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Sample records for morus alba como

  1. New triterpenoids from Morus alba L. stem bark.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Two lupeol-type pentacyclic triterpenoids characterised as lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol-27-oic acid (moruslupenoic acid A) and lup-12, 20(29)-dien-3β-ol-26-oic acid (moruslupenoic acid B) and lanst-5, 24-dien-3β-yl acetate (moruslanosteryl acetate) along with the known triterpenoidal phytoconstituents α-amyrin acetate, β-amyrin-β-D-glucopyranoside and betulinic acid have been isolated from the stem bark of Morus alba L. (Moraceae). The structures of the isolated phytoconstituents were established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical means.

  2. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption.

  3. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties.

  4. Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important fish parasite that can result in significant losses in aquaculture. In order to find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of Morus alba, a traditional Chinese medicine, was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. The M. alba root bark w...

  5. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.

    PubMed

    Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity.

  6. Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morus alba is an important plant for sericulture and has a high medicinal value. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with antiparasitic activity were isolated from the root bark of M. alba by bioassay-guided fractionation. The chemical structures were determined by pectroscopic analys...

  7. Anti-dopaminergic effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Adhikrao V.; Nade, Vandana S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves on dopaminergic function. Materials and Methods: The effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves was evaluated on haloperidol and metoclopramide induced catalepsy, foot shock-induced aggression, amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior and phenobarbitone induced sleeping in mice. In each of these tests, the extract was administered in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before performing the test in mice. Further, the inhibitory effect of the extract on dopamine was studied using isolated rat vas deferens. Results: The extract produced significant dose dependent potentiation of haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and metoclopramide (20 mg/kg, i.p.) induced catalepsy in mice. The extract significantly reduced number of fights and increased latency to fights in foot shock-induced aggression; it also decreased amphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced stereotyped behavior in a dose dependent manner. The sleeping time induced by phenobarbitone (50 mg/kg, i.p.) too was prolonged. The extract inhibited contractions produced by dopamine on isolated rat vas deferens. Conclusion: The results suggest that the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. possesses antidopaminergic activity. Further neurochemical investigation can explore the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to antidopaminergic functions and help to establish the plant as an antipsychotic agent. PMID:20040961

  8. Effect of Morus alba L. (mulberry) leaves on anxiety in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, A.V.; Kawale, L.A.; Nade, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of a methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves in mice. Materials and Methods: The hole-board test, elevated plus-maze paradigm, open field test, and light/dark paradigm were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the methanolic extract of M. alba L. Morus alba extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min before the tests. Results: The results showed that the methanolic extract of M. alba significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the hole-board test. In the elevated plus-maze, the extract significantly increased the exploration of the open arm in similar way to that of diazepam. At a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. the extract significantly increased both the time spent in and the entries into the open arm by mice. Further, in the open field test, the extract significantly increased rearing, assisted rearing, and number of squares traversed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In the light/dark paradigm, the extract produced significant increase in time spent in the lighted box as compared to vehicle. The spontaneous locomotor activity count, measured using an actophotometer, was significantly decreased in animals pretreated with M. alba extract, indicating a remarkable sedative effect of the plant. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a methanolic extract of M. alba leaves may possess an anxiolytic effect. PMID:21264159

  9. Preventive effects of Morus alba L. anthocyanins on diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    PubMed Central

    SARIKAPHUTI, ARIYA; NARARATWANCHAI, THAMTHIWAT; HASHIGUCHI, TERUTO; ITO, TAKASHI; THAWORANUNTA, SITA; KIKUCHI, KIYOSHI; OYAMA, YOKO; MARUYAMA, IKURO; TANCHAROEN, SALUNYA

    2013-01-01

    The mulberry plant (Morus alba L.) contains abundant anthocyanins (ANCs), which are natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the ANC composition of Thai Morus alba L. fruits and to assess the effect of an ANC extract on blood glucose and insulin levels in male leptin receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The major components of the ANC extract were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. ZDF and lean rats were treated with 125 or 250 mg ANCs/kg body weight, or 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) twice daily for 5 weeks. Neither ANC dose had an effect on body weight. Following 5 weeks of treatment, glucose levels were observed to increase from 105.5±8.7 to 396.25±21 mg/dl (P<0.0001) in the CMC-treated ZDF rats; however, the glucose levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg ANCs (228.25±45 and 131.75±10 mg/dl, respectively; P<0.001 versus CMC). The administration of 250 mg/kg ANCs normalized glucose levels in the ZDF rats towards those of the lean littermates. Insulin levels were decreased significantly in the ZDF rats treated with CMC or 125 mg/kg ANCs (P<0.0001), but not in the rats treated with 250 mg/kg ANCs. Histologically, 250 mg/kg ANCs was observed to prevent islet degeneration compared with the islets in CMC-treated rats. This study, demonstrated that ANCs extracted from Morus alba L. were well tolerated and exhibited effective anti-diabetic properties in ZDF rats. ANCs represent a promising class of therapeutic compounds that may be useful in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24137248

  10. Six new record species of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting Morus alba in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Rui; Song, Zao-Qin; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    To determine the species of whiteflies occurring on mulberry, Morus alba L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in China, we collected samples in more than 87 sites in 16 provinces of China from 2008 to 2011. In total, 10 species, representing seven genera of the subfamily Aleyrodinae, were identified. Of these, six species are newly recorded on mulberry in China, namely, Aleuroclava ficicola Takahashi, Aleuroclava gordoniae (Takahashi), Aleurotrachelus camelliae (Kuwana), Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny), Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and Pealius machili Takahashi. Information on the taxonomy, distribution, and host plants of the whitefly species found on mulberry in China, along with a brief description and illustrations of each species are provided.

  11. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    PubMed

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-03-31

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis.

  12. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  13. Odisolane, a Novel Oxolane Derivative, and Antiangiogenic Constituents from the Fruits of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Park, Jun Yeon; Yu, Jae Sik; Lee, Sung Ok; Ryu, Ja-Young; Choi, Sang-Zin; Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba L., is known as an edible fruit and commonly used in Chinese medicines as a warming agent and as a sedative, tonic, laxative, odontalgic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and emetic. Systemic investigation of the chemical constituents of M. alba fruits led to the identification of a novel oxolane derivative, (R*)-2-((2S*,3R*)-tetrahydro-2-hydroxy-2-methylfuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (1), namely, odisolane, along with five known heterocyclic compounds (2-6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) data analysis. Compound 1 has a novel skeleton that consists of 8 carbon units with an oxolane ring, which until now has never been identified in natural products. The isolated compounds were subjected to several activity tests to verify their biological function. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 5 significantly inhibited cord formation in HUVECs. The action mechanism of compound 3, which had the strongest antiangiogenic activity, was mediated by decreasing VEGF, p-Akt, and p-ERK protein expression. These results suggest that compounds isolated from M. alba fruits might be beneficial in antiangiogenesis therapy for cancer treatment.

  14. New potential phytotherapeutics obtained from white mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Gryn-Rynko, Anna; Bazylak, Grzegorz; Olszewska-Slonina, Dorota

    2016-12-01

    The present work demonstrates the profound and unique phyto-pharmacological and nutritional profile of white mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves which containing considerable amounts of easy digestive proteins, carbohydrates, micro- and macronutrients, polyphenols, free amino acids, organic acids. The wide range of significant biopharmaceutical activities of the aqueous and polar organic solvents extracts from mulberry leaves - including antidiabetic, antibacterial, anticancer, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory - have been critically discussed. The main objective was to demonstrate the results of recently published study on the components of white mulberry leaves exhibiting their biological activity in the various pathological and health human ailments. In addition, we intend to drawn the attention of researchers and public health workers for the extended exploration of this deciduous plant leaves as the source of potential indigenous nutraceuticals and functional food products to enable development of alternative prevention and treatment protocols offered in therapy of the common non-communicable diseases and malignances.

  15. UV-B induced changes in the secondary metabolites of Morus alba L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xi-Da; Sun, Ming-Yao; Zhang, Lin; Fu, Hong-Wei; Cui, Lei; Chen, Run-Ze; Zhang, Da-Wei; Tian, Jing-Kui

    2010-04-27

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is harmful to plants and human beings. Many secondary metabolites, like flavonoids, alkaloids, and lignin, are UV-B absorbing compounds, which can protect the genetic material of plants. Furthermore, they are active components of herbal drugs. UV-B radiation can activate the self-protective secondary metabolism system. The results of this paper provide a method to induce bioactive secondary metabolites from mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) by UV-B irradiation in vitro. Five significantly different chromatographic peaks were found by HPLC fingerprint after induction, from which two active compounds were identified: One was chalcomoracin, a natural Diels-Alder type adduct with antibacterial activity; the other one was moracin N, which is a precursor of chalcomoracin. Their contents were 0.818 mg/g and 0.352 mg/g by dry weight, respectively.

  16. Effects of Applied Nitrogen Amounts on the Functional Components of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Mari; Takahashi, Makoto; Katsube, Takuya; Koyama, Akio; Itamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-21

    This study investigated the effects of applied nitrogen amounts on specific functional components in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves. The relationships between mineral elements and the functional components in mulberry leaves were examined using mulberry trees cultivated in different soil conditions in four cultured fields. Then, the relationships between the nitrogen levels and the leaf functional components were studied by culturing mulberry in plastic pots and experimental fields. In the common cultured fields, total nitrogen was negatively correlated with the chlorogenic acid content (R(2) = -0.48) and positively correlated with the 1-deoxynojirimycin content (R(2) = 0.60). Additionally, differences in nitrogen fertilizer application levels affected each functional component in mulberry leaves. For instance, with increased nitrogen levels, the chlorogenic acid and flavonol contents significantly decreased, but the 1-deoxynojirimycin content significantly increased. Selection of the optimal nitrogen application level is necessary to obtain the desired functional components from mulberry leaves.

  17. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) polyphenol enhanced extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  18. New methodologies for the extraction and fractionation of bioactive carbohydrates from mulberry (Morus alba) leaves.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, María L; Soria, Ana C

    2013-05-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was applied for the first time to extract bioactive low molecular weight carbohydrates (iminosugars and inositols) from mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaves. Under optimized conditions, PLE provided a similar yield to the conventional process used to extract these bioactives, but in less time (5 vs 90 min). To remove carbohydrates that interfere with the bioactivity of iminosugars from PLE extracts, two fractionation treatments were evaluated: yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) incubation and cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Both methods allowed complete removal of major soluble carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, galactose, and sucrose), without affecting the content of mulberry bioactives. As an advantage over CEC, the yeast treatment preserves bioactive inositols, and it is an affordable methodology that employs food grade solvents. This work found PLE followed by yeast treatment to be an easily scalable and automatable procedure that can be implemented in the food industry.

  19. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

  20. Industrial dust sulphate and its effects on biochemical and morphological characteristics of Morus (Morus alba) plant in NCR Delhi.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Kulshrestha, U C

    2015-03-01

    Abundance of CaCO3 rich soil dust is a typical feature of atmospheric environment in the Indian region. During prevailing dry weather conditions, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces of plant affecting their morphology, stomata and the levels of biochemical constituents. This study reports the chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of a medicinal plant (Morus alba) at two sites which are differentiated on the basis of landuse pattern, viz., (i) residential, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and (ii) industrial, Sahibabad (SB), located in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. Dustfall was characterized for major anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (--)) and cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(++) and Ca(++)). Biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, proline and ascorbic acid were determined in foliar samples. The results showed that the dustfall fluxes of all the major ions were found to be higher at the industrial site (SB) as compared to the residential site (JNU). Foliar analysis revealed that the levels of biochemical parameters were more affected at SB site due to higher levels of dust SO4 (--) contributed by various anthropogenic sources resulting in more stressful conditions affecting the biochemistry of the plant. The possible entry pathways for dust SO4 (--) into foliar cells are also discussed in the paper. It was noticed that the deposition of urban dust was responsible for the damage of trichome, epidermis, cuticle and stomatal guard cells significantly affecting foliar morphology. SB exhibited more damage to these morphological parts suggesting that industrial dust is harmful to the plants.

  1. Antiosteoporotic Effect of Combined Extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum

    PubMed Central

    Sungkamanee, Sudarat; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

    2014-01-01

    Due to the limitation of osteoporosis therapy, the alternative therapies from natural sources have been considered. In this study, we aimed to determine the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum leaves. Ovariectomized rats, weighing 200–220 g, were orally given the combined extract at doses of 5, 150, and 300 mg·kg−1 BW for 3 months. At the end of study, blood was collected to determine serum osteocalcin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase level. In addition, tibia bone was isolated to determine bone oxidative stress markers, cortical bone thickness, and density of osteoblast. The combined extract decreased oxidative stress and osteoclast density but increased osteoblast density and cortical thickness. The elevation of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin was also observed. These results suggested the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract via the increased growth formation together with the suppression of bone resorption. However, further studies concerning chronic toxicity and the underlying mechanism are required. PMID:25478061

  2. The nutritive value of mulberry leaves (Morus alba) as a feed supplement for sheep.

    PubMed

    Kandylis, K; Hadjigeorgiou, I; Harizanis, P

    2009-01-01

    A study to determine the nutritive value of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves in sheep diets was conducted. Mulberry leaves contained (g kg(-1) on dry matter basis): 163 ash, 201 crude protein, 120 crude fibre, 37 ether extracts, 479 nitrogen-free extracts, 268 neutral detergent fibre, 148 acid detergent fibre, 41 acid detergent lignin, 121 cellulose and 107 hemicellulose, while the in vitro true digestibility of dry matter was 89.8%. The nitrogen (N) solubility, determined using: a) McDougall's buffer, b) 0.02 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and c) 0.15 N sodium chloride (NaCl) as solvents, ranged from 11.6 to 14.9% of total N. In addition, the soluble non-protein nitrogen contributed a substantial part of total N (26.1%), the total true protein was 14.4% and the protein fractions evaluated after classical protein fractionation, were: albumins 11.1, globulins 9.7, prolamins 44.1, glutelins 8.5 and insoluble (or structural) proteins 26.6% of total N. In a digestibility trial, where mulberry leaves partially replaced lucerne hay and concentrates in wether sheep diets, there were no significant differences in dry matter, crude protein or crude fibre digestibility of the total diet. It was concluded that mulberry leaves have an appreciable potential as a protein source in sheep feeding.

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated transient MaFT expression in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Su-Li; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Liu, Li-Qun; Jiang, Tao; Wu, Hai; Su, Chao; Qian, Yong-Hua; Jiao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation assay in mulberry (Morus alba L.), various infiltration methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strains, and bacterial concentrations were tested in mulberry seedlings. Compared with LBA4404, GV3101 harboring pBE2133 plasmids presented stronger GUS signals at 3 days post infiltration using syringe. Recombinant plasmids pBE2133:GFP and pBE2133:GFP:MaFT were successfully constructed. Transient expression of MaFT:GFP protein was found in leaves, petiole (cross section), and shoot apical meristem (SAM) of mulberry according to the GFP signal. Moreover, MaFT:GFP mRNA was also detected in leaves and SAM via RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. An efficient transient transformation system could be achieved in mulberry seedlings by syringe using A. tumefaciens GV3101 at the OD600 of 0.5. The movement of MaFT expression from leaves to SAM might trigger the precocious flowering of mulberry.

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into mulberry dwarf responses in mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Ji, Xianling; Gai, Yingping; Zheng, Chengchao; Mu, Zhimei

    2009-12-01

    Mulberry dwarf (MD) is a serious infectious disease of mulberry caused by phytoplasma. Infection with MD phytoplasma results in stress phenotypes of yellowing, phyllody, stunting, proliferation, and witches' broom. Physiological and biochemical analysis has shown that infection with MD phytoplasma causes an increase in soluble carbohydrate and starch content, and a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, carboxylation efficiency, and pigment content of leaves. Furthermore, damage to the chloroplast ultrastructure was detected in infected leaves. To better understand the pathogen-stress response of mulberry (Morus alba L.) to MD phytoplasma, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis using 2-DE of infected and healthy leaves. Among 500 protein spots that were reproducibly detected, 20 were down-regulated and 17 were up-regulated. MS identified 16 differentially expressed proteins. The photosynthetic proteins rubisco large subunit, rubisco activase, and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase showed enhanced degradation in infected leaves. Based these results, a model for the occurrence mechanism of MD is proposed. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mulberry response to MD phytoplasma infection.

  5. Analysis and characterisation of phytochemicals in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits grown in Vojvodina, North Serbia.

    PubMed

    Natić, Maja M; Dabić, Dragana Č; Papetti, Adele; Fotirić Akšić, Milica M; Ognjanov, Vladislav; Ljubojević, Mirjana; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the polyphenolic profile of 11 Morus alba fruits grown in the Vojvodina region was investigated. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer, and UHPLC coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer were used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols, respectively. A total of 14 hydroxycinnamic acid esters, 13 flavonol glycosides, and 14 anthocyanins were identified in the extracts with different distributions and contents according to the sampling. The total phenolic content ranged from 43.84 to 326.29 mg GAE/100g frozen fruit. The radical scavenging capacity (50.18-86.79%), metal chelating ability (0.21-8.15%), ferric ion reducing power (0.03-38.45 μM ascorbic acid) and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (16.53-62.83%) were assessed. The findings indicated that mulberry polyphenolics may act as potent superoxide anion radical scavengers and reducing agents.

  6. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Autotetraploid and Diploid Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Dai, Fanwei; Wang, Zhenjiang; Luo, Guoqing; Tang, Cuiming

    2015-09-22

    Autopolyploid plants and their organs are often larger than their diploid counterparts, which makes them attractive to plant breeders. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is an important commercial woody plant in many tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we obtained a series of autotetraploid mulberry plants resulting from a colchicine treatment. To evaluate the effects of genome duplications in mulberry, we compared the phenotypes and transcriptomes of autotetraploid and diploid mulberry trees. In the autotetraploids, the height, breast-height diameter, leaf size, and fruit size were larger than those of diploids. Transcriptome data revealed that of 21,229 expressed genes only 609 (2.87%) were differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids. Among them, 30 genes were associated with the biosynthesis and signal transduction of plant hormones, including cytokinin, gibberellins, ethylene, and auxin. In addition, 41 differentially expressed genes were involved in photosynthesis. These results enhance our understanding of the variations that occur in mulberry autotetraploids and will benefit future breeding work.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking IκB-α degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3β. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

  8. Antiviral effects of mulberry (Morus alba) juice and its fractions on foodborne viral surrogates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Chung, Mi Sook

    2014-03-01

    Norovirus infection is a major cause of nonbacterial foodborne outbreaks worldwide, but no specific treatments are available yet. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of mulberry (Morus alba, Ma) juice and its fractions on murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9) as human norovirus surrogates using cytopathic effect inhibition, plaque reduction, and RNA expression assays. In time-of-addition experiments, Ma juice was found to be effective in reducing the infectivity of MNV-1 and FCV-F9 in the pre- and co-treatments. The effective concentration for 50% reduction was approximately 0.005% juice (relative to 100% natural juice) and 0.25% juice for MNV-1 and FCV-F9, respectively. Ma juice at 0.1% exhibited about 60% reduction of the MNV-1 polymerase gene expression, confirming the inhibition of viral replication. In an attempt to identify active components with antiviral activities, Ma-F1 (<3 kDa) and Ma-F2 (>3 kDa) were examined to show that Ma-F2 was more effective than Ma-F1 in all modes, except for pre-virus treatment. Nevertheless, two major polyphenolic compounds of Ma juice, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside, showed antiviral activity in the co-treatment mode. Our results suggest that Ma juice and its fractions may inhibit internalization and replication of MNV-1, whereas it may influence adherence or internalization of FCV-F9 virions. Ma juice may prove useful in the prevention of foodborne viral infection.

  9. Iron Oxide Impregnated Morus alba L. Fruit Peel for Biosorption of Co(II): Biosorption Properties and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298–328 K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

  10. Accumulation of Flavonoid Glycosides and UFGT Gene Expression in Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L.) before and after Frost.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Yiling; Fan, Jingyi; Wang, Dujun; Gong, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Zhen

    2017-03-09

    In order to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the influence of frost on chemical changes in mulberry leaves, the UFGT activity, expression level and accumulation of flavonoid glycosides in mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) were studied. The expression of UFGT gene was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the UFGT activity, accumulation of flavonoid glycosides were studied by high performance liquid chromatography. Then the correlation between the expression level of UFGT, the UFGT activity and the flavonoid glycosides accumulation, temperature was explored. The accumulation of isoquercitrin and astragalin is significantly positively correlated with UFGT gene expression and UFGT activity. On the contrary the average temperature was significantly negatively correlated with the level of UFGT gene expression and UFGT activity. The results show that after frost low temperature can induce the expression of UFGT gene in mulberry leaves, resulting in the accumulation of flavonoid glycosides. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways.

  12. EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII SPRENG. AND MORUS ALBA LINN. ON THE AGE OF ATTAINMENT OF PUBERTY AND OVARIAN FOLLICULOGENESIS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, M. S.; Veena, T.; Swamy, M. Narayana

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. (Curry leaf) and Morus alba Linn. (Mulberry leaf) on the age of attainment of puberty, relative ovary and uterus weight and the number of ovarian surface follicles in female Wistar albino rats. The rats were reared from 20 to 70 days of age in six groups consisting of eight rats in each group. Group I and II were orally administered with 0.5 ml distilled water and 0.5 ml 10% DMSO, respectively. Group III, IV, V and VI were orally administered with methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii at 500 mg/kg b.w. and 1000 mg/kg b.w. and methanolic extracts of Morus alba at 250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The significant advancement in the mean age of attainment of puberty was observed along with increase in number of surface follicles on both the ovaries in Group III, IV and VI. Whereas, the relative ovary weight was non significant (P>0.05) in all the treated groups, the relative uterus weight was significant (P<0.05) in Group IV and Group VI. These observations were attributed to the effects of phytoestrogens present in the methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. and Morus alba Linn PMID:24825989

  13. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management. PMID:27699065

  14. (Poly)phenolic fingerprint and chemometric analysis of white (Morus alba L.) and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry leaves by using a non-targeted UHPLC-MS approach.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Tassotti, Michele; Del Rio, Daniele; Hernández, Francisca; Martínez, Juan José; Mena, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    This study reports the (poly)phenolic fingerprinting and chemometric discrimination of leaves of eight mulberry clones from Morus alba and Morus nigra cultivated in Spain. UHPLC-MS(n) (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) high-throughput analysis allowed the tentative identification of a total of 31 compounds. The phenolic profile of mulberry leaf was characterized by the presence of a high number of flavonol derivatives, mainly glycosylated forms of quercetin and kaempferol. Caffeoylquinic acids, simple phenolic acids, and some organic acids were also detected. Seven compounds were identified for the first time in mulberry leaves. The chemometric analysis (cluster analysis and principal component analysis) of the chromatographic data allowed the characterization of the different mulberry clones and served to explain the great intraspecific variability in mulberry secondary metabolism. This screening of the complete phenolic profile of mulberry leaves can assist the increasing interest for purposes related to quality control, germplasm screening, and bioactivity evaluation.

  15. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of two novel regio-specific flavonoid prenyltransferases from Morus alba and Cudrania tricuspidata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruishan; Chen, Ridao; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Xiao; Xie, Kebo; Chen, Dawei; Yin, Yunze; Tao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jianhua; Yang, Lin; Dai, Jungui

    2014-12-26

    Prenylated flavonoids are attractive specialized metabolites with a wide range of biological activities and are distributed in several plant families. The prenylation catalyzed by prenyltransferases represents a Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the flavonoid skeleton in the biosynthesis of natural prenylated flavonoids and contributes to the structural diversity and biological activities of these compounds. To date, all identified plant flavonoid prenyltransferases (FPTs) have been identified in Leguminosae. In the present study two new FPTs, Morus alba isoliquiritigenin 3'-dimethylallyltransferase (MaIDT) and Cudrania tricuspidata isoliquiritigenin 3'-dimethylallyltransferase (CtIDT), were identified from moraceous plants M. alba and C. tricuspidata, respectively. MaIDT and CtIDT shared low levels of homology with the leguminous FPTs. MaIDT and CtIDT are predicted to be membrane-bound proteins with predicted transit peptides, seven transmembrane regions, and conserved functional domains that are similar to other homogentisate prenyltransferases. Recombinant MaIDT and CtIDT were able to regioselectively introduce dimethylallyl diphosphate into the A ring of three flavonoids with different skeleton types (chalcones, isoflavones, and flavones). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MaIDT and CtIDT are distantly related to their homologs in Leguminosae, which suggests that FPTs in Moraceae and Leguminosae might have evolved independently. MaIDT and CtIDT represent the first two non-Leguminosae FPTs to be identified in plants and could thus lead to the identification of additional evolutionarily varied FPTs in other non-Leguminosae plants and could elucidate the biosyntheses of prenylated flavonoids in various plants. Furthermore, MaIDT and CtIDT might be used for regiospecific prenylation of flavonoids to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications due to their high efficiency and catalytic promiscuity.

  16. Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

    2014-06-12

    In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity.

  17. Schisandra chinensis and Morus alba Synergistically Inhibit In Vivo Thrombus Formation and Platelet Aggregation by Impairing the Glycoprotein VI Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Seung Hyung; Park, Sun Haeng

    2017-01-01

    Morus alba L. (MAL) extract has been used in traditional medicine for its cardioprotective and antiplatelet effects, while another herbal remedy, Schisandra chinensis (SCC), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We evaluated underlying cellular changes exerted by extracts of these plants on platelet function and effects of SCC + MAL on in vivo thrombus formation using AV shunt and tail thrombosis-length models in rats. In vitro platelet aggregation, granule secretion, and [Ca2+]i release assays were carried out. The activation of integrin αIIbβ3 and phosphorylation of downstream signaling molecules, including MAPK and Akt, were investigated using cytometry and immunoblotting, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate changes in platelet shape and HPLC analysis was carried out to identify the marker compounds in SCC + MAL mixture. In vivo thrombus weight and average length of tail thrombosis were significantly decreased by SCC + MAL. In vitro platelet aggregation, granule secretion, [Ca2+]i release, and integrin αIIbβ3 activation were notably inhibited. SCC + MAL markedly reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK pathway factors along with Akt. HPLC analysis identified four marker compounds: isoquercitrin, astragalin, schizandrol A, and gomisin A. The extracts exerted remarkable synergistic effects as natural antithrombotic and antiplatelet agent and a potent drug candidate for treating cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28194217

  18. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

  19. Morus alba Accumulates Reactive Oxygen Species to Initiate Apoptosis via FOXO-Caspase 3-Dependent Pathway in Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young Hwi; Bishayee, Kausik; Rahman, Ataur; Hong, Jae Seung; Lim, Soon-Sung; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba root extract (MARE) has been used to treat hyperglycaemic conditions in oriental medicine. Here, we studied whether MARE possesses a cytotoxic effect on neuroblastoma. To check the cytotoxicity generated by MARE was whether relatively higher against the cancer cells rather than normal cells, we chose a neuroblastoma cell line (B103) and a normal cell line (Rat-2). A CCK assay revealed that MARE (10 μg/ml) reduced cell viability to approximately 60% compared to an untreated control in B103 cells. But in Rat-2 cells, MARE induced relatively lower cytotoxicity. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effect of MARE, we used flow cytometry combined with immunoblot analyses. We found that MARE-treatment could accumulate ROS and depolarize mitochondria membrane potential of B103 cells. Further treatment with MARE in B103 cells also could damage DNA and induce apoptosis. An expression study of p-Akt also suggested that there was a reduction in cellular proliferation and transcription along with the process of apoptosis, which was further evidenced by an increase in Bax and cleaved-caspase 3 activity. Together, our findings suggest that MARE produces more cytotoxicity in cancer cells while having a relatively attenuated effect on normal cells. As such, MARE may be a safer option in cancer therapeutics, and it also shows potential for the patients with symptoms of hyperglycemia and cancer. PMID:25921607

  20. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: β-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and β-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and β-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by β-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

  1. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA. PMID:26743028

  2. Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of an Ethanolic Extract from Leaves of Morus alba L. (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Alisson Macário; Mesquita, Matheus da Silva; da Silva, Gabriela Cavalcante; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; de Souza, Ivone Antônia; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluated an ethanolic extract from Morus alba leaves for toxicity to Artemia salina, oral toxicity to mice, and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenes in the extract, which did not show toxicity to A. salina nauplii. No mortality and behavioral alterations were detected for mice treated with the extract (300 and 2000 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days. However, animals that received the highest dose showed reduced MCV and MCHC as well as increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. In treatments with the extract at both 300 and 2000 mg/kg, there was a reduction in number of leukocytes, with decrease in percentage of lymphocytes and increase in proportion of segmented cells. Histopathological analysis of organs from mice treated with the extract at 2000 mg/kg revealed turgidity of contorted tubules in kidneys, presence of leukocyte infiltration around the liver centrilobular vein, and high dispersion of the spleen white pulp. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus flavus. In conclusion, the extract contains antimicrobial agents and was not lethal for mice when ingested; however, its use requires caution because it promoted biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations. PMID:26246840

  3. Preparation of the Branch Bark Ethanol Extract in Mulberry Morus alba, Its Antioxidation, and Antihyperglycemic Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Fang, Meng; Ma, Yong-Lei

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of the branch bark ethanol extract (BBEE) in the mulberry Morus alba L. were investigated. The determination of active component showed that the flavonoids, phenols, and saccharides are the major components of the ethanol extract. The BBEE had a good scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with around 100 μg/mL of IC50 value. In vitro assay revealed that the BBEE strongly inhibited both α-glucosidase and sucrase activities whose IC50 values were 8.0 and 0.24 μg/mL, respectively. The kinetic analysis showed that the BBEE as a kind of α-glucosidase inhibitor characterized a competitive inhibition activity. Furthermore, the carbohydrate tolerance of the normal mice was obviously enhanced at 0.5 h (P < 0.05) and 1.0 h (P < 0.05) after the BBEE intragastric administration as compared to negative control. At 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 h after the intragastric administration with starch, the postprandial hyperglycemia of the type 2 diabetic mice can be significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by supplying various concentrations of the BBEE (10–40 mg/kg body weight). Therefore, the BBEE could effectively inhibit the postprandial hyperglycemia as a novel α-glucosidase activity inhibitor for the diabetic therapy. PMID:24587809

  4. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA.

  5. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-08

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA.

  6. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: β-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and β-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and β-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by β-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol.

  7. Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Chuanhe; Han, Ziqiang

    2011-06-01

    Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. Mulberry fruit were immersed into 20, 60, and 80 mg/l ClO(2) solutions for 5, 10, and 15 min, respectively. Mulberries were then rinsed with potable tap water for 1 min and stored at -1°C for 14 d. ClO(2) treatment was effective in retention of flavonoid, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, and titratable acid. ClO(2) concentration and treatment time were significant factors affecting ClO(2) treatment. The shelf-life of the samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min was extended to 14 d compared to 8 d for the control. No ClO(2), ClO(2)(-), or ClO(3)(-) residues were detected in samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min. These results indicated that ClO(2) treatment was a promising approach to preserve mulberry fruit with no significant risks of chemical residues.

  8. The isolation and the characterization of two polysaccharides from the branch bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fan; He, Tian-Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-07-01

    Two water-soluble polysaccharides termed MBBP-1 and MBBP-2 were isolated from the branches of the mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) using hot water extraction and purified on Anion-exchange DEAE52-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column. MBBP-1 was shown to be composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 4.53:2.49:4.38:4.67:17.85:5.88. MBBP-2 was composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, galactose and galacturonic acid in the molar ratio of 26.85:13.8:3.14:4.4:6.1:3.19:4.9. Their structural characteristics were further investigated by FI-IR spectroscopy, Smith degradation, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. Based on the data obtained, MBBP-1 had a backbone mainly consisting of (1 → 3)-linked glucose. MBBP-2 had a backbone mainly consisting of (1 → 3)-linked rhamnose and (1 → 2, 4)-linked xylose. Antioxidant assays indicated that antioxidant activities of MBBP-2 were significantly stronger than those of MBBP-1, and this was likely in relation to the different content of 8.2 % galacturonic acid in MBBP-2.

  9. Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

    2013-12-01

    Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3'-O-β-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, "Yongcheon" showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas "Somok" had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the "Cheongil" mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods.

  10. White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila infection in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  11. Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

    2013-10-01

    Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future.

  12. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Species Dependency Governs Better Plant Physiological Characteristics and Leaf Quality of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Song-Mei; Chen, Ke; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Bei; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Xian-Zhi; Liu, Gui-Xi; Zhu, Li-Quan; He, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the synergic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its host mulberry (Morus alba L.), an important perennial multipurpose plant, has theoretical and practical significance in mulberry plantation, silkworm cultivation, and relevant textile industry. In a greenhouse study, we compared functional distinctions of three genetically different AMF species (Acaulospora scrobiculata, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices) on physiological and growth characteristics as well as leaf quality of 6-month-old mulberry seedlings. Results showed that mulberry was AMF-species dependent, and AMF colonization significantly increased shoot height and taproot length, stem base and taproot diameter, leaf and fibrous root numbers, and shoot and root biomass production. Meanwhile, leaf chlorophyll a or b and carotenoid concentrations, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were generally significantly greater, while intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly lower in AMF-inoculated seedlings than in non-AMF-inoculated counterparts. These trends were also generally true for leaf moisture, total nitrogen, all essential amino acids, histidine, proline, soluble protein, sugar, and fatty acid as they were significantly increased under mycorrhization. Among these three tested AMFs, significantly greater effects of AMF on above-mentioned mulberry physiological and growth characteristics ranked as F. mosseae > A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices, whilst on mulberry leaf quality (e.g., nutraceutical values) for better silkworm growth as F. mosseae ≈A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices. In conclusion, our results showed that greater mulberry biomass production, and nutritional quality varied with AMF species or was AMF-species dependent. Such improvements were mainly attributed to AMF-induced positive alterations of mulberry leaf photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and N

  13. Effect of increasing levels of white mulberry leaves (Morus alba) on ruminal dry matter degradability in lambs.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Chavira, Jaime; Castillo-Martínez, Omar; Ramirez-Bribiesca, J Efren; Mellado, Miguel

    2011-06-01

    A study was conducted to estimate dry matter (DM) degradability in the rumen of lambs offered a basal soybean meal and sorghum grain diet with three levels of white mulberry (WM) leaves (Morus alba). Diets consisted of 90% concentrate and 10% sorghum straw, which was incrementally replaced by WM leaves at 0% (control diet, T1), 2.5% (T2), and 5% (T3) of the total ration. Crude protein (CP) in WM was 21.8% (DM basis). Diets had equal CP (14% DM basis) and metabolizable energy (10.8 MJ/kg DM) content. Three non-castrated Pelibuey male lambs fitted with permanent rumen cannula were utilized in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of 10 days of adaptation followed by sampling. DM degradability was determined using the nylon bag technique. Bags contained the experimental diets offered in each period and were incubated in rumen in pairs for 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. The potential degradation was higher (P < 0.05) for T2, followed by T3 and T1. WM level did not influence the degradation rate or the effective degradation at the three passage rates modeled. It was concluded that WM forage may have useful application in feedlot diets for growing lambs, as this forage increases potential degradation of high-grain diets. The incorporation of WM in diets for feedlot lambs in tropics may reduce the use of expensive conventional protein supplements.

  14. Repeated ingestion of the leaf extract from Morus alba reduces insulin resistance in KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Sadako; Omagari, Katsuhisa; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of diet containing the leaf extract from a Morus alba (LEM) maintains the postprandial hypoglycemic response and suppresses the progression of insulin resistance in high-sucrose diet-fed KK-Ay mice with spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This hypothesis is based on our previous studies where LEM competitively inhibited intestinal disaccharidases and suppressed the elevation of postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels. Ten KK-Ay mice in each group were raised on 0%, 3%, or 6% LEM powder-containing high-sucrose diets for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels at weeks 2, 4, and 7 after the start of feeding. Urinary glucose excretion was monitored as a parameter of insulin resistance in 3-day intervals. Fasting plasma glucose level and urinary glucose excretion were significantly lower in both 3% and 6% LEM groups compared with the control group throughout the experiment. The plasma insulin of the 6% LEM group was significantly lower compared with the 3% LEM and control groups. Maintenance of low blood glucose and insulin delayed the onset time of urinary glucose excretion and were reflected by the ratio of additional LEM to sucrose in the diet. We observed the suppressive effects on the progression of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the repeated ingestion of the LEM-containing diet. Namely, repeated ingestion of the LEM-containing diet reduces insulin resistance and may delay the appearance of DM, especially type 2 DM. Therefore, daily intake of LEM may be suitable for the prevention of obesity and DM.

  15. Purification, characterization and immunomodulating activity of a pectic polysaccharide isolated from Korean mulberry fruit Oddi (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Sun; Synytsya, Andriy; Kim, Hyun Bok; Choi, Doo Jin; Lee, Seul; Lee, Jisun; Kim, Woo Jung; Jang, Seongjae; Park, Yong Il

    2013-11-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (JS-MP-1) was isolated and purified from the Korean mulberry fruits Oddi (Morus alba L.) by crushing the fresh fruits then performing ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The neutral monosaccharide composition of the purified JS-MP-1 was determined to be composed mainly of galactose (37.6%, in mole percent), arabinose (36.3%), and rhamnose (18.4%), while other major sugars such as glucose, xylose, mannose, and fucose were present as minor components. HPLC analysis revealed that JS-MP-1 contains both galacturonic acid (GalA) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) at approximately 4:1 in mole percent. Monosaccharide composition, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, biochemical analysis, and elemental analysis suggested that JS-MP-1 is an acidic heteropolysaccharide, most likely a rhamnoarabinogalacturonan type plant pectic polysaccharide, with an apparent molecular mass of 1600 kDa containing no, or if any, negligible level of sulfate esters and proteins. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that JS-MP-1 significantly stimulates murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells to release chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1α) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and to induce the expression of iNOS and COX-2, which are responsible for the production of NO and prostaglandin PGE2, respectively. These results suggest that the mulberry fruit-derived polysaccharide JS-MP-1 can act as a potent immunomodulator, and these observations may support the applicability of this polysaccharide as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant or the water extracts of the mulberry fruit as a beneficial health food.

  16. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Species Dependency Governs Better Plant Physiological Characteristics and Leaf Quality of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Shi, Song-Mei; Chen, Ke; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Bei; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Xian-Zhi; Liu, Gui-Xi; Zhu, Li-Quan; He, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the synergic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its host mulberry (Morus alba L.), an important perennial multipurpose plant, has theoretical and practical significance in mulberry plantation, silkworm cultivation, and relevant textile industry. In a greenhouse study, we compared functional distinctions of three genetically different AMF species (Acaulospora scrobiculata, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices) on physiological and growth characteristics as well as leaf quality of 6-month-old mulberry seedlings. Results showed that mulberry was AMF-species dependent, and AMF colonization significantly increased shoot height and taproot length, stem base and taproot diameter, leaf and fibrous root numbers, and shoot and root biomass production. Meanwhile, leaf chlorophyll a or b and carotenoid concentrations, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were generally significantly greater, while intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly lower in AMF-inoculated seedlings than in non-AMF-inoculated counterparts. These trends were also generally true for leaf moisture, total nitrogen, all essential amino acids, histidine, proline, soluble protein, sugar, and fatty acid as they were significantly increased under mycorrhization. Among these three tested AMFs, significantly greater effects of AMF on above-mentioned mulberry physiological and growth characteristics ranked as F. mosseae > A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices, whilst on mulberry leaf quality (e.g., nutraceutical values) for better silkworm growth as F. mosseae ≈A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices. In conclusion, our results showed that greater mulberry biomass production, and nutritional quality varied with AMF species or was AMF-species dependent. Such improvements were mainly attributed to AMF-induced positive alterations of mulberry leaf photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and N

  17. The Immunomodulatory Activity of Mori folium, the Leaf of Morus alba L., in RAW 264.7 Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Da Hye; Cheon, Ji Min; Choi, Eun-Ok; Jeong, Jin Woo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Sung Goo; Kim, Suhkmann; Hong, Su Hyun; Park, Cheol; Hwang, Hye-Jin; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunoregulatory elements have emerged as useful immunotherapeutic agents against cancer. In traditional medicine, Mori folium, the leaf of Morus alba L. (Moraceae), has been used for various medicinal purposes; however, the immunomodulatory effects have not been fully identified. We evaluated the immunoenhancing potential of water extract of Mori folium (WEMF) in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods RAW264.7 cells were treated with WEMF for 24 hours and cell viability was detected by an MTT method. Nitric oxide (NO) levels in the culture supernatants were assayed using Griess reagent. The productions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and immune-related cytokines was measured using ELISA detection kits. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Inducible NO synthase, COX-2, and cytokines were assayed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The effect of WEMF on phagocytic activity was measured using a Phagocytosis Assay Kit. Results WEMF significantly stimulated the production of NO and PGE2 as immune response parameters at noncytotoxic concentrations, which was associated with the increased expression of inducible NO synthase and COX-2. The release and expression of cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, were also significantly increased in response to treatment with WEMF. Moreover, WEMF promoted the macrophagic differentiation of RAW264.7 cells and the resulting phagocytosis activity. Conclusions WEMF has the potential to modulate the immune function by regulating immunological parameters. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and to support the use of WEMF as an immune stimulant. PMID:27722140

  18. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Sanggenon G, Isolated from the Root Bark of Morus alba, in Rats: Involvement of the Serotonergic System.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Yun Tai; Kim, In-Ho; Han, Daeseok

    2015-01-01

    The root bark of Morus alba is commonly used as an alternative medicine due to its numerous health benefits in humans. However, the antidepressant effects of various active components from M. alba have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine whether sanggenon G, an active compound isolated from the root bark of M. alba, exhibited antidepressant-like activity in rats subjected to forced swim test (FST)-induced depression. Acute treatment of rats with sanggenon G (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) significantly reduced immobility time and increased swimming time without any significant change in climbing. Rats treated with sanggenon G also exhibited a decrease in the limbic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the FST, as indicated by attenuation of the corticosterone response and decreased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). In addition, the antidepressant-like effects of sanggenon G were significantly inhibited by WAY100635 (1 mg/kg, i.p.; a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptor antagonist), but not SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.; a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist). Our findings suggested that the antidepressant-like effects of sanggenon G were mediated by an interaction with the serotonergic system. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of sanggenon G as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression.

  19. Isolation of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase gene from mulberry (Morus alba L.) and analysis of the function of this gene in plant development and stresses response.

    PubMed

    Pan, Gang; Lou, Chengfu

    2008-07-31

    Mulberry (Morus alba) is an important crop tree involved in sericulture and pharmaceuticals. To further understand the development and the environmental adaptability mechanism of mulberry, a cDNA of the gene MaACO1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase was isolated from mulberry. This was used to investigate stress-responsive expression in mulberry. Developmental expression of ACC oxidase in mulberry leaves and spatial expression in mulberry flowers were also investigated. Damage and low-temperature treatment promoted the expression of MaACO1 in mulberry. In leaves, expression of the MaACO1 gene increased in cotyledons and the lowest leaves with leaf development, but showed reduced levels in emerging leaves. In flowers, the pollinated stigma showed the highest expression level, followed by the unpollinated stigma, ovary, and immature flowers. These results suggest that high MaACO1 expression may be predominantly associated with tissue aging or senescence in mulberry.

  20. In vitro antileukaemic activity of extracts from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa [Michx] Elliott) and mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves against sensitive and multidrug resistant HL60 cells.

    PubMed

    Skupień, Katarzyna; Kostrzewa-Nowak, Dorota; Oszmiański, Jan; Tarasiuk, Jolanta

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine in vitro antileukaemic activities of extracts obtained from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa [Michx] Elliot) and mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves against promyelocytic HL60 cell line and its multidrug resistant sublines exhibiting two different MDR phenotypes: HL60/VINC (overexpressing P-glycoprotein) and HL60/DOX (overexpressing MRP1 protein). It was found that the extracts from chokeberry and mulberry leaves were active against the sensitive leukaemic cell line HL60 and retained the in vitro activity against multidrug resistant sublines (HL60/VINC and HL60/DOX). The values of resistance factor (RF) found for these extracts were very low lying in the range 1.2-1.6.

  1. Nonclinical Safety Assessment of Morus alba L. Fruits: Study of 90-D Toxicity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Genotoxicity in Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2016-05-01

    Morus alba L. is a traditional herb with a long history of consumption, both as an edible fruit and as medicine. However, its safety evaluation has not yet been established. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic oral toxicity and genotoxicity of M. alba L. fruits (MFE). The subchronic toxicity after daily oral administration of MFE at 0, 40, 200, and 1000 mg/kg for 90 d was examined in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. MFE administration did not lead to death, adverse effects, change in food and water consumption, and body weight gain. Significant toxic effects were not found within the parameters of organ weight, biochemical values, and hematological and urine analysis between the control and the MFE group. The genotoxicity of MFE was assayed by Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA102, and TA1535. No genotoxicity was found in all the tested strains. Thus in this study, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for MFE in 90 d repeated oral toxicity study in rats was determined to be greater than 1000 mg/kg regardless of gender. The results also suggested that MFE does not have a genotoxicity potential.

