were transplanted heterotopically into the abdomens of LEW(RT-1(1)) rats. A cocktail of adenovirus containing CTLA4Ig gene (AdCTLA4Ig), donor BMCs (100 x 10(6)), and SPLCs (50 x 10(6)) was administered to recipients via the portal vein immediately after grafting (n = 6). Treatment with regimens, including AdCTLA4Ig only, AdCTLA4Ig plus donor BMCs, and AdCTLA4Ig plus donor SPLCs, significantly prolonged cardiac allograft survival in recipient rats, while animals that received no treatment or treatment with control adenovirus (AdLacZ) promptly rejected their allografts. Nevertheless, LEW recipients treated with AdCTLA4Ig and the mixture of a low dose of donor BMCs and SPLCs developed stable mixed chimerism, rendering them long-term survivors of cardiac allografts that also accepted skin grafts from the donor but not the third-party strain. We conclude that blockade of CD28-B7 pathway with AdCTLA4Ig plus a mixture of low doses of donor BMCs and SPLCs is a feasible strategy to induce long-term mixed chimerism with a potential application for clinical development.

  1. Effect of Freeze-Dried Allograft Bone With Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Containing a Collagen-Binding Domain From Clostridium histolyticum Collagenase on Bone Formation After Lumbar Posterolateral Fusion Surgery in Rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Gen; Uchida, Kentaro; Matsushita, Osamu; Fujimaki, Hisako; Saito, Wataru; Miyagi, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Nozomu; Ohtori, Seiji; Yogoro, Mizuki; Takaso, Masashi

    2017-09-01

    An experimental study. To evaluate the effectiveness of freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) fused with the polycystic kidney disease domain (PKD) and the collagen-binding domain (CBD) of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, for the acceleration of lumbar posterolateral fusion in rats. Reports indicate bFGF is an effective growth factor with osteogenic potential for promoting bone regeneration, although its efficiency decreases rapidly following its diffusion in body fluid from the host site. We developed a bFGF fusion protein containing the PKD and the CBD of C histolyticum collagenase (bFGF-PKD-CBD), which markedly enhanced bone formation at a relatively low concentration when applied to the surface of rat femurs in a previous study. The potential of this novel protein to accelerate bone fusion in a rat model of lumbar posterolateral fusion has yet to be investigated. Bilateral L4-L5 posterolateral fusions were performed, using 150 mg of FDBA powder per side. A total of 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 to 250 g/each were divided into two groups of 10 rats: FDBA was incubated with either phosphate-buffered saline (control group) or 0.58 nmol bFGF-PKD-CBD (bFGF-PKD-CBD group) before fusion surgery. The effect of bFGF-PKD-CBD was estimated using radiographs, microcomputed tomography, and histology (hematoxylin-eosin and von Kossa staining). Both grafted bone volume in the posterolateral lesion and the volume of new bone formation on the surface of laminae and spinal processes were significantly higher in the bFGF-PKD-CBD group than in the control group. Histologically, new bone formation and surrounding chondrocytes and fibroblasts were prominent in the bFGF-PKD-CBD group. FDBA infused with bFGF-PKD-CBD may be a promising material for accelerating spinal fusion, and the FDBA-based delivery system for localizing bFGF-PKD-CBD may offer novel therapeutic approaches to augment spinal fusion. N/A.

  2. Proximal humeral osteoarticular allografts: technique, pearls and pitfalls, outcomes.

    PubMed

    Farfalli, German L; Ayerza, Miguel A; Muscolo, D Luis; Aponte-Tinao, Luis A

    2015-12-01

    Allograft transplantation is a biologic reconstruction option for massive bone defects after resection of bone sarcomas. This type of reconstruction not only restores bone stock but it also allows us to reconstruct the joint anatomically. These factors are a major concern, especially in a young and active population.We are describing indications, surgical techniques, pearls and pitfalls, and outcomes of proximal humeral osteoarticular allografts, done at present time in our institution.We found that allograft fractures and articular complications, as epiphyseal resorption and subchondral fracture, are the main complications observed in proximal humerus osteoarticular allograft reconstructions. Nevertheless, only fractures need a reconstruction revision. Joint complications may adversely affect the limb function, but for this reason, an allograft revision is rarely performed.

  3. Long-term Tolerance Toward Haploidentical Vascularized Composite Allograft Transplantation in a Canine Model Using Bone Marrow or Mobilized Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jeff; Graves, Scott S; Butts-Miwongtum, Tiffany; Sale, George E; Storb, Rainer; Mathes, David Woodbridge

    2016-12-01

    The development of safe and reliable protocols for the transplantation of the face and hands may be accomplished with animal modeling of transplantation of vascularized composite allografts (VCA). Previously, we demonstrated that tolerance to a VCA could be achieved after canine recipients were simultaneously given marrow from a dog leukocyte antigen-identical donor. In the present study, we extend those findings across a dog leukocyte antigen mismatched barrier. Eight recipient dogs received total body irradiation (4.5 cGy), hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), either marrow (n = 4) or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (n = 4), and a VCA transplant from the HCT donor. Post grafting immunosuppression consisted of mycophenolate mofetil (28 days) and cyclosporine (35 days). In 4 dogs receiving bone marrow, 1 accepted both its marrow transplant and demonstrated long-term tolerance to the donor VCA (>52 weeks). Three dogs rejected both their marrow transplants and VCA at 5 to 7 weeks posttransplant. Dogs receiving mobilized stem cells all accepted their stem cell transplant and became tolerant to the VCA. However, 3 dogs developed graft-versus-host disease, whereas 1 dog rejected its stem cell graft by week 15 but exhibited long-term tolerance toward its VCA (>90 weeks). The data suggest that simultaneous transplantation of mobilized stem cells and a VCA is feasible and leads to tolerance toward the VCA in a haploidentical setting. However, there is a higher rate of donor stem cell engraftment compared with marrow HCT and an increase in the incidence of graft-versus-host disease.

  4. Clinical and biometrical evaluation of socket preservation using demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft with and without the palatal connective tissue as a biologic membrane.

    PubMed

    Moghaddas, Hamid; Amjadi, Mohammad Reza; Naghsh, Narges

    2012-11-01

    Alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction has the ability to maintain the ridge dimensions and allow the implant placement in an ideal position fulfilling both functional and aesthetic results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the palatal connective tissue as a biological membrane for socket preservation with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). Twelve extraction sites were treated with DFDBA with (case group) and without (control group) using autogenous palatal connective tissue membrane before placement of implants. Alveolar width and height, amount of keratinized tissue, and gingival level were measured at pre-determined points using a surgical stent at two times, the time of socket preservation surgery. In both groups a decrease in all socket dimensions was found. The average decrease in socket width, height, keratinized tissue, and gingival level in case group was 1.16, 0.72, 3.58, and 1.27 mm, and in control group was 2.08, 0.86, 4.52, and 1.58 mm respectively. Statistical analysis showed that decrease in socket width (P = 0.012), keratinized tissue (P ≤ 0.001), and gingival level (P = 0.031) in case group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Results showed no meaningful difference in socket height changes when compared with case and control groups (P = 0.148). Under the limits of this study, connective tissue membrane could preserve socket width, amount of keratinized tissue, and the gingival level more effectively than DFDBA alone.

  5. Biomechanical assays for the study of the effects of hip prostheses: application to the reconstruction of bone defects with femoral allografts.

    PubMed

    Francés, Alberto; Claramunt, Rafael; Cebrian, Juan-Luis; Marco, Fernando; Lópiz, Yaiza; Rullanç, Ramon Muiña; Ros, Antonio; López-Durán, Luis

    2013-08-01

    There is a need to study and validate the mechanical behavior of the bone-implant total hip prosthesis and the treatment of its complications with experimental studies due to the limitations showed by numerical methods. Epoxy resin replicas of a femur (stereolithography) and a mechanical validation were performed. We studied three cases: intact femur (Case 1); non-defective femur with non-cemented LD primary stem (Case 2); and femur with a cavitary defect, short cemented stem over an impacted allograft (Case 3). The test pieces were connected to 7 strain gauges. Three assays per piece were carried out with a vertical and oblique load (load-unload curves after a sequence between 0 and 145.9 N). We measured the k coefficient (distance from the natural state of the strains) and stability of the stem (flexion-compression by strain gauges 1, 2, 5, and 7 and transversal lengthening by strain gauges 3, 4, and 6). Results of the strain gauge analysis revealed linearity of results in all cases, and more so in load than in unload. Gauge 7 (proximal) revealed shortening in all cases. Gauges 2 and 5 provided qualitatively similar data due to a significant increase in rigidity. K coefficients were obtained with a nonsignificant difference when each of the test pieces was compared with Case 2. The results were reproducible in all 7 gauges. Observation of the load-unload curves in all the test pieces assayed shows that there are no variations in the pattern of behavior (when comparing the stability of a primary stem and a stem in the simulated reconstructed femoral defect. If these reconstructions are considered theoretically appropriate for giving primary stability to the stem--a sine qua non for the success of replacement surgery--then our study is novel.

  6. A Six-Month Clinical Evaluation of Decalcified Freeze-Dried Bone Allografts in Periodontal Osseous Defects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-15

    made with a itent and a calibrated periodontal probe before surgery , at the time of surgery , and at re-entry. The combined mean osseous regeneration for...in periodontal surgery . J Pereaso el S&5, S. Unist, MI. A.. Silverman, 3. F., Biring. K., Dubuc, F. L., and 1981. Rosenberg, J. M.: The bone induction...calibrated periodontal probe before surgery , at the t~in Fell W143 ONMiw of I Bev so eweOev SM ------4s1 WI UNCLALSSIIIKD SUCUft CLMPICATbo Or Title

  7. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: A review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami

    2016-01-01

    Tissue substitutes are required in a number of clinical conditions for treatment of injured and diseased tissues. Tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and soft tissues obtained from human donor can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Allograft tissues from human donor provide an excellent alternative to autografts. However, major concern with the use of allografts is the risk of infectious disease transmission. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Gamma radiation has several advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. This review summarizes the use of gamma irradiation technology as an effective method for sterilization of biological tissues and ensuring safety of tissue allografts. PMID:27158422

  8. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami

    2016-04-28

    Tissue substitutes are required in a number of clinical conditions for treatment of injured and diseased tissues. Tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and soft tissues obtained from human donor can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Allograft tissues from human donor provide an excellent alternative to autografts. However, major concern with the use of allografts is the risk of infectious disease transmission. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Gamma radiation has several advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. This review summarizes the use of gamma irradiation technology as an effective method for sterilization of biological tissues and ensuring safety of tissue allografts.

  9. Influence of the volume of bone defect, bone grafting methods, and hook fixation on stress on the Kerboull-type plate and screw in total hip arthroplasty: three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Nobuhiro; Hara, Katsutoshi; Tabata, Tomonori; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    For total hip arthroplasty or revision surgery using acetabular reinforcement cross-plates, choosing between bulk and morselized bone grafts for filling acetabular defects is challenging. We used finite element model (FEM) analysis to clarify various stresses on the cross-plate based on bone defect size, bone graft type, and presence or absence of hook fixation to the bone. We constructed 12-pattern FEMs and calculated the maximum stress generated on the Kerboull-type (KT) plate and screw. Bone defects were classified into four patterns according to the volume. Regarding the bone graft type, bulk bone grafts were considered as cortical bone, and morselized bone grafts were considered to consist of cancellous bone. Models were compared based on whether hook fixation was used and whether a gap was present behind the plate. The upper surface of the host bone was fixed, and a 1,000-N load was imposed on the horizontal axis at 71°. Larger bone defects increased the stress on the KT plate and screws. This stress increased when no bone was grafted; it was lower when bulk cortical bone grafts were used for filling than when morselized cancellous bone grafts were used. For cortical bone grafts, the increased stress on the KT plate and screws was lowered with hook removal. Attaching the hook to the bone and filling the gap behind the KT plate with an adequate bone graft reduced the stress on the KT plate and screws, particularly for large bone defects filled by bulk bone grafting.

  10. Autograft versus Allograft for Cervical Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Brodke, Darrel S.; Youssef, Jim A.; Meisel, Hans-Jörg; Dettori, Joseph R.; Park, Jong-Beom; Yoon, S. Tim; Wang, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objective To compare the effectiveness and safety between iliac crest bone graft (ICBG), non-ICBG autologous bone, and allograft in cervical spine fusion. To avoid problems at the donor site, various allograft materials have been used as a substitute for autograft. However, there are still questions as to the comparative effectiveness and safety of cadaver allograft compared with autologous ICBG. Methods A systematic search of multiple major medical reference databases was conducted to identify studies evaluating spinal fusion in patients with cervical degenerative disk disease using ICBG compared with non-ICBG autograft or allograft or non-ICBG autograft compared with allograft in the cervical spine. Radiographic fusion, patient-reported outcomes, and functional outcomes were the primary outcomes of interest. Adverse events were evaluated for safety. Results The search identified 13 comparative studies that met our inclusion criteria: 2 prospective cohort studies and 11 retrospective cohort studies. Twelve cohort studies compared allograft with ICBG autograft during anterior cervical fusion and demonstrated with a low evidence level of support that there are no differences in fusion percentages, pain scores, or functional results. There was insufficient evidence comparing patients receiving allograft with non-ICBG autograft for fusion, pain, revision, and functional and safety outcomes. No publications directly comparing non-ICBG autograft with ICBG were found. Conclusion Although the available literature suggests ICBG and allograft may have similar effectiveness in terms of fusion rates, pain scores, and functional outcomes following anterior cervical fusion, there are too many limitations in the available literature to draw any significant conclusions. No individual study provided greater than class III evidence, and when evaluating the overall body of literature, no conclusion had better than low evidence support. A prospective

  11. Induction of donor-type chimerism in murine recipients of bone marrow allografts by different radiation regimens currently used in treatment of leukemia patients

    SciTech Connect

    Salomon, O.; Lapidot, T.; Terenzi, A.; Lubin, I.; Rabi, I.; Reisner, Y. )

    1990-11-01

    Three radiation protocols currently used in treatment of leukemia patients before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were investigated in a murine model (C57BL/6----C3H/HeJ) for BM allograft rejection. These include (a) a single dose of total body irradiation (8.5 Gy TBI delivered at a dose rate of 0.2 Gy/min), (b) fractionated TBI 12 Gy administered in six fractions, 2 Gy twice a day in 3 days, delivered at a dose rate of 0.1 Gy/min, and (c) hyperfractionated TBI (14.4 Gy administered in 12 fractions, 1.2 Gy three times a day in 3 days, delivered at a dose rate of 0.1 Gy/min). Donor-type chimerism 6 to 8 weeks after BMT and hematologic reconstitution on day 12 after BMT found in these groups were compared with results obtained in mice conditioned with 8 Gy TBI delivered at a dose rate of 0.67 Gy/min, routinely used in this murine model. The results in both parameters showed a marked advantage for the single dose 8.5 Gy TBI over all the other treatments. This advantage was found to be equivalent to three- to fourfold increment in the BM inoculum when compared with hyperfractionated radiation, which afforded the least favorable conditions for development of donor-type chimerism. The fractionated radiation protocol was equivalent in its efficacy to results obtained in mice irradiated by single-dose 8 Gy TBI, both of which afforded a smaller but not significant advantage over the hyperfractionated protocol. This model was also used to test the effect of radiation dose rate on the development of donor-type chimerism. A significant enhancement was found after an increase in dose rate from 0.1 to 0.7 Gy/min. Further enhancement could be achieved when the dose rate was increased to 1.3 Gy/min, but survival at this high dose rate was reduced.

  12. Comparison of 2 regenerative procedures--guided tissue regeneration and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft--in the treatment of intrabony defects: a clinical and radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Parashis, A; Andronikaki-Faldami, A; Tsiklakis, K

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare clinically and radiographically the effectiveness of guided tissue regeneration (GTR), using a bioabsorbable polylactic acid softened with citric acid ester barrier and commercially available demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) in the treatment of 2- and 3-wall intrabony defects. Twelve patients each with one treated defect comprised each group. Conservative treatment was completed 2 to 4 months prior to surgery. Clinical measurements, plaque index, gingival index, probing depths (PD), clinical attachment levels (CAL) and recession (REC), were comparable in both groups at baseline. They were repeated at 12 months. Surgical measurements were also comparable at baseline in both groups. In the GTR group, at baseline the mean distance between the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and base of the defect was 12.3 +/- 2.9 mm and in the DFDBA group 11.3 +/- 1.8 mm. The defect depth was 6.3 +/- 2.0 mm and 5.4 +/- 1.3 mm, respectively. Radiographs were taken at baseline and 12 months later and compared using non-standardized digital subtraction radiography. In the GTR group, mean PD decreased from 7.9 +/- 2.5 mm to 3.5 +/- 1.4 mm and mean CAL from 10.8 +/- 2.8 mm to 7.0 +/- 1.6 mm, the differences being statistically significant (P = 0.002), while REC increased from 2.9 +/- 1.2 mm to 3.5 +/- 1.1 mm. In the DFDBA group, mean PD decreased from 7.1 +/- 1.1 mm to 3.5 +/- 1.1 mm and mean CAL from 9.8 +/- 1.5 mm to 6.6 +/- 1.7 mm (P = 0.002), while REC increased from 2.8 +/- 1.0 mm to 3.1 +/- 1.2 mm. No significant differences were found when the clinical results of the 2 groups were compared. Radiographic differences between the baseline and reconstructed images 12 months later were observed in both groups. Mean crestal bone resorption was 15.3 +/- 22.5% in the GTR group and 10.4 +/- 31.8% in the DFDBA group, and mean improvement in the distance between the CEJ and the base of the defect was 22.8 +/- 18.1% in the GTR group and 15

  13. Osseous metaplasia in a kidney allograft.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Stanislas; Daniel, Laurent; Legris, Tristan; Vacher-Coponat, Henri; Purgus, Raj; Berland, Yvon; Moal, Valerie

    2010-11-01

    Osseous metaplasia is defined by the presence of heterotopic normal bone tissue in a soft tissue. The bone matrix is associated with osteoblasts, osteoclasts, adipocytes and haematopoietic stem cells. Osseous metaplasia pathophysiology is not well known, but many factors have been incriminated including chronic inflammation and chronic ischaemia. We describe the second case of osseous metaplasia in a kidney allograft. Numerous factors might favour its development including factors linked to transplantation failure environment.

  14. Allograft Reconstruction for the Treatment of Musculoskeletal Tumors of the Upper Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Aponte-Tinao, Luis A.; Ayerza, Miguel A.; Muscolo, D. Luis; Farfalli, German L.

    2013-01-01

    In comparison with the lower extremity, there is relatively paucity literature reporting survival and clinical results of allograft reconstructions after excision of a bone tumor of the upper extremity. We analyze the survival of allograft reconstructions in the upper extremity and analyze the final functional score according to anatomical site and type of reconstruction. A consecutive series of 70 allograft reconstruction in the upper limb with a mean followup of 5 years was analyzed, 38 osteoarticular allografts, 24 allograft-prosthetic composites, and 8 intercalary allografts. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of the allografts was performed, with implant revision for any cause and amputation used as the end points. The function evaluation was performed using MSTS functional score. Sixteen patients (23%) had revision surgery for 5 factures, 2 infections, 5 allograft resorptions, and 2 local recurrences. Allograft survival at five years was 79% and 69% at ten years. In the group of patients treated with an osteoarticular allograft the articular surface survival was 90% at five years and 54% at ten years. The limb salvage rate was 98% at five and 10 years. We conclude that articular deterioration and fracture were the most frequent mode of failure in proximal humeral osteoarticular reconstructions and allograft resorption in elbow reconstructions. The best functional score was observed in the intercalary humeral allograft. PMID:23476115

  15. High-pressure saline washing of allografts reduces bacterial contamination.

    PubMed

    Hirn, M Y; Salmela, P M; Vuento, R E

    2001-02-01

    60 fresh-frozen bone allografts were contaminated on the operating room floor. No bacterial growth was detected in 5 of them after contamination. The remaining 55 grafts had positive bacterial cultures and were processed with three methods: soaking in saline, soaking in antibiotic solution or washing by high-pressure saline. After high-pressure lavage, the cultures were negative in three fourths of the contaminated allografts. The corresponding figures after soaking grafts in saline and antibiotic solution were one tenth and two tenths, respectively. High-pressure saline cleansing of allografts can be recommended because it improves safety by reducing the superficial bacterial bioburden.

  16. Complications of irradiated allografts in orthopaedic tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Lietman, S A; Tomford, W W; Gebhardt, M C; Springfield, D S; Mankin, H J

    2000-06-01

    Massive structural allografts used for replacement of bone defects after removal of bone tumors have several complications, including fracture, infection, and nonunion. To decrease the rate of infection, irradiation of selected allografts before their implantation was performed. This study evaluated the complications in patients with these irradiated grafts. Twenty-four patients were identified who had received allografts from 1987 through 1991 that were irradiated before implantation. The dosage of radiation was between 10 kGy and 30 kGy. The mean length of followup of the patients was 5 years (range, 2-9 years). These grafts were compared with a control group of grafts that were not irradiated but were implanted during the same time and used for similar diagnostic problems with defects of similar size. The outcomes of the groups differed significantly only in the incidence of allograft fracture. These findings indicate that high-dose irradiation to bone allografts is associated with a higher rate of fracture than are similar reconstructions using nonirradiated allografts.

  17. ACL reconstruction with BPTB autograft and irradiated fresh frozen allograft*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kang; Tian, Shao-qi; Zhang, Ji-hua; Xia, Chang-suo; Zhang, Cai-long; Yu, Teng-bo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with irradiated bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) allograft compared with non-irradiated allograft and autograft. Methods: All BPTB allografts were obtained from a single tissue bank and the irradiated allografts were sterilized with 2.5 mrad of irradiation prior to distribution. A total of 68 patients undergoing arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were prospectively randomized consecutively into one of the two groups (autograft and irradiated allograft groups). The same surgical technique was used in all operations done by the same senior surgeon. Before surgery and at the average of 31 months of follow-up (ranging from 24 to 47 months), patients were evaluated by the same observer according to objective and subjective clinical evaluations. Results: Of these patients, 65 (autograft 33, irradiated allograft 32) were available for full evaluation. When the irradiated allograft group was compared to the autograft group at the 31-month follow-up by the Lachman test, the anterior drawer test (ADT), the pivot shift test, and KT-2000 arthrometer test, statistically significant differences were found. Most importantly, 87.8% of patients in the autograft group and just only 31.3% in the irradiated allograft group had a side-to-side difference of less than 3 mm according to KT-2000. The failure rate of the ACL reconstruction with irradiated allograft (34.4%) was higher than that with autograft (6.1%). The anterior and rotational stabilities decreased significantly in the irradiated allograft group. According to the overall International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), functional and subjective evaluations, and activity level testing, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups. Besides, patients in the irradiated allograft group had a shorter operation time and a longer duration of postoperative fever. When the patients had a fever, the

  18. Enhancement of bone marrow allografts from nude mice into mismatched recipients by T cells void of graft-versus-host activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidot, T.; Lubin, I.; Terenzi, A.; Faktorowich, Y.; Erlich, P.; Reisner, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Transplantation of 8 x 10(6) C57BL/6-Nu+/Nu+ (nude) bone marrow cells into C3H/HeJ recipients after conditioning with 8 Gy of total body irradiation has resulted in a markedly higher rate of graft rejection or graft failure compared to that found in recipients of normal C57BL/6 or C57BL/6-Bg+/Bg+ (beige) T-cell-depleted bone marrow. Mixing experiments using different numbers of nude bone marrow cells with or without mature thymocytes (unagglutinated by peanut agglutinin) revealed that engraftment of allogeneic T-cell-depleted bone marrow is T-cell dependent. To ensure engraftment, a large inoculum of nude bone marrow must be supplemented with a trace number of donor T cells, whereas a small bone marrow dose from nude donors requires a much larger number of T cells for engraftment. Marked enhancement of donor type chimerism was also found when F1 thymocytes were added to nude bone marrow cells, indicating that the enhancement of bone marrow engraftment by T cells is not only mediated by alloreactivity against residual host cells but may rather be generated by growth factors, the release of which may require specific interactions between T cells and stem cells or between T cells and bone marrow stroma cells.

  19. Kidney allograft survival in dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, R.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Lum, C.T.; Lewis, W.I.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-02-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is immunosuppressive and, in rodents, can induce a state where transplantation of allogenic bone marrow results in chimerism and permanent acceptance of organ allografts from the donor strain. Twelve splenectomized dogs were treated with TLI (150 rads per fraction, total dose 1950 to 3000 rads) before bilateral nephrectomy and renal allotransplantation. Eight dogs received bone marrow from the kidney donor. In 13 untreated control dogs renal allografts functioned for a mean +- (SE) of 4.7 +- 0.3 days. In the four TLI treated dogs who did not receive bone marrow the renal allografts functioned for 15 to 76 days (two dogs died with functioning grafts). In the eight TLI treated dogs who received donor bone marrow, two died immediately after transplantation, two rejected at 3 and 13 days, one died at 13 days with a functioning graft, and two have had the grafts function for longer than 500 days. Chimerism was not detected in the one dog tested. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and in mixed lymphocyte culture was suppressed for at least one month after TLI. The results confirm the immunosuppressive effect of TLI. The absence of kidney rejection in two recipients of donor bone marrow show the potential of this approach to induce long-term immunologic unresponsiveness as to an organ allograft, but the outcome is unpredictable and further experiments are needed to define the optimal conditions for administration of TLI and bone marrow to the recipients.

  20. Autograft versus Allograft for Cervical Spinal Fusion: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Alexander; Brodke, Darrel S; Youssef, Jim A; Meisel, Hans-Jörg; Dettori, Joseph R; Park, Jong-Beom; Yoon, S Tim; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2017-02-01

    Systematic review. To compare the effectiveness and safety between iliac crest bone graft (ICBG), non-ICBG autologous bone, and allograft in cervical spine fusion. To avoid problems at the donor site, various allograft materials have been used as a substitute for autograft. However, there are still questions as to the comparative effectiveness and safety of cadaver allograft compared with autologous ICBG. A systematic search of multiple major medical reference databases was conducted to identify studies evaluating spinal fusion in patients with cervical degenerative disk disease using ICBG compared with non-ICBG autograft or allograft or non-ICBG autograft compared with allograft in the cervical spine. Radiographic fusion, patient-reported outcomes, and functional outcomes were the primary outcomes of interest. Adverse events were evaluated for safety. The search identified 13 comparative studies that met our inclusion criteria: 2 prospective cohort studies and 11 retrospective cohort studies. Twelve cohort studies compared allograft with ICBG autograft during anterior cervical fusion and demonstrated with a low evidence level of support that there are no differences in fusion percentages, pain scores, or functional results. There was insufficient evidence comparing patients receiving allograft with non-ICBG autograft for fusion, pain, revision, and functional and safety outcomes. No publications directly comparing non-ICBG autograft with ICBG were found. Although the available literature suggests ICBG and allograft may have similar effectiveness in terms of fusion rates, pain scores, and functional outcomes following anterior cervical fusion, there are too many limitations in the available literature to draw any significant conclusions. No individual study provided greater than class III evidence, and when evaluating the overall body of literature, no conclusion had better than low evidence support. A prospective randomized trial with adequate sample size to

  1. Micro-organisms isolated from cadaveric samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue.

    PubMed

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Allograft musculoskeletal tissue is commonly used in orthopaedic surgical procedures. Cadaveric donors of musculoskeletal tissue supply multiple allografts such as tendons, ligaments and bone. The microbiology laboratory of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (SEALS, Australia) has cultured cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples for bacterial and fungal isolates since 2006. This study will retrospectively review the micro-organisms isolated over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swab and tissue samples were received for bioburden testing and were inoculated onto agar and/or broth culture media. Growth was obtained from 25.1 % of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples received. The predominant organisms isolated were coagulase-negative staphylococci and coliforms, with the heaviest bioburden recovered from the hemipelvis. The rate of bacterial and fungal isolates from cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples is higher than that from living donors. The type of organism isolated may influence the suitability of the allograft for transplant.

  2. Results of 32 Allograft-prosthesis Composite Reconstructions of the Proximal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Larousserie, Frédérique; Thévenin, Fabrice; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Anract, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The use of allograft-prosthesis composites for reconstruction after bone tumor resection at the proximal femur has generated considerable interest since the mid1980s on the basis that their use would improve function and survival, and restore bone stock. Although functional improvement has been documented, it is unknown whether these composites survive long periods and whether they restore bone stock. We therefore determined long-term allograft-prosthesis composite survival, identified major complications that led to revision, and determined whether allograft bone stock could be spared at the time of revision. We also compared the radiographic appearance of allografts sterilized by gamma radiation and fresh-frozen allografts. We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients with bone malignancy in the proximal femur who underwent reconstruction with a cemented allograft-prosthesis composite. The allograft-prosthesis composite was a primary reconstruction for 23 patients and a revision procedure for nine. The minimum followup was 2 months (median, 68 months; range, 2–232 months). The cumulative incidence of revision for any reason was 14% at 5 years (95% confidence interval, 1%–28%) and 19% at 10 years (95% confidence interval, 3%–34%). Nine patients (28%) had revision of the reconstruction during followup; four of these patients had revision surgery for infection. Allografts sterilized by gamma radiation showed worse resorption than fresh-frozen allografts. Based on reported results, allograft-composite prostheses do not appear to improve survival compared with megaprostheses. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19851817

  3. Macrophage-to-Myofibroblast Transition Contributes to Interstitial Fibrosis in Chronic Renal Allograft Injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Jun; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Hong-Feng; To, Ka-Fai; Nikolic-Paterson, David J; Lan, Hui-Yao; Chen, Jiang-Hua

    2017-02-16

    Interstitial fibrosis is an important contributor to graft loss in chronic renal allograft injury. Inflammatory macrophages are associated with fibrosis in renal allografts, but how these cells contribute to this damaging response is not clearly understood. Here, we investigated the role of macrophage-to-myofibroblast transition in interstitial fibrosis in human and experimental chronic renal allograft injury. In biopsy specimens from patients with active chronic allograft rejection, we identified cells undergoing macrophage-to-myofibroblast transition by the coexpression of macrophage (CD68) and myofibroblast (α-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA]) markers. CD68(+)/α-SMA(+) cells accounted for approximately 50% of the myofibroblast population, and the number of these cells correlated with allograft function and the severity of interstitial fibrosis. Similarly, in C57BL/6J mice with a BALB/c renal allograft, cells coexpressing macrophage markers (CD68 or F4/80) and α-SMA composed a significant population in the interstitium of allografts undergoing chronic rejection. Fate-mapping in Lyz2-Cre/Rosa26-Tomato mice showed that approximately half of α-SMA(+) myofibroblasts in renal allografts originated from recipient bone marrow-derived macrophages. Knockout of Smad3 protected against interstitial fibrosis in renal allografts and substantially reduced the number of macrophage-to-myofibroblast transition cells. Furthermore, the majority of macrophage-to-myofibroblast transition cells in human and experimental renal allograft rejection coexpressed the M2-type macrophage marker CD206, and this expression was considerably reduced in Smad3-knockout recipients. In conclusion, our studies indicate that macrophage-to-myofibroblast transition contributes to interstitial fibrosis in chronic renal allograft injury. Moreover, the transition of bone marrow-derived M2-type macrophages to myofibroblasts in the renal allograft is regulated via a Smad3-dependent mechanism.

  4. Allograft vasculopathy after allogeneic vascularized knee transplantation.

    PubMed

    Diefenbeck, Michael; Nerlich, Andreas; Schneeberger, Stefan; Wagner, Frithjof; Hofmann, Gunther O

    2011-01-01

    Composite tissue allotransplantation represents a new discipline in reconstructive surgery. Over the past 10 years, we have performed six human vascularized allogeneic knee transplantations. All of these grafts have been lost within the first 56 months. A histomorphologic assessment of the latest case resulted in the detection of diffuse concentric fibrous intimal thickening and occlusion of graft vessels. Findings are comparable with cardiac allograft vasculopathy. The lack of adequate tools for monitoring graft rejection might have allowed multiple untreated episodes of acute rejection, triggering myointimal proliferation and occlusion of graft vessels. Graft vasculopathy represents an obstacle to long-term vascularized bone and joint allograft survival, and adequate tools for monitoring need to be developed.

  5. Mechanisms of stem subsidence in femoral impaction allografting.

    PubMed

    Albert, Carolyne; Frei, Hanspeter; Duncan, Clive; Fernlund, Goran

    2011-01-01

    Failure of the femoral component of total hip arthroplasty is often accompanied by bone loss that can pose a significant challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. Femoral impaction allografting has attractive potential for restoring bone stock in deficient femurs. However, there have been reports of problematic postoperative stem subsidence with this procedure. Subsidence is highly variable among patients, and there is disagreement over the mechanisms that cause it. This article reviews the various mechanisms that can contribute to subsidence in femoral impaction allografting. Variables such as graft density, cement penetration profile, use of synthetic graft substitutes, or other graft additives are discussed, as well as their potential impact on subsidence. Finally, recommendations are made for future studies aiming to reduce the risk of excessive subsidence in femoral impaction allografting.

  6. A comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of guided tissue regeneration by using a collagen membrane with or without decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft in the treatment of infrabony defects: A clinical and radiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Kher, Vishal Kiran; Bhongade, Manohar L.; Shori, Tony D.; Kolte, Abhay P.; Dharamthok, Swarup B.; Shrirao, Tushar S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present, randomized, controlled clinical and radiographic study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) by using a collagen membrane barrier with or without decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) in the treatment of periodontal infrabony defects characterized by unfavorable architecture. Materials and Methods: Sixteen systemically healthy patients with 20 periodontal infrabony defects were selected for the study. Each patient had at least ≥ 5 mm clinical probing pocket depth (PPD) at the selected site and depth of intrabony component ≥ 3 mm as assessed by clinical and radiographic measurements. Baseline measurements included plaque index, papillary bleeding index, PPD, gingival recession, clinical attachment level and radiographic defect depth (DD). At the time of surgery, the defects were randomly assigned to either the test group (collagen membrane plus DFDBA) or the control group (collagen membrane only). Results: At the 6-month examination, PPPD reduction was significantly greater in the GTR + DFDBA group (4.06 ± 0.38 mm) compared with the GTR group (3.2 ± 0.74 mm). The mean gains of clinical attachment were 3.54 ± 0.36 mm in the test group and 2.50 ± 0.74 mm in the control group. Radiographic DD reduction was similarly greater in the GTR + DFDBA group (2.40 ± 0.51 mm) compared with the GTR group (1.60 ± 0.51 mm). Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the use of a GTR membrane with bone graft has significantly improved all clinical parameters tested as compared with the use of bioresorbable membrane alone in the treatment of infrabony defects characterized by unfavorable architecture. PMID:24174729

  7. Allograft tolerance in pigs after fractionated lymphoid irradiation. II. Kidney graft after conventional total lymphoid irradiation and bone marrow cell grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Fradelizi, D.; Mahouy, G.; de Riberolles, C.; Lecompte, Y.; Alhomme, P.; Douard, M.C.; Chotin, G.; Martelli, H.; Daburon, F.; Vaiman, M.

    1981-05-01

    Experiments with pigs have been performed in order to establish bone marrow chimerism and kidney graft tolerance between SLA genotyped semi-incompatible animals. Recipients were conditioned by means of conventional fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) delivered by a vertical cobalt source. The principal lymphoid regions of the pig, including thymus and spleen, were submitted to irradiation. Two protocols were tested: A = 250 cGy four times a week x 13 times (TLI) (two animals) and B = 350 cGy three times a week x 8 times (TLI) (four animals). Bone marrow cells were injected 24 h after the last irradiation. One day later, bilateral nephrectomy and the graft of one kidney from the bone marrow cell donor were performed simultaneously. Results convinced us that application of the TLI protocol to humans is not yet practicable and that further experimental work is needed.

  8. Modulating Wnt Signaling Pathway to Enhance Allograft Integration in Orthopedic Trauma Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    inhibitors Sost or DKK1 with monoclonal antibodies will enhance allograft integration to the host bone. The proposed work in this project was designed...Determine the effect of modulating the LRP-5/Wnt pathway with anti- Dkk1 monoclonal antibody on allograft incorporation in a rat segmental repair model using...bones from Fresh Frozen and Freeze-Dried allografts at 4, 8 and 12 week time points for saline, anti- Sost and anti- Dkk1 using µCT scanning. Data is

  9. Emulating Native Periosteum Cell Population and Subsequent Paracrine Factor Production To Promote Tissue Engineered Periosteum-Mediated Allograft Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Emulating autograft healing within the context of decellularized bone allografts has immediate clinical applications in the treatment of critical-sized bone defects. The periosteum, a thin, osteogenic tissue that surrounds bone, houses a heterogeneous population of stem cells and osteoprogenitors. There is evidence that periosteum-cell derived paracrine factors, specifically vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), orchestrate autograft healing through host cell recruitment and subsequent tissue elaboration. In previous work, we demonstrated that the use of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels as a tissue engineered (T.E.) periosteum to localize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the surface of decellularized bone enhances allograft healing and integration. Herein, we utilize a mixed population of 50:50 MSCs and osteoprogenitor cells to better mimic native periosteum cell population and paracrine factor production to further promote allograft healing. This mixed cell population was localized to the surface of decellularized allografts within degradable hydrogels and shown to expedite allograft healing. Specifically, bone callus formation and biomechanical graft-host integration are increased as compared to unmodified allografts. These results demonstrate the dual importance of periosteum-mediated paracrine factors orchestrating host cell recruitment as well as new bone formation while developing clinically translatable strategies for allograft healing and integration. PMID:25818449

  10. Emulating native periosteum cell population and subsequent paracrine factor production to promote tissue engineered periosteum-mediated allograft healing.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Michael D; Benoit, Danielle S W

    2015-06-01

    Emulating autograft healing within the context of decellularized bone allografts has immediate clinical applications in the treatment of critical-sized bone defects. The periosteum, a thin, osteogenic tissue that surrounds bone, houses a heterogenous population of stem cells and osteoprogenitors. There is evidence that periosteum-cell derived paracrine factors, specifically vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), orchestrate autograft healing through host cell recruitment and subsequent tissue elaboration. In previous work, we demonstrated that the use of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels as a tissue engineered (T.E.) periosteum to localize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the surface of decellularized bone enhances allograft healing and integration. Herein, we utilize a mixed population of 50:50 MSCs and osteoprogenitor cells to better mimic native periosteum cell population and paracrine factor production to further promote allograft healing. This mixed cell population was localized to the surface of decellularized allografts within degradable hydrogels and shown to expedite allograft healing. Specifically, bone callus formation and biomechanical graft-host integration are increased as compared to unmodified allografts. These results demonstrate the dual importance of periosteum-mediated paracrine factors orchestrating host cell recruitment as well as new bone formation while developing clinically translatable strategies for allograft healing and integration.

  11. Rabbit trochlear model of osteochondral allograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    To, Nhat; Curtiss, Shane; Neu, Corey P; Salgado, Christopher J; Jamali, Amir A

    2011-10-01

    Allografting and autografting of osteochondral tissues is a promising strategy to treat articular cartilage lesions in damaged joints. We developed a new model of fresh osteochondral allografting using the entire rabbit trochlea. The objective of the current study was to demonstrate that this model would achieve reproducible graft-host healing and maintain normal articular cartilage histologic, immunolocalization, and biochemical characteristics after transplantation under diverse storage and transplantation conditions. New Zealand white (n = 8) and Dutch belted (n = 8) rabbits underwent a 2-stage transplantation operation using osteochondral grafts that had been stored for 2 or 4 wk. Trochlear grafts harvested from the left knee were transplanted to the right knee as either autografts or allografts. Grafts were fixed with 22-gauge steel wire or 3-0 nylon suture. Rabbits were euthanized for evaluation at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 wk after transplantation. All grafts that remained in vivo for at least 4 wk demonstrated 100% interface healing by microCT. Trabecular bridging was present at the host-graft interface starting at 2 wk after transplantation, with no significant difference in cartilage histology between the various groups. The combined histology scores indicated minimal evidence of osteoarthritis. Immunostaining revealed that superficial zone protein was localized at the surface of all transplants. The rabbit trochlear model met our criteria for a successful model in regard to the ease of the procedure, low rate of surgical complications, relatively large articular cartilage surface area, and amount of host-graft bone interface available for analysis.

  12. Facial tissue allograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, M Z; Demir, Y; Sari, A; Klimczak, A

    2005-01-01

    A hemifacial allograft transplant model was used to investigate the rationale for development of functional tolerance across an MHC barrier. Thirty hemiface transplantations were performed in five groups of six Lewis (RT1(1)) rat recipients each. Isografts were performed in group 1. Transplants were obtained from semiallogenic LBN(RT1(1+n)) in group 2 and from fully allogenic ACI(RT1(a)) in group 3 donors, which served as allograft rejection controls. Group 4 grafts using LBN donors and group 5 using ACI donors in addition received CsA monotherapy (16 mg/kg/d for 1 week) and maintained at 2 mg/kg/d. Signs of graft rejection were sought daily. Isograft controls survived indefinitely. All nontreated allografts were rejected within 5 to 8 days posttransplant. Eighty-three percent of face-transplant recipients from LBN donors and 67% from ACI donors did not show any signs of rejection up to 270 days and 200 days, respectively. Flow cytometry at day 63 in LBN recipients showed the presence of donor-specific chimerism for MHC class I RT1(n) antigens, namely 3.39% CD4/RT1(n); 1.01% CD8/RT1(n) T-lymphocytes; and 3.54% CD45RA/RT1(n) B-lymphocytes. In ACI recipients the chimerism test revealed 10.55% CD4/RT1(a) and 4.59% of CD8/RT1(a) T-lymphocytes. MLR assay at day 160 posttransplant revealed suppressed responses against LBN donor antigens in group 4, but moderate reactivity to ACI donor antigens in group 5. Functional tolerance toward hemifacial allograft transplants induced across MHC barrier using a CsA monotherapy protocol was associated with the presence of donor-specific chimerism in T- and B-cell subpopulations.

  13. Chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Vadivel, Nidyanandh; Tullius, Stefan G; Chandraker, Anil

    2007-07-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) remains the Achilles heel of renal transplantation. In spite of the significant strides achieved in one-year renal allograft survival with newer immunosuppressant strategies, the fate of long-term renal allograft survival remains unchanged. The number of renal transplant recipients returning to dialysis has doubled in the past decade. This is especially important since these patients pose a significantly increased likelihood of dying while on the waiting list for retransplantation, due to increasing disparity between donor organ availability versus demand and longer waiting time secondary to heightened immunologic sensitization from their prior transplants. In this review we analyze the latest literature in detail and discuss the definition, natural history, pathophysiology, alloantigen dependent and independent factors that play a crucial role in CAN and the potential newer therapeutic targets on the horizon. This article highlights the importance of early identification and careful management of all the potential contributing factors with particular emphasis on prevention rather than cure of CAN as the core management strategy.

  14. Histologic evaluation of socket augmentation with mineralized human allograft.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hom-Lay; Tsao, Yi-Pin

    2008-06-01

    Socket augmentation performed at the time of tooth extraction has been recommended by many authors, since successful socket augmentation may reduce or eliminate the need for future ridge grafts. An augmentation procedure is described here, along with histologic and histomorphometric findings. Five patients (three men, two women; mean age 56 years) were recruited for this pilot study, and seven sites were treated. Solvent-preserved mineralized cancellous allograft was used to fill each socket up to the bone crest (2 mm below soft tissue surface), and sites were covered with a bioabsorbable collagen wound dressing. Core biopsies were taken from the center of extraction sockets 5 to 6 months after augmentation. Histologic evaluation of the prepared biopsies showed formation and remodeling of trabecular bone in areas of mineralized cancellous allografts and no signs of inflammation. Histomorphometric analysis of the samples showed an average of 68.5% vital bone, 3.8% residual graft particles, and 27.7% of connective tissue/bone marrow. In addition, vital bone and connective tissues were seen in close contact with the remaining allograft. These data suggest that this combination of human mineralized bone and absorbable collagen wound dressing is a suitable technique for socket augmentation. Nevertheless, future controlled clinical trials with larger sample sizes are recommended to validate the findings of the current technique.

  15. A comparative evaluation of freeze-dried bone allograft with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deept; Deepa, Dhruvakumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Furcation defects represent one of the most demanding therapeutic challenges for periodontal therapy. Various treatment modalities have been tried with different success rates. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with bilateral Grade II furcation defects were selected for the study. After phase I therapy, subjects were divided into two arms and treated in a split-mouth design. Ten defects were treated with FDBA alone in the control arm. Ten defects were treated with FDBA in conjunction with bioabsorbable GTR membrane Healiguide® in test arm. Clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, vertical probing depth, horizontal probing depth, and relative attachment level (RAL) were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: At 6 months, clinical improvement was seen in both the arms with mean pocket depth reduction of 1.2 ± 1.032 mm and 1.7 ± 0.948 mm and mean horizontal probing depth reduction being 2.1 ± 1.969 mm and 1.6 ± 1.264 mm in control and test arm, respectively. Both surgical procedures resulted in a statistically significant reduction in vertical and horizontal probing depths. Conclusion: Both the arms demonstrated a significant improvement in the probing depth, horizontal furcation depth, and RAL at 6 months postsurgery in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. However, on the intergroup comparison, there was no statistically significant difference in the results achieved between two arms. PMID:26941515

  16. Quadriceps tendon allografts as an alternative to Achilles tendon allografts: a biomechanical comparison.

    PubMed

    Mabe, Isaac; Hunter, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    Quadriceps tendon with a patellar bone block may be a viable alternative to Achilles tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) if it is, at a minimum, a biomechanically equivalent graft. The objective of this study was to directly compare the biomechanical properties of quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon allografts. Quadriceps and Achilles tendon pairs from nine research-consented donors were tested. All specimens were processed to reduce bioburden and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. Specimens were subjected to a three phase uniaxial tension test performed in a custom environmental chamber to maintain the specimens at a physiologic temperature (37 ± 2 °C) and misted with a 0.9 % NaCl solution. There were no statistical differences in seven of eight structural and mechanical between the two tendon types. Quadriceps tendons exhibited a significantly higher displacement at maximum load and significantly lower stiffness than Achilles tendons. The results of this study indicated a biomechanical equivalence of aseptically processed, terminally sterilized quadriceps tendon grafts with bone block to Achilles tendon grafts with bone block. The significantly higher displacement at maximum load, and lower stiffness observed for quadriceps tendons may be related to the failure mode. Achilles tendons had a higher bone avulsion rate than quadriceps tendons (86 % compared to 12 %, respectively). This was likely due to observed differences in bone block density between the two tendon types. This research supports the use of quadriceps tendon allografts in lieu of Achilles tendon allografts for ACL-R.

  17. Evaluation of platelet-rich plasma alone or in combination with demineralized freeze dried bone allograft in treatment of periodontal infrabony defects: A comparative clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Prerna; Chatterjee, Anirban; Gokhale, Shankar; Singh, Himanshu Pratap; Kandwal, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) alone in periodontal defects has been controversial and inconclusive. Hence, the present study was designed with the aim to assess the clinical and radiographic effectiveness of PRP alone in infrabony defects. Materials and Methods: Thirty infrabony defects were treated with either autologous PRP with open flap debridement (OFD) or autologous PRP + demineralized freeze dried bone graft (DFDBA) with OFD or OFD alone. Clinical parameters recorded were gingival index, plaque index, probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and gingival recession (REC). Radiographic parameters included defect depth reduction, defect resolution, and crestal bone level. All the parameters were recorded at baseline and 12 months postoperatively. Results: Mean PD reduction and CAL gain were greater in PRP + DFDBA (4.88 ± 1.12 mm and 4.26 ± 1.85 mm) and PRP (4.86 ± 2.12 mm and 4.10 ± 1.47 mm) groups than the control group (2.69 ± 1.37 mm and 1.27 ± 0.89 mm). Conclusions: Within the limits of the study, all the three groups showed significant improvement in clinical parameters from baseline to postoperative 12 months. The amount of defect depth reduction and defect resolution treated with PRP alone group were significantly < PRP + DFDBA. The results pertaining to these parameters were significantly better than the control group. PMID:27041837

  18. Impregnation of bone chips with alendronate and cefazolin, combined with demineralized bone matrix: a bone chamber study in goats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bone grafts from bone banks might be mixed with bisphosphonates to inhibit the osteoclastic response. This inhibition prevents the osteoclasts to resorb the allograft bone before new bone has been formed by the osteoblasts, which might prevent instability. Since bisphosphonates may not only inhibit osteoclasts, but also osteoblasts and thus bone formation, we studied different bisphosphonate concentrations combined with allograft bone. We investigated whether locally applied alendronate has an optimum dose with respect to bone resorption and formation. Further, we questioned whether the addition of demineralized bone matrix (DBM), would stimulate bone formation. Finally, we studied the effect of high levels of antibiotics on bone allograft healing, since mixing allograft bone with antibiotics might reduce the infection risk. Methods 25 goats received eight bone conduction chambers in the cortical bone of the proximal medial tibia. Five concentrations of alendronate (0, 0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, 2 mg/mL, and 10 mg/mL) were tested in combination with allograft bone and supplemented with cefazolin (200 μg/mL). Allograft not supplemented with alendronate and cefazolin served as control. In addition, allograft mixed with demineralized bone matrix, with and without alendronate, was tested. After 12 weeks, graft bone area and new bone area were determined with manual point counting. Results Graft resorption decreased significantly (p < 0.001) with increasing alendronate concentration. The area of new bone in the 1 mg/mL alendronate group was significantly (p = 0.002) higher when compared to the 10 mg/mL group. No differences could be observed between the group without alendronate, but with demineralized bone, and the control groups. Conclusions A dose-response relationship for local application of alendronate has been shown in this study. Most new bone was present at 1 mg/mL alendronate. Local application of cefazolin had no effect on bone remodelling. PMID:22443362

  19. Factors affecting nonunion of the allograft-host junction.

    PubMed

    Hornicek, F J; Gebhardt, M C; Tomford, W W; Sorger, J I; Zavatta, M; Menzner, J P; Mankin, H J

    2001-01-01

    Nonunion of allograft-host junction after bone transplantation is not uncommon, and its treatment frequently is problematic. To improve the understanding of these nonunions, a retrospective review was performed of 163 nonunions in 945 patients who underwent allograft transplantation (17.3%) for various benign and malignant tumors at the authors' institution between 1974 and 1997. Of these 945 patients, 558 did not receive adjuvant therapy. Chemotherapy was administered to 354 patients and only 33 patients received radiation therapy alone. Seventy-one patients had radiation treatment and chemotherapy. Of the 163 patients who had nonunion develop at the allograft-host junction, there were 269 reoperations performed on the involved extremity. In 108 patients, treatment was successful resulting in union of the allograft-host junction. Forty-nine patients did not respond to multiple surgical treatment attempts. The greater the number of surgical procedures, the worse the outcome. The rate of nonunions increased to 27% for the patients who received chemotherapy as compared with 11% for the patients who did not receive chemotherapy. The order of allografts from highest rate of nonunion to lowest was as follows: alloarthrodesis, intercalary, osteoarticular, and alloprosthesis. Infection and fracture rates were higher in the patients with nonunions as compared with the patients without nonunions.

  20. The effect of mesenchymal stem cell sheets on structural allograft healing of critical-sized femoral defects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Long, Teng; Zhu, Zhenan; Awad, Hani A.; Schwarz, Edward M.; Hilton, Matthew J.; Dong, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    Structural bone allografts are widely used in the clinic to treat critical sized bone defects, despite lacking the osteoinductive characteristics of live autografts. To address this, we generated revitalized structural allografts wrapped with mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell (MSC) sheets, which were produced by expanding primary syngenic bone marrow derived cells on temperature-responsive plates, as a tissue engineered periosteum. In vitro assays demonstrated maintenance of the MSC phenotype in the sheets, suggesting that short-term culturing of MSC sheets is not detrimental. To test their efficacy in vivo, allografts wrapped with MSC sheets were transplanted into 4-mm murine femoral defects and compared to allografts with direct seeding of MSCs and allografts without cells. Evaluations consisted of x-ray plain radiography, 3D microCT, histology, and biomechanical testing at 4- and 6-weeks post-surgery. Our findings demonstrate that MSC sheets induce prolonged cartilage formation at the graft-host junction and enhanced bone callus formation, as well as graft-host osteointegration. Moreover, a large periosteal callus was observed spanning the allografts with MSC sheets, which partially mimics live autograft healing. Finally, biomechanical testing showed a significant increase in the structural and functional properties of MSC sheet grafted femurs. Taken together, MSC sheets exhibit enhanced osteogenicity during critical sized bone defect repair, demonstrating the feasibility of this tissue engineering solution for massive allograft healing. PMID:24393269

  1. The effect of mesenchymal stem cell sheets on structural allograft healing of critical sized femoral defects in mice.

    PubMed

    Long, Teng; Zhu, Zhenan; Awad, Hani A; Schwarz, Edward M; Hilton, Matthew J; Dong, Yufeng

    2014-03-01

    Structural bone allografts are widely used in the clinic to treat critical sized bone defects, despite lacking the osteoinductive characteristics of live autografts. To address this, we generated revitalized structural allografts wrapped with mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell (MSC) sheets, which were produced by expanding primary syngenic bone marrow derived cells on temperature-responsive plates, as a tissue-engineered periosteum. In vitro assays demonstrated maintenance of the MSC phenotype in the sheets, suggesting that short-term culturing of MSC sheets is not detrimental. To test their efficacy in vivo, allografts wrapped with MSC sheets were transplanted into 4-mm murine femoral defects and compared to allografts with direct seeding of MSCs and allografts without cells. Evaluations consisted of X-ray plain radiography, 3D microCT, histology, and biomechanical testing at 4- and 6-weeks post-surgery. Our findings demonstrate that MSC sheets induce prolonged cartilage formation at the graft-host junction and enhanced bone callus formation, as well as graft-host osteointegration. Moreover, a large periosteal callus was observed spanning the allografts with MSC sheets, which partially mimics live autograft healing. Finally, biomechanical testing showed a significant increase in the structural and functional properties of MSC sheet grafted femurs. Taken together, MSC sheets exhibit enhanced osteogenicity during critical sized bone defect repair, demonstrating the feasibility of this tissue engineering solution for massive allograft healing.

  2. Pulse lavage washing in decontamination of allografts improves safety.

    PubMed

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Vuento, R

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the bacterial contamination rate of 140 femoral head allografts after rinsing the allografts in different decontamination solutions. Bacterial screening methods and cleansing effect of antibiotics (cefuroxime and rifampicin) and pulse lavage were compared. Swabbing and taking small pieces of bone for culture were the screening methods used. Both methods proved to be quite unreliable. Approximately one-fourth of the results were false negative. Culturing small pieces of bone gave the most accurate and reliable results and, therefore, can be recommended as a bacterial screening method. The use of antibiotics in allograft decontamination is controversial. In prophylactic use antibiotics include risks of allergic reactions and resistant development and our results in the present study show that antibiotics do not improve the decontamination any better than low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution. Therefore, pulse lavage with sterile saline solution can be recommended for allograft decontamination. Our results demonstrate that it decreases bacterial bioburden as effectively as the antibiotics without persisting the disadvantages.

  3. Inhibition of the immune response to experimental fresh osteoarticular allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigo, J.J.; Schnaser, A.M.; Reynolds, H.M. Jr.; Biggart, J.M. 3d.; Leathers, M.W.; Chism, S.E.; Thorson, E.; Grotz, T.; Yang, Q.M. )

    1989-06-01

    The immune response to osteoarticular allografts is capable of destroying the cartilage--a tissue that has antigens on its cells identical to those on the bone and marrow cells. Osteoarticular allografts of the distal femur were performed in rats using various methods to attempt to temporarily inhibit the antibody response. The temporary systemic immunosuppressant regimens investigated were cyclophosphamide, azathioprine and prednisolone, cyclosporine A, and total lymphoid irradiation. The most successful appeared to be cyclosporine A, but significant side effects were observed. To specifically inhibit the immune response in the allograft antigens without systemically inhibiting the entire immune system, passive enhancement and preadministration of donor blood were tried. Neither was as effective as coating the donor bone with biodegradable cements, a method previously found to be successful. Cyclosporine A was investigated in dogs in a preliminary study of medial compartmental knee allografts and was found to be successful in inhibiting the antibody response and in producing a more successful graft; however, some significant side effects were similarly observed.

  4. Modulating Wnt Signaling Pathway to Enhance Allograft Integration in Orthopaedic Trauma Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    neutralizing the LRP5/Wnt pathway inhibitors Sost or DKK1 with monoclonal antibodies will enhance allograft integration to the host bone. The proposed work in...endpoints. Aim 2: Determine the effect of modulating the LRP-5/Wnt pathway with anti- Dkk1 monoclonal antibody on allograft incorporation in a rat...time point, saline/anti-Sost/Anti- Dkk1 ; N=16 each treatment) have been treated, samples harvested and banked for analysis. In vivo radiographs as

  5. Donation FAQs (Bone and Tissue Allografts)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donation is supported as a way to better human life through transplantation or research. Hinduism There is ... in the Hindu religion indicating that parts of humans cannot be used to alleviate the suffering of ...

  6. The effects of prolonged deep freezing on the biomechanical properties of osteochondral allografts.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Benjamin; Brosh, Tamar; Salai, Moshe; Herman, Amir; Dudkiewicz, Israel

    2009-02-01

    Musculo-skeletal allografts sterilized and deep frozen are among the most common human tissue to be preserved and utilized in modern medicine. The effects of a long deep freezing period on cortical bone has already been evaluated and found to be insignificant. However, there are no reports about the influences of a protracted deep freezing period on osteochondral allografts. One hundred osteochondral cylinders were taken from a fresh specimen and humeral heads of 1 year, 2 years, 3 years and 4 year old bones. Twenty chips from each period, with a minimum of 3 chips per humeral head. Each was mechanically tested by 3 point compression. The fresh osteochondral allografts were significantly mechanically better than the deep frozen osteochondral allografts. There was no statistical significant time dependent difference between the deep frozen groups in relation to the freezing period. Therefore, we conclude that, from the mechanical point of view deep freezing of osteochondral allografts over a period of 4 years, is safe without further deterioration of the biomechanical properties of the osteochondral allografts.

  7. Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  8. Endoscopic procurement of tympano-ossicular allografts: alternative to the transcranial or retroauricular technique.

    PubMed

    Van Rompaey, Vincent; Caremans, Jeroen; Hamans, Evert; Muylle, Ludo; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2013-09-01

    A tympano-ossicular tissue bank complying with European Union regulations on human allografts is feasible and critical to assure that the patient receives tissue which is safe, individually checked and prepared in a suitable environment. The transcranial procurement technique has become the standard approach to procure tympano-ossicular allografts since the 1970s because it can provide en bloc allografts. Over the last 10-20 years, en bloc allografts have been abandoned and only the malleus (hammer) is left attached to the tympanic membrane. This modification enables introduction of the transmeatal procurement technique. Transmeatal procurement using readily available nasal 0° and 30° endoscopes is a feasible alternative which avoids contact with the dura mater and is not esthetically invasive to the donor. It involves a more time-consuming procurement but avoids the need for preparation of the temporal bone plug and is therefore generally more time-efficient.

  9. Bacterial infections associated with allogenic bone transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stepanović, Željko Lj; Ristić, Branko M

    2015-05-01

    Bone allografts are frequently used in orthopedic reconstructive procedures carrying a high risk for recipients. To assess the nature and frequency of allograft contamination and associated surgical infection the case records from our institutional bone bank were reviewed. We retrospectively analyzed the microbiology of discarded bone allografts and the surgical site of the recipients. A case series of patients who acquired surgical site infection after allogenic bone transplantation was presented. Swab culturing was conducted on 309 femoral heads from living donors who underwent partial and total hip arthroplasty between January 2007 and December 2013. To prevent potential bone allograft contamination we used saline solution of 2.0 mg/ml of amikacin during thawing. The overall infection rate was analyzed in 197 recipients. Of the 309 donated femoral heads, 37 were discarded due to bacterial contamination, giving the overall contamination rate of 11.97%. The postoperative survey of 213 bone allotransplantations among 197 recipients showed the infection rate of 2.03%. The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most commonly identified contaminant of bone allografts and recipient surgical sites. The allograft contamination rate and the infection rate among recipients in our institution are in accordance with the international standards. The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most commonly identified contaminant of bone allografts,and recipient surgical sites. There is no strong evidence that surgical site infections were associated with bone allograft utilization. We plan further improvements in allograft handling and decontamination with highly concentrated antibiotic solutions in order to reduce infection risk for recipients.

  10. Microvascular transplantation of epiphyseal plates: studies utilizing allograft donor material.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Martin I; Bowen, C Vaughan A

    2007-01-01

    Compromised function of an epiphyseal plate caused by trauma, tumor, infection, or congenital malformation can result in significant musculoskeletal deformity. Techniques used to correct or minimize the extent of these deformities include autogenous or allogeneic cancellous bone grafts, nonvascularized cortical allografts, vascularized bone and composite tissue transfers, and distraction osteogenesis. These solutions are not ideal for children because they do not adequately address the actively growing nature of the extremity. Microvascular techniques have enabled the experimental transplantation of vascularized epiphyseal plates with high levels of postoperative viability and subsequent growth and offer a potential advantage over conventional treatments.

  11. Adenohypophysitis in rat pituitary allografts

    PubMed Central

    Rotondo, Fabio; Quintanar-Stephano, Andres; Asa, Sylvia L; Lombardero, Matilde; Berczi, Istvan; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman

    2010-01-01

    The histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations in 81 pituitary allografts from Lewis rats transplanted beneath the renal capsule of Wistar rats were investigated. Intrasellar pituitaries of rats bearing allografts were also examined. Recipient rats were sacrificed at various time points after transplantation. Two days after transplantation, the central portion of the allografts demonstrated ischaemic necrosis. A week later, massive mononuclear cell infiltrates consisting primarily of lymphocytes and to a lesser extent, macrophages, plasma cells and granulocytes became prominent. At about three to four weeks after transplantation, the mononuclear cell infiltrate diminished; the surviving adenohypophysial cells, mainly prolactin (PRL) cells, increased in number and necrosis was replaced by connective tissue. No histological changes were noted in the intrasellar pituitaries of rats bearing allografts. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the surviving adenohypophysial cells were mainly PRL-producing cells. Electron microscopy revealed adenohypophysial cell destruction, a spectrum of inflammatory cells and, in late phase, accumulation of fibroblasts and collagen fibres. PRL cells were the prominent cell types; they increased in number. It appears that pituitary allografts are ‘foreign’ and evoke an immune response, suggesting that they may be used as an experimental animal model for morphological investigation of the development and progression of adenohypophysitis, a rare disease occurring mainly in young women often associated with pregnancy. PMID:20586813

  12. Osteochondral Allograft of the Talus

    PubMed Central

    Bisicchia, Salvatore; Rosso, Federica; Amendola, Annunziato

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus are being recognized as an increasingly common injury. They are most commonly located postero-medially or antero-laterally, while centrally located lesions are uncommon. Large osteochondral lesions have significant biomechanical consequences and often require resurfacing with osteochondral autograft transfer, mosaicplasty, autologous chondrocyte implantation (or similar methods) or osteochondral allograft transplantation. Allograft procedures have become popular due to inherent advantages over other resurfacing techniques. Cartilage viability is one of the most important factors for successful clinical outcomes after transplantation of osteochondral allografts and is related to storage length and intra-operative factors. While there is abundant literature about osteochondral allograft transplantation in the knee, there are few papers about this procedure in the talus. Failure of non-operative management, initial debridement, curettage or microfractures are an indication for resurfacing. Patients should have a functional ankle motion, closed growth plates, absence of cartilage lesions on the tibial side. This paper reviews the published literature about osteochondral allograft transplantation of the talus focusing on indications, pre-operative planning, surgical approaches, postoperative management, results and complications of this procedure. PMID:25328456

  13. The Murine Femoral Allograft Model and a Semi-automated Histomorphometric Analysis Tool

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Robinder S.; Zhang, Longze; Schwarz, Edward M.; Boyce, Brendan F.; Xie, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Preclinical studies on bone repair remain a high priority due to the unresolved clinical problems associated with treating critical segmental defects and complications of fracture healing. Over the last decade the murine femoral allograft model has gained popularity due to its standardized surgery and potential for examining a vast array of radiographic, biomechanical and histological outcome measures. Here, we describe these methods and a novel semi-automated histomorphometric approach to quantify the amount of bone, cartilage and undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue in demineralized paraffin sections of allografted murine femurs using the VisioPharm Image Analysis Software System. PMID:24482164

  14. Restrictive allograft syndrome post lung transplantation is characterized by pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis.

    PubMed

    Ofek, Efrat; Sato, Masaaki; Saito, Tomohito; Wagnetz, Ute; Roberts, Heidi C; Chaparro, Cecilia; Waddell, Thomas K; Singer, Lianne G; Hutcheon, Michael A; Keshavjee, Shaf; Hwang, David M

    2013-03-01

    We previously described restrictive allograft syndrome as a form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, demonstrating restrictive pulmonary function decline. However, the histopathological correlates of restrictive allograft syndrome have yet to be satisfactorily described. We hypothesized that pulmonary pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis, as has recently been described in bone marrow transplant recipients, may also be present in the lungs of patients with restrictive allograft syndrome. Retrospective review of 493 patients who underwent lung transplantation between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 2009, was conducted. Out of 47 patients with clinical features of restrictive allograft syndrome, 16 had wedge biopsy, re-transplant lung explant, or autopsy lung specimens available for review. All lungs showed varying degrees of pleural fibrosis. Fifteen of 16 showed parenchymal fibroelastosis, characterized by hypocellular collagen deposition with preservation and thickening of the underlying alveolar septal elastic network. The fibroelastosis was predominantly subpleural in distribution, with some cases also showing centrilobular and paraseptal distribution. A sharp demarcation was often seen between areas of fibroelastosis and unaffected lung parenchyma, with fibroblastic foci often present at this interface. Concurrent features of obliterative bronchiolitis were present in 14 cases. Another common finding was the presence of diffuse alveolar damage (13 cases), usually in specimens obtained <1 year after clinical onset of restrictive allograft syndrome. The single specimen in which fibroelastosis was not identified was obtained before the clinical onset of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, and showed features of diffuse alveolar damage. In conclusion, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is a major histopathologic correlate of restrictive allograft syndrome, and was often found concurrently with diffuse alveolar damage. Our findings support a temporal sequence of diffuse

  15. Filgrastim-Stimulated Bone Marrow Compared with Filgrastim-Mobilized Peripheral Blood in Myeloablative Sibling Allografting for Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: A Randomized Canadian Blood and Marrow Transplant Group Study.