  2. Electrophysiological Responses and Reproductive Behavior of Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea Drury) are Influenced by Volatile Compounds from Its Mulberry Host (Morus alba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Zhong-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Hyphantria cunea (Drury) is an invasive pest of Morus alba L. in China. β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol among eleven electro-physiologically active leaf volatiles from M. alba have been reported to influence captures of Hyphantria cunea moths when added into sex pheromone traps. This study further investigated influences of volatile types and their dosages on the electro-physiological responses in the antennae of male and female moths, as well as on mating and oviposition behaviors. Females were, regardless of dosages, more sensitive to β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol in electro-physiological response tests than males. For males, a dose response was detected, i.e., a dosage of 10 μg and 100 μg of either chemical stimulated higher electric response in their antennae than 1 μg. Moth pairs either exposed respectively to a herbivore-induced M. alba volatile blend (HIPV), to a mechanically-damaged M. alba volatile blend (MDV), to β-ocimene, to cis-2-penten-1-ol, or to pentane as a control showed that pairs exposed to β-ocimene most likely mated, followed by HIPV blends and least by the other volatiles or the control. In contrast, β-ocimene induced about 70% of the female oviposition behaviors and was nearly 4.5 times the oviposition rate than cis-2-penten-1-ol and 2 times than the control. However, none of the chemicals had any effect on the 48 h fecundity or on egg sizes. In conclusion, β-ocimene from mulberry plants alone could promote mating and oviposition in H. cunea at a dosage of 1 mg. The results indicate that reproductive behaviors of H. cunea moths can be enhanced through HIPV blends and β-ocimene induced by feeding of larvae. This contra phenomenon has revealed a different ecology in this moth during colonizing China as local pests would commonly be repelled by herbivore induced chemicals. These chemicals can be used for the development of biological control approaches such as being used together with sex pheromone traps. PMID:27153095

  3. UP1304, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Curcuma longa and Morus alba, Mitigates Pain and Inflammation in Adjuvant-induced Arthritic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Though, the initial etiologies of arthritis are multifactorial, clinically, patients share pain as the prime complaints. Present day pain relief therapeutics heavily relies on the use of prescription and over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as the first line of defense where their long-term usage causes gastrointestinal and cardiovascular-related side effects. Hence, the need for evidence-based safer and efficacious alternatives from natural sources to overcome the most prominent and disabling symptoms of arthritis is an overdue. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of UP1304, a composition that contains a standardized blend of two extracts from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and the root bark of Morus alba in adjuvant-induced arthritis models in rats. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the botanical composition were demonstrated in adjuvant-induced arthritis models in rats with oral dose ranges of 50–200 mg/kg. Ibuprofen at a dose of 100 mg/kg was used as a reference compound. Ex vivo sulfated glycosaminoglycan inhibition assays were performed. Results: Statistically significant improvements in pain resistance, suppression of paw edema and ankle thickness were observed in animals treated with UP1304 compared to vehicle-treated diseased rats. These results were similar to those achieved by ibuprofen treatment. Inhibitions of proteoglycan degradation were observed in a range of 37.5–61.7% for concentration of UP1304 at 50–200 μg/mL when compared to interleukin-1α-exposed untreated explants. Conclusions: These data suggest that UP1304, for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, could potentially be considered agent of botanical origin for the improvement of arthritis associated symptoms. SUMMARY Pain is one of the cardinal signs of arthritis.Long term applications of commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief are associated with cardiovascular

  4. Inhibitory effects of constituents from Morus alba var. multicaulis on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Gang; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2011-07-19

    A new arylbenzofuran, 3',5'-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-7-prenyl-2-arylbenzofuran (1), and 25 known compounds, including moracin R (2), moracin C (3), moracin O (4), moracin P (5), artoindonesianin O (6), moracin D (7), alabafuran A (8), mulberrofuran L (9), mulberrofuran Y (10), kuwanon A (11), kuwanon C (12), kuwanon T (13), morusin (14), kuwanon E (15), sanggenon F (16), betulinic acid (17), uvaol (18), ursolic acid (19), β-sitosterol (20), oxyresveratrol 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (21), mulberroside A (22), mulberroside B (23), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (24), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (25) and adenosine (26), were isolated from Morus alba var. multicaulis Perro. (Moraceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The prenyl-flavonoids 11-14, 16, triterpenoids 17,18 and 20 showed significant inhibitory activity towards the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The arylbenzofurans 1-10 and prenyl-flavonoids 11-16 also showed significant nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory effects in RAW264.7 cells.

  5. In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract

    PubMed Central

    Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Jung, Un Sun; Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Young Hoon; Ryu, Eun Kyung; Chang, Moon Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro), and anti-wrinkle (in vivo) effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract. Methods Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2−) and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow’s feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo. Results In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and Trolox). The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively. Conclusion The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin. PMID:26203268

  6. In vitro pharmacokinetic characterization of mulberroside A, the main polyhydroxylated stilbene in mulberry (Morus alba L.), and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol in traditional oral use.

    PubMed

    Mei, Mei; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Wu, Wen-Jin; Zhou, Rui-Na; Lei, Jacky Pui-Cheong; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-03-07

    Mulberroside A (MulA) is one of the main bioactive constituents in mulberry (Morus alba L.). This study examined the determining factors for previously reported oral pharmacokinetic profiles of MulA and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol (OXY) on in vitro models. When incubated anaerobically with intestinal bacteria, MulA underwent rapid deglycosylation and generated two monoglucosides and its aglycone OXY sequentially. MulA exhibited a poor permeability and predominantly traversed Caco-2 cells via passive diffusion; yet, the permeation of OXY across Caco-2 cells was much more rapid and involved efflux (both p-glycoprotein and MRPs)-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, OXY underwent extensive hepatic glucuronidation; yet, the parent MulA was kept intact in liver subcellular preparations. There was insignificant species difference in intestinal bacterial conversion of MulA and the extent of OXY hepatic glucuronidation between humans and rats, while OXY exhibited a distinct positional preference of glucuronidation in the two species. Overall, these findings revealed a key role of intestinal bacterial conversion in absorption and systemic exposure of MulA and its resultant bacterial metabolite OXY in oral route in humans and rats and warranted further investigational emphasis on OXY and its hepatic metabolites for understanding the benefits of mulberry.

  7. Determination of 1-deoxynojirimycin in Morus alba L. leaves by derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Soo-Un; Lee, Heui Sam; Kim, Iksoo; Ahn, Mi Young; Ryu, Kang Sun

    2003-06-20

    A rapid and reliable method suitable for assays of a large number of Morus alba leaves for 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) has been developed. DNJ in 0.1 g of freeze-dried leaves was double-extracted in 10 mL of aqueous 0.05 M HCl by vortexing for 15 s at room temperature, derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl), and analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. The double extraction recovered > 99% of extractable DNJ from the leaves. Stabilization of FMOC-derivatized DNJ (DNJ-FMOC) was achieved by diluting the reactant with aqueous acetic acid after derivatization. DNJ-FMOC was stable for at least 16 days under acidic conditions at room temperature (24 degrees C). Linearity ranged between 0.3 and 30 microg mL(-1). The intra- and inter-day precision for DNJ-spiked biological samples was between 0.6 and 1.8% and between 3.7 and 4.5%, respectively.

  8. Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-ying; Lü, Rui-hua; Li, Jun; Zhao, Ai-chun; Wang, Xi-ling; Diane, Umuhoza; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Chuan-hong; Yu, Ya-sheng; Han, Shu-mei; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Mao-de

    2014-07-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon.

  9. Morus alba Leaf Lectin (MLL) Sensitizes MCF-7 Cells to Anoikis by Inhibiting Fibronectin Mediated Integrin-FAK Signaling through Ras and Activation of P38 MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Saranya, Jayaram; Shilpa, Ganesan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil G.; Priya, Sulochana

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are a unique class of carbohydrate binding proteins/glycoproteins, and many of them possess anticancer properties. They can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, inhibit protein synthesis, telomerase activity and angiogenesis in cancer cells. In the present study, we have demonstrated the effect of Morus alba leaf lectin (MLL) on anoikis induction in MCF-7 cells. Anoikis induction in cancer cells has a significant role in preventing early stage metastasis. MLL treatment in monolayers of MCF-7 cells caused significant detachment of cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. The detached cells failed to re-adhere and grew even to culture plates coated with different matrix proteins. DNA fragmentation, membrane integrity studies, annexin V staining, caspase 9 activation and upregulation of Bax/Bad confirmed that the detached cells underwent apoptosis. Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) caused a decrease in fibronectin (FN) production which facilitated the cells to detach by blocking the FN mediated downstream signaling. On treatment with MLL, we have observed downregulation of integrin expression, decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), loss in FAK-integrin interaction and active Ras. MLL treatment downregulated the levels of phosphorylated Akt and PI3K. Also, we have studied the effect of MLL on two stress activated protein kinases p38 MAPK and JNK. p38 MAPK activation was found to be elevated, but there was no change in the level of JNK. Thus our study substantiated the possible antimetastatic effect of MLL by inducing anoikis in MCF-7 cells by activation of caspase 9 and proapoptotic Bax/Bad by blockage of FN mediated integrin/FAK signaling and partly by activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:28223935

  10. High throughput deep degradome sequencing reveals microRNAs and their targets in response to drought stress in mulberry (Morus alba)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruixue; Chen, Dandan; Wang, Taichu; Wan, Yizhen; Li, Rongfang; Fang, Rongjun; Wang, Yuting; Hu, Fei; Zhou, Hong; Li, Long; Zhao, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Identification of miRNA targets is essential to better understanding the roles of miRNAs. miRNA targets have not been well characterized in mulberry (Morus alba). To anatomize miRNA guided gene regulation under drought stress, transcriptome-wide high throughput degradome sequencing was used in this study to directly detect drought stress responsive miRNA targets in mulberry. A drought library (DL) and a contrast library (CL) were constructed to capture the cleaved mRNAs for sequencing. In CL, 409 target genes of 30 conserved miRNA families and 990 target genes of 199 novel miRNAs were identified. In DL, 373 target genes of 30 conserved miRNA families and 950 target genes of 195 novel miRNAs were identified. Of the conserved miRNA families in DL, mno-miR156, mno-miR172, and mno-miR396 had the highest number of targets with 54, 52 and 41 transcripts, respectively, indicating that these three miRNA families and their target genes might play important functions in response to drought stress in mulberry. Additionally, we found that many of the target genes were transcription factors. By analyzing the miRNA-target molecular network, we found that the DL independent networks consisted of 838 miRNA-mRNA pairs (63.34%). The expression patterns of 11 target genes and 12 correspondent miRNAs were detected using qRT-PCR. Six miRNA targets were further verified by RNA ligase-mediated 5’ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-5’ RACE). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that these target transcripts were implicated in a broad range of biological processes and various metabolic pathways. This is the first study to comprehensively characterize target genes and their associated miRNAs in response to drought stress by degradome sequencing in mulberry. This study provides a framework for

  11. Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Mariko; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2009-01-01

    Background The first aim of this study was to clarify the effective ratio of extractive from leaves of Morus Alba (ELM) to sucrose so as to apply this knowledge to the preparation of confections that could effectively suppress the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and insulin. The second aim was to identify the efficacy of confections prepared with the optimally effective ratio determined from the first study, using healthy human subjects. Methods Ten healthy females (22.3 years, BMI 21.4 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject, repeated measures study. For the first aim of this study, the test solutions containing 30 g of sucrose and 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were repeatedly and randomly given to each subject. To identify the practically suppressive effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin, some confections with added ELM were prepared as follows: Mizu-yokan, 30 g of sucrose with the addition of 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Daifuku-mochi, 9.0 g of starch in addition to 30 g of sucrose and 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Chiffon-cake, 24 g of sucrose, starch, and 3.0 or 6.0 g of ELM, and were ingested by each subject. Blood and end-expiration were collected at selected periods after test food ingestion. Results When 30 g of sucrose with 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were ingested by subjects, the elevations of postprandial blood glucose and insulin were effectively suppressed (p < 0.01), and the most effective ratio of ELM to sucrose was evaluated to be 1:10. AUC (area under the curve) of breath hydrogen excretion for 6 h after the ingestion of an added 3 g of ELM significantly increased (p < 0.01). When AUCs-3h of incremental blood glucose of confections without ELM was 100, that of Mizu-yokan and Daifuku-mochi with the ratio (1:10) of ELM to sucrose was decreased to 53.4 and 58.2, respectively. Chiffon-cake added one-fourth ELM was 29.0. Conclusion ELM-containing confections for which the ratio of ELM and sucrose is one-tenth effectively suppress the postprandial blood glucose and

  12. High throughput deep degradome sequencing reveals microRNAs and their targets in response to drought stress in mulberry (Morus alba).

    PubMed

    Li, Ruixue; Chen, Dandan; Wang, Taichu; Wan, Yizhen; Li, Rongfang; Fang, Rongjun; Wang, Yuting; Hu, Fei; Zhou, Hong; Li, Long; Zhao, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Identification of miRNA targets is essential to better understanding the roles of miRNAs. miRNA targets have not been well characterized in mulberry (Morus alba). To anatomize miRNA guided gene regulation under drought stress, transcriptome-wide high throughput degradome sequencing was used in this study to directly detect drought stress responsive miRNA targets in mulberry. A drought library (DL) and a contrast library (CL) were constructed to capture the cleaved mRNAs for sequencing. In CL, 409 target genes of 30 conserved miRNA families and 990 target genes of 199 novel miRNAs were identified. In DL, 373 target genes of 30 conserved miRNA families and 950 target genes of 195 novel miRNAs were identified. Of the conserved miRNA families in DL, mno-miR156, mno-miR172, and mno-miR396 had the highest number of targets with 54, 52 and 41 transcripts, respectively, indicating that these three miRNA families and their target genes might play important functions in response to drought stress in mulberry. Additionally, we found that many of the target genes were transcription factors. By analyzing the miRNA-target molecular network, we found that the DL independent networks consisted of 838 miRNA-mRNA pairs (63.34%). The expression patterns of 11 target genes and 12 correspondent miRNAs were detected using qRT-PCR. Six miRNA targets were further verified by RNA ligase-mediated 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-5' RACE). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that these target transcripts were implicated in a broad range of biological processes and various metabolic pathways. This is the first study to comprehensively characterize target genes and their associated miRNAs in response to drought stress by degradome sequencing in mulberry. This study provides a framework for understanding

  13. Ameliorative effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves on hyperlipidemia in rats fed a high-fat diet: induction of fatty acid oxidation, inhibition of lipogenesis, and suppression of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Miyazawa, Maki; Kamei, Asuka; Abe, Keiko; Kojima, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves on hyperlipidemia, we performed gene expression profiling of the liver. Rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mulberry leaves for 7 weeks. Plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with mulberry leaves as compared with the untreated rats. DNA microarray analysis revealed that mulberry leaves upregulated expression of the genes involved in α-, β- and ω-oxidation of fatty acids, mainly related to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway, and downregulated the genes involved in lipogenesis. Furthermore, treatment with mulberry leaves upregulated expression of the genes involved in the response to oxidative stress. These results indicate that consumption of fatty acids and inhibition of lipogenesis are responsible for the reduction in plasma lipids caused by mulberry administration. In addition, mulberry treatment maintains the body's oxidative state at a low level despite enhancing fatty acid oxidation.

  14. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woo; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Oh, Jin-Sun; Cleveland, Sabrina; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10 mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4), 40.5% (week 5), and 22.0% (week 6) in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms. PMID:25802546

  15. Evaluation of a Standardized Extract from Morus alba against α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect and Postprandial Antihyperglycemic in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Li, Hong Mei; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of a standardized extract of the leaves of Morus alba (SEMA), the present study was designed to investigate the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect and acute single oral toxicity as well as evaluate blood glucose reduction in animals and in patients with impaired glucose tolerance in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. SEMA was found to inhibit α-glucosidase at a fourfold higher level than the positive control (acarbose), in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, blood glucose concentration was suppressed by SEMA in vivo. Clinical signs and weight changes were observed when conducting an evaluation of the acute toxicity of SEMA through a single-time administration, with clinical observation conducted more than once each day. After administration of the SEMA, observation was for 14 days; all of the animals did not die and did not show any abnormal symptoms. In addition, the inhibitory effects of rice coated with SEMA were evaluated in a group of impaired glucose tolerance patients on postprandial glucose and a group of normal persons, and results showed that SEMA had a clear inhibitory effect on postprandial hyperglycemia in both groups. Overall, SEMA showed excellent potential in the present study as a material for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:27974904

  16. Enhanced anti-immobility effects of Sanggenon G isolated from the root bark of Morus alba combined with the α2-antagonist yohimbine in the rat forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Yun Tai; Lee, Changho; Kim, In-Ho; Han, Daeseok

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether Sanggenon G, an active compound isolated from the root bark of Morus alba, exhibited enhanced anti-immobility activity with the addition of the α2-antagonist yohimbine in rats subjected to forced swim test (FST)-induced depression. Fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) treatment in rats reduced the immobility time, and pretreatment with yohimbine significantly enhanced the antidepressant-like behavior of fluoxetine at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg. Similarly, Sanggenon G significantly decreased the immobility time, reducing immobility by a maximum of 43.9 % when treated at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Furthermore, pretreatment with yohimbine significantly enhanced the antidepressant-like behavior of Sanggenon G at 5 and 10 mg/kg. Our findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of Sanggenon G could be facilitated by concomitant use of the α2-antagonist. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of Sanggenon G as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression.

  17. The Effects of Supplementary Mulberry Leaf (Morus alba) Extracts on the Trace Element Status (Fe, Zn and Cu) in Relation to Diabetes Management and Antioxidant Indices in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewelina; Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Flaczyk, Ewa; Wójciak, Rafał W

    2016-11-01

    Mulberry leaves (Morus alba) have been used in folk medicine to mitigate symptoms of diabetes. The mulberry plant contains phenolic compounds that are able to decrease blood glucose concentration. Since various phenolics have antioxidant and metal binding properties, they can be used to alleviate oxidative stress and chelate trace elements involved in redox reactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with mulberry leaf extracts (acetone-water (AE) and ethanol-water (EE)) on the trace element status (Fe, Zn and Cu) in relation to diabetes management and antioxidant indices in high-fat diet-fed/STZ diabetic rats. The experiment was performed on 38 male Wistar rats with diabetes (induced by high-fat diet (HF) and streptozotocin injection) or the control fed with AIN-93M or high-fat diet. As a result, five experimental groups were used: (1) a healthy control group fed with AIN-93M; (2) an HF control group; (3) a diabetic HF group; (4) a diabetic HF + AE group (6 g/kg diet); (5) a diabetic HF + EE group (6 g/kg diet). The rats were fed with appropriate diets for 4 weeks. The content of trace elements (Fe, Zn and Cu) in the serum and tissues was measured by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Biochemical analyses (glucose, TBARS, FRAP) were performed on the blood serum. It was shown that the AE decreased hepatic and renal Fe stores, while the EE increased hepatic Cu levels in diabetic rats and confirmed their ability to regulate the Fe and Cu status in diabetes. The results confirmed a significant hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of both mulberry leaf extracts in diabetic rats.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Morus alba Germin-Like Protein Gene Which Encodes for a Silkworm Gut Digestion-Resistant Antimicrobial Protein

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Oh, Seung Han; Song, Yong-Su; Chanh, Nguyen Dang Minh; Kim, Jong Sun; Jung, Woo-jin; Saha, Atul Kumar; Bindroo, Bharat Bhushan; Han, Yeon Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background Silkworm fecal matter is considered one of the richest sources of antimicrobial and antiviral protein (substances) and such economically feasible and eco-friendly proteins acting as secondary metabolites from the insect system can be explored for their practical utility in conferring broad spectrum disease resistance against pathogenic microbial specimens. Methodology/Principal Findings Silkworm fecal matter extracts prepared in 0.02 M phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4), at a temperature of 60°C was subjected to 40% saturated ammonium sulphate precipitation and purified by gel-filtration chromatography (GFC). SDS-PAGE under denaturing conditions showed a single band at about 21.5 kDa. The peak fraction, thus obtained by GFC wastested for homogeneityusing C18reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activity of the purified protein was tested against selected Gram +/− bacteria and phytopathogenic Fusarium species with concentration-dependent inhibitionrelationship. The purified bioactive protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation towards its identification. The N-terminal first 18 amino acid sequence following the predicted signal peptide showed homology to plant germin-like proteins (Glp). In order to characterize the full-length gene sequence in detail, the partial cDNA was cloned and sequenced using degenerate primers, followed by 5′- and 3′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The full-length cDNA sequence composed of 630 bp encoding 209 amino acids and corresponded to germin-like proteins (Glps) involved in plant development and defense. Conclusions/Significance The study reports, characterization of novel Glpbelonging to subfamily 3 from M. alba by the purification of mature active protein from silkworm fecal matter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was found

  19. Phenolic-containing organic extracts of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves inhibit HepG2 hepatoma cells through G2/M phase arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of topoisomerase IIα activity.

    PubMed

    Naowaratwattana, Wanlaya; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2010-10-01

    The entire plant of Morus alba L. (Family Moraceae), or mulberry, possesses medical benefits, including anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of mulberry leaf extracts on the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line, which is related to hepatocellular carcinoma. Mulberry leaf extracts were prepared using four solvents, each with different polarities: 100% methanol (MeOH), 50% aqueous MeOH, 1-butanol (BuOH), and hot water (W). The phenolic profile, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, and effect on human hepatoma HepG2 cells of the leaf extracts were analyzed by examining cytotoxicity, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, expression of topoisomerase IIα, and proteins involved in cell cycle progression. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that 100% MeOH, 50% MeOH, and BuOH extracts contained rutin, isoquercetin, and various derivatives of kaempferol and quercetin glycosides as their major constituents; the W extract contained primarily chlorogenic acid and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. Total phenolic content based on rutin equivalents was 17.1%, 9.6%, 8.3%, and 6.5% of dry 100% MeOH, 50% MeOH, BuOH, and W extracts, respectively. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities were 70.0%, 45.8%, 41.0%, and 33.6%, and 50% inhibitory concentration values were 33.1, 79.4, 35.6, and 204.2 μg/mL for HepG2 cell proliferation inhibition for 100% MeOH, 50% MeOH, BuOH, and W extracts, respectively. MeOH extracts caused cell cycle G2/M arrest and induced the caspase cascade and apoptosis, but the W extract had very little effect on cell cycle progression. MeOH extracts reduced the level of topoisomerase IIα but increased the level of p27(Kip1), with no significant effect on p21(Cip1/waf1). Therefore, we concluded that phenolic-containing organic extracts of mulberry leaves inhibit the growth of HepG2 hepatoma cells through coordinated actions of inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase (with

  20. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus.

  1. Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

  2. Alba Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of the Alba Patera region of Mars; north toward top. The scene shows a central circular depression surrounded by splays of fractures, named Alba Fossae (west of Alba Patera) and Tantalus Fossae (east of Alba Patera). A patera (Latin for shallow dish or saucer) is a volcano of broad areal extent with little vertical relief; a fossa is a linear depression.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 30 degrees N. to 50 degrees N. and from longitude 95 degrees to 125 degrees; Lambert projection.

    Alba Patera has a 100-km-diameter caldera at its center surrounded by a fracture ring. In total, the approximately 1,200- km-diameter Alba Patera far exceeds any other known volcano in areal extent; it covers eight times the area of Olympus Mons (the highest volcano in the Solar System) but reaches only about 6 km in height. The patera lies directly north of the Tharsis bulge, which encompasses the most intensely and most recently active volcanic region of the planet. The fossae of the Alba area are fault-bound graben that can be traced south through the Tharsis bulge and therefore likely formed by upwarping of the Tharsis bulge as well as the coeval upwelling of Alba Pateria magma.

  3. Pityriasis Alba

    MedlinePlus

    ... Annual Meeting 2013 OMED Schedule Needs Assessments Speaker Bios Meeting Feedback 2014 Midyear Meeting Attestation 2014 Midyear ... to go away by adulthood. The loss of pigment associated with pityriasis alba is not permanent. Diagnosis ...

  4. Alba Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 22 April 2002) The Science This image, centered near 46.5 N and 119.3 W (240.7 E), is on the northwestern flank of a large, broad shield volcano called Alba Patera. This region of Mars has a number of unique valley features that at first glance look dendritic much in the same pattern that rivers and tributaries form on Earth. A closer look reveals that the valleys are quite discontinuous and must form through a different process than surface runoff of liquid water that is common on Earth. A number of processes might have taken place at some point in the Martian past to form these features. Some of the broad valley features bear some resemblance to karst topography, where material is removed underground by melting or dissolving in groundwater causing the collapse of the surface above it. The long narrow valleys resemble surfaces where groundwater sapping has occurred. Sapping happens when groundwater reaches the surface and causes headward erosion, forming long valleys with fewer tributaries than is seen with valleys formed by surface water runoff. The volcano itself might have been a source of heat and energy, which played a role in producing surfaces that indicate an active groundwater system. The Story Fluid, oozing lava poured somewhat lazily over this area long ago. It happened perhaps thousands of times, over hundreds of thousands of Martian years, creating the nearly smooth, plaster-of-Paris-looking terrain seen today. (Small craters also dent the area, though they may deceive you and look like raised bumps instead. That's just a trick of the eye and the lighting - tilt your head to your left shoulder, and you should see the craters pit the surface as expected.) The lava flows came from a Martian 'shield' volcano named Alba Patera. Shield volcanoes get their name from their appearance: from above, they look like large battle shields lying face up to the sky as if a giant, geological warrior had lain them down. Perhaps one did if you think of a

  5. Phytochemical profiles of different mulberry (Morus sp.) species from China.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Wang, Han-Jing; Bucheli, Peter; Zhang, Pei-Fang; Wei, Dong-Zhi; Lu, Yan-Hua

    2009-10-14

    Mulberry is rich in alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, which have been suggested to be responsible for health benefits. The concentrations of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucoside (Cy-3-glu), cyanidin-3-O-beta-rutinoside (Cy-3-rut), and rutin in mulberry juice, fruits, and leaves of 8 species grown in China were examined. It is the first time content determination of DNJ in mulberry juice and oxyresveratrol in mulberry fruits and leaves has been reported. Among the varieties tested, Da 10 (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) was the most valuable cultivar considering its high content of functional components. Besides, Hetianbaisang (M. alba Linn.), Taiwanguosang (M. atropurpurea Roxb.), Fujian 2 hao (M. alba Linn.), Gaozhoujisang (M. australis Poir.), and Shanxiguosang (M. nigra Linn.) were rich in DNJ, resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, anthocyanins, and flavonoids, respectively. The high contents of functional compounds in mulberry juice, fruits, and leaves implied that they might be potential resources for the development of functional drinks and food.

  6. Antiinflammatory properties of Morus nigra leaves.

    PubMed

    Padilha, Marina M; Vilela, Fabiana C; Rocha, Cláudia Q; Dias, Marcelo J; Soncini, Roseli; dos Santos, Marcelo H; Alves-da-Silva, Geraldo; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate antiinflammatory activity of the methylene chloride extract of Morus nigra in animal models. Carrageenan-induced paw edema as well as fibrovascular tissue growth induced by s.c. cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the antiinflammatory activity of Morus nigra extract (MnE) in rats. A HPLC fingerprint was used for phytochemical analysis of the extracts. The MnE at test doses of 100-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated antiinflammatory effects by reduced paw edema induced by carragenan and significantly inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue. In addition, chemical compounds isolated from Morus nigra, including betulinic acid, β-sitosterol and germanicol, may be responsible for the antiinflammatory effect of the extract.

  7. Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

  8. Proximate composition and antioxidant potential of leaves from three varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28-13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21-24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41-31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97-1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging actity, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS(•+)) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89-2.12, 6.12-9.89 and 0.56-0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences.

  9. Genetic relationships between selected Turkish mulberry genotypes (Morus spp) based on RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Orhan, E; Ercisli, S

    2010-11-03

    Mulberry (Morus spp, Moraceae) is an important horticultural crop in Turkey, which is one of the main world producers of mulberry fruit. We evaluated the genetic relationships among 26 mulberry genotypes selected for agronomic characteristics, using RAPD markers. A total of 367 DNA markers were generated with 34 random primers. The highest genetic similarity (0.80) was observed between Oltu58 (M. nigra) and Olur90 (M. nigra) genotypes. The genotypes Oltu3 (M. alba) and Oltu18 (M. rubra) were the most distant (0.36). We found that the RAPD technique is a useful tool to discriminate mulberry genotypes at both the intra- and interspecific level. This type of information will aid in accurate identification of useful genotypes for breeding programs.

  10. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Morus cathayana and Morus multicaulis, and comparative analysis within genus Morus L

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin Hong

    2017-01-01

    Trees in the Morus genera belong to the Moraceae family. To better understand the species status of genus Morus and to provide information for studies on evolutionary biology within the genus, the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of M. cathayana and M. multicaulis were sequenced. The plastomes of the two species are 159,265 bp and 159,103 bp, respectively, with corresponding 83 and 82 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Similar to the SSRs of M. mongolica and M. indica cp genomes, more than 70% are mononucleotides, ten are in coding regions, and one exhibits nucleotide content polymorphism. Results for codon usage and relative synonymous codon usage show a strong bias towards NNA and NNT codons in the two cp genomes. Analysis of a plot of the effective number of codons (ENc) for five Morus spp. cp genomes showed that most genes follow the standard curve, but several genes have ENc values below the expected curve. The results indicate that both natural selection and mutational bias have contributed to the codon bias. Ten highly variable regions were identified among the five Morus spp. cp genomes, and 154 single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation events were accurately located in the gene coding region. PMID:28286710

  11. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

  12. New Isoprenylated Phenolic Compounds from Morus laevigata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Yu, Bang-Wei; Yu, Mei-Hua; Gao, Li-Xin; Li, Jing-Ya; Wang, He-Yao; Li, Jia; Hou, Ai-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Two new isoprenylated flavonoids, laevigasins A and B (1 and 2, resp.), and one new isoprenylated 2-arylbenzofuran, leavigasin C (3), together with eight known compounds, 4-11, were isolated from the twigs of Morus laevigata. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Laevigasin A (1) showed significant inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase in vitro. Notabilisin E (5), taxifolin (10), and hultenin (11) inhibited PTP1B phosphatase activity in vitro.

  13. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Morus spp. and assessment of their transferability to other closely related species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adoption of genomics based breeding has emerged as a promising approach for achieving comprehensive crop improvement. Such an approach is more relevant in the case of perennial species like mulberry. However, unavailability of genomic resources of co-dominant marker systems has been the major constraint for adopting molecular breeding to achieve genetic enhancement of Mulberry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a large number of locus specific genic and genomic SSR markers which can be effectively used for molecular characterization of mulberry species/genotypes. Result We analyzed a total of 3485 DNA sequences including genomic and expressed sequences (ESTs) of mulberry (Morus alba L.) genome. We identified 358 sequences to develop appropriate microsatellite primer pairs representing 222 genomic and 136 EST regions. Primers amplifying locus specific regions of Dudia white (a genotype of Morus alba L), were identified and 137 genomic and 51 genic SSR markers were standardized. A two pronged strategy was adopted to assess the applicability of these SSR markers using mulberry species and genotypes along with a few closely related species belonging to the family Moraceae viz., Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. While 100% of these markers amplified specific loci on the mulberry genome, 79% were transferable to other related species indicating the robustness of these markers and the potential they hold in analyzing the molecular and genetic diversity among mulberry germplasm as well as other related species. The inherent ability of these markers in detecting heterozygosity combined with a high average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.559 ranging between 0.076 and 0.943 clearly demonstrates their potential as genomic resources in diversity analysis. The dissimilarity coefficient determined based on Neighbor joining method, revealed that the markers were successful in segregating the mulberry species, genotypes and other related species

  14. Genetic relationship in mulberry (Morus L.) inferred through PCR-RFLP and trnD-trnT sequence data of chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dechang; Zhang, Ping; Sun, Yan-Lin; Zhang, Shumin; Wang, Zhaohong; Chen, Chuanjie

    2014-05-04

    Ten universal primer pairs of the plant chloroplast genome were used to amplify the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) non-coding regions in eight mulberry (Morus spp.) genotypes, including M. mongolica, M. bombycis, M. alba, M. atropurpurea and M. multicaulis. Subsequently, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were digested by seven restriction enzymes and the trnD-trnT fragment for sequence alignment, and the variations were expected to provide the genetic information for system classification. The results from this study showed that: (1) 10 cpDNA primer pairs could be used for successful amplification in the tested materials, with approximately 17.1 kb of the chloroplast genome analysed. The 152 marker loci were detected by 70 primer/restriction endonuclease combinations, among which the trnD-trnT non-coding region digested by AluI, HinfI, MvaI and RsaI was detected by visible fragment length variation in different genotypes of the genus Morus. (2) eight Morus L. genotypes were divided into two groups based on the digesting pattern discrepancy through cpDNA. The M. multicaulis genotypes displayed diversity on an intraspecies level. 'Nongsang No.12' was identical with the female parent 'Beiqu No.1' (M. atropurpurea) in the surveyed sequence, but different from the male parent 'Tongxiangqing' (M. multicaulis), suggesting that the cpDNA was maternal inheritance in Morus L. (3) There were two deletion fragments (451-456 bp; 840-863bp) and six base point mutations in the trnD-trnT region based on homologous sequence alignment. The sequence of trnD-trnT in the cpDNA of mulberry could provide more genetic information for phylogenetic analysis and pedigree identification.

  15. Alba Patera Windstreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    These windstreaks are located northeast of Olympus Mons and southwest of Alba Patera. The lava flows the windstreaks occur on most likely originated from Alba Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.3, Longitude 235.1 East (124.9 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoid Extracted from Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Sivakumar Thasma; Ganeshan, Ajay Krishna Palani Gounder; Chen, Cheng; Jin, Chao; Li, Shao-Hui; Chen, Hui-Juan; Gui, Zhongzheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many plants possess antioxidants that exhibit additive or synergistic activities. Objective: In this study, an ethanol-extracted flavonoid extracted from mulberry fruit (FEM) was evaluated for the antioxidant activity in vitro and the hemolysis in red blood cell (RBC) and lipid peroxidation in liver in vivo. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activities in vitro were measured by quantifying its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power, and Fe2+-chelating ability. FEM inhibits hemolysis in RBCs and effects of lipid peroxidation in the liver were estimated. Results: The total content of flavonoid compounds was 187.23 mg of quercetin equivalents per grams dried material. In the in vitro assays, FEM demonstrated a strong antioxidant effect, especially in DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. Mouse RBC hemolysis induced by H2O2 was significantly inhibited by FEM in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effects of FEM on lipid peroxidation in liver, mitochondria, and microsome were investigated. The percentage of inhibition at high concentration (100 μg/mL) of FEM was 45.51%, 39.36%, and 42.78% for liver, mitochondria, and microsomes, respectively. These results suggest that the FEM possesses a strong antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. SUMMARY The total content of flavonoid compounds in mulberry fruit was 187.23 mg/g dried materialFEM showed a strong antioxidant effect, especially in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and reducing powerMouse red blood cell hemolysis induced by H2O2 was significantly inhibited by FEM in a dose- and time-dependent mannerThe inhibition percentage at high concentration of FEM was 45.51%, 39.36%, and 42.78% for mouse’s liver, mitochondrial, and microsomes, respectively. Abbreviations used: FEM: Flavonoid Extracted from Mulberry fruit, H2O2: Hydrogen peroxide, DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, EDTA: Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, MDA: malondialdehyde, TBA: 2-thiobarbituric acid, RBC: Red blood cells, DNJ: 1-deoxynojirimycin, LDL: low density lipoprotein, ROS: reactive oxygen species, EDTA2Na: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt. PMID:27076749

  17. Complete genome sequence of a novel monopartite geminivirus identified in mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Lu, Quan-You; Wu, Zu-Jian; Xia, Zhi-Song; Xie, Lian-Hui

    2015-08-01

    The genome sequence of a novel geminivirus from mulberry samples exhibiting crinkle leaf symptoms is reported. The sequence consisted of 2952 nt, containing four open reading frames (ORFs) in the viral-sense strand and two ORFs in the complementary-sense strand. The size of the genome and the conserved origin of replication are similar to those of members of the family Geminiviridae, but the genomic organization, number of ORFs, and especially five contiguous GAAAAA repeats positioned upstream of ORF1 distinguish it from other geminiviruses. Phylogenetic analysis coupled with ORF analysis suggests that this is a novel virus that does not fit into the established seven genera of the family Geminiviridae. The virus, found in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu province, China, is tentatively named mulberry crinkle leaf virus isolate Jiangsu (MCLV-js).

  18. Antioxidant and antityrosinase activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs and root bark.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lee-Wen; Juang, Lih-Jeng; Wang, Bor-Sen; Wang, Mei-Ying; Tai, Huo-Mu; Hung, Wei-Jing; Chen, Yun-Ju; Huang, Ming-Hsing

    2011-04-01

    The antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of the ethanolic extract of mulberry twigs (EEMT) were investigated. The results showed that EEMT exhibited radical scavenging and reducing activity, as well as ferrous ion-chelating activity. In addition, EEMT also protected phospholipids against free radicals, indicating that EEMT could protect biomolecules from oxidative damage. Meanwhile, in the range of 0-60 μg/ml, the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of EEMT increased with increase in sample concentration, and was superior to that of the ethanolic extract of mulberry root bark (EEMR). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was employed to determine the phenolic components, revealing that maclurin, rutin, isoquercitrin, resveratrol, and morin were present in EEMT. Acting as an antioxidant and a tyrosinase inhibitor, these bioactive constituents could contribute to the protective effects of EEMT. Overall, the results showed that EEMT might serve as a natural antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor.

  19. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-05

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0 ± 0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64 kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant.

  20. A new nepovirus identified in mulberry (Morus alba L.) in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Quan-You; Wu, Zu-Jian; Xia, Zhi-Song; Xie, Lian-Hui

    2015-03-01

    An isometric virus was identified in mulberry leaves showing symptoms of mulberry mosaic leaf roll (MMLR) disease. Its genome consists of two (+)ssRNAs. RNA1 and RNA2 have 7183 and 3742 nucleotides, excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the RNA1-encoded polyprotein and CP amino acid sequences, the properties of the the 3'-UTR of RNA1 and RNA2, and <75 % identity in the CP amino acid sequence, this virus is proposed to be a new member of the genus Nepovirus, subgroup A. Since a causal relationship between this virus and MMLR has not been established, it is tentatively referred to as MMLR-associated virus.

  1. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found within graben surrounding Alba Patera. Alba Patera is an old volcano that has subsided after it's magma chamber was evacuated.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.1, Longitude 259.4 East (100.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  2. Extraction and antioxidant activity of flavonoids of Morus nigra

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rui-Zhang; Wang, Qin; Tong, Wen-Zhi; Xiong, Juan; Wei, Qin; Zhou, Wan-Hai; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Yin, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ya-Qin; Lai, Yong-Hong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Luo, Qiao-Li; Wang, Lu; Jia, Ren-Yong; Song, Xu; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Li, Li-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Morus nigra has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, but the study on it is limited, the flavonoids are one of the main biological active substances. In this study, the Morus nigra flavonoids were extracted by ultrasonic and antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo were measured. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals clearance rate and superoxide radical anion clearance rate in vitro increased with the concentration of the total flavonoids in the range of 0-1.05 mg/mL and the maximum clearance rate was 80.33% and 87.69%, respectively. After mice were treated with flavonoids, the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and liver decreased; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and liver, catalase (CAT) in liver and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in blood and liver increased; Langhans cells increased in spleen. These results revealed that the Morus nigra flavonoids possessed strong antioxidant activity. PMID:26885210

  3. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  4. Prenylated arylbenzofuran derivatives from Morus mesozygia with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kapche, Gilbert D W F; Fozing, Christian D; Donfack, Jean H; Fotso, Ghislain W; Amadou, Dawe; Tchana, Angèle N; Bezabih, Merhatibeb; Moundipa, Paul F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Abegaz, Berhanu M

    2009-01-01

    Five prenylated arylbenzofurans, moracins Q-U, were isolated from Morus mesozygia (Moraceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Along with these compounds, 3beta-acetoxyurs-12-en-11-one, marsformoxide, moracin C, moracin M, moracin K, artocarpesin, cycloartocarpesin, morachalcone A were also isolated. Four of the five compounds, (moracins R-U) displayed potent antioxidant activity.

  5. MorusDB: a resource for mulberry genomics and genome biology.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry is an important cultivated plant that has received the attention of biologists interested in sericulture and plant-insect interaction. Morus notabilis, a wild mulberry species with a minimal chromosome number is an ideal material for whole-genome sequencing and assembly. The genome and transcriptome of M. notabilis were sequenced and analyzed. In this article, a web-based and open-access database, the Morus Genome Database (MorusDB), was developed to enable easy-to-access and data mining. The MorusDB provides an integrated data source and an easy accession of mulberry large-scale genomic sequencing and assembly, predicted genes and functional annotations, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), Gene Ontology (GO) terms, horizontal gene transfers between mulberry and silkworm and ortholog and paralog groups. Transcriptome sequencing data for M. notabilis root, leaf, bark, winter bud and male flower can also be searched and downloaded. Furthermore, MorusDB provides an analytical workbench with some built-in tools and pipelines, such as BLAST, Search GO, Mulberry GO and Mulberry GBrowse, to facilitate genomic studies and comparative genomics. The MorusDB provides important genomic resources for scientists working with mulberry and other Moraceae species, which include many important fruit crops. Designed as a basic platform and accompanied by the SilkDB, MorusDB strives to be a comprehensive platform for the silkworm-mulberry interaction studies. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/morusdb.

  6. Major intrinsic proteins repertoire of Morus notabilis and their expression profiles in different species.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Vinay Kumar; Khurana, Paramjit

    2017-02-01

    Leaf moisture content in Morus is a significant trait regulating the yield of silk production. Studies have shown that fresh leaves or leaves with high water content are preferably eaten by silk worm. Water and certain other molecules transport in plants is known to be regulated by aquaporins or Major Intrinsic Proteins (MIPs). Members of the MIP gene family have also been implicated in plant development and stress responsiveness. To understand how members of MIP gene family are regulated and evolved, we carried out an extensive analysis of the gene family. We identified a total of 36 non redundant MIPs in Morus notabilis genome, belonging to five subfamilies PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, XIPs and SIPs) have been identified. We performed a Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis and looked at distribution of cis elements in their 2K upstream regulatory region to reveal their putative roles in various stresses and developmental aspects. Expression analysis in developmental stages revealed their tissue preferential expression pattern in diverse vegetative and reproductive tissues. Comparison of expression profiles in the leaves of three species including Morus notabilis, Morus serrata and Morus laevigata led to identification of differential expression in these species. In all, this study elaborates a basic insight into the structure, function and evolutionary analysis of MIP gene family in Morus which is hitherto unavailable. Our analysis will provide a ready reference to the mulberry research community involved in the Morus improvement program.

  7. Lead in the soil-mulberry (Morus alba L.)-silkworm (Bombyx mori) food chain: translocation and detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng; Han, Shasha; Liu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    The translocation of lead (Pb) in the soil-mulberry-silkworm food chain and the process of Pb detoxification in the mulberry-silkworm chain were investigated. The amount of Pb in mulberry, silkworm, feces and silk increased in a dose-responsive manner to the Pb contents in the soils. Mulberry roots sequestered most of the Pb, ranging from 230.78 to 1209.25 mg kg(-1). Over 92% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was deposited in the cell wall, and 95.29-95.57% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was integrated with oxalic acid, pectates and protein, and it had low bioavailability. The Pb concentrations in the silkworm feces were 4.50-4.64 times higher than those in the leaves. The synthesis of metallothioneins in three tissues of the silkworms was induced to achieve Pb homeostasis under Pb stress. These results indicated the mechanism involved in Pb transfer along the food chain was controlled by the detoxification of Pb in different trophic levels. Planting mulberry and rearing silkworm could be a promising approach for the remediation of Pb-polluted soils due to the Pb tolerance of mulberry and silkworm.

  8. Identification and Chacterization of new strains of Enterobacter spp. causing Mulberry (Morus alba) wilt disease in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease are dark brown discolorations in vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, the leaf w...

  9. Effects of white mulberry (Morus alba) leaf tea investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rachel Dorothy; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of a low (0.25%) and a high (0.5%) dose of white mulberry leaf tea in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Six week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Normal control (NC), Diabetic control (DBC), Diabetic mulberry tea low (DMTL, 0.25%) and Diabetic mulberry tea high (DMTH, 0.50%). T2D was induced by feeding a 10% fructose solution in drinking water for 2 weeks to induce insulin resistance, followed by a single injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) to induce partial pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in all groups except the NC group, which only received a normal drinking water and citrate buffer (pH 4.4) instead of fructose solution and STZ injection, respectively. After 4 weeks feeding of brewed mulberry leaf tea, there were no significant improvements in polyphagia, polydipsia, body weight gain, blood glucose, glucose intolerance, serum insulin, fructosamine, AST, ALT, creatinine, albumin and uric acid levels and liver parameters when serum total cholesterol was significantly and LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were markedly decreased in the DMTH group compared to the DBC and DMTL groups. Serum total proteins were significantly reduced in DMTL and DMTH groups compared to the DBC group. These results suggest that brewed white mulberry leaf tea has hypolipidemic rather than antidiabetic effects at least in this experimental condition. However, the effects of the different brands of white mulberry leaf tea may be varied due to various factors.

  10. Response surface optimized extraction of 1-deoxynojirimycin from mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) and preparative separation with resins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teng; Li, Cui-Qing; Zhang, Hong; Li, Ji-Wen

    2014-05-30

    In the present study, the extraction technology and preparative separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from mulberry leaves were systematically investigated. Four extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, extraction time and ratio of solvent to sample) were explored by response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated that the maximal yield of 1-deoxynojirimycin was achieved with an ethanol concentration of 55%, extraction temperature of 80 °C, extraction time of 1.2 h and ratio of solvent to sample of 12:1. The extraction yield under these optimum conditions was found to be 256 mg/100 g dry mulberry leaves. A column packed with a selected resin was used to perform dynamic adsorption and desorption tests to optimize the separation process. The results show that the preparative separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from mulberry leaves can be easily and effectively done by adopting 732 resin. In conclusion, 732 resin is the most appropriate for the separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from other components in mulberry leaves extracts, and its adsorption behavior can be described with Langmuir isotherms and a two-step adsorption kinetics model. The recovery and purity of 1-deoxynojirimycin in the final product were 90.51% and 15.3%, respectively.

  11. Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Sang Won

    2012-12-01

    Six polyphenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CA), rutin (RT), isoquercitrin (IQT), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-β-D-glucoside (QMG), astragalin (AG), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-β-D-glucoside (KMG), were isolated from mulberry leaves by a series of isolation procedures, such as Diaion HP-20, silica-gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS-A column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the phenolic compounds were identified by UV and NMR spectral analyses. Levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves from six different mulberry cultivars ranged from 1,042.16 to 1,871.97 mg% per dry weight; Guksang cultivar showed the highest levels of polyphenols, whereas Gaeryangdaehwa contained the least polyphenol contents. Generally, levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves decreased with increasing harvest time, except for Yoolmok, but increased with heat processing time, except QMG and KMG. These results suggest that the heat processed mulberry leaves of Guksang cultivar harvested in early May can be potentially useful sources for production of high quality mulberry leaf teas.