    PubMed

    Couban, Stephen; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Lachance, Sylvie; Walker, Irwin; Toze, Cynthia; Rubinger, Morel; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Lee, Stephanie J; Szer, Richard; Doocey, R; Lewis, Ian D; Huebsch, Lothar; Howson-Jan, Kang; Lalancette, Michel; Almohareb, Fahad; Chaudhri, Nadeem; Ivison, Sabine; Broady, Raewyn; Levings, Megan; Fairclough, Diane; Devins, Gerald; Szwajcer, David; Foley, Ronan; Smith, Clayton; Panzarella, Tony; Kerr, Holly; Kariminia, Amina; Schultz, Kirk R

    2016-08-01

    In adult hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), filgrastim-mobilized peripheral blood (G-PB) has largely replaced unstimulated marrow for allografting. Although the use of G-PB results in faster hematopoietic recovery, it is also associated with more chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). A potential alternative allograft is filgrastim-stimulated marrow (G-BM), which we hypothesized may be associated with prompt hematopoietic recovery but with less cGVHD. We conducted a phase 3, open-label, multicenter randomized trial of 230 adults with hematologic malignancies receiving allografts from siblings after myeloablative conditioning to compare G-PB with G-BM. The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure, defined as a composite of extensive cGVHD, relapse/disease progression, and death. With a median follow-up of 36 months (range, 9.6 to 48), comparing G-BM with G-PB, there was no difference between the 2 arms with respect to the primary outcome of this study (hazard ratio [HR], .91; 95% confidence interval [CI], .68 to 1.22; P = .52). However, the cumulative incidence of overall cGVHD was lower with G-BM (HR, .66; 95% CI, .46 to .95; P = .007) and there was no difference in the risk of relapse or progression (P = .35). The median times to neutrophil recovery (P = .0004) and platelet recovery (P = .012) were 3 days shorter for recipients allocated to G-PB compared with those allocated to G-BM, but there were no differences in secondary engraftment-related outcomes, such as time to first hospital discharge (P = .17). In addition, there were no graft failures in either arm. This trial demonstrates that, compared with G-PB, the use of G-BM allografts leads to a significantly lower rate of overall cGVHD without a loss of the graft-versus-tumor effect and comparable overall survival. Our findings suggest that further study of this type of allograft is warranted.

  16. Cellular requirements for the rejection of skin allografts in rats.

    PubMed

    Lubaroff, D M

    1973-08-01

    The role of bone marrow-derived cells in the rejection of skin allografts in rats was investigated. Lewis rats, rendered tolerant of BN antigens and bearing healthy grafts, were thymectomized, irradiated with 900 rad, and injected with varying doses of either normal isologous bone marrow, normal lymph node cells, and/or lymph node cells presensitized to BN antigens. In some experiments rats were also adoptively sensitized to tuberculin. Results showed that, although necessary for the elicitation of tuberculin skin reactions, bone marrow cells are not needed for the rejection of previously tolerated skin allografts. Rats receiving lymph node cells alone rejected their grafts in about 6-7 days. In addition, rats injected with bone marrow alone also rejected their grafts, although significantly later than did lymph node cell recipients, indicating that rat marrow contains a population of cells capable of reacting to transplantation antigens. These cells were found capable of reacting to major transplantation antigens but not minor as they were ineffective in causing the rejection of Ag-B compatible Fischer skin grafts. From experiments utilizing bone marrow from neonatally thymectomized donors and cells treated with an antiserum to rat T cells, these competent cells in the marrow were shown to be thymus derived.

  17. Long-term results of allograft composite total hip prostheses for tumors.

    PubMed

    Langlais, F; Lambotte, J C; Collin, P; Thomazeau, H

    2003-09-01

    The functional results of standard reconstruction prostheses are impaired by instability because of poor muscular reinsertion, especially of the gluteal muscles. In 21 patients, composite hip prostheses including proximal femoral allografts were used after primary malignant tumor resection. Ten reconstructions used combined bone-tendon allografts that allowed reinsertion of the gluteal muscles to the allograft tendons. None of the 21 patients had dislocation or infection. Ten patients died within 2 years of surgery without complications requiring reoperations. The mean followup in the 11 other patients was 10 years. Eight patients had reoperation: four for loosening (two at 3 years, two at 11 and 12 years), and four had autologous graftings for nonunion of the trochanter or of the distal graft-bone interface. Evaluation of function in the 11 patients with follow-ups ranging from 4 to 15 years showed an average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score of 77%. Satisfactory strength of the abductor muscles was achieved by reinsertion of the trochanter or by suture of the patients gluteal muscles with the combined tendon-bone allograft. At long-term, radiologically, the bony allograft showed no change in five patients, very mild resorption in five, and severe resorption in one. Stem fixation was excellent in 10 patients and fair in one. Comparison between the functional results of reconstruction prostheses versus composite prostheses showed a significant improvement with the composite prosthesis. In the authors' institution, at 10 years, the mechanical survival of composite prostheses was 81%, as compared with only 65% for reconstruction prostheses.

  18. Evaluation of an Osseous Allograft Membrane for Guided Tissue Regeneration in the Dog.

    PubMed

    Stepaniuk, Kevin S; Gingerich, Wade

    2015-01-01

    Clinical application of a demineralized freeze-dried cortical bone membrane allograft (DFBMA) for treatment of intra(infra)bony periodontal pockets in dogs was evaluated. The mean pre-treatment periodontal probing depth equaled 7.2-mm. Post-treatment probing depths in all 11 cases were normal, with a mean periodontal probing gain of 5.4-mm. Guided tissue regeneration using a commercially available veterinary canine DFBMA and canine demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) resulted in clinically significant periodontal attachment gains. The gain of new periodontal tissue attachment was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The commercially available veterinary allograft products predictably increased new periodontal attachment without any identified membrane sequelae in these 11 cases.

  19. Emphysema in the renal allograft

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.L.; Sullivan, B.M.; Fluornoy, J.G.; Gerza, C.

    1985-04-01

    Two diabetic patients in whom emphysematous pyelonephritis developed after renal transplantation are described. Clinical recognition of this unusual and serious infection is masked by the effects of immunosuppression. Abdominal radiographic, ultrasound, and computed tomography findings are discussed. The clinical presentation includes urinary tract infection, sepsis, and acute tubular malfunction of the allograft in insulin-dependent diabetics.

  20. An audit of consent for allograft use in elective orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Mullan, C J; Pagoti, R; Davison, H; McAlinden, M G

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Patients receiving musculoskeletal allografts may be at risk of postoperative infection. The General Medical Council guidelines on consent highlight the importance of providing patients with the information they want or need on any proposed investigation or treatment, including any potential adverse outcomes. With the increased cost of defending medicolegal claims, it is paramount that adequate, clear informed patient consent be documented. Methods We retrospectively examined the patterns of informed consent for allograft bone use during elective orthopaedic procedures in a large unit with an onsite bone bank. The initial audit included patients operated over the course of 1 year. Following a feedback session, a re-audit was performed to identify improvements in practice. Results The case mix of both studies was very similar. Revision hip arthroplasty surgery constituted the major subgroup requiring allograft (48%), followed by foot and ankle surgery (16.3%) and revision knee arthroplasty surgery (11.4%) .On the initial audit, 17/45 cases (38%) had either adequate preoperative documentation of the outpatient discussion or an appropriately completed consent form on the planned use of allograft. On the re-audit, 44/78 cases (56%) had adequate pre-operative documentation. There was little correlation between how frequently a surgeon used allograft and the adequacy of consent (Correlation coefficient -0.12). Conclusions Although the risk of disease transmission with allograft may be variable, informed consent for allograft should be a routine part of preoperative discussions in elective orthopaedic surgery. Regular audit and feedback sessions may further improve consent documentation, alongside the targeting of high volume/low compliance surgeons.

  1. Stem cell-containing allograft matrix enhances periodontal regeneration: case presentations.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Bradley S

    2011-04-01

    Periodontal defects involving either interproximal horizontal bone loss or furcations continue to challenge the regenerative capabilities of the oral cavity. The following case presentations show the successful treatment of these challenging periodontal defects with a novel cellular allograft that contains native mesenchymal stem cells and osteoprogenitor cells.

  2. Zoledronic acid, an aminobisphosphonate, prolongs survival of skin allografts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Yuan; Yang, Po-Sheng; Cheng, Shih-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Lee, Jie-Jen; Ko, Chun-Chuan; Shieh, Hui-Ru; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2012-08-04

    Zoledronic acid (ZOL), an effective nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate used to prevent excessive bone loss in clinical practice, has been shown to affect the development of dendritic cells by redirecting differentiation toward a state of atypical maturation. The study was aimed to examine whether ZOL can reduce acute rejection of skin allografts. A skin transplantation model using C57BL/6 to BALB/c mice was used. ZOL was injected intraperitoneally into transplant recipients post-surgically. Graft survival, body weight, leukocyte count, hepatic and renal functions were assessed. ZOL treatment significantly prolonged skin allograft survival in mice. In terms of toxicity, there were no significant differences in body weight, leukocyte count, plasma alanine aminotransferase or creatinine levels between the ZOL-treated and control groups. Histopathology showed that the loss of skin integrity seen in control group was prevented by ZOL treatment. In draining lymph nodes and spleen, the number and clustering extent of mononuclear cells were markedly declined by ZOL treatment. The plasma IL-6 levels were reduced by treatment of ZOL. ZOL can prolong skin allograft survival without major toxicity.

  3. Remodeling of ACL Allografts is Inhibited by Peracetic Acid Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Gonnermann, Johannes; Kamp, Julia; Przybilla, Dorothea; Pruss, Axel

    2008-01-01

    Sterilization of allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has become an important prerequisite to prevent disease transmission. However, current sterilization techniques impair the biological or mechanical properties of such treated grafts. Peracetic acid (PAA) has been successfully used to sterilize bone allografts without these disadvantages and does not impair the mechanical properties of soft tissue grafts in vitro. We asked whether PAA sterilization would influence recellularization, restoration of crimp length and pattern, and revascularization of ACL grafts during early healing. We used an in vivo sheep model for open ACL reconstruction. We also correlated the histologic findings with the restoration of anteroposterior stability and structural properties during load-to-failure testing. PAA slowed remodeling activity at 6 and 12 weeks compared to nonsterilized allografts and autografts. The mechanical properties of PAA grafts were also reduced compared to these control groups at both time points. We conclude PAA sterilization currently should not be used to sterilize soft tissue grafts typically used in ACL reconstruction. PMID:18491201

  4. Radial Head and Neck Allograft for Comminute Irreparable Fracture-Dislocations of the Elbow.

    PubMed

    Bisicchia, Salvatore; Tudisco, Cosimo

    2016-11-01

    Fracture-dislocations of the elbow can be difficult to treat, with unsatisfactory results in some cases. In general, it is preferable to preserve the fractured radial head when possible, but some patients present a unique treatment challenge because of extremely comminuted fractures and bone loss. In these cases, the only options available are radial head prosthesis or allograft. The authors present a case of a 45-year-old man with a fracture-dislocation of the left elbow that was treated with an allograft of the radial head and neck because of extreme comminution of the fracture. There have been a few reports about osteochondral allograft transplantation of the radial head, and they all included traumatic or posttraumatic cases treated with a frozen allograft. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the use of osteochondral allograft in the acute setting for the treatment of a comminuted fracture of the radius involving the whole head and neck. The clinical results were satisfactory at the final follow-up, although mild degenerative changes were present, the screws were coming loose, and the radial head had a slight valgus deformity. Radial head allograft can be an option in selected cases of acute fractures with severe comminution and bone loss that are not amenable to a stable internal fixation; for the young and active patient, who is not the best candidate for radial head resection; or in cases in which radial head arthroplasty is not feasible because of severe bone loss. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1205-e1208.].

  5. The current state of bone and tissue banking in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D A; Ilyas, I; Bryce, S L; Johnson, N

    1998-01-01

    The development of bone and tissue banking in Australia over the last decade is described and details of the administrative structure, donor and recipient testing protocols, allograft segment processing procedures, and internal audit safety arrangements are also provided. Demographic data concerning both the retrieval and dispersal of musculoskeletal allograft materials in Australia are also discussed. Current price schedules for a variety of allograft materials available in Australia are made available for international comparison.

  6. Acellular flexor tendon allografts: a new horizon for tendon reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Drake, David B; Tilt, Alexandra C; DeGeorge, Brent R

    2013-12-01

    Flexor tendon injuries continue to pose a significant challenge to the hand surgeon. In particular, chronic tendon ruptures with adhesions of the tendons and sheath, damage or loss of the intrasynovial flexor tendons in zone II, and combined soft tissue and bone injuries present especially difficult problems for restoring satisfactory digital function. This challenge in flexor tendon reconstruction has motivated hand surgeons to explore and develop novel solutions for nearly a century. Recent advances and techniques in processing and decellularizing allograft human flexor tendon constructs may prove to be a new horizon for tendon reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone Allografts: What Is the Risk of Disease Transmission with Bone Allografts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Oral Health home Oral Health Basics Children's Oral Health Protecting Your Child's Teeth Brush Up on Healthy Teeth Adult Oral Health ... State-Based Oral Health Programs CDC-Funded States Basic Strategies for ... Programs Coordinate Community Water Fluoridation Programs Targeted ...

  8. Comparison of glenohumeral contact pressures and contact areas after glenoid reconstruction with latarjet or distal tibial osteochondral allografts.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Van Thiel, Geoffrey S; Gupta, Deepti; Ghodadra, Neil; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Shewman, Elizabeth; Wang, Vincent M; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N; Provencher, Matthew T

    2013-08-01

    Glenoid reconstruction with distal tibial allografts offers the theoretical advantage over Latarjet reconstruction of improved joint congruity and a cartilaginous articulation for the humeral head. Hypothesis/ To investigate changes in the magnitude and location of glenohumeral contact areas, contact pressures, and peak forces after (1) the creation of a 30% anterior glenoid defect and subsequent glenoid bone augmentation with (2) a flush Latarjet coracoid graft or (3) a distal tibial osteochondral allograft. It was hypothesized that the distal tibial bone graft would best normalize glenohumeral contact areas, contact pressures, and peak forces. Controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric shoulder specimens were dissected free of all soft tissues and randomly tested in 3 static positions of humeral abduction with a 440-N compressive load: 30°, 60°, and 60° of abduction with 90° of external rotation (ABER). Glenohumeral contact area, contact pressure, and peak force were determined sequentially using a digital pressure mapping system for (1) the intact glenoid, (2) the glenoid with a 30% anterior bone defect, and (3) the glenoid after reconstruction with a distal tibial allograft or a Latarjet bone block. Glenoid reconstruction with distal tibial allografts resulted in significantly higher glenohumeral contact areas than reconstruction with Latarjet bone blocks in 60° of abduction (4.87 vs. 3.93 cm2, respectively; P < .05) and the ABER position (3.98 vs. 2.81 cm2, respectively; P < .05). Distal tibial allograft reconstruction also demonstrated significantly lower peak forces than Latarjet reconstruction in the ABER position (2.39 vs. 2.61 N, respectively; P < .05). Regarding the bone loss model, distal tibial allograft reconstruction exhibited significantly higher contact areas and significantly lower contact pressures and peak forces than the 30% defect model at all 3 abduction positions. Latarjet reconstruction also followed this same pattern, but

  9. Lengthening of intercalary allograft combined with free vascularized fibular graft after reconstruction in pediatric osteosarcoma of femur.

    PubMed

    Han, Chung-Soo; Chung, Duke-Whan; Lee, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Bi-O

    2010-01-01

    Involvement of the growth plate by a tumor or an injured growth plate during surgical procedures causes a discrepancy in the limb length. To address this problem,distraction osteogenesis is a well-established procedure for the treatment of defect and leg length discrepancy inviable bone tissues. We present the lengthening of an intercalary allograft combined with a vascularized fibular graft after reconstruction of osteosarcoma in the femoral metaphysis of a 10-year-old boy. The ability to lengthen through a composite allograft-vascularized fibular graft would add another option for reconstruction in skeletally immature children after resection for bone sarcomas.

  10. Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament: Evaluation of the clinical results of autografts versus allografts.

    PubMed

    Calvo Rodríguez, R; Figueroa Poblete, D; Anastasiadis Le Roy, Z; Etchegaray Bascur, F; Vaisman Burucker, A; Calvo Mena, R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the functional results after medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction in patients using auto- and allograft. A retrospective study was conducted on 28 patients with recurrent patellar dislocation, with 13 patients (13 knees) undergoing MPFL reconstruction with hamstring autograft, and 15 patients (16 knees) with reconstruction surgery with allograft. The total group included 13 males and 15 females, with an age range of 15 to 38 years. The graft-related morbidity was studied and a clinical assessment was performed using the pre- and postoperative Kujala score. Associated complications were reported for each group. All the patients had more than 12 months of follow up. No recurrent dislocations or graft related complications were reported in either group. The post-operative Kujala subjective knee score was 89.2 in the autograft group, and 92.6 in the allograft group (p >.05). One patient in the allograft group received a revision surgery due to poor positioning of anchors. Another patient in the allograft group had non-displaced patella fracture related to the bone tunnels and another patient had flexion deficit and needed mobilization under anesthesia. There were no significant differences between both groups, and the results were comparable. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence-Based Rationale for Ankle Cartilage Allograft Replacement: A Systematic Review of Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pierce; Lee, Daniel K

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of ankle arthritis remains controversial. Ankle cartilage allograft replacement is a novel and complex procedure. Many clinical studies have shown some level of promise, as well complications. We performed a systematic review of the clinical outcomes to describe and assess the different techniques and clinical outcomes for ankle cartilage allograft replacement. We performed a review of the published studies using MEDLINE(®) by way of PubMed(®) and Google Scholar(®) from January 2000 through October 2014, ranging from case reports to clinical studies. The inclusion criteria consisted of ankle cartilage allograft procedures with objective findings and clinical outcome scoring and complication and fusion rates and excluded nonallograft synthetic graft techniques, bone substitutes or expanders, review reports, and technique instructional manuals. Evidence with the combination of objective findings and clinical outcomes for all 3 type of allograft replacement (osteochondral, unipolar, and bipolar) is lacking. Several techniques for cartilage fixation have been described, including absorbable and metallic fixation. Most of the studies reported many occurrences and a variety of complications. A myriad of techniques for ankle cartilage allograft replacement exists. The results from the present systematic review of the published studies appear promising; however, the lack of statistical power and inconsistent documentation made it difficult to determine the superiority of any one intervention compared with another for the treatment of ankle arthritis.

  12. Allografts about the Knee in Young Patients with High-Grade Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Brigman, Brian E; Hornicek, Francis J; Gebhardt, Mark C; Mankin, Henry J

    2004-04-01

    Reconstruction after resections for high-grade sarcomas about the knee in children and adolescents is a challenging problem because of the large soft tissue and skeletal defects, the effects of adjuvant therapy, and the potential for long-term use of the limb. One hundred sixteen patients, all 18 years or younger, with osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma located between the middle femur and middle tibia, were treated with chemotherapy, resection, and allograft reconstruction. One hundred three patients with osteosarcoma and 13 patients with Ewing's sarcoma had 105 Stage II and 11 Stage III tumors. There were 72 osteoarticular grafts (39 femur, 33 tibia), 28 intercalary grafts (19 femur), seven allograft-prosthetic composites (all femur,) and nine allograft-arthrodeses (seven femur, two tibia). At latest followup, 49% of all of the allograft reconstructions were rated good or excellent, 14% were rated as fair, and 37% were failures. Sixteen percent had an infection develop. Twenty-seven percent of patients had a fracture, 34% had a nonunion, and 14 patients eventually required amputation. Reconstruction of large bone defects about the knee in young patients who are being treated with chemotherapy is difficult. Although complications significantly affect outcome, allografts are a viable option for reconstruction in children with high-grade sarcomas about the knee.

  13. Osteochondral Allografts in the Ankle Joint

    PubMed Central

    Vannini, Francesca; Buda, Roberto; Ruffilli, Alberto; Cavallo, Marco; Giannini, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this systematic review is to report about the clinical use of partial and total fresh osteochondral allograft in the ankle joint. The state of the art of allografts with regard to basic science, procurement and storage methods, immunogenicity, generally accepted indications and contraindications, and the rationale of the allografting procedure have been described. Methods: All studies published in PubMed from 2000 to January 2012 addressing fresh osteochondral allograft procedures in the ankle joint were identified, including those that fulfilled the following criteria: (a) level I-IV evidence addressing the areas of interest outlined above; (b) measures of functional, clinical, or imaging outcome; and (c) outcome related to ankle cartilage lesions or ankle arthritis treated by allografts. Results: The analysis showed a progressively increasing number of articles from 2000. The number of selected articles was 14; 9 of those focused on limited dimension allografts (plugs, partial) and 5 on bipolar fresh osteochondral allografts. The evaluation of evidence level showed 14 case series and no randomized studies. Conclusions: Fresh osteochondral allografts are now a versatile and suitable option for the treatment of different degrees of osteochondral disease in the ankle joint and may even be used as total joint replacement. Fresh osteochondral allografts used for total joint replacement are still experimental and might be considered as a salvage procedure in otherwise unsolvable situations. A proper selection of the patients is therefore a key point. Moreover, the patients should be adequately informed about the possible risks, benefits, and alternatives to the allograft procedure. PMID:26069666

  14. An analysis of soft tissue allograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a rabbit model: a short-term study of the use of mesenchymal stem cells to enhance tendon osteointegration.

    PubMed

    Soon, Michael Y H; Hassan, Afizah; Hui, James H P; Goh, James C H; Lee, E H

    2007-06-01

    Soft tissue allografts are essential for revision and multiple ligament surgeries in the knee, where donor-site morbidity is an issue. However, the use of allografts is associated with a higher failure rate of osteointegration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are investigated as potential agents to enhance bone tunnel and tendon healing. This study was conducted to analyze the effect of coating allografts with MSCs on the quality and rate of osteointegration at the allograft tendon and bone interface, and the biomechanical properties of these enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) grafts compared with controls. Descriptive laboratory study. Bilateral ACL reconstructions using Achilles tendon allografts were performed in 36 rabbits. On 1 limb, the graft was coated with autogenous MSCs in a fibrin glue carrier, while the contralateral limb served as a control with no MSCs. The reconstructions were assessed histologically and biomechanically at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. At 8 weeks, histologic analysis of the controls revealed the development of mature scar tissue resembling Sharpey fibers spanning the tendon-bone interface. In contrast, the MSC-enhanced reconstructions showed a mature zone of fibrocartilage blending from bone to the allograft, strongly resembling a normal ACL insertion. On biomechanical testing, the MSC-enhanced grafts had significantly higher load-to-failure rates than controls. However, the stiffness and Young's modulus were lower in the treatment group. The application of MSCs at the allograft tendon-bone interface during ACL reconstruction results in the development of an intervening zone of fibrocartilage. The use of MSCs to enhance allograft osteointegration is a novel method offering the potential of more physiologic and earlier healing, although further investigation must be conducted to improve the biomechanical strength. Mesenchymal stem cells can improve the biologic properties of soft tissue allograft healing. Combined with the decrease in donor

  15. Late Failing Heart Allografts: Pathology of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy and Association With Antibody-Mediated Rejection.

    PubMed

    Loupy, A; Toquet, C; Rouvier, P; Beuscart, T; Bories, M C; Varnous, S; Guillemain, R; Pattier, S; Suberbielle, C; Leprince, P; Lefaucheur, C; Jouven, X; Bruneval, P; Duong Van Huyen, J P

    2016-01-01

    In heart transplantation, there is a lack of robust evidence of the specific causes of late allograft failure. We hypothesized that a substantial fraction of failing heart allografts may be associated with antibody-mediated injury and immune-mediated coronary arteriosclerosis. We included all patients undergoing a retransplantation for late terminal heart allograft failure in three referral centers. We performed an integrative strategy of heart allograft phenotyping by assessing the heart vascular tree including histopathology and immunohistochemistry together with circulating donor-specific antibodies. The main analysis included 40 explanted heart allografts patients and 402 endomyocardial biopsies performed before allograft loss. Overall, antibody-mediated rejection was observed in 19 (47.5%) failing heart allografts including 16 patients (40%) in whom unrecognized previous episodes of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection occurred 4.5 ± 3.5 years before allograft loss. Explanted allografts with evidence of antibody-mediated rejection demonstrated higher endothelitis and microvascular inflammation scores (0.89 ± 0.26 and 2.25 ± 0.28, respectively) compared with explanted allografts without antibody-mediated rejection (0.42 ± 0.11 and 0.36 ± 0.09, p = 0.046 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Antibody-mediated injury was observed in 62.1% of failing allografts with pure coronary arteriosclerosis and mixed (arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis) pattern, while it was not observed in patients with pure coronary atherosclerosis (p = 0.0076). We demonstrate that antibody-mediated rejection is operating in a substantial fraction of failing heart allografts and is associated with severe coronary arteriosclerosis. Unrecognized subclinical antibody-mediated rejection episodes may be observed years before allograft failure.

  16. Non-myeloablative bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

    2003-01-01

    As a result of the evolution of knowledge in the area of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) transplantation, several dogmata have been broken. We now have the following information: a) successful engraftment if allogeneic HSC bone marrow ablation of the recipient is not required; b) HSC create their own space through graft-vs.-host reactions; c) several malignancies are eradicated by the graft-vs.-tumor effect; d) allografting can be conducted on an out-patient basis; e) allografting can be done in aged or debilitated individuals; f) allografting can be achieved without transfusion of blood products, and g) costs of the allografting procedures can be substantially diminished. Breaking all these dogmata has resulted in availability of HSC allografting to a larger number of individuals, thus offering true curative therapeutic options to patients who otherwise would not qualify to receive these opportunities.

  17. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  18. Subtalar Distraction Arthrodesis with Fresh Frozen Femoral Neck Allograft: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Spencer J; Brandao, Roberto A; Manway, Jeffrey M; Burns, Patrick R

    2016-10-01

    Subtalar joint distraction arthrodesis has been well reported with use of structural iliac crest or local autologous bone graft for malunited calcaneal fractures. Early reports for structural allograft did not yield good, consistent results, leading to a subsequent lack of recommendation in previous literature. Newer studies have had promising results utilizing femoral allograft as an alternative to autogenous bone graft. We performed a retrospective chart review on 10 patients (12 feet) undergoing subtalar joint distraction arthrodesis with femoral neck allograft for malunited calcaneal fractures. The primary aim of this study was to report on successful union rates and, in addition, outline any consistent complications. Twelve of the 12 procedures (100%) yielded successful fusion with a mean final follow-up of 7.7 months (range = 2.2-35.1 months). The mean increase in talocalcaneal height was 4 mm (range = 2-6 mm). The overall complication rate was 16.6%, including one superficial wound complication that healed uneventfully and one hardware removal. In conclusion, the current study reports a 100% successful fusion rate with interpositional structural femoral neck allograft in treatment for malunited calcaneal fractures. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Comparison of gait parameters in distal femoral replacement using a metallic endoprosthesis versus allograft reconstruction.

    PubMed

    AlGheshyan, Fahad; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Zakaria, Khaled; Temple, Harry Thomas; Asfour, Shihab

    2015-10-01

    Restoration of gait mechanics after reconstruction have been associated with improved functional outcomes and increased longevity of the reconstruction. The goal of this study is to compare the gait mechanics of an allograft reconstruction of the distal femur to both metallic endoprosthetic reconstruction relative to normal control subjects. Gait parameters were captured using motion capture system, and then analyzed and compared for patients with metallic endoprosthetic reconstructions, and patients with allograft reconstructions of the distal femur following resection of malignant bone tumor, with subjects having no history of musculoskeletal disorders serving as a control group. All reconstructed distal femurs following tumor resection resulted in decreased range of motion reflected in observed flexion/extension angles compared to the normal limbs. The allograft reconstructed knees demonstrated normal patterns of rotation whereas the metal subjects had abnormal patterns of rotation and statistically significant differences in rotational moments. Allograft distal femoral reconstruction after malignant excision remains a viable option for surgeons faced with problems associated with iatrogenic muscle, bone and soft tissue defects.

  20. Comparison of gait parameters in distal femoral replacement using a metallic endoprosthesis versus allograft reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    AlGheshyan, Fahad; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Zakaria, Khaled; Temple, Harry Thomas; Asfour, Shihab

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim Restoration of gait mechanics after reconstruction have been associated with improved functional outcomes and increased longevity of the reconstruction. The goal of this study is to compare the gait mechanics of an allograft reconstruction of the distal femur to both metallic endoprosthetic reconstruction relative to normal control subjects. Methods Gait parameters were captured using motion capture system, and then analyzed and compared for patients with metallic endoprosthetic reconstructions, and patients with allograft reconstructions of the distal femur following resection of malignant bone tumor, with subjects having no history of musculoskeletal disorders serving as a control group. Results All reconstructed distal femurs following tumor resection resulted in decreased range of motion reflected in observed flexion/extension angles compared to the normal limbs. The allograft reconstructed knees demonstrated normal patterns of rotation whereas the metal subjects had abnormal patterns of rotation and statistically significant differences in rotational moments. Conclusion Allograft distal femoral reconstruction after malignant excision remains a viable option for surgeons faced with problems associated with iatrogenic muscle, bone and soft tissue defects. PMID:26719625

  1. Revisiting the hopeless ridge: Part II--Inductive orthopedic allograft applied to dental implant regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lupovici, John

    2009-05-01

    Part I of "Revisiting the Hopeless Ridge" highlighted the higher complication rates, greater resorption profile, and lower implant success rates associated with autogenous block grafts. The conclusions described in that article were based on a comprehensive literature review, rather than an individual clinician's experience in clinical practice. Additionally, the idea that such grafts were the gold standard for traditional dental implant-associated bone regeneration was challenged. This article explores the advantageous properties of new commercially available allograft bone in a variety of clinical applications. One such product that combines demineralized bone with lecithin is reviewed, and two case reports using it are presented.

  2. Glass ionomer as an expander of allograft in revision arthroplasty of the hip.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, J D J; Cunningham, J L; Samuels, A; Blunn, G W; Lawes, T J; Learmonth, I D; Goodship, A E

    2003-02-01

    The use of glass ionomer as a bone graft expander was investigated in an in vivo model of revision hip arthroplasty. Bone grafts of pure allograft and allograft + glass ionomer particles in a 50:50 by weight mixture were implanted in an ovine hemi-arthroplasty model. Post-operative assessments of locomotor function, radiographic appearance and quantitative changes in mineralisation around the graft were made at 2, 4 and 6 months. Post-mortem assessments of radiographic and histologic appearance of the grafts were made at 6 months. No significant differences were noted in any of the measured or assessed parameters between the two graft types. The glass ionomer particles seemed to be well tolerated within the matrix of new bone, smaller sized particles appearing to be better incorporated than larger ones. The use of particles of glass ionomer as a bone graft expander, in this in vivo model of revision hip arthroplasty, would therefore appear to offer no detriment in performance over pure allograft in the short to medium term.

  3. [Hand allograft transplantation: what are the implications?].

    PubMed

    Masquelet, Alain Charles

    2013-12-01

    The first hand allograft transplantation was performed in 1998 by a French surgeons team and has opened the era of functional allotransfers. In France, the authorized preliminary study included five patients who sustained traumatic amputation of both hands. All patients had bilateral hand allograft transplantation. Long-term results (follow-up ranging from 3 to 12 years) undoubtedly show a useful daily function, a good psychological acceptance and a physiological integration. Despite several obstacles as the need of immunosuppressive therapy for life, hand allograft transplantation is worthy of interest in some outstanding situations.

  4. The Effects of Bio-Lubricating Molecules on Flexor Tendon Reconstruction in A Canine Allograft Model In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Wei, Zhuang; Kirk, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Jay, Gregory D.; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Using allograft is an attractive alternative for flexor tendon reconstruction because of the lack of donor morbidity, and better matching to the intrasynovial environment. The purpose of this study was to use biolubricant molecules to modify the graft surface to decrease adhesions and improve digit function. Methods 28 flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons from the 2nd and 5th digits of 14 dogs were first lacerated and repaired to create a model with repair failure and scar digit for tendon reconstruction. Six weeks after the initial surgery, the tendons were reconstructed with FDP allograft tendons obtained from canine cadavers. One graft tendon in each dog was treated with saline as a control and the other was treated with gelatin, carbodiimide derivatized, hyaluronic acid and lubricin (cd-HA-Lubricin). Six weeks postoperatively, digit function, graft mechanics, and biology were analyzed. Results Allograft tendons treated with cd-HA-Lubricin had decreased adhesions at the proximal tendon/graft repair and within flexor sheath, improved digit function, and increased graft gliding ability. The treatment also reduced the strength at the distal tendon to bone repair, but the distal attachment rupture rate was similar for both graft types. Histology showed that viable cells migrated to the allograft, but these were limited to the tendon surface. Conclusion cd-HA-Lubricin treatment of tendon allograft improves digit functional outcomes after flexor tendon reconstruction. However, delayed bone-tendon healing should be a caution. Furthermore, the cell infiltration into the allograft tendons substance should be a target for future studies, to shorten the allograft self-regeneration period. PMID:24445876

  5. The effects of biological lubricating molecules on flexor tendon reconstruction in a canine allograft model in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Wei, Zhuang; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Thoreson, Andrew R; Jay, Gregory D; Moran, Steven L; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2014-05-01

    Using allograft is an attractive alternative for flexor tendon reconstruction because of the lack of donor-site morbidity, and better matching to the intrasynovial environment. The purpose of this study was to use biological lubricant molecules to modify the graft surface to decrease adhesions and improve digit function. Twenty-eight flexor digitorum profundus tendons from the second and fifth digits of 14 dogs were lacerated and repaired to create a model with repair failure and scar digit for tendon reconstruction. Six weeks after the initial operation, the tendons were reconstructed with flexor digitorum profundus allograft tendons obtained from canine cadavers. One graft tendon in each dog was treated with saline as a control and the other was treated with carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and gelatin plus lubricin. Six weeks postoperatively, digit function, graft mechanics, and biology were analyzed. Allograft tendons treated with carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid-lubricin had decreased adhesions at the proximal tendon/graft repair and within the flexor sheath, improved digit function, and increased graft gliding ability. The treatment also reduced the strength at the distal tendon-to-bone repair, but the distal attachment rupture rate was similar for both graft types. Histologic evaluation showed that viable cells migrated to the allograft, but these were limited to the tendon surface. Carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid-lubricin treatment of tendon allograft improves digit functional outcomes after flexor tendon reconstruction. However, delayed bone-to-tendon healing should be a caution. Furthermore, the cell infiltration into the allograft tendon substance should be a target for future studies, to shorten the allograft self-regeneration period.