  12. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis and antioxidant activities of nonanthocyanin phenolics in mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Han, F; He, J; Duan, C

    2008-08-01

    Qualitative analysis of the nonanthocyanin phenolics from 2 mulberry cultivars, da-10 and hongguo, was performed by the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method. Six nonanthocyanin phenolics compounds were identified (procatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-caffeolyquinic acid, taxifolin, rutin, quercetin) and 3 others (3,5-diCQA, taxifolin-hexoside, kamepferol-hexoside) were tentatively identified. Quantification of nonanthocyanin phenolic was performed by HPLC-DAD, which revealed that rutin (111.38 and 90.79 microg/g FW) was the major nonanthocyanin phenolics in the 2 mulberry cultivars. Phenolic acids in cultivar da-10 (54.68 microg/g FW) were far more than in cultivar hongguo (14.93 microg/g FW). CQA and its isomers (40.02 microg/g FW) were the major phenolic acid in cultivar da-10. The nonanthocyanin phenolics in the 2 cultivars of mulberry had higher antiradical activities in superoxide anion and DPPH radical and antioxidant activity in beta-CLAMS assay than the Trolox. These results were relevant to not only the control of color stability and organoleptic characteristics of mulberry juice and wine but also the exploitation of the functional foods made from mulberry.

  13. Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Sang Won

    2012-01-01

    Six polyphenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CA), rutin (RT), isoquercitrin (IQT), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-β-D-glucoside (QMG), astragalin (AG), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-β-D-glucoside (KMG), were isolated from mulberry leaves by a series of isolation procedures, such as Diaion HP-20, silica-gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS-A column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the phenolic compounds were identified by UV and NMR spectral analyses. Levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves from six different mulberry cultivars ranged from 1,042.16 to 1,871.97 mg% per dry weight; Guksang cultivar showed the highest levels of polyphenols, whereas Gaeryangdaehwa contained the least polyphenol contents. Generally, levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves decreased with increasing harvest time, except for Yoolmok, but increased with heat processing time, except QMG and KMG. These results suggest that the heat processed mulberry leaves of Guksang cultivar harvested in early May can be potentially useful sources for production of high quality mulberry leaf teas. PMID:24471097

  14. Rapid determination of 1-deoxynojirimycin in Morus alba L. leaves by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Dong-Yang; Liu, Ze-Yu; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Li; Li, Long; Liu, Charles C; Wu, Guo-Hua

    2015-10-10

    A new method based on a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ionization source coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analyses of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in mulberry leaves. Two ions produced from DNJ, [M+H](+) (m/z 164) and [M-2H+H](+) (m/z 162), are observed using DART-MS in the positive ion mode. The peak areas of the two selected ions monitoring (SIM) signals of ([M+H](+) (m/z 164) and [M-2H+H](+) (m/z 162)) are integrated to determine the peak area for quantitative analyses. A reasonable linear regression equation is obtained in the range of 1.01 to 40.50 μg/mL, with a linear coefficient (R(2)) of 0.996. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of the method are 0.25 and 0.80 μg/mL, respectively. The range of recovery is shown to be 87.73-95.61%. The results derived from the developed DART-MS method are in good agreement with those from the conventional HPLC-FLD method. By contrast, DART-MS in SIM mode is a simple, rapid and high-throughput approach for the determination of the DNJ content in mulberry leaves. The present method is advantageous for the rapid screening of mulberry leaves containing high DNJ contents.

  15. Polygenic eruptions on Alba Patera, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Wilson, L.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    A new model for the evolution of the martian volcano Alba Patera is constructed. Numerous digitate channel networks on the flanks of the volcano are interpreted to be carved by sapping due to the release of nonjuvenile water from unconsolidated flank deposits. The particle size of these deposits is estimated to be 3-10 microns, which, together with theoretical modelling of the disperison of explosively derived volcanic materials, leads to the conclusion that the flank deposits on Alba Patera are low-relief pyroclastic flows. The recognition of numerous late-stage summit and subterminal lava flows thus makes Alba Patera a unique martian volcano that is transitional between the older pyroclastic-dominated highland paterae and the more recent effusive central-vent volcanoes such as the Tharsis Montes.

  16. Geomorphology and stratigraphy of Alba Patera, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Geomorphic and stratigraphic analysis of Alba Patera suggests a volcanic construct built by lavas with rheologic properties similar to basalts. A series of evolving eruptive styles is suggested by changes in morphology and inferred progressive reductions in flow volume with higher stratigraphic position. Alba Patera's volcanic history has been summarized into four main phases. The first is characterized by extensive flood like flows presumably erupted from fissures associated with the initial intrusion of magma into the region. The second phase is associated with the emplacement of pyroclastic rock, a more speculative interpretation. The third phase produced the voluminous tabular, crested, and undifferentiated flows, probably from a more centralized vent source. The fourth and last phase is marked the effusion of levee like flows and the collapse of the summit calderas and final graben formation.

  17. Highly oxygenated sesquiterpenes in Artemisia alba Turra.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Danova, Kalina; Simmons, Luke; Wolfram, Evelyn; Meier, Beat; Riedl, Rainer; Evstatieva, Luba

    2015-02-01

    Ten new sesquiterpene alcohols of which seven germacranes, a eudesmane, a guaiane and an oplopane were isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia alba Turra. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by spectral methods ((1)H and (13)C NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY, and MS). In addition, the known 7-hydroxycadin-4-en-3-one, centaureidin and axillarin were found for the first time in the studied species.

  18. Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.

    PubMed

    He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2013-01-01

    Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants.

  19. Free and bound volatile chemicals in mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Qing; Yang, Lili; Li, Jingming; Chen, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) is a popular and desirable fruit that is widely cultivated in China. Despite its popularity, the free volatile chemicals and glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs) of mulberry have been minimally studied. To this end, we have investigated these compounds in 4 mulberry cultivars via solid phase extraction (SPE) and headspace solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 55 free volatile chemicals and 57 GBVs were identified and quantified. In 3 of the cultivars ("YFS," "T10," and "D10"), the GBVs were found in higher amounts than their free counterparts, corresponding to a ratio of 1.2 to 1.8. The characteristic aromas were determined by their odor activity values (OAVs) and by generating an aroma series (AS). A total of 20 volatile compounds had OAVs ≥ 1.0. In particular, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-nonenal, and eugenol had relatively high OAVs and were considered to be the key aromas contributing to the mulberry flavor. Consequently, mulberry was characterized by a variety of herbaceous scents having a background of sweet, spicy, fruity, and floral notes. The free volatiles exhibited strong herbaceous notes, whereas the GBVs were responsible for the sweet and spicy qualities of the fruit. Based on our results, 2 cultivars ("YFS" and "D10") are proposed to be good candidates suitable for the further development of mulberry-based food products due to their complex and desirable aromas.

  20. The Alba ray tracing code: ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Josep; Barla, Alessandro; Juanhuix, Jordi

    2013-09-01

    The Alba ray tracing code (ART) is a suite of Matlab functions and tools for the ray tracing simulation of x-ray beamlines. The code is structured in different layers, which allow its usage as part of optimization routines as well as an easy control from a graphical user interface. Additional tools for slope error handling and for grating efficiency calculations are also included. Generic characteristics of ART include the accumulation of rays to improve statistics without memory limitations, and still providing normalized values of flux and resolution in physically meaningful units.

  1. In vitro regeneration of Basella alba L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edney, Norris Allen; Rizvi, Muhammad A.; Rizvi, Narjis F.

    1989-01-01

    Basella alba L. is a tropical vine used as a vegetable in some Asian and African countries. It has potential as a nontraditional crop for small family farms. A short day plant, it blooms during the fall, provided the temperatures are mild. In the southeastern U.S., the short days of fall are associated with subfreezing temperatures, and plants are killed before blooming. Attempts were made to regenerate the plant using tissue culture techniques. Several trials were conducted with different media, hormones, and explants. It was found that nodal segments on Gamborg medium regenerated shoots. Interaction studies of auxins and cytokinins indicated that its endogeneous auxin content might be high because callus proliferated in almost all treatments and roots initiated even when the medium was not supplemented with an auxin.

  2. Antioxidant Effect of Lippia alba (Miller) N. E. Brown

    PubMed Central

    Chies, Claire E.; Branco, Cátia S.; Scola, Gustavo; Agostini, Fabiana; Gower, Adriana E.; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-01-01

    Lippia alba is a shrub found in all regions of Brazil and other countries in South and Central America. L. alba exhibits variability among its different accessions, showing differences in morphology and in the composition of its essential oil. This study evaluated the phenolic profiles and the antioxidant activities of seven different accessions of L. alba. The seven accessions of L. alba studied exhibited an important phenolic content, and all accessions demonstrated antioxidant activity with different efficacies. The main flavonoids in all accessions were apigenin, luteolin, naringin and rutin. The Santa Vitória do Palmar accession exhibited higher naringin and total phenolic content. This extract was able to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in tissue homogenates of cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and liver of Wistar rats. PMID:26784458

  3. Antioxidant Effect of Lippia alba (Miller) N. E. Brown.

    PubMed

    Chies, Claire E; Branco, Cátia S; Scola, Gustavo; Agostini, Fabiana; Gower, Adriana E; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-09-26

    Lippia alba is a shrub found in all regions of Brazil and other countries in South and Central America. L. alba exhibits variability among its different accessions, showing differences in morphology and in the composition of its essential oil. This study evaluated the phenolic profiles and the antioxidant activities of seven different accessions of L. alba. The seven accessions of L. alba studied exhibited an important phenolic content, and all accessions demonstrated antioxidant activity with different efficacies. The main flavonoids in all accessions were apigenin, luteolin, naringin and rutin. The Santa Vitória do Palmar accession exhibited higher naringin and total phenolic content. This extract was able to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in tissue homogenates of cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and liver of Wistar rats.

  4. Antihepatotoxic activity of eclipta alba, tephrosia purpurea and boerhaavia diffusa.

    PubMed

    Murthy, V N; Reddy, B P; Venkateshwarlu, V; Kokate, C K

    1992-01-01

    Alcoholic and chloroform extracts of E. albaT. purpurea and B. diffusa were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with CCl4. Liver function was assessed based on liver to boy weight ratio, pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and bilirubin. Alcoholic extract of E. alba was found to have good antihepatotoxic activity.

  5. [Quality assessment of sulfur-fumigated paeoniae alba radix].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Chen, Yu-Wu; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Lei; Xu, Wei-Yi; Jin, Hong-Yu; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    The samples of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix acquired both by random spot check from domestic market and self-production by the research group in the laboratory were used to evaluate the effects of sulphur fumigation on the quality of Paeoniae Alba Radix by comparing sulfur-fumigated degree and character, the content of paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester, and changes of the fingerprint. We used methods in Chinese Pharmacopeia to evaluate the character of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix and determinate the content of aulfur-fumigated paeoniflorin. LC-MS method was used to analyze paeoniflorin-converted products. HPLC fingerprint methods were established to evaluate the differences on quality by similarity. Results showed that fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix became white and its unique fragrance disappeared, along with the production of pungent sour gas. It also had a significant effect on paeoniflorin content. As sulfur smoked degree aggravated, paeoniflorin content decreased subsequently, some of which turned into paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester, and this change was not reversible. Fingerprint also showed obvious changes. Obviously, sulfur fumigation had severe influence on the quality of Paeoniae Alba Radix, but we can control the quality of the Paeoniae Alba Radix by testing the paeoniflorin sulfurous acid ester content.

  6. Identification and characterization of Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain genes in mulberry, Morus notabilis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yiwei; Ma, Bi; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2016-06-01

    Genes from the plant specific Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) family encode transcriptional regulators that have a variety of functions in various physiological and developmental processes. In the present study, 31 LBD genes were identified in the mulberry genome. The genome features of all MnLBD genes and phylogenetic studies with Arabidopsis LBD protein sequences, accompanied by the expression analysis of each of the Morus LBD genes provide insights into the functional prediction of mulberry LBDs. The genome-wide surveys of the current mulberry genome have resulted in the identification of catalogs of MnLBD genes that may function in the development of leaf, root, and secondary metabolism in Morus sp.

  7. Paenibacillus alba nov., isolated from peat soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2015-06-01

    A white-colored bacterial strain designated J20-6(T) was isolated from peat soil collected in Russia. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the strain J20-6(T) belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, and the closest relatives were Paenibacillus frigoriresistens YIM 016(T) (98.2 %), Paenibacillus alginolyticus DSM 5050T(T) (97.9 %), Paenibacillus chondroitinus DSM 5051(T) (97.4 %), Paenibacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 1138(T) (96.9 %), and Paenibacillus pectinilyticus RCB-08(T) (96.6 %). Cells are gram-positive, motile, facultative aerobic, endospore forming, and rod shaped. The cell wall contains MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major fatty acid is anteiso-C15:0, and the major polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine. The DNA G+C content of the strain J20-6(T) was 49.9 mol %. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic data clearly suggest that the strain J20-6(T) belongs to the novel member of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus alba sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is J20-6(T) (=KEMC 7302-005(T) = JCM 18165(T)).

  8. The Hindlimb Myology of Tyto alba (Tytonidae, Strigiformes, Aves).

    PubMed

    Mosto, M C

    2017-02-01

    This work is the first myological dissection performed in detail on the hindlimb of Tyto alba. Six specimens were dissected and their muscle masses were obtained. T. alba has the classical myological pattern present in other species of Strigiformes, such as a well-developed m. flexor digitorum longus and the absence of the m. plantaris, flexor cruris lateralis and ambiens. Also, T. alba lacks the m. extensor propius digiti III, m. extensor propius digiti IV and m. lumbricalis, present in the Strigidae. Hindlimb muscle mass accounts for 14.13% of total body mass, which is within the range of values of both nocturnal (Strigiformes) and diurnal (Falconidae and Accipitridae) raptors. This study provides important information for future studies related to functional morphology and ecomorphology.

  9. Microbiological characterization and functionality of set-type yogurt fermented with potential prebiotic substrates Cudrania tricuspidata and Morus alba L. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Ji Young; Joung, Jae Yeon; Kim, Kyung Su; Shin, Yong Kook; Lee, Kwang-Won; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Sangnam; Kim, Younghoon

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 plant leaf extracts on fermentation mechanisms and health-promoting activities and their potential as a nutraceutical prebiotics ingredient for application in dairy products. The individual active phenolic compounds in the plant extract-supplemented milk and yogurts were also identified. Compared with control fermentation, the plant extracts significantly increased the growth and acidification rate of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. In particular, plant extract components, including monosaccharides, formic acid, and hydroxycinnamic acid, such as neo-chlorogenic, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid, together play a stimulatory role and cause this beneficial effect on the growth of yogurt culture bacteria through fermentation. In addition, supplementation with the plant extracts enhanced antioxidant activities with increased total phenolic contents, especially the highest antioxidant activity was observed in yogurt supplemented with Cudrania tricuspidata leaf extract.

  10. Power ultrasound as a pretreatment to convective drying of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves: Impact on drying kinetics and selected quality properties.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Wang, Ping; Wang, Yilin; Kadam, Shekhar U; Han, Yongbin; Wang, Jiandong; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    The effect of ultrasound pretreatment prior to convective drying on drying kinetics and selected quality properties of mulberry leaves was investigated in this study. Ultrasound pretreatment was carried out at 25.2-117.6 W/L for 5-15 min in a continuous mode. After sonication, mulberry leaves were dried in a hot-air convective dryer at 60 °C. The results revealed that ultrasound pretreatment not only affected the weight of mulberry leaves, it also enhanced the convective drying kinetics and reduced total energy consumption. The drying kinetics was modeled using a diffusion model considering external resistance and effective diffusion coefficient De and mass transfer coefficient hm were identified. Both De and hm during convective drying increased with the increase of acoustic energy density (AED) and ultrasound duration. However, De and hm increased slowly at high AED levels. Furthermore, ultrasound pretreatment had a more profound influence on internal mass transfer resistance than on external mass transfer resistance during drying according to Sherwood numbers. Regarding the quality properties, the color, antioxidant activity and contents of several bioactive compounds of dried mulberry leaves pretreated by ultrasound at 63.0 W/L for 10 min were similar to that of mulberry leaves without any pretreatments. Overall, ultrasound pretreatment is effective to shorten the subsequent drying time of mulberry leaves without damaging the quality of final product.

  11. Identification and molecular characterization of an Alba-family protein from human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Manish; Alam, Athar; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Dey, Sumanta; Bindu, Samik; Pal, Chinmay; Banerjee, Anindyajit; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the DNA-binding nature as well as the function of a putative Alba (Acetylation lowers binding affinity) family protein (PfAlba3) from Plasmodium falciparum. PfAlba3 possesses DNA-binding property like Alba family proteins. PfAlba3 binds to DNA sequence non-specifically at the minor groove and acetylation lowers its DNA-binding affinity. The protein is ubiquitously expressed in all the erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum and it exists predominantly in the acetylated form. PfAlba3 inhibits transcription in vitro by binding to DNA. Plasmodium falciparum Sir2 (PfSir2A), a nuclear localized deacetylase interacts with PfAlba3 and deacetylates the lysine residue of N-terminal peptide of PfAlba3 specific for DNA binding. PfAlba3 is localized with PfSir2A in the periphery of the nucleus. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies revealed the presence of PfAlba3 in the telomeric and subtelomeric regions. ChIP and ChIP ReChIP analyses further confirmed that PfAlba3 binds to the telomeric and subtelomeric regions as well as to var gene promoter. PMID:22006844

  12. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  13. Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils

    PubMed Central

    López, Molkary Andrea; Stashenko, Elena E.; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

    2011-01-01

    The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral), geraniol (7%) and trans-β-caryophyllene (7%) for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%), limonene (33%) and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8%) for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene) showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds. PMID:21931523

  14. Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils.

    PubMed

    López, Molkary Andrea; Stashenko, Elena E; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

    2011-07-01

    The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral), geraniol (7%) and trans-β-caryophyllene (7%) for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%), limonene (33%) and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8%) for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene) showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds.

  15. Development of a novel set of microsatellite markers for Lippia alba (Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Rocha, D S; Santos, C P; Bajay, M M; Campos, J B; Blank, A F; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I

    2015-02-03

    Microsatellite primers were developed and optimized for Lippia alba to characterize the L. alba germplasm bank of Universidade de São Paulo. A genomic library enabled the design of 9 microsatellite primers. Six of the 9 primers yielded polymorphic products, which defined 2 groups in the bank. The data provide support to characterize germplasm banks, genetic breeding programs for L. alba, and other genetic diversity studies and classifications of species in the genus Lippia.

  16. Relative ages of lava flows at Alba Patera, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Many large lava flows on the flanks of Alba Patera are astonishing in their volume and length. As a suite, these flows suggest tremendously voluminous and sustained eruptions, and provide dimensional boundary conditions typically a factor of 100 larger than terrestrial flows. One of the most striking features associated with Alba Patera is the large, radially oriented lava flows that exhibit a variety of flow morphologies. These include sheet flows, tube fed and tube channel flows, and undifferentiated flows. Three groups of flows were studied; flows on the northwest flank, southeast flank, and the intracaldera region. The lava flows discussed probably were erupted as a group during the same major volcanic episode as suggested by the data presented. Absolute ages are poorly constrained for both the individual flows and shield, due in part to disagreement as to which absolute age curve is representative for Mars. A relative age sequence is implied but lacks precision due to the closeness of the size frequency curves.

  17. Fractal geometry of some Martian lava flow margins: Alba Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauhanen, K.

    1993-01-01

    Fractal dimension for a few lava flow margins on the gently sloping flanks of Alba Patera were measured using the structured walk method. Fractal behavior was observed at scales ranging from 20 to 100 pixels. The upper limit of the linear part of log(margin length) vs. log(scale) profile correlated well to the margin length. The lower limit depended on resolution and flow properties.

  18. The analyst at work: two sessions with Alba.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Stefano

    2002-08-01

    In this paper, the author presents clinical material that relates to two sessions with a patient called Alba. This analytic work, being of a somewhat unusual character, lends itself to discussion, the author feels, since the technical choices made are undoubtedly very personal and he believes many colleagues might have done things differently. The author endeavours to enrich the account of the sessions with his concomitant thoughts, so as to supply colleagues with the elements, atmosphere and developments of his internal workshop.

  19. LINEA ALBA COLLAGEN ASSESSMENT IN MORBIDLY OBESE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    GROSSI, João Vicente Machado; NICOLA, Felipe Fernandes; ZEPEDA, Ivan Alberto; BECKER, Martina; TRINDADE, Eduardo Neubarth; DIEMEN, Vinicius Von; CAVAZZOLA, Leandro Totti; TRINDADE, Manoel Roberto Maciel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The evaluation of collagen in the abdominal wall has been increasingly studied because of the relevance on collagen in the healing process after laparotomy. Aim: To evaluate the amount of collagen in the linea alba of patients undergoing laparotomic bariatric surgery and comparing with non-obese cadavers. Methods: Were evaluated 88 samples of aponeurosis from abdominal linea alba of 44 obese patients (obesity group) and 44 non-obese cadavers (control group). The samples were collected in 2013 and 2104, and were sorted according to age (18-30, 31-45 and 46-60), gender, BMI, waist and cervical circumference, and subcutaneous tissue thickness. Material for biopsy was collected from the supraumbilical region of the linea alba for immunohistochemical analysis differentiating collagen type 1 and type 3 and the 1/3 ratio. Image-Pro Plus pixel counting software was used to measure the amount of collagen. Results: The obesity group evidenced mean age 44.11±9.90 years; 18-30 age group had three (6.8%) obese individuals; 31-45 had 22 (50%) and 46-60 had 19 (43.1%). Females were present in 81.8% (n=36); BMI (kg/m²) was 48.81±6.5; waist circumference (cm) was 136.761±13.55; subcutaneous tissue thickness (cm) 4.873±0.916. Considering age groups, gender and BMI, there were statistical differences in all tests when compared with the cadavers. Conclusion: The amount of collagen in the linea alba above the umbilical region in the morbidly obese patients was smaller than in the non-obese cadavers in the same age group. PMID:27683766

  20. Antiulcerogenic activity of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Pascual, M E; Slowing, K; Carretero, M E; Villar, A

    2001-01-01

    Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Verbenaceae, known popularly as 'Juanilama' or 'Salvia Sija', is prized widely in folk medicine in Guatemala. Its leaves are employed as an infusion and decoction as a remedy for stomach problems, dysentery, colds and cough, febrifuge, as well as a sedative and in spasmolitic remedies. The present study reports the effects of the infusion of L. alba on the rat gastric mucosa. The following behavioural parameters were evaluated: (a) gastric irritancy test in Wistar rats; (b) antiulcer activity, short term and long term; (c) acid secretion; (d) measurement of total proteins; (e) estimation of total protein bound and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups. Ranitidine (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the reference antiulcer drug. Oral treatment with the infusion (12.5 g dry plant/kg) did not cause gastric irritancy in the rats treated during five consecutive days. In addition, the oral administration of L. alba was found to be effective at preventing gastric ulceration induced by indomethacin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) in rats in the short term (1 day) and long term (5 days).

  1. Precooling and ozone treatments affects postharvest quality of black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruits.

    PubMed

    Han, Qiang; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Wu, Weijie

    2017-04-15

    Mulberry (Morus spp.) fruits are delicious and nutritious, but they are highly perishable and have a very short shelf-life for sale in the market. This study investigated the effect and mechanisms of 2ppm ozone and precooling treatments on the postharvest quality of mulberry fruit during refrigerated storage. The results revealed that mulberry fruit subjected to ozone and precooling treatment had higher levels of titratable acidity and total soluble solids content, better retention in firmness and color, and lower decay rate, respiratory intensity, and polyphenol oxidase activity compared to the control. From the analysis of cell ultrastructure and cell wall components of fruit, ozone and precooling treatments also induced shrinkage of the stomata in the epidermis, inhibited bacteria invasion, reduced water transpiration, and delayed the decomposition of the cell walls and the degradation of epidermal tissues.

  2. De novo transcriptome analysis of mulberry (Morus L.) under drought stress using RNA-seq technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Tong, Wei; Feng, Li; Jiao, Qian; Long, Li; Fang, Rongjun; Zhao, Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of mulberry (Morus L.) was carried out between two samples in regular and drought stress condition. In this research, de novo assembly was performed, and totally 54736 contigs were obtained from the reads, including the scaffolded regions. 1051 genes were identified that were significantly differently expressed between the two samples. As determined by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway mapping, 10110 GO terms and 247 pathways were assigned and then analyzed. Thousands of SSR markers produced in this study will enable genetic linkage mapping construction and gene-based association studies. Seven unique genes showing different expression level in control and drought stress groups were subsequently analyzed and identified by real-time PCR. For lack of mulberry whole genome information, transcriptome and de novo analysis from the two samples will provide important and useful information for later research and help genetic breeding of mulberry.

  3. Predicting ultimate methane yields of Jatropha curcus and Morus indica from their chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Gunaseelan, V Nallathambi

    2009-07-01

    In this study, all the components of Jatropha curcus and Morus indica were chemically characterized and their biochemical methane potentials (BMP) were determined. From the variables that showed strong influence on the ultimate methane yield (B(o)) of J. curcus, a multiple regression Jatropha model was developed. This model comprised of total carbohydrates, protein, lipid, acid-detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose and ash in ADF as independent variables, with r(2) value of 0.943. The Jatropha model was validated on 7 samples of M. indica parts and wastes from silkworm rearing trays of this study and 13 samples of heterogeneous organic wastes of earlier studies, to judge the prediction quality. It was found that most of the predicted values differed by less than 15% of their experimental B(o).

  4. Oxidative stress in streptozocin-diabetic rats: Amelioration by mulberry (Morus Indica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Andallu, Bondada; Kumar, Av Vinay; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

    2012-12-22

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate amelioration of oxidative stress by mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves in streptozocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, as the leaves of mulberry (Morus indica L.) of Moraceae, are reported to be rich in a number of bioactive principles, i.e. antioxidant vitamins, flavonoids and moracins that can fight against oxidative stress in diabetes. METHOD: Normal wistar albino rats and STZ-diabetic rats were treated with dried mulberry leaf powder at 25% in the diet for a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant role of mulberry was assessed by determining the effect of the leaves on hepatic lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress and the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and serum antioxidant vitamins in comparison with untreated normal and diabetic rats. RESULTS: Increased oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation and increased activity of catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue, decreased serum ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tocopherol (vitamin E) in diabetic rats were countered by mulberry leaves. In addition, decreased activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, i.e. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathinone-S-tranferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased by 34%, 61%, 19% and 53% respectively in mulberry leaves-treated diabetic rats as compared with diabetic control rats. CONCLUSION: Treatment with mulberry leaves protected STZ-diabetic rats from lipid peroxidation and elevated the activities of defense enzymes. This study reveals ameliorating effect of mulberry leaves on oxidative stress in diabetic rats by the synergistic action of a number of bioactive compounds present in mulberry leaves.

  5. Whole-genome sequence of Nocardiopsis alba strain ATCC BAA-2165, associated with honeybees.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jianjun; Chen, Lei; Li, Yongli; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    The actinomycete Nocardiopsis alba was reportedly associated with honeybees in separate occurrences. We report the complete genome of Nocardiopsis alba ATCC BAA-2165 isolated from honeybee guts. It will provide insights into the metabolism and genetic regulatory networks of this genus of bacteria that enable them to live in a range of environments.

  6. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  7. Soil plant interactions of Populus alba in contrasting environments.

    PubMed

    Ciadamidaro, Lisa; Madejón, Engracia; Robinson, Brett; Madejón, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the Populus alba tree on different biochemical soil properties, growing in a contaminated area, were studied for two years under field conditions. Two types of trace element contaminated soils were studied: a neutral contaminated soil (NC) and an acid contaminated soil (AC). One neutral non-contaminated area was studied as control. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Leaves and litter samples were analysed. The addition of organic matter, through root exudates and litter, contributed to an increase in soil pH, especially in acid soil. Microbial Biomass Carbon (MBC) was significantly increased by the presence of the trees in all studied areas, especially in the upper soil layer. Similar results were also observed for protease activity. Both MBC and Protease activity were more sensitive to contamination than β-glucosidase activity. These changes resulted in a decrease of available trace element concentrations in soil and in an improvement of soil quality after a 2-year study. The total concentration of Cd and Zn in soil did not increase over time due to litter deposition. Analysis of P. alba leaves did not show a significant nutritional imbalance and trace element concentrations were normal for plants, except for Cd and Zn. These results indicate that P. alba is suitable for the improvement of soil quality in riparian contaminated areas. However, due to the high Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves, further monitoring of this area is required.

  8. Installation, commissioning and performance of IDs installed at ALBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, J.; Marcos, J.; Massana, V.; Becheri, F.; Gigante, J. V.; Colldelram, C.; Ribó, Ll

    2013-03-01

    The new synchrotron light source ALBA is currently starting regular operation. Up to 6 beamlines are using light produced by Insertion Devices. There are up to four types of IDs: 2 Apple-II undulators (EU62 and EU71) operating at low energies, one conventional wiggler (MPW80) operating in the range of 2 - 20 keV, two in-vacuum undulators (IVU21) operating in the range 5 - 30 keV and a superconducting wiggler (SCW30) operating in the range of (up to) 40 keV. The main IDs characteristics, their influence on the beam dynamics and a first characterization of their light will be presented.

  9. Differential Subcellular Localization of Leishmania Alba-Domain Proteins throughout the Parasite Development

    PubMed Central

    Dupé, Aurélien; Dumas, Carole; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Alba-domain proteins are RNA-binding proteins found in archaea and eukaryotes and recently studied in protozoan parasites where they play a role in the regulation of virulence factors and stage-specific proteins. This work describes in silico structural characterization, cellular localization and biochemical analyses of Alba-domain proteins in Leishmania infantum. We show that in contrast to other protozoa, Leishmania have two Alba-domain proteins, LiAlba1 and LiAlba3, representative of the Rpp20- and the Rpp25-like eukaryotic subfamilies, respectively, which share several sequence and structural similarities but also important differences with orthologs in other protozoa, especially in sequences targeted for post-translational modifications. LiAlba1 and LiAlba3 proteins form a complex interacting with other RNA-binding proteins, ribosomal subunits, and translation factors as supported by co-immunoprecipitation and sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis. A higher co-sedimentation of Alba proteins with ribosomal subunits was seen upon conditions of decreased translation, suggesting a role of these proteins in translational repression. The Leishmania Alba-domain proteins display differential cellular localization throughout the parasite development. In the insect promastigote stage, Alba proteins co-localize predominantly to the cytoplasm but they translocate to the nucleolus and the flagellum upon amastigote differentiation in the mammalian host and are found back to the cytoplasm once amastigote differentiation is completed. Heat-shock, a major signal of amastigote differentiation, triggers Alba translocation to the nucleolus and the flagellum. Purification of the Leishmania flagellum confirmed LiAlba3 enrichment in this organelle during amastigote differentiation. Moreover, partial characterization of the Leishmania flagellum proteome of promastigotes and differentiating amastigotes revealed the presence of other RNA-binding proteins, as well as differences in

  10. Mode of antibacterial activity of Eclalbasaponin isolated from Eclipta alba.

    PubMed

    Ray, A; Bharali, P; Konwar, B K

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mode of antibacterial activity of Eclalbasaponin isolated from Eclipta alba, against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The probable chemical structure was determined by using various spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by well diffusion technique, pH sensitivity, chemotaxis, and crystal violet assays. Eclalbasaponin showed clear zone of inhibition against both Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and exhibited growth inhibition at the pH range of 5.5-9.0. The isolated saponin exhibited its positive chemoattractant property for both bacterial strains. Results of crystal violet assay and the presence of UV-sensitive materials in the cell-free supernatant confirmed the cellular damages caused by the treatment of Eclalbasaponin. The release of intracellular proteins due to the membrane damage was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Changes in the cell surface structure and membrane disruption were further revealed by FTIR and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The present study suggests that the isolated saponin from E. alba causes the disruption of the bacterial cell membrane which leads to the loss of bacterial cell viability.

  11. Lippia alba (Verbenaceae): A new tropical autopolyploid complex?

    PubMed

    Reis, Aryane C; Sousa, Saulo M; Vale, Aline A; Pierre, Patrícia M O; Franco, Ana L; Campos, José Marcello S; Vieira, Roberto F; Viccini, Lyderson F

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Tropical regions have high species diversity, and polyploidization is a major mechanism of speciation in plants. However, few cases of natural polyploidy have been reported in tropical regions. Lippia alba, is a tropical, aromatic shrub with a wide distribution, extensive morphological plasticity, and several chemotypes. The species has long been recognized as a diploid with 2n = 30 chromosomes. Recently, two variations in chromosome number (2n = 60; 2n = 12-60) have been reported, suggesting the occurrence of polyploidy within the species.• Methods: Flow cytometry was used to investigate the genome size in 106 accessions from 14 Brazilian States. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques and pollen viability analysis were employed to characterize each chromosome number observed.• Key results: The DNA 1C-value varied from 1.17 to 3.45 pg, showing a large variation in genome size. Five distinct chromosome numbers were observed (2n = 30, 38, 45, 60, 90); three are cytogenetically described here for the first time. The 5S rDNA signals varied proportionally according to each chromosome number, but 45S rDNA sites did not. High rates of meiotic irregularity were observed, mainly in cytotypes with higher chromosome numbers.• Conclusions: The data provide new support for the occurrence of a polyploid series in Lippia alba. We provide a hypothesis for how this complex may have arisen. Other cryptic polyploid complexes may remain undiscovered in tropical regions.

  12. Tectonic histories between Alba Patera and Syria Planum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Hare, T.M.; Baker, V.R.

    2004-01-01

    Syria Planum and Alba Patera are two of the most prominent features of magmatic-driven activity identified for the Tharsis region and perhaps for all of Mars. In this study, we have performed a Geographic Information System-based comparative investigation of their tectonic histories using published geologic map information and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) data. Our primary objective is to assess their evolutional histories by focusing on their extent of deformation in space and time through stratigraphic, paleotectonic, topographic, and geomorphologic analyses. Though there are similarities among the two prominent features, there are several distinct differences, including timing deformational extent, and tectonic intensity of formation. Whereas Alba Patera displays a major pulse of activity during the Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian, Syria Planum is a long-lived center that displays a more uniform distribution of simple graben densities ranging from the Noachian to the Amazonian, many of which occur at greater distances away from the primary center of activity. The histories of the two features presented here are representative of the complex, long-lived evolutional history of Tharsis. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome-wide identification and expression analyses of cytochrome P450 genes in mulberry (Morus notabilis).

    PubMed

    Ma, Bi; Luo, Yiwei; Jia, Ling; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2014-09-01

    Cytochrome P450s play critical roles in the biosynthesis of physiologically important compounds in plants. These compounds often act as defense toxins to prevent herbivory. In the present study, a total of 174 P450 genes of mulberry (Morus notabilis C.K.Schn) were identified based on bioinformatics analyses. These mulberry P450 genes were divided into nine clans and 47 families and were found to be expressed in a tissue-preferential manner. These genes were compared to the P450 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Families CYP80, CYP92, CYP728, CYP733, CYP736, and CYP749 were found to exist in mulberry, and they may play important roles in the biosynthesis of mulberry secondary metabolites. Analyses of the functional and metabolic pathways of these genes indicated that mulberry P450 genes may participate in the metabolism of lipids, other secondary metabolites, xenobiotics, amino acids, cofactors, vitamins, terpenoids, and polyketides. These results provide a foundation for understanding of the structures and biological functions of mulberry P450 genes.

  14. Response of the Morus bombycis growing season to temperature and its latitudinal pattern in Japan.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hideyuki

    2012-09-01

    Changes in leaf phenology lengthen the growing season length (GSL, the days between leaf budburst and leaf fall) under the global warming. GSL and the leaf phenology response to climate change is one of the most important predictors of climate change effect on plants. Empirical evidence of climatic effects on GSL remains scarce, especially at a regional scale and the latitudinal pattern. This study analyzed the datasets of leaf budburst and fall phenology in Morus bombycis (Urticales), which were observed by the agency of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from 1953 to 2005 over a wide range of latitudes in Japan (31 to 44° N). In the present study, single regression slopes of leaf phenological timing and air temperature across Japan were calculated and their spatial patterns using general linear models were tested. The results showed that the GSL extension was caused mainly by a delay in leaf fall phenology. Relationships between latitude and leaf phenological and GSL responses against air temperature were significantly negative. The response of leaf phenology and GSL to air temperature at lower latitudes was larger than that at higher latitudes. The findings indicate that GSL extension should be considered with regards to latitude and climate change.

  15. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26075292

  16. Ethnopharmacological Significance of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Rownak; Al-Nahain, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba can be found growing wild in fallow lands of Bangladesh where it is considered as a weed by farmers. Traditional medicinal systems of the Indian subcontinent countries as well as tribal practitioners consider the plant to have diverse medicinal values and use it commonly for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory tract disorders (including asthma), fever, hair loss and graying of hair, liver disorders (including jaundice), skin disorders, spleen enlargement, and cuts and wounds. The plant has several phytoconstituents like wedelolactone, eclalbasaponins, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, luteolin, and apigenin. Pharmacological activities of plant extracts and individual phytoconstituents have revealed anticancer, hepatoprotective, snake venom neutralizing, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. Phytoconstituents like wedelolactone and ursolic and oleanolic acids as well as luteolin and apigenin can form the basis of new drugs against cancer, arthritis, gastrointestinal disorders, skin diseases, and liver disorders. PMID:27355071

  17. Estimates of lava eruption rates at Alba Patera, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloga, S. M.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-04-01

    The Martian volcanic complex Alba Patera exhibits a suite of well-defined, long and relatively narrow lava flows qualitatively resembling those found in Hawaii. Even without any information on the duration of the Martian flows, eruption rates (total volume discharge/duration of the extrusion) estimates are implied by the physical dimensions of the flows and the likely conjecture that Stephan-Boltzmann radiation is the dominating thermal loss mechanism. The ten flows in this analysis emanate radially from the central vent and were recently measured in length, plan areas, and average thicknesses by shadow measurement techniques. The dimensions of interest are shown. Although perhaps morphologically congruent to certain Hawaiian flows, the dramatically expanded physical dimensions of the Martian flows argues for some markedly distinct differences in lava flow composition for eruption characteristics.

  18. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Niculau, Edenilson dos Santos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide.

  19. Cytogenetic characterization of Lippia alba and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Aline Dias; Viccini, Lyderson Facio; Salimena, Fátima Regina Gonçalves; Vanzela, André Luiz Laforga; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the cytogenetic characteristics of Brazilian Lippia alba (Mill) N. E. Brown and Lantana camara Plum. that could be useful for future characterization of these genera. Our analyses revealed that Li. alba has 2n=30 chromosomes consisting of ten metacentric and five submetacentric pairs, while La. camara has 44 metacentric chromosomes. The large blocks of heterochromatin seen in both species suggest an apomorphic condition. Six 45S rDNA sites were detected in both species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two and four 5S rDNA sites were observed in Li. alba and La. camara, respectively. Meiotic analysis revealed a normal chromosomal behaviour. The number of chromosomes and the presence of 45S rDNA and 5S rDNA sites do not exclude a possible polyploid origin. The cytogenetic differences between La. camara and Li. alba may be useful markers for differentiating these species.

  20. Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions*

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; do Amaral, Gabriela Borborema; Mendes, Maiana Darwich; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pityriasis alba affects 1% of the world population and about 9.9% of the children in Brazil. However, its etiology remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. METHOD Twenty patients with pityriasis alba and 20 patients with atopic dermatitis underwent biopsy. The dermal dendrocytes marked by factor XIIIa were counted by means of immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS The mean amount of dermal dendrocytes found in the patients with pityriasis alba was 2, whereas in the patients with atopic dermatitis it was 4, with a statistically significant difference between them. A cutoff point of 3 cells/square inch was established to differentiate pityriasis alba from atopic dermatitis, with 80% sensibility and 90% specificity. CONCLUSION We believe that pityriasis alba and atopic dermatitis should be considered different clinical forms within the spectrum of atopic disease, in which sun radiation plays an important role by modulating the progression of the disease. PMID:24770500

  1. Valleys on Northwest Flank of Alba Patera Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In 1972, Mariner 9 images revealed a variety of branched and networked valleys on Alba Patera, a volcano in northern Tharsis. Since then, the question has always been, 'what made these valleys, water or lava?' Because the Alba Patera volcano was considered to be a relatively young feature on Mars, it seemed that if waterways involved in the formation of the valleys, then it would imply that liquid water flowed on this part of Mars at a relatively recent time in the planet's history. Thus, it was hoped that Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), with its super-high resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), would help answer this key question about evidence for past water on the red planet.

    However, when MOC peered down upon these valleys it became clear that the camera might not help answer the question of their origin. As the picture above shows, these valleys--which trend from lower right to upper left in the picture--are old and have been cut by younger faults that created graben--e.g., the wide, straight valley running diagonally from upper right to lower left. Worse, the close-up views revealed that the valleys are covered up by a lumpy-textured material that also partly fills nearby impact craters. The origin of the textured material is unknown but might result from years and years of wind erosion of surface 'soil' or volcanic ash. However it formed, this covering obscures so much of the details of the valleys that high resolution pictures are unlikely to solve this mystery.

    The picture above covers an area approximately 8 kilometers (5 miles) wide by 15 kilometers (9 miles) high. Illumination is from the right. The picture was acquired in August 1998 during the MGS Science Phasing Orbits imaging campaign, and was presented at the 30th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston, Texas, March 1999.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the

  2. Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual.

  3. Nanometer accuracy with continuous scans at the ALBA-NOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Josep; Pedreira, Pablo; Å ics, Igors; Ramírez, Claudio; Campos, Juan

    2016-09-01

    We present the continuous scan operation of the ALBA-NOM as a working mode that allows obtaining low noise in short time, as well as high accuracy measurements. In the traditional step-scan operation, the position of the probe beam is kept fixed while many data points of autocollimator are averaged for noise reduction. This operation mode is very safe, as one has a perfect correspondence between mirror position and measured angle, but it is time inefficient, as it disregards all the data values acquired during motion, and basically averages data values taken under identical conditions. On the other hand, continuous scan is less safe in terms of correspondence between mirror position and slope, especially for NOM systems for which the autocollimator does not accept an electronic trigger. Nevertheless, it is possible to perform independent acquisitions of the autocollimator and of the linear stage data during a scan, and synchronize signals a posteriori. This solves the main problem of continuous scan with a NOM. Continuous scan operation for performing measurements is very efficient for noise reduction per unit time, as it allows integrating every single data value taken by the autocollimator. In addition, it opens the possibility of introducing pitch variations of the mirror between scans. This allows obtaining many independent datasets that can be combined using error suppression techniques to reduce not just noise but systematic errors too. In this paper we report the methods and the main results.

  4. Gnathostome infection in swamp eels, Fluta alba, in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuamtanong, S; Waikagul, J; Anantaphruti, M T

    1998-03-01

    To investigate the distribution of gnathostome worms in central Thailand, the infective larvae of Gnathostoma spp were examined from the flesh and liver of swamp eels, Fluta alba. Seven hundred and eighty-eight eels were purchased from markets in 11 provinces; Ang Thong (30), Ayutthaya (36), Chachoengsao (30), Lop Buri (30), Nakhon Nayok (437), Pathum Thani (30), Prachin Buri (48), Ratchaburi (53), Saraburi (30), Samut Prakan (30) and Suphan Buri (34). The highest rate of gnathostome infection was observed in swamp eels from Nakhon Nayok (68.7%). The infection rates in Ayutthaya, Ang Thong, Prachin Buri, Ratchaburi, Saraburi and Lop Buri were 33.3%, 26.7%, 25.0%, 18.9%, 13.3% and 10.0% respectively. Gnathostome larvae were not found in swamp eels from Chachoengsao, Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan and Suphan Buri. Among the 9,573 larvae recovered, almost all were the advanced third stage larvae of G. spinigerum, except one larva from Nakhon Nayok and two larvae from Ratchaburi which were identified as the advanced third stage larvae of G. vietnamicum and G. hispidum respectively. This study is the first report of swamp eels as natural intermediate hosts of G. vietnamicum and G. hispidum.

  5. SimAlba: A Spatial Microsimulation Approach to the Analysis of Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Malcolm; Ballas, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents applied geographical research based on a spatial microsimulation model, SimAlba, aimed at estimating geographically sensitive health variables in Scotland. SimAlba has been developed in order to answer a variety of "what-if" policy questions pertaining to health policy in Scotland. Using the SimAlba model, it is possible to simulate the distributions of previously unknown variables at the small area level such as smoking, alcohol consumption, mental well-being, and obesity. The SimAlba microdataset has been created by combining Scottish Health Survey and Census data using a deterministic reweighting spatial microsimulation algorithm developed for this purpose. The paper presents SimAlba outputs for Scotland's largest city, Glasgow, and examines the spatial distribution of the simulated variables for small geographical areas in Glasgow as well as the effects on individuals of different policy scenario outcomes. In simulating previously unknown spatial data, a wealth of new perspectives can be examined and explored. This paper explores a small set of those potential avenues of research and shows the power of spatial microsimulation modeling in an urban context.