  6. Penetrating Blast Injury to the Knee of a United States Soldier Treated with Allograft Mosaicplasty

    PubMed Central

    Eichinger, Maj. Josef K.; Bluman, Eric M.; Arrington, Col. Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This is the first report of successful allograft mosaicplasty treatment of a large osteochondral lesion of the knee caused by a blast fragment sustained during combat operations. The patient was able to return to active duty following rehabilitation. Methods: An active-duty infantryman sustained an osteochondral lesion of the medial femoral condyle caused by a metallic fragment of an explosively formed projectile. Initial treatment consisted of removal of the foreign body and primary closure. The patient continued to experience pain, mechanical symptoms, and repeated effusions after initial nonoperative treatment. Allograft mosaicplasty of the lesion utilizing two 18-mm-diameter fresh allograft osteochondral plugs was performed at 6 months post-injury. Results: At 2-year follow-up, the patient remains on active duty with marked improvement in symptoms. Two years postoperatively, his outcome scores are 72 of 100 on the Western Ontario and McMaster University osteoarthritis scoring index (WOMAC) and 60 of 100 on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). His follow-up x-rays and MRI demonstrate intact articular cartilage and subchondral bone incorporation. Conclusion: Penetrating injuries to joints are commonplace in the battlefield environment. Combat injuries to the knee are frequently associated with articular cartilage injury. While numerous cartilage restoration techniques have been used with success for the treatment of osteochondral injuries to the femoral condyles, no published reports describe the use of allograft mosaicplasty in this location for open, penetrating injuries with focal cartilage loss. This is the first documented use of allograft mosaicplasty for a traumatic osteochondral defect of the medial femoral condyle caused by a metallic projectile. The patient was able to return to active duty following rehabilitation. We demonstrate a high level of functioning is possible following allograft mosaicplasty of a large

  7. Renal allograft rejection: sonography and scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Cohen, W.N.

    1980-07-01

    A total of 30 renal allograft patients who had sonographic B scanning and radionuclide studies of the transplant was studied as to whether: (1) the allograft rejection was associated with any consistent and reliable sonographic features and (2) the sonograms complemented the radionuclide studies. Focal areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistent sonographic finding in chymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistens sonographic finding in allograft rejection. This was observed in most of the patients exhibiting moderate or severe rejection, but was frequently absent with mild rejection. Areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were not seen during episodes of acute tubular necrosis. Therefore, sonography showing zones of decreased parenchymal echogenicity was complementary to radionuclide studies in the diagnosis of allograft rejection versus acute tubular necrosis. Corticomedullary demarcation was difficult to interpret because of technical variables, and was inconsistently related to rejection in this series.

  8. Reconstruction of the Distal Radius following Tumour Resection Using an Osteoarticular Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Maurer-Ertl, Werner; Pirker-Frühauf, Ulrike; Lovse, Thomas; Leithner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Reconstruction of the distal radius following tumour resection is challenging and various techniques are recorded. We retrospectively analysed the outcome of five patients (one male and four females) after reconstruction of the distal radius with osteoarticular allograft, following tumour resection. Mean followup was 32 months (range, 4–121). In three of the five patients the dominant limb was affected. Mean bone resection length was 6.5 centimetres (range, 5–11.5). Two grafts developed nonunion, both successfully treated with autologous bone grafting. No infection, graft fracture, or failure occurred. Mean flexion/extension was 38/60 degrees and mean pronation/supination was 77/77 degrees. The mean Mayo wrist score was 84 and the mean DASH score was 8, both representing a good functional result. Therefore we state the notion that osteoarticular allograft reconstruction of distal radius provides good to excellent functional results. PMID:23690732

  9. Computational Biology: Modeling Chronic Renal Allograft Injury

    PubMed Central

    Stegall, Mark D.; Borrows, Richard

    2015-01-01

    New approaches are needed to develop more effective interventions to prevent long-term rejection of organ allografts. Computational biology provides a powerful tool to assess the large amount of complex data that is generated in longitudinal studies in this area. This manuscript outlines how our two groups are using mathematical modeling to analyze predictors of graft loss using both clinical and experimental data and how we plan to expand this approach to investigate specific mechanisms of chronic renal allograft injury. PMID:26284070

  10. Effects of growth hormone administration in pediatric renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Bartosh, S; Kaiser, B; Rezvani, I; Polinsky, M; Schulman, S; Palmer, J; Baluarte, H J

    1992-01-01

    The efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (rGH) was assessed in five pediatric allograft recipients with severe growth retardation despite successful renal transplants. rGH 0.05 mg/kg per dose was given six times weekly by subcutaneous injection to five prepubertal children (mean age 15.2 +/- 2.0 years) all of whom had bone ages less than or equal to 12 years (10.0 +/- 1.4 years), a height standard deviation score of less than -2.5 (-4.9 +/- 1.5), no evidence of catch-up growth, a calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of more than 40 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (51 +/- 6.8 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and stable renal function on alternate-day prednisone (16.7 +/- 2.6 mg/m2 per dose). Growth hormone profiles were abnormal in all children before treatment. rGH administration led to a significant increase in both growth rate (3.5 +/- 1.6 cm/year pre therapy, 8.5 +/- 1.4 cm/year post therapy, P less than 0.001) and percentage of expected growth velocity for bone age (67 +/- 31% pre therapy, 163 +/- 27% post therapy, P less than 0.001) with evidence of true catch-up growth. During the study period, three children had the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics, and one had premature advancement of his bone age. GFR decreased in three children, and in one rGH was discontinued due to a steady rise in serum creatinine. No significant changes were seen in serum calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, or thyroid function, although a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase was found. In summary, growth-retarded pediatric renal allograft recipients may have abnormal endogenous GH production and respond favorably to rGH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Local autogenous bone mixed with bone expander: an optimal option of bone graft in single-segment posterolateral lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Lin, Mou-Zen; Chen, Yen-Jen; Hsu, Horng-Chaung; Chen, Hsien-Te

    2008-12-01

    This was a retrospective study of clinical results for single-segment posterolateral lumbar fusion using local autograft bone with bone expander. Sixty-six patients underwent single-segment decompression with instrumented posterolateral fusion. Locally harvested morselized bone from the decompressive site mixed with 2 mL calcium sulfate (OSTEOSET, Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN, USA) was used for the fusion at the posterolateral aspect of the lumbar spine. The minimum follow-up period was 15 months. The status of the fusion was evaluated by plain film, flexion-extension view, and fine-cut computed tomography (CT) with coronal reconstruction. Radiographic fusion criteria included less than 5 degrees of angular motion, less than 2 mm of translation, and evidence of bridging bone in the posterolateral lumbar area on the CT scan. The clinical outcome was recorded using VAS score and the ODI. The results were then compared with the result of the other group who had received the same procedure except that a pure autogenous bone graft harvested from the PSIS was used. In the group using local bone and OSTEOSET, the fusion rate was 92.3% by the strict criteria. The VAS scores for leg pain and back pain were decreased in the 2 groups, but there was no significant difference between them. The improvement in the ODI was also similar between the 2 groups. Intraoperative blood loss and the time needed for the operation were significantly decreased in the group using local bone and OSTEOSET as the bone graft. In the group using autogenous bone graft, donor site morbidity was still encountered. Using local laminectomy bone with calcium sulfate as bone graft is a practical option in posterolateral lumbar fusion with the advantages of less operative time, less blood loss, and avoidance of donor site morbidity.

  12. Osteogenicity of autologous bone transplants in the goat.

    PubMed

    Kruyt, Moyo C; Dhert, Wouter J A; Oner, Cumhur; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Verbout, Abraham J; de Bruijn, Joost D

    2004-02-27

    Little is known about the specific mechanisms that make autologous graft bone (AG) superior to the current alternatives. A potential mechanism is the active bone formation by the osteoprogenitor cells within the AG. However, whether these cells survive the transplantation is questionable, especially in nonvascularized, clinically sized grafts. In the present study, we investigated the role of viability in AG implanted ectopically and orthotopically in the goat. Eight goats were operated on twice. At the first operation, pieces of vital or devitalized autologous cortical bone were implanted in the paraspinal muscles. Eight weeks later, corticocancellous plugs were taken from the femoral condyles, morselized, and reimplanted as either vital or devitalized orthotopic grafts. The goats received fluorochrome labels at 5, 7, and 9 weeks after the first operation. At 12 weeks, the goats were killed, and the samples were examined histologically. Ectopically, new bone had formed in both the vital and devitalized grafts. In the vital grafts, all three fluorochrome labels were present, indicating an early osteogenic mechanism. Within the devitalized grafts, only the 9-week label was observed. Histomorphometry indicated significantly more new bone in the vital grafts (10.3% vs. 1.7% in the devitalized grafts, P <0.01). Orthotopically, both vital and devitalized grafts showed new bone. Again, graft viability was advantageous in terms of new bone formation (14.5% vs. 9.3%, P <0.02). The cells inside the autologous bone transplants most likely survived transplantation and were capable of initiating and sustaining new bone formation.

  13. Tissue banking in India: gamma-irradiated allografts.

    PubMed

    Lobo Gajiwala, A

    2003-01-01

    In India, the procurement of tissues for transplantation is governed by the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994. Although this law exists, it is primarily applied to organ transplantation and rules and regulations that are specific to tissue banking which have yet to be developed. The Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) Tissue Bank was started in 1988 as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) programme to promote the use of ionising radiation for the sterilisation of biological tissues. It represents the Government of India within this project and was the first facility in the country to use radiation for the sterilisation of allografts. It is registered with the Health Services Maharashtra State and provides freeze-dried, gamma irradiated amnion, dura mater, skin and bone. The tissues are obtained either from cadavers or live donors. To date the TMH Tissue Bank has provided 6328 allografts which have found use as biological dressings and in various reconstructive procedures. The TMH Tissue Bank has helped initiate a Tissue Bank at the Defence Laboratory (DL), Jodhpur. At present these are the only two Banks in the country using radiation for the terminal sterilisation of preserved tissues. The availability of safe, clinically useful and cost effective grafts has stimulated innovative approaches to surgery. There is an increased demand for banked tissues and a heightened interest in the development of tissue banks. Inadequate infrastructure for donor referral programmes and the lack of support for tissue transplant co-ordinators however, continue to limit the availability of donor tissue.

  14. Allograft for maxillary sinus floor augmentation: a retrospective study of 90 cases.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Jaime S; Al-Jandan, Badr A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the clinical applicability and efficacy of an allograft for maxillary sinus augmentations in patients requiring placement of dental implants. Sixty consecutive patients underwent a total of 90 sinus augmentations. Twenty-nine were women and 31 men, with a mean age of 54 years. Twenty-six patients received a bilateral procedure and 34 unilateral. All cases were treated with the lateral wall technique. Allograft consisted of demineralized freeze-dried blocks in 6 cases, particulate in 82 cases, and a combination of both in 2 cases. In 30 patients, it was combined with platelet-rich plasma. A total of 84 implants were inserted. Bone samples of grafted areas were obtained in two patients for histological examination. Seventy-three implants were clinically successful at the reentry time. Eleven implants in seven patients were removed between 15 days and 6 months after their placement. Seven of these implants were replaced and received prostheses as well, for an overall postloading success rate of 95.2%. Follow-up for all patients after final restoration was between 12 and 96 months. Specimen's histological evaluation revealed bone formation and evidence of inflammatory infiltrate. Based on the findings of this study, it can be suggested that the use of the demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft from the Banco de Huesos y Tejidos Fundación Cosme y Damian for sinus augmentation is effective and constitutes a feasible therapeutic alternative for implant placement.

  15. Suppression of Chronic Damage in Renal Allografts by Liver X Receptor (LXR) Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Eva; Popovic, Zoran; Bedke, Jens; Wang, Shijun; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Gretz, Norbert; Stettner, Paula; Teupser, Daniel; Thiery, Joachim; Porubsky, Stefan; Adams, Judith; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2011-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXR)-α,β regulate intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and inhibit inflammatory gene expression. We studied the effects of the LXRα,β-agonist GW3965 on acute and chronic organ damage in the F344-LEW rat kidney transplantation model. In addition, to gain LXR isoform and cell-specific insights BALB/c kidneys were transplanted into mice with macrophage overexpression of LXRα (mLXRα-tg) and evaluated 7 and 42 days after transplantation. After 56 days GW3965 improved significantly function and morphology of rat kidney allografts by substantial reduction of mononuclear cell infiltrate and fibrosis; in vitro GW3965 reduced inflammatory activity of bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMDMs) and alloreactivity of T cells. Kidneys transplanted into mLXRα-tg mice were also protected from development of chronic allograft dysfunction. Similarly to GW3965-activated BMDMs, mLXRα-tg macrophages secreted significantly less monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β. Interestingly, 7 days after transplantation, when the total number of intragraft macrophages did not differ, evidently more arginase 1– and mannose receptor C type 1–positive cells were found in LXR rat and mice kidney allografts; in vitro both LXR activation by GW3965 and mLXRα overexpression accentuated the induction of alternative activation of BMDMs by IL-4/IL-13, suggesting an additional mechanism by LXRs to prevent graft damage. The results highlight the relevance of macrophage LXRα in allograft rejection and prevention of fibrosis. PMID:21703396

  16. The natural history of chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Nankivell, Brian J; Borrows, Richard J; Fung, Caroline L-S; O'Connell, Philip J; Allen, Richard D M; Chapman, Jeremy R

    2003-12-11

    With improved immunosuppression and early allograft survival, chronic allograft nephropathy has become the dominant cause of kidney-transplant failure. We evaluated the natural history of chronic allograft nephropathy in a prospective study of 120 recipients with type 1 diabetes, all but 1 of whom had received kidney-pancreas transplants. We obtained 961 kidney-transplant-biopsy specimens taken regularly from the time of transplantation to 10 years thereafter. Two distinctive phases of injury were evident as chronic allograft nephropathy evolved. An initial phase of early tubulointerstitial damage from ischemic injury (P<0.05), prior severe rejection (P<0.01), and subclinical rejection (P<0.01) predicted mild disease by one year, which was present in 94.2 percent of patients. Early subclinical rejection was common (affecting 45.7 percent of biopsy specimens at three months), and the risk was increased by the occurrence of a prior episode of severe rejection and reduced by tacrolimus and mycophenolate therapy (both P<0.05) and gradually abated after one year. Both subclinical rejection and chronic rejection were associated with increased tubulointerstitial damage (P<0.01). Beyond one year, a later phase of chronic allograft nephropathy was characterized by microvascular and glomerular injury. Chronic rejection (defined as persistent subclinical rejection for two years or longer) was uncommon (5.8 percent). Progressive high-grade arteriolar hyalinosis with luminal narrowing, increasing glomerulosclerosis, and additional tubulointerstitial damage was accompanied by the use of calcineurin inhibitors. Nephrotoxicity, implicated in late ongoing injury, was almost universal at 10 years, even in grafts with excellent early histologic findings. By 10 years, severe chronic allograft nephropathy was present in 58.4 percent of patients, with sclerosis in 37.3 percent of glomeruli. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular damage, once established, was irreversible, resulting in

  17. The effectiveness of bone banking in Central Serbia: audit of the first seven years.

    PubMed

    Stepanovic, Zeljko Lj; Ristic, Branko M

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed the incidence and predisposing factors for overall discard rate after retrieval of 295 femoral head allografts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality system of institutional bone banking and to ensure that we can provide high standard allografts with low infection rate. Audit of bone banking was conducted on 295 donors and 180 recipients. Of the 295 donated femoral heads 77 were discarded, giving an overall discard rate of 26.1 %. At retrieval, 37 allografts were positive, giving an overall contamination rate of 12.54 %. The organism most commonly identified was Staphylococcus species. Seven (2.37 %) of the 295 allografts failed the blood screening tests. Twelve allografts (4.06 %) were discarded because of suspected damage of the packaging or disuse during surgery. Due to donor death or inability to perform serology retests, 21 (7.11 %) allografts were discarded. In the postoperative survey an infection rate of 2.22 % was found. After 7 years of bone banking, our results show that overall discard rate and allograft related infection rate are in accordance with the international standards. The leading cause of allograft discarding was bacterial contamination influenced by the surgical team. We suggest stringent aseptic allograft handling during harvesting and thawing within highly concentrated antibiotic solution to reduce a possibility of its contamination.

  18. Repair of massively defected hemi-joints using demineralized osteoarticular allografts with protected cartilage.

    PubMed

    Li, Siming; Yang, Xiaohong; Tang, Shenghui; Zhang, Xunmeng; Feng, Zhencheng; Cui, Shuliang

    2015-08-01

    Surgical replacement of massively defected joints necessarily relies on osteochondral grafts effective to both of bone and cartilage. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) retains the osteoconductivity but destroys viable chondrocytes in the cartilage portion essential for successful restoration of defected joints. This study prepared osteochondral grafts of DBM with protected cartilage. Protected cartilage portions was characterized by cellular and molecular biology and the grafts were allogenically used for grafting. Protected cartilage showed similar histomorphological structure and protected proteins estimated by total proteins and cartilage specific proteins as in those of fresh controls when DBMs were generated in bone portions. Such grafts were successfully used for simultaneously repair of bone and cartilage in massively defected osteoarticular joints within 16 weeks post-surgery. These results present an allograft with clinical potential for simultaneous restoration of bone and cartilage in defected joints.

  19. Acute Delamination of Commercially Available Decellularized Osteochondral Allograft Plugs

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Ryan M.; Tetreault, Danielle; Mahony, Greg T.; Williams, Riley J.

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage injuries, and corresponding surgical procedures, are occurring with increasing frequency as identified by a review of recent surgical trends. Concerns have grown in recent years regarding the longevity of results following microfracture, with a shift toward cartilage restoration procedures in recent years. This case report describes 2 cases of acute failure following the use of commercially available osteochondral allograft plugs used for the treatment of osteochondral defects of the distal femur. In both cases the chondral surface of the plug delaminated from the underlying cancellous bone, resulting in persistent pain and swelling requiring reoperation and removal of the loose fragments. Caution should be employed when considering use of these plugs for the treatment of osteochondral lesions, as similar outcomes have not been noted with other cartilage restoration techniques. PMID:27688840

  20. Acetabular revision with freeze-dried irradiated and chemically treated allograft: a minimum 5-year follow-up of 17 cases

    PubMed Central

    Caton, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    We reviewed the results of 17 consecutive revision total hip arthroplasties performed with the use of freeze-dried irradiated bone allograft in 15 patients. These allografts were used in conjunction with five Kerboull rings, two steel meshes and ten cemented isolated cups. All the patients have had a follow-up of at least 5 years. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically. No revisions were necessary and X-rays confirmed partial or total ingrowth of the allografts. In acetabular revision surgery, hip reconstruction can be successfully treated by freeze-dried irradiated and chemically treated allografts. Additional studies with longer term follow-up are necessary to confirm this outcome. PMID:17828537

  1. Outcomes and complication rates of different bone grafting modalities in long bone fracture nonunions: a retrospective cohort study in 182 patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Novel bone substitutes have challenged the notion of autologous bone grafting as the ‘gold standard’ for the surgical treatment of fracture nonunions. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that autologous bone grafting is equivalent to other bone grafting modalities in the management of fracture nonunions of the long bones. Methods A retrospective review of patients with fracture nonunions included in two prospective databases was performed at two US level 1 trauma centers from January 1, 1998 (center 1) or January 1, 2004 (center 2), respectively, until December 31, 2010 (n = 574). Of these, 182 patients required adjunctive bone grafting and were stratified into the following cohorts: autograft (n = 105), allograft (n = 38), allograft and autograft combined (n = 16), and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with or without adjunctive bone grafting (n = 23). The primary outcome parameter was time to union. Secondary outcome parameters consisted of complication rates and the rate of revision procedures and revision bone grafting. Results The autograft cohort had a statistically significant shorter time to union (198 ± 172–225 days) compared to allograft (416 ± 290–543 days) and exhibited a trend towards earlier union when compared to allograft/autograft combined (389 ± 159–619 days) or rhBMP-2 (217 ± 158–277 days). Furthermore, the autograft cohort had the lowest rate of surgical revisions (17%) and revision bone grafting (9%), compared to allograft (47% and 32%), allograft/autograft combined (25% and 31%), or rhBMP-2 (27% and 17%). The overall new-onset postoperative infection rate was significantly lower in the autograft group (12.4%), compared to the allograft cohort (26.3%) (P < 0.05). Conclusion Autologous bone grafting appears to represent the bone grafting modality of choice with regard to safety and efficiency in the surgical management of long bone fracture nonunions. PMID:24016227

  2. REJECTION OF ASCITES TUMOR ALLOGRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Berke, Gideon; Sullivan, Karen A.; Amos, Bernard

    1972-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate cells (PEC), obtained after the rejection of EL4 leukemia by BALB/c mice, are much more effective in the specific in vitro destruction of 51Cr-labeled EL4 cells than are spleen, thymus, lymph node, or peripheral blood lymphocytes. The presence of a large number of effector cells at the site of graft rejection is reflected in the potent cytolytic activity seen in vitro. Effector cells temporarily lose cytolytic reactivity when treated with trypsin but regain reactivity with time. This recovery occurs in normal as well as in immune serum. The destructive reactivity of PEC is increased when macrophages are removed. The remaining population of nonadherent PEC is composed primarily of small- to medium-sized lymphocytes. Complex tissue culture media are not needed, but there is a definite requirement for serum. The required serum component is heat stable, nondialyzable, and is not consumed during the reaction. The use of an ascites allograft system made these observations possible and permitted the isolation of those host cells intimately associated with rejection. PMID:5025438

  3. Allograft materials in phalloplasty: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Mark P; Komlo, Caroline; Defrain, Molly

    2013-09-01

    Allograft use has increased recently with the rising use of allograft materials in breast surgery. There are few data that compare the performance of the various allograft materials in this application, despite marketing efforts by the manufacturers to present one allograft material as superior to another. Phalloplasty is a procedure that uses allografts for penis girth augmentation. Preparation of these grafts differs with each manufacturer. We report our experience with 3 different types of allografts for this procedure. This allows for the comparison of these materials in their performance with a single model. Forty-seven patients who underwent penis girth enhancement with allograft material were reviewed. All patients underwent circumferential grafting to the shaft of the penis at the level of Buck's fascia. Graft materials included AlloDerm (n = 9), Belladerm (n = 20), and Repriza (n = 21). Charts were reviewed for material type, presence and type of infection, wound exposure, and graft loss with attention to the type of allograft material that was used. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 120 months with an average of 11.25 months. Infection, defined as an open wound with graft exposure, occurred in 20 (42%) of 47 patients. Of these, graft exposure only occurred in 17 (36%) patients, whereas 3 (6%) patients sustained total graft loss. Graft exposure or loss occurred in 3 patients who had AlloDerm, 9 patients with Belladerm, and 8 patients with Repriza. No patients with AlloDerm sustained graft loss, whereas 2 patients with Belladerm and 1 patient with Repriza sustained graft loss. There were no statistical differences among these graft types with regard to infection or graft loss. Three different brands of allograft material were used in 1 surgical procedure and followed up for their performance with regard to exposure and infection. In this model, there is no difference in the rate of infection in these materials despite their different methods of preparation

  4. Genetics and Epigenetics of Chronic Allograft Dysfunction in Kidney Transplants.

    PubMed

    Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Samadi, Nasser; Mostafidi, Elmira; Ardalan, Mohammad Reza; Omidi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Chronic allograft dysfunction is the most common cause of allograft lost. Chronic allograft dysfunction happens as a result of complex interactions at the molecular and cellular levels. Genetic and environmental factors both influence the evolution and progression of the chronic allograft dysfunction. Epigenetic modification could be considered as a therapeutically modifiable element to pause the fibrosis process through novel strategies. In this review, the PubMed database was searched for English-language articles on these new areas.

  5. Immediate retransplantation for pancreas allograft thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hollinger, E F; Powelson, J A; Mangus, R S; Kazimi, M M; Taber, T E; Goble, M L; Fridell, J A

    2009-04-01

    Early pancreas allograft failure most commonly results from thrombosis and requires immediate allograft pancreatectomy. Optimal timing for retransplantation remains undefined. Immediate retransplantation facilitates reuse of the same anatomic site before extensive adhesions have formed. Some studies suggest that early retransplantation is associated with a higher incidence of graft loss. This study is a retrospective review of immediate pancreas retransplants performed at a single center. All cases of pancreas allograft loss within 2 weeks were examined. Of 228 pancreas transplants, 12 grafts were lost within 2 weeks of surgery. Eleven of these underwent allograft pancreatectomy for thrombosis. One suffered anoxic brain injury and was not a retransplantation candidate, one was retransplanted at 3.5 months and nine patients underwent retransplantation 1-16 days following the original transplant. Of the nine early retransplants, one pancreas was lost to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, one recipient died with function at 2.9 years and the other grafts continue to function at 76-1137 days (mean 572 days). One-year graft survival for early retransplantation was 89% compared to 91% for all pancreas transplants at our center. Immediate retransplantation following pancreatic graft thrombosis restores durable allograft function with outcomes comparable to first-time pancreas transplantation.

  6. Radionuclide surveillance of the allografted pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    George, E.A.; Salimi, Z.; Carney, K.; Castaneda, M.; Garvin, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphy to detect posttransplantation complications of the allografted pancreas, we retrospectively reviewed 209 scintigrams obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-SC) and /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (/sup 99m/Tc-GH). The scintigraphic studies were performed in 37 recipients of simultaneous renal and pancreatic allografts harvested from the same donor. /sup 99m/Tc-SC was used as an indicator of thrombotic vasculitis; pancreatic perfusion and blood-pool parameters were monitored with /sup 99m/Tc-GH. In 11 of the 37 recipients, scintigraphic abnormalities suggested posttransplantation infarction. Recurrent episodes of acute rejection of the pancreatic allograft, which always coincided with acute rejection of the renal allograft, were monitored in 24 recipients. Rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis was suggested in 12 of the 24 recipients and persisted in 10 recipients for several weeks after improvement of renal allograft rejection. Pancreatic atrophy was suggested scintigraphically in 16 of the 24 recipients with recurrent episodes of rejection. Spontaneous pancreatic-duct obstruction and obstructive pancreatitis were associated with a scintigraphic pattern similar to that of rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis. We concluded that the specific radionuclides used in this series are useful for the surveillance and assessment of posttransplantation pancreatic infarction, acute rejection, pancreatitis, and atrophy

  7. Surgical difficulties encountered with use of modular endoprosthesis for limb preserving salvage of failed allograft reconstruction after malignant tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Foo, Leon S S; Hardes, Jendrik; Henrichs, Marcel; Ahrens, Helmut; Gosheger, Georg; Streitbürger, Arne

    2011-08-01

    We reviewed outcomes and discussed surgical difficulties encountered in 10 patients who had modular endoprosthesis for limb preserving salvage of failed allograft reconstruction after malignant tumor resection. Mean allograft survival time before failure was 127.4 months (range, 14-264 months). Mean length of follow-up since endoprosthesis revision surgery was 62.8 months (range, 16-132 months). There was one endoprosthesis failure, resulting in a mean endoprosthesis survival time of 56.9 months (range, 16-132). Complications included arterial laceration, nerve injury, periprosthetic crack fracture, aseptic loosening, and infection. Modular endoprosthesis remain a viable option that should be considered in any limb preserving salvage of failed allograft reconstructions. However, altered anatomy, poor/short remnant host bone, periprosthetic fractures, inadequate soft tissue coverage and infection remain important difficulties encountered.

  8. Preliminary Results of Bioactive Amniotic Suspension with Allograft for Achieving One and Two-Level Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Eubulus J.; Utter, Philip A.; Cavanaugh, David A.; Frank, Kelly A.; Moody, Devan; McManus, Brian; Stone, Marcus B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone graft material for lumbar fusion was historically autologous bone graft (ABG). In recent years alternatives such as allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), ceramics, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) have gained favor, although the complications of these are not fully understood. Bioactive amniotic suspension (BAS) with allograft is a new class of material derived from human amniotic tissue. Methods Eligible patients receiving a one or two level lumbar interbody fusion with Nucel, a BAS with allograft, were contacted and scheduled for a mininmim 12 month follow-up visit. Patients were evaluated for fusion using CT's and plain radiographs. Clincal outcomes, including ODI, VAS back and leg were collected, as well as comorbidities including BMI, smoking status, diabetes and previous lumbar surgery. Results One-level patients (N=38) were 71.1% female with mean age of 58.4 ± 12.7 and mean BMI of 30.6 ± 6.08. Two-level patients (N=34) were 58.8% female with mean age of 49.3 ±10.9 and mean BMI of 30.1 ± 5.82. Kinematic fusion was achieved in 97.4% of one-level patients and 100% of two-level patients. Baseline comorbidities were present in 89.5% of one-level patients and 88.2% of two-level patients. No adverse events related to BAS were reported in this study. Conclusion Fusion status is evaluated with many different biologics and varying methods in the literature. BAS with allograft in this study demonstrated high fusion rates with no complications within a largely comorbid population. Although a small population, BAS with allograft results were encouraging for one and two-level lumbar interbody fusion in this study. Further prospective studies should be conducted to investigate safety and efficacy in a larger population. PMID:27162714

  9. Renal allograft eosinophilia: An unusual presentation of sudden graft dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Yuvaraj, A.; Ghosh, S.; Abraham, G.; Koshy, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of sudden allograft dysfunction 11 months after renal transplantation which presented as severe peripheral and allograft eosinophilia and was managed as a case of an acute cellular rejection with significant interstitial graft eosinophilic infiltration. Patient had partial response to antirejection therapy and eventually ended up in a chronic allograft dysfunction. PMID:28356665

  10. Active haemorrhage of a renal allograft detected on portable ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, James; Pang, Chun Lap; Dissanayake, Prageeth; Hutchinson, Rachel; Gutteridge, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Function of a renal allograft relies on the integrity of its vascular anatomy. Renal biochemistry, ultrasound and percutaneous biopsy are used in combination to determine allograft function. Biopsy is not without risk, and in this case study we demonstrate a rare but a potentially life-threatening complication of renal allograft biopsy. PMID:23682093

  11. Allograft reconstruction of the acetabulum during revision total hip arthroplasty. Clinical, radiographic, and scintigraphic assessment of the results.

    PubMed

    Trancik, T M; Stulberg, B N; Wilde, A H; Feiglin, D H

    1986-04-01

    In twenty-one hips of twenty-one patients, the acetabulum was reconstructed using allografts during revision of a total hip arthroplasty. The patients' average age at the time of revision was 64.3 years (range, nineteen to eighty-six years). At an average follow-up of 3.5 years (range, two to five years), three patients had died of causes unrelated to the hip reconstruction, and one had been lost to follow-up. In the other seventeen, the average Harris hip rating was 89 points (range, seventy to 100 points) at follow-up. In one patient the allograft collapsed, so that revision was required. Two patients had asymptomatic progressive radiolucencies at the cement-bone interface of the reconstructed acetabulum, and another had a 1.5-millimeter-wide lucency at the interface of the donor and recipient bone but was asymptomatic, and there had been no change in the position of the cemented acetabular component since operation. The remaining grafts appeared to be incorporated securely, as determined by radiographic examination. Three-dimensional computerized tomographic radioisotopic bone scans showed uniform uptake, consistent with revascularization and new-bone formation, in all grafts. There was no radiographic evidence of focal avascularity and there were no infections. Femoral-head bone allografts appear to provide a useful technique for the reconstruction of a severely deficient acetabulum during revision total hip arthroplasty.

  12. Endoscopic versus transcranial procurement of allograft tympano-ossicular systems: a prospective double-blind randomized controlled audit.

    PubMed

    Caremans, Jeroen; Hamans, Evert; Muylle, Ludo; Van de Heyning, Paul; Van Rompaey, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Allograft tympano-ossicular systems (ATOS) have proven their use over many decades in tympanoplasty and reconstruction after resection of cholesteatoma. The transcranial bone plug technique has been used in the past 50 years to procure en bloc ATOS (tympanic membrane with malleus, incus and stapes attached). Recently, our group reported the feasibility of the endoscopic procurement technique. The aim of this study was to assess whether clinical outcome is equivalent in ATOS acquired by using the endoscopic procurement technique compared to ATOS acquired by using the transcranial technique. A double-blind randomized controlled audit was performed in a tertiary referral center in patients that underwent allograft tympanoplasty because of chronic otitis media with and without cholesteatoma. Allograft epithelialisation was evaluated at the short-term postoperative visit by microscopic examination. Failures were reported if reperforation was observed. Fifty patients underwent allograft tympanoplasty: 34 received endoscopically procured ATOS and 16 received transcranially procured ATOS. One failed case was observed, in the endoscopic procurement group. We did not observe a statistically significant difference between the two groups in failure rate. This study demonstrates equivalence of the clinical outcome of allograft tympanoplasty using either endoscopic or transcranial procured ATOS and therefore indicates that the endoscopic technique can be considered the new standard procurement technique. Especially because the endoscopic procurement technique has several advantages compared to the former transcranial procurement technique: it avoids risk of prion transmission and it is faster while lacking any noticeable incision.

  13. Optimization and Implementation of Long Nerve Allografts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    mimics the production of the human nerve allograft product used clinically. This includes detergent decellularization , treatment with...is  on  schedule.     The  early  Milestone  to  obtain  ACURO  approval  for   animal  use  was  accomplished...months  1-­‐6):       Task  1a.    Collect,  process  ( decellularize )  and  prepare  7  cm  acellular  allografts

  14. Predictors of soft-tissue complications and deep infection in allograft reconstruction of the proximal tibia.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Calderón, Santiago A; Swaim, Sara O; Federico, Amy; Anderson, Megan E; Gebhardt, Mark C

    2016-06-01

    Reconstruction of the proximal tibia after wide resection of malignant tumors in the pediatric population is very challenging. Advocates of allograft reconstruction argue as advantages bone preservation, biological reconstruction that facilitates reattachment of the extensor mechanism and other soft-tissue structures, delay of metallic prosthesis use and preservation of the distal femoral growth plate. However, complications are significant, infection being very common. Under IRB-approved protocol, 32 patients (17 males, 15 females), 13 years old in average (2-20), who underwent 33 allograft reconstructions of the proximal tibia, were evaluated for the occurrence of soft-tissue complications and/or deep infection (infection affecting the allograft). Potential predictors of soft-tissue complications and deep infection, categorized as pre- and perioperative variables, were analyzed in relation to the risk for developing a soft-tissue complication or a deep infection. The prevalence of soft-tissue complications was 48% (16/33). However, we were not able to identify any significant predictors. The prevalence of deep (allograft) infection was 15% (5/33). Multivariate logistic regression determined higher BMI at the index surgical procedure and lower pre-operative WBC to be independent predictors of deep infection. For each unit of increase in BMI, the odds of deep infection increased by 40% (OR = 1.40; CI = 1.07-3.06; P < 0.05). For each one unit (1,000) of increase in the pre-operative white cell-count, the odds of deep infection decreased by 70% (OR = 0.30; 95%CI = 0.01-0.89; P < 0.05). Four of the five deep infections were in patients with soft-tissue complications, mainly wound dehiscence. However, wound dehiscence or soft-tissue complications were not predictive of deep infection. Soft-tissue complications are prevalent in allograft reconstruction of the proximal tibia. Prevention is important as these may progress to deep infection. Careful

  15. Iliac crest fresh-frozen allografts and autografts in maxillary and mandibular reconstruction: a histologic and histomorphometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chiapasco, M; Giammattei, M; Carmagnola, D; Autelitano, L; Rabbiosi, D; Dellavia, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare histologically and histomorphometrically the osseointegration of iliac crest fresh-frozen allografts and autografts in human pre-prosthetic maxillary and mandibular onlay bone blocks reconstruction. Twelve patients with edentulous atrophic ridges, scheduled for implant-supported prosthetic restorations, underwent reconstruction using iliac crest fresh-frozen allografts (group A, six patients) or autografts (group B, six patients). Four-to-nine months later implants were placed in the augmented areas and bone specimens were simultaneously obtained using trephine burs. The specimens were processed for ground sections and evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically. The postoperative course was uneventful in all patients in group B and in all except one in group A. Late complications occurred in 5 patients of group A. Dental implants could be inserted in all cases. Specimens from group A showed a vascularized bone with osteoprogenitor stem cells and medium-high grade of bone remodeling. Small areas of necrotic bone were observed sporadically. Sections obtained from group B revealed an advanced stage of bone remodeling. The histomorphometric analysis showed in group A a mean proportion of 24.7±14.7% for lamellar bone, 28.4±13.3% for newly formed bone and 46.9±16.9% for bone marrow; in group B the corresponding values were 25.3±15.3%, 22.9±11.0%, 51.7±15.7%. No statistically significant difference was found (Wilcoxon Test; P>0.05). There were no significant histological differences between group A and B. Larger studies with long term follow-up are needed to confirm that fresh-frozen allografts are a reliable alternative to autografts.

  16. Localized maxillary ridge augmentation with a block allograft for dental implant placement: case reports.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, Joseph A; Koup, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Autogenous block bone grafts have been highly successful in treating human periodontal defects, restoring esthetics, and developing adequate bone volume for dental implant placement. Limitations in available donor bone, the need for an added surgical procedure, and other potential complications have made the use of allogenic bone graft materials an important alternative. One patient described in this report presented with fractured root syndrome of the right maxillary incisor with severe resorption of the buccal plate. After atraumatic tooth extraction, a staged treatment approach involving localized ridge augmentation with an allogenic iliac bone block material and dental implant placement was used. The host bone completely incorporated the graft with only minor resorption, which enabled the implant to be placed. The allogenic bone block material used in this study was an effective alternative to harvesting and grafting autogenous bone for implant site development. The cases presented in this article clinically demonstrate the efficacy of using a block allograft in generating effective new bone fill for dental implant placement.

  17. Bone graft materials in fixation of orthopaedic implants in sheep.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Hassan

    2013-07-01

    Bone graft is widely used within orthopaedic surgery especially in revision joint arthroplasty and spine fusion. The early implant fixation in the revision situation of loose joint prostheses is important for the long-term survival. Bone autograft has been considered as gold standard in many orthopaedic procedures, whereas allograft is the gold standard by replacement of extensive bone loss. However, the use of autograft is associated with donor site morbidity, especially chronic pain. In addition, the limited supply is a significant clinical challenge. Limitations in the use of allograft include the risk of bacterial contamination and disease transmission as well as non-union and poor bone quality. Other bone graft and substitutes have been considered as alternative in order to improve implant fixation. Hydroxyapatite and collagen type I composite (HA/Collagen) have the potential in mimicking skeletal bones. The osteoconductive properties of the composite might be improved by adding bone marrow aspirate (BMA), which can be harvested during surgery. Other alternatives to bone graft are demineralised bone matrix (DBM) and human cancellous bone (CB). DBM is prepared by acid extraction of human bone and includes bone collagen, morphogenetic proteins and growth factors. The combination of DBM with CB and with allograft might improve the healing potential of these grafts around non-cemented orthopaedic implants and thereby the implant fixation. Study I investigates the effect of HA/Collagen composite alone and in combination with BMA on the early fixation of porous coated titanium implants. In addition, the study compares also the effect of autograft with the gold standard allograft. By using a sheep model, the implants were inserted in the trabecular bone of femoral condyles. The test biomaterials were placed in a well defined peri-implant gap. After the observation period, the bone-implant specimens were harvested and evaluated mechanically by a destructive push

  18. Long-term functional and radiological outcomes of allograft hip prosthesis composite. A fourteen -year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Dubory, Arnaud; Mascard, Eric; Dahan, Méryl; Anract, Philippe; Court, Charles; Boisgard, Stéphane; Viard, Brice; Missenard, Gilles

    2017-07-01

    Allograft hip composite prosthesis (APC) is a type of reconstruction after resection of the proximal femur. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes after an APC reconstruction. Forty-six patients were retrospectively included (14 revision total hip replacements, 30 primary malignant bone tumors, two metastasis). The mean length of femoral bone resection was 16.4 cm (7 to 27). With a mean follow-up of 14.7 years (6.3 to 32.6), Postel-Merle d'Aubigné score was 15.7 (8 to 21), Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score at 23.1 or 77% (15 to 29), and abductor strength at 3.4 (2 to 5). Allograft resorption was minor for 20 patients (44.4%), moderate for 13 patients (28.9%), and severe for 12 patients (26.7%). Host-allograft shaft bone fusion was achieved in 37 cases (84.1%). Trochanteric fracture occurred in 26 cases (59.1%). Length of femoral resection, allograft bone resorption, and trochanteric fracture did not have an effect on functional outcomes. At ten years follow-up, overall revision-free and femoral stem survivals were 54.1 ± 0.8% and 81.4 ± 0.6% respectively. No parameter evaluated influenced the survivorship. APC is a reliable reconstruction adapted for huge proximal femoral bone resections. Trochanteric fracture and allograft bone resorption do not seem to influence functional results. Level IV.

  19. Interprosthetic humeral fracture revision using a tibial allograft total elbow prosthetic composite in a patient with hemophilia A : a case report.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Justin; Puloski, Shannon; Hildebrand, Kevin

    2012-09-25

    Interprosthetic fractures of the humerus are rare. Revisions of total elbow arthroplasty components in these cases are difficult. We report the first case of a patient with hemophilia who underwent a revision with a tibial allograft prosthetic composite without the need for hardware augmentation. A 43-year-old Caucasian man with a history of hemophilia and transfusion-related human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B and C presented with an interprosthetic fracture of his humerus after months of pain between his total elbow and total shoulder arthroplasties. Because of the poor remaining bone stock available in his distal humerus, a revision using a barrel-staved tibial allograft prosthetic composite was performed. Our patients' factor VIII level was optimized before the operation and he suffered no major long-term complications at 28 months. His only complication was an incomplete radial nerve palsy that ultimately recovered and left him with some numbness on the dorsum of his hand. Careful use of an allograft prosthetic composite is a very reasonable option when a patient experiences an interprosthetic fracture. We have successfully performed revision total elbow arthroplasty for a patient with hemophilia with an interprosthetic fracture using a tibial allograft and no additional fixation, which resulted in his return to full activities of daily living, minimal pain and full incorporation of the allograft to host bone.

  20. No Difference Between Trabecular Metal Cones and Femoral Head Allografts in Revision TKA: Minimum 5-year Followup.

    PubMed

    Sandiford, Nemandra A; Misur, Peter; Garbuz, Donald S; Greidanus, Nelson V; Masri, Bassam A

    2017-01-01

    Encouraging clinical results have been reported with the use of femoral head structural allografts and, more recently, trabecular metal cones for the management of large structural defects of the femur and tibia during revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, to our knowledge, there are no published studies comparing these two techniques. Compared with bulk allografts, do trabecular metal cones result in (1) better validated outcomes scores; (2) a lower risk of loosening or revision at 5 years; and (3) fewer surgical complications when used for the management of bone loss in revision TKA? Between 2002 and 2008, three surgeons performed 450 TKA revisions, 45 (10%) of which were performed using augmentation of host bone; in those, femoral head allograft was used in 30 (75%) and trabecular metal cones in 15 (25%). From 2002 to 2007, femoral head allografts were used in all patients (28 patients); from 2007 to 2008, trabecular metal augments were used in all patients. There was a period of 1 year (16 knees) in which there was some overlap; during that time, femoral head structural allografts were used in cases in which we were unable to fit the defect or achieve adequate stability with trabecular metal cones. Followup was at a mean of 9 years (range, 5-12 years). No patients were lost to followup. Knee function and quality of life were assessed using the Oxford Knee Score, WOMAC, SF-12, and the UCLA activity score. Radiographs were assessed for signs of loosening. Surgical complications included superficial or deep infections, iatrogenic fractures, symptomatic deep venous thromboses or pulmonary emboli, and blood loss requiring transfusion; these were obtained from our database and from review of patients' charts. The mean Oxford Knee Score in the allograft and trabecular metal cone groups was 91 (SD 10) and 91 (SD 14), respectively (95% confidence interval [CI], 88-94; p = 0.29). Mean WOMAC scores were 94 (SD 10) and 92 (SD 14), respectively (95% CI, 80-105; p

  1. Humeral Head Reconstruction With Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Bryan M; Riboh, Jonathan C; Cole, Brian J; Yanke, Adam B

    2015-09-01

    To synthesize, in a systematic review, the available clinical evidence of osteochondral allograft transplants for large osteochondral defects of the humeral head. The Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies reporting clinical or radiographic outcomes of osteochondral allograft transplantation for humeral head defects. Descriptive statistics were provided for all outcomes. After checking for data normality, we compared postoperative and preoperative values using the Student t test. We included 12 studies (8 case reports and 4 case series) in this review. The study group consisted of 35 patients. The mean age was 35.4 ± 18.1 years; 77% of patients were male patients. Thirty-three patients had large Hill-Sachs lesions due to instability, 1 had an osteochondritis dissecans lesion, and 1 had an iatrogenic lesion after resection of synovial chondromatosis. The mean lesion size was 3 ± 1.4 cm (anteroposterior) by 2.25 ± 0.3 cm (medial-lateral), representing on average 40.5% ± 4.73% of the native articular surface. Of the 35 patients, 3 received a fresh graft, with all others receiving frozen grafts. Twenty-three femoral heads, 10 humeral heads, and 2 sets of osteochondral plugs were used. The mean length of follow-up was 57 months. Significant improvements were seen in forward flexion at 6 months (68° ± 18.1°, P < .001), forward flexion at 12 months (83.42° ± 18.3°, P < .001), and external rotation at 12 months (38.72° ± 18.8°, P < .001). American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores improved by 14 points (P = .02). Radiographic studies at final follow-up showed allograft necrosis in 8.7% of cases, resorption in 36.2%, and glenohumeral arthritic changes in 35.7%. Complication rates were between 20% and 30%, and the reoperation rate was 26.67%. Although only 3 patients received fresh allografts, there were no reports of graft resorption, necrosis, or arthritic changes in these patients. Humeral head allograft-most commonly used in the

  2. Factors Predicting Meniscal Allograft Transplantation Failure

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Ben; Smith, Nicholas; Asplin, Laura; Thompson, Peter; Spalding, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) is performed to improve symptoms and function in patients with a meniscal-deficient compartment of the knee. Numerous studies have shown a consistent improvement in patient-reported outcomes, but high failure rates have been reported by some studies. The typical patients undergoing MAT often have multiple other pathologies that require treatment at the time of surgery. The factors that predict failure of a meniscal allograft within this complex patient group are not clearly defined. Purpose: To determine predictors of MAT failure in a large series to refine the indications for surgery and better inform future patients. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: All patients undergoing MAT at a single institution between May 2005 and May 2014 with a minimum of 1-year follow-up were prospectively evaluated and included in this study. Failure was defined as removal of the allograft, revision transplantation, or conversion to a joint replacement. Patients were grouped according to the articular cartilage status at the time of the index surgery: group 1, intact or partial-thickness chondral loss; group 2, full-thickness chondral loss 1 condyle; and group 3, full-thickness chondral loss both condyles. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine significant predictors of failure, independently of other factors. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were produced for overall survival and significant predictors of failure in the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: There were 125 consecutive MATs performed, with 1 patient lost to follow-up. The median follow-up was 3 years (range, 1-10 years). The 5-year graft survival for the entire cohort was 82% (group 1, 97%; group 2, 82%; group 3, 62%). The probability of failure in group 1 was 85% lower (95% CI, 13%-97%) than in group 3 at any time. The probability of failure with lateral allografts was 76% lower (95% CI, 16%-89%) than medial allografts at

  3. PTH-enhanced structural allograft healing is associated with decreased angiopoietin-2-mediated arteriogenesis, mast cell accumulation, and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Robinder S; Xie, Chao; Tyler, Wakenda; Calvi, Laura M; Awad, Hani A; Zuscik, Michael J; O'Keefe, Regis J; Schwarz, Edward M

    2013-03-01

    Recombinant parathyroid hormone (rPTH) therapy has been evaluated for skeletal repair in animal studies and clinical trials based on its known anabolic effects, but its effects on angiogenesis and fibrosis remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of rPTH therapy on blood vessel formation and osseous integration in a murine femoral allograft model, which caused a significant increase in small vessel numbers, and decreased large vessel formation (p < 0.05). Histology showed that rPTH also reduced fibrosis around the allografts to similar levels observed in live autografts, and decreased mast cells at the graft-host junction. Similar effects on vasculogenesis and fibrosis were observed in femoral allografts from Col1caPTHR transgenic mice. Gene expression profiling revealed rPTH-induced angiopoietin-1 (8-fold), while decreasing angiopoietin-2 (70-fold) at day 7 of allograft healing. Finally, we show anti-angiopoietin-2 peptibody (L1-10) treatment mimics rPTH effects on angiogenesis and fibrosis. Collectively, these findings show that intermittent rPTH treatment enhances structural allograft healing by two processes: (1) anabolic effects on new bone formation via small vessel angiogenesis, and (2) inhibition of angiopoietin-2-mediated arteriogenesis. The latter effect may function as a vascular sieve to limit mast cell access to the site of tissue repair, which decreases fibrosis around and between the fractured ends of bone. Thus, rPTH therapy may be generalizable to all forms of tissue repair that suffer from limited biointegration and excessive fibrosis.

  4. Comparison of Fusion Rates between Glycerol-Preserved and Frozen Composite Allografts in Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Rodway, Ian; Gander, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Background. This retrospective, two cohort series study was designed to compare a room temperature, glycerol-preserved composite pinned bone allograft (G-CPBA) with the same graft type provided in a frozen state (F-CPBA) for use as a cervical interbody spacer in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods. A comprehensive chart review was performed for 67 sequential patients that received either a F-CPBA or a G-CPBA and had at least one-year follow-up. Twenty-eight patients had received G-CPBA grafts and 37 patients had received F-CPBA grafts. Two additional 2-level patients had received one of each type of grafts. Results. At 3 months, 45.3% (29 of 64) of glycerol-preserved and 41.4% (29 of 70) of frozen allografts, respectively, were considered to be fused radiographically. At 12 months, 100% of both treatment groups (41 glycerol-preserved and 45 frozen) were considered fused. Fusion rates for G-CPBA were statistically similar to F-CPBA at both 3 and 12 months (P = 0.6535 and >0.999, resp.). There were no allograft related complications in either treatment group. Conclusions. 100% fusion rates were attained by both treatment groups at 12 months and were similar at short-term follow-up for all comparable levels. Level of Evidence. Level of evidence is III.

  5. Comparison of Fusion Rates between Glycerol-Preserved and Frozen Composite Allografts in Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Rodway, Ian; Gander, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Background. This retrospective, two cohort series study was designed to compare a room temperature, glycerol-preserved composite pinned bone allograft (G-CPBA) with the same graft type provided in a frozen state (F-CPBA) for use as a cervical interbody spacer in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods. A comprehensive chart review was performed for 67 sequential patients that received either a F-CPBA or a G-CPBA and had at least one-year follow-up. Twenty-eight patients had received G-CPBA grafts and 37 patients had received F-CPBA grafts. Two additional 2-level patients had received one of each type of grafts. Results. At 3 months, 45.3% (29 of 64) of glycerol-preserved and 41.4% (29 of 70) of frozen allografts, respectively, were considered to be fused radiographically. At 12 months, 100% of both treatment groups (41 glycerol-preserved and 45 frozen) were considered fused. Fusion rates for G-CPBA were statistically similar to F-CPBA at both 3 and 12 months (P = 0.6535 and >0.999, resp.). There were no allograft related complications in either treatment group. Conclusions. 100% fusion rates were attained by both treatment groups at 12 months and were similar at short-term follow-up for all comparable levels. Level of Evidence. Level of evidence is III. PMID:27382618

  6. Gremlin: a novel mediator of epithelial mesenchymal transition and fibrosis in chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, G; Droguett, A; Burgos, M E; Aros, C; Ardiles, L; Flores, C; Carpio, D; Ruiz-Ortega, M; Egido, J; Mezzano, S

    2008-04-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is the most frequent cause of chronic dysfunction and late loss of renal allografts. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been identified as responsible for the presence of activated interstitial fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)/Smad is the key signaling mediator. It has been proposed that the bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) antagonist, Gremlin, could participate in EMT, as a downstream mediator of TGF-beta. We evaluated 33 renal allograft biopsies, 16 of which showed CAN, versus 17 controls. By in situ hybridization we studied the expression of TGF-beta and Gremlin mRNA. Gremlin, BMP-7, E-cadherin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Smad3 activation by Southwestern. In cultured human tubuloepithelial cells (HK2 cell line), Gremlin induction by TGF-beta was studied by confocal microscopy. Among renal biopsies of transplanted patients with CAN, we detected up-regulation of TGF-beta in colocalization with Gremlin (RNA and protein), mainly in areas of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In the same tubules, we observed decreased expression of E-cadherin and induction of vimentin and alpha-SMA. BMP-7 was significantly decreased in the CAN biopsies. In addition, HK2 stimulated with TGF-beta (1 ng/mL) induced Gremlin production at 72 hours. We postulated that Gremlin is a downstream mediator of TGF-beta, suggesting a role for Gremlin in EMT observed in CAN.

  7. Mechanisms of allograft rejection of corneal endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Tagawa, Y.; Silverstein, A.M.; Prendergast, R.A.

    1982-07-01

    The local intraocular graft-vs.-host (GVH) reaction, involving the destruction of the corneal endothelial cells of the rabbit host by sensitized donor lymphoid cells, has been used to study the mechanism of corneal allograft rejection. Pretreatment of donor cells with a specific mouse monoclonal hybridoma anti-T cell antibody and complement suppresses the destructive reaction, suggesting that a cellular-immune mechanism is primarily involved. Pretreatment of donor cells with mitomycin-C completely abolishes the local GVH reaction, indicating that the effector lymphocytes must undergo mitosis within the eye before they can engage in target cell destruction. Finally, studies of the local GVH reaction in irradiated leukopenic recipients or in preinflamed rabbit eyes suggest that host leukocytes may contribute nonspecifically to enhance the destructive process. These studies show that the local ocular GVH reaction may provide a useful model for the study of the mechanisms involved in the rejection of corneal allografts.

  8. [Tubulointerstitial rejection of renal allografts].

    PubMed

    Malušková, Jana; Honsová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Tubulo-intersticial rejection represents T-cell mediated rejection of kidney allografts with the morphology of immune-mediated interstitial nephritis. Diagnosis is dependent on the histopathological evaluation of a graft biopsy sample. The key morphological features are interstitial inflammatory infiltrate and damage to tubular epithelial cell which in severe cases can result in the ruptures of the tubular basement membranes. The differential diagnosis of tubulo-interstitial rejection includes acute interstitial nephritis and viral inflammatory kidney diseases, mainly polyomavirus nephropathy.

  9. Procurement of hand and arm allografts.

    PubMed

    Cetrulo, Curtis L; Kovach, Stephen J

    2013-12-01

    Upper extremity transplantation has been at the forefront of vascularized composite allotransplantation. There have been more hand and upper extremity transplants than any other kinds of vascularized composite allotransplantation. However, it is a new and evolving field. Reconstructive surgeons are relative newcomers to the field of transplantation, and the procurement of upper extremity allografts has many subtleties that will differ depending on the intended recipient. However, there are certain principles that can be adhered to that this review serves to elucidate.

  10. Proximal humeral fracture fixation: locking plate construct ± intramedullary fibular allograft.

    PubMed

    Chow, Roxanne M; Begum, Farhana; Beaupre, Lauren A; Carey, Jason P; Adeeb, Samer; Bouliane, Martin J

    2012-07-01

    Locking plate constructs for proximal humeral fractures can fail due to varus collapse, especially in osteoporotic bone with medial cortex comminution. Augmentation, using a fibular allograft as an intramedullary bone peg, may strengthen fixation preventing varus collapse. This study investigated the ability of the augmented locking plate construct to withstand repetitive varus stresses relative to the nonaugmented construct. Proximal humeral fractures with medial comminution were simulated by performing wedge-shaped osteotomies at the surgical neck in cadaveric specimens. For each cadaver (n = 8), 1 humeral fracture was fixated with the locking plate construct alone and the other with the locking plate construct plus ipsilateral fibular autograft augmentation. The humeral head was immobilized and a repetitive, medially directed load was applied to the humeral shaft until construct collapse or until 25000 cycles were completed. No augmented construct collapsed. In comparison, 6 of 8 nonaugmented constructs collapsed (P < .05). Collapse in the 6 nonaugmented constructs occurred after an average ±SD of 6604 ± 1984 cycles. Screw penetration of the articular surface was found in only 1 of the nonaugmented constructs. Fibular allograft augmentation increased the ability of the locking plate to withstand repetitive varus loading. Clinically, this may assist proximal humeral fracture fixation in osteoporotic bone with medial cortex comminution. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Digital Reconstruction with a Nonfrozen Osteotendinous Allograft, Nerve Allografts, and Autogenous Radial Free Flap.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Martin; Butrón, Patricia; Palafox, Damian; Cruz-Reyes, Angel U

    2015-08-01

    A 21-year-old man underwent amputation of his second to fifth fingers at the proximal phalanx level on the right hand. The third and fourth fingers were reconstructed with 2 toe-to-hand free transfers. The fifth digit was reconstructed with a nonfrozen osteotendinous allograft, nerve allografts, and autogenous radial free flap without immunosuppression. The patient was lost to follow-up for 19 years. He received no rehabilitation. He reported that he had experienced no adverse reactions to the materials or the graft, or infection, or fractures. No additional surgical procedures were performed. Today, the digit is functional and has acceptable aesthetic appearance. This outcome is similar to those obtained in digits reconstructed with frozen osteotendinous allografts and autologous cutaneous covers and opens the possibility for future research.

  12. The Role of Lymphoid Neogenesis in Allografts.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, H-M; Li, W; Gelman, A E; Krupnick, A S; Kreisel, D

    2016-04-01

    De novo induction of organized lymphoid aggregates at nonlymphoid sites has been observed in many chronic inflammatory conditions where foreign antigens such as infectious agents, autoantigens or alloantigens, persist. The prevailing opinion in the field of transplantation is that lymphoid neogenesis within allografts is detrimental to the establishment of immune tolerance. These structures, commonly referred to as tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs), are thought to contribute to graft rejection by generating and propagating local alloimmune responses. However, recent studies have shown that TLOs rich in regulatory Foxp3(+) cells are present in long-term accepting allografts. The notion that TLOs can contribute to the local downregulation of immune responses has been corroborated in other chronic inflammation models. These findings suggest that contrary to previous suggestions that the induction of TLOs in allografts is necessarily harmful, the induction of "tolerogenic" TLOs may prove advantageous. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how TLOs are induced and how they regulate immune responses with a particular focus on alloimmunity.

  13. The Role of Lymphoid Neogenesis in Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Hsao, Hsi-Min; Li, Wenjun; Gelman, Andrew E.; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Kreisel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    De novo induction of organized lymphoid aggregates at non-lymphoid sites has been observed in many chronic inflammatory conditions where foreign antigens such as infectious agents, auto- or alloantigens, persist. The prevailing opinion in the field of transplantation is that lymphoid neogenesis within allografts is detrimental to the establishment of immune tolerance. These structures, commonly referred to as tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs), are thought to contribute to graft rejection by generating and propagating local alloimmune responses. However, recent studies have shown that TLOs rich in regulatory Foxp3+ cells are present in long term accepting allografts. The notion that TLOs can contribute to the local downregulation of immune responses has been corroborated in other chronic inflammation models. These findings suggest that contrary to previous suggestions that the induction of TLOs in allografts is necessarily harmful, the induction of “tolerogenic” TLOs may prove advantageous. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how TLOs are induced and how they regulate immune responses with a particular focus on alloimmunity. PMID:26614734

  14. Sterilisation of skin allograft with gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Rooney, P; Eagle, M; Hogg, P; Lomas, R; Kearney, J

    2008-08-01

    The primary surgical requirement of skin allografts within the UK is for cryopreserved viable allografts as these engraft to the wound bed and gain a vascular supply, thus providing true wound closure and a superior clinical performance. Consequently the only disinfection treatment the skin receives is exposure to an antibiotic cocktail. However, antibiotic treatment does not reliably decontaminate skin allografts and 22% of cryopreserved skin fails microbial acceptance criteria and cannot be used clinically. We describe here a study which was carried out to determine a means of saving and using the microbiologically failed skin. Four different treatment regimens were investigated; treatment with 20%, 50% and 85% glycerol followed by 25 kGy irradiation at -80 degrees C, and treatment with 85% glycerol at ambient (30-40 degrees C) temperature and irradiation. Following treatment, the grafts were evaluated for their histological structure, in vitro cytotoxicity and handling properties. The radioprotective effects of the different glycerol concentrations and temperatures on microorganisms were also determined. The data indicate that 25 kGy irradiation of deep-frozen skin in 20% glycerol sterilised the tissue without any histological, cytotoxicological or physical alterations compared to normal cryopreserved skin. In contrast, irradiation of all other glycerol concentrations elicited some cytotoxicity and/or histological effect. These non-viable grafts can be made available for surgical use when cryopreserved viable grafts are not available or required.

  15. Processing of whole femoral head allografts: a method for improving clinical efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Lomas, R; Drummond, O; Kearney, J N

    2000-01-01

    Femoral heads removed during primary hip replacement surgery are widely utilised as a source of allograft bone. Despite evidence that processing these grafts to remove blood and marrow elements improves both the clinical performance and safety of these allografts, many are transplanted without any processing being applied at all. The goal of this study was to investigate the efficiency of an allograft processing protocol which incorporates pasteurisation, (3 h, 56-60 degrees C) centrifugation, (1850g, 2 x 15 min, 40 degrees C) sonication, and repeated washing in warm (56-60 degrees C, 19 h) distilled, sterile water to remove blood and marrow elements from the graft. The protocol also involves applying heat treatment to the grafts which has been demonstrated to inactivate many pathogenic viruses. Following the processing procedure, the grafts are lyophilised and sterilised with ethylene oxide gas. The amount and rate of removal of 4 different components of blood and marrow from 6 whole femoral head allografts were measured. These were lipid, soluble protein, elastase and chloride ions. Lipid removal was assessed gravimetrically by solvent extraction of dried samples, soluble protein by the Bradford assay, elastase by radioimmunoassay and choride ion content by a modified commercially available colorimetric assay. Removing lipid from grafts has been shown to increase the rate of incorporation when the graft is used clinically. Elastase was studied as a marker of leukocyte removal, as evidence suggests the majority of potentially infective transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) activity resides in a sub-population of leukocytes. Soluble protein was studied as a marker of plasma removal, as a smaller amount of TSE infectivity resides here. Chloride removal was measured as this is a necessary pre-requisite to terminal sterilisation with ethylene oxide. The results showed that the protocol removed 74.5% (range: 68.0-90.8) of the lipid content, 96.4% (range: 94

  16. High rate of failure of allograft reconstruction of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Leopold, S S; Greidanus, N; Paprosky, W G; Berger, R A; Rosenberg, A G

    1999-11-01

    Disruption of the extensor mechanism is an uncommon but devastating complication of total knee arthroplasty. Several techniques for reconstruction of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty have been reported, but we do not know of any study in which the results of one group's method were corroborated by a second group using the same technique. In the present series, we evaluated the results of reconstruction of the extensor mechanism with use of allograft according to the method described by Emerson et al. Seven reconstructions of the extensor mechanism with use of a bone-tendon-bone allograft were performed with the technique of Emerson et al. in six patients. The patients were evaluated before and after the operation. The knee score according to the system of The Hospital for Special Surgery, evidence of an extensor lag, use of walking aids, and the ambulatory status of each patient were recorded. The patients were also asked about, and the medical records were reviewed for, episodes of falling related to weakness of the quadriceps after the reconstruction. The mean duration of follow-up was thirty-nine months (range, six to 115 months). As these reconstructions often fail early, the minimum duration of follow-up was six months. All seven reconstructions were rated as clinical failures on the basis of a persistent or recurrent extensor lag of more than 30 degrees. All but one patient needed an assistive device full time for walking, and four patients (five knees) had at least one documented episode of falling that was due to giving-way of the affected knee. Four of the reconstructions were revised; one revision was performed with use of another extensor mechanism allograft and three were performed with use of a medial gastrocnemius rotation flap. The other three clinical failures had not been revised at the time of writing. At the time of the most recent follow-up (or at the time of revision of the extensor reconstruction), the mean extensor lag was

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)γ Can Inhibit Chronic Renal Allograft Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Eva; Popovic, Zoran V.; Bedke, Jens; Adams, Judith; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Babelova, Andrea; Schmidt, Claudia; Edenhofer, Frank; Zschiedrich, Inka; Domhan, Sophie; Abdollahi, Amir; Schäfer, Liliana; Gretz, Norbert; Porubsky, Stefan; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and fibrosis are the leading causes of chronic allograft failure. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ is a transcription factor known to have antidiabetogenic and immune effects, and PPARγ forms obligate heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). We have reported that a retinoic acid (RAR)/RXR-agonist can potently influence the course of renal chronic allograft dysfunction. In this study, in a Fischer to Lewis rat renal transplantation model, administration of the PPARγ-agonist, rosiglitazone, independent of dose (3 or 30 mg/kgBW/day), lowered serum creatinine, albuminuria, and chronic allograft damage with a chronic vascular damage score as follows: 35.0 ± 5.8 (controls) vs. 8.1 ± 2.4 (low dose-Rosi; P < 0.05); chronic tubulointerstitial damage score: 13.6 ± 1.8 (controls) vs. 2.6 ± 0.4 (low dose-Rosi; P < 0.01). The deposition of extracellular matrix proteins (collagen, fibronectin, decorin) was strikingly lower. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 was inhibited, whereas that of bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7) was increased. Intragraft mononuclear cells and activated fibroblast numbers were reduced by 50%. In addition, the migratory and proliferative activity of these cells was significantly inhibited in vitro. PPARγ activation diminished the number of cells expressing the proinflammatory and fibrogenic proteoglycan biglycan. In macrophages its secretion was blocked by rosiglitazone in a predominantly PPARγ-dependent manner. The combination of PPARγ- and RAR/RXR-agonists resulted in additive effects in the inhibition of fibrosis. In summary, PPARγ activation was potently immunosuppressive and antifibrotic in kidney allografts, and these effects were enhanced by a RAR/RXR-agonist. PMID:20363918

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma can inhibit chronic renal allograft damage.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Eva; Popovic, Zoran V; Bedke, Jens; Adams, Judith; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Babelova, Andrea; Schmidt, Claudia; Edenhofer, Frank; Zschiedrich, Inka; Domhan, Sophie; Abdollahi, Amir; Schäfer, Liliana; Gretz, Norbert; Porubsky, Stefan; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2010-05-01

    Chronic inflammation and fibrosis are the leading causes of chronic allograft failure. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma is a transcription factor known to have antidiabetogenic and immune effects, and PPARgamma forms obligate heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). We have reported that a retinoic acid (RAR)/RXR-agonist can potently influence the course of renal chronic allograft dysfunction. In this study, in a Fischer to Lewis rat renal transplantation model, administration of the PPARgamma-agonist, rosiglitazone, independent of dose (3 or 30 mg/kgBW/day), lowered serum creatinine, albuminuria, and chronic allograft damage with a chronic vascular damage score as follows: 35.0 +/- 5.8 (controls) vs. 8.1 +/- 2.4 (low dose-Rosi; P < 0.05); chronic tubulointerstitial damage score: 13.6 +/- 1.8 (controls) vs. 2.6 +/- 0.4 (low dose-Rosi; P < 0.01). The deposition of extracellular matrix proteins (collagen, fibronectin, decorin) was strikingly lower. The expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 was inhibited, whereas that of bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7) was increased. Intragraft mononuclear cells and activated fibroblast numbers were reduced by 50%. In addition, the migratory and proliferative activity of these cells was significantly inhibited in vitro. PPARgamma activation diminished the number of cells expressing the proinflammatory and fibrogenic proteoglycan biglycan. In macrophages its secretion was blocked by rosiglitazone in a predominantly PPARgamma-dependent manner. The combination of PPARgamma- and RAR/RXR-agonists resulted in additive effects in the inhibition of fibrosis. In summary, PPARgamma activation was potently immunosuppressive and antifibrotic in kidney allografts, and these effects were enhanced by a RAR/RXR-agonist.