  6. SimAlba: A Spatial Microsimulation Approach to the Analysis of Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Malcolm; Ballas, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents applied geographical research based on a spatial microsimulation model, SimAlba, aimed at estimating geographically sensitive health variables in Scotland. SimAlba has been developed in order to answer a variety of “what-if” policy questions pertaining to health policy in Scotland. Using the SimAlba model, it is possible to simulate the distributions of previously unknown variables at the small area level such as smoking, alcohol consumption, mental well-being, and obesity. The SimAlba microdataset has been created by combining Scottish Health Survey and Census data using a deterministic reweighting spatial microsimulation algorithm developed for this purpose. The paper presents SimAlba outputs for Scotland’s largest city, Glasgow, and examines the spatial distribution of the simulated variables for small geographical areas in Glasgow as well as the effects on individuals of different policy scenario outcomes. In simulating previously unknown spatial data, a wealth of new perspectives can be examined and explored. This paper explores a small set of those potential avenues of research and shows the power of spatial microsimulation modeling in an urban context. PMID:27818989

  7. Investigation of Antiarthritic Potential of Plumeria alba L. Leaves in Acute and Chronic Models of Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vipin; Gupta, Pankaj; Singh, Surender

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The present investigation was designed to evaluate antiarthritic potential of fractions of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of P. alba. Materials and Methods. Plumeria alba L. leaves were extracted with hydroalcohol (30 : 70) to obtain hydroalcoholic extract of P. alba. This extract was further fractionated with solvents ethyl acetate and n-butanol to obtain EAPA and BPA, respectively. These fractions were tested against formaldehyde and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis. Arthritis assessment, paw volume, body weight, motor incoordination, and nociceptive threshold were measured. On day 21, the animals were sacrificed and histopathology was done. Results. The 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of EAPA and BPA caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05–0.01) reduction in paw swelling in both models. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and spleen weight decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in arthritic rats treated with extracts. There was significant (P < 0.05) improvement in thymus weight in EAPA treated rats whereas significant (P < 0.01) improvement was also seen in haemoglobin level (Hb) in diclofenac treated group. Motor incoordination and nociceptive threshold were also significantly (P ≤ 0.05–0.01) improved. Conclusion. The present study suggests that Plumeria alba L. has protective activity against arthritis and supports the traditional use of P. alba for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25025056

  8. Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

  9. Prevalence and composition of fishing gear debris in the nests of northern gannets (Morus bassanus) are related to fishing effort.

    PubMed

    Bond, Alexander L; Montevecchi, William A; Guse, Nils; Regular, Paul M; Garthe, Stefan; Rail, Jean-François

    2012-05-01

    Bycatch and indirect mortality associated with global fishing operations affect non-target species. Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) and other seabirds incorporate marine debris, much of it originating in fisheries, into their nests, at times resulting in entanglement. We compared the prevalence and composition of marine debris in nests at two gannet colonies in Newfoundland before and after a basin-wide ground fish closure in 1992, and at the species' largest colony in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where fishing effort is low. The proportion of nests with marine debris decreased following the fishery closure, and the proportion of nests with fishing gear was related exponentially to the number of gillnets set around breeding colonies. Assessing the composition of gannet nests could provide a useful index of the prevalence of fishing debris and could be used to assess entanglement risk of other animals in the marine environment over decadal scales.

  10. Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

    2013-10-15

    The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions.

  11. The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

    1999-01-01

    MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

  12. New microsatellite loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Bessega, Cecilia F.; Pometti, Carolina L.; Miller, Joe T.; Watts, Richard; Saidman, Beatriz O.; Vilardi, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. • Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. • Conclusions: These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection. PMID:25202541

  13. Volcanic styles at Alba Patera, Mars: Implications of lava flow morphology to the volcanic history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneeberger, D. M.; Pieri, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    Alba Patera presents styles of volcanism that are unique to Mars. Its very low profile, large areal extent, unusually long and voluminous lava flows, and circumferential graben make it among Mars' most interesting volcanic features. Clues to Alba's volcanic history are preserved in its morphology and stratigraphy. Understanding the relationship of lava flow morphology to emplacement processes should enable estimates of viscosity, effusion rate, and gross composition to be made. Lava flows, with dimensions considered enormous by terrestrial standards, account for a major portion of the exposed surface of Alba Patera. These flows exhibit a range of morphologies. While most previous works have focused on the planimetric characteristics, attention was drawn to the important morphological attributes, paying particular attention to what the features suggest about the emplacement process.

  14. Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: A natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, F; Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Sayago, J; Alberto, M R; Chamorro, V; Pazos, A; Thomas-Valdés, S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-10-01

    The Prosopis alba seed is a waste material in the process to produce pod flour. To suggest a potential use of these seeds it is necessary to determine the nutritional, phytochemical and functional quality of cotyledon flour from Prosopis alba. This flour showed high level of proteins (62%), low content of total carbohydrate and fat. Free polyphenol (1150±20mg GAE/100g flour) and carotenoids (10.55±0.05mg β-CE/100g flour) compounds were the dominant compounds. The main identified constituents in the polyphenolic extracts were C- glycosyl flavones, including schaftoside, isoschaftoside, vicenin II, vitexin and isovitexin. The extract enriched in polyphenolic compounds exhibited ABTS(+) reducing capacity and scavenging activity of H2O2; and was able to inhibit phospholipase, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, three pro-inflammatory enzymes. According to our results, the P. alba cotyledon flour could be considered as a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods or food supplements.

  15. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2016-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  16. Purification and biochemical characterization of phytocystatin from Brassica alba.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2016-05-01

    Phytocystatins belong to the family of cysteine proteinases inhibitors. They are ubiquitously found in plants and carry out various significant physiological functions. These plant derived inhibitors are gaining wide consideration as potential candidate in engineering transgenic crops and in drug designing. Hence it is crucial to identify these inhibitors from various plant sources. In the present study a phytocystatin has been isolated and purified by a simple two-step procedure using ammonium sulfate saturation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100HR from Brassica alba seeds (yellow mustard seeds).The protein was purified to homogeneity with 60.3% yield and 180-fold of purification. The molecular mass of the mustard seed cystatin was estimated to be nearly 26,000 Da by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as by gel filtration chromatography. The stokes radius and diffusion coefficient of the mustard cystatin were found to be 23A° and 9.4 × 10(-7)  cm(2) s(-1) respectively. The isolated phytocystatin was found to be stable in the pH range of 6-8 and is thermostable up to 60 °C. Kinetic analysis revealed that the phytocystatin exhibited non-competitive type of inhibition and inhibited papain more efficiently (K(i)  = 3 × 10(-7)  M) than ficin (K(i)  = 6.6 × 10(-7)  M) and bromelain (K(i) = 7.7 × 10(-7)  M respectively). CD spectral analysis shows that it possesses 17.11% alpha helical content.

  17. Antioxidant and neurosedative properties of polyphenols and iridoids from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Gressier, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Bailleul, François

    2008-02-01

    The neurosedative and antioxidative properties of some major compounds isolated from a citral chemotype of Lippia alba were investigated. Binding assays were performed on two CNS inhibitory targets: benzodiazepine and GABA(A) receptors. The most active compound was luteolin-7-diglucuronide, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 101 and 40 microm, respectively. Fifteen compounds isolated from Lippia alba were tested for their radical scavenging capacities against DPPH. Four of the major compounds (verbascoside, calceolarioside E, luteolin-7-diglucuronide and theveside) were also tested for their antioxidant activity against superoxide radical-anion in cell-free (hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase) and cellular (PMA-stimulated neutrophil granulocytes) systems.

  18. Anaerobic reduction of elemental sulfur by Chromatium vinosum and Beggiatoa alba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of sulfur globules on the buoyant density of Chromatium vinosum and Beggiatoa alba was examined. The potential use of sulfur as a terminal electron acceptor in the anaerobic metabolism of Beggiatoa alba is also examined. The effect of the reduction of intracellular sulfur was investigated during dark metabolism on the buoyant density of C. vinosum. It is hypothesized from the results that the sulfur reduction to sulfide is part of an anaerobic energy operating system. Carbon stored as PHB can be oxidized with the concomitant reduction of sulfur to sulfide.

  19. The relationship between 1-deoxynojirimycin content and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity in leaves of 276 mulberry cultivars (Morus spp.) in Kyoto, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yatsunami, Kazuhisa; Ichida, Masatoshi; Onodera, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) content and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity in mulberry (Morus) leaves is discussed. Mulberry leaves were collected from the Center for Bioresource Field Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan on 19 May, 9 July, and 9 August, 2003. Mulberry leaves were extracted with 75% ethanol. The inhibitory activity for rat intestinal crude enzyme was measured using maltose. The content of DNJ in the extracts was measured using HPLC. The mean DNJ content in the 0.04-0.06% range was high in collected samples. The inhibitory activities in July and August were higher (P < 0.01) than in May, and the activity in July was higher (P < 0.01) than in August. A strong correlation (r = 0.901, r (2) = 0.811, n = 15) existed between DNJ content and alpha-glucosidase inhibition in leaves of Morus bombycis harvested in July. Similarly, correlation coefficients of the other mulberry varieties in July were higher than they were in May or August. The inhibitory activity and the DNJ content of Morus latifolia in August were lower than for any other mulberry variety. These results show that the high inhibitory cultivars harvested in July, except for M. latifolia, are more suited to products that contain high DNJ contents.

  20. Alcoholic Extract of Eclipta alba Shows In Vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity without Exhibiting Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Rakesh Kumar; Dev, Kapil; Sharma, Chetan; Hossain, Zakir; Meena, Sanjeev; Arya, K. R.; Gayen, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    As per WHO estimates, 80% of people around the world use medicinal plants for the cure and prevention of various diseases including cancer owing to their easy availability and cost effectiveness. Eclipta alba has long been used in Ayurveda to treat liver diseases, eye ailments, and hair related disorders. The promising medicinal value of E. alba prompted us to study the antioxidant, nontoxic, and anticancer potential of its alcoholic extract. In the current study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant effect of the alcoholic extract of Eclipta alba (AEEA) in multiple cancer cell lines along with control. We have also evaluated its effect on different in vivo toxicity parameters. Here, we found that AEEA was found to be most active in most of the cancer cell lines but it significantly induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA damage. Moreover, AEEA treatment inhibited migration in both MCF 7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose dependent manner. Further, AEEA possesses robust in vitro antioxidant activity along with high total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In summary, our results indicate that Eclipta alba has enormous potential in complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of cancer. PMID:28250894

  1. BBC ALBA's Contributions to Gaelic Language Planning Efforts for Reversing Language Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Lindsay; Chalmers, Douglas; Danson, Mike; Lang, Alison

    2011-01-01

    BBC ALBA is the first dedicated Gaelic-medium television channel in history. It launched in September 2008 and, in late 2010, announced that it would be carried on Freeview, in addition to Sky, Freesat, and BBC iPlayer, thereby widening access to Gaelic throughout Scotland. The channel is a BBC-licensed service that is presently operated as a…

  2. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    PubMed Central

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Tešević, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

  3. Pacific Northwest Condiment Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) Grower Guide: 2000-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Davis, J. B.; Esser, A.

    2005-07-01

    This report is a grower guide for yellow mustard. Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), synonymous with white mustard, is a spring annual crop and well adapted to hot, dry growing conditions. It has shown potential as an alternative crop in rotations with small grain cereals and has fewer limitations compared to other traditional alternative crops.

  4. Analysis of the biosynthesis of antibacterial cyclic dipeptides in Nocardiopsis alba.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongli; Lai, Ying-Mi; Lu, Yi; Yang, Yu-Liang; Chen, Shawn

    2014-11-01

    Nocardiopsis alba is frequently isolated from environment and has recently been suggested as a casual symbiotic actinobacterium of diverse invertebrates. Using activity-guided fractionation, we purified two antibacterial cyclic dipeptides, cyclo(ΔPhe-ΔLeu) (albonoursin) and cyclo(ΔmTyr-ΔLeu), from a culture of Nocardiopsis alba ATCC BAA-2165. Analysis of N. alba genome revealed genetic information similar to albonoursin biosynthetic gene cluster, albABC. An albABC gene deletion mutant of N. alba was generated. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the mutant could not produce the cyclic dipeptides. Cyclic dipeptide production in the mutant was restored by genetic complementation with the albABC cloned in a native plasmid of Nocardiopsis. β-Glucuronidase reporter assays with a second mutant construct, in which albABC promoter is transcriptionally fused to the reporting gene gusA, indicated that albABC gene expression was subject to osmoregulation. The system presented will be used to study the metabolic and genetic control of cyclic dipeptide biosynthesis in Nocardiopsis.

  5. Essential oils and isolated compounds from Lippia alba leaves and flowers: antimicrobial activity and osteoclast apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Juiz, Paulo José Lima; Lucchese, Angelica Maria; Gambari, Roberto; Piva, Roberta; Penolazzi, Letizia; Di Ciano, Martina; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Silva, Franceli; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, essential oils extracted from the leaves and flowers of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Br. (L. alba) were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity and their effects on osteoclasts. The periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans; ATCC 43717), Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum; ATCC 25586) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis); ATCC 33277) were used in antimicrobial activity assays for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), whereas Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis; ATCC 25285) was used as the control microorganism. Osteoclast (OC) apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay and Fas receptor expression was detected by immunocytochemistry. The analysis of antimicrobial activity revealed that P. gingivalis had the lowest MIC values, whereas A. actinomycetemcomitans had the highest. L. alba essential oils were found to be toxic to human cells, although the compounds, carvone, limonene and citral, were non-toxic and induced apoptosis in the OCs. This study demonstrates that L. alba has potential biotechnological application in dentistry. In fact periodontal disease has a multifactorial etiology, and the immune response to microbial challenge leads to osteoclast activation and the resorption of the alveolar bone, resulting in tooth loss.

  6. [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  7. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds.

    PubMed

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Tešević, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-10-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300-1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600-1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  8. Activity of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal glucolimnanthin degradation products against soilborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) is a herbaceous winter-spring annual grown as a commercial oilseed crop. The meal remaining after oil extraction from the seed contains up to 4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. Degradation of glucolimnanthin yields toxic breakdown products, and therefore the mea...

  9. Rejoinder: On the Dangers of Rosy Lenses--"Reply to Alba, Kasinitz and Waters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    We commend the measured tone and clearly stated arguments in Alba, Kasinitz and Waters' commentary on our article. It is particularly welcome because, in combination with our own conclusions, it lays out before the relevant audiences the substance of the debate in this field. Based on the commentary's opening statement, it would appear that there…

  10. [In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso].

    PubMed

    Hatimi, S; Boudouma, M; Bichichi, M; Chaib, N; Idrissi, N G

    2001-03-01

    Aqueous extract and essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso were tested for their antileshmanial activity again Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. The strongest leishmanicidal activity was observed with the essential oil at 2 micrograms/ml as versus the other two strains tested. The aqueous extract showed an antileshmanial activity at 4 micrograms/ml.

  11. On the Dangers of Rosy Lenses: Reply to Alba, Kasinitz and Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to the Alba, Kasinitz and Waters' commentary on the authors' article. The authors state that not all kids are doing "all right," and the substantial number at risk of social and economic stagnation or downward mobility looms as a significant social problem. They contend it is true that right-wing commentators may pick on…

  12. Diversity in seed production characteristics within the USDA-ARS Limnanthes alba germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadowfoam (L. alba) seeds are a source of long chain fatty acids which are stable under diverse environmental conditions. The fatty acid composition makes the oil valuable for use in cosmetics, lubricants, rubber additives, and plastics. While a few meadowfoam cultivars have been developed, high se...

  13. Expression of the 2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphooc-tonate aldolase (KdsA) gene in mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) is down-regulated under high salt and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, X B; Wu, S L; Zhu, D P; Wu, H; Jiang, T; Qian, Y H; Jiao, F

    2015-10-05

    The oligosaccharide 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) is a key component of lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, and is also part of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan (RG-II) of the plant cell wall. The enzyme KDO-8-phosphate synthase (KDO8Ps), encoded by the 2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphooctonate aldolase (KdsA) gene, catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of Kdo. In this study, the complete coding sequence of the KdsA gene from mulberry leaves was cloned and the primary structure of KDO8Ps was deduced. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of KDO8Ps from mulberry with those of five other plant species revealed a high level of evolutionary conservation. A phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated a short genetic distance among KDO8Ps proteins of different species. Expression of the KdsA gene was higher in the second leaves than in the eighth leaves of mulberry, and was down-regulated under conditions of high salt or drought stress. Our results suggest that KdsA expression is important for the growth of new plant tissues, and is sensitive to harsh environments.

  14. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.

    PubMed

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-04-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation.

  15. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z. A.; Liang, J. B.; Yaakub, H.; Abdullah, N.

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation. PMID:25656207

  16. Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay K; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2015-01-01

    Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies.

  17. Gluconeogenic substrates and hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: effect of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Andallu, B; Varadacharyulu, N C

    2007-03-01

    Mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves, the sole food of the silk worm, were evaluated for antidiabetic effects in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Treatment with dried mulberry leaf powder at 25% of the diet for a period of 8 weeks was found to be remarkably beneficial to STZ-diabetic rats as evidenced by controlled hyperglycemia and glycosuria. In addition, mulberry leaves countered (reversed) the alterations in gluconeogenic substrates in STZ-diabetic rats as indicated by significant reduction in serum pyruvic and lactic acid levels, a significant increase in proteins and a significant decrease in free amino acid, urea, and creatinine levels in blood, and a decreased urinary excretion of urea and creatinine. Anomalies in the activities of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes associated with impaired glucose homeostasis in STZ-diabetic rats were ameliorated by feeding the mulberry leaf-supplemented diet, indicating that control over hyperglycemia and associated complications in the diabetic state by mulberry leaves is by way of regulation of gluconeogenesis. With respect to all the parameters, mulberry leaves were more effective than the oral hypoglycemic drug glibenclamide.

  18. Inhibition and structural reliability of prenylated flavones from the stem bark of Morus lhou on β-secretase (BACE-1).

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Keun; Ryu, Young Bae; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Doman; Lee, Sun; Lee, Woo Song; Park, Ki Hun

    2011-05-15

    The action of β-secretase is strongly tied to the onset of Alzheimer's disease. The development of inhibitors of β-secretase is thus critical to combating this disease, which threatens an ever increasing number of the population and grows in importance as the population ages. Herein we show that flavones from Morus lhou potently inhibit β-secretase. Our aim in this manuscript is to explore the inhibitory kinetics of natural compounds and develop a phamacophore model which details the critical features responsible for inhibitory activity. The IC(50) values of compounds for β-secretase inhibition were determined to range between 3.4 and 146.1 μM. Prenylated flavone 2 (IC(50)=3.4 μM) was 20 times more effective than its parent compound, noratocarpetin 1 (IC(50)=60.6 μM). The stronger activity was related with resorcinol moiety on B-ring and isoprenyl functionality at C-3. Kinetic analysis shows that the four effective compounds (1-4) have a noncompetitive mode of action. The binding affinity of flavones for β-secretase calculated using in silico docking experiments correlated well with their IC(50) values and noncompetitive inhibition modes.

  19. Characterization of Stilbene Synthase Genes in Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea) and Metabolic Engineering for the Production of Resveratrol in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanhong; Zhi, Shuang; Liu, Changying; Xu, Fengxiang; Zhao, Aichun; Wang, Xiling; Ren, Yanhong; Li, Zhengang; Yu, Maode

    2017-03-01

    Stilbenes have been recognized for their beneficial physiological effects on human health. Stilbene synthase (STS) is the key enzyme of resveratrol biosynthesis and has been studied in numerous plants. Here, four MaSTS genes were isolated and identified in mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.). The expression levels of MaSTS genes and the accumulation of trans-resveratrol, trans-oxyresveratrol, and trans-mulberroside A were investigated in different plant organs. A novel coexpression system that harbored 4-coumarate:CoA ligase gene (Ma4CL) and MaSTS was established. Stress tests suggested that MaSTS genes participate in responses to salicylic acid, abscisic acid, wounding, and NaCl stresses. Additionally, overexpressed MaSTS in transgenic tobacco elevated the trans-resveratrol level and increased tolerance to drought and salinity stresses. These results revealed the major MaSTS gene, and we evaluated its function in mulberry, laying the foundation for future research on stilbene metabolic pathways in mulberry.

  20. Identification and characterization of genes involved in the jasmonate biosynthetic and signaling pathways in mulberry (Morus notabilis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Bi; Qi, Xiwu; Guo, Qing; Wang, Xuwei; Zeng, Qiwei; He, Ningjia

    2014-07-01

    Jasmonate (JA) is an important phytohormone regulating growth, development, and environmental response in plants, particularly defense response against herbivorous insects. Recently, completion of the draft genome of the mulberry (Morus notabilis) in conjunction with genome sequencing of silkworm (Bombyx mori) provides an opportunity to study this unique plant-herbivore interaction. Here, we identified genes involved in JA biosynthetic and signaling pathways in the genome of mulberry for the first time, with the majority of samples showing a tissue-biased expression pattern. The analysis of the representative genes 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase (OPRs) and jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZs) was performed and the results indicated that the mulberry genome contains a relatively small number of JA biosynthetic and signaling pathway genes. A gene encoding an important repressor, MnNINJA, was identified as an alternative splicing variant lacking an ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression motif. Having this fundamental information will facilitate future functional study of JA-related genes pertaining to mulberry-silkworm interactions.

  1. Changes in leaf organisation, photosynthetic performance and wood formation during ex vitro acclimatisation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.).

    PubMed

    Misalová, A; Durkovic, J; Mamonová, M; Priwitzer, T; Lengyelová, A; Hladká, D; Lux, A

    2009-09-01

    Changes in anatomical organisation of the leaf, photosynthetic performance and wood formation were examined to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of acclimatisation of micropropagated slow-growing black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) plantlets to the ex vitro environment. Leaf structure differentiation, the rates of net photosynthesis (P(n)), transpiration (E) and stomatal conductance (g(s)), and secondary xylem growth were determined in the course of a 56-day acclimatisation. Differentiation of palisade parenchyma was observed 7 days after transfer. At this stage, the rates of P(n), E and g(s) reached maximum values, after which the rates of all three gas exchange parameters gradually decreased. The highest proportion of woody area occupied by vessels was also observed 7 days after transfer. An important feature of developing woody tissue is the difference in patterns of vessel distribution from the characteristic differentiation patterns of earlywood and latewood vessels in mature wood of ring-porous trees. Vessels with lumen areas over 3000 microm(2) were only differentiated in acclimatised plantlets, whereas vessels in stems sampled on days 0 and 7 had very small lumen areas of up to 560 microm(2). Full acclimatisation, observed 56 days after transfer to the ex vitro environment, was associated with the rapid growth of new in vivo formed leaves, very low rates of E and g(s), and much increased secondary xylem tissue within the stem area.

  2. Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy.

  3. Pharmacognostical Standardization of Upodika- Basella alba L.: An Important Ayurvedic Antidiabetic Plant

    PubMed Central

    Shantha, T R; Patchaimal, P; Reddy, M Prathapa; Kumar, R Kishore; Tewari, Devesh; Bharti, Vandana; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mangal, A K; Padhi, M M; Dhiman, K S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish the pharmacognostic standards for the correct identification and standardization of an important Antidiabetic plant described in Ayurveda. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out on the leaf and stem of Basella alba L. with the help of the macro-morphological, microscopic, physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical studies. Results: Several specific characters were identified viz. clustered calcium oxalate crystals in the cortex region, absence of trichomes, succulent, thick, mucilaginous, fibrous stem. Rubiaceous type of stomata on both sides of the leaf. Quantitative microscopy along with physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical analysis were also established. Conclusion: The pharmacognostic standards could serve as the reference for the proper identification of the Basella alba L. which is an important anti-diabetic plant described in Ayurveda. PMID:28182032

  4. The ALBA spectroscopic LEEM-PEEM experimental station: layout and performance

    PubMed Central

    Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Pellegrin, Eric; Nicolas, Josep; Ferrer, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    The spectroscopic LEEM-PEEM experimental station at the CIRCE helical undulator beamline, which started user operation at the ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility in 2012, is presented. This station, based on an Elmitec LEEM III microscope with electron imaging energy analyzer, permits surfaces to be imaged with chemical, structural and magnetic sensitivity down to a lateral spatial resolution better than 20 nm with X-ray excited photoelectrons and 10 nm in LEEM and UV-PEEM modes. Rotation around the surface normal and application of electric and (weak) magnetic fields are possible in the microscope chamber. In situ surface preparation capabilities include ion sputtering, high-temperature flashing, exposure to gases, and metal evaporation with quick evaporator exchange. Results from experiments in a variety of fields and imaging modes will be presented in order to illustrate the ALBA XPEEM capabilities. PMID:25931092

  5. Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

  6. Antibacterial activity of Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Dawood Ali; Hassan, Fouzia; Ullah, Hanif; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ubaidi, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Present study deals with the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of very common medicinal plants of Pakistani origin i.e., Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus. The extracts were prepared in crude form by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution and were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Phyllantus emblica fruit exhibited strong activity against standard cultures of all studied bacteria. Lawsonia alba showed good activity against standard cultures of all the used microorganisms. Coriandrum sativum was effective only against Bacillus cereus, while Cucumis sativus and Culinaris medic showed poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. Hence, Phyllantus emblica exhibited strong antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria it means that Phyllantus emblica extract contains some compounds which have broad spectrum of bactericidal activity.

  7. Isoprene and terpenoid emissions from Abies alba: Identification and emission rates under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorska, Olga; Dewulf, Jo; Amelynck, Crist; Schoon, Niels; Šimpraga, Maja; Steppe, Kathy; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from Abies alba were studied under ambient conditions in Flanders (Belgium). Emission patterns and rates were investigated from April till November 2010 by using the dynamic branch enclosure technique. The present work revealed that A. alba is an isoprene emitter, with isoprene accounting for 86-93% of total BVOC emissions, except during budburst (67%) in May. The emission spectrum of A. alba consisted of 27 compounds. Next to isoprene, the main emitted compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and limonene. BVOC emissions showed a peak in June after development of the young needles, followed by a constant emission during summer months and September and a decrease in October. In all the samples isoprene was the most abundant compound with standardized emission rates between 27 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June and 4.6 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October, while the total standardized terpenoid emission rates ranged from 2.85 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June to 0.26 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October. The obtained average β coefficients according to the temperature dependent algorithm of Guenther et al. (1993) during April-June, July, August and September-October were as follows: for terpenoids 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.12 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.01 K-1 and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0 K-1, respectively. Overall, isoprene detected in this study was never quantified in previous studies on A. alba and this finding could have a significant impact on the regional BVOCs budget. Therefore, the result of this study is very important for modeling and local air quality.

  8. New Improvements in Magnetic Measurements Laboratory of the ALBA Synchrotron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, Josep; Marcos, Jordi; Massana, Valentí

    ALBA synchrotron facility has a complete insertion devices (ID) laboratory to characterize and produce magnetic devices needed to satisfy the requirements of ALBA's user community. The laboratory is equipped with a Hall-probe bench working in on-the-fly measurement mode allowing the measurement of field maps of big magnetic structures with high accuracy, both in magnetic field magnitude and position. The whole control system of this bench is based on TANGO. The Hall probe calibration range extends between sub-Gauss to 2 Tesla with an accuracy of 100 ppm. Apart from the Hall probe bench, the ID laboratory has a flipping coil bench dedicated to measuring field integrals and a Helmholtz coil bench specially designed to characterize permanent magnet blocks. Also, a fixed stretched wire bench is used to measure field integrals of magnet sets. This device is specifically dedicated to ID construction. Finally, the laboratory is equipped with a rotating coil bench, specially designed for measuring multipolar devices used in accelerators, such as quadrupoles, sextupoles, etc. Recent improvements of the magnetic measurements laboratory of ALBA synchrotron include the design and manufacturing of very thin 3D Hall probe heads, the design and manufacturing of coil sensors for the Rotating coil bench based on multilayered PCB, and the improvement of calibration methodology in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements. ALBA magnetic measurements laboratory is open for external contracts, and has been widely used by national and international institutes such as CERN, ESRF or CIEMAT, as well as magnet manufacturing companies, such as ANTEC, TESLA and I3 M. In this paper, we will present the main features of the measurement benches as well as improvements made so far.

  9. Release and dispersal of basidiospores from Amanita muscaria var. alba and their infiltration into a residence.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Wei

    2005-11-01

    Release and dispersal of basidiospores of Amanita muscaria var. alba and their potential to infiltrate a nearby residence were investigated. Basidiospore release mainly occurred in the first three days following the expansion of the caps. The concentrations of released basidiospores near basidiomata were 77 137, 75 062, and 41 738 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively, with the highest concentration at 281 738 spores m(-3) air. After three days, the concentration dropped by 95%. At the second location, airborne basidiospore concentrations dropped 96-99% after three days with the concentrations of 940, 575, and 1359 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively. The diurnal pattern showed a relatively extended night peak. Relative humidity and dew were positively correlated with basidiospore release and short distance dispersal. Rain and rain rate were positively correlated with basidiospore release, but not correlated with short distance dispersal. The basidiospore release period of Amanita muscaria var. alba was short, but within such a period it released a large amount of basidiospores. However, only less than 5% of basidiospores released were dispersed to the second location 5.2 m away and 2.7 m above the basidiomata. Only < 0.1% of basidiospores dispersed from the basidiomata were found inside a nearby residence. Amanita muscaria var. alba showed a low potential of infiltrating the residence.

  10. HPLC profiles and biomarker contents of Australian-grown Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba roots.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun Guang; Sheng, Shu Jun; Pang, Edwin C K; May, Brian; Xue, Charlie Chang Li

    2009-07-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba (Baihua Danshen) is a Chinese medicinal herb commonly used for treating cardiovascular disease. It has been grown in Australia, although the quality of its main medicinal part (dried root) has not been assessed. In this study, we investigated HPLC profiles and biomarker contents of Australian-grown S. miltiorrhiza f. alba roots. Patterns of HPLC profiles were established in MeOH, and aqueous extracts in terms of number of common characteristic peaks and their relative retention times. The contents of three tanshinone biomarkers (cryptotanshinone (3), tanshinone I (1), and tanshinone IIA (2)) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the roots of one-year-old plants than those of two-year-old plants. In contrast, salvianolic acid B (4) content was significantly higher in the roots of two-year-old plants than in those of one-year-old plants. The findings suggest that the biomarker contents in Australian-grown S. miltiorrhiza f. alba roots vary with the growth periods of the plants, which may be important in determining the optimal harvest time for the plant roots with targeted levels of tanshinones and salvianolic acid B (4).

  11. Karyotype analysis, DNA content and molecular screening in Lippia alba (Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Pierre, Patrícia M O; Sousa, Saulo M; Davide, Lisete C; Machado, Marco A; Viccini, Lyderson F

    2011-09-01

    Cytogenetic analyses, of pollen viability, nuclear DNA content and RAPD markers were employed to study three chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill.) (Verbenaceae) in order to understand the genetic variation among them. Different ploidy levels and mixoploid individuals were observed. This work comprises the first report of different chromosome numbers (cytotypes) in L. alba. The chromosome numbers of La2-carvone and La3-linalool chemotypes suggested that they are polyploids. Flow cytometric analysis showed an increase of nuclear DNA content that was not directly proportional to ploidy level variation. A cluster analysis based on RAPD markers revealed that La3-linalool shares genetic markers with La1-citral and La2-carvone. The analysis showed that the majority of genetic variation of La3-linalool could be a consequence of ixoploidy. ur data indicates that sexual reproduction aong those three chemotypes is unlikely and suggests the beginning of reproductive isolation. The results demonstrated that chromosome analysis, nuclear DNA content estimation and RAPD markers constitute excellent tools for detecting genetic variation among L. alba chemotypes.

  12. Composition, anti-quorum sensing and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lippia alba

    PubMed Central

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Barreto-Maya, Ana; Bertel-Sevilla, Angela; Stashenko, Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus. PMID:25477905

  13. Composition, anti-quorum sensing and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Barreto-Maya, Ana; Bertel-Sevilla, Angela; Stashenko, Elena E

    2014-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus.

  14. An airborne actinobacteria Nocardiopsis alba isolated from bioaerosol of a mushroom compost facility.

    PubMed

    Paściak, Mariola; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Gamian, Andrzej; Szponar, Bogumiła; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Actinobacteria are widely distributed in many environments and represent the most important trigger to the occupant respiratory health. Health complaints, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis of the workers, were recorded in a mushroom compost facility (MCF). The studies on the airborne bacteria were carried out to find a possible microbiological source of these symptoms. Culture analysis of compost bioaerosols collected in different location of the MCF was performed. An assessment of the indoor microbial exposure revealed bacterial flora of bioaerosol in the mushroom compost facility represented by Bacillus, Geobacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus spp., and actinobacterial strain with white aerial mycelium. The thermotolerant actinobacterial strain of the same morphology was repeatedly isolated from many locations in MCF: air, compost sample, and solid surface in production hall. On the base of complex morphological, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolate has been classified as Nocardiopsis alba. Dominant position of N. alba in microbial environment of the mushroom compost facility may represent an indicator microorganism in compost bioaerosol. The bioavailability of N. alba in mushroom compost facility creates potential risk for the health of workers, and the protection of respiratory tract and/or skin is strongly recommended.

  15. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  16. [Bromatological characterization of mulberry cultivars, Morus spp., and determination of nutritional indexes of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)].

    PubMed

    Meneguim, Ana M; Lustri, Cristina; Oliveira, Dássia D de; Yada, Inês F U; Pasini, Amarildo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess, through consumption and utilization of natural food measurements, whether mulberry cultivars, Morus spp., could be recommended to rear the silkworm, Bombyx mori L., in a commercial scale. The mulberry cultivars Miura (standard), Korin and Tailandesa and the hybrids FM 3/3, FM 86, SK 1 and SK 4 were tested. Seventy five fifth-instar commercial hybrid larvae were individualized in gerbox® unities and maintained in a rearing room (25 ± 3ºC and 80 ± 10% RH).The mulberry leaves of each of the five cultivars used to feed the silkworm larvae were submitted to bromatological analysis. The dry weight of larvae at the beginning and at the end of the fifth instar, the food consumed and the feces eliminated were recorded to determine the following indexes: relative consumption rate (RCR), relative metabolic rate (RMR), relative growth rate (RGR), approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), metabolic cost (MC). The bromatological composition analysis of mulberry leaf cultivars revealed that the hybrid SK 4 presented superior nutritional quality compared to the standard cultivar Miura, due to its higher content in crude protein and ethereal extract, and lower detergent fiber content. The hybrid SK 4 was the most adequate food to the silkworm larvae because it was ingested in small amounts, thus providing good digestibility to the larvae, low metabolic cost, good growth rate and one of the highest efficiencies in the conversion of the ingested food and ingested and digested in biomass.

  17. The influence of phosphorus nutritional status on the uptake of germanium in Panicum miliaceum and Brassica alba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaden, Ute Susanne; Székely, Balázs; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the phosphorus nutritional status on the uptake of germanium (Ge) in biomass two species, white millet (Panicum miliaceum) and white mustard (Brassica alba) were grown and sampled in a greenhouse experiment. The cultivation took place on two different substrates. The plants were fertilized with different nutrient solutions which differed in their phosphate content, and artificial addition of Ge was held via the casting solution. During the test period, measurements of the pH value, electric conductivity, and phosphate content of the soil solution were conducted. To transfer germanium from soil and plant material in solution, melting and microwave digestion processes were done. The experiment showed that in both species the additional Ge supply also leads to an increasing germanium content in the aboveground plant material. The two species, however, behave differently in response to this Ge supply. Panicum miliaceum accumulates Ge in the above-ground parts of plants stem, leaf and fruit to a much greater extent than Brassica alba. On the other hand the Ge accumulation in the roots of both B. alba and P. miliaceum was very high. In case of B. alba the root content was found by far higher as compared to the other parts of the plant. The addition of phosphate in the system changes the behavior. Without additional Ge its natural uptake from soil decreases in both species but in B. alba it is more characteristic. Increasing Ge supply (for both species) leads to an increased Ge uptake, until it reaches a maximum, regardless of the presence of phosphate addition. Phosphate, on the other hand, has positive effects on Ge uptake only in the case of B. alba roots, and to a limited extent in roots of P. miliaceum. In addition, for Panicum miliaceum an increase of germanium mainly in the underground parts was achieved. A further addition of phosphate did not have a positive effect on a greater enrichment of germanium. Whereas in Brassica

  18. Effects of phytohormones and jasmonic acid on glucosinolate content in hairy root cultures of Sinapis alba and Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Kastell, Anja; Smetanska, Iryna; Ulrichs, Christian; Cai, Zhenzhen; Mewis, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Although some study have established hairy root cultures from brassicaceous plants with glucosinolates (GS) as characteristic secondary metabolite, studies are missing which compare hairy roots with the corresponding mother plants. Therefore, two different plant species-Sinapis alba and Brassica rapa subsp. rapa pygmeae teltoviensis-were transformed with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Aliphatic and indolyl GS were present in B. rapa, exhibiting larger quantities in leaves than in roots. Aromatic p-hydroxybenzyl GS were found particularly in the leaves of S. alba. However, the proportion of indolyl GS increased suddenly in transformed hairy roots of S. alba and B. rapa. Cultivation with the phytohormone kinetin (0.5 mg L(-1)) enhanced GS accumulation in B. rapa hairy roots, however not in S. alba, but 2,4-D (0.4 mg L(-1)) induced de-differentiation of roots in both species and reduced GS levels. GS levels especially of 1-methoxyindol-3ylmethyl GS increased in hairy roots in response to JA, but root growth was inhibited. While 2 weeks of cultivation in 100 to 200 μM JA were determined at optimum for maximum GS yield in S. alba hairy root cultures, 4 weeks of cultivation in 50 to 100 μM JA was the optimum for B. rapa.

  19. Asteraceae Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba Essential Oils Trigger Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Messaoud, Chokri; Haoues, Meriam; Neffati, Noura; Bassoumi Jamoussi, Imen; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Boussaid, Mohamed; Karoui, Habib

    2016-01-01

    We report the chemical composition and anti-Leishmania and antioxidant activity of Artemisia campestris L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. essential oils (EOs). Our results showed that these extracts exhibit different antioxidant activities according to the used assay. The radical scavenging effects determined by DPPH assay were of IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL and IC50 = 9.1 mg/mL for Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba essential oils, respectively. However, antioxidant effects of both essential oils, determined by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, were in the same range (2.3 and 2.97 mg eq EDTA/g EO, resp.), while the Artemisia herba-alba essential oil showed highest chelating activity of Fe2+ ions (27.48 mM Fe2+). Interestingly, we showed that both EOs possess dose-dependent activity against Leishmania infantum promastigotes with IC50 values of 68 μg/mL and 44 μg/mL for A. herba-alba and A. campestris, respectively. We reported, for the first time, that antileishmanial activity of both EOs was mediated by cell apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. All our results showed that EOs from A. herba-alba and A. campestris plants are promising candidates as anti-Leishmania medicinal products. PMID:27807464

  20. Chemical variability of essential oils of Lippia alba (Miller) N. E. Brown growing in Costa Rica and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Gabriela; Cicció, José F; Ocampo, Rafael; Lorenzo, Daniel; Ricciardi, Armando; Bandoni, Arnaldo; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) is a shrub whose essential oil has important biological, pharmacological, and aromatizing properties. The species has a natural range from Central America to Argentina, being cultivated for its commercial value in Brazil, Argentina and Guatemala, and has been introduced into India and Spain. To reach the economic potential of the plant, the present study was aimed at evaluating L. alba for different chemotypes. The composition of the essential oil from two native populations of L. alba, collected from Argentina and two accessions from Costa Rica, were screened by GC and GC-MS. The results obtained led us to adopt the concept of a biodistribution map, as was proposed previously for the species, representing an approach to the natural biological distribution of the species in America based on the chemotypes described and their geographical distribution. Moreover, the biodiversity reported for the species (seven of eight chemotypes described for L. alba are present in Argentina) suggests the southern region of South America as the centre of distribution for L. alba.

  1. Comparison of polyglactin-910 and polydioxanone for closure of the linea alba following caudal ventral midline laparotomy in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Marjolaine; Anderson, David E.; Rozell, Timothy G.; Hand, Jacqelyn M.; Faris, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared incisional complications after ventral midline laparotomy using 2 absorbable suture materials for apposition of the linea alba in sheep. The linea alba of 93 yearling sheep was sutured by 3 veterinarians in a simple continuous pattern using either polyglactin 910 (PG910; group PG) or polydioxanone (PDS; group PD). A blinded observer assessed surgical sites at the time of suture removal. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between incisional complications and variables (suture material used, veterinarian, skin suture removal time). The odds of incisional complications did not vary significantly with the type of suture material used (P = 0.11), veterinarian (P = 0.61) or skin suture removal time (P = 0.36). Most incisional complications were cutaneous suture sinus formation. Either PG910 or PDS may be used for linea alba closure in sheep. PMID:26345301

  2. Annotation and re-sequencing of genes from de novo transcriptome assembly of Abies alba (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Roschanski, Anna M.; Fady, Bruno; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We present a protocol for the annotation of transcriptome sequence data and the identification of candidate genes therein using the example of the nonmodel conifer Abies alba. • Methods and Results: A normalized cDNA library was built from an A. alba seedling. The sequencing on a 454 platform yielded more than 1.5 million reads that were de novo assembled into 25149 contigs. Two complementary approaches were applied to annotate gene fragments that code for (1) well-known proteins and (2) proteins that are potentially adaptively relevant. Primer development and testing yielded 88 amplicons that could successfully be resequenced from genomic DNA. • Conclusions: The annotation workflow offers an efficient way to identify potential adaptively relevant genes from the large quantity of transcriptome sequence data. The primer set presented should be prioritized for single-nucleotide polymorphism detection in adaptively relevant genes in A. alba. PMID:25202477

  3. Comparison of polyglactin-910 and polydioxanone for closure of the linea alba following caudal ventral midline laparotomy in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Marjolaine; Anderson, David E; Rozell, Timothy G; Hand, Jacqelyn M; Faris, Brian R

    2015-09-01

    This study compared incisional complications after ventral midline laparotomy using 2 absorbable suture materials for apposition of the linea alba in sheep. The linea alba of 93 yearling sheep was sutured by 3 veterinarians in a simple continuous pattern using either polyglactin 910 (PG910; group PG) or polydioxanone (PDS; group PD). A blinded observer assessed surgical sites at the time of suture removal. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between incisional complications and variables (suture material used, veterinarian, skin suture removal time). The odds of incisional complications did not vary significantly with the type of suture material used (P = 0.11), veterinarian (P = 0.61) or skin suture removal time (P = 0.36). Most incisional complications were cutaneous suture sinus formation. Either PG910 or PDS may be used for linea alba closure in sheep.

  4. Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

    2012-07-01

    Alba is a town of over 30 000 inhabitants located along the Tanaro River (Piedmont, northwestern Italy) and is famous for its wine and white truffles. Many important industries and companies are based in Alba, including the famous confectionery group Ferrero. The town suffered considerably from a flood that occurred on 5-6 November 1994. Forty-eight percent of the urban area was inundated, causing severe damage and killing nine people. After the flood, the Alba area was analysed in detail to determine the reasons for its vulnerability. Information on serious floods in this area since 1800 was gathered from official records, state technical office reports, unpublished documents in the municipal archives, and articles published in local and national newspapers. Maps, plans and aerial photographs (since 1954) were examined to reconstruct Alba's urban development over the last two centuries and the planform changes of the Tanaro River. The results were compared with the effects of the November 1994 flood, which was mapped from aerial photographs taken immediately after the flood, field surveys and eyewitness reports. The territory of Alba was subdivided into six categories: residential; public service; industrial, commercial and hotels; sports areas, utilities and standards (public gardens, parks, athletics grounds, private and public sport clubs); aggregate plants and dumps; and agriculture and riverine strip. The six categories were then grouped into three classes with different flooding-vulnerability levels according to various parameters. Using GIS, the three river corridors along the Tanaro identified by the Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Po were overlaid on the three classes to produce a final map of the risk areas. This study shows that the historic floods and their dynamics have not been duly considered in the land-use planning of Alba. The zones that were most heavily damaged in the 1994 flood were those that were frequently affected in the past and sites of

  5. Growth of Populus alba and its influence on soil trace element availability.

    PubMed

    Ciadamidaro, L; Madejón, E; Puschenreiter, M; Madejón, P

    2013-06-01

    The use of fast growing trees is a common practice for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Plant roots can change trace element bioavailability in soils. We studied the effect of Populus alba on trace element bioavailability on two contaminated soils (one with neutral pH and other with acid pH) comparing two methods (0.01 M CaCl2-extractable in soil and concentration in soil pore water SPW), trace element accumulation in leaves and plant development over 36 months. Results were compared to those obtained with a non-contaminated soil. The experiment was carried out in containers (95 L of volume and 1m height). Half of the containers for each soil were planted with P. alba saplings and the others remained without plant. In neutral soils plant growth did not influence soil pH; the greatest effect due to plant growth was found in acid soil. Values of pH obtained by SPW showed a similar trend compared to those obtained after soil KCl extraction. Bioavailability of trace elements determined by both methods followed the same behavior in the three studied soils. Both methods for determining trace element bioavailability in soil were accurate to predict plant uptake. In non-contaminated soil, plants tended to increase micronutrients (Cu, Mn and Zn) availability. However, in case of contaminated soil, the growth of P. alba did not increase trace element availability. Moreover, results on height and diameter of the trunk of the trees, during 36 months, demonstrated that the presence of total trace elements in soil did not affect plant development.

  6. Involvement of an RNA binding protein containing Alba domain in the stage-specific regulation of beta-amastin expression in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, Leticia; Silva, Tais Caroline; Teixeira, Santuza M R

    2017-01-01

    Amastins are surface glycoproteins, first identified in amastigotes of T. cruzi but later found to be expressed in several Leishmania species, as well as in T. cruzi epimastigotes. Amastins are encoded by a diverse gene family that can be grouped into four subfamilies named α, β, γ, and δ amastins. Differential expression of amastin genes results from regulatory mechanisms involving changes in mRNA stability and/or translational control. Although distinct regulatory elements were identified in the 3' UTR of T. cruzi and Leishmania amastin mRNAs, RNA binding proteins involved with amastin gene regulation have only being characterized in L. infantum where an Alba-domain protein (LiAlba20) able to bind to the 3' UTR of a δ-amastin mRNA was identified. Here we investigated the role of TcAlba30, the LiAlba20 homologue in T. cruzi, in the post transcriptional regulation of amastin genes. TcAlba30 transcripts are present in all stages of the T. cruzi life cycle. RNA immunoprecipitation assays using a transfected cell line expressing a cMyc tagged TcAlba30 revealed that TcAlba30 can interact with β-amastin mRNA. In addition, over-expression of TcAlba30 in epimastigotes resulted in 50% decreased levels of β-amastin mRNAs compared to wild type parasites. Since luciferase assays indicated the presence of regulatory elements in the 3' UTR of β-amastin mRNA and reduced levels of luciferase mRNA were found in parasites over expressing TcAlba30, we conclude that TcAlba30 acts as a T. cruzi RNA binding protein involved in the negative control of β-amastin expression through interactions with its 3'UTR.

  7. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Sinapis alba in Revealing the Glucosinolate and Phytochelatin Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Duan, Mengmeng; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    Sinapis alba is an important condiment crop and can also be used as a phytoremediation plant. Though it has important economic and agronomic values, sequence data, and the genetic tools are still rare in this plant. In the present study, a de novo transcriptome based on the transcriptions of leaves, stems, and roots was assembled for S. alba for the first time. The transcriptome contains 47,972 unigenes with a mean length of 1185 nt and an N50 of 1672 nt. Among these unigenes, 46,535 (97%) unigenes were annotated by at least one of the following databases: NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, Gene Ontology (GO), and Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs). The tissue expression pattern profiles revealed that 3489, 1361, and 8482 unigenes were predominantly expressed in the leaves, stems, and roots of S. alba, respectively. Genes predominantly expressed in the leaf were enriched in photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related pathways. Genes predominantly expressed in the stem were enriched in not only pathways related to sugar, ether lipid, and amino acid metabolisms but also plant hormone signal transduction and circadian rhythm pathways, while the root-dominant genes were enriched in pathways related to lignin and cellulose syntheses, involved in plant-pathogen interactions, and potentially responsible for heavy metal chelating, and detoxification. Based on this transcriptome, 14,727 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, and 12,830 pairs of primers were developed for 2522 SSR-containing unigenes. Additionally, the glucosinolate (GSL) and phytochelatin metabolic pathways, which give the characteristic flavor and the heavy metal tolerance of this plant, were intensively analyzed. The genes of aliphatic GSLs pathway were predominantly expressed in roots. The absence of aliphatic GSLs in leaf tissues was due to the shutdown of BCAT4, MAM1, and CYP79F1 expressions. Glutathione was extensively

  8. Pityriasis Alba--Common Disease, Enigmatic Entity: Up-to-Date Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Miazek, Nina; Michalek, Irmina; Pawlowska-Kisiel, Malgorzata; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis alba (PA) is a skin disorder that affects children and adolescents. Although it is common worldwide, its incidence is markedly higher in darker skin phototypes. Its characteristic features include an extended, multistage course and spontaneous remissions and recurrences. Preceded by erythematous changes, patches of hypopigmented skin of up to a few centimeters in diameter appear on the upper body. Pruritus may accompany it. Even though its etiology is unknown, possible reported triggering factors include sunlight, beauty treatments, and microorganisms, among others. Calcineurin inhibitors play the most crucial role in PA pharmacotherapy. PA often coexists with atopic dermatitis and is considered one of its milder forms.

  9. Lippia alba essential oil promotes survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected with Aeromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Cunha, Mauro A; Ziech, Rosangela E; Krewer, Carina C; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Gressler, Leticia T; Heinzmann, Berta M; Vargas, Agueda C; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2015-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo activity of the Lippia alba essential oil (EO) against Aeromonas sp. was evaluated. In the in vitro assay the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EO for Aeromonas cells were determined using the microdilution method. Twenty five strains of Aeromonas sp. isolated from infected fish obtained from local fish farms were used. MIC and MBC values were 2862 and 5998 µg mL-1 for L. alba EO and 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL-1 for gentamicin, respectively. In the in vivo assay silver catfish juveniles (Rhamdia quelen) (7.50 ± 1.85 g and 10.0 ± 1.0 cm) with typical injuries associated to Aeromonas infection were divided into four treatments (in triplicate n=10): untreated fish (negative control), 10 mg L-1 of gentamicin, and 20 or 50 µL L-1 of EO. Fish were maintained in aerated 20 L plastic boxes. After 10 days survival of silver catfish infected with Aermonas sp. and treated with essential oil (50 µL L-1) was greater than 90%.

  10. Isolation and expression analysis of low temperature-induced genes in white poplar (Populus alba).

    PubMed

    Maestrini, Pierluigi; Cavallini, Andrea; Rizzo, Milena; Giordani, Tommaso; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Durante, Mauro; Natali, Lucia

    2009-09-15

    Poplar is an important crop and a model system to understand molecular processes of growth, development and responses to environmental stimuli in trees. In this study, we analyzed gene expression in white poplar (Populus alba) plants subjected to chilling. Two forward suppression-subtractive-hybridization libraries were constructed from P. alba plants exposed to low non-freezing temperature for 6 or 48h. Hundred and sixty-two cDNAs, 54 from the 6-h library and 108 from the 48-h library, were obtained. Isolated genes belonged to six categories of genes, specifically those that: (i) encode stress and defense proteins; (ii) are involved in signal transduction; (iii) are related to regulation of gene expression; (iv) encode proteins involved in cell cycle and DNA processing; (v) encode proteins involved in metabolism and energetic processes; and (vi) are involved in protein fate. Different expression patterns at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48h at 4 degrees C and after a recovery of 24h at 20 degrees C were observed for isolated genes, as expected according to the class in which the gene putatively belongs. Forty-four of 162 genes contained DRE/LTRE cis-elements in the 5' proximal promoter of their orthologs in Populus trichocarpa, suggesting that they putatively belong to the CBF regulon. The results contribute new data to the list of possible candidate genes involved in cold response in poplar.

  11. Alba Field cased hole horizontal gravel pack -- A team approach to design

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, K.; Winton, S.; Price-Smith, C.

    1995-12-31

    A 700 ft. cased hole horizontal well was gravel packed and completed in the Alba Field, Central North Sea. The completion incorporated a number of new technologies adopted for a horizontal cased hole completion including both equipment and fluids. The zone was completed in 2 stages using a horizontal stack pack approach. Perforation packing was optimized by performing a staged acid prepack with the guns in the hole utilizing a low density synthetic gravel substitute in a shear thinning carrier fluid. This was a world first achievement at a cased hole gravel pack using the stack pack approach in a horizontal well. A solids free fluid loss control material was evaluated and chosen for the high permeability Alba sands (3 Darcy). Extensive lab testing was performed to ensure minimal damage from various fluids. A 30 ft. physical model was used to optimize annular pack efficiency. A gravel placement computer simulation was used to design pump rate, sand concentration and gel loading in order to optimize annular and perforation pack efficiency.

  12. Alba Field cased-hole horizontal gravel pack: A team approach to design

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, K.; Winton, S.; Price-Smith, C.

    1996-03-01

    A 700-ft cased-hole horizontal well was gravel packed and completed in the Alba Field, central North Sea. The completion incorporated a number of new technologies adopted for a horizontal cased-hole completion, including both equipment and fluids. The zone was completed in two stages using a horizontal stack-pack approach. Perforation packing was optimized by performing a staged acid prepack with the guns in the hole using a low-density synthetic gravel substitute in a shear thinning carrier fluid. This was a world-first achievement at a cased-hole gravel pack using the stack-pack approach in a horizontal well. A solids-free fluid-loss control material was evaluated and chosen for the high-permeability Alba sands (3 darcies). Extensive lab testing was performed to ensure minimal damage from various fluids. A 30-ft physical model was used to optimize annular pack efficiency. A gravel placement computer simulation was used to design pump rate, sand concentration, and gel loading to optimize annular and perforation-pack efficiency.

  13. Alba field cased hole horizontal gravel pack -- a team approach to design

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, K.; Winton, S.; Price-Smith, C.

    1995-12-31

    A 700 ft cased hole horizontal well was gravel packed and completed in the Alba Field, Central North Sea. The completion incorporated a number of new technologies adopted for a horizontal cased hole completion including both equipment and fluids. The zone was completed in 2 stages using a horizontal stack pack approach. Perforation packing was optimized by performing a staged acid prepack with the guns in the hole utilizing a low density synthetic gravel substitute in a shear thinning carrier fluid. This was a world first achievement at a cased hole gravel pack using the stack pack approach in a horizontal well. A solids free fluid loss control material was evaluated and chosen for the high permeability Alba Sands (3 Darcy). Extensive lab testing was performed to ensure minimal damage from various fluids. A 30 ft physical model was used to optimize annular pack efficiency. A gravel placement computer simulation was used to design pump rate, sand concentration and gel loading in order to optimize annular and perforation pack efficiency.

  14. Fortification of dark chocolate with spray dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) waste extract encapsulated in chitosan-coated liposomes and bioaccessability studies.

    PubMed

    Gültekin-Özgüven, Mine; Karadağ, Ayşe; Duman, Şeyma; Özkal, Burak; Özçelik, Beraat

    2016-06-15

    Fine-disperse anionic liposomes containing black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract (BME) were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 25,000 psi. Primary liposomes were coated with cationic chitosan (0.4, w/v%) using the layer-by-layer depositing method and mixed with maltodextrin (MD) (20, w/v%) prior to spray drying. After that, spray dried liposomal powders containing BME were added to chocolates with alkalization degrees (pH 4.5, 6, 7.5) at conching temperatures of 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C. The results showed that, compared to spray dried extract, chitosan coated liposomal powders provided better protection of anthocyanin content in both increased temperature and pH. In addition, encapsulation in liposomes enhanced in vitro bioaccessability of anthocyanins. Chocolate was fortified with encapsulated anthocyanins maximum 76.8% depending on conching temperature and pH.

  15. Dietary supplementation with purified mulberry (Morus australis Poir) anthocyanins suppresses body weight gain in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Qi, Xueming; Liu, Yan; Guo, Jun; Zhu, Ruiyu; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2013-11-01

    We present our experiment about adding anthocyanins to the daily food of mice. Three kinds of anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside) purified from Chinese mulberry (Morus australis Poir) were evaluated for suppressing body weight gain of the male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). The results from a 12-week experiment show that consumption of purified mulberry anthocyanins (MACN) of 40 or 200mg/kg can significantly inhibit body weight gain, reduce the resistance to insulin, lower the size of adipocytes, attenuate lipid accumulation and decrease the leptin secretion. Thus, dietary supplementation with MACN can protect against body weight gain of the diet-induced obese mice.

  16. Identifying rates of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal needed for suppression of Meloidogyne hapla and Pythium irregulare in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is a commercial oilseed crop grown in Oregon. After extracting oil from seed, the remaining seed meal is rich in the secondary plant metabolite glucolimnanthin, which can be converted into pesticidal compounds such as 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate (ITC) and 3-methoxyphe...

  17. Detoxification of semisolid olive-mill wastes and pine-chip mixtures using Phanerochaete flavido-alba.

    PubMed

    Linares, Araceli; Manuel Caba, Juan; Ligero, Francisco; de la Rubia, Teresa; Martínez, José

    2003-06-01

    Semisolid olive-mill residues, pine chips, and mixtures of both residues contain phytotoxic components capable of inhibiting germination and vegetative growth in plants. Solid-state cultures of Phanerochate flavido-alba on pine chips or mixtures of both residues reduce these phytotoxic effects in fermented substrates. The phenol and lipid contents in cultures detoxified by this fungus also decreases.

  18. Gas chromatograph analysis on closed air and nitrogen oxide storage atmospheres of recalcitrant seeds of Quercus Alba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of recalcitrant seeds remains an unsolved problem. This study investigated the quantitative gas analysis of nitrous oxide (N2O) and air atmospheres on the recalcitrant seeds of Quercus alba by using gas chromatograph. Ten seeds were placed in each sealed atmospheric system of air and 98/2% N...

  19. Exogenous stimulation with Eclipta alba promotes hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and downregulates TGF-β1 expression in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Jamil; Sung, Chang Keun

    2015-02-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (E. alba) is a traditionally acclaimed medicinal herb used for the promotion of hair growth. However, to the best of our knowledge, no report has been issued to date on its effects on genetically distorted hair follicles (HFs). In this study, we aimed to identify an agent (stimuli) that may be beneficial for the restoration of human hair loss and which may be used as an alternative to synthetic drugs. We investigated the effects of petroleum ether extract (PEE) and different solvent fractions of E. alba on HFs of nude mice. Treatment was performed by topical application on the backs of nude mice and the changes in hair growth patterns were evaluated. Histological analysis was carried out to evaluate the HF morphology and the structural differences. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed to visualize follicular keratinocyte proliferation. The histological assessments revealed that the PEE-treated skin specimens exhibited prominent follicular hypertrophy. Subsequently, IHC staining revealed a significant increase (p<0.001) in the number of follicular keratinocytes in basal epidermal and matrix cells. Our results also demonstrated that PEE significantly (p<0.001) reduced the levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression during early anagen and anagen-catagen transition. Our results suggest that PEE of E. alba acts as an important exogenous mediator that stimulates follicular keratinocyte proliferation and delays terminal differentiation by downregulating TGF-β1 expression. Thus, this study highlights the potential use of PEE of E. alba in the treatment of certain types of alopecia.

  20. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

  1. Pre-sedation and transport of Rhamdia quelen in water containing essential oil of Lippia alba: metabolic and physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Becker, Alexssandro G; Parodi, Thaylise V; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Salbego, Joseânia; Cunha, Mauro A; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Loro, Vania L; Heinzmann, Berta M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of transporting silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) for 6 h in plastic bags containing 0 (control), 30 or 40 µL/L of essential oil (EO) from Lippia alba leaves were investigated. Prior to transport, the fish in the two experimental groups were sedated with 200 µL/L of EO for 3 min. After transport, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, alkalinity, water hardness, pH, temperature and un-ionized ammonia levels in the transport water did not differ significantly among the groups. However, total ammonia nitrogen levels and net Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) effluxes were significantly lower in the groups transported with EO of L. alba than those in the control group. PvO2, PvCO2 and HCO3(-) were higher after transporting fish in 40 µL/L of EO of L. alba, but there were no significant differences between groups regarding blood pH or hematocrit. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in fish transported in 30 µL/L of EO of L. alba compared to those of the control group. The metabolic parameters (glycogen, lactate, total amino acid, total ammonia and total protein) showed different responses after adding EO to the transport water. In conclusion, while the EO of L. alba is recommended for fish transport in the conditions tested in the present study because it was effective in reducing waterborne total ammonia levels and net ion loss, the higher hepatic oxidative stress in this species with the same EO concentrations reported by a previous study led us to conclude that the 10-20 µL/L concentration range of EO and lack of pre-sedation before transport are more effective.

  2. Pityriasis alba

    MedlinePlus

    ... teens. It is more noticeable in children with dark skin. Symptoms The problem areas on the skin ( ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  3. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of leaves and flowers extracts from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Ara, N; Nur, M H; Amran, M S; Wahid, M I I; Ahmed, M

    2009-01-01

    The research was conducted to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of leaves and flowers extract extracted from Lippia alba. Disc diffusion technique was used for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal screening. Zones of inhibition were observed in disc diffusion for antibacterial screening against 4 Gram-positive pathogenic and 6 Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Among crude extracts chloroform extract showed good activity against all test organisms. A Large zone of inhibition was observed (18 mm) against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In antifungal screening, the compound showed mild to moderate zones of inhibition against four tested organisms. A Large zone of inhibition was observed against Aspergillus niger (13 mm). Cytotoxic activities of crude extracts were determined using Brine shrimp lethality Bioassay and LC50 values of standard Vincristin sulphate as positive control, n-hexane and crude ethanol extracts were found to be 5, 15 and 20 microg mL(-1), respectively.

  4. Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Bunck, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

  5. Postremediation dose assessment for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1996-04-01

    Potential maximum radiation dose rates were calculated for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio, which was involved in machining of uranium metal in the 1950s for the U.S. atomic energy program. The site is not currently being used. The residual radioactive material guidelines (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was sued in this evaluation. Three potential land use scenarios were considered for the former Alba Craft site; the scenarios vary with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food consumed. Scenario A (a possible land use scenario) assumed industrial use of the site; Scenario B (a likely future land use scenario) assumed residential use of the site; and Scenario C (a possible but unlikely land use scenario) assumed the presence of a resident farmer. For scenario A, it was assumed that any water used for domestic or industrial activities would be from uncontaminated off-site municipal sources. The water used for drinking, household purposes, and irrigation was assumed to be from uncontaminated municipal sources in Scenario B; groundwater drawn from a well located at the downgradient edge of the contaminated zone would be the only source of water for drinking, irrigation, and raising livestock in Scenario C. The results of the evaluation indicated that the DOE dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for any of the scenarios analyzed. The potential maximum dose rates for Scenarios A, B, and C are 0.64, 2.0, and 11 mrem/yr, respectively.

  6. Systenostrema alba Larsson 1988 (Microsporidia, Thelohaniidae) in the Dragonfly Aeshna viridis (Odonata, Aeshnidae) from South Siberia: morphology and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Yuliya Y; Kryukova, Nataliya A; Glupov, Viktor V; Fuxa, James R

    2006-01-01

    An octospore microsporidium was found in the nymphs of Aeshna viridis, collected in intermittent streams near Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia in 2003. Spores were uninucleate and measured 6.1+/-0.07 x 3.0+/-0.04 microm on fresh smears. The polar filament was anisofilar having 10-11 anterior coils (thicker filament diam.) and 10-11 posterior (thinner filament diam.) coils. Sporophorous vesicles were persistent and measured 12.3+/-0.23 x 11.9+/-0.20 microm. The infection was restricted to the adipose tissue and caused the formation of whitish "cysts" containing mature octospores. Based on ultrastructural similarity we consider this Siberian isolate to be Systenostrema alba, a species described from Aeshna grandis collected in Sweden (Larsson 1988). Maximum likelihood, neighbor joining, and maximum parsimony analyses of the small subunit rDNA all placed Systenostrema alba (Accession no. AY953292) as the sister taxon to a clade consisting of Thelohania solenopsae, Tubulinosema ratisbonensis, and Tubulinosema acridophagus.

  7. Genetic variation among South Brazilian accessions of Lippia alba Mill. (Verbenaceae) detected by ISSR and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Manica-Cattani, M F; Zacaria, J; Pauletti, G; Atti-Serafini, L; Echeverrigaray, S

    2009-05-01

    Twenty-seven accessions of Lippia alba Mill. collected in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, were analysed by ISSR and RAPD markers to evaluate their genetic variability and relationships. Six ISSR primers and four RAPD primers generated 120 amplified fragments, most of which were polymorphics. The overall genetic variability among accessions was very high when compared with other plant species. The hierarchical analysis of molecular data (UPGMA) showed low relationship between accessions, and no grouping between accessions of the same chemotype. Canonical functions allowed identifying some variables related with the chemical characteristics of the essential oils. Both ISSR and RAPD markers were efficient to address the genetic diversity of L. alba, and may contribute to the conservation and breeding of this increasingly important aromatic and medicinal species.

  8. A validated HPLC method for the analysis of herbal teas from three chemotypes of Brazilian Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Timóteo, Patrícia; Karioti, Anastasia; Leitão, Suzana G; Vincieri, Franco Francesco; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-05-15

    Infusions and decoctions of three chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae) were investigated for their quantitative profiles by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analyses. An RP-HPLC method was developed which permitted the quality control of the preparations. The correct choice of the column allowed the detailed characterization of the constituents in a total analysis time of 35 min. The HPLC method was accordingly validated for linearity range, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and precision. For the quantitative analysis the three major phytochemical groups were taken into consideration, namely iridoids, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. Comparative quantitative analyses revealed significant differences among the chemotypes that should be taken into account in the uses of the herbal teas. The developed HPLC-UV assay proved to be an efficient and alternative method for the discrimination of the three chemotypes. This is the first report of detailed analysis of the chemical composition of the constituents of L. alba chemotypes' teas.

  9. Production and characterization of lipopeptide biosurfactant by a sponge-associated marine actinomycetes Nocardiopsis alba MSA10.

    PubMed

    Gandhimathi, R; Seghal Kiran, G; Hema, T A; Selvin, Joseph; Rajeetha Raviji, T; Shanmughapriya, S

    2009-10-01

    A sponge-associated marine actinomycetes Nocardiopsis alba MSA10 was screened and evaluated for the production of biosurfactant. Biosurfactant production was confirmed by conventional screening methods including hemolytic activity, drop collapsing test, oil displacement method, lipase production and emulsification index. The active compound was extracted with three solvents including ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and dichloromethane. The diethyl ether extract was fractionated by TLC and semi-preparative HPLC to isolate the pure compound. In TLC, a single discrete spot was obtained with the R (f) 0.60 and it was extrapolated as valine. Based on the chemical characterization, the active compound was partially confirmed as lipopeptide. The optimum production was attained at pH 7, temperature 30 degrees C, and 1% salinity with glucose and peptone supplementation as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Considering the biosurfactant production potential of N. alba, the strain could be developed for large-scale production of lipopeptide biosurfactant.

  10. Geomorphic signatures of glacial activity in the Alba Patera volcanic province: Implications for recent frost accumulation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Rishitosh K.; Murty, Sripada V. S.

    2013-08-01

    landforms lying within impact craters on Mars have led to the identification of two mechanisms for their formation: (1) intermittent deposition of atmospherically emplaced snow/ice during past spin-axis/orbital conditions and (2) flow of debris-covered ice-rich deposits. The maximum presence of the young ice/snow-rich features (thermal contraction crack polygons, gullies, arcuate ridges, and lobate debris tongues) was observed on the pole-facing slope, indicating that this slope was the preferred site for ice/snow accumulation (during the last 10 Ma). In this study, we investigated 30 craters lying in the Alba Patera volcanic province in the latitudinal bands between 45°N and 32.4°N. Morphological comparison of the younger ice/snow-rich features in these craters led us to conclude that glacial/periglacial features in Alba Patera are mainly present within pole-facing slopes of craters lying within 45°N-39°N. The craters lying within 40.2°N-40°N did not show any glacial/periglacial features. We suggest that the formation of these young ice/snow-rich features follows the same orientation trends as those of other older (>10 Ma) glacial features (debris-covered ice/snow-rich large deposits at the base of the crater wall) in the region. The present work has revealed that the onset of physical processes that result in the formation of glacial/periglacial landforms is also dependent on the changes in elevation ranges of the investigated craters in Alba Patera. Our results confirm past inferences for accumulation of ice/snow on Mars and suggest that the period of ice/snow accumulation activity in Alba Patera occurred throughout the Amazonian and lasted until the recent past, i.e., 2.1-0.4 Ma.

  11. Antimutagenic evaluation of traditional medicinal plants from South America Peumus boldus and Cryptocarya alba using Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Erico R; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Parodi, Jorge; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio

    2017-03-17

    Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo") and Cryptocarya alba Mol. Looser ("Peumo") are medicinal shrubs with wide geographical distribution in South America. Their leaves and fruits are commonly used in traditional medicine because they exhibit natural medicinal properties for treatment of liver disorders and rheumatism. However, there are no apparent data regarding potential protective effects on cellular genetic components. In order to examine potential mutagenic and/or antimutagenic effects of these medicinal plants, the Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) wing-spot test was employed. This assay detects a wide range of mutational events, including point mutations, deletions, certain types of chromosomal aberrations (nondisjunction), and mitotic recombination. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenolic and anthocyanin compounds were carried out using biochemical and high-performance liquid chromatography methodologies. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of P. boldus and C. alba leaf extracts was also analyzed. P. boldus and C. alba extracts did not induce significant mutagenic effects in the D. melanogaster model. However, simultaneous treatment of extracts concurrently with the mutagen ethyl methane sulphonate showed a decrease of mutant spots in somatic cells of D. melanogaster, indicating desmutagenic effects in this in vivo model. Flavonoids and anthocyanins were detected predominantly in the extracts, and these compounds exerted significant antioxidant capacity. The observed antimutagenic effects may be related to the presence of phytochemicals with high antioxidant capacity, such as flavonoids and antohocyanins, in the extracts.

  12. Effect of plant density on competitiveness of Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and S. arvensis under water stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Talouizte, A; Benbella, M; Bouhache, M

    2005-01-01

    Under Mediterranean climate, oilseed rape is subjected especially to the competition of weeds with respect to water. Herbicides registered for this crop do not effectively control species of the same family, in particular Sinapis alba and Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, there are no results of the effect of plant density on the competitiveness of these species. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the competitiveness of the species varies according to the total density. The experiment was carried out in pots under greenhouse conditions, according to a replacement series method. Plant densities tested were 2, 4 and 8 plants per pot. The results of the replacement series diagram and those of relative crowding coefficients showed that Brassica napus was the most competitive, whatever the density is. This classification is explained primarily by leaf area. Indeed, the intraspecific competition due to B. napus has affected more its leaf area than the interspecific competition. Conversely, the intraspecific competition due to S. arvensis has less affected its leaf area than the interspecific competition. Regarding S. alba, the intraspecific competition effect was less severe than the interspecific competition effect due to B. napus and more severe than the interspecific competition effect due to S. arvensis on S. alba

  13. Potential for phytoextraction of copper by Sinapis alba and Festuca rubra cv. Merlin grown hydroponically and in vineyard soils.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Mario; Rossignolo, Virginia; Salvalaggio, Nico; Schiavon, Michela

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of copper-bearing fungicides in vineyards is responsible for the accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils. Grass species able to accumulate Cu could be cultivated in the vineyard inter-rows for copper phytoextraction. In this study, the capacity of Festuca rubra cv Merlin and Sinapis alba to tolerate and accumulate copper (Cu) was first investigated in a hydroponic system without the interference of soil chemical-physical properties. After the amendment of Cu (5 or 10 mg Cu l-(1)) to nutrient solution, shoot Cu concentration in F. rubra increased up to 108.63 mg Cu kg(-1) DW, more than three times higher than in S. alba (31.56 mg Cu kg(-1) DW). The relationship between Cu concentration in plants and external Cu was dose-dependent and species specific. Results obtained from the hydroponic experiment were confirmed by growing plants in pots containing soil collected from six Italian vineyards. The content of soil organic matter was crucial to enhance Cu tolerance and accumulation in the shoot tissues of both plant species. Although S. alba produced more biomass than F. rubra in most soils, F. rubra accumulated significantly more Cu (up to threefold to fourfold) in the shoots. Given these results, we recommended that F. rubra cv Merlin could be cultivated in the vineyard rows to reduce excess Cu in vineyard soils.

  14. CNS activities of liquid and spray-dried extracts from Lippia alba-Verbenaceae (Brazilian false melissa).

    PubMed

    Zétola, M; De Lima, T C M; Sonaglio, D; González-Ortega, G; Limberger, R P; Petrovick, P R; Bassani, V L

    2002-10-01

    The CNS activity of Lippia alba liquid and spray-dried extracts, containing the non-volatile fraction from the leaves, was investigated. L. alba liquid extracts were prepared by percolation with EtOH 40, 60 or 80%. The liquid extracts, named ES(40%,) ES(60%) and ES(80%,) were concentrated, the ethanol eliminated and then tested in Swiss mice to evaluate its sedative and anticonvulsant effects. The animals received the extracts, orally, in doses corresponding to 200 mg of dry residue by kilogram of body weight. All mice were evaluated in the barbiturate-induced sleep test. Similarly, other groups of mice were submitted to convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). The concentrated extract obtained from ES(80%) showed the most significant sedative and myorelaxant effects as well as the highest total flavonoid content (66 mg/100 g, expressed in apigenin). Two spray-dried powders, SDP(1) and SDP(2), were prepared from ES(80%) using as excipients, respectively, colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD) and CSD associated to beta-cyclodextrin. Only SDP(1) showed sedative profile similar to that presented by ES(80). In conclusion, we demonstrated that the non-volatile fraction of L. alba, extracted in ethanol 80% (v/v), presents sedative and myorelaxant effects and that, among the tested extracts, this presents the highest flavonoid content. We demonstrated also the technological feasibility of spray-dried extracts and the influence of the excipient on its sedative properties.

  15. Assessment of the repellent effect of Lippia alba essential oil and major monoterpenes on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Lima, A da Silva; Carvalho, J F de; Peixoto, M G; Blank, A F; Borges, L M F; Costa Junior, L M

    2016-03-01

    The control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is achieved using synthetic acaricides. However, resistant tick populations are widespread around the world. Plant essential oils can act as repellents, keeping ticks away from hosts and decreasing the selection pressure on synthetic acaricides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro repellent effect of Lippia alba essential oil on R. microplus larvae. Leaves from two L. alba genotypes maintained under the same agronomic and environmental conditions were collected. Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major monoterpenes detected in the chemical analysis were commercially acquired and tested. For the repellency test, a glass rod was vertically fixed to measure active climbing of approximately 30 R. microplus larvae aged 14-21 days in response to essential oils and monoterpenes. Repellency was evaluated at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h after treatment. Variation in repellent action was detected between the genotypes. The major monoterpenes identified in the essential oils (limonene and carvone) showed low repellent effects in comparison with intact essential oils. Thus, the present results showed that L. alba essential oil contains bioactive compounds with great repellent activity against ticks that varies according to the plant genotype.

  16. Transportation of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, in water with eugenol and the essential oil of Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Becker, Alexssandro G; Parodi, Thaylise V; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Heinzmann, Berta M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of eugenol and of the essential oil (EO) of Lippia alba when used in the transport of the silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). These investigations involved measurements of blood (pH, PvO(2), PvCO(2) and HCO(3) (-)) and water parameters, survival and ionoregulatory balance. Fish (301.24 ± 21.40 g, 28.90 ± 1.30 cm) were transported at a loading density of 169.2 g L(-1) for 4 h in fifteen plastic bags (7 L) divided into five treatments: control, 1.5 or 3.0 μL L(-1) of eugenol and 10 or 20 μL L(-1) of EO of L. alba. The water parameters were measured before (0 h) and after (4 h) transportation. The net Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) losses were higher in fish from the control treatment compared to the other treatments. The PvO(2), PvCO(2) and HCO(3) (-) increased significantly in all of the treatments at the end of the transport period. In conclusion, based on the water (total ammonia nitrogen) and ionoregulatory indicators determined in the present study, our findings indicate that eugenol and the EO of L. alba are recommended for use in the transport of this species because these anesthetics apparently reduce stress.

  17. Basella alba rubra spinach pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokilamani, N.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Ranjitha, A.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-03-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The X-ray diffraction results showed that TiO2 thin films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C are of anatase phase and the peak corresponding to the (101) plane is present in all the samples. The grain size of TiO2 thin films was found to increase with increasing annealing temperature. The grain size is found to be 20, 25 and 33 nm for the films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C. The structure of the TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films have been examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films were sensitized by natural dyes extracted from basella alba rubra spinach. It was found that the absorption peak of basella alba rubra extract is at about 665 nm. The dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cell sensitized using basella alba rubra exhibited a J sc of 4.35 mA cm-2, V oc of 0.48 V, FF of 0.35 and efficiency of 0.70 %. Natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells are promising because of their environmental friendliness, low-cost production and fully biodegradable.

  18. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    PubMed

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address the

  19. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O.; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests’ biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host’s defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address

  20. Velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling in woody stems of Castanea sativa, Morus nigra and Quercus robur measured by IDTA.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Gilbert; Xu, Bingcheng; Hacker, Juergen

    2010-08-01

    Infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) was used to monitor the velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) during freezing of stems of Castanea sativa L., Morus nigra L. and Quercus robur L. that exhibit a macro- and ring-porous xylem. Measurements were conducted on the surface of cross- and longitudinal stem sections. During high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs; -2.8 to -9.4°C), initial freezing was mainly observed in the youngest year ring of the sapwood (94%), but occasionally elsewhere (older year rings: 4%; bark: 2%). Initially, ice propagated rapidly in the largest xylem conduits. This resulted in a distinct freezing pattern of concentric circles in C. sativa and M. nigra. During HTEs, supercooling of XPCs became visible in Q. robur stems, but not in the other species that have narrower pith rays. Intracellular freezing of supercooled XPCs of Q. robur became visible by IDTA during low-temperature freezing exotherms (<-17.4 °C). Infrared differential thermal analysis revealed the progress and the two-dimensional pattern of XPC freezing. XPCs did not freeze at once, but rather small cell groups appeared to freeze at random anywhere in the xylem. By IDTA, ice propagation and deep supercooling in stems can be monitored at meaningful spatial and temporal resolutions.

  1. Receptor and transporter binding and activity profiles of albiflorin extracted from Radix paeoniae Alba

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zeng-liang; Gao, Nana; Xu, Weizhe; Xu, Pingxiang; Li, Shuaiqi; Zheng, Yuan-yuan; Xue, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Albiflorin, a traditional Chinese herb, is a main component of Radix paeoniae Alba, which has been used for the treatment of depressive disorders since ancient times. However, the mechanism of the antidepressant effect of albiflorin is poorly understood. Thus, we explored the binding profile of albiflorin at neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. We also characterised the in vivo effect of albiflorin on monoaminergic systems by using microanalysis to determine the extracellular levels of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in the hypothalamus of freely moving rats administered albiflorin. We found that albiflorin inhibited the uptake of 5-HT and NE and displayed robust binding affinities for the transporters of both neurotransmitters. By contrast, albiflorin (10 μM) showed no significant affinity to a wide array of central nervous system receptors. The results of our in vivo microdialysis studies showed that administration of albiflorin (3.5, 7.0, 14.0 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular concentrations of 5-HT and NE in the hypothalamus of freely moving rats. Overall, the current study showed that albiflorin is a novel 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibitor with high selectivity. PMID:27646789

  2. Prosopis alba exudate gum as excipient for improving fish oil stability in alginate-chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Franco Emanuel; Romero, Ana María; Judis, María Alicia; Mazzobre, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to employ an exudate gum obtained from a South American wild tree (Prosopis alba), as wall material component to enhance the oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan beads. For this purpose, beads were vacuum-dried and stored under controlled conditions. Oxidation products, fatty acid profiles and lipid health indices were measured during storage. Alginate-chitosan interactions and the effect of gum were manifested in the FT-IR spectra. The inclusion of the gum in the gelation media allowed decreasing the oxidative damage during storage in comparison to the free oil and alginate-chitosan beads. The gum also improved wall material properties, providing higher oil retention during the drying step and subsequent storage. Fatty acids quality and lipid health indices were widely preserved in beads containing the gum. Present results showed a positive influence of the gum on oil encapsulation and stability, being the main mechanism attributed to a physical barrier effect.

  3. Sanderlings (Calidris alba) have a magnetic compass: orientation experiments during spring migration in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, G A; Sandberg, R

    2000-10-01

    The migratory orientation of sanderlings (Calidris alba) was investigated with cage experiments during the spring migration in southwest Iceland. Sanderlings were exposed to 90 degrees counterclockwise-shifted magnetic fields under both clear skies and natural overcast. Clear sky control tests resulted in a northerly mean direction, in agreement with predictions based on ringing recovery data and earlier visual observations of departing flocks. Sanderlings closely followed experimental deflections of magnetic fields when tested under clear skies. Control experiments under natural overcast resulted in a bimodal distribution approximately coinciding with the magnetic north-south axis. Overcast tests did not reveal any predictable response to the experimental treatment, but instead resulted in a non-significant circular distribution. The time of orientation experiments in relation to the tidal cycle affects the motivation of the birds to depart, as shown by the lower directional scatter of headings of individuals tested within the appropriate tidal window under clear skies. Sanderlings were significantly more likely to become inactive under overcast conditions than under clear sky conditions. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that a wader species such as the sanderling possesses a magnetic compass and suggest that magnetic cues are of primary directional importance. However, overcast experiments indicate that both celestial and geomagnetic information are needed for sanderlings to realize a seasonally appropriate migratory orientation.

  4. Genetic characterization of fast-growing rhizobia able to nodulate Prosopis alba in North Spain.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Olga; Rivas, Raúl; García-Fraile, Paula; Abril, Adriana; Mateos, Pedro F; Martinez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2007-12-01

    Prosopis is a Mimosaceae legume tree indigenous to South America and not naturalized in Europe. In this work 18 rhizobial strains nodulating Prosopis alba roots were isolated from a soil in North Spain that belong to eight different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA groups phylogenetically related to Sinorhizobium medicae, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium giardinii according to their intergenic spacer and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The nodC genes of isolates close to S. medicae and S. meliloti were identical to those of S. medicae USDA 1,037(T) and S. meliloti LMG 6,133(T) and accordingly all these strains were able to nodulate both alfalfa and Prosopis. These nodC genes were phylogenetically divergent from those of the isolates close to R. giardinii that were identical to that of R. giardinii H152(T) and therefore all these strains formed nodules in common beans and Prosopis. The nodC genes of the strains isolated in Spain were phylogenetically divergent from that carried by Mesorhizobium chacoense Pr-5(T) and Sinorhizobium arboris LMG 1,4919(T) nodulating Prosopis in America and Africa, respectively. Therefore, Prosopis is a promiscuous host which can establish symbiosis with strains carrying very divergent nodC genes and this promiscuity may be an important advantage for this legume tree to be used in reforestation.

  5. Formulation and sensory evaluation of Prosopis alba (Algarrobo) pulp cookies with increased iron and calcium dialyzabilities.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, C; Drago, S; Sabbag, N; Sanchez, H; Freyre, M

    2006-03-01

    Prosopis alba (algarrobo) is an important indigenous specie, which fruits are used as food and feed since ancient times. Cookies containing algarrobo pulp (AP) with increased iron and calcium availabilities were formulated and sensory evaluated. AP is preferred as food ingredient because of its high sugar content and pleasant flavour. Formulated cookies mean proximal composition was 8.9 g/100 g protein, 7.2 g/100 g dietary fiber, 25 g/100 g total sugar, and 18.5 g/100 g crude fat with iron and calcium contents 30 ppm and 340 ppm, respectively. Ascorbic (AA) and citric (CA) acids at different mM acid: mM Fe were added in order to increase mineral availabilities being evaluated by an in vitro method. Those ratios were 5:1 and 10:1 for AA:Fe whereas for CA:Fe were 50:1 and 100:1 and combinations of them. After chosen the best AA:Fe and CA:Fe ratios (5:1 and 50:1, respectively), sensory evaluation with trained sensory panel and a consumer acceptability test with one hundred and seventy untrained judges were carried out. Acceptability test showed that 77.65% of the people (< 25 years old 41.76%, 25-50 years old 20.00% and > 50 years old 15.89%) tasting final formulated cookies indicated that they "like very much" or "moderately like" and there were not consumers rejecting them.

  6. How barn owls (Tyto alba) visually follow moving voles (Microtus socialis) before attacking them.

    PubMed

    Fux, Michal; Eilam, David

    2009-09-07

    The present study focused on the movements that owls perform before they swoop down on their prey. The working hypothesis was that owl head movements reflect the capacity to efficiently follow visually and auditory a moving prey. To test this hypothesis, five tame barn owls (Tyto alba) were each exposed 10 times to a live vole in a laboratory setting that enabled us to simultaneously record the behavior of both owl and vole. Bi-dimensional analysis of the horizontal and vertical projections of movements revealed that owl head movements increased in amplitude parallel to the vole's direction of movement (sideways or away from/toward the owl). However, the owls also performed relatively large repetitive horizontal head movements when the voles were progressing in any direction, suggesting that these movements were critical for the owl to accurately locate the prey, independent of prey behavior. From the pattern of head movements we conclude that owls orient toward the prospective clash point, and then return to the target itself (the vole) - a pattern that fits an interception rather than a tracking mode of following a moving target. The large horizontal component of head movement in following live prey may indicate that barn owls either have a horizontally narrow fovea or that these movements serve in forming a motion parallax along with preserving image acuity on a horizontally wide fovea.

  7. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and osteoclastic differentiation by Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba extract

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Ho; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba (ARA) has been used in Korean folk medicine for constipation, dizziness, and anticancer agent. In the present study, we performed to test whether the methanolic extract of ARA has antioxidant and antiosteoclastogenesis activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant capacities were tested by measuring free radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide (NO) levels, reducing power, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Antiosteoclastogenesis activity was evaluated by performing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase assay in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Results: The extract exerted significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and NO radical scavenging activity, and it exerted dramatic reducing power. Induction of iNOS and NO by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells was significantly inhibited by the extract, suggesting that the ARA extract inhibits NO production by suppressing iNOS expression. Strikingly, the ARA extracts substantially inhibited the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced osteclastic differentiation of LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. The ARA extract contains a significant amount of antioxidant components, including phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Conclusion: These results suggest that the methanolic extract of ARA exerts significant antioxidant activities potentially via inhibiting free radicals and iNOS induction, thereby leading to the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25298665

  8. The potential of biomonitoring of air quality using leaf characteristics of white willow (Salix alba L.).

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Tatiana; Verheyen, Kris; Wuyts, Karen; Kardel, Fatemeh; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Samson, Roeland

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we assess the potential of white willow (Salix alba L.) as bioindicator for monitoring of air quality. Therefore, shoot biomass, specific leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal pore surface, and stomatal resistance were assessed from leaves of stem cuttings. The stem cuttings were introduced in two regions in Belgium with a relatively high and a relatively low level of air pollution, i.e., Antwerp city and Zoersel, respectively. In each of these regions, nine sampling points were selected. At each sampling point, three stem cuttings of white willow were planted in potting soil. Shoot biomass and specific leaf area were not significantly different between Antwerp city and Zoersel. Microclimatic differences between the sampling points may have been more important to plant growth than differences in air quality. However, stomatal pore surface and stomatal resistance of white willow were significantly different between Zoersel and Antwerp city. Stomatal pore surface was 20% lower in Antwerp city due to a significant reduction in both stomatal length (-11%) and stomatal width (-14%). Stomatal resistance at the adaxial leaf surface was 17% higher in Antwerp city because of the reduction in stomatal pore surface. Based on these results, we conclude that stomatal characteristics of white willow are potentially useful indicators for air quality.

  9. White poplar (Populus alba) as a biomonitor of trace elements in contaminated riparian forests.

    PubMed

    Madejón, Paula; Marañón, Teodoro; Murillo, José M; Robinson, Brett

    2004-11-01

    Trees can be used to monitor the level of pollution of trace elements in the soil and atmosphere. In this paper, we surveyed the content of eight trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in leaves and stems of white poplar (Populus alba) trees. We selected 25 trees in the riparian forest of the Guadiamar River (S. Spain), one year after this area was contaminated by a mine spill, and 10 trees in non-affected sites. The spill-affected soils had significantly higher levels of available cadmium (mean of 1.25 mg kg(-1)), zinc (117 mg kg(-1)), lead (63.3 mg kg(-1)), copper (58.0 mg kg(-1)) and arsenic (1.70 mg kg(-1)), than non-affected sites. The concentration of trace element in poplar leaves was positively and significantly correlated with the soil availability for cadmium and zinc, and to a lesser extent for arsenic (log-log relationship). Thus, poplar leaves could be used as biomonitors for soil pollution of Cd and Zn, and moderately for As.

  10. Evolutionary conservation of Kv3.1 in the barn owl Tyto alba.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Lars; Schlüter, Tina; Wagner, Hermann; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2013-01-01

    For prey capture in the dark, the barn owl Tyto alba has evolved into an auditory specialist with an exquisite capability of sound localization. Adaptations include asymmetrical ears, enlarged auditory processing centers, the utilization of minute interaural time differences, and phase locking along the entire hearing range up to 10 kHz. Adaptations on the molecular level have not yet been investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that divergence in the amino acid sequence of the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv3.1 contributes to the accuracy and high firing rates of auditory neurons in the barn owl. We therefore cloned both splice variants of Kcnc1, the gene encoding Kv3.1. Both splice variants, Kcnc1a and Kcnc1b, encode amino acids identical to those of the chicken, an auditory generalist. Expression analyses confirmed neural-restricted expression of the channel. In summary, our data reveal strong evolutionary conservation of Kcnc1 in the barn owl and point to other genes involved in auditory specializations of this animal. The data also demonstrate the feasibility to address neuroethological questions in organisms with no reference genome by molecular approaches. This will open new avenues for neuroethologists working in these organisms.

  11. Weak trophic interactions among birds, insects and white oak saplings (Quercus alba)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichtenberg, J.S.; Lichtenberg, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the interactions among insectivorous birds, arthropods and white oak saplings (Quercus alba L.) in a temperate deciduous forest under 'open' and 'closed' canopy environments. For 2 y, we compared arthropod densities, leaf damage and sapling growth. Saplings from each canopy environment were assigned to one of four treatments: (1) reference, (2) bird exclosure, (3) insecticide and (4) exclosure + insecticide. Sap-feeding insects were the most abundant arthropod feeding guild encountered and birds reduced sap-feeder densities in 1997, but not in 1998. Although there was no detectable influence of birds on leaf-chewer densities in either year, leaf damage to saplings was greater within bird exclosures than outside of bird exclosures in 1997. Insecticide significantly reduced arthropod densities and leaf damage to saplings, but there was no corresponding increase in sapling growth. Growth and biomass were greater for saplings in more open canopy environments for both years. Sap-feeder densities were higher on closed canopy than open canopy saplings in 1997, but canopy environment did not influence the effects of birds on lower trophic levels. Although previous studies have found birds to indirectly influence plant growth and biomass, birds did not significantly influence the growth or biomass of white oak saplings during our study.

  12. Resin Glycosides from Ipomoea alba Seeds as Potential Chemosensitizers in Breast Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Morales, Sara; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Figueroa-González, Gabriela; Lorence, Argelia; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2016-12-23

    Multidrug resistance is the expression of one or more efflux pumps, such as P-glycoprotein, and is a major obstacle in cancer therapy. The use of new potent and noncytotoxic efflux pump modulators, coadministered with antineoplastic agents, is an alternative approach for increasing the success rate of therapy regimes with different drug combinations. This report describes the isolation and structure elucidation of six new resin glycosides from moon vine seeds (Ipomoea alba) as potential mammalian multidrug-resistance-modifying agents. Albinosides IV-IX (1-6), along with the known albinosides I-III (7-9), were purified from the CHCl3-soluble extract. Degradative chemical reactions in combination with NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used for their structural elucidation. Four new glycosidic acids, albinosinic acids D-G (10-13), were released by saponification of natural products 3-6. They were characterized as tetrasaccharides of either convolvulinolic (11S-hydroxytetradecanoic) or jalapinolic (11S-hydroxyhexadecanoic) acids. The potentiation of vinblastine susceptibility in multidrug-resistant human breast carcinoma cells of albinosides 1-6 was evaluated by modulation assays. The noncytotoxic albinosides VII (4) and VIII (5), at a concentration of 25 μg/mL, exerted the strongest potentiation of vinblastine susceptibility, with a reversal factor (RFMCF-7/Vin(+)) of 201- and >2517-fold, respectively.