  19. The Neglected Achilles Tendon Rupture Repaired With Allograft: A Review of 14 Cases.

    PubMed

    Ofili, Kene P; Pollard, Jason D; Schuberth, John M

    Various surgical techniques have been reported for the repair of neglected Achilles tendon ruptures, including V-Y advancements, synthetic augmentations, and collagen implants. The use of an Achilles tendon allograft allows bridging of large defects without donor site morbidity, with a relative ease of technique and adequate graft availability. The present retrospective report focused on the outcomes of a series of 14 patients with neglected ruptures treated with an Achilles tendon allograft. Patients were included in the present series if they had ≥12 months of postoperative follow-up data available and the allograft had been used without any adjunctive procedures. Of the 14 patients, 6 were female (43%) and 8 were male (57%), with a mean follow-up period of 16.1 ± 3 (range 12 to 27) months. The mean interval from the initial injury to surgery was 6.9 ± 5 (range 1 to 28) months. The mean intraoperative defect size was 7.0 ± 3 (range 4 to 15) cm. A calcaneal block was used in 2 patients (14%). All patients were able to perform a single heel rise at a mean of 27 ± 11 (range 12 to 37) weeks postoperatively. Weightbearing in normal shoe gear was achieved at a mean of 13.5 ± 3 (range 12 to 17) weeks. Complications included 1 delayed union (7%) of the calcaneal bone block. Repair of the neglected Achilles tendon rupture with an allograft appears to be an acceptable approach, with good overall outcomes and low risk. These results suggest that this method of repair compares favorably with established alternatives. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a skeletally immature knee using anterior tibialis allograft.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yool; Jang, Soo-Jin; Son, Jung-Hwan

    2011-05-18

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the skeletally immature individual is being recognized with increasing frequency. Nonoperative treatment of ACL injuries in skeletally immature patients have not been favorable. Surgical treatment options for complete ACL tears include primary ligament repair, extraarticular tenodesis, transphyseal reconstruction, partial transphyseal reconstruction, and physeal-sparing reconstruction. The advantage of transphyseal reconstruction is placement of the graft tissue in an isometric position, which provides better results, according to the literature. The potential disadvantage is angular or limb-length discrepancy caused by physeal violation. Controversy exists in allograft selection about whether bone or soft tissue passes into physes. The use of standard tunnels provides reliable results, but carries the risk of iatrogenic growth disturbance from physeal injury.This article presents 4 cases of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft in skeletally immature patients that had satisfactory functional outcomes with no growth disturbances. This is the first report of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft in skeletally immature patients in the English-speaking literature. All patients underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis tendon allograft. None of the patients had angular deformities. No early physeal arrest was measured between the preoperative and postoperative radiographs. At last follow-up, the results of the Lachman test were normal for 3 patients and nearly normal for 1 patient. All patients demonstrated full range of knee motion (comparing the reconstructed knee to the contralateral knee). The results of the pivot-shift test were normal for 3 patients and nearly normal for 1 patient. No patients reported giving way.

  1. The biomechanical behavior on the interface of tumor arthrosis/allograft prosthetic composite by finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Z.; Jiang, W.; Zou, W.; Luo, J. M.; Chen, J. Y.; Tu, C. Q.; Xing, B. B.; Gu, Z. W.; Zhang, X. D.

    2008-11-01

    The biomechanical behavior of the uniting interface between the allograft bone and the autogenetic bone plays an important role in the treatment of the proximal femur massive defects with artificial tumor arthrosis/allograft prosthetic composite (TAAPC). According to the CT data of a patient, a 3D medical treatment model of TAAPC was established. Under the loads of 1.5 and 2.5 times standard body weight (70 kg), the mechanical behavior of the treatment model was analyzed by finite element analysis (FEA) for three typical healing periods. The results show that there are significant differences in the stress values and distribution in different healing periods. With healing of osteotomy, the hardness of the tissue of the uniting interface increases, the stress in uniting area was increased greatly and the stress concentration decreased. After cured the stress almost reached the level of normal bone. In the initial stage of healing, the healing training is not encouraged because there is an obvious risk of fracture of prosthesis and bone cement. In addition, porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic used as bone tissue scaffold for this case, not only facilitates the generation of new bone, but also can avoid this risk caused by the non-uniting interface.

  2. Evaluation of healing in feline femoral defects filled with cancellous autograft, cancellous allograft or Bioglass.

    PubMed

    Dorea, H C; McLaughlin, R M; Cantwell, H D; Read, R; Armbrust, L; Pool, R; Roush, J K; Boyle, C

    2005-01-01

    Cancellous bone grafting is a widely accepted technique in human and veterinary orthopaedic surgery. However, the use of autogenous bone graft is limited by the additional surgical time required to harvest the graft, the morbidity associated with the donor site, and the limited availability of cancellous bone, especially in feline patients. Various allografts and bone graft substitutes are available commercially but have not been fully evaluated for efficacy in the cat. The purpose of this study was to compare the incorporation of autogenous and allogenous cancellous bone graft and Bioglass, a synthetic bone graft substitute, in femoral defects in cats. Four (4.0 mm diameter) defects were created in the lateral diaphyseal cortex of the left femur with an orthopaedic drill. In each femur, one of the cortical defects was filled with autogenous cancellous graft (harvested from the tibia), one was filled with allogenic cancellous graft, and one was filled with Bioglass. The fourth defect remained unfilled. Graft incorporation within the femoral defects was evaluated by radiographic evaluation every two weeks. Six weeks after the grafting procedure, the cats were euthanatized and high detailed radiography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), histopathology and histomorphometry of the defects were performed. Satisfactory bone healing was observed within all of the defects.

  3. A Perspective: Engineering Periosteum for Structural Bone Graft Healing

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Hani A.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Guldberg, Robert E.; Schwarz, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Autograft is superior to both allograft and synthetic bone graft in repair of large structural bone defect largely due to the presence of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in periosteum. Recent studies have provided further evidence that activation, expansion and differentiation of the donor periosteal progenitor cells are essential for the initiation of osteogenesis and angiogenesis of donor bone graft healing. The formation of donor cell-derived periosteal callus enables efficient host-dependent graft repair and remodeling at the later stage of healing. Removal of periosteum from bone autograft markedly impairs healing whereas engraftment of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells on bone allograft improves healing and graft incorporation. These studies provide rationale for fabrication of a biomimetic periosteum substitute that could fit bone of any size and shape for enhanced allograft healing and repair. The success of such an approach will depend on further understanding of the molecular signals that control inflammation, cellular recruitment as well as mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and expansion during the early phase of the repair process. It will also depend on multidisciplinary collaborations between biologists, material scientists and bioengineers to address issues of material selection and modification, biological and biomechanical parameters for functional evaluation of bone allograft healing. PMID:18509709

  4. [Progress of bone graft substitute].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2008-10-01

    To sum up the recent progress of common bone graft substitute and to forecast the possible directions for further research. Recent original articles about investigation and application for bone graft substitute were extensively reviewed. Several common bone graft substitutes were selected and expounded in different categories. Bone graft was an essential treatment in order to provide structural support, fill bone cavity and promote bone defect healing. The gold standard for bone graft was autograft which is subject to many restrictions. In recent years, the research and development of bone graft substitute have received public attention. A very great progress has been made in the research and application of allograft bones, synthetic bones and engineered bones, and some research results have been put into use for real products. There still exist many problems in present bone graft substitutes. Combining various biomaterials and using the specific processing technology to develop a biomaterial which has the similar mechanical and chemical properties and physical structures to autograft so as to promote bone defect healing is the direction for future research.

  5. Acellular Nerve Allografts in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Amy M.; MacEwan, Matthew; Santosa, Katherine B.; Chenard, Kristofer E.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Processed nerve allografts offer a promising alternative to nerve autografts in the surgical management of peripheral nerve injuries where short deficits exist. Methods Three established models of acellular nerve allograft (cold-preserved, detergent-processed, and AxoGen® -processed nerve allografts) were compared to nerve isografts and silicone nerve guidance conduits in a 14 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Results All acellular nerve grafts were superior to silicone nerve conduits in support of nerve regeneration. Detergent-processed allografts were similar to isografts at 6 weeks post-operatively, while AxoGen®-processed and cold-preserved allografts supported significantly fewer regenerating nerve fibers. Measurement of muscle force confirmed that detergent-processed allografts promoted isograft-equivalent levels of motor recovery 16 weeks post-operatively. All acellular allografts promoted greater amounts of motor recovery compared to silicone conduits. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that differential processing for removal of cellular constituents in preparing acellular nerve allografts affects recovery in vivo. PMID:21660979

  6. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections among renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ramandeep; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Bemelman, Frederike J

    2015-02-01

    Bacteriuria is common among renal allograft recipients. It can be categorized into asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infection (UTI). However, in medical literature, the classifications of bacteriuria are often not clear or ASB is also classified as a UTI. This contributes to difficulties in interpretation of the incidence and risk factors of these two entities. In this review, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, management and the impact on renal allograft function of these two entities separately according to the recent literature. Risk factors for ASB are not completely comparable to the risk factors of UTIs. Persistent ASB has been associated with development of acute rejection and allograft pyelonephritis. The available data suggest that treatment of ASB is not very effective. Prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole does not prevent UTIs such as allograft pyelonephritis. Blood stream infections and emphysematous allograft pyelonephritis are associated with renal allograft loss. ASB is the most common manifestation of bacteriuria after renal transplantation. More effective interventions are needed to prevent bacteriuria. Renal allograft recipients with persistent ASB should be closely monitored since they could be at risk for developing not only UTIs, such as allograft pyelonephritis, but also acute rejection.

  7. Focal posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder at the renal allograft hilum.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ben, R; Smith, J K; Kew, C E; Kenney, P J; Julian, B A; Robbin, M L

    2000-11-01

    This report describes the imaging characteristics of focal posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder may be limited to the allograft. A focal complex mass in the renal allograft hilum surrounding the main renal blood vessels is a common finding and can be visualized with sonography. MR imaging can help increase diagnostic confidence.

  8. Incidence, risk factors, and the impact of allograft pyelonephritis on renal allograft function.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Geerlings, S E; Peters-Sengers, H; Idu, M M; Hodiamont, C J; Ten Berge, I J M; Bemelman, F J

    2016-10-01

    The impact of allograft pyelonephritis (AGPN) on renal allograft function is controversial. In this study, we evaluated the incidence, risk factors, and the impact of AGPN on renal allograft function. Retrospective cohort study in adult renal allograft recipients with 1-year follow-up after transplantation (Tx). Renal allograft function was evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula) and 24-h urine protein excretion. A total of 431 renal allograft recipients were analyzed; 57 (13.2%) developed AGPN within 1 year after Tx. Median time between Tx and AGPN was 50 days. Risk factors for AGPN were the presence of a urological catheter (odds ratio [OR] = 18.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.00-44.81, P < 0.001) and preceding asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.20-3.90, P = 0.009). In 72.7%, the causative microorganism of ASB was identical to that of the succeeding AGPN episode. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that experiencing AGPN did not decrease the eGFR (P = 0.61) nor did increased proteinuria (P = 0.29) 1 year after Tx. For the eGFR, an interaction was found between AGPN/bacteriuria (BU) and acute rejection (AR): the group experiencing BU preceding AR had significantly (P < 0.001) lower eGFR compared with the group that experienced only AR (21 mL/min/1.73 m(2) vs. 48 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ), as a result of increased prevalence of combined rejections within the BU group. Indwelling urological catheters and preceding ASB are associated with developing AGPN. An incident of AGPN itself does not impair renal allograft function 1 year after Tx. However, a relevant interaction occurs between BU and AR, in which the sequence of occurrence of these 2 events synergistically impairs the eGFR. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The effects of low-dose radiotherapy on fresh osteochondral allografts: An experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gönç, Uğur; Çetinkaya, Mehmet; Atabek, Mesut

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-dose fractionated radiotherapy on cartilage degeneration after distal femoral fresh massive osteochondral allograft transplantation. Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits were divided into three groups of 8 rabbits each. All rabbits underwent distal femoral medial condyle fresh massive osteochondral allograft transplantation from California rabbits. The group 1 underwent transplantation without any preliminary process. The group 2 underwent fractionated local radiotherapy of 100 cGy for five days starting on the transplantation day. The group 3 included the rabbits to which the grafts transplanted after radiating in vitro by a single dose radiation of 1500 cGy. The hosts were sacrificed twelve weeks later. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were taken. Synovial tissue, cartilaginous tissue, and subchondral bone were assessed histopathologically. Nonunion was present in three cases of group 2 and one of group 3 in which cartilage degeneration was more severe. Synovial hypertrophy and pannus formation were more obvious in non-radiated rabbits. Hypocellularity and necrosis of the subchondral bone were rare in group 2. More cartilage tissue impairment was present in group 3 compared to group 1. In osteochondral massive allograft transplantations, the immune reaction of the host could be precluded with radiotherapy, and the side-effects can be prevented by low-dose fractionated regimen. The total dose of fractionated radiotherapy for an immune suppression should be adjusted not to damage the cartilage tissue, but to avoid articular degeneration in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical techniques and radiological findings of meniscus allograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoseok; Lee, Sang Yub; Na, Young Gon; Kim, Sung Kwan; Yi, Jae Hyuck; Lim, Jae Kwang; Lee, So Mi

    2016-08-01

    Meniscus allograft transplantation has been performed over the past 25 years to relieve knee pain and improve knee function in patients with an irreparable meniscus injury. The efficacy and safety of meniscus allograft transplantation have been established in numerous experimental and clinical researches. However, there is a lack of reviews to aid radiologists who are routinely interpreting images and evaluating the outcome of the procedures, and also meniscus allograft transplantation is not widely performed in most hospitals. This review focuses on the indications of the procedure, the different surgical techniques used for meniscus allograft transplantation according to the involvement of the lateral and medial meniscus, and the associated procedures. The postoperative radiological findings and surgical complications of the meniscus allograft transplantation are also described in detail.

  11. Ridge augmentation with mineralized block allografts: clinical and histological evaluation of 8 cases treated with the 3-dimensional block technique.

    PubMed

    Jacotti, Michele; Wang, Hom-Lay; Fu, Jia-Hui; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Bernardello, Fabio

    2012-12-01

    Bone augmentation is frequently used to create sufficient bone volume for ideal implant placement. Severely resorbed ridges require extensive bone augmentation in the form of block allografts. A 3-dimensional graft technique has been developed to augment atrophic areas. This technique involves modifying the graft on a sterile prototype of the recipient site before the surgery. This article investigates the clinical and histological outcomes of ridge augmentation using this technique. Eight partially edentulous patients were recruited. Ridge augmentations were performed using block allografts, preadjusted, based on sterile prototypes of the recipient bed before the surgeries. After 8 months, 20 implants were inserted into the grafted sites. Eight bone cores were harvested for histological analysis. Highly vital and mineralized bone with lamellar organization was observed at the grafted sites. Having the ability to modify the allogeneic block grafts to fit the recipient sites before the surgery minimized the surgical time and risk of postoperative complications such as infection. In addition, the clinician could concentrate fully on achieving tension-free primary wound closure.

  12. Scaffold Design for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Polo-Corrales, Liliana; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Ramirez-Vick, Jaime E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of bone grafts is the standard to treat skeletal fractures, or to replace and regenerate lost bone, as demonstrated by the large number of bone graft procedures performed worldwide. The most common of these is the autograft, however, its use can lead to complications such as pain, infection, scarring, blood loss, and donor-site morbidity. The alternative is allografts, but they lack the osteoactive capacity of autografts and carry the risk of carrying infectious agents or immune rejection. Other approaches, such as the bone graft substitutes, have focused on improving the efficacy of bone grafts or other scaffolds by incorporating bone progenitor cells and growth factors to stimulate cells. An ideal bone graft or scaffold should be made of biomaterials that imitate the structure and properties of natural bone ECM, include osteoprogenitor cells and provide all the necessary environmental cues found in natural bone. However, creating living tissue constructs that are structurally, functionally and mechanically comparable to the natural bone has been a challenge so far. This focus of this review is on the evolution of these scaffolds as bone graft substitutes in the process of recreating the bone tissue microenvironment, including biochemical and biophysical cues. PMID:24730250

  13. Vascularised free fibular flap in bone resection and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Belt, P J; Dickinson, I C; Theile, D R B

    2005-06-01

    This paper compares allograft alone and in combination with vascularised free fibular flaps (FFF) to reconstruct long bone defects after tumour excision. We present 33 cases, 21 of these patients had reconstruction with an allograft alone as the initial procedure. Nine patients underwent reconstruction with FFF plus allograft plus iliac crest bone graft (ICG), two patients underwent reconstruction with a FFF and ICG and one patient underwent reconstruction with an allograft, a pedicled fibular flap and a FFF. The allograft was obtained from the Queensland Bone Bank and had been irradiated to 25 000Gy. In our experience (N=21) the complication rates with allograft alone were: delayed union 3, nonunion 7, fractured allograft 6, infection requiring resection of the allograft 3, other infections 2. The revision rate was 48% (10 cases of which five required a free fibular flap) and an average of 1.8 revision procedures were required. In the lower limb cases, the mean time to full weightbearing was 20 months and 40% were full weightbearing at 18 months. We felt that the high complication rate compared with other series may have been related to the irradiation of the graft. FFFs were used in 18 cases, 12 cases were primary reconstructions and six were revision reconstructions. The mean fibular length was 19.4 cm (range 10-29 cm). There were no flap losses and the FFF united at both ends of 11 of 12 primary reconstruction cases. One case had nonunion at one end, giving a union rate of 96% (23 of 24 junctions). When a FFF was used in combination with an allograft as a primary reconstruction, the allograft nonunion rate was 50% (five of 10 cases). The mean time to full weightbearing in the lower limb cases was 7.5 months and 100% were full weightbearing at 18 months. The FFF hastens time to full weightbearing but does not appear to affect the complication rates of allograft. The number of revision procedures required is reduced in the presence of a FFF and is the latter is a

  14. Capturing echocardiographic allograft valve function over time after allograft aortic valve or root replacement.

    PubMed

    Mokhles, M Mostafa; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Bekkers, Jos A; Borsboom, Gerard J J M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Bogers, Ad J J C; Takkenberg, Johanna J M; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2014-11-01

    This study describes echocardiographic allograft valve function over time in a cohort of patients who were prospectively followed after allograft aortic valve or root replacement, illustrating the use of longitudinal data analysis for assessing valve function over time. Serial, standardized echocardiographic measurements of aortic regurgitation, aortic gradient, annulus diameter, left ventricular outflow tract diameter, and aortic diameter in 301 hospital survivors (mean age, 46 years; range, 16-83 years) after allograft aortic valve (N=77) or root (N=224) replacement were analyzed using nonlinear longitudinal models. Aortic regurgitation increased over time. At 15 years, 41% of patients had at least moderate aortic regurgitation. Younger patient age and subcoronary implantation technique were associated with increased aortic regurgitation. Aortic gradient increased over time (from 9.4 mm Hg at 6 months to 21.3 mm Hg at 15 years); both initial and increase in aortic gradient were greater in younger patients and after subcoronary implantation technique. Annulus diameter slightly increased (from 21.9 mm at 6 months to 22.4 mm at 15 years), whereas aortic diameter slightly decreased over time (from 34.3 mm at 6 months to 32.7 mm at 15 years). Left ventricular outflow tract diameter remained constant at 22 mm. Younger patients in the subcoronary implantation group had a larger annulus diameter. Both aortic regurgitation and stenosis increase over time after allograft aortic valve or root replacement. Younger patient age and use of the subcoronary implantation technique are associated with increased regurgitation and stenosis. The use of nonlinear longitudinal models allows for an insightful analysis of allograft valve function over time. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Ong, J C Y; Kennedy, M T; Mitra, A; Harty, J A

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects. Hydroxyapatite calcium carbonate synthetic bone graft was utilised in 14 patients (six males and eight females). Allograft/autograft were utilised in the remaining 10 patients (six males and four females). All the 24 patients had clinical, radiological and subjective functional score assessments. There was no significant statistical difference between the groups for post-operative articular reduction, long-term subsidence, and WOMAC scores. The degree of subsidence was not related to age or fracture severity. Maintenance of knee flexion was found to be better in the allograft/autograft group (p = 0.048) when compared between the groups. Multivariate analysis compared graft type, fracture severity, post-operative reduction, subsidence rate, range of movement and WOMAC score. The only finding was a statistical significant association with the graft type related to the 6-month range of movement figures. Use of autologous or allogenic bone graft allows better recovery of long-term flexion, possibly due to reduced inflammatory response compared with synthetic bone composites. However, all other parameters, such as maintenance of joint reduction and subjective outcome measures were comparable with the use of hydroxyapatite calcium carbonate bone graft. This study shows that synthetic bone graft may be a suitable alternative in fixation of unstable tibia plateau fractures, avoiding risk of disease transmission with allograft and donor site morbidity associated with autograft.

  16. Esthetic outcome of implant-based reconstructions in augmented bone: comparison of autologous and allogeneic bone block grafting with the pink esthetic score (PES).

    PubMed

    Schlee, Markus; Dehner, Jan-Friedrich; Baukloh, Katja; Happe, Arndt; Seitz, Oliver; Sader, Robert

    2014-05-28

    To determine the esthetic outcome of implant-based reconstructions after autologous and allogeneic bone grafting. From 2003 to 2009, 67 patients underwent alveolar ridge augmentation and were enrolled in the study, 41 meet the inclusion criteria and 31 agreed to take part in the study. Patients were 18-69 years old (mean: 49.3 ± 13.8 years), and predominantly female. Patients received bone block grafts either autologous (n = 48) (AUBB) or allografts (ABB) (n = 19). Implants were inserted 4-7 months (autografts) or 5-6 months (allografts) after bone grafting. The Pink Esthetic Score (PES) as well as radiographic and subjective assessments were employed for the outcome analysis. The PES was assessed twice within one month based on digital photographic images that were randomly rearranged between evaluations by three independent, experienced investigators. Across all observations and investigators, the average PES was 7.5 ± 2.6 without differences between implants inserted in auto- and allografted bone, respectively. Patients assessed the allograft procedures as less painful and would have repeated it more often. The intra-rater reliability was excellent (correlation coefficients 0.7-0.9). The inter-observer agreement was lower (correlation coefficients 0.6-0.8). Bone grafting with ABB allografts yields equivalent results to autologous grafting, and patients appreciate the omission of bone harvesting. The PES is a reliable method but should be performed by the same individual.

  17. Inducible nitric oxide synthase suppresses the development of allograft arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Shears, L L; Kawaharada, N; Tzeng, E; Billiar, T R; Watkins, S C; Kovesdi, I; Lizonova, A; Pham, S M

    1997-01-01

    In cardiac transplantation, chronic rejection takes the form of an occlusive vasculopathy. The mechanism underlying this disorder remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role nitric oxide (NO) may play in the development of allograft arteriosclerosis. Rat aortic allografts from ACI donors to Wistar Furth recipients with a strong genetic disparity in both major and minor histocompatibility antigens were used for transplantation. Allografts collected at 28 d were found to have significant increases in both inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein as well as in intimal thickness when compared with isografts. Inhibiting NO production with an iNOS inhibitor increased the intimal thickening by 57.2%, indicating that NO suppresses the development of allograft arteriosclerosis. Next, we evaluated the effect of cyclosporine (CsA) on iNOS expression and allograft arteriosclerosis. CsA (10 mg/kg/d) suppressed the expression of iNOS in response to balloon-induced aortic injury. Similarly, CsA inhibited iNOS expression in the aortic allografts, associated with a 65% increase in intimal thickening. Finally, we investigated the effect of adenoviral-mediated iNOS gene transfer on allograft arteriosclerosis. Transduction with iNOS using an adenoviral vector suppressed completely the development of allograft arteriosclerosis in both untreated recipients and recipients treated with CsA. These results suggest that the early immune-mediated upregulation in iNOS expression partially protects aortic allografts from the development of allograft arteriosclerosis, and that iNOS gene transfer strategies may prove useful in preventing the development of this otherwise untreatable disease process. PMID:9329968

  18. Platonin improves survival of skin allografts.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Ping; Lee, Jie-Jen; Chi, Chin-Wen; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2010-11-01

    Platonin is an immunomodulator with NF-κB inhibitory activity. It not only inhibits interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production in sepsis, but also attenuates heatstroke reactions. In addition, platonin redirects differentiation of dendritic cells toward an intermediate stage of maturation. The study was designed to examine whether platonin can reduce acute graft rejection. A C57BL/6 to BALB/c mice skin transplantation model was used. Platonin was given intraperitoneally to transplant recipients at various doses. Skin grafts were submitted to histologic analysis. NF-κB DNA binding activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were determined in harvested draining lymph nodes. Leukocyte count, hepatic and renal functions were serially assessed. An array of serum cytokines was evaluated on d 1, 3, 5, and 7 after skin transplantation. Platonin resulted in significantly prolonged skin allograft survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Histologic changes in the skin allografts paralleled the gross appearance of rejection. Serum cytokine analysis shows that platonin significantly suppressed the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. However, no significant changes occurred in the serum levels of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines. NF-κB activity and iNOS expression were remarkably suppressed in draining lymph nodes. In terms of toxicity, there were no significant differences in body weight, leukocyte count, plasma alanine aminotransferase, or creatinine between the platonin-treated and control groups. Platonin effectively prolongs skin allograft survival without major toxicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. LYMPHATIC INJURY AND REGENERATION IN CARDIAC ALLOGRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Thing Rinda; Pathak, Arvind; Asano, Hiroshi; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Baldwin, William M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Severed donor heart lymphatics are not anastomosed to recipient lymphatics in cardiac transplantation. We evaluated the effects of cellular infiltrates of T cells and macrophages on the morphology of lymphatics in heart grafts. Methods: Dark Agouti (DA) hearts were transplanted to Lewis or control DA rats on sub-therapeutic doses of cyclosporin. Transplants were examined by immunohistology and quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy using LYVE-1 as a lymphatic marker and CD8 and CD68 as markers for cellular infiltration at selected intervals from 1 to 8 weeks post-transplantation. Results: Allograft inner myocardial lymphatic density decreased by more than 30-fold at 1 week, and recovered to only 15% of the native level at 8 weeks post-transplantation. In contrast, allograft lymphatics in and near the epicardium showed no significant density decline, but increased in size by more than 5-fold at 2 weeks, and sustained about a 3-fold increase at 8 weeks post-transplantation. Lymphatic changes correlated temporally with the extent of T cell and macrophage infiltration in allografts, which peaked at 2-3 weeks post-transplantation. When grafts were retransplanted from allogeneic to isogeneic recipients at 3 weeks post-transplantation, inner lymphatic density returned close to native level within 2 weeks after retransplantation. Conclusions: This is the first characterization of regional and morphological effects of immunological responses on heart lymphatics after transplantation. Elimination of alloimmune responses produces rapid restoration of inner lymphatic vessels, suggesting that lymphatics injured during rejection can recover when rejection is reversed during the post-transplantation course. PMID:20118845

  20. Chemical sterilization of allograft dermal tissues.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Abigail; Vaynshteyn, Edward; Kowalski, John B; Ngo, Manh-Dan; Merritt, Karen; Osborne, Joel; Chnari, Evangelia

    2017-08-10

    Common terminal sterilization methods are known to alter the natural structure and properties of soft tissues. One approach to providing safe grafts with preserved biological properties is the combination of a validated chemical sterilization process followed by an aseptic packaging process. This combination of processes is an accepted method for production of sterile healthcare products as described in ANSI/AAMI ST67:2011. This article describes the validation of the peracetic acid and ethanol-based (PAAE) chemical sterilization process for allograft dermal tissues at the Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation (MTF, Edison, NJ). The sterilization capability of the PAAE solution used during routine production of aseptically processed dermal tissue forms was determined based on requirements of relevant ISO standards, ISO 14161:2009 and ISO 14937:2009. The resistance of spores of Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, Mycobacterium terrae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus aureus to the chemical sterilization process employed by MTF was determined. Using a worst-case scenario testing strategy, the D value was calculated for the most resistant microorganism, Bacillus. The 12D time parameter determined the minimum time required to achieve a SAL of 10(-6). Microbiological performance qualification demonstrated a complete kill of 10(6) spores at just a quarter of the full cycle time. The validation demonstrated that the PAAE sterilization process is robust, achieves sterilization of allograft dermal tissue to a SAL 10(-6), and that in combination with aseptic processing secures the microbiological safety of allograft dermal tissue while avoiding structural and biochemical tissue damage previously observed with other sterilization methods such as ionizing irradiation.

  1. The results of transplantation of intercalary allografts after resection of tumors. A long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Cruz, E; Gebhardt, M C; Jennings, L C; Springfield, D S; Mankin, H J

    1997-01-01

    We reviewed the results of 104 intercalary allograft procedures that had been performed, between April 1974 and August 1992, in 100 patients, usually after resection of a segment of bone because of an osseous neoplasm. The median duration of follow-up was 5.6 years. Retention of the graft and return to essentially normal function were the measures of success and, on that basis, eighty-seven (84 per cent) of the 104 reconstructions were successful. Of the fifteen limbs in which the reconstruction failed, four were salvaged with insertion of a second allograft and three, with use of some other technique. Of the 104 allograft procedures, eight (including two in patients who had a recurrent tumor) were followed by an amputation; thus, the ultimate rate of salvage was 92 per cent for the entire series. Thirty-one grafts failed to unite at one junction with the host or both, within one year after the operation, and this necessitated eighty-one additional operative procedures to achieve a good result. Life-table regression analysis showed that age, gender, anatomical site, and length of the graft were not associated with significant differences in the over-all outcome. Infection (p = 0.0001); fracture (p = 0.002); stage of the lesion (p = 0.007); and use of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation, or both (p = 0.008), all had an adverse effect on the survival of the allograft. Despite the relatively high rate of non-union that necessitated additional operations, these data indicate that transplantation of allografts for the treatment of intercalary defects has a high rate of success and usually results in a functional limb.

  2. Hip Capsular Reconstruction Using Dermal Allograft.

    PubMed

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S; Soares, Eduardo; Mook, William R; Philippon, Marc J

    2016-04-01

    Because hip arthroscopic procedures are increasing in number, complications related to the operation itself are starting to emerge. Whereas the capsule has been recognized as an important static stabilizer for the hip, it has not been until recently that surgeons have realized the importance of its preservation and restoration. Disruption of the capsule during arthroscopic procedures is a potential contributor to postoperative iatrogenic hip instability. In cases of a symptomatic deficient capsule, a capsular reconstruction is mandatory because instability may lead to detrimental chondral and labral changes. The purpose of this report was to describe our technique for arthroscopic hip capsular reconstruction using dermal allograft.