  13. Evidences of local adaptation in quantitative traits in Prosopis alba (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Bessega, C; Pometti, C; Ewens, M; Saidman, B O; Vilardi, J C

    2015-02-01

    Signals of selection on quantitative traits can be detected by the comparison between the genetic differentiation of molecular (neutral) markers and quantitative traits, by multivariate extensions of the same model and by the observation of the additive covariance among relatives. We studied, by three different tests, signals of occurrence of selection in Prosopis alba populations over 15 quantitative traits: three economically important life history traits: height, basal diameter and biomass, 11 leaf morphology traits that may be related with heat-tolerance and physiological responses and spine length that is very important from silvicultural purposes. We analyzed 172 G1-generation trees growing in a common garden belonging to 32 open pollinated families from eight sampling sites in Argentina. The multivariate phenotypes differ significantly among origins, and the highest differentiation corresponded to foliar traits. Molecular genetic markers (SSR) exhibited significant differentiation and allowed us to provide convincing evidence that natural selection is responsible for the patterns of morphological differentiation. The heterogeneous selection over phenotypic traits observed suggested different optima in each population and has important implications for gene resource management. The results suggest that the adaptive significance of traits should be considered together with population provenance in breeding program as a crucial point prior to any selecting program, especially in Prosopis where the first steps are under development.

  14. Degradation of exogenous caffeine by Populus alba and its effects on endogenous caffeine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pierattini, Erika C; Francini, Alessandra; Raffaelli, Andrea; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-04-01

    This is the first study reporting the presence of endogenous caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in all organs of poplar plants. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used in order to evaluate the uptake, translocation, and metabolism of caffeine-(trimethyl-(13)C) in Populus alba L. Villafranca clone grown in hydroponic conditions. We investigated the remediation of caffeine since it is one of the most widely consumed drugs and it is frequently detected in wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface water, and groundwater worldwide. Our results demonstrated that poplar can absorb and degrade exogenous caffeine without negative effects on plant health. Data showed that concentrations of all endogenous compounds varied depending on caffeine-(trimethyl-(13)C) treatments. In particular, in control conditions, endogenous caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were mainly distributed in roots. On the other hand, once caffeine-(trimethyl-(13)C) was provided, this compound and its dimethy-(13)C metabolites are mainly localized at leaf level. In conclusion, our results support the possible use of Villafranca clone in association with other water treatment systems in order to complete the process of caffeine remediation.

  15. Properties of low-frequency head-related transfer functions in the barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Laura; von Campenhausen, Mark; Wagner, Hermann

    2010-09-01

    The barn owl (Tyto alba) possesses several specializations regarding auditory processing. The most conspicuous features are the directionally sensitive facial ruff and the asymmetrically arranged ears. The frequency-specific influence of these features on sound has consequences for sound localization that might differ between low and high frequencies. Whereas the high-frequency range (>3 kHz) is well investigated, less is known about the characteristics of head-related transfer functions for frequencies below 3 kHz. In the present study, we compared 1/3 octaveband-filtered transfer functions of barn owls with center frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 9 kHz. The range of interaural time differences was 600 micros at frequencies above 4 kHz, decreased to 505 micros at 3 kHz and increased again to about 615 micros at lower frequencies. The ranges for very low (0.5-1 kHz) and high frequencies (5-9 kHz) were not statistically different. Interaural level differences and monaural gains increased monotonically with increasing frequency. No systematic influence of the body temperature on the measured localization cues was observed. These data have implications for the mechanism underlying sound localization and we suggest that the barn owl's ears work as pressure receivers both in the high- and low-frequency ranges.

  16. Phylogeny of the "forgotten" cellular slime mold, Fonticula alba, reveals a key evolutionary branch within Opisthokonta.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew W; Spiegel, Frederick W; Silberman, Jeffrey D

    2009-12-01

    The shared ancestry between Fungi and animals has been unequivocally demonstrated by abundant molecular and morphological data for well over a decade. Along with the animals and Fungi, multiple protists have been placed in the supergroup Opisthokonta making it exceptionally diverse. In an effort to place the cellular slime mold Fonticula alba, an amoeboid protist with aggregative, multicellular fruiting, we sequenced five nuclear encoded genes; small subunit ribosomal RNA, actin, beta-tubulin, elongation factor 1-alpha, and the cytosolic isoform of heat shock protein 70 for phylogenetic analyses. Molecular trees demonstrate that Fonticula is an opisthokont that branches sister to filose amoebae in the genus Nuclearia. Fonticula plus Nuclearia are sister to Fungi. We propose a new name for this well-supported clade, Nucletmycea, incorporating Nuclearia, Fonticula, and Fungi. Fonticula represents the first example of a cellular slime mold morphology within Opisthokonta. Thus, there are four types of multicellularity in the supergroup-animal, fungal, colonial, and now aggregative. Our data indicate that multicellularity in Fonticula evolved independent of that found in the fungal and animal radiations. With the rapidly expanding sequence and genomic data becoming available from many opisthokont lineages, Fonticula may be fundamental to understanding opisthokont evolution as well as any possible commonalities involved with the evolution of multicellularity.

  17. HPLC-Based Method to Evaluate Kinetics of Glucosinolate Hydrolysis by Sinapis alba Myrosinase1

    PubMed Central

    Vastenhout, Kayla J.; Tornberg, Ruthellen H.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Amolins, Michael W.; Mays, Jared R.

    2014-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are one of several hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, plant secondary metabolites which are substrates for the thioglucohydrolase myrosinase. Recent pursuits toward the development of synthetic, non-natural ITCs have consequently led to an exploration of generating these compounds from non-natural glucosinolate precursors. Evaluation of the myrosinase-dependent conversion of select non-natural glucosinolates to non-natural ITCs cannot be accomplished using established UV-Vis spectroscopic methods. To overcome this limitation, an alternative HPLC-based analytical approach was developed where initial reaction velocities were generated from non-linear reaction progress curves. Validation of this HPLC method was accomplished through parallel evaluation of three glucosinolates with UV-Vis methodology. The results of this study demonstrate that kinetic data is consistent between both analytical methods and that the tested glucosinolates respond similarly to both Michaelis–Menten and specific activity analyses. Consequently, this work resulted in the complete kinetic characterization of three glucosinolates with Sinapis alba myrosinase, with results that were consistent with previous reports. PMID:25068719

  18. Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro

    2012-07-01

    The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities.

  19. Essential oil of Lippia alba and its main constituent citral block the excitability of rat sciatic nerves

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, D.G.; Sousa, S.D.G.; Silva, R.E.R.; Silva-Alves, K.S.; Ferreira-da-Silva, F.W.; Kerntopf, M.R.; Menezes, I.R.A.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.; Barbosa, R.

    2015-01-01

    Lippia alba is empirically used for infusions, teas, macerates, and hydroalcoholic extracts because of its antispasmodic, analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic effects. Citral is a mixture of trans-geranial and cis-neral and is the main constituent of L. alba essential oil and possesses analgesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects. The present study evaluated the effects of the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) and citral on compound action potentials (CAPs) in Wistar rat sciatic nerves. Both drugs inhibited CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. The calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of peak-to-peak amplitude were 53.2 µg/mL and 35.00 µg/mL (or 230 µM) for EOLa and citral, respectively. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the CAP was significantly reduced by 30 µg/mL EOLa and 10 µg/mL citral. EOLa and citral (at 60 and 30 µg/mL, values close to their respective IC50 for CAP blockade) significantly increased chronaxy and rheobase. The conduction velocity of the first and second CAP components was statistically reduced to ∼86% of control with 10 µg/mL EOLa and ∼90% of control with 3 µg/mL citral. This study showed that EOLa inhibited nerve excitability and this effect can be explained by the presence of citral in its composition. Both EOLa and citral showed inhibitory actions at lower concentrations compared with other essential oils and constituents with local anesthetic activity. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that EOLa and citral are promising agents in the development of new drugs with local anesthetic activity. PMID:26132093

  20. Participation of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Heldwein, C.G.; Silva, L.L.; Reckziegel, P.; Barros, F.M.C.; Bürger, M.E.; Baldisserotto, B.; Mallmann, C.A.; Schmidt, D.; Caron, B.O.; Heinzmann, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the possible involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba essential oil (EO). We propose a new animal model using silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to an anesthetic bath to study the mechanism of action of EO. To observe the induction and potentiation of the anesthetic effect of EO, juvenile silver catfish (9.30 ± 1.85 g; 10.15 ± 0.95 cm; N = 6) were exposed to various concentrations of L. alba EO in the presence or absence of diazepam [an agonist of high-affinity binding sites for benzodiazepinic (BDZ) sites coupled to the GABAA receptor complex]. In another experiment, fish (N = 6) were initially anesthetized with the EO and then transferred to an anesthetic-free aquarium containing flumazenil (a selective antagonist of binding sites for BDZ coupled to the GABAA receptor complex) or water to assess recovery time from the anesthesia. In this case, flumazenil was used to observe the involvement of the GABA-BDZ receptor in the EO mechanism of action. The results showed that diazepam potentiates the anesthetic effect of EO at all concentrations tested. Fish exposed to diazepam and EO showed faster recovery from anesthesia when flumazenil was added to the recovery bath (12.0 ± 0.3 and 7.2 ± 0.7, respectively) than those exposed to water (9.2 ± 0.2 and 3.5 ± 0.3, respectively). In conclusion, the results demonstrated the involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of L. alba EO on silver catfish. PMID:22473320

  1. Fractional CO2 laser as an effective modality in treatment of striae alba in skin types III and IV

    PubMed Central

    Naein, Farahnaz Fatemi; Soghrati, Mehrnaz

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rapid stretching of the skin over the weak connective tissue leads to development of striae distensae. Recently, researchers have shown special interest towards use of fractional photothermolysis in treatment of striae and several studies have shown its usefulness. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of Fractional CO2 laser in treatment of striae alba. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was carried out in female patients with striae alba. Ninety two striae were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Five sessions of laser resurfacing, were performed in Group 1, every 2–4 weeks. Group 2 was treated with 10% glycolic acid+0.05% tretinoin cream nightly during the study. Photographs were taken from the striae before and two weeks after the end of treatment. Mean surface area of striae compared between two groups. Patients’ views regarding the degree of improvement were assessed via visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Forty six striae in Group 1 underwent laser resurfacing and 46 matched striae in Group 2, were treated with topical cream. Mean difference of striae surface area, was significantly decreased after treatment in Group 1 (-37.1±15.6 cm2) in comparison with Group 2(-7.9±9 cm2) (P value >0.001). Mean VAS was significantly higher in Group 1 (3.05±0.74) compared to Group 2 (0.63±0.66) (P value >0.001). Conclusions: Fractional photothermolysis via Fractional CO2 laser seems to be an effective method for treatment of striae alba. PMID:23825991

  2. Essential oil of Lippia alba and its main constituent citral block the excitability of rat sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Sousa, D G; Sousa, S D G; Silva, R E R; Silva-Alves, K S; Ferreira-da-Silva, F W; Kerntopf, M R; Menezes, I R A; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Barbosa, R

    2015-08-01

    Lippia alba is empirically used for infusions, teas, macerates, and hydroalcoholic extracts because of its antispasmodic, analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic effects. Citral is a mixture of trans-geranial and cis-neral and is the main constituent of L. alba essential oil and possesses analgesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects. The present study evaluated the effects of the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) and citral on compound action potentials (CAPs) in Wistar rat sciatic nerves. Both drugs inhibited CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. The calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of peak-to-peak amplitude were 53.2 µg/mL and 35.00 µg/mL (or 230 µM) for EOLa and citral, respectively. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the CAP was significantly reduced by 30 µg/mL EOLa and 10 µg/mL citral. EOLa and citral (at 60 and 30 µg/mL, values close to their respective IC50 for CAP blockade) significantly increased chronaxy and rheobase. The conduction velocity of the first and second CAP components was statistically reduced to ∼86% of control with 10 µg/mL EOLa and ∼90% of control with 3 µg/mL citral. This study showed that EOLa inhibited nerve excitability and this effect can be explained by the presence of citral in its composition. Both EOLa and citral showed inhibitory actions at lower concentrations compared with other essential oils and constituents with local anesthetic activity. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that EOLa and citral are promising agents in the development of new drugs with local anesthetic activity.

  3. Participation of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil.

    PubMed

    Heldwein, C G; Silva, L L; Reckziegel, P; Barros, F M C; Bürger, M E; Baldisserotto, B; Mallmann, C A; Schmidt, D; Caron, B O; Heinzmann, B M

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the possible involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba essential oil (EO). We propose a new animal model using silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to an anesthetic bath to study the mechanism of action of EO. To observe the induction and potentiation of the anesthetic effect of EO, juvenile silver catfish (9.30 ± 1.85 g; 10.15 ± 0.95 cm; N = 6) were exposed to various concentrations of L. alba EO in the presence or absence of diazepam [an agonist of high-affinity binding sites for benzodiazepinic (BDZ) sites coupled to the GABA A receptor complex]. In another experiment, fish (N = 6) were initially anesthetized with the EO and then transferred to an anesthetic-free aquarium containing flumazenil (a selective antagonist of binding sites for BDZ coupled to the GABA A receptor complex) or water to assess recovery time from the anesthesia. In this case, flumazenil was used to observe the involvement of the GABA-BDZ receptor in the EO mechanism of action. The results showed that diazepam potentiates the anesthetic effect of EO at all concentrations tested. Fish exposed to diazepam and EO showed faster recovery from anesthesia when flumazenil was added to the recovery bath (12.0 ± 0.3 and 7.2 ± 0.7, respectively) than those exposed to water (9.2 ± 0.2 and 3.5 ± 0.3, respectively). In conclusion, the results demonstrated the involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of L. alba EO on silver catfish.

  4. Inhibition of cytotoxicity of Shiga toxin of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on vero cells by Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae) and Ziziphus mistol Griseb (Rhamnaceae) extracts.

    PubMed

    Pellarín, M G; Albrecht, C; Rojas, M J; Aguilar, J J; Konigheim, B S; Paraje, M G; Albesa, I; Eraso, A J

    2013-10-01

    The capacity of Prosopis alba Griseb. and Ziziphus mistol Griseb. fruit extracts to inhibit the toxic action of Shiga toxin (Stx) was investigated. Purification of Stx from Escherichia coli O157:H7 was performed by saline precipitation and affinity chromatography using a column with globotriaosylceramide, while the fruits were subjected to ethanolic or aqueous extractions. The protective action of both fruits was determined by pre-, co-, and postincubation of one 50% cytotoxic dose per ml of Stx with different concentrations of ethanolic and aqueous extracts in confluent monolayers of Vero cells for 72 h at 37°C (5% CO2). The inhibition of the cytotoxic effect of Stx by fruit extracts was determined by the neutral red vital staining technique. The extraction of the polyphenols and flavonoids was effective, and more polyphenols per milligram of dissolved solids were obtained from P. alba than from Z. mistol. However, there were more flavonoids in Z. mistol than in P. alba. Components of both fruits increased the viability of cells treated with Stx when the extracts were preincubated with Stx for 1 h before being applied to the cell cultures, with the ethanolic extract of P. alba showing 95% cell viability at a concentration of 2.45 mg/ml. The extracts were less effective in protecting cells when Stx, extracts, and cells were coincubated together without a previous incubation of Stx; only the concentrations of 19.46 mg/ml for the P. alba aqueous extract and 3.75 mg/ml for the Z. mistol ethanolic extract resulted in the inhibition of cytotoxicity, with 52 and 56% cell viability occurring, respectively. Investigation into this difference in the protection of cells indicated that the protein molecule of Stx suffered degradation to advanced oxidative protein products during preincubation with extracts, principally with P. alba, which exhibited a greater amount of nonflavonoid polyphenols than Z. mistol. The prooxidant action on Stx favored the cells and enhanced the

  5. Past and future evolution of Abies alba forests in Europe - comparison of a dynamic vegetation model with palaeo data and observations.

    PubMed

    Ruosch, Melanie; Spahni, Renato; Joos, Fortunat; Henne, Paul D; van der Knaap, Willem O; Tinner, Willy

    2016-02-01

    Information on how species distributions and ecosystem services are impacted by anthropogenic climate change is important for adaptation planning. Palaeo data suggest that Abies alba formed forests under significantly warmer-than-present conditions in Europe and might be a native substitute for widespread drought-sensitive temperate and boreal tree species such as beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) under future global warming conditions. Here, we combine pollen and macrofossil data, modern observations, and results from transient simulations with the LPX-Bern dynamic global vegetation model to assess past and future distributions of A. alba in Europe. LPX-Bern is forced with climate anomalies from a run over the past 21 000 years with the Community Earth System Model, modern climatology, and with 21st-century multimodel ensemble results for the high-emission RCP8.5 and the stringent mitigation RCP2.6 pathway. The simulated distribution for present climate encompasses the modern range of A. alba, with the model exceeding the present distribution in north-western and southern Europe. Mid-Holocene pollen data and model results agree for southern Europe, suggesting that at present, human impacts suppress the distribution in southern Europe. Pollen and model results both show range expansion starting during the Bølling-Allerød warm period, interrupted by the Younger Dryas cold, and resuming during the Holocene. The distribution of A. alba expands to the north-east in all future scenarios, whereas the potential (currently unrealized) range would be substantially reduced in southern Europe under RCP8.5. A. alba maintains its current range in central Europe despite competition by other thermophilous tree species. Our combined palaeoecological and model evidence suggest that A. alba may ensure important ecosystem services including stand and slope stability, infrastructure protection, and carbon sequestration under significantly warmer

  6. The antimicrobial efficacy of Lippia alba essential oil and its interaction with food ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Terezinha Feitosa; Nogueira, Nádia Accioly P.; de Cássia Alves Pereira, Rita; de Sousa, Cívita Teixeira; Batista, Valéria Chaves Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa) and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10%) and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2%) evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%), the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH. PMID:25242961

  7. Two Sweetclover (Melilotus alba Desr.) Mutants Temperature Sensitive for Chlorophyll Expression.

    PubMed Central

    Bevins, M. A.; Madhavan, S.; Markwell, J.

    1993-01-01

    The nonallelic sweetclover (Melilotus alba Desr.) mutants U371 (ch10/ch10 genotype) and U372 (ch11/ch11 genotype) are derived from the U389 (+/+ genotype) parental strain. Growth of the U389 strain at a temperature of 17 or 26[deg]C results in plants normally green in appearance. The U371 and U372 mutant plants grown at 26[deg]C are slightly to moderately chlorophyll (Chl) deficient and have decreased Chl b/a ratios. Growth of the mutants at 17[deg]C results in plants severely deficient in Chl a, with markedly reduced levels of carotenoids except for violaxanthin, and with negligible amounts of Chl b or apoproteins for the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. If mutant plants grown at 17[deg]C are transferred to 26[deg]C, during the next 20 d the amount of Chl per fresh weight will increase 5-fold and both the Chl b/a ratio and the expression of the light-harvesting complex apoproteins will progressively increase. Studies of the U371 mutant during the temperature-induced greening demonstrate progressive changes in chloroplast ultra-structure and leaf carbon isotope fractionation that parallel the increases in Chl. Changes observed in the leaf carbon isotope fractionation in the mutant suggest that, in addition to the already known effects of various abiotic factors, structural and metabolic internal factors can also influence whether the limitation in CO2 fixation is at the level of diffusion or carboxylation. Such temperature-initiated progressive greening in these and similar mutants may make them useful tools to elucidate not only the biosynthesis and assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus, but also physiological phenomena such as the influence of light-driven energy production on the overall carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis. PMID:12232006

  8. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Behringer, David; Zimmermann, Heike; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated) of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2) are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings.

  9. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba

    2014-06-01

    Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Eötvös Loránd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species.

  10. [Cloning and prokaryotic expression analysis of HDS from Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dan; Rong, Qi-Xian; Yuan, Qing-Jun; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Yong-Qing; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-11-01

    According to the designed specific primers of gene fragment based on the Salvia miltiorrhiza transcriptome data, with the method of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), this study cloned full-length cDNA sequence of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate synthase gene from Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba, this sequence is named as SmHDS and its GenBank registration number is KJ746807. SmHDS, 2 529 bp long, contains an ORF of 2 229 bp, encodes 742 amino acids, including 5' UTR 170 bp and 3' UTR 130 bp. Using bioinformatics software, having made a homology analysis of the obtained sequence, we can have a conclusion that SmHDS have a close genetic relationship with HDS of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Analysis result of prokaryotic expression revealed that in Escherichia coli, SmHDS expressed target proteins which in size are comparable with the protein predicted. Meanwhile, the 4 factors which can influence the protein expression were optimized, the 4 factors are inducing temperature, inducing time, IPTG concentrations and density of inducing host bacterium (A600). The optimal expression conditions of SmHDS were 30 degrees C until the A600 is 0.6, and add IPTG to a final concentration of 0.2 mmol x L(-1), and the induction time of 20 h. It provides theoretical basis for the further study of the function of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate synthase in the biosynthesis of tanshinone compounds.

  11. Behavioral effects of essential oils from Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown chemotypes.

    PubMed

    Vale, T G; Matos, F J; de Lima, T C; Viana, G S

    1999-11-01

    This work presents behavioral effects of three chemotypes of essential oils (EO) from Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) on elevated plus maze, open field and rota rod tests and also on rectal temperature in mice. The results showed that all three EO increased significantly not only the number and percentage of entries, but also the time and percentage of time of permanence in the open arms. Greater effects were presented by EO II (50 mg/kg, i.p.) as related to controls for all parameters studied. In the open field test, while EO I (200 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased only the number of rearing as compared to controls, EO II and III (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p., respectively) decreased both the number of rearing and grooming as compared to controls. None of them altered the number of crossings. In the rota rod test, only EO II (200 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the time of permanence on the bar related to controls. All three EO decreased the rectal temperature at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. EO I contains citral, beta-myrcene and limonene as the main constituents, while citral and limonene are present in EO II, and carvone and limonene in EO III. Citral and beta-myrcene seem to be the main active components of EO I and II. However, carvone and limonene are also active and probably responsible for the effects observed with EO III.

  12. Cardioprotective effects of silver fir (Abies alba) extract in ischemic-reperfused isolated rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Drevenšek, Gorazd; Lunder, Mojca; Benković, Eva Tavčar; Štrukelj, Borut; Kreft, Samo

    2016-01-01

    Background Silver fir trunk extract (SFTE) is a complex mixture of antioxidative polyphenols (lignans and phenolic acids) from the trunks of silver fir trees (Abies alba, lignum). In our previous study, we have shown that SFTE exerts strong antioxidative and protective effects against atherogenic, diet-induced arterial wall damage. Objective The aim of the present study was to test the potential protective effects of SFTE and its compounds, two phenolic acids (p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids) in ischemia–reperfusion injury of isolated rat hearts. Design Isolated hearts of Wistar rats aged 4–8 weeks were exposed to perfusion, ischemia, and reperfusion periods. The experiments were performed using the following five groups: control, SFTE (10 µg/L), SFTE (100 µg/L), protocatechuic acid, and p-coumaric. Aortas were isolated to measure vascular responses in the presence of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine. Results SFTE dose-dependently reduced ischemic-reperfusion heart damage, which was indicated as the decrease in the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release rate and arrhythmias duration by 80% and an increase in coronary flow rate during the reperfusion period. Two tested compounds (p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids) acted less cardioprotective, since they decreased the duration of arrhythmias only by 40 and 45%, respectively, and did not decrease LDH release rates during the reperfusion period. Only p-coumaric acid increased coronary flow rates, whereas protocatechuic acid did not. Conclusions We conclude that the SFTE exerted the strongest cardioprotective effect, whereas its constituents (the p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids) were less effective in inducing cardioprotection. PMID:27756448

  13. The antimicrobial efficacy of Lippia alba essential oil and its interaction with food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Machado, Terezinha Feitosa; Nogueira, Nádia Accioly P; de Cássia Alves Pereira, Rita; de Sousa, Cívita Teixeira; Batista, Valéria Chaves Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa) and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10%) and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2%) evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%), the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH.

  14. Interaction of nitrogen nutrition and salinity in Grey poplar (Populus tremula x alba).

    PubMed

    Ehlting, B; Dluzniewska, P; Dietrich, H; Selle, A; Teuber, M; Hänsch, R; Nehls, U; Polle, A; Schnitzler, J-P; Rennenberg, H; Gessler, A

    2007-07-01

    Salinity represents an increasing environmental problem in managed ecosystems. Populus spp. is widely used for wood production by short-rotation forestry in fertilized plantations and can be grown on saline soil. Because N fertilization plays an important role in salt tolerance, we analysed Grey poplar (Populus tremula x alba, syn. Populus canescens) grown with either 1 mM nitrate or ammonium subjected to moderate 75 mM NaCl. The impact of N nutrition on amelioration of salt tolerance was analysed on different levels of N metabolism such as N uptake, assimilation and N (total N, proteins and amino compounds) accumulation. Na concentration increased in all tissues over time of salt exposure. The N nutrition-dependent effects of salt exposure were more intensive in roots than in leaves. Application of salt reduced root increment as well as stem height increase and, at the same time, increased the concentration of total amino compounds more intensively in roots of ammonium-fed plants. In leaves, salt treatment increased concentrations of total N more intensively in nitrate-fed plants and concentrations of amino compounds independently of N nutrition. The major changes in N metabolism of Grey poplar exposed to moderate salt concentrations were detected in the significant increase of amino acid concentrations. The present results indicate that N metabolism of Grey poplar exposed to salt performed better when the plants were fed with nitrate instead of ammonium as sole N source. Therefore, nitrate fertilization of poplar plantations grown on saline soil should be preferred.

  15. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated) of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2) are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings. PMID:25924061

  16. Microsatellite markers characterized in the barn owl (Tyto alba) and of high utility in other owls (Strigiformes: AVES).

    PubMed

    Klein, Akos; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Küpper, Clemens; Major, Agnes; Lee, Patricia L M; Hoffmann, Gyula; Mátics, Róbert; Dawson, Deborah A

    2009-11-01

    We have identified 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the barn owl (Tyto alba), five from testing published owl loci and 10 from testing non-owl loci, including loci known to be of high utility in passerines and shorebirds. All 15 loci were sequenced in barn owl, and new primer sets were designed for eight loci. The 15 polymorphic loci displayed two to 26 alleles in 56-58 barn owls. When tested in 10 other owl species (n = 1-6 individuals), between four and nine loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are suitable for studies of population structure and parentage in owls.

  17. The Origin of Clonal Diversity and Structure of Populus alba in Sardinia: Evidence from Nuclear and Plastid Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Brundu, Giuseppe; Lupi, Renato; Zapelli, Ilaria; Fossati, Tiziana; Patrignani, Giuseppe; Camarda, Ignazio; Sala, Francesco; Castiglione, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Populus alba is a thermophilic forest tree present in the Mediterranean basin. Its habitat is highly fragmented and its distribution range has been subject to long-term human interference, resulting in debate surrounding whether certain populations are native or exotic in origin. In particular, populations from the islands of Corsica and Sardinia are of uncertain origin. While populations of P. alba mainly reproduce sexually, clonal reproduction is also common. The aims of this study were to locate and molecularly characterize the poorly studied island populations of P. alba and compare these with samples from various spatial scales, in order to provide information on the genetic structure and phylogeography of this species. This information will provide evidence on whether the species is native to Sardinia, which is important for the development of conservation strategies. Methods DNA extracts were obtained from the following P. alba trees: 159 from Sardinia, 47 from Ticino regional park (northern Italy), 15 acquired from an Italian Germoplasm Bank (IRC; Italian Reference Collection) and 28 from the Mediterranean basin (MB). Genetic polymorphisms were revealed at nuclear and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) microsatellite loci, both at the island scale (Sardinia) and at broader scales, for comparative assessment of the genetic and genotypic diversity and phylogeography. Key Results Based on nuclear microsatellite loci, Sardinian white poplar consists of a small number of genets (26), each of which is represented by several ramets. Despite the uniqueness of the Sardinian haplotypes and the very low value of genetic diversity at the cpDNA level (vK = 0·15), the HT (0·60) and the AR (3·61) values, estimated at the nuclear level for Sardinia, were comparable with those of the other populations and collections. Conclusions The uniqueness of the cpDNA haplotypes, the prevalence of clonality and the restricted number of genets recorded suggest that

  18. Anticoccidial effects of coumestans from Eclipta alba for sustainable control of Eimeria tenella parasitosis in poultry production.

    PubMed

    Michels, M G; Bertolini, L C T; Esteves, A F; Moreira, P; Franca, S C

    2011-04-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of a product containing coumestans from Eclipta alba. Experimental conditions were set up as to reproduce the environment conditions for husbandry adopted in commercial broiler farms. Broilers were raised in broiler chicken shed provided with feeders, drinkers, illumination and temperature control systems and floor covering to afford an adequate nourishing environment. Male Cobb broilers (240) were assigned to four experimental groups being each experimental group set apart in rice straw-covered shed isolated with wire mesh. One-day-old broilers were reared in a coccidian-free environment with ad libitum supply of filtered water and freely available standard feed, from the 1st to the 35th day of life. The T1 group received standard feed (negative control); T2 was treated with standard feed supplemented with 66 ppm of salinomycin (positive control); groups T3 and T4 had standard feed supplemented with the ethyl acetate fraction from methanolic extract of E. alba aerial parts, which contains the coumestans WL and DWL (120 and 180 ppm, respectively). The chicken broilers were individually infected with 2 × 104 oocysts of Eimeria tenella when they were 14 days old and were monitored weekly to evaluate zootechnical parameters such as weight gain and food conversion ratio. Counting of coccidial oocyst in chicken feces was assessed from random samples, from the 21st to 28th days of life, which corresponded to 7-14 days after the infection. Five chickens selected at random from each experimental group were subsequently euthanized at 21, 28 or 35 days of life to determine the lesion score in the cecal region and to excise a cecum portion for histopathological evaluation. The group treated with coumestans from E. alba presented an average weight gain and food conversion ratio higher than the negative control group and similar to the mean value of the positive control group. Coumestan-treated groups showed a

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum-localized small heat shock protein that accumulates in mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz.) during seasonal cold acclimation is responsive to abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Kanno, Yuri; Seo, Mitsunori; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2010-04-01

    With seasonal changes, several proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fraction in the bark of mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz.). Results of partial amino acid sequence analysis in our previous study suggested that one of these proteins is the ER-localized small heat shock protein (sHSP), designated 20-kD winter-accumulating protein (WAP20). In the present study, molecular and biochemical properties of WAP20 were investigated in detail. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA has the predicted signal sequence to the ER, retention signal to the ER and two consensus regions conserved in sHSPs. Recombinant WAP20 expressed in Escherichia coli also showed typical biochemical features of sHSPs, including the formation of a high-molecular-mass complex between 200 and 300 kD under native conditions, promotion of the renaturation of chemically denaturated citrate synthase and prevention of heat stress-induced aggregation of the enzyme. Transcript levels of WAP20 in the bark tissue were seasonally changed, showing high expression levels from mid-October to mid-December, and the transcript levels were additionally increased and decreased by cold treatment and warm treatment, respectively. WAP20 transcripts were detected abundantly in bark tissue rather than xylem and winter bud tissues during seasonal cold acclimation. The bark tissue specificity of WAP20 accumulation was also observed by exogenous application of phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in de-acclimated twigs, whereas WAP20 transcripts were increased in all of these tissues by heat shock treatment at 37 degrees C in summer twigs. The results suggest that ABA may be involved in the expression of the WAP20 gene in bark tissue of the mulberry tree during seasonal cold acclimation.

  20. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity and phytocomponent investigation of Basella alba leaf extract as a treatment for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Salvamani, Shamala; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Pattiram, Parveen Devi; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is the key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that produces cholesterol. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase reduces cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. Synthetic drugs, statins, are commonly used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Due to the side effects of statins, natural HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed. In this study, 25 medicinal plant methanol extracts were screened for anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity. Basella alba leaf extract showed the highest inhibitory effect at about 74%. Thus, B. alba was examined in order to investigate its phytochemical components. Gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenol 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl), 1-heptatriacotanol, oleic acid, eicosyl ester, naringin, apigenin, luteolin, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol, which have been reported to possess antihypercholesterolemic effects. Further investigation of in vivo models should be performed in order to confirm its potential as an alternative treatment for hypercholesterolemia and related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25609924

  1. Composition of the body mass overshoot in European barn owl nestlings (Tyto alba): insurance against scarcity of energy or water?

    PubMed

    Durant, Joël M; Landys, Meta M; Handrich, Yves

    2008-07-01

    European barn owl chicks (Tyto alba) show a body mass overshoot prior to fledging that has been predicted to serve as an energy reservoir during periods of stochastic food availability. However, the composition of the mass overshoot has heretofore not been directly examined in nestlings of this or any other species displaying a body mass overshoot during growth (e.g., raptors and seabirds). To experimentally determine whether the overshoot in body mass in juvenile European barn owls (Tyto alba) may act as an energy reservoir, we compared the body composition of owl chicks raised on an ad libitum diet to those fed a restricted diet designed to eliminate the overshoot. Chicks raised on the two diets were also compared for differences in maturation of diverse functions (e.g., locomotion) and tissues (e.g., skeletal development). Contrary to expectations, our results on body composition in juvenile barn owls indicate that the mass overshoot prior to fledging is primarily comprised of an increased water compartment. Thus, we suggest that the mass overshoot in owls (and possibly in other species) does not serve as an energy reservoir but, rather, may function as an insurance against dehydration when hot in-nest conditions force chicks to rely on evaporative cooling: temperatures in barn owl nests can reach up to 43 degrees C. We found no significant differences in maturation indexes between diet treatments at the time of fledging.

  2. Beneficial effect of Berberis buxifolia Lam, Ziziphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba extracts on oxidative stress induced by chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Claudia; Pellarin, Gabriela; Rojas, María José; Albesa, Inés; Eraso, Alberto F

    2010-01-01

    The chemiluminescence of luminol, a measure of oxidative stress, increased immediately as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulated by this antibiotic. The effect of Ch was dose dependent with maximum stimulus at 8 mg/ml (Vmax); above this concentration the cells began to reduce the production of ROS. The oxidative injury of Ch was counteracted by water extracts of Berberis buxifolia lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba, indigenous fruits from Argentina. The relatively light units (RLU) emitted decreased immediately as a consequence of a protective effect exerted by the extracts of these fruit extracts on blood cells. The three indigenous fruit extracts reduced to a different extent the oxidative injury caused by Ch. B.buxifolia lam exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Z.mistol Griseb. Water extracts of both fruit extracts were the most effective against the oxidative stress, while P.alba presented better antioxidant capacity in the ethanolic fraction obtained. Hexane extracts showed low protective action on blood cells, with little reduction of area under curve (AUC) of RLU plotted versus time. Leukocytes remained viable in blood samples incubated for 3h with Ch and water extracts of B. buxifolia lam or Z. mistol Griseb (97.1% and 92.5% viability by Trypan blue exclusion, respectively); whereas with Ch only the cells were stressed and viability decreased to 30%. The three fruit extracts protected the viability of leukocytes in parallel with the decrease of ROS. Erythrocytes were not lysed in the presence of Ch.

  3. Morpho-physiological response of Populus alba to erythromycin: A timeline of the health status of the plant.

    PubMed

    Pierattini, Erika Carla; Francini, Alessandra; Raffaelli, Andrea; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-11-01

    Populus alba Villafranca clone was chosen for a proof of concept study to determine the potential uptake and accumulation of antibiotics by trees. Plants were grown hydroponically and irrigated with a recirculating Hoagland's nutrient solution (control) and Hoagland's nutrient solution fortified with erythromycin at 0.01, 0.1 and 1mgL(-1). After 3 and 28days of treatment, poplar plants were separated into roots, stem, and leaves. Plants showed good health all over the period of treatment, and no differences in poplar growth for all the concentrations of erythromycin tested were observed. Quantification of erythromycin was performed using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive ion mode using multiple reaction ion monitoring. Erythromycin was detected in all organs analyzed. Roots showed an erythromycin concentration tenfold higher than leaves. The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II did not show a dose-dependant trend. From the quenching analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence, low nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) and high photochemical quenching (qP) for the first week of erythromycin exposure was observed, depending on leaves position along the stem. Results suggest a short term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Populus alba in response to environmental realistic erythromycin concentrations.

  4. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae) isolates.

    PubMed

    Tomazoni, Elisa Z; Pansera, Márcia R; Pauletti, Gabriel F; Moura, Sidnei; Ribeiro, Rute T S; Schwambach, Joséli

    2016-05-31

    Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae). Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae), which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani.

  5. [Determination of 99 pesticide residues in Paeoniae Radix Alba by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Tong, Ling; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Guoxiang

    2015-08-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous determination of 99 pesticide residues with combination of solid-phase extraction technique ( SPE) and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS). The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate, and cleaned-up by an amino SPE column. The extract was determined by GC-MS/MS in multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and matrix-matched internal standard method was applied to quantify the pesticides. The results of all the 99 pesticides showed good linearity in the range of 0.001-0.25 mg/L, with correlation coefficients (r2) > 0.99. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.001-0.050 mg/kg. The recoveries were between 66.7% and 128.0% with RSD values typically lower than 18.3% at three spiked levels of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mg/kg. This method has been applied to determine thirteen batches of commercially available samples, chlorpyriphos-ethyl and p,p'-DDE were detected in four batches of Paeoniae Radix Alba. The method is highly accurate, reliable and sensitive for monitoring the 99 pesticide residues in Paeoniae Radix Alba.

  6. Investigation of the Chemical Changes from Crude and Processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma Herbal Pair Extracts by Using Q Exactive High-Performance Benchtop Quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    The Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair is mainly used for regulating the functions of liver and spleen, benefiting qi, and nourishing blood. However, the bioactive compounds for the pharmacological activities of the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts are still unclear to date. In the present study, Q Exactive high-performance benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS was applied to identify the complicated components from crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba, crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and their crude and processed herbal pair extracts. 123 and 101 compounds were identified in crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba samples, respectively. Meanwhile, 32 and 26 compounds were identified in crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples, respectively. In the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts, co-decoction could significantly change the chemical composition of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in solution. The developed method may provide a scientific foundation for deeply elucidating the processing and compatibility mechanism of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma. PMID:24876867

  7. Evaluation of the Influence of Sulfur-Fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the Quality of Si Wu Tang by Chromatographic and Chemometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Ke; Duan, Yu; Qiao, Feng-Xian; Tu, Si-Cong; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Li; Song, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Kai-Lei; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint combining with multi-ingredient determination was developed and validated to evaluate the influence of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the quality and chemical constituents of Si Wu Tang. Multivariate data analysis including hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, which integrated with high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredient determination, was employed to evaluate Si Wu Tang in a more objective and scientific way. Interestingly, in this paper, a total of 37 and 36 peaks were marked as common peaks in ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sun-dried Paeoniae Radix Alba and ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba, respectively, which indicated the changed fingerprint profile of Si Wu Tang when containing sulfur-fumigated herb. Furthermore, the results of simultaneous determination for multiple ingredients showed that the contents of albiflorin and paeoniflorin decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and the contents of gallic acid and Z-ligustilide decreased to some extent at the same time when Si Wu Tang contained sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba. Therefore, sulfur-fumigation processing may have great influence on the quality of Chinese herbal prescription. PMID:27034892

  8. The Inhibition of Mast Cell Activation of Radix Paeoniae alba Extraction Identified by TCRP Based and Conventional Cell Function Assay Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Huiying; Cheng, Hongqiang; Cao, Gang; Zhang, Xingde; Tu, Jue; Sun, Mingjiao; Mou, Xiaozhou; Shou, Qiyang; Ke, Yuehai

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbs have long been used to treat allergic disease, but recently the development was greatly impeded by the lack of good methods to explore the mechanism of action. Here, we showed the effects of Chinese herb Radix Paeoniae alba were identified and characterized by a mast cell activation assay that involves electronic impedance readouts for dynamic monitoring of cellular responses to produce time-dependent cell responding profiles (TCRPs), and the anti-allergic activities were further confirmed with various conventional molecular and cell biology tools. We found Radix P. alba can dose-dependently inhibit TCPRs, and have anti-allergic function in vitro and in vivo. Radix P. alba suppressed mast cell degranulation not only inhibiting the translocation of granules to the plasma membrane, but also blocking membrane fusion and exocytosis; and that there may be other anti-allergic components in addition to paeoniflorin. Our results suggest that Radix P. alba regulated mast cell activation with multiple targets, and this approach is also suitable for discovering other mast cell degranulation-targeting Chinese herbs and their potential multi-target mechanisms. PMID:27195739

  9. Maintenance of water uptake and reduced water loss contribute to water stress tolerance of Spiraea alba Du Roi and Spiraea tomentosa L.

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Kelly M; Mickelbart, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Two primarily eastern US native shrubs, Spiraea alba Du Roi and Spiraea tomentosa L., are typically found growing in wet areas, often with standing water. Both species have potential for use in the landscape, but little is known of their environmental requirements, including their adaptation to water stress. Two geographic accessions of each species were evaluated for their response to water stress under greenhouse conditions. Above-ground biomass, water relations and gas exchange were measured in well-watered and water stress treatments. In both species, water stress resulted in reduced growth, transpiration and pre-dawn water potential. However, both species also exhibited the ability to osmotically adjust to lower soil water content, resulting in maintained midday leaf turgor potential in all accessions. Net CO2 assimilation was reduced only in one accession of S. alba, primarily due to large reductions in stomatal conductance. S. tomentosa lost a larger proportion of leaves than S. alba in response to water stress. The primary water stress tolerance strategies of S. alba and S. tomentosa appear to be the maintenance of water uptake and reduced water loss. PMID:26504542

  10. A biochemical approach to assessment of effects of organic pollution on the metabolism of the non-opportunistic polychaete, Glycera alba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackstock, J.

    1980-03-01

    Loch Creran and Loch Eil, sea lochs in the west of Scotland, both receive discharges of particulate organic effluent from industrial installations. Glycera alba (Müller) is widely distributed in the sediments of both lochs, and assays of activities of enzymes associated with energy-yielding metabolism have been done on crude extracts of specimens collected from variously affected areas. Mean phosphofructokinase activities were low in extracts of G. alba collected some 400 m from the source of effluent from a seaweed processing factory, increased to a maximum at 900 m and declined slightly at 1150 m where the sediment is little affected by the effluent. Pyruvate kinase activities exhibited qualitatively similar changes of lesser magnitude and no differences in a-glycerophosphate or malate dehydrogenase activities were observed. In G. alba from Loch Eil a relationship was established between phosphofructokinase activity and Eh at 4 cm in the sediment and the maximum change in phosphofructokinase was found at low Eh, below -50 mV. The data are interpreted with reference to results from biological and environmental monitoring in Lochs Eil and Creran. It is suggested that the low phosphofructokinase activities in G. alba from the most affected areas of each loch may constitute a consistent biochemical response to effects of the organic inputs.

  11. Enhancement of the antibiotic activity of erythromycin by volatile compounds of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Helenicy N. H.; Campos, Adriana R.; Rodrigues, Fabíola F. G.; Botelho, Marco A.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; da Costa, José Galberto M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, popularly known as “erva-cidreira,” is commonly found in northeastern Brazil. The leaves tea is used to treat digestive disturbances, nausea, cough, and bronchitis. Objective: This work reports the chemical composition and erythromycin-modifying activity by gaseous contact against Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The leaves of L. alba were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the essential oil extracted was evaluated for antibacterial and antibiotic-modifying activity by gaseous contact. Results: The overall yield of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was 0.52%. The GC-MS analysis has led to the identification of the main components: geranial (31.4%) and neral (29.5%). It was verified that the essential oil interfered with erythromycin antibiotic activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 was enhanced (221.4%) in the presence of 12% essential oil. The 3% essential oil increased the effect against S. aureus ATCC 25923 (41.6%) and S. aureus ATCC 6538 (58.3%). Conclusion: The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. Conclusion: The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. PMID:22262937

  12. Yield reduction in Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and Sinapis alba caused by flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)) infestation in northern Idaho.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jack; McCaffrey, Joseph P; Brown, Donna A; Harmon, Bradley L; Davis, James B

    2004-10-01

    Phyllotreta cruciferae is an important insect pest of spring-planted Brassica crops, especially during the seedling stage. To determine the effect of early season P. cruciferae infestation on seed yield, 10 genotypes from each of two canola species (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) and two mustard species (Brassica juncea L. and Sinapis alba L.) were grown in 2 yr under three different P. cruciferae treatments: (1) no insecticide control; (2) foliar applications of endosulfan; and (3) carbofuran with seed at planting plus foliar application of carbaryl. Averaged over 10 genotypes, B. rapa showed most visible P. cruciferae injury and showed greatest yield reduction without insecticide application. Mustard species (S. alba and B. juncea) showed least visible injury and higher yield without insecticide compared with canola species (B. napus and B. rapa). Indeed, average seed yield of S. alba without insecticide was higher than either B. napus or B. rapa with most effective P. cruciferae control. Significant variation occurred within each species. A number of lines from B. napus, B. juncea, anid S. alba showed less feeding injury and yield reduction as a result of P. cruciferae infestation compared with other lines from the same species examined, thus having potential genetic background for developing resistant cultivars.

  13. The anesthetic efficacy of eugenol and the essential oils of Lippia alba and Aloysia triphylla in post-larvae and sub-adults of Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Penaeidae).