  3. Optimization and Implementation of Long Nerve Allografts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    decellularized allografts tested did not perform well in this repair model. Additional evaluations and...2c  was  completed.    All   animals  were  assessed  weekly  until  termination  26  weeks  after   receiving  the...the  engrafted  nerves  were  examined  for  nerve-­‐graft  continuity.     Animals  with  a  loss  of   continuity

  4. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with fresh-frozen patellar tendon allografts: sixty cases with 2 years' minimum follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nín, J R; Leyes, M; Schweitzer, D

    1996-01-01

    A prospective study was performed on 101 patients who underwent an arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with fresh-frozen patellar tendon allograft (bone-patellar tendon-bone). We present the results of the first 60 patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Thirty-four were men and 26 women with a mean age of 23. In 45 patients, a postoperative arthroscopy was performed, and tissue biopsies of the reconstructed ACL were obtained. Patients were evaluated according to the International Knee Documentation Committee evaluation form. After a mean follow-up of 47 months, the overall results were normal or nearly normal in 85%. Under postoperative arthroscopy, the macroscopic appearance of the implant was similar to that of a normal ligament. The ACL allograft was covered with a normal, well-vascularized synovium. There were no cases of infection, disease transmission or tissue rejection. We conclude that the use of fresh-frozen patellar tendon allografts is a good method of ACL reconstruction.

  5. Preliminary results after reconstruction of bony defects of the proximal humerus with an allograft-resurfacing composite.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, P; Mavrogenis, A F; Guerra, G; Mercuri, M

    2011-08-01

    We retrospectively studied 14 patients with proximal and diaphyseal tumours and disappearing bone (Gorham's) disease of the humerus treated with wide resection and reconstruction using an allograft-resurfacing composite (ARC). There were ten women and four men, with a mean age of 35 years (8 to 69). At a mean follow-up of 25 months (10 to 89), two patients had a fracture of the allograft. In one of these it was revised with a similar ARC and in the other with an intercalary prosthesis. A further patient had an infection and a fracture of the allograft that was revised with a megaprosthesis. In all patients with an ARC, healing of the ARC-host bone interface was observed. One patient had failure of the locking mechanism of the total elbow replacement. The mean post-operative Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score for the upper extremity was 77% (46.7% to 86.7%), which represents good and excellent results; one patient had a poor result (46.7%). In the short term ARC effectively relieves pain and restores shoulder function in patients with wide resection of the proximal humerus. Fracture and infection remain significant complications.

  6. The effect of impaction and a bioceramic coating on bone ingrowth in porous titanium particles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Porous titanium (Ti) particles can be impacted like cancellous allograft bone particles, and may therefore be used as bone substitute in impaction grafting. We evaluated the effect of impaction and of a thin silicated biphasic calcium phosphate coating on osteoconduction by Ti particles. Methods The bone conduction chamber of Aspenberg was used in goats and filled with various groups of coated or uncoated small Ti particles (diameter 1.0–1.4 mm). Impacted allograft bone particles and empty chambers were used in control groups. Fluorochromes were administered at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Maximum bone ingrowth distance was evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. Results Histology of Ti particle graft cylinders showed a dense matrix with narrow inter-particle and intra-particle pores (< 100 μm), occluding the lumen of the bone chamber. Bone ingrowth distances gradually increased with time in all groups. Maximum bone ingrowth distance was higher in originally empty chambers than those with allograft bone particles (p = 0.01) and Ti particles (p < 0.001). Maximum bone ingrowth in allograft bone particles was higher than in all Ti groups (p ≤ 0.001). Impaction reduced osteoconduction and the coating partially compensated for the negative effect of impaction, but these differences were not statistically significant. No osteolytic reactions were found. Interpretation Osteoconduction in the bone conduction chamber was reduced more by the insertion of small Ti particles than by insertion of small allograft bone particles. The osteoconductive potential of porous Ti particles should be studied further with larger-sized particles, which may allow bone ingrowth after impaction through larger inter-particle pores. PMID:21504310

  7. [A preliminary report of two cases of human hand allograft].

    PubMed

    Pei, G; Gu, L; Yu, L

    2000-06-01

    To study the feasibility of reconstruction of amputation by hand allograft in human being. Two male recipients with traumatic right wrist amputation for 2 years, were matched respectively to two ABO- and Rh-compatible, HLA- half mpatible brain-dead donors. Direct crossmatch was performed to confirm the absence of prior sensitization to alloantigens. After amputation the donor's arm was irrigated with UW organ preservation solution at 4 degrees, and transported in a box with ice. One of the two donor arms was randomly selected and irradiated by 8 gy x-ray before transplantation. The transplantation involved radial and ulnar bone fixation, anastomoses of radial and ulnar artery, sutures of median and ulnar and radial nerves, joining of tendons except flexors digitorum superficialis, and skin closure. After surgery the patients were given wide-spectrum antibiotics, anticoagulation and antispasm agents, and immunosuppressants, which included antithymocyte globins, FK506, mycophenolic acid, prednisone systematically and fluocinolone acetonide ointment locally. Clinical observations included vital signs and circulation of the hands. Immune state was monitored by assaying C-reactive protein, Igs and PRA in the blood. Skin biopsy was done to exclude the dermal rejection. After the surgery the patients received psychotherapy and hand rehabilitation. The circulation of the transplanted hands was similar to that of replanted ones. One of the patients developed hyperglycaemia, which required insulin administration. The skin healed naturally. The nerve regeneration were found more rapid by Tinel's sign. At 7 weeks erythema papulatum occurred on the skin, which was cured by withdrawing of fluocinolone acetonide ointment and application of calamine lotion. At 4 months the function of grafted hands recovered well, which could hold a drinking cup. The nerves had grown to the end of fingers and electromyograph showed regenerative action potentials of thenal muscles. Skin biopsy

  8. Minimizing the risk of chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Weir, Matthew R; Wali, Ravinder K

    2009-04-27

    Chronic allograft nephropathy, now defined as interstital fibrosis and tubular atrophy not otherwise specified, is a near universal finding in transplant kidney biopsies by the end of the first decade posttransplantation. After excluding death with functioning graft, caused by cardiovascular disease or malignancy, chronic allograft nephropathy is the leading cause of graft failure. Original assumptions were that this was not a modifiable process but inexorable, likely due to past kidney injuries. However, newer understandings suggest that acute or subacute processes are involved, and with proper diagnosis, appropriate interventions can be instituted. Our method involved a review of the primary and secondary prevention trials in calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal. Some of the more important causes of progressive graft deterioration include subclinical cellular or humoral rejection, and chronic calcineurin inhibitor toxicity. Early graft biopsy, assessment of histology, and changes in immunosuppression may be some of the most important measures available to protect graft function. The avoidance of clinical inertia in pursuing subtle changes in graft function is critical. Modification in maintenance immunosuppression may benefit many patients with early evidence of graft deterioration.

  9. Urinary proteomic analysis of chronic allograft nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    O’Riordan, Edmond; Orlova, Tatyana N.; Mendelev, Natalia; Patschan, Daniel; Kemp, Rowena; Chander, Praveen N.; Hu, Rena; Hao, Gang; Gross, Steven S.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Delaney, Veronica; Goligorsky, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of progressive renal allograft injury, which is termed chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), remains obscure and is currently defined by histology. Prospective protocolbiopsy trials have demonstrated that clinical and standard laboratory tests are insufficiently sensitive indicators of the development and progression of CAN. The study aim was to determine if CAN could be characterized by urinary proteomic data and identify the proteins associated with disease. The urinary proteome of 75 renal transplant recipients and 20 healthy volunteers was analyzed using surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization MS. Patients could be classified into subgroups with normal histology and Banff CAN grades 2-3 with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 92% by applying the classification algorithm Adaboost to urinary proteomic data. Several urinary proteins associated with advanced CAN were identified including α1-micro-globulin, β2-micro-globulin, prealbumin, and endorepellin, the antiangiogenic C-terminal fragment of perlecan. Increased urinary endorepellin was confirmed by ELISA and increased tissue expression of the endorepellin/perlecan ratio by immunofluoresence analysis of renal biopsies. In conclusion, analysis of urinary proteomic data has further characterized the more severe CAN grades and identified urinary endorepellin, as a potential biomarker of advanced CAN. PMID:21136903

  10. Sterilization of skin allografts by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Bourroul, Selma Cecília; Herson, Marisa Roma; Pino, Eddy; Matho, Monica Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    The skin has a fundamental role in the viability of human body. In the case of extensive wounds, skin allografts provide an alternative to cover temporarily the damaged areas. After donor screening and preservation in glycerol 85%, the skin can be stored in a Skin Bank. Glycerol at this concentration has a bacteriostatic effect after certain time of preservation. On the other hand, skin sterilization by ionizing radiation may reduce the quarentine period for transplantation in patients. The objective of this work was to evaluate allograft sterilization using two sources of ionizing radiation. Through the analysis of stress-strain, it was intended to verify possible effects of the radiation on the structure of preserved grafts. Three groups of skin samples were selected. The first group was maintained in the initial conditions, not irradiated. The second was exposed to cobalt-60, while the third one was irradiated using an Dynamitron Accelerator JOB188 electron beam. The irradiation dose was 25 kGy for both tests. Both irradiation sources, and the Instron Universal Machine used for biomechanical experiments, are installed at the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiações/Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (São Paulo, Brazil). According to the preliminary results, biomechanical characteristics of the samples irradiated seem to be maintained with regard to the non irradiated group.

  11. Targeting Sirtuin-1 prolongs murine renal allograft survival and function.

    PubMed

    Levine, Matthew H; Wang, Zhonglin; Xiao, Haiyan; Jiao, Jing; Wang, Liqing; Bhatti, Tricia R; Hancock, Wayne W; Beier, Ulf H

    2016-05-01

    Current immunosuppressive medications used after transplantation have significant toxicities. Foxp3(+) T-regulatory cells can prevent allograft rejection without compromising protective host immunity. Interestingly, inhibiting the class III histone/protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 can augment Foxp3(+) T-regulatory suppressive function through increasing Foxp3 acetylation. Here we determined whether Sirtuin-1 targeting can stabilize biological allograft function. BALB/c kidney allografts were transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients with a CD4-conditional deletion of Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1(fl/fl)CD4(cre)) or mice treated with a Sirtuin-1-specific inhibitor (EX-527), and the native kidneys removed. Blood chemistries and hematocrit were followed weekly. Sirt1(fl/fl)CD4(cre) recipients showed markedly longer survival and improved kidney function. Sirt1(fl/fl)CD4(cre) recipients exhibited donor-specific tolerance, accepted BALB/c, but rejected third-party C3H cardiac allografts. C57BL/6 recipients of BALB/c renal allografts that were treated with EX-527 showed improved survival and renal function at 1, but not 10 mg/kg/day. Pharmacologic inhibition of Sirtuin-1 also improved renal allograft survival and function with dosing effects having relevance to outcome. Thus, inhibiting Sirtuin-1 can be a useful asset in controlling T-cell-mediated rejection. However, effects on non-T cells that could adversely affect allograft survival and function merit consideration.

  12. [The clinical use of cryopreserved human skin allografts for transplantation].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Flores, Francisco; Chacón-Gómez, María; Madinaveitia-Villanueva, Juan Antonio; Barrera-Lopez, Araceli; Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Querevalu-Murillo, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The biological recovery of human skin allografts is the gold standard for preservation in Skin Banks. However, there is no worldwide consensus about specific allocation criteria for preserved human skin allografts with living cells. A report is presented on the results of 5 years of experience of using human skin allografts in burned patient in the Skin and Tissue Bank at the "Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion" The human skin allografts were obtained from multi-organ donors. processed and preserved at -80 °C for 12 months. Allocation criteria were performed according to blood type match, clinical history, and burned body surface. Up to now, the Skin and Tissue Bank at 'Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion" has processed and recovered 125,000 cm(2) of human skin allografts. It has performed 34 surgical implants on 21 burned patients. The average of burn body surface was 59.2%. More than two-thirds (67.7%) of recipients of skin allografts were matched of the same to type blood of the donor, and 66.6% survived after 126 days hospital stay. It is proposed to consider recipient's blood group as allocation criteria to assign tissue; and use human skin allografts on patiens affected with burns over 30% of body surface (according the "rule of the 9"). Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of traumatic tibial diaphyseal bone defect by “induced-membrane technique”

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gaurav; Ahmad, Sohail; Mohd. Zahid; Khan, A H; Sherwani, M K A; Khan, Abdul Qayyum

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gap nonunion of long bones is a challenging problem, due to the limitation of conventional reconstructive techniques more so if associated with infection and soft tissue defect. Treatment options such as autograft with non-vascularized fibula and cancellous bone graft, vascularized bone graft, and bone transportation are highly demanding on the part of surgeons and hospital setups and have many drawbacks. This study aims to analyze the outcome of patients with wide diaphyseal bone gap treated with induced-membrane technique (Masquelet technique). Materials and Methods: This study included 9 patients (7 males and 2 females), all with tibial bone-gap. Eight of the 9 patients were infected and in 3 patients there was associated large soft tissue defect requiring flap cover. This technique is two-stage procedure. Stage I surgery included debridement, fracture stabilization, application of spacer between bone ends, and soft tissue reconstruction. Stage II surgery included removal of spacer with preservation of induced membrane formed at spacer surface and filling the bone-gap with morselized iliac crest bone-graft within the membrane sleeve. Average bone-gap of 5.2 cm was treated. The spacer was always found to be encapsulated by a thick glistening membrane which did not collapse after its removal. All patients were followed up for an average period of 21.5 months. Results: Serial Radiographs showed regular uptake of autograft and thus consolidation within themselves in the region of bone gap and also with host bone. Bone-union was documented in all patients and all patients are walking full weight-bearing without support. Conclusions: The study highlights that the technique provide effective and practical management for difficult gap nonunion. It does not require specialized equipment, investigations, and surgery. Thus, it provides a reasonable alternative to the developing infrastructures and is a reliable and reproducible technique. PMID:27293290

  14. Teriparatide Therapy Enhances Devitalized Femoral Allograft Osseointegration and Biomechanics in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, David G.; Takahata, Masahiko; Lerner, Amy L.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Schwarz, Edward M.; Awad, Hani A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the remarkable healing potential of long bone fractures, traumatic injuries that result in critical defects require challenging reconstructive limb sparing surgery. While devitalized allografts are the gold standard for these procedures, they are prone to failure due to their limited osseointegration with the host. Thus, the quest for adjuvants to enhance allograft healing remains a priority for this unmet clinical need. To address this, we investigated the effects of daily systemic injections of 40 µg/kg teriparatide (recombinant human parathyroid hormone) on the healing of devitalized allografts used to reconstruct critical femoral defects (4 mm) in C57Bl/6 mice. The femurs were evaluated at 4 and 6 weeks using micro CT, histology, and torsion testing. Our findings demonstrated that teriparatide induced prolonged cartilage formation at the graft-host junction at 4 weeks, which led to enhanced trabeculated bone callus formation and remarkable graft-host integration at 6-weeks. Moreover, we observed a significant 2-fold increase in normalized callus volume (1.04 ± 0.3 vs. 0.54 ± 0.14 mm3/mm; p<0.005), and Union Ratio (0.28 ± 0.07 vs. 0.13 ± 0.09; p<0.005), compared to saline treated controls at 6-weeks. Teriparatide treatment significantly increased the torsional rigidity (585±408 versus 1175±311 N.mm2) and yield torque (6.8±5.5 versus 10.5±4.2 N.mm) compared to controls. Interestingly, the Union Ratio correlated significantly with the yield torque and torsional rigidity (R2=0.59 and R2=0.77, p<0.001, respectively). These results illustrate the remarkable potential of teriparatide as an adjuvant therapy for allograft repair in a mouse model of massive femoral defect reconstruction, and warrant further investigation in a larger animal model at longer time intervals to justify future clinical trials for PTH therapy in limb sparing reconstructive procedures. PMID:20950720

  15. Hamstring autograft versus soft-tissue allograft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Mascarenhas, Randy; Saccomanno, Maristella F; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Bach, Bernard R

    2014-12-01

    To compare outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with hamstring autograft versus soft-tissue allograft by systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic review of randomized controlled studies comparing hamstring autograft with soft-tissue allograft in ACL reconstruction was performed. Studies were identified by strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Descriptive statistics were reported. Where possible, the data were pooled and a meta-analysis was performed using RevMan software (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark). Dichotomous data were reported as risk ratios, whereas continuous data were reported as standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was assessed by use of I(2) for each meta-analysis. Study methodologic quality was analyzed with the Modified Coleman Methodology Score and Jadad scale. Five studies with 504 combined patients (251 autograft and 253 allograft; 374 male and 130 female patients) with a mean age of 29.9 ± 2.2 years were included. The allografts used were fresh-frozen hamstring, irradiated hamstring, mixture of fresh-frozen and cryopreserved hamstring, fresh-frozen tibialis anterior, and fresh-frozen Achilles tendon grafts without bone blocks. The mean follow-up period was 47.4 ± 26.9 months, with a mean follow-up rate of 83.3% ± 8.6%. Two studies found a longer operative time with autograft than with allograft (77.1 ± 2.0 minutes v 59.9 ± 0.9 minutes, P = .008). Meta-analysis showed no statistically significant differences between autografts and allografts for any outcome measures (P > .05 for all tests). One study found significantly greater laxity for irradiated allograft than for autograft. The methodologic quality of the 5 studies was poor, with a mean Modified Coleman Methodology Score of 54.4 ± 6.9 and mean Jadad score of 1.6 ± 1.5. On the basis of this systematic review and meta-analysis of 5 randomized controlled trials, there is

  16. Harvest of cortico-cancellous intramedullary femoral bone graft using the Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator (RIA).

    PubMed

    Masquelet, A-C; Benko, P E; Mathevon, H; Hannouche, D; Obert, L

    2012-04-01

    The "Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator" (RIA) is a device that provides continuous irrigation and aspiration during intramedullary reaming of long bones. The RIA system is first used to collect the reaming material from medullary cavities, a thick paste of finely morselized osseous particles containing significantly elevated levels of stem cells and growth factors as reported by quantitative analyses. The volume of bone graft material available from an adult femur corresponds to the amount of cancellous bone graft obtained from both the anterior and posterior iliac crests. The assembly and technicalities of the RIA system require a training period to prevent any femoral fracture, which appears to be the major RIA-related complication. The elective indications for RIA bone grafting are filling of bone defects in the epiphyseal and metaphyseal regions. Diaphyseal defects may also be managed using the RIA system provided the graft is placed in a constrained system (induced membrane) to prevent dispersion of the graft into the surrounding soft tissues and is aerated with a porous material to promote its revascularization. Other RIA indications include debriding intramedullary infections and reaming for intramedullary nailing of long bone fractures to reduce the risk of fat embolization.

  17. The use of bone grafts and bone graft substitutes in pediatric orthopaedics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gross, Richard H

    2012-01-01

    Bone graft substitutes have become progressively more widely used, and are currently heavily marketed. To make intelligent decisions, a complete knowledge of autograaft and allograft bone healing is essential, including the definition of "sterile". Differences in donor selection and tissue processing may confound the user not familiar with the implications of these different approaches. Specific products include demineralized bone matrix (DBM), specific growth factors (recombinant BMP's), ceramic grafts, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). There are a number of useful applications of bone graft substitues for pediatric orthopaedists, but the data base is evolving. This paper describes the current status of these products.

  18. Adenovirus Interstitial Nephritis and Rejection in an Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Storsley, Leroy

    2011-01-01

    Viral infections are an important complication of solid organ transplantation. Although polyoma is the virus that most commonly infects the renal allograft, adenoviral infections are also reported. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings in a patient with adenoviral infection associated with acute rejection of the renal allograft. The pathologic findings of adenovirus infection usually include a granulomatous interstitial nephritis, which is helpful in distinguishing from acute rejection. We discuss the differential diagnosis and pathophysiology of allograft viral infections and concomitant rejection. PMID:21436288

  19. Effect of extraction protocols and epidermal growth factor on the cellular repopulation of decellularized anterior cruciate ligament allografts.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert D; Gratzer, Paul F

    2005-12-15

    We are developing a decellularized bone-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-bone allograft for treatment of ACL disruption in young or active patients. This study demonstrates the feasibility of seeding decellularized ACL tissue with primary ligament fibroblasts. Porcine ACLs were decellularized by one of three protocols, each differing only by the detergent/solvent used during the second wash (SDS, Triton-X, or TnBP). Porcine ACL fibroblasts were obtained by explant and seeded onto tissue samples of decellularized ACL. Culture conditions were varied to compare the relative effect of three different decellularization protocols on cellular repopulation. Culture condition variables included (1) the number of cells used for seeding, (2) the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and (3) culture duration. Cellular ingrowth was assessed by metabolic activity (MTT assay), DNA quantification (Hoescht dye), and histology (H&E staining). Cell counting on histological sections demonstrated that Triton-X-and TnBP-treated ligaments were more receptive to cellular ingrowth than SDS-treated samples. The addition of EGF to culture medium did not significantly increase cellular ingrowth. Both the Triton-X and TnBP decellularization treatments provide suitable, naturally derived scaffolds for the ingrowth of primary ACL fibroblasts, and should be further investigated in the development of an allograft-derived bone-ACL-bone graft.

  20. Foxp3-expressing sensitized Teff cells prolong survival of corneal allograft in corneal allograft transplantation mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Zhaohui; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jing; Wang, Dajiang; Chen, Guoling; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Han

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether Foxp3-expressing sensitized Teff cells could inhibit allograft rejection in corneal allograft transplantation mouse model. Foxp3-expressing sensitized Teff cells were constructed by transfection of retroviral expression plasmid expressing Foxp3 into the sensi-Teff cells from a Balb/c mouse immunized by C57BL/6(H2b) mouse splenocytes. Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: Four groups received tail vein injection of Foxp3-expressing sensitized Teff cells, or Foxp3-expressing Teff cells, or Treg cells or no intervention 1 day prior to corneal allograft transplantation. C57BL/6(H2b) was the donor mouse. The last group received corneal autograft transplantation. Corneal allograft survival time and percentage of CD4(+) T cells were detected. ELISPOT and Footpad swelling test were used to measure IL-2 and IFN-γ, and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, respectively. Mice that had received an injection of Foxp3-expressing sensitized T cells prior to an allograft corneal transplantation, showed significantly longer survival time of corneal allograft, decreased percentage of CD4(+) T cells, IL-2 and IFN-γ, and alleviated footpad swelling than the mice that had received either Foxp3-Teff or Treg cells. Foxp3-sensi-Teff cell treatment that prolongs corneal allograft survival in the mouse model, might partly through suppressing CD4(+) T cells, IL-2 and IFN-γ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Allelic and Epitopic Characterization of Intra-Kidney Allograft Anti-HLA Antibodies at Allograft Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Milongo, D; Kamar, N; Del Bello, A; Guilbeau-Frugier, C; Sallusto, F; Esposito, L; Dörr, G; Blancher, A; Congy-Jolivet, N

    2017-02-01

    The reasons for the increased incidence of de novo anti-human leukocyte antibody (HLA) donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) observed after kidney allograft nephrectomy are not fully understood. One advocated mechanism suggests that at graft loss, DSAs are not detected in the serum because they are fixed on the nonfunctional transplant; removal of the kidney allows DSAs to then appear in the blood circulation. The aim of our study was to compare anti-HLA antibodies present in the serum and in the graft at the time of an allograft nephrectomy. Using solid-phase assays, anti-HLA antibodies were searched for in the sera of 17 kidney transplant patients undergoing allograft nephrectomy. No anti-HLA antibodies were detected in the graft if they were not also detected in the serum. Eleven of the 12 patients who had DSAs detected in their sera also had DSAs detected in the grafts. Epitopic analysis revealed that most anti-HLA antibodies detected in removed grafts were directed against the donor. In summary, our data show that all anti-HLA antibodies that were detected in grafts were also detected in the sera. These intragraft anti-HLA antibodies are mostly directed against the donor at an epitopic level but not always at an antigenic level.

  2. [Hand allografts: experience from Lyon team].

    PubMed

    Gazarian, A; Abrahamyan, D-O; Petruzzo, P; Kanitakis, J; Guigal, V; Garret, J; Rizzo, C; Durand, P-Y; Fredenucci, J-F; Streichenberger, T; Parmentier, H; Galewicz, T; Guillot, M; Sirigu, A; Burloux, G; Morelon, E; Braye, F; Badet, L; Martin, X; Dubernard, J-M; Eljaafari, A

    2007-10-01

    Hand allograft is a method in the stage of clinical experimentation, which is reserved in France for the treatment of bilateral traumatic amputees. This study reports the Lyon team experience, which is pioneer in this domain. Four patients (3 males and 1 female) underwent seven (one unilateral and three bilateral) hand transplantations from September 1998 to February 2007. The level of amputation was at the wrist or at the mid-forearm. Delay since hand loss ranged from 2.5 to 9 years. The surgical protocol was elaborated and planned case by case. All recipients received the same immunosuppressive treatment. Episodes of acute rejection were observed in the first 3 months after transplantation, which were easily managed after a few days increasing oral prednisone doses and applying topical immunosuppressants. Currently the patients receive the doses of immunosuppressants comparable to those in kidney-grafted patients. We have not registered any severe complication of immunosuppressive treatment up till now (7 years follow-up for the earliest graft). We performed analytical and functional clinical, as well as questionnaire evaluation of patients. The first case (unilateral graft) resulted in graft failure at 2 years due to non-compliance of the patient. The three bilateral graftees demonstrate a favorable evolution despite some immunological (hyperglycemia, serum sickness) and surgical (thrombosis, osteomyelitis, skin loss) complications, which could be managed. The middle and long-term follow-up evaluation revealed good to excellent sensorimotor recovery of 4 hands in both male recipients (4 and 7 years) with satisfactory social adaptation, higher or equal to those expected after post-traumatic replantations at the equivalent level and higher to those obtained with currently available myoelectric prosthesis. The last patient, a young female who has been grafted in February 2007, receives ongoing reeducation course and shows normal progress of functional restoration

  3. BMP-2/ACS/allograft for combined maxillary alveolar split/sinus floor grafting with and without simultaneous dental implant placement: report of 21 implants placed into 7 alveolar split sites followed for up to 3 years.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ole T; Kuhlke, K Lee; Leopardi, Aldo; Adams, Mark W; Ringeman, Jason L

    2014-01-01

    This report presents seven patients who were treated with combined alveolar split/sinus grafting technique and dental implants and followed for 1 to 3 years. The grafting material included bone morphogenetic protein-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge plus allograft. The procedure was successful in all patients, who received implants either simultaneously with grafting or 4 to 6 months after grafting.

  4. Dysplasia Epiphysealis Hemimelica Treated with Osteochondral Allograft: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Chris A.; Wolf, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH), or Trevor's disease, is a developmental disorder of the pediatric skeleton characterized by asymmetric osteochondral overgrowth. Methods We present the case of a five year old boy with a two year history of right knee pain and evidence of DEH on imaging who underwent initial arthroscopic resection of his lesion with subsequent recurrence. The patient then underwent osteochondral allograft revision surgery and was asymptomatic at two year follow-up with a congruent joint surface. Results To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a DEH lesion treated with osteochondral allograft and also the youngest reported case of osteochondral allograft placement in the literature. Conclusions Osteochondral allograft may be a viable option in DEH and other deformities of the pediatric knee. Level of Evidence Level V PMID:26361443

  5. Ultraviolet irradiated corneal allografts include antigen scientific unresponsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Niederkorn, J.Y. )

    1991-03-15

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the immunogenicity of corneal allografts was examined in a mouse model. BALB/c corneal allografts were exposed to 200 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB irradiation immediately prior to heterotopic transplantation of C57BL/6 recipients. Analysis of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses revealed profound impairment of both forms of cell-mediated immunity. Mice grafted with UVB irradiated corneal grafts 7 days prior to immunization with nonirradiated, immunogenic corneal grafts failed to mount either allospecific CTL or DTH responses. Suppression of DTH responses was cyclophosphamide sensitive; C57BL/6 hosts treated with cyclophosphamide one day prior to receiving UVB irradiated corneal grafts developed normal DTH responses. Allospecific suppression could be transferred to naive recipients using spleen cells from host grafted with UV irradiated corneal allografts. The results indicated that UVB irradiation not only rendered corneal allografts nonimmunogenic but also tolerogenic.

  6. Multifocal bacterial osteomyelitis in a renal allograft recipient following urosepsis.

    PubMed

    Valson, A T; David, V G; Balaji, V; John, G T

    2014-05-01

    Non-tubercular bacterial osteomyelitis is a rare infection. We report on a renal allograft recipient with osteomyelitis complicating urosepsis, manifesting as a multifocal infection poorly responsive to appropriate antibiotics and surgical intervention and culminating in graft loss.

  7. Allorecognition by T Lymphocytes and Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Jose; Paster, Joshua; Benichou, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of donor antigens by recipient T cells in secondary lymphoid organs initiates the adaptive inflammatory immune response leading to the rejection of allogeneic transplants. Allospecific T cells become activated through interaction of their T cell receptors with intact allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on donor cells (direct pathway) and/or donor peptides presented by self-MHC molecules on recipient antigen-presenting cells (APCs) (indirect pathway). In addition, recent studies show that alloreactive T cells can also be stimulated through recognition of allogeneic MHC molecules displayed on recipient APCs (MHC cross-dressing) after their transfer via cell–cell contact or through extracellular vesicles (semi-direct pathway). The specific allorecognition pathway used by T cells is dictated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors to the allograft and can influence the nature and magnitude of the alloresponse and rejection process. Consequently, various organs and tissues such as skin, cornea, and solid organ transplants are recognized differently by pro-inflammatory T cells through these distinct pathways, which may explain why these grafts are rejected in a different fashion. On the other hand, the mechanisms by which anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells (Tregs) recognize alloantigen and promote transplantation tolerance are still unclear. It is likely that thymic Tregs are activated through indirect allorecognition, while peripheral Tregs recognize alloantigens in a direct fashion. As we gain insights into the mechanisms underlying allorecognition by pro-inflammatory and Treg cells, novel strategies are being designed to prevent allograft rejection in the absence of ongoing immunosuppressive drug treatment in patients. PMID:28018349

  8. Bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Sandro; Buda, Roberto; Grigolo, Brunella; Bevoni, Roberto; Di Caprio, Francesco; Ruffilli, Alberto; Cavallo, Marco; Desando, Giovanna; Vannini, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Severe post-traumatic ankle arthritis poses a reconstructive challenge in the young and active patient. Bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft (BFOA) may represent an intriguing alternative to arthrodesis and prosthetic replacement. The aim of this study was to describe a lateral trans-malleolar technique for BFOA, and to evaluate the results in a case series. From 2004 to 2006, 32 patients, mean age of 36.8 +/- 8.4 years, affected by ankle arthritis underwent BFOA with a mean followup of 31.2 months. The graft was prepared by specifically designed jigs, including the talus and the tibia with the medial malleolus. The host surfaces were prepared by the same jigs through a lateral approach. The graft was placed and fixed with twist-off screws. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically at 2, 4, and 6 month after operation, and at a minimum 24 months followup. A biopsy of the grafted areas was obtained from 7 patients at 1-year followup for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Preoperative AOFAS score was 33.1 +/- 10.9 and postoperatively 69.5 +/- 19.4 (p < 0.0005). Six failures occurred. Cartilage harvests showed hyaline-like histology with a normal collagen component but low proteoglycan presence and a disorganized structure. Samples were positive for MMP-1, MMP-13 and Capsase-3. The use of BFOA represents an intriguing alternative to arthrodesis or arthroplasty. We believe precise allograft sizing, stable fitting and fixation and delayed weightbearing were key factors for a successful outcome. Further research regarding the immunological behavior of transplanted cartilage is needed.

  9. A minimum of 10-year follow-up of the Burch-Schneider cage and bulk allografts for the revision of pelvic discontinuity.

    PubMed

    Regis, Dario; Sandri, Andrea; Bonetti, Ingrid; Bortolami, Oscar; Bartolozzi, Pietro

    2012-06-01

    Eighteen consecutive hips with pelvic discontinuity and associated periprosthetic bone deficiency were treated with bulk allografts and Burch-Schneider antiprotrusio cage. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed at an average of 13.5 (range, 10.5-16.6) years. Three cages required re-revision because of infection (1) and aseptic loosening (2). Average Harris hip score improved from 31.9 to 77.0 points (P < .001). A severe resorption of the bone graft occurred in 2 hips. The stability of the cage was detected in 13 cases. The cumulative survival rate at 16.6 years with acetabular revision for any reason, radiographic loosening, or unhealing of the discontinuity as the end point was 72.2%. The use of Burch-Schneider cage and bulk allografts is an effective technique for the treatment of pelvic discontinuity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tuberculosis in a renal allograft: a successful outcome.

    PubMed

    George, Pratish; Pawar, Basant; Calton, Nalini

    2008-09-01

    Tuberculosis is endemic in most South-East Asian countries including India. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients and often, it is not diagnosed early, due to its innocuous clinical presentations. A high index of suspicion and proactive management in the early phase of presentation can reduce allograft nephropathy, graft nephrectomy and mortality. A patient with an unusual presentation of tuberculosis localized to the allograft and successful management with anti-tuberculosis medications is described.