    PubMed

    Parodi, Thaylise V; Cunha, Mauro A; Heldwein, Clarissa G; de Souza, Diego M; Martins, Átila Clivea; Garcia, Luciano de O; Wasielesky, Wilson; Monserrat, José María; Schmidt, Denise; Caron, Braulio O; Heinzmann, Berta; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthesia induction and recovery times of sub-adult and post-larvae white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were treated with eugenol and the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba and Aloysia triphylla. Oxidative stress parameters in the hemolymph of this species were also analyzed. The concentrations of eugenol, A. triphylla EO and L. alba EO recommended for anesthesia were 200, 300 and 750 μL L(-1) for sub-adults and 175, 300 and 500 μL L(-1) for post-larvae, respectively. The concentrations studied during the transport of sub-adults were between 20 and 50 μL L(-1) eugenol, 20-30 μL L(-1)A. triphylla EO and 50 μL L(-1)L. alba EO. For post-larvae, the optimal concentrations for transport were 20 μL L(-1) eugenol and between 20 and 50 μL L(-1)A. triphylla EO. The white shrimp sub-adults that were exposed to A. triphylla EO (20 μL L(-1)) showed increases in their total antioxidant capacities (150%), catalase (70%) and glutathione-S-transferase (615%) activity after 6 h. L. alba EO (50 μL L(-1)) and eugenol (20 μL L(-1)) also increased GST activity (1292 and 1315%) after 6 h, and eugenol (20 μL L(-1)) decreased the total antioxidant capacity (100%). Moreover, concentrations above 30 μL L(-1) for the EOs of A. triphylla and L. alba and 20 μL L(-1) eugenol were effective at inducing anesthesia and improving the antioxidant system against reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 6 h.

  14. Inhibition of Mevalonate Pathway and Synthesis of the Storage Lipids in Human Liver-Derived and Non-liver Cell Lines by Lippia alba Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Montero-Villegas, Sandra; Polo, Mónica; Galle, Marianela; Rodenak-Kladniew, Boris; Castro, María; Ves-Losada, Ana; Crespo, Rosana; García de Bravo, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of Lippia alba, an herb extensively used as a folk medicine in Latin America, are today promoted as an effective means of eliminating problems caused by hyperlipemia. We hypothesized that L.alba EOs inhibited cholesterol and triacylglycerols synthesis and decreased the intracellular depots of those lipids (lipid droplets), mechanisms involving the induction of a hypolipidemic response. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate the hypolipogenic capability of the EOs of four L. alba chemotypes on liver-derived (HepG2) and non-liver (A549) human cell lines and to identify the potential biochemical targets of those chemotypes, particularly within the mevalonate pathway (MP). [(14)C]Acetate was used as radioactive precursor for assays. Lipid analyses were performed by thin-layer and capillary gas chromatography, lipid droplets analyzed by fluorescence microscopy, and HMGCR levels determined by Western blot. In both cell lines, all four chemotypes exerted hypocholesterogenic effects within a concentration range of 3.2-32 µg/mL. Nonsaponifiable lipids manifested a decrease in incorporation of [(14)C]acetate into squalene, lanosterol, lathosterol, and cholesterol, but not into ubiquinone, thus suggesting an inhibition of enzymes in the MP downstream from farnesyl pyrophosphate. The tagetenone chemotype, the most efficacious hypocholesterogenic L. alba EO, lowered HMGCR protein levels; inhibited triacylglycerols, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids synthesis; and diminished lipid droplets in size and volume. These results revealed that L. alba EOs inhibited different lipogenic pathways and such lipid-lowering effects could prove essential to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Linkage mapping in tetraploid willows: segregation of molecular markers and estimation of linkage phases support an allotetraploid structure for Salix alba x Salix fragilis interspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Barcaccia, G; Meneghetti, S; Albertini, E; Triest, L; Lucchin, M

    2003-02-01

    Salix alba-Salix fragilis complex includes closely related dioecious polyploid species, which are obligate outcrossers. Natural populations of these willows and their hybrids are represented by a mixture of highly heterozygous genotypes sharing a common gene pool. Since nothing is known about their genomic constitution, tetraploidy (2n=4x=76) in willow species makes basic and applied genetic studies difficult. We have used a two-way pseudotestcross strategy and single-dose markers (SDMs) to construct the first linkage maps for both pistillate and staminate willows. A total of 242 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 50 selective amplifications of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL) markers, which showed 1:1 segregation in the F(1) mapping populations, were used in linkage analysis. In S. alba, 73 maternal and 48 paternal SDMs were mapped to 19 and 16 linkage groups covering 708 and 339 cM, respectively. In S. fragilis, 13 maternal and 33 paternal SDMs were mapped in six and 14 linkage groups covering 98 and 321 cM, respectively. For most cosegregation groups, a comparable number of markers linked in coupling and repulsion was identified. This finding suggests that most of chromosomes pair preferentially as occurs in allotetraploid species exhibiting disomic inheritance. The detection of 10 pairs of marker alleles from single parents showing codominant inheritance strengthens this hypothesis. The fact that, of the 1122 marker loci identified in the two male and female parents, the vast majority (77.5%) were polymorphic and as few as 22.5% were shared between parental species highlight that S. alba and S. fragilis genotypes are differentiated. The highly difference between S. alba- and S. fragilis-specific markers found in both parental combinations (on average, 65.3 vs 34.7%, respectively) supports the (phylogenetic) hypothesis that S. fragilis is derived from S. alba-like progenitors.

  16. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Joseph, M., Jr.; Jones, Robert, H.

    2003-01-01

    Riley, J.M. Jr., and R.H.Jones. 2003. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 177:571-586. To determine the extent that resources, conditions, and herbivoryy limit regeneration of Quercus alba L. and Cornus florida L. in formerly cultivated coastal plain uplands, we planted seedlings of the two species in two pine and one pine-hardwood forest understory and three adjacent clearcuts. Soil carbon and moisture, available nitrogen and phosphorous, and gap light index (GLI) were measured next to each seedling. Over two growing seasons, stem and leaf herbivory were estimated and survival was recorded. At the end of 2 years, all surviving stems were harvested to determine total leaf area and 2-year biomass growth. Survival to the end of the study was not significantly different between clearcuts and understories. However, clearcuts led to significantly greater biomass growth and leaf area for both Q. alba and C. florida. Soil moisture and available nutrients were also greater in the clearcuts. Using separate multiple linear (growth) or logistic (survival) regressions for each combination of three sites, two cutting treatments and two species, we found that soil moisture significantly affected survival in 12.5% and biomass growth in 8.3% of the regressions. Light availability significantly impacted biomass growth in 16.7% of the regressions. Stem and leaf herbivory had very little impact on survival (8.3%), but when combined, these two factors significantly impacted leaf area or biomass growth in 33.3% of the regressions. Seedling responses were highly variable, and no regression model accounted for more that 70.0% of this variation. In our study, stand-scalevariation in seedling responses (especially the difference between clearcut and understory) was much greater than within-stand variation. Of the within stand factors measured, herbivory was clearly the most

  17. A novel polysaccharide isolated from mulberry fruits (Murus alba L.) and its selenide derivative: structural characterization and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Zhang, Bin; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2016-06-15

    A novel polysaccharide (MFP3P) was isolated from Murus alba L. through the hot water extraction method followed by chromatographic purification. The chemical structure of MFP3P was elucidated by acid hydrolysis, Smith degradation and methylation analysis, along with FT-IR, GC-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Its morphological properties were further characterized by SEM and AFM. The selenide of the polysaccharide (MFP3P-Se) was obtained by the Na2SeO3/BaCl2 method. The antioxidant properties showed that MFP3P-Se exhibited higher peroxy radical-scavenging capacity than MFP3P in vitro. Moreover, MFP3P-Se had more significant hypoglycemic effects than MFP3P through promoting pancreatic cell proliferation and increasing glucose metabolism and insulin secretion.

  18. [Separation of water-soluble active components in Salvia miltiorrhiza bge. f. alba using capillary zone electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Cui, Yingjie; Li, Yuqin; Shi, Weifeng; Yang, Mingfeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Xia, Zuoli

    2007-09-01

    To establish a high performance capillary zone electrophoretic method for the separation of water-soluble active components, protocatechuic aldehyde (PAH), danshensu (DSS), and protocatechuic acid (PA), in Salvia miltiorrhiza bge. f. alba, many factors that can affect the resolution and the migration time, including the concentration of phosphate-borax buffer, pH value, separation voltage and detection wavelength were investigated. The optimized conditions were as follows: uncoated capillary column, 75 microm x 60.2 cm (effective length of 50 cm); column temperature, 25 degrees C; detection wavelength of the photo-diode-array detector, 210 nm; injection, 3.45 kPa x 4 s; separation voltage, 27.5 kV; running buffer, 5 mmol/L borax (pH 7.5). Under the optimized conditions, good separation of PAH, DSS and PA can be achieved in less than 8 min.

  19. Dissipation kinetics of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin residues in aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.).

    PubMed

    Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Dissipation of simultaneously applied insecticides alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was studied in a minor crop, aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.). A validated gas chromatographic method (GC-ECD/NPD) was used to determine insecticide residues. Analytical performances were very satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties not higher than 14% (coverage factor k = 2, confidence level 95%). Dissipation of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in white mustard followed first-order kinetics (R(2) between 0.953 and 0.995), with half-lives of 3.1-4.6 and 2.9-3.7 days respectively. Based on the results of this two-year study and the relevant residue regulation, alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments can be considered safe for crop protection, feeding animals and the environment.

  20. The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.).

    PubMed

    Potocić, Nenad; Cosić, Tomislav; Pilas, Ivan

    2005-10-01

    As a part of a broader research into the nutrition of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), the variation of calcium concentrations was investigated in needles and soil in two subsequent, climatologically diverse years. Statistically significant differences between plots were determined in Ca concentrations in soils. Concentrations of Ca in needles were statistically different regarding plot, defoliation class, sampling date within the same year and also between years. Fir trees on acid-rock based soils had lower, often inadequate concentrations of Ca in needles; the opposite was true for trees growing on Ca-rich soils. Trees of lower vitality generally exhibited poor Ca nutrition. Drought in the second year of research caused poor absorption of Ca on all plots and in all defoliation classes, but the combined influence of climate and soil properties affected especially trees of low vitality on acid-rock based soils.

  1. Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats.

    PubMed

    Gazola, Ruth; Machado, Denise; Ruggiero, Campos; Singi, Glenan; Macedo Alexandre, Mariângela

    2004-11-01

    1. This research was developed to evaluate the actions of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus upon contractile force (CF) and cardiac rate (CR). 2. For the experiments in isolated heart, 21 male adult rats were used. The hearts were perfused according to Langendorff's method. The records of CF and CR were obtained in control and after application of the extracts. The extracts were utilized in doses: 0.038, 0.38, 3.8 and 38 mg. Results obtained were compared by statistic analyses. 3. The aqueous extracts provoked significant CR reduction and did not alter the CF. The negative CR effect may have occurred by cardiac muscarinics receptors stimulation.

  2. The essential oil of Lippia alba: analysis of samples from French overseas departments and review of previous works.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Dermont, Charles; Joseph, Henry; Bailleul, François

    2006-10-01

    This paper contains new data on the chemical composition of the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown, as well as an overview of the available literature. Although the composition of the essential oil of this species is well-documented, discrepancies between the reported results suggest that many chemotypes and morphotypes exist. The analysis of essential oils obtained from the leaves of samples from three different locations in the French Overseas Departments (French Guiana, Martinique, and two different places in Guadeloupe) have shown that the composition of each one is quite different. This new data, along with a review and discussion of published studies, enabled us to establish seven distinct chemotypes. Possible connections between these chemotypes and morphotypes already described were also investigated.

  3. Production of the Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase in Aspergillus niger for synthetic dyes decolorization and biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Benghazi, Lamiae; Record, Eric; Suárez, Antonio; Gomez-Vidal, José A; Martínez, José; de la Rubia, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the expression of Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase gene in Aspergillus niger and the physical and biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme (rLac-LPFA) in order to test it for synthetic dye biotransformation. A. niger was able to produce high levels of active recombinant enzyme (30 mgL(-1)), whose identity was further confirmed by immunodetection using Western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Interestingly, rLac-LPFA exhibited an improved stability at pH (2-9) and organic solvents tested. Furthermore, the percentage of decoloration and biotransformation of synthetic textile dyes, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and Acid Red 299 (NY1), was higher than for the native enzyme. Its high production, simple purification, high activity, stability and ability to transform textile dyes make rLac-LPFA a good candidate for industrial applications.

  4. La Casa de Bernarda: compte rendu d'une experience pedagogique realisee a l'universite de Paris VIII, Vincennes ([Lorca's]"House of Bernarda Alba": An Account of a Teaching Experience at the University of Paris, VIII, at Vincennes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernu, Michele; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Three professors relate a method for teaching the play, The House of Bernarda Alba," by Spanish poet Federico Garcia Lorca in a French university classroom through linguistic and literary analysis. (DS)

  5. Photosynthesis Decrease and Stomatal Control of Gas Exchange in Abies alba Mill. in Response to Vapor Pressure Difference

    PubMed Central

    Guehl, Jean-Marc; Aussenac, Gilbert

    1987-01-01

    The responses of steady state CO2 assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (gs) to changes in leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (ΔW) were examined on different dates in shoots from Abies alba trees growing outside. In Ecouves, a provenance representative of wet oceanic conditions in Northern France, both A and gs decreased when ΔW was increased from 4.6 to 14.5 Pa KPa−1. In Nebias, which represented the dry end of the natural range of A. alba in southern France, A and gs decreased only after reaching peak levels at 9.0 and 7.0 Pa KPa−1, respectively. The representation of the data in assimilation rate (A) versus intercellular CO2 partial pressure (Ci) graphs allowed us to determine how stomata and mesophyll photosynthesis interacted when ΔW was increased. Changes in A were primarily due to alterations in mesophyll photosynthesis. At high ΔW, and especially in Ecouves when soil water deficit prevailed, A declined, while Ci remained approximately constant, which may be interpreted as an adjustment of gs to changes in mesophyll photosynthesis. Such a stomatal control of gas exchange appeared as an alternative to the classical feedforward interpretation of E versus ΔW responses with a peak rate of E. The gas exchange response to ΔW was also characterized by considerable deviations from the optimization theory of IR Cowan and GD Farquhar (1977 Symp Soc Exp Biol 31: 471-505). PMID:16665243

  6. Developments in optics and performance at BL13-XALOC, the macromolecular crystallography beamline at the Alba Synchrotron

    PubMed Central

    Juanhuix, Jordi; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Cuní, Guifré; Colldelram, Carles; Nicolás, Josep; Lidón, Julio; Boter, Eva; Ruget, Claude; Ferrer, Salvador; Benach, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    BL13-XALOC is currently the only macromolecular crystallography beamline at the 3 GeV ALBA synchrotron near Barcelona, Spain. The optics design is based on an in-vacuum undulator, a Si(111) channel-cut crystal monochromator and a pair of KB mirrors. It allows three main operation modes: a focused configuration, where both mirrors can focus the beam at the sample position to 52 µm × 5.5 µm FWHM (H × V); a defocused configuration that can match the size of the beam to the dimensions of the crystals or to focus the beam at the detector; and an unfocused configuration, where one or both mirrors are removed from the photon beam path. To achieve a uniform defocused beam, the slope errors of the mirrors were reduced down to 55 nrad RMS by employing a novel method that has been developed at the ALBA high-accuracy metrology laboratory. Thorough commissioning with X-ray beam and user operation has demonstrated an excellent energy and spatial stability of the beamline. The end-station includes a high-accuracy single-axis diffractometer, a removable mini-kappa stage, an automated sample-mounting robot and a photon-counting detector that allows shutterless operation. The positioning tables of the diffractometer and the detector are based on a novel and highly stable design. This equipment, together with the operation flexibility of the beamline, allows a large variety of types of crystals to be tackled, from medium-sized crystals with large unit-cell parameters to microcrystals. Several examples of data collections measured during beamline commissioning are described. The beamline started user operation on 18 July 2012. PMID:24971961

  7. [Morphology, anatomy, ontogeny and chemical composition of inflorescences volatile secondary metabolites of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) at three stages of development].

    PubMed

    Parra-Garcés, María Isabel; Caroprese-Araque, José Fernando; Arrieta-Prieto, Dagoberto; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-12-01

    There is an increased interest to know and scientifically validate traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. Lippia alba belongs to Verbenaceae family and has been of interest, not only because of its worldwide extensive distribution, but also for its variable use as antiviral, bactericide, citostatic, analgesic and sedative. To study this, the morphology and ontogeny of Lippia alba inflorescences and the chemical composition of its volatile secondary metabolites were analyzed during three different stages of development. Plants were collected at the experimental crop field in CENIVAM, Bucaramanga, Colombia. The inflorescence's morphology and ontogeny, and the chemical composition of volatile secondary metabolites were analyzed using a stereoscopic microscope and chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Fresh material corresponding to each stage was fixed in F.A.A (formol, acetic acid and alcohol), included in paraffin and cutted in transversal and longitudinal sections. Sections were stained with safranine-fastgreen, photographed and decribed. The chemical composition of volatile secondary metabolites at each ontogenic stage, was extracted by solid phase micro-extraction in the headspace mode and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Stage I showed a meristematic mass of cells in vegetative apex and bracts, with an outline of floral whorls. In Stage III. the stamens were adnate, epipetals and didynamous, bicarpelar and syncarpic gynoecium, with superior ovary and decurrent stigma. The main secondary metabolites detected were the bicyclosesquiphellandrene followed by carvone, limonene and trans-beta-farnesene, that constituted the 78% of the total relative amounts of compounds. Other metabolites such as beta-copaene, gamma-amorphene and cis-beta-guaiene, were reported for the first time in this study. When compared to other studies, morphological differences reported in this study are possibly related to adaptation to environmental

  8. Late Glacial to Holocene environmental variabilities: A new multi-proxy paleolimnological study of sedimentary sequences from Como (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höbig, N.; Martinelli, E.; Motella, S.; Michetti, A. M.; Livio, F.; Tinner, W.; Reicherter, K.; Castelletti, L.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Como (northern Italy) is the deepest Italian lake, reaching a depth of about 425 m. The lambda-shaped lake expands about 45 km in NE-SW direction. Southwards of the hydrologically closed western branch, two sediment cores of 70 m (S1) and 65 m length (S2) were taken in the year 2005 close to the cathedral of Como (Piazza Verdi). The drilling sites are located in the middle of the Southern Alps, some 300 m from the present-day lakeshore. The cores provide the first detailed Late Glacial to Holocene multi-proxy record for the Lake Como basin. Our research is aimed at investigating the environmental and geological evolution of the Insubria Region. The multi-proxy study of the stratigraphic sequences contain geophysical, geotechnical, sedimentological, paleobotanical, and radiocarbon analyses. They have been performed for core S1 and are still in progress on core S2. With this data the working group focuses on two main issues. The first topic is the reconstruction of the natural and anthropogenic processes controlling the ground subsidence in the Como urban area (e.g., Comerci et al., 2007) and another aim is to reconstruct vegetation and land-use dynamics. In particular, 150 samples of vegetal macroremains have been collected in the palustrine deposits along S1 core, down to 31,00 m. Below this depth (dated 14C 12,496 ± 55 yr BP - 15,050 - 14,250 cal yr BP), the amount of plant macroremains in the sediment drops dramatically. The taxonomic determination was carried out on more than 800 macroremains. They are represented by fragments of wood, leaves, needles, seeds, fruits, mosses and tiny charcoals (Motella, 2009, unpublished PhD Thesis). Picea/Larix, Pinus sp., Juniperus with Betula, found in the deeper levels (30.80 - 30.00 m), are the first arboreal taxa that colonized the shores of Lake Como, and show that the reforestation began in this area about 16,000 years ago. During the early Holocene (25.10 m) Abies alba expanded and further upwards the sequence

  9. Chemiluminescence determination of antioxidant property of Zizyphus mistol and Prosopis alba during oxidative stress generated in blood by Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Claudia; Pellarin, María G; Baronetti, José; Rojas, María J; Albesa, Inés; Eraso, Alberto J

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the antioxidant effect of Zizyphus mistol and Prosopis alba, with the hypothesis that these fruits can counteract the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by toxins produced by Escherichia coli. In the search of nutrients effective against the Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), we detected by chemiluminescence a protective role of both plants, due to their natural antioxidants significantly decreasing the levels of ROS induced by toxins from E. coli in blood. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was found to be higher in Z. mistol than in P. alba. The chemical analyses of the phenols and flavonoids present in the fruit extracts indicated that the FRAP correlated with the amount of phenolic compounds, but not with the flavonoids analyzed. Both fruits studied reduce the induction of ROS, and in this way help to prevent the development of complications related to oxidative stress generated in the blood of patients with HUS.

  10. Effect of water stress on the agressiveness of oilsseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and two mustards (Sinapis alba L. and S. arvensis L.).

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Talouizte, A; Benbella, M; Bouhache, M

    2003-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), a winter sown crop, may compete for water especially with Brassicaceae weeds. Investigating plant competition under water stress conditions is necessary for achieving a good yield in a Mediterranean climate characterized by a scarse water availability. This experiment was carried out to study the competiveness of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with two brassicaceae weeds (Sinapis alba L. and S. arvensis L.). Species were grown at a density of two plants per bucket either in monoculture or as a binary mixture under water stress conditions in a greenhouse. Results of monoculture showed that B. napus had the highest shoot dry matter. Shoot dry matter of B. napus was more reduced by intraspecific competition than by interspecific competition due to S. arvensis. Shoot dry matter of S. alba in monoculture was higher than in mixture with S. arvensis, but more reduced in mixture with B. napus. In case of S. arvensis, shoot dry matter was more reduced by interspecific competition than by intraspecific competition. Agressivity based on grain yield showed, that B. napus was the most agressive species followed by S. alba. This agressivity did not change by the imposed water stress.

  11. Flower-Visiting Insects and Phenology of Lippia alba (Lamiales: Verbenaceae): Floral Color Changes and Environmental Conditions as Cues for Pollinators.

    PubMed

    Venâncio, Daniele de Fátima Alves; Viccini, Lyderson Facio; Luizi-Ponzo, Andrea Pereira; Prezoto, Fábio

    2016-05-11

    Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae) is a herbal aromatic shrub with medicinal properties. Natural populations of this species are allogamous and self-incompatible. Therefore, this plant species relies on pollinators to outcross and maintain the genetic variability. Here, we investigated the floral phenology, pollen morphology, the floral visitor entomofauna, and the influence of climatic factors on the frequency of visits in L. alba flowers. The study was conducted at Federal University of Juiz de Fora Plant Experimental Area, southeast Brazil. The flowering of L. alba occurred throughout the whole year. The anthesis is diurnal and lasts 5 d. The nectar guide was visible from the onset of flowering until the third day. Pollen grains were classified as isopolar, oblate spheroidal, three-colporate (rare, four-colporate), surface tectate-perforate, and endoaperture lalongate, with median constriction. Insects from the order Hymenoptera were the most frequent visitors observed, followed by Lepidoptera, Thysanoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera-Heteroptera. The preference of insects for flowers with nectar guides shows that the color is likely to be an important visual trait to increase the frequency of visits. Moreover, the climate variables temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and light were important to define the composition of the most frequent floral visitors.

  12. Valorization of Romanian silver fir tree bark (Abies alba Mill.) wastes as low-cost sorbent of Cu(II) ions from polluted waters.

    PubMed

    Tofan, Lavinia; Paduraru, Carmen; Amalinei, Roxana Laura Mihailescu; Bunia, Ion; Miron, Anca

    2016-11-01

    Considering recycling as the first option in the hierarchy of sustainable waste management, and also the demand for efficient processes for wastewater treatment with reduced costs, the potential applicability of Romanian Abies alba bark, the main waste from the industrial processing of the wood of mature silver fir trees, as sorbent for Cu(II) has been studied in batch conditions. It was observed that the extent of Cu(II) sorption is strongly dependent on initial solution pH, sorbent dose, initial Cu(II) ion concentration, temperature and contact time. Equilibrium data fitted very well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir maximum sorption capacity of Cu(II) ions on Abies alba bark waste was found to be 7.80 mg/g at 293 K. Kinetic studies showed a high affinity of the sorption experimental data to the pseudo-second order model. Gibbs free energy was spontaneous for all interactions and the sorption process exhibited endothermic enthalpy value. The waste of Abies alba bark was successfully used for the sorption removal of Cu(II) ions from industrial electroplating wastewaters.

  13. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  14. Altering carbon allocation in hybrid poplar (Populus alba × grandidentata) impacts cell wall growth and development.

    PubMed

    Unda, Faride; Kim, Hoon; Hefer, Charles; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2016-12-20

    Galactinol synthase is a pivotal enzyme involved in the synthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) that function as transport carbohydrates in the phloem, as storage compounds in sink tissues and as soluble metabolites that combat both abiotic and biotic stress in several plant species. Hybrid poplar (Populus alba × grandidentata) overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana GolS3 (AtGolS3) gene showed clear effects on development; the extreme overexpressing lines were stunted and had cell wall traits characteristic of tension wood, whereas lines with only moderate up-regulation grew normally and had moderately altered secondary cell wall composition and ultrastructure. Stem cross-sections of the developing xylem revealed a significant increase in the number of vessels, as well as the clear presence of a G-layer in the fibres. Furthermore, AtGolS3-OE lines possessed higher cellulose and lower lignin contents, an increase in cellulose crystallinity, and significantly altered hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates, notably manifested by their mannose and xylose contents. In addition, the transgenic plants displayed elevated xylem starch content. Transcriptome interrogation of the transgenic plants showed a significant up-regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of myo-inositol, along with genes involved in sucrose degradation. The results suggest that the overexpression of GolS and its product galactinol may serve as a molecular signal that initiates metabolic changes, culminating in a change in cell wall development and potentially the formation of tension wood.

  15. Carbon starvation increases endoglycosidase activities and production of "unconjugated N-glycans" in Silene alba cell-suspension cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Lhernould, S; Karamanos, Y; Priem, B; Morvan, H

    1994-01-01

    We previously reported the occurrence of oligomannosides and xylomannosides corresponding to unconjugated N-glycans (UNGs) in the medium of a white campion (Silene alba) cell suspension. Attention has been focused on these oligosaccharides since it was shown that they confer biological activities in plants. In an attempt to elucidate the origin of these oligosaccharides, we studied two endoglycosidase activities, putative enzymes involved in their formation. The previously described peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase activity and the endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity described in this paper were both quantified in white campion cells during the culture cycle with variable initial concentrations of sucrose. The lower the sucrose supply, the higher the two activities. Furthermore, endoglycosidase activities were greatly enhanced after the disappearance of sugar from the medium. The production of UNGs in the culture medium rose correlatively. These data strongly suggest that the production of UNGs in our white campion cell-suspension system is due to the increase of these endoglycosidase activities, which reach their highest levels of activity during conditions of carbon starvation. PMID:7991689

  16. Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of the Abies alba genome and its relationship with other members of the Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Puizina, J; Sviben, T; Krajacić-Sokol, I; Zoldos-Pećnik, V; Siljak-Yakovlev, S; Papes, D; Besendorfer, V

    2008-03-01

    Genome size, karyotype structure, heterochromatin distribution, position and number of ribosomal genes, as well as the ITS2 sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were analysed in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). The analysis also included characterization of the Arabidopsis-type of telomeric repeats in silver fir and in related species. The results were compared with results from other species of the Pinaceae, to evaluate phylogeny and chromosomal and molecular evolution in the Pinaceae. Integrated chromosomal data provided insights into chromosome and karyotype evolution in the Pinaceae. The evolutionary trend for GC-rich heterochromatic blocks seems to involve loss of blocks that are not associated with rDNA. Similarly, numerous large blocks of interstitial plant telomeric repeats that are typical for all analysed species of the genus Pinus were not observed in the evolutionarily younger genera, such as Abies, Picea and Larix. On the contrary, the majority of telomeric sequences in these three genera appeared confined to the chromosome ends. We confirmed the current position of Abies and Tsuga in subfamily Abietoideae and the position of Pinus in the subfamily Pinoideae based on ITS2 sequences. Pseudotsuga is placed together with Larix into the subfamily Laricoideae. We conclude that the current position of the genus Picea in the subfamily Abietoideae should be reconsidered and, possibly, the genus Picea should be reclassified as a separate subfamily, Piceoideae, as recently proposed.

  17. The influence of chemoreception on the foraging behaviour of two species of sandpiper, calidris alba and calidris alpina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Heezik, Y. M.; Gerritsen, A. F. C.; Swennen, C.

    This study is concerned with the ability of two wader species, the sanderling, Calidris alba and the dunlin, C. alpina to determine the presence of prey in a sediment by using their sense of taste, and whether they use this information while foraging for prey hidden in the sediment. Preference tests were designed in which the birds were presented with a choice of 2 jars filled with sand from 3 possible combination pairs: (1) "food" and "no taste", (2) "food" and "taste", and (3) "taste" and "no taste". Preferences were measured as the relative amount of time spent foraging in each jar of each pair. Significantly more time was spent on "taste" than on "no taste" for the "taste" and "no taste" combination. More time was spent on "taste" than on "no taste" when each was paired with "food" for 3 out of 4 situations. Foraging technique on "taste" was observed to be more purposeful and methodical than on "no taste". Both species are shown to be able to use taste while foraging to determine whether prey is present, and can modify their foraging behaviour by persisting in a spot that gives no information on the presence of prey other than taste, and by using a different, more determined searching technique.

  18. Promising Option for Treatment of Striae Alba: Fractionated Microneedle Radiofrequency in Combination with Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi Naeini, Farahnaz; Behfar, Shadi; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Keyvan, Shima; Pourazizi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background. A consistent treatment has not been proposed for treatment of Striae Alba (SA). The present study was designed to compare the fractionated microneedle radiofrequency (FMR) alone and in combination with fractional carbon dioxide laser (FMR + CO2) in the treatment of SA. Methods. Forty-eight pairs of SA from six patients were selected. Right or left SAs were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups. The surface area of the SA before and after treatment and clinical improvement using a four-point scale were measured at the baseline, after one and three months. Results. The mean age of the patients was 30.17 ± 5.19 years. The mean difference of the surface area between pre- and posttreatment in the FMR + CO2 group was significantly higher than that in the FMR group (p = 0.003). Clinical improvement scales showed significantly higher improvement in the FMR + CO2 group than in the FMR group in the first and second follow-up (p = 0.002 and 0.004, resp.). There were no major persistence side-effects in both groups. Conclusions. The results showed that FMR + CO2 laser was more effective than FMR alone in the treatment of SA. PMID:27069471

  19. Linalool from Lippia alba: study of the reproducibility of the essential oil profile and the enantiomeric purity.

    PubMed

    Siani, Antonio C; Tappin, Marcelo R R; Ramos, Mônica F S; Mazzei, José L; Ramos, Maria Conceição K V; De Aquino Neto, Francisco R; Frighetto, Nélson

    2002-06-05

    A new chemotype of the aromatic Verbenaceae species Lippia alba Mill. N. E. Br. from southeastern Brazil has recently been shown to have a high content of linalool in the leaf essential oil. Vegetative propagation of this chemotype was conducted at six different locations in Brazil, and the variation of the content and the optical purity of linalool in the oils were verified. Yields (0.6-0.9%, hydrodistillation), chemical composition, linalool content, and optical purity of the oils from all the plants were compared, using GC-FID, GC-MS, chiral chromatography, and retention index calculation. No plant exceeded the matrix in linalool content (46.5 to 90.7%), and the chemical profile of the oils was the same for all the samples. Purification of linalool to a content close to 100% was effected by vacuum distillation of the crude oil. Chiral analysis showed exclusively the presence of S-linalool in all the crude oils and in the distilled samples.

  20. Sedative effect of 2-phenoxyethanol and essential oil of Lippia alba on stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Toni, Cândida; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; de Lima Silva, Lenise; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2015-12-01

    The anesthetic efficacy of the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) in Sparus aurata was evaluated by induction and recovery times of anesthesia. After, specimens were exposed to anesthetics low concentrations for 4h, under nonstress or stress conditions. Range 100-300 μL L(-1) EOLA induced anesthesia. Plasmatic cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality enhanced after EOLA exposure in the undisturbed (UF) and stressed fish (SF). Lower corticotropin-releasing hormone binding-protein expression occurred in SF/EOLA compared with 2-PHE/stress combination or to EOLA/undisturbed conditions. Stress processes reduced prolactin (PRL) expression in the control fish, while UF exhibited reduced PRL levels after exposure to both anesthetics. Proopiomelanocortin (POMCa) mRNA was higher after 2-PHE exposure in SF compared to control; POMCb expression was higher in SF/EOLA in contrast to control and UF/EOLA conditions. Thus, EOLA was an effective anesthetic, but it was unable to prevent a stress response in S. aurata; while 2-PHE is advisable to sedate S. aurata without causing stress, but it was not effective at preventing a stress response in the present work.

  1. Acaricidal activity of essential oils from Lippia alba genotypes and its major components carvone, limonene, and citral against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Magna Galvão; Costa-Júnior, Livio Martins; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Lima, Aldilene da Silva; Menezes, Thays Saynara Alves; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Bacci, Leandro; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2015-05-30

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal potential of Lippia alba essential oil, citral chemotypes (LA-10 and LA-44 genotypes) and carvone chemotypes (LA-13 and LA-57 genotypes), as well as purified citral and enantiomers of carvone and limonene. Efficacy against Rhipicephalus microplus was assessed by the larval packet and the engorged female immersion tests. Citral chemotypes had greater larvicidal activity than carvone chemotypes, and this was further supported by larvicidal and adulticidal activity of purified citral with LC50 values of 7.0 and 29.8 mg/mL, respectively. While purified enantiomers of carvone exhibited greater larvicidal activity than those of limonene, enantioselectivity of limonene was observed with R-(+) displaying significantly higher efficacy (LC50 of 31.2mg/mL) than S-(-) (LC50 of 54.5mg/mL). The essential oils and purified compounds were much less toxic toward engorged adult females, with the exception of citral, and this may be due to limited cuticular penetration.

  2. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography for the separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chu; Zhang, Shidi; Tong, Shengqiang; Li, Xingnuo; Li, Qingyong; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient protocol for the rapid separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix was developed by combining macroporous resin and elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography. The crude extract was firstly subjected to a D101 macroporous resin column eluted with water and a series of different concentrations of ethanol. Then, effluents of 30 and 95% ethanol were collected as sample 1 and sample 2 for further counter-current chromatography purification. Finally, a pair of isomers, 96 mg of compound 1 and 48 mg of compound 2 with purities of 91.1 and 96.2%, respectively, was isolated from 200 mg of sample 1. The other pair of isomers, 14 mg of compound 3 and 8 mg of compound 4 with purities of 93.6 and 88.9%, respectively, was isolated from 48 mg of sample 2. Their purities were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Compared to a normal counter-current chromatography separation, the separation time and solvent consumption of elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography were reduced while the resolutions were still good. The established protocol is promising for the separation of natural products with great disparity of content in herbal medicines.

  3. Physiological and proteomic responses of different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) exposed to dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Evlard, Aricia; Sergeant, Kjell; Ferrandis, Salvador; Printz, Bruno; Renaut, Jenny; Guignard, Cedric; Paul, Roger; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Campanella, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    High biomass producing species are considered as tools for remediation of contaminated soils. Willows (Salix spp.) are prominent study subjects in this regard. In this study, different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) were planted on heavy-metal polluted dredging sludge. A first objective was assessment of the biomass production for these clones. Using a Gupta statistic, four clones were identified as high biomass producers (HBP). For comparison, a group of four clones with lowest biomass production were selected (LBP). A second objective was to compare metal uptake as well as the physiological and proteomic responses of these two groups. All these complementary data's allow us to have a better picture of the health of the clones that would be used in phytoremediation programs. Cd, Zn, and Ni total uptake was higher in the HBPs but Pb total uptake was higher in LBPs. Our proteomic and physiological results showed that the LBPs were able to maintain cellular activity as much as the HBPs although the oxidative stress response was more pronounced in the LBPs. This could be due to the high Pb content found in this group although a combined effect of the other metals cannot be excluded.

  4. Multiplication and growth of hybrid poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula) shoots on a hormone-free medium.

    PubMed

    Ziauka, J; Kuusienė, Sigutė

    2014-09-01

    The present study explored an alternative approach for poplar micropropagation, based on the restriction of gas exchange between inside and outside environments of culture vessel, rather than on the application of exogenous hormones. Apical and nodal stem segments (explants) excised from in vitro-developed shoots of hybrid white poplar (Populus alba L. × P. tremula L.) were incubated in either sealed (with Parafilm) or unsealed capped glass culture tubes (150 × 20 mm) on a hormone-free Woody Plant Medium. Shoot proliferation on apical explants was observed in sealed culture tubes but not in the unsealed ones; the difference between these two samples in respect of shoot number increased in the course of time and became threefold after three months of culture, with 3.2 ± 0.4 (mean ± SE) shoots per explant in the sealed tubes versus 1.1 ± 0.1 in the unsealed ones (for comparison, the mean shoot numbers on nodal explants were 2.4 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.4 in the unsealed and sealed culture tubes, respectively). Moreover, the shoots taken from the sealed culture tubes could be distinguished by superior shoot length, if compared to the shoots from the unsealed tubes, during the subsequent culture stage under uniform conditions.

  5. Ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract-loaded chitosan-based hydrogel film for wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Mohammad A; Khatoon, Fehmeeda; Rizvi, Moshahid A; Zafaryab, Md

    2015-01-01

    High toxicity and multidrug resistance associated with various standard antimicrobial drugs have necessitated search for safer alternatives in plant-derived materials. In this study, we performed biological examination of chitosan-based hydrogel film loaded with ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract against 11 standard laboratory strains. FTIR showed regeneration of saccharide peak in CP1A at 1047 cm(-1) and increased in height of other peaks. DSC exothermic decomposition peaks at 112 °C, 175 °C and 251 °C reveal the effect of extract on hydrogel film. From FESEM images, three-dimensional cross-linking and extract easily seen in the globular form from the surface. MTT assay on HEK 293 cells showed that CP1A was non-toxic. Minimum inhibitory concentration ranges from 4000 μg/ml to 125 μg/ml. Enterococcus faecium, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis were the most resistant, while Salmonella typhi and Candida guilliermondii were the most susceptible micro-organisms.

  6. Novel glutaminase free L-asparaginase from Nocardiopsis alba NIOT-VKMA08: production, optimization, functional and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Dheenan, Palaiya Sukumaran; Begum, Mehmuna; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Dharani, Gopal; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-02-01

    Studies were carried out for the optimization and production of novel extracellular glutaminase-free L-asparaginase from Nocardiopsis alba NIOT-VKMA08. Among the tested carbon and nitrogen sources, maximum L-asparaginase production was observed with a combination of L-asparagine and maltose (1.5%) and twofold increase in yield (18.47 IU mL(-1)) was observed with newly optimized NIOT-asparaginase medium. Activity of the purified enzyme was moderately inhibited by various divalent cations and thiol group blocking reagents, with K(m) and V(max) of 0.127 mM and 5.50 U µg(-1). Optimum pH and temperature of purified L-asparaginase for the hydrolysis of L-asparagine was 8.0 and 37 °C, respectively. The enzyme inhibited polyacrylamide formation in 10% solution and it was very specific for its natural substrate L-asparagine. Partial glutaminase activity was not detected, which could reduce the possibility of side effects during cancer therapy. L-Asparaginase biosynthesis gene (ansA) was cloned and transformed in E. coli JM109. The ansA gene sequence reported in this study contains several base substitutions with that of reported sequences in GenBank, resulting in altered amino acid sequences of the translated protein.

  7. Microencapsulation of white champaca (Michelia alba D.C.) extract using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch for controlled release aroma.

    PubMed

    Samakradhamrongthai, Rajnibhas; Thakeow, Prodpran; Kopermsub, Phikunthong; Utama-Ang, Niramon

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the study was to optimise the encapsulation of Michelia alba D.C. (MAD) extract using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch. The MAD extract (5-10 g/100 g of dry starch) and the OSA starch (25-100 g/100 ml of water) was used in microcapsule preparation and analysed for the physicochemical and encapsulation properties. The optimised formula using the MAD extract and the OSA starch were 15.00 g/100 g of dry starch and 96.32 g/100 g water, which provided the highest in yield recovery (40.65% ± 0.99) and encapsulation efficiency (68.91% ± 1.50), with the lowest moisture content (3.19% ± 0.06) and water activity (0.236 ± 0.004). The aroma release from the optimum encapsulated powder in simulated artificial saliva fluid (SSF) suggested that linalool retention in microcapsules was higher than verbenone and 2-methyl butanoic acid. This study shows that the optimised formulation of MAD encapsulated flavour powder was found to be effective for controlling the aroma release.

  8. Effects of repeated soil irrigation with liquid biological paper sludge on poplar Populus alba saplings: potential risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Sylvain; Bourioug, Mohamed; Alaoui-Sossé, Laurence; Bourgeade, Pascale; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-11-01

    The authors explored the risks and benefits of repeated irrigation of Populus alba saplings with aqueous paper sludge (APS). Saplings were cultivated in pots of forest soil (3 L) in a greenhouse for 7 weeks and watered twice a week with differing concentrations of APS (0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 75, and 100 % v/v with deionized water). Plant growth and ecophysiological variables along with zinc and aluminum transfer were monitored. A stimulation of plant growth was observed with sludge treatments of 30 or 50 %, significantly correlated to APS input (r = 0.81). This may be explained by the easily available nitrogen as is shown with the positive correlation of CO2 assimilation and leaf nitrogen (r = 0.70). However, a significant reduction in plant growth was observed when treatments of 75 and 100 % of APS were administered, despite a high nutritional level (nitrogen and phosphorus). The study suggests that APS concentrations from 30 to 50 % may positively affect the growth of poplar saplings; however, the higher concentrations indicated a risk for plant growth and the environment.

  9. Cellulose and lignin biosynthesis is altered by ozone in wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × alba).

    PubMed

    Richet, Nicolas; Afif, Dany; Huber, Françoise; Pollet, Brigitte; Banvoy, Jacques; El Zein, Rana; Lapierre, Catherine; Dizengremel, Pierre; Perré, Patrick; Cabané, Mireille

    2011-06-01

    Wood formation in trees is a dynamic process that is strongly affected by environmental factors. However, the impact of ozone on wood is poorly documented. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of ozone on wood formation by focusing on the two major wood components, cellulose and lignin, and analysing any anatomical modifications. Young hybrid poplars (Populus tremula × alba) were cultivated under different ozone concentrations (50, 100, 200, and 300 l l(-1)). As upright poplars usually develop tension wood in a non-set pattern, the trees were bent in order to induce tension wood formation on the upper side of the stem and normal or opposite wood on the lower side. Biosynthesis of cellulose and lignin (enzymes and RNA levels), together with cambial growth, decreased in response to ozone exposure. The cellulose to lignin ratio was reduced, suggesting that cellulose biosynthesis was more affected than that of lignin. Tension wood was generally more altered than opposite wood, especially at the anatomical level. Tension wood may be more susceptible to reduced carbon allocation to the stems under ozone exposure. These results suggested a coordinated regulation of cellulose and lignin deposition to sustain mechanical strength under ozone. The modifications of the cellulose to lignin ratio and wood anatomy could allow the tree to maintain radial growth while minimizing carbon cost.

  10. Determination of As in tree-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc.

    PubMed

    Marković, D M; Novović, I; Vilotić, D; Ignjatović, Lj

    2009-04-01

    An argon-stabilized U-shaped DC arc with a system for aerosol introduction was used for determination of As in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. After optimization of the operating parameters and selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (30 s), the limit of detection for As was reduced to 15.0 ng/mL. This detection limit obtained with the optimal integration time was compared with those for other methods: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) and improved thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS). Arsenic is toxic trace element which can adversely affect plant, animal and human health. As an indicator of environment pollution we collected poplar tree-rings from two locations. The first area was close to the "Nikola Tesla" (TENT-A) power plant, Obrenovac, while the other was in the urban area of Novi Sad. In all cases elevated average concentrations of As were registered in poplar tree-rings from the Obrenovac location.

  11. Cellulose and lignin biosynthesis is altered by ozone in wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×alba)

    PubMed Central

    Richet, Nicolas; Afif, Dany; Huber, Françoise; Pollet, Brigitte; Banvoy, Jacques; El Zein, Rana; Lapierre, Catherine; Dizengremel, Pierre; Perré, Patrick; Cabané, Mireille

    2011-01-01

    Wood formation in trees is a dynamic process that is strongly affected by environmental factors. However, the impact of ozone on wood is poorly documented. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of ozone on wood formation by focusing on the two major wood components, cellulose and lignin, and analysing any anatomical modifications. Young hybrid poplars (Populus tremula×alba) were cultivated under different ozone concentrations (50, 100, 200, and 300 nl l−1). As upright poplars usually develop tension wood in a non-set pattern, the trees were bent in order to induce tension wood formation on the upper side of the stem and normal or opposite wood on the lower side. Biosynthesis of cellulose and lignin (enzymes and RNA levels), together with cambial growth, decreased in response to ozone exposure. The cellulose to lignin ratio was reduced, suggesting that cellulose biosynthesis was more affected than that of lignin. Tension wood was generally more altered than opposite wood, especially at the anatomical level. Tension wood may be more susceptible to reduced carbon allocation to the stems under ozone exposure. These results suggested a coordinated regulation of cellulose and lignin deposition to sustain mechanical strength under ozone. The modifications of the cellulose to lignin ratio and wood anatomy could allow the tree to maintain radial growth while minimizing carbon cost. PMID:21357770

  12. Hybridization study of developmental plastid gene expression in mustard (Sinapsis alba L.) with cloned probes for most plastid DNA regions.

    PubMed

    Link, G

    1984-07-01

    An approach to assess the extent of developmental gene expression of various regions of plastid (pt)DNA in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is described. It involves cloning of most ptDNA regions. The cloned regions then serve as hybridization probes to detect and assess the abundance of complementary RNA sequences represented in total plastid RNA. By comparison of the hybridization pattern observed with plastid RNA from either dark-grown or light-grown plants it was found that many ptDNA regions are constitutively expressed, while several 'inducible' regions account for much higher transcript levels in the chloroplast than in the etioplast stage. The reverse situation, i.e. 'repressed' regions which would account for higher transcript levels in the etioplast, was not observed. The hybridization results obtained with RNA from 'intermediatetype' plastids suggest that transient gene expression is a common feature during light-induced chloroplast development. The time-course of gene expression differs for various ptDNA regions.