  11. Deceased donor skin allograft banking: Response and utilization

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Madhuri A.; De, Anuradha S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the absence of xenograft and biosynthetic skin substitutes, deceased donor skin allografts is a feasible option for saving life of patient with extensive burn injury in our country. Aims: The first deceased donor skin allograft bank in India became functional at Lokmanya Tilak Municipal (LTM) medical college and hospital on 24th April 2000. The response of Indian society to this new concept of skin donation after death and the pattern of utilization of banked allografts from 2000 to 2010 has been presented in this study. Settings and Design: This allograft skin bank was established by the department of surgery. The departments of surgery and microbiology share the responsibility of smooth functioning of the bank. Materials and Methods: The response in terms of number of donations and the profile of donors was analyzed from records. Pattern and outcome of allograft utilization was studied from specially designed forms. Results: During these ten years, 262 deceased donor skin allograft donations were received. The response showed significant improvement after counselling was extended to the community. Majority of the donors were above 70 years of age and procurement was done at home for most. Skin allografts from 249 donors were used for 165 patients in ten years. The outcome was encouraging with seven deaths in 151 recipients with burn injuries. Conclusions: Our experience shows that the Indian society is ready to accept the concept of skin donation after death. Use of skin allografts is life saving for large burns. We need to prepare guidelines for the establishment of more skin banks in the country. PMID:21321645

  12. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on osteoarticular allografts.

    PubMed

    Hazan, E J; Hornicek, F J; Tomford, W; Gebhardt, M C; Mankin, H J

    2001-04-01

    Two hundred lower extremity osteoarticular allografts (in 200 patients) performed for aggressive or malignant bone tumors between 1976 and 1997 included 124 grafts of the distal femur, 46 of the proximal tibia, and 30 of the proximal femur. Seventy-four patients did not receive chemotherapy, and 126 received either adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy. The diagnoses, mean ages, and length of followup were different for the two groups because most of the patients in the chemotherapy group had osteosarcoma, whereas the largest number in the control group had chondrosarcoma or parosteal osteosarcoma. The extent of the surgery was essentially the same for both patient groups, as is reflected by a low recurrence rate (7% for the control and 6% for the chemotherapy group). A statistical comparison of the various parameters showed that the infection, fracture, and amputation rates were the same, but the nonunion rate was markedly increased in the patients who received chemotherapy (32% versus 12%). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier studies showed that chemotherapy had a significant effect on outcome, with the success rates for the two groups being quite different (72% versus 56%). The results for the distal femur showed a greater effect than for either the proximal tibia or the proximal femur. Analysis of these data suggest the distal femur is perhaps the most prone to healing problems, possibly based in part on the extent of the surgery. A final study supports the concept that the results improved in later years, suggesting a modification or application of the drugs used, better selection of patients, and improvements in surgical technique.

  13. Utility of sentinel flaps in assessing facial allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Kueckelhaus, Maximilian; Fischer, Sebastian; Lian, Christine G; Bueno, Ericka M; Marty, Francisco M; Tullius, Stefan G; Pribaz, Julian J; Murphy, George J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsies are critical for histologic evaluation of rejection and proper treatment after facial allotransplantation. Many facial allografts provide only limited skin area, and frequent biopsies may also compromise aesthetic outcome. Sentinel flaps, recovered as free fasciocutaneous radial forearm flaps, have been used for remote-site rejection monitoring. They maintain their axial blood supply, similar to facial allografts. The correlation between facial allografts and sentinel flaps in cases of rejection is presented. The authors analyzed the experience of the Boston team's use of four sentinel flaps. Rejection was evaluated and results were compared for each time point. Sentinel flaps were used as functional flaps whenever possible. Results showed a reliable correlation between biopsy specimens taken from the facial allograft and sentinel flaps. During severe rejection episodes in 100 percent of biopsy pairs, both sites displayed a similar grade of rejection. In one case, clinical findings suggested rejection in the facial allograft but were unraveled as rosacea, because clinically there was no rejection displayed in the sentinel flap. The sentinel flap shows a reliable correlation to the facial allograft in cases of severe rejection, therefore providing a valuable tool for rejection monitoring in facial allotransplantation. Advantages of using these flaps include the avoidance of further surgical procedures to the primary vascularized composite allotransplant, additional use of the sentinel flap to repair damaged nonfacial sites, and its utility as both a clinical and histopathologic barometer of rejection and predictor of the potential existence of facial dermatitis unrelated to rejection. Therapeutic, IV.

  14. Primary integumentary allograft reactivity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    George, J F; Howcroft, T K; Karp, R D

    1987-04-01

    Previous reports have failed to demonstrate integumentary allograft rejection in insects. We realized however, that these studies may not have fully appreciated the structure of the insect exoskeleton. Since the subcuticlar epidermal layer constitutes the only living tissue associated with insect integument, its destruction would indicate that the animal recognized and responded to the foreign tissue. Thus, we investigated allograft reactivity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, by observing the fate of the epidermal portion of the integument. Each animal in a pair received a 3 X 4-mm integumentary allograft from its partner, as well as a 3 X 4-mm control autograft. The transplants were then examined histologically for signs of epidermal destruction at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10-70 days (in 10-day increments) posttransplantation. The results indicated that significant rejection of the allografts began by day 3, with peak reactivity occurring by day 7 when 92% of the grafts were scored as rejected. At later periods (greater than 20 days), the graft sites showed signs of repopulation by host epidermal cells. The allograft reaction was found to lag behind the xenograft reaction, which showed peak activity after only 1 day posttransplantation. Even so, allograft rejection in this insect occurred quite rapidly (as compared with some other invertebrates), and would appear to be due to a cytotoxic reaction against the epidermal layer.

  15. Ex Situ Perfusion of Human Limb Allografts for 24 Hours.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole L; Alghanem, Fares; Rakestraw, Stephanie L; Sarver, Dylan C; Nicely, Bruce; Pietroski, Richard E; Lange, Paul; Rudich, Steven M; Mendias, Christopher L; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Magee, John C; Bartlett, Robert H; Ozer, Kagan

    2017-03-01

    Vascularized composite allografts, particularly hand and forearm, have limited ischemic tolerance after procurement. In bilateral hand transplantations, this demands a 2 team approach and expedited transfer of the allograft, limiting the recovery to a small geographic area. Ex situ perfusion may be an alternative allograft preservation method to extend allograft survival time. This is a short report of 5 human limbs maintained for 24 hours with ex situ perfusion. Upper limbs were procured from brain-dead organ donors. Following recovery, the brachial artery was cannulated and flushed with 10 000 U of heparin. The limb was then attached to a custom-made, near-normothermic (30-33°C) ex situ perfusion system composed of a pump, reservoir, and oxygenator. Perfusate was plasma-based with a hemoglobin concentration of 4 to 6 g/dL. Average warm ischemia time was 76 minutes. Perfusion was maintained at an average systolic pressure of 93 ± 2 mm Hg, flow 310 ± 20 mL/min, and vascular resistance 153 ± 16 mm Hg/L per minute. Average oxygen consumption was 1.1 ± 0.2 mL/kg per minute. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation continually displayed contraction until the end of perfusion, and histology showed no myocyte injury. Human limb allografts appeared viable after 24 hours of near-normothermic ex situ perfusion. Although these results are early and need validation with transplantation, this technology has promise for extending allograft storage times.

  16. Bone Grafting: Sourcing, Timing, Strategies, and Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Egol, Kenneth A; Nauth, Aaron; Lee, Mark; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Watson, J Tracy; Borrelli, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Acute fractures, nonunions, and nonunions with bone defects or osteomyelitis often need bone graft to facilitate union. There are several factors to consider when it is determined that a bone graft is needed. These factors include the source of the bone graft (autograft vs. allograft), proper timing for placement of the bone graft, strategies to avoid further complications (particularly in the setting of osteomyelitis), and with the development of a variety of bone graft substitutes, whether alternatives to autograft are available and appropriate for the task at hand. Autograft bone has commonly been referred to as the "gold standard" of bone grafts, against which the efficacy of other grafts has been measured. The best timing for when to place a bone graft or substitute is also somewhat controversial, particularly after an open fracture or a potentially contaminated bed. The treatment of infected nonunions, particularly those that require a graft to facilitate healing, can be quite challenging. Typically, the infection is completely eradicated before placement of a bone graft, but achieving a sterile bed and the timing of a bone graft require strategic thinking and planning. This review outlines the benefits of autografts, the most suitable sites for harvesting bone grafts, the timing of bone graft procedures, the potential risks and benefits of grafting in the face of infection, and the currently available bone graft extenders.

  17. Biomechanical and histological comparison between the cryopreserved and the lyophilized Gracilis tendon allograft for MPFL reconstruction, a cadaveric experimental study.

    PubMed

    Negrín, Roberto; Duboy, Jaime; Olavarría, Fernando; Wainer, Mauricio; Jimenez, Horacio; Las Heras, Facundo; Reyes, Nicolas; Godoy, Hugo

    2016-12-01

    Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is the main restrictor of lateral shifting of the patella, contributing by 60 % in the first 20° flexion of the knee. MPFL reconstruction has been performed in order to restore the stability of the patella with good results.Lyophilized Gracilis tendon allograft (LGA) compared to Cryopreserved Gracilis tendon allograft (CGA) has a lower cost, does not require to maintain cooling chain or preparation. The purpose of this study is to compare the histological and biomechanical characteristics of an experimental model of reconstruction of the MPFL in porcine patellas with LGA versus CGA. Randomized controlled experimental study in porcine model conducted on 36 porcine patellas in which 18 were intervened with LGA and 18 were intervened with CGA. The confluent tunnel technique was used for MPFL reconstruction. Maximum tensile force, allograft elongation and stiffness of the construct were measured. The cellularity and collagen tissue distribution were evaluated in the allografts. The histological and biomechanical characteristics of the LGA were compared to those of the CGA. The median of the maximum tensile force for the LGA group was 299.63 N and 280.86 N for the CGA group (p = 0.45). The median of the stiffness was 57.86 N/mm for the LGA and 54.23 N/mm for the CGA (p = 0.2). The median of the elongation for the LGA was 5.95 mm and 6.12 mm for the CGA (p = 0,29). The bone bridge failed in 88.88 % of the constructs with LGA and 94.44 % in those with CGA (p = 0.5). No differences were observed between the LGA group and the CGA group in maximum tensile force, elongation, stiffness, site of rupture and histological characteristics. The use of a lyophilized Gracilis tendon allograft for MPFL reconstruction confers the same histological and biomechanical characteristics as a cryopreserved Gracilis tendon allograft.

  18. Depletion of CD8 Memory T Cells for Induction of Tolerance of a Previously Transplanted Kidney Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, I.; Nadazdin, O.; Boskovic, S.; Ochiai, T.; Smith, R. N.; Sykes, M.; Sogawa, H.; Murakami, T.; Strom, T. B.; Colvin, R. B.; Sachs, D. H.; Benichou, G.; Cosimi, A. B.; Kawai, T.

    2013-01-01

    Heterologous immunologic memory has been considered a potent barrier to tolerance induction in primates. Induction of such tolerance for a previously transplanted organ may be more difficult, because specific memory cells can be induced and activated by a transplanted organ. In the current study, we attempted to induce tolerance to a previously transplanted kidney allograft in nonhuman primates. The conditioning regimen consisted of low dose total body irradiation, thymic irradiation, antithymocyte globulin, and anti- CD154 antibody followed by a brief course of a calcineurin inhibitor. This regimen had been shown to induce mixed chimerism and allograft tolerance when kidney transplantation (KTx) and donor bone marrow transplantation (DBMT) were simultaneously performed. However, the same regimen failed to induce mixed chimerism when delayed DBMT was performed after KTx. We found that significant levels of memory T cells remained after conditioning, despite effective depletion of naïve T cells. By adding humanized anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody (cM-T807), CD8 memory T cells were effectively depleted and these recipients successfully achieved mixed chimerism and tolerance. The current studies provide ‘proof of principle’ that the mixed chimerism approach can induce renal allograft tolerance, even late after organ transplantation if memory T-cell function is adequately controlled. PMID:17286617

  19. Alefacept promotes immunosuppression-free renal allograft survival in nonhuman primates via depletion of recipient memory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soyoung; Yamada, Yohei; Tonsho, Makoto; Boskovic, Svjetlan; Nadazdin, Ognjenka; Schoenfeld, David; Cappetta, Kate; Atif, Muhammad; Smith, Rex-Neal; Cosimi, A. Benedict; Benichou, Gilles; Kawai, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Renal allograft tolerance has been achieved in MHC-mismatched primates via nonmyeloablative conditioning beginning 6 days prior to planned kidney and donor bone marrow (DBM) transplantation. To extend the applicability of this approach to deceased donor transplantation, we recently developed a novel conditioning regimen, the “delayed protocol” in which DBM is transplanted several months after kidney transplantation. However, activation/expansion of donor-reactive CD8+ memory T cells (TMEM) occurring during the interval between kidney and DBM transplantation impaired tolerance induction using this strategy. In the current study, we tested whether, Alefacept, a fusion protein which targets LFA-3/CD2 interactions and selectively depletes CD2highCD8+ effector memory T cells (TEM) could similarly induce long-term immunosuppression-free renal allograft survival but avoid the deleterious effects of anti-CD8 mAb treatment. We found that Alefacept significantly delayed the expansion of CD2high cells including CD8+ TEM while sparing naïve CD8+ T and NK cells and achieved mixed chimerism and long-term immunosuppression-free renal allograft survival. In conclusion, elimination of CD2high T cells represents a promising approach to prevent electively the expansion/activation of donor-reactive TEM and promotes tolerance induction via the delayed protocol mixed chimerism approach. PMID:24165326

  20. Surgical repair of hip abductors. A new technique using Graft Jacket allograft acellular human dermal matrix.

    PubMed

    Rao, Biyyam M; Kamal, Tamer T; Vafaye, John; Taylor, Lee

    2012-10-01

    Avulsion of the abductors from the hip can be an infrequent but debilitating complication after total hip arthroplasty performed through a trans-gluteal approach. This can result in intractable pain, limp, Trendelenberg lurch and instability of the hip. There have been various methods described for repairing or reconstruction of this abductor muscle complex including direct trans-osseous repair, muscle transfers, muscle and tendon sling, bone tendon allograft reconstruction and endoscopic repair techniques. In a prospective study at our institution we evaluated the results of a surgical technique in 12 patients using a trans-osseous repair of gluteus medius and minimus insertions augmented by a Graft Jacket allograft acellular human dermal matrix (Graft Jacket; Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN) over the anterior and anterolateral aspects of the greater trochanter. Diagnosis of hip abductor avulsions was made by evaluation of the history of presenting complaint, clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasound or MRI scans. Evaluation of results included pain scoring, gait evaluation, Trendelenberg test, and the Harris hip score. There was a significant improvement in pain (VAS mean values 8.25 to 2.33; p value < 0.0001), limp and gait along with abductor strength. The Trendelenberg test became negative in all but one. At the mean follow up of 22 months Harris hip scores improved from 34.05 to 81.26 (p value <0.0001). Overall this procedure appears to be safe and associated with high patient satisfaction, without the morbidity of any tendon or muscle transfers.

  1. Resident tissue-specific mesenchymal progenitor cells contribute to fibrogenesis in human lung allografts.

    PubMed

    Walker, Natalie; Badri, Linda; Wettlaufer, Scott; Flint, Andrew; Sajjan, Uma; Krebsbach, Paul H; Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G; Peters-Golden, Marc; Lama, Vibha N

    2011-06-01

    Fibrotic obliteration of the small airways leading to progressive airflow obstruction, termed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), is the major cause of poor outcomes after lung transplantation. We recently demonstrated that a donor-derived population of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of human lung transplant recipients. Herein, we study the organ specificity of these cells and investigate the role of local mesenchymal progenitors in fibrogenesis after lung transplantation. We demonstrate that human lung allograft-derived MSCs uniquely express embryonic lung mesenchyme-associated transcription factors with a 35,000-fold higher expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor forkhead box (FOXF1) noted in lung compared with bone marrow MSCs. Fibrotic differentiation of MSCs isolated from normal lung allografts was noted in the presence of profibrotic mediators associated with BOS, including transforming growth factor-β and IL-13. MSCs isolated from patients with BOS demonstrated increased expression of α-SMA and collagen I when compared with non-BOS controls, consistent with a stable in vivo fibrotic phenotype. FOXF1 mRNA expression in the BAL cell pellet correlated with the number of MSCs in the BAL fluid, and myofibroblasts present in the fibrotic lesions expressed FOXF1 by in situ hybridization. These data suggest a key role for local tissue-specific, organ-resident, mesenchymal precursors in the fibrogenic processes in human adult lungs. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Segmental pancreatic allograft survival in baboons treated with combined irradiation and cyclosporine: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Louw, G.; Zuurmond, T.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; van der Merwe, E.A.

    1985-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of cyclosporine (CS) alone, total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone, and CS in combination with total body irradiation (TBI) in suppressing segmental pancreatic allograft rejection in totally pancreatectomized outbred chacma baboons. The administration of CS 25 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/ kg/day resulted in mean graft survival of 21.5 days and 24.5 days, respectively. CS 85 mg/kg/day resulted in median graft survival of 9 days. There was a wide daily fluctuation of CS serum trough levels exhibited between primates receiving the same oral dose. TBI in excess of 300 rads resulted in irreversible bone marrow suppression. Modest results were achieved in recipients of TBI-76 rads (38 x 2 rads), with median graft survival of 21 days, results not different from recipients treated with CS. TLI recipients of 600 rads (150 x 4 rads) resulted in median pancreatic graft survival of 16 days. TBI together with oral CS administration exhibited no synergistic or additive effect and a single peroperative donor-specific blood transfusion did not enhance pancreatic allograft survival in this model. However, of 10 primates receiving TBI 100 rads (50 x 2 rads) and CS 25 mg/kg/day administered orally indefinitely, four remained normoglycemic for more than 60 days. TBI 100 rads (50 x 2 rads) together with oral and parenteral CS resulted in necrotizing enterocolitis in four of six recipients.

  3. Osteochondral allograft transplantation in cartilage repair: Graft storage paradigm, translational models, and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Bugbee, William D; Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L; Görtz, Simon; Amiel, David; Sah, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of articular cartilage injury and disease has become an increasingly relevant part of orthopaedic care. Articular cartilage transplantation, in the form of osteochondral allografting, is one of the most established techniques for restoration of articular cartilage. Our research efforts over the last two decades have supported the transformation of this procedure from experimental "niche" status to a cornerstone of orthopaedic practice. In this Kappa Delta paper, we describe our translational and clinical science contributions to this transformation: (1) to enhance the ability of tissue banks to process and deliver viable tissue to surgeons and patients, (2) to improve the biological understanding of in vivo cartilage and bone remodeling following osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation in an animal model system, (3) to define effective surgical techniques and pitfalls, and (4) to identify and clarify clinical indications and outcomes. The combination of coordinated basic and clinical studies is part of our continuing comprehensive academic OCA transplant program. Taken together, the results have led to the current standards for OCA processing and storage prior to implantation and also novel observations and mechanisms of the biological and clinical behavior of OCA transplants in vivo. Thus, OCA transplantation is now a successful and increasingly available treatment for patients with disabling osteoarticular cartilage pathology.

  4. [One-stage bone grafting combined with non-contact plate technique for treatment of post-traumatic femoral osteomyelitis and bone defects].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiuming; Xue, Yun; Deng, Yinshuan; Zhou, Shungang; Li, Meng; Shi, Peisheng

    2016-05-25

    Eight patients with femoral osteomyelitis were admitted in Lanzhou General Hospital of PLA between July 2012 and July 2015. During the operation the femur was fixed with non-contact locking plate after thorough debridement. Iliac morselized cancellous bones without cortical bone were filled in the bone defect after debridement. The locking plates were placed in the lateral subcutaneous interface superficial to the vastus lateralis muscle. Drainage tubes were routinely placed postoperatively. The surgery was completed successfully in all patients, and the average operation time was (130±10) min (120-150 min). Intravenous antibiotics were administrated for 2 weeks and followed by 4 week-oral antibiotics after the operation in all 8 cases. Drainage tubes remained in situ about 8 days. All patients were followed up for 12-48 months, with an average of (19±7) months. Postoperative X-ray examination showed bone union in 7 cases with an average healing time of (16±5) weeks. One patient failed with relapsed infection, and was later treated with Ilizarov apparatus after secondary debridement. No plate and screw fracture, loose and fixation failure were observed in all 8 cases.

  5. The Spleen is the Major Source of Anti-Donor Antibody Secreting Cells in Murine Heart Allograft Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Sicard, Antoine; Phares, Timothy W.; Yu, Hong; Fan, Ran; Baldwin, William M.; Fairchild, Robert L.; Valujskikh, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Antibody mediated allograft rejection is an increasingly recognized problem in clinical transplantation. However, the primary location of donor specific alloantibody (DSA) producing cells after transplantation have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to test the contribution of allospecific antibody secreting cells (ASCs) from different anatomical compartments in a mouse transplantation model. Fully MHC-mismatched heart allografts were transplanted into three groups of recipients: non-sensitized wild type, alloantigen-sensitized wild type and CCR5−/− mice that have exaggerated alloantibody responses. We found that previous sensitization to donor alloantigens resulted in the development of anti-donor alloantibody (alloAb) with accelerated kinetics. Nevertheless, the numbers of alloantibody secreting cells and the serum titers of anti-donor IgG alloantibody were equivalent in sensitized and non-sensitized recipients six weeks after transplantation. Regardless of recipient sensitization status, the spleen contained higher numbers of donor-reactive ASCs than bone marrow at days 7–21 after transplantation. Furthermore, individual spleen ASCs produced more anti-donor IgG alloantibody than bone marrow ASCs. Taken together, our results indicate that the spleen rather than bone marrow is the major source of donor-reactive alloAb early after transplantation in both sensitized and non-sensitized recipients. PMID:22420367

  6. Acetabular Reconstruction with the Burch-Schneider Antiprotrusio Cage and Bulk Allografts: Minimum 10-Year Follow-Up Results

    PubMed Central

    Sandri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of severe pelvic bone loss is a challenging problem in hip revision surgery. Between January 1992 and December 2000, 97 hips with periprosthetic osteolysis underwent acetabular revision using bulk allografts and the Burch-Schneider antiprotrusio cage (APC). Twenty-nine patients (32 implants) died for unrelated causes without additional surgery. Sixty-five hips were available for clinical and radiographic assessment at an average follow-up of 14.6 years (range, 10.0 to 18.9 years). There were 16 male and 49 female patients, aged from 29 to 83 (median, 60 years), with Paprosky IIIA (27 cases) and IIIB (38 cases) acetabular bone defects. Nine cages required rerevision because of infection (3), aseptic loosening (5), and flange breakage (1). The average Harris hip score improved from 33.1 points preoperatively to 75.6 points at follow-up (P < 0.001). Radiographically, graft incorporation and cage stability were detected in 48 and 52 hips, respectively. The cumulative survival rates at 18.9 years with removal for any reason or X-ray migration of the cage and aseptic or radiographic loosening as the end points were 80.0% and 84.6%, respectively. The use of the Burch-Schneider APC and massive allografts is an effective technique for the reconstructive treatment of extensive acetabular bone loss with long-lasting survival. PMID:24967339

  7. Effects of Local Administration of Boric Acid on Posterolateral Spinal Fusion with Autogenous Bone Grafting in a Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Kömürcü, Erkam; Özyalvaçlı, Gülzade; Kaymaz, Burak; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Göksel, Ferdi; Cevizci, Sibel; Adam, Gürhan; Ozden, Raif

    2015-09-01

    Spinal fusion is among the most frequently applied spinal surgical procedures. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the local administration of boric acid (BA) improves spinal fusion in an experimental spinal fusion model in rats. Currently, there is no published data that evaluates the possible positive effects if the local administration of BA on posterolateral spinal fusion. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four independent groups: no material was added at the fusion area for group 1; an autogenous morselized corticocancellous bone graft was used for group 2; an autogenous morselized corticocancellous bone graft with boric acid (8.7 mg/kg) for group 3; and only boric acid was placed into the fusion area for group 4. The L4-L6 spinal segments were collected at week 6, and the assessments included radiography, manual palpation, and histomorphometry. A statistically significant difference was determined between the groups with regard to the mean histopathological scores (p = 0.002), and a paired comparison was made with the Mann-Whitney U test to detect the group/groups from which the difference originated. It was determined that only the graft + BA practice increased the histopathological score significantly with regard to the control group (p = 0.002). Whereas, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of the manual assessment of fusion and radiographic analysis (respectively p = 0.328 and p = 0.196). This preliminary study suggests that BA may clearly be useful as a therapeutic agent in spinal fusion. However, further research is required to show the most effective dosage of BA on spinal fusion, and should indicate whether BA effects spinal fusion in the human body.

  8. Comparison of contamination of femoral heads and pre-processed bone chips during hip revision arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mathijssen, N M C; Sturm, P D; Pilot, P; Bloem, R M; Buma, P; Petit, P L; Schreurs, B W

    2013-12-01

    With bone impaction grafting, cancellous bone chips made from allograft femoral heads are impacted in a bone defect, which introduces an additional source of infection. The potential benefit of the use of pre-processed bone chips was investigated by comparing the bacterial contamination of bone chips prepared intraoperatively with the bacterial contamination of pre-processed bone chips at different stages in the surgical procedure. To investigate baseline contamination of the bone grafts, specimens were collected during 88 procedures before actual use or preparation of the bone chips: in 44 procedures intraoperatively prepared chips were used (Group A) and in the other 44 procedures pre-processed bone chips were used (Group B). In 64 of these procedures (32 using locally prepared bone chips and 32 using pre-processed bone chips) specimens were also collected later in the procedure to investigate contamination after use and preparation of the bone chips. In total, 8 procedures had one or more positive specimen(s) (12.5 %). Contamination rates were not significantly different between bone chips prepared at the operating theatre and pre-processed bone chips. In conclusion, there was no difference in bacterial contamination between bone chips prepared from whole femoral heads in the operating room and pre-processed bone chips, and therefore, both types of bone allografts are comparable with respect to risk of infection.

  9. Suppression of chronic damage in renal allografts by Liver X receptor (LXR) activation relevant contribution of macrophage LXRα.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Eva; Popovic, Zoran; Bedke, Jens; Wang, Shijun; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Gretz, Norbert; Stettner, Paula; Teupser, Daniel; Thiery, Joachim; Porubsky, Stefan; Adams, Judith; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2011-07-01

    Liver X receptors (LXR)-α,β regulate intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and inhibit inflammatory gene expression. We studied the effects of the LXRα,β-agonist GW3965 on acute and chronic organ damage in the F344-LEW rat kidney transplantation model. In addition, to gain LXR isoform and cell-specific insights BALB/c kidneys were transplanted into mice with macrophage overexpression of LXRα (mLXRα-tg) and evaluated 7 and 42 days after transplantation. After 56 days GW3965 improved significantly function and morphology of rat kidney allografts by substantial reduction of mononuclear cell infiltrate and fibrosis; in vitro GW3965 reduced inflammatory activity of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and alloreactivity of T cells. Kidneys transplanted into mLXRα-tg mice were also protected from development of chronic allograft dysfunction. Similarly to GW3965-activated BMDMs, mLXRα-tg macrophages secreted significantly less monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β. Interestingly, 7 days after transplantation, when the total number of intragraft macrophages did not differ, evidently more arginase 1- and mannose receptor C type 1-positive cells were found in LXR rat and mice kidney allografts; in vitro both LXR activation by GW3965 and mLXRα overexpression accentuated the induction of alternative activation of BMDMs by IL-4/IL-13, suggesting an additional mechanism by LXRs to prevent graft damage. The results highlight the relevance of macrophage LXRα in allograft rejection and prevention of fibrosis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of autograft and freeze-dried allograft to enhance fixation of porous coated implants in the presence of interface gaps.

    PubMed

    Kienapfel, H; Sumner, D R; Turner, T M; Urban, R M; Galante, J O

    1992-05-01

    Autogenous cancellous bone and freeze-dried allogeneic cancellous bone were tested in a total of 41 adult male mongrel dogs. In each humerus, an implant with a commercially pure titanium fiber metal porous coating was placed in an overreamed cavity so that a uniform 3-mm gap was present between the implant and host cancellous bone. Graft material was placed in the gap of one humerus while the gap of the other humerus was left empty and served as a paired negative control. Histologically, both autograft and allograft appeared to aid repair of the defect, but quantitatively only autograft enhanced new bone formation within the defect. Treatment with autograft significantly increased the amount of bone ingrowth within the implants by nearly three-fold at 4 weeks and eight-fold at 8 weeks. The enhancing effect was recognizable as early as 2 weeks. The strength of fixation was increased by nearly seven-fold at 4 weeks and two-fold at 8 weeks in the autograft group, but this was only statistically significant at 4 weeks. Treatment with allograft did not enhance bone ingrowth at any time period, but had a small positive effect on strength of fixation at 4 weeks.

  11. Development of a Fresh Osteochondral Allograft Program Outside North America

    PubMed Central

    Tírico, Luís Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; de Rezende, Márcia Uchoa; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Bugbee, William Dick

    2015-01-01

    Objective To standardize and to develop a fresh osteochondral allograft protocol of procurement, processing and surgical utilization in Brazil. This study describes the steps recommended to make fresh osteochondral allografts a viable treatment option in a country without previous fresh allograft availability. Design The process involves regulatory process modification, developing and establishing procurement, and processing and surgical protocols. Results Legislation: Fresh osteochondral allografts were not feasible in Brazil until 2009 because the law prohibited preservation of fresh grafts at tissue banks. We approved an amendment that made it legal to preserve fresh grafts for 30 days from 2°C to 6°C in tissue banks. Procurement: We changed the protocol of procurement to decrease tissue contamination. All tissues were procured in an operating room. Processing: Processing of the grafts took place within 12 hours of tissue recovery. A serum-free culture media with antibiotics was developed to store the grafts. Surgeries: We have performed 8 fresh osteochondral allografts on 8 knees obtaining grafts from 5 donors. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 31.99 ± 13.4, improving to 81.26 ± 14.7 at an average of 24 months’ follow-up. Preoperative Knee Injury and Oseoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) score was 46.8 ± 20.9 and rose to 85.24 ± 13.9 after 24 months. Mean preoperative Merle D’Aubigne-Postel score was 8.75 ± 2.25 rising to 16.1 ± 2.59 at 24 months’ follow-up. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation in South America. We believe that this experience may be of value for physicians in countries that are trying to establish an osteochondral allograft transplant program. PMID:27375837

  12. Development of a Fresh Osteochondral Allograft Program Outside North America.

    PubMed

    Tírico, Luís Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; de Rezende, Márcia Uchoa; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Bugbee, William Dick

    2016-07-01

    To standardize and to develop a fresh osteochondral allograft protocol of procurement, processing and surgical utilization in Brazil. This study describes the steps recommended to make fresh osteochondral allografts a viable treatment option in a country without previous fresh allograft availability. The process involves regulatory process modification, developing and establishing procurement, and processing and surgical protocols. Legislation: Fresh osteochondral allografts were not feasible in Brazil until 2009 because the law prohibited preservation of fresh grafts at tissue banks. We approved an amendment that made it legal to preserve fresh grafts for 30 days from 2°C to 6°C in tissue banks. Procurement: We changed the protocol of procurement to decrease tissue contamination. All tissues were procured in an operating room. Processing: Processing of the grafts took place within 12 hours of tissue recovery. A serum-free culture media with antibiotics was developed to store the grafts. Surgeries: We have performed 8 fresh osteochondral allografts on 8 knees obtaining grafts from 5 donors. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 31.99 ± 13.4, improving to 81.26 ± 14.7 at an average of 24 months' follow-up. Preoperative Knee Injury and Oseoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) score was 46.8 ± 20.9 and rose to 85.24 ± 13.9 after 24 months. Mean preoperative Merle D'Aubigne-Postel score was 8.75 ± 2.25 rising to 16.1 ± 2.59 at 24 months' follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation in South America. We believe that this experience may be of value for physicians in countries that are trying to establish an osteochondral allograft transplant program.

  13. Methenamine silver staining quantitative digital histochemistry in chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Sarioglu, S; Celik, A; Sakar, M; Sonmez, D; Tekis, D

    2004-12-01

    Renal function and final outcome of renal allografts have been correlated with irreversible damage. This study describes a quantitative histochemical method relying on periodic acid methenamine silver (PAMS) staining of all renal compartments. Among 60 renal allograft biopsies from 43 patients, 15 biopsies showing pure chronic allograft nephropathy were selected to determine PAMS-stained area percentage (SAP), using image analysis with quantitative histochemistry. Of the 15 cases, 9 (60%) were grade I and 6 (40%) were grade II chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). The mean serum creatinine (sCr) value was 1.86 +/- 0.47 for allograft biopsies. The mean (+/-SD) SAP for the implantation biopsies was 10.58 +/- 1.87%, and for allograft biopsies 25.26 +/- 9.67 (P <.000). The serum creatinine (sCr) values for grade I versus II CAN were 1.63 +/- 0.24 versus 2.20 +/- 0.54 mg/dL, respectively (P=.019), and SAP values were 18.97 +/- 0.24 versus 34.7 +/- 5.89 (P=.003). There was a strong positive correlation between sCr values and SAP (P=.005; r=0.64). These findings show the PAMS approach to be a useful alternative method for reflecting damage in more than one compartment of the renal tissue. Also, the method can discriminated implantation and allograft biopsies as well as grade I and II CAN cases. The series is small for a multivariate analysis of the value of SAP measurements in PAMS-stained sections as a prognosticator, but the data support its use.

  14. Mechanical properties of radiation-sterilised human Bone-Tend