  13. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba).

    PubMed

    Sverdrup, Line E; Krogh, Paul Henning; Nielsen, Torben; Kjaer, Christian; Stenersen, Jørgen

    2003-12-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were verified with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene), the N-, S-, and O-substituted analogues of fluorene (carbazole, dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran, respectively), and the quinoline representative acridine. Seedling growth was a far more sensitive endpoint than seed emergence for all substances. Concentrations estimated to give a 20% reduction of seedling fresh weight (EC20-values) ranged from 36 to 290 mgkg(-1) for carbazole, 43 to 93 mgkg(-1) for dibenzofuran, 37 to 110 mgkg(-1) for dibenzothiophene, 140 to 650 mgkg(-1) for fluoranthene, 55 to 380 mgkg(-1) for fluorene, 37 to 300 mgkg(-1) for phenanthrene, and 49 to 1300 mgkg(-1) for pyrene. For acridine, no toxicity was observed within the concentration range tested (1-1000 mgkg(-1)). As illustrated by the EC20-values, there was a rather large difference in sensitivity between the species, and T. pratense was the most sensitive of the species tested.

  14. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study.

  15. Dehydrated Basella alba Fruit Juice as a Novel Natural Colorant: Pigment Stability, In Vivo Food Safety Evaluation and Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism Characterization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu-Long; Chiou, Robin Y-Y; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Ko, Huey-Jiun; Lai, Li-Jung; Lin, Shu-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Flesh of Basella alba L. mature fruits bearing deep-violet juice provides a novel and potential source of natural colorant. To minimize the pigment purification process and warrant safety acceptability, B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was prepared using mature fruits through a practical batch preparation and subjected to fundamental pigment characterization, food safety assessment and bio-function evaluation. Yield of the dehydrated B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was 37 g/kg fresh fruits. Reconstituted aqueous solution of the BACP exhibited an identical visible spectrum (400-700 nm) as that of fresh juice. Color of the solution (absorbance at 540 nm) was stable in a broad pH ranged from 3 to 8 and enhanced by co-presence of calcium and magnesium ions, while was rapidly bleached by ferrous and ferric ions. For in vivo food safety evaluation, ICR mice were daily gavage administered with BACP up to 1000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Organ weight determination, serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examination of hearts, livers, lungs and kidneys revealed no obvious health hazard. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of BACP was characterized in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. BACP exerted potent anti-inflammatory activity by down-regulation of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 and the blockage of IκB kinase (IKK)/IκB/nuclear factor-κ B (NFκB) activation cascade. These results supported that BACP may serve as a beneficial alternative of natural food colorant.

  16. Chemical, ultrastructural and supramolecular analysis of tension wood in Populus tremula x alba as a model substrate for reduced recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect

    Foston, Marcus B; Hubbell, Christopher A; Samuel, Reichel; Jung, Seung-Yong; Ding, Shi-You; Zeng, Yining; Jawdy, Sara; Sykes, Virginia R; Tuskan, Gerald A; Kalluri, Udaya C; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant potential sustainable sources for fuel and material production, however to fully realize this potential an improved understanding of lignocellulosic recalcitrance must be developed. In an effort to appreciate the underlying phenotypic, biochemical and morphological properties associated with the reduced recalcitrance observed in tension stress-induced reaction wood, we report the increased enzymatic sugar yield and corresponding chemical and ultrastructural properties of Populus tension wood. Populus tremula x alba (PTA) was grown under tension and stem segments containing three different wood types: normal wood (NW), tension wood (TW) from the elongated stem side and opposite wood (OW) from the compressed stem side were collected. A variety of analytical techniques were used to describe changes occurring as a result of the tension stress-induced formation of a gelatinous cell wall layer (G-layer). For example, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the molecular weight and crystallinity of cellulose in TW is greater than that of cellulose acquired from NW. Whole cell ionic liquid and other solid-state NMR analysis detailed the structure of lignin and hemicellulose in the samples, detecting the presence of variations in lignin and hemicellulose sub-units, linkages and semi-quantitatively estimating the relative amounts of syringyl (S), guaiacyl (G) and p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) monolignol units. It was confirmed that TW displayed an increase in PB or H-like lignin and S to G ratio from 1.25 to 1.50 when compared to the NW sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) were also used to evaluate the morphology and corresponding spatial distribution of the major lignocellulosic components. We found changes in a combination of cell wall properties appear to influence recalcitrance more than any single factor alone.

  17. Anticonvulsant activity of essential oils and active principles from chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown.

    PubMed

    Viana, G S; do Vale, T G; Silva, C M; Matos, F J

    2000-11-01

    In the present work we studied the anticonvulsive effects of the essential oils (EOs) from three chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Brown (Verbenaceae). Animals (female Swiss mice, 25 g) were treated with the EO and, 30 or 60 min after intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral (p.o.) administration, respectively, injected with pentylenetetrazole (80 mg/kg, i.p.) and observed for 30 min. The results showed that EO I (200 and 400 mg/kg), EO II (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), and EO III (400 mg/kg), i.p., produced an increased latency time for the first convulsion as related to controls. Death latency was greater in the groups receiving EO I (50 and 100 mg/kg), EO II (100 and 200 mg/kg), and EO III (200 mg/kg), i.p. Orally, while no effect was demonstrated with EOs at doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg, significant increases in the latency of convulsion and latency of death were observed with EO I at the highest dose (800 mg/kg). Similarly, EO III at this dose was also effective as far as latency of convulsion is concerned. Animals treated with citral (100 mg/kg, i.p.), beta-myrcene or limonene (200 mg/kg, i.p.), EOs chemical constituents, presented significant increases in the latency of convulsion and percentage of survival as compared to controls. After oral administration these effects were observed only with a higher dose (400 mg/kg). The association of EOs with diazepam significantly potentiated their effects, suggesting a similar mechanism of action and indicating that citral, beta-myrcene, and limonene are probably the EOs active compounds.

  18. Lead uptake increases drought tolerance of wild type and transgenic poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba) overexpressing gsh 1.

    PubMed

    Samuilov, Sladjana; Lang, Friedericke; Djukic, Matilda; Djunisijevic-Bojovic, Danijela; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-09-01

    Growth and development of plants largely depends on their adaptation ability in a changing climate. This is particularly true on heavy metal contaminated soils, but the interaction of heavy metal stress and climate on plant performance has not been intensively investigated. The aim of the present study was to elucidate if transgenic poplars (Populus tremula x P. alba) with enhanced glutathione content possess an enhanced tolerance to drought and lead (Pb) exposure (single and in combination) and if they are good candidates for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil. Lead exposure reduced growth and biomass accumulation only in above-ground tissue of wild type poplar, although most of lead accumulated in the roots. Drought caused a decline of the water content rather than reduced biomass production, while Pb counteracted this decline in the combined exposure. Apparently, metals such as Pb possess a protective function against drought, because they interact with abscisic acid dependent stomatal closure. Lead exposure decreased while drought increased glutathione content in leaves of both plant types. Lead accumulation was higher in the roots of transgenic plants, presumably as a result of chelation by glutathione. Water deprivation enhanced Pb accumulation in the roots, but Pb was subject to leakage out of the roots after re-watering. Transgenic plants showed better adaptation under mild drought plus Pb exposure partially due to improved glutathione synthesis. However, the transgenic plants cannot be considered as a good candidate for phytoremediation of Pb, due to its small translocation to the shoots and its leakage out of the roots upon re-watering.

  19. Metabolic Characteristics in Meal of Black Rapeseed and Yellow-Seeded Progeny of Brassica napus-Sinapis alba Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Xie, Tao; Rong, Hao; Li, Aimin; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping

    2015-11-30

    Breeding of yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus) is preferred over black-seeded rapeseed for the desirable properties of the former. This study evaluated the metabolites and nutritive values of black-seeded rapeseed meal and yellow-seeded meal from the progeny of a B. napus-Sinapis alba hybrid. Yellow-seed meal presented higher protein (35.46% vs. 30.29%), higher sucrose (7.85% vs. 7.29%), less dietary fiber (26.19% vs. 34.63%) and crude fiber (4.56% vs. 8.86%), and less glucosinolates (22.18 vs. 28.19 μmol/g) than black-seeded one. Amounts of ash (3.65% vs. 4.55%), phytic acid (4.98% vs. 5.60%), and total polyphenols (2.67% vs. 2.82%) were decreased slightly in yellow-seeded meal compared with black-seeded meal. Yellow-seeded meal contained more essential amino acids than black-seeded meal. Levels of the mineral elements Fe, Mn, and Zn in yellow-seeded meal were higher than black-seeded meal. By contrast, levels of P, Ca, and Mg were lower in yellow-seeded meal. Moreover, yellow-seeded meal showed lower flavonol (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and their derivatives) content than black-seeded meal. Comparison of metabolites between yellow and black rapeseed confirmed the improved nutritional value of meal from yellow-seeded B. napus, and this would be helpful to the breeding and improvement of rapeseed for animal feeding.

  20. De novo assembly and characterization of leaf transcriptome for the development of functional molecular markers of the extremophile multipurpose tree species Prosopis alba

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) is an important native tree adapted to arid and semiarid regions of north-western Argentina which is of great value as multipurpose species. Despite its importance, the genomic resources currently available for the entire Prosopis genus are still limited. Here we describe the development of a leaf transcriptome and the identification of new molecular markers that could support functional genetic studies in natural and domesticated populations of this genus. Results Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to P. alba transcripts produced a total of 1,103,231 raw reads with an average length of 421 bp. De novo assembling generated a set of 15,814 isotigs and 71,101 non-assembled sequences (singletons) with an average of 991 bp and 288 bp respectively. A total of 39,000 unique singletons were identified after clustering natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads. Regarding the non-redundant sequences or unigenes, 22,095 out of 54,814 were successfully annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Moreover, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched, resulting in 5,992 and 6,236 markers, respectively, throughout the genome. For the validation of the the predicted SSR markers, a subset of 87 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidence was successfully amplified from six DNA samples of seedlings. From this analysis, 11 of these 87 SSRs were identified as polymorphic. Additionally, another set of 123 nuclear polymorphic SSRs were determined in silico, of which 50% have the probability of being effectively polymorphic. Conclusions This study generated a successful global analysis of the P. alba leaf transcriptome after bioinformatic and wet laboratory validations of RNA-Seq data. The limited set of molecular markers currently available will be significantly increased with the thousands of new markers that were identified in this study. This information will

  1. Total NMR assignments of new [C7-O-C7'']-biflavones from leaves of the limonene-carvone chemotype of Lippia alba (Mill) N. E. Brown.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Francisco Geraldo; Lima, Mary Anne Sousa; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha

    2005-04-01

    Phytochemical analysis of leaves of the limonene-carvone chemotype of Lippia alba led to the isolation of two biflavonoids with a new structural pattern with an ether linkage: 5,5''-dihydroxy-6,4',6'',3''',4'''-pentamethoxy-[C(7)--O--C(7'')]-biflavone (1) and 4',4,5,5''-tetrahydroxy-6,6'',3'''-trimethoxy-[C(7)--O--C(7'')]-biflavone (2). Structural elucidation of the new compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, through the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY).

  2. Use of dimethyldioxirane in the epoxidation of the main constituents of the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora.

    PubMed

    Veloza, Luz A; Orozco, Lina M; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C

    2011-07-01

    Dimethyldioxirane (DMDO), a widely used oxidant in organic synthesis is considered an environmentally friendly oxygen transfer reagent because acetone is the only byproduct formed in its oxidation reactions. This work describes the isolation of the main constituents (terpenes) in the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora, their epoxidation with DMDO in acetone solution and the characterization of the resulting epoxides by GC-MS (EI) and NMR. This is one of the first reports involving the application of dioxirane chemistry to essential oils in order to generate modified compounds with potential uses in several areas of medicine and industry.

  3. Comparative study on in vitro activities of citral, limonene and essential oils from Lippia citriodora and L. alba on yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Luz Angela; Stashenko, Elena; Ocazionez, Raquel Elvira

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the antiviral activities in vitro of citral, limonene and essential oils (EOs) from Lippia citriodora and L. alba on the replication of yellow fever virus (YFV). Citral and EOs were active before and after virus adsorption on cells; IC50 values were between 4.3 and 25 microg/mL and SI ranged from 1.1 to 10.8. Results indicate that citral could contribute to the antiviral activity of the L. citriodora EO. Limonene was not active and seemed to play an insignificant role in the antiviral activity of the examined EOs.

  4. Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Biological Parts of Artemisia herba alba and Their Cytotoxic Effect on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tilaoui, Mounir; Ait Mouse, Hassan; Jaafari, Abdeslam; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Carrying out the chemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells from different biological parts of Artemisia herba alba. Methods Essential oils were studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and their antitumoral activity was tested against P815 mastocytoma and BSR kidney carcinoma cell lines; also, in order to evaluate the effect on normal human cells, oils were tested against peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs. Results Essential oils from leaves and aerial parts (mixture of capitulum and leaves) were mainly composed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes 39.89% and 46.15% respectively; capitulum oil contained essentially monoterpenes (22.86%) and monocyclic monoterpenes (21.48%); esters constituted the major fraction (62.8%) of stem oil. Essential oils of different biological parts studied demonstrated a differential antiproliferative activity against P815 and BSR cancer cells; P815 cells are the most sensitive to the cytotoxic effect. Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts. Interestingly, no cytotoxic effect of these essential oils was observed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used. PMID:26196123

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, functional properties and mutagenicity studies of protein and protein hydrolysate obtained from Prosopis alba seed flour.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Florencia; Sayago, Jorge Esteban; Alberto, María Rosa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Ordoñez, Roxana Mabel; Chamorro, Verónica; Pazos, Adriana; Isla, María Inés

    2014-10-15

    Prosopis species are considered multipurpose trees and shrubs by FAO and their fruit constitute a food source for humans and animals. According to the "Código Alimentario Argentino", "algarrobo flour" is produced by grinding the whole mature pod, but in the traditional process most of the seeds are discarded. In this paper, the flour from seed was obtained. Then, the proteins were extracted and enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out. According to their amino acid profile and chemical score (>100%), the Prosopis alba proteins, are not deficient in essential amino acids considering the amount of amino acid necessary by adults. The protein isolate showed a good solubility (pH 7.4-9), emulsificant capacity, oil binding capacity and water adsorption capacity. The antioxidant ability of proteins was significantly increased with hydrolysis (SC50 values: 50-5μg/mL, respectively). Inhibitory activity of pro-inflammatory enzymes (lipoxygenase and phospholipase) was described. The mutagenicity/antimutagenicity of proteins and protein hydrolysates from seed flour were also analysed. The results suggest that P. alba cotyledon flour could be a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods not only for its high protein content but also by the biological and functional properties of its proteins and protein hydrolysates.

  6. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction in a syringe filter for determination of triazine herbicides in Radix Paeoniae Alba by ultra-fast liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinpei; Wang, Yuanpeng; Sun, Qun; Xu, Bo; Yu, Yong; Wang, Xinghua

    2016-02-01

    A novel, cost-effective and simple solid phase extraction (SPE) method, by using a syringe connected with a nylon membrane filter as the adsorbent container, was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides from Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) samples. The selective molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) synthesized with the template of atrazine were employed as the adsorbents for the enrichment and purification of analytes. The extraction parameters, including the volume and type of loading solvent, the type of washing solvent and eluting solvent, were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the final extracts were analyzed by ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC). Recoveries of the developed method range from 92.4% to 107.3% with intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 8.2%. The calibration curve is linear in the concentration range of 0.005-2.4 µg g(-1) for desmetryn, atrazine and terbumeton, and 0.005-1.5 µg g(-1) for dimethametryn and dipropetryn, with the correlation coefficient (R(2)) higher than 0.9995. The limits of detection (LODs) of five triazine herbicides are in the range of 0.09-0.39 ng g(-1), which are lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by various official organizations. Analytical results of three real Radix Paeoniae Alba samples indicate that the proposed method is cost-effective and easy-to-use than other routine pretreatment methods.

  7. An open-flower mutant of Melilotus alba: Potential for floral-dip transformation of a papilionoid legume with a short life cycle?

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Ann M; Lee, Angie; Deng, Weimin; Tucker, Shirley C

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes an open-flower mutant, designated opf, that we discovered in a genetic screen of fast neutron bombardment mutants in an attempt at floral-dip transformation of Melilotus alba (Fabaceae; white sweetclover), an alternative papilionoid legume host for Sinorhizobium meliloti. The opf mutant developed flowers with reflexed sepals and petals, thereby exposing the stamens and carpel, whereas wild-type sweetclover inflorescences developed closed flowers where the young stamens and carpel remain covered during the early stages of flower development. Based on crosses with the wild type, the mutant segregated as a single, Mendelian recessive. Crosses were successful only when the opf mutant served as the female parent, suggesting that the mutant was male sterile. However, no obvious differences from wild-type stamen development were observed in the opf mutant. The anther defect was due to indehiscence. However, as the plants approached the end of their life cycle, the frequency of selfing increased. We also investigated whether the opf mutant could be transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens floral-dip infiltration because open flowers like those of Arabidopsis appear to be more readily transformable. However, similar to wild-type M. alba, the opf mutant is refractory to floral-dip transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  8. Cytokinin and auxin effect on the terpenoid profile of the essential oil and morphological characteristics of shoot cultures of Artemisia alba.

    PubMed

    Danova, Kalina; Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Evstatieva, Ljuba

    2012-08-01

    The influence of plant growth regulators (PGR) on the essential oil composition and in vitro development of A. alba shoot cultures was studied. Two types of oils were determined, based on their terpenoid content. Close relations between the morphogenetic effects of PGR and the essential oil profile of the species were observed Predominance of root over shoot development was connected with a drop in the amounts of sesquiterpenoids and the direction of biosynthesis towards oxygenated monoterpenoids in the PGR-free control medium, as well in those with 1.0 mg L(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supplementation. On the contrary, lack of root formation and stimulated callusogenesis caused by the addition of 0.2 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA), irrespectively of the presence of IBA (either 0.5 mg L(-1) or 1.0 mg L(-1)), resulted in the strong prevalence of sesquiterpenoids in the oils. These results are indicative that the morphological development ofA. alba shoot cultures affects the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway bringing out the hypothesis for a possible root to shoot signaling.

  9. Thallium speciation in plant tissues-Tl(III) found in Sinapis alba L. grown in soil polluted with tailing sediment containing thallium minerals.

    PubMed

    Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata; Sadowska, Monika; Ostrowska, Sylwia

    2012-05-15

    Besides the dominant species in plants-Tl(I), noticeable amounts of Tl(III) (about 10% of total Tl content) were found in extracts of plants cultivated in the presence of tailing sediments, which are the main source of anthropogenic thallium already present in the environment. It is an important step of gaining knowledge about the detoxification mechanisms developed by Sinapis alba. This plant species is highly tolerant to Tl and it is able to cumulate high amounts of Tl and transport it into the above-ground organs. For more adequate estimation of accumulating abilities of S. alba, the elements' bioavailability was taken into consideration. The obtained bioconcentration factors of Cd (AF=0.6) and Zn (AF=1-2) were significantly lower than of Tl (AF=100-200). The biomass production was similar to the biomass of control cultivation. The results were based on ICP MS measurements of total elements' content and HPLC ICP MS for speciation analysis. The quality of obtained results was evaluated based on the intermethod comparison with voltammetry as a reference method. Comparison of data obtained using ICP MS and electrochemical methods (after a proper chemical treatment) was also used for indication of Tl(III) presence and for proving that Tl(I) was not transferred into Tl(III) during analytical procedures.

  10. Composition and anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia herba-alba, Ruta chalpensis L. and Peganum harmala L.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Daycem; Sghaier, Rabiaa Manel; Amouri, Sameh; Laouini, Dhafer; Hamdi, Mokhtar; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2013-05-01

    In this study, biological activities of methanolic extracts from Artemisia herba-alba, Ruta chalpensis L. and Peganum harmala L. plants, collected in Centre of Tunisia, were investigated. Results showed an important phenolic composition of Artemisia herba-alba (123.95±4.3g GAE/kg of dry mass). The extract of this plant showed, using different antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and AAPH/linoleic acid methods) and an IFN-γ/LPS induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages' assay, the highest antioxidant (IC50 (DPPH assay) 20.64±0.84mg/L) and anti-inflammatory (72% inhibition at 150mg/L) activities, respectively. Excepting Peganum harmala L. extract, the two other extracts showed a high anticancer activity against several cell lines (human bladder carcinoma RT112, human laryngeal carcinoma Hep2 and human myelogenous leukemia K562), for A. herba-laba IC50=81.59±4.4, 59.05±3.66 and 90.96mg/L respectively, but not on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All these biological activities are well correlated with the phenolic contents of these extracts. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of these plants as valuable source of antioxidants with exhibit original and interesting anti-inflammatory and anticancer capacities.

  11. An energy-circuit population model for great egrets (Ardea alba) at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Jeff P.

    1997-01-01

    I simulated the annual population cycles of Great Egrets (Ardea alba) at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, to provide a framework for evaluating the local population dynamics of nesting and foraging wading birds. The external forcing functions were solar energy, minimum air temperature, water depth, surface-water drying rate, and season. Solar input controlled the production of prey at moderate to high lake stages, but water area exerted primary control during a two-year drought. Modeling prey production as a linear function of water area resulted in underestimation of prey density during the drought, suggesting that prey organisms maintained high fecundity while concentrated in submerged vegetation at the lakeward fringe of the littoral zone. Simulation confirmed that large influxes of wading birds during the drought were the combined result of a regional refuge response and the availability of concentrated prey. Modeling immigration and emigration as primarily functions of the surface-water drying rate, rather than lake stage, resulted in a closer match of observed and simulated population trends for foraging birds, suggesting that the pattern of surface-water fluctuations was a more important factor than water depth. Simulation indicated an abrupt-threshold response rather than a linear association between foraging efficiency and low temperatures, which reduce activity levels of forage fishes. Great Egret breeder recruitment is primarily a function of prey availability, climate, and hydrologic trends, but simulation confirmed the concurrent involvement of a seasonal or physiological-readiness factor. An attractor function driven by high winter lake stages was necessary to reproduce observed patterns of breeder recruitment, suggesting that Great Egrets initiate nesting based on environmental cues that lead to peak food availability when nestlings are present. Poor correspondence of reproductive effort and nest productivity suggested that the drought compromised the birds

  12. Biomonitoring heavy metals using the barn owl (Tyto alba guttata): sources of variation especially relating to body condition.

    PubMed

    Esselink, H; van der Geld, F M; Jager, L P; Posthuma-Trumpie, G A; Zoun, P E; Baars, A J

    1995-05-01

    The feasibility of using the Barn Owl (Tyto alba guttata) to monitor environmental quality in the Netherlands was investigated, using Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Fe as indicators for environmental contamination. Throughout 1992, bird-watchers, volunteers, and officials submitted 53 birds. The age and geographical distribution of these birds, formed a representative sample of the population. The following interrelationships were investigated: cause of death, nutrient reserve, age, time of death, place of death, body measurements, sex, condition, and heavy metal concentration in kidney, liver, and tibia. Twenty-eight animals had died after collisions. Fifteen Barn Owls died of exhaustion. In total, twenty-four birds were exhausted, with coccidiosis or other parasitic gastrointestinal infections. The condition of the birds showed that as the birds' condition worsened, fat reserves were depleted before protein reserves. Significant linear relationships were found between decreasing protein reserves and decreasing dry weights of the liver, kidney, flight muscle and heart, but not of the tibia. An asymptotic, nonlinear relation was observed between dry organ weight and fat reserve. This suggested that fat reserves were only found when protein reserves exceeded 15% of the body mass at starvation. Concentrations of Cu and Fe in liver and kidney rose as protein reserves fell; the total content of Cu and Fe per organ, however, remained constant. The Mn concentration of these organs remained constant; Mn content increased with increasing organ sizes. Neither Cd nor Pb showed a clear relationship with parameters of body condition. The ratio between the organ content of Pb or Cd and the dry organ weight, however, revealed some birds from contaminated habitats. The findings suggested that concentrations of environmental contaminants should be measured on a dry weight basis. Furthermore, depending on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of a contaminant, the total content of that

  13. Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown.

    PubMed

    do Vale, T Gurgel; Furtado, E Couto; Santos, J G; Viana, G S B

    2002-12-01

    Citral, myrcene and limonene (100 and 200 mg/kg body wt., i.p.), constituents of essential oils from Lippia alba chemotypes, decreased not only the number of crossings but also numbers for rearing and grooming, as measured by the open-field test in mice. Although muscle relaxation detected by the rota rod test was seen only at the highest doses of citral (200 mg/kg body wt.) and myrcene (100 and 200 mg/kg body wt.), this effect was observed even at the lowest dose of limonene (50 mg/kg body wt.). Also, citral and myrcene (100 and 200 mg/kg body wt.) increased barbiturate sleeping time as compared to control. Limonene was also effective at the highest dose, and although citral did not increase the onset of sleep, it increased the duration of sleep, which is indicative of a potentiation of sleeping time. Citral (100 and 200 mg/kg body wt.) increased 2.3 and 3.5 times, respectively, the barbiturate sleeping time in mice. Similar effects were observed for myrcene and limonene at the highest dose (200 mg/kg body wt.) which increased the sleeping time around 2.6 times. In the elevated-plus maze, no effect was detected with citral up to 25 mg/kg body wt., while at a high dose it decreased by 46% the number of entries in the open arms. A smaller but significant effect was detected with limonene (5 mg/kg body wt.). While myrcene (10 mg/kg body wt.) decreased only by 22% the number of entries in the open arms, this parameter was decreased by 48% at the highest dose. Our study showed that citral, limonene and myrcene presented sedative as well as motor relaxant effects. Although only at the highest dose, they also produced a potentiation of the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice, which was more intense in the presence of citral. In addition, neither of them showed an anxiolytic effect, but rather a slight anxiogenic type of effect at the higher doses.

  14. Chemical responses to modified lignin composition in tension wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba).

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Jameel M; Kang, Kyu-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D; Telewski, Frank W

    2013-04-01

    The effect of altering the expression level of the F5H gene was investigated in three wood tissues (normal, opposite and tension wood) in 1-year-old hybrid poplar clone 717 (Populus tremula × Populus alba L.), containing the F5H gene under the control of the C4H promoter. Elevated expression of the F5H gene in poplar has been previously reported to increase the percent syringyl content of lignin. The wild-type and three transgenic lines were inclined 45° for 3 months to induce tension wood formation. Tension and opposite wood from inclined trees, along with normal wood from control trees, were analyzed separately for carbohydrates, lignin, cellulose crystallinity and microfibril angle (MFA). In the wild-type poplar, the lignin in tension wood contained a significantly higher percentage of syringyl than normal wood or opposite wood. However, there was no significant difference in the percent syringyl content of the three wood types within each of the transgenic lines. Increasing the F5H gene expression caused an increase in the percent syringyl content and a slight decrease in the total lignin in normal wood. In tension wood, the addition of a gelatinous layer in the fiber walls resulted in a consistently lower percentage of total lignin in the tissue. Acid-soluble lignin was observed to increase by up to 2.3-fold in the transgenic lines. Compared with normal wood and opposite wood, cell wall crystallinity in tension wood was higher and the MFA was smaller, as expected, with no evidence of an effect from modifying the syringyl monomer ratio. Tension wood in all the lines contained consistently higher total sugar and glucose percentages when compared with normal wood within the respective lines. However, both sugar and glucose percentages were lower in the tension wood of transgenic lines when compared with the tension wood of wild-type trees. Evaluating the response of trees with altered syringyl content to gravity will improve our understanding of the changes

  15. An inverse relationship between allelopathic activity and salt tolerance in suspension cultures of three mangrove species, Sonneratia alba, S. caseolaris and S. ovata: development of a bioassay method for allelopathy, the protoplast co-culture method.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Ai; Oyanagi, Tomoya; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2014-11-01

    A bioassay method for allelopathy, the 'protoplast co-culture method' was developed to study the relationship between salt tolerance and allelopathy of three mangrove species, Sonneratia alba, S. caseolaris, and S. ovata. Plants of S. alba grow in the seaward-side high salinity region and plants of the latter two species grow in upstream-side regions of a mangrove forest, respectively. Effects of five sea salts (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, MgSO4 and CaCl2) on the growth of the suspension cells of the latter two species were first investigated by a small-scale method using 24-well culture plates. S. ovata cells showed higher tolerance than S. caseolaris cells to NaCl and other salts, but were not as halophilic as S. alba cells. Protoplasts isolated from suspension cells were co-cultured with lettuce protoplasts in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 1 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.1 μM benzyladenine, 3% sucrose and 0.6-0.8 M osmoticum. S. caseolaris protoplasts had a higher inhibitory effect on lettuce protoplast cell divisions than S. alba protoplasts at any lettuce protoplast density, and the effect of S. ovata was intermediate between the two. These results were similar to those obtained from a different in vitro bioassay method for allelopathy, the 'sandwich method' with dried leaves. The inverse relationship between allelopathic activity and salt tolerance in suspension cells of Sonneratia mangroves is discussed.

  16. Comparison of different extraction methods for the analysis of volatile secondary metabolites of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, grown in Colombia, and evaluation of its in vitro antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Stashenko, Elena E; Jaramillo, Beatriz E; Martínez, Jairo René

    2004-01-30

    Hydrodistillation (HD), simultaneous distillation solvent extraction (SDE), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD), and supercritical fluid (CO2) extraction (SFE) were employed to isolate volatile secondary metabolites from fresh leaves and stems of Colombian Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. Kovàts indices, mass spectra or standard compounds were used to identify around 40 components in the various volatile fractions. Carvone (40-57%) was the most abundant component, followed by limonene (24-37%), bicyclosesquiphellandrene (5-22%), piperitenone (1-2%), piperitone (ca. 1.0%), and beta-bourbonene (0.6-1.5%), in the HD, SDE, MWHD, and SFE volatile fractions. Static headspace (S-HS), simultaneous purge and trap in solvent (CH2Cl2) (P&T), and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) were used to sample volatiles from fresh L. alba stems and leaves. The main components isolated from the headspace of the fresh plant material were limonene (27-77%), carvone (14-30%), piperitone (0.3-0.5%), piperitenone (ca. 0.4%), and beta-bourbonene (0.5-6.5%). The in vitro antioxidant activity of L. alba essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation was evaluated by determination of hexanal, the main carbonyl compound released by linoleic acid subjected to peroxidation (1 mm Fe2+, 37 degrees C, 12 h), and by quantification of this acid as its methyl ester. Under the same conditions, L. alba HD-essential oil and Vitamin E exhibited similar antioxidant effects.

  17. Modification of the activity of some C cycle hydrolases in soils afforested with Populus alba L. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorita, Félix; García-Campos, Elena; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Since 1992 a large part of the agricultural land in Galicia (NW Spain) has disappeared as a result of the EU policy of providing grants and aid for transforming marginal land into forest terrain. In Galicia, this policy (EU Regulation 2080/1992) has mainly been applied to good quality agricultural land rather than to marginal land. As a result, the land has undergone a change in use, so that previously good quality agricultural land is now planted with various species of trees, usually of young age. Despite the large area of land transformed, until now the environmental cost of such changes has not been evaluated. Taking into account that one of the possible environmental effects derived from land transformation is changes in emissions of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas), it is therefore essential to evaluate any possible modifications undergone in such soils, with special attention given to biochemical properties, i.e. the properties that determine edaphic metabolism. With this aim, we are currently investigating the effect of afforestation on diverse biochemical properties, including the activity of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the C, N, P and S cycles, in a large number of afforested soils, planted with different trees and located in different areas throughout Galicia. In each case, an agricultural soil located close to the afforested soil, but under the original land use (usually maize cropped soils or pasture soils), is also collected and analysed, and the results obtained for afforested soils compared with those for the corresponding agricultural soils. Here we report some preliminary results on modifications in the activities of some C cycle hydrolases in six soils now planted with poplars, Populus alba L, but originally cropped with maize. Samples of all soils were collected in autumn, after harvesting and before any other agricultural activities were carried out. In all cases, the upper 10 cm of the soils were collected. The soils were sieved (4 mm) prior to

  18. Accumulation and distribution of trivalent chromium and effects on hybrid willow (Salix matsudana Koidz x alba L.) metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yu, X-Z; Gu, J-D

    2007-05-01

    The metabolic response of plants to exogenous supply and bioaccumulation of trivalent chromium (Cr(3+) ) was investigated. Pre-rooted young hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x alba L.) were exposed to hydroponic solution spiked with CrCl(3) at 24.0 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C for 192 hours. Various physiologic parameters of the plants were monitored to determine toxicity from Cr exposure. The transpiration rate of willows exposed to 2.5 mg Cr/L was 49% higher than that of the untreated control plants, but it was decreased by 17% when exposed to 30.0 mg Cr/L. Significant decrease (> or =20%) of soluble protein in young leaves of willows was detected in the treatment group with > or =7.5 mg Cr/L. The measured chlorophyll contents in leaves of treated plants varied with the dose of Cr, but a linear correlation could not be established. The contents of chlorophyll in leaves of willows exposed to > or =7.5 mg Cr/L were higher than that of the untreated plants but lower at 30.0 mg Cr/L. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in leaves between the treated and untreated willows did not show any significant difference, but activities of both catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in leaf cells of all treated plants were higher than those in the untreated willows. The correlation between the concentration of Cr and CAT activity in leaf cells was the highest of all toxicity assays (R ( 2 ) = 0.9096), indicating that CAT activity was most sensitive to the change in Cr(3+) doses compared with the other selected parameters. Results from the Cr uptake study showed that significant removal of Cr from hydroponic solution was observed in the presence of hybrid willows without showing detectable phytotoxicity, even at high does of Cr. More than 90% of the applied Cr(3+) was removed from the aqueous solution by willows at concentrations up to 7.5 mg Cr/L. Approximately 70% of the initial Cr was recovered in the plant materials. At the low-Cr(3+) treatment (2.5 mg Cr/L), Cr accumulation by

  19. Preliminary results on the effects of afforestation of maize soils with Populus alba L., on carbon metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Campos, Elena; Zorita, Félix; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Transformation of a natural soil to agricultural land is generally assumed to be accompanied by increased mineralization of the organic matter and increased CO2emissions; in contrast, afforestation of agricultural soil is thought to lead to sequestration of carbon and incorporation of atmospheric CO2 into the organic matter. In other words the type of management and land use determine whether soils act as carbon sinks or sources, so that transformation of agricultural land to forest land is generally considered to be accompanied by an increase in edaphic carbon, although it is not clear whether this effect is always produced or if it depends on the agricultural history of the land being afforested. In light of the recognised importance of forest land in sequestering C, and therefore in regulating climate change, in 1992 the EU established Regulation 2080 to promote the afforestation of marginal agricultural land. This had strong repercussions in regions such as Galicia (NW Spain) as the afforestation was mainly applied to good quality agricultural land rather than to marginal land. Although, as a result, large areas of agricultural land have been afforested in Galicia, the associated effects on edaphic carbon have not been widely investigated. The present study involves analysis of large number of afforested soils, planted with different trees and located in different areas throughout Galicia (NW Spain), with the aim of investigating the effects on carbon metabolism in agricultural soils transformed for forestry use. Here we report the preliminary results concerning the observed effects on carbon metabolism in six soils afforested with poplar, Populus alba L., of age between 4 and 8 years. In addition to the six soils planted with poplars, adjacent agricultural soils (x6) were analyzed. In each case the adjacent soil was the same as the original soil prior to afforestation, and all were maize soils. Samples of the soils were collected in autumn, after harvesting

  20. Behavior of the Linea Alba During a Curl-up Task in Diastasis Rectus Abdominis: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Diane; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional repeated measures. Background Rehabilitation of diastasis rectus abdominis (DRA) generally aims to reduce the inter-rectus distance (IRD). We tested the hypothesis that activation of the transversus abdominis (TrA) before a curl-up would reduce IRD narrowing, with less linea alba (LA) distortion/deformation, which may allow better force transfer between sides of the abdominal wall. Objectives This study investigated behavior of the LA and IRD during curl-ups performed naturally and with preactivation of the TrA. Methods Curl-ups were performed by 26 women with DRA and 17 healthy control participants using a natural strategy (automatic curl-up) and with TrA preactivation (TrA curl-up). Ultrasound images were recorded at 2 points above the umbilicus (U point and UX point). Ultrasound measures of IRD and a novel measure of LA distortion (distortion index: average deviation of the LA from the shortest path between the recti) were compared between 3 tasks (rest, automatic curl-up, TrA curl-up), between groups, and between measurement points (analysis of variance). Results Automatic curl-up by women with DRA narrowed the IRD from resting values (mean U-point between-task difference, -1.19 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.45, -0.93; P<.001 and mean UX-point between-task difference, -0.51 cm; 95% CI: -0.69, -0.34; P<.001), but LA distortion increased (mean U-point between-task difference, 0.018; 95% CI: 0.0003, 0.041; P = .046 and mean UX-point between-task difference, 0.025; 95% CI: 0.004, 0.045; P = .02). Although TrA curl-up induced no narrowing or less IRD narrowing than automatic curl-up (mean U-point difference between TrA curl-up versus rest, -0.56 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.31; P<.001 and mean UX-point between-task difference, 0.02 cm; 95% CI: -0.22, 0.19; P = .86), LA distortion was less (mean U-point between-task difference, -0.025; 95% CI: -0.037, -0.012; P<.001 and mean UX-point between-task difference, -0.021; 95% CI: -0.038, -0

  1. Combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR of the supercritical fluid extract of Abies alba twigs.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Emilie; Marongiu, Bruno; Castola, Vincent; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Casanova, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Two samples (leaves and twigs) of Abies alba Miller from Corsica were extracted using supercritical CO2 and their chemical compositions were compared with those of the essential oils obtained from the same batch of plant material. In total 45 components were identified using combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR. It was observed that the contents of monoterpenes (mainly represented by limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene) were significantly lower in the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) than in the essential oil (EO). Conversely, the proportions of sesquiterpenes were much higher in CO2 extracts than in essential oils (around 30% vs 4%). Cis-abienol, a diterpene alcohol, was identified only in SFE, and the proportions of this constituent (7.5% and 17.3%) were determined using quantitative 13C NMR since it was under estimated using the standard conditions of GC.

  2. POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS.

    PubMed

    Jubirt, Madison M; Hanson, Larry A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Ford, Lorelei; Lemmons, Scott; Fioranelli, Paul; Cunningham, Fred L

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative, anaerobic bacterium that is ubiquitous in freshwater and slightly brackish aquatic environments and infects fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain (VAH), which is genetically distinct from less-virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that A. hydrophila infects birds, we hypothesized that fish-eating birds may serve as a reservoir for VAH and spread the pathogen by flying to uninfected ponds. Great Egrets (Ardea alba) were used in this transmission model because these wading birds frequently prey on farmed catfish. Great Egrets that were fed VAH-infected catfish shed VAH in feces demonstrating their potential to spread VAH.

  3. Development and validation of a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (Sinapis alba, Brassica nigra and Brassica juncea) in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2014-06-15

    The paper presents a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three potentially allergenic mustard species commonly used in food: white mustard (Sinapis alba), black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea). White mustard is detected in the "green" and black/brown mustard in the "yellow" channel. The duplex real-time PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species including broccoli, cauliflower, radish and rapeseed. Low cross-reactivities (difference in the Ct value ⩾ 11.91 compared with the positive control) were obtained with cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric. When applying 500 ng DNA per PCR tube, the duplex real-time PCR assay allowed the detection of white, black and brown mustard in brewed model sausages down to a concentration of 5mg/kg in 10 out of 10 replicates. The duplex real-time PCR assay was applied to verify correct labelling of commercial foodstuffs.

  4. The antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle from lambs receiving oral administration of Artemisia herba alba and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    PubMed

    Aouadi, Dorra; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Nasri, Saida; Brogna, Daniela M R; Abidi, Sourour; Priolo, Alessandro; Salem, Hichem Ben

    2014-06-01

    The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7days of aerobic storage.

  5. In vitro antioxidant, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of fractions from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav., Sida alba L. and Sida acuta Burn f. (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Konaté, K; Souza, A; Coulibaly, A Y; Meda, N T R; Kiendrebeogo, M; Lamien-Meda, A; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J; Lamidi, M; Nacoulma, O G

    2010-11-15

    In this study polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, lipoxygenase (LOX) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory effects of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of aqueous acetone extracts from S. alba L., S. acuta Burn f and Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. were investigated. The total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and total tannins were determined by spectrophotometric methods using Folin-ciocalteu, AlCl3 reagents and tannic acid, respectively. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using three methods: inhibition of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydramzyl (DPPH), ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and Iron (III) to iron (II) reduction activity (FRAP). For enzymatic activity, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities were used. This study shows a relationship between polyphenol contents, antioxidant and enzymatic activities. Present results showed that ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions elicit the highest polyphenol content, antioxidant and enzymatic activities.

  6. Anxiolytic effects of repeated treatment with an essential oil from Lippia alba and (R)-(-)-carvone in the elevated T-maze.

    PubMed

    Hatano, V Y; Torricelli, A S; Giassi, A C C; Coslope, L A; Viana, M B

    2012-03-01

    Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) is widely used in different regions of Central and South America as a tranquilizer. The plant's anxiolytic properties, however, merit investigation. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated daily (14 days) intraperitoneal (ip) treatment with an essential oil (EO) from a chemotype of L. alba (LA, chemotype II, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg; N = 6-8) and (R)-(-)-carvone (25 mg/kg; N = 8-12), the main constituent of this chemotype, on male Wistar rats (weighing 250 g at the beginning of the experiments) submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM). The ETM allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape. In terms of psychopathology, these responses have been related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder, respectively. Treatment with the EO impaired ETM avoidance latencies, without altering escape, in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (P < 0.05) (avoidance 2: control = 84.6 ± 35.2; EO 12.5 mg/kg = 11.8 ± 3.8; EO 25 mg/kg = 14.6 ± 2.7; diazepam = 7 ± 2.1). (R)-(-)-carvone also significantly altered this same response (P < 0.05; avoidance 1: control = 91.9 ± 31.5; carvone = 11.6 ± 1.8; diazepam = 8.1 ± 3.3). These results were not due to motor changes since no significant effects were detected in an open field. These observations suggest that LA exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors that have been implicated in generalized anxiety disorder, and suggest that carvone is one of the constituents of LA responsible for its action as a tranquilizer.

  7. Anxiolytic effects of repeated treatment with an essential oil from Lippia alba and (R)-(-)-carvone in the elevated T-maze

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, V.Y.; Torricelli, A.S.; Giassi, A.C.C.; Coslope, L.A.; Viana, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) is widely used in different regions of Central and South America as a tranquilizer. The plant's anxiolytic properties, however, merit investigation. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated daily (14 days) intraperitoneal (ip) treatment with an essential oil (EO) from a chemotype of L. alba (LA, chemotype II, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg; N = 6-8) and (R)-(-)-carvone (25 mg/kg; N = 8-12), the main constituent of this chemotype, on male Wistar rats (weighing 250 g at the beginning of the experiments) submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM). The ETM allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape. In terms of psychopathology, these responses have been related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder, respectively. Treatment with the EO impaired ETM avoidance latencies, without altering escape, in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (P < 0.05) (avoidance 2: control = 84.6 ± 35.2; EO 12.5 mg/kg = 11.8 ± 3.8; EO 25 mg/kg = 14.6 ± 2.7; diazepam = 7 ± 2.1). (R)-(-)-carvone also significantly altered this same response (P < 0.05; avoidance 1: control = 91.9 ± 31.5; carvone = 11.6 ± 1.8; diazepam = 8.1 ± 3.3). These results were not due to motor changes since no significant effects were detected in an open field. These observations suggest that LA exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors that have been implicated in generalized anxiety disorder, and suggest that carvone is one of the constituents of LA responsible for its action as a tranquilizer. PMID:22358424

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Content Determination of Macro-Minor Elements in Bryonia Alba L. Roots using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Kislichenko, Viktoria; Naddaf, Ahmad; Cholak, Irina; Yemelianova, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the elements in Bryonia alba L. roots, collected from the Crimean Peninsula region in Ukraine. Methods: Dry ashing was used as a flexible method and all elements were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and graphite furnace. Results: The average concentrations of the determined elements, expressed as mg/100 g dry weight of the sample, were as follow: 13.000 for Fe, 78.000 for Si, 88.000 for P, 7.800 for Al, 0.130 for Mn, 105.000 for Mg, 0.030 for Pb, 0.052 for Ni, 0.030 for Mo, 210.000 for Ca, 0.130 for Cu, 5.200 for Zn, 13.000 for Na, 1170.000 for K, 0.780 for Sr, 0.030 for Co, 0.010 for Cd, 0.010 for As, and 0.010 for Hg. Toxic elements such as Cd and Pb were also found but at very low concentration. Among the analyzed elements, K was the most abundant followed by Ca, Mg, P, Si, Fe, Na, and Zn, whereas Hg, As, Cd, Co, Mo, and Pb were found in low concentration. Conclusion: The results suggest that the roots of Bryonia alba L. plant has potential medicinal property through their high element contents present. Moreover, it showed that the AAS method is a simple, fast, and reliable for the determination of elements in plant materials. The obtained results of the current study provide justification for the usage of such fruit in daily diet for nutrition and for medicinal usage in the treatment of various diseases. PMID:27478794

  9. Cloning, molecular characterization and functional analysis of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR) gene for diterpenoid tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba.

    PubMed

    Hao, Gangping; Shi, Renjiu; Tao, Ru; Fang, Qian; Jiang, Xingyu; Ji, Haiwei; Feng, Lei; Huang, Luqi

    2013-09-01

    The enzyme 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR) is a terminal-acting enzyme in the plastid MEP pathway, which produce isoprenoid precursors. The full-length cDNA of HDR, designated SmHDR1 (Genbank Accession No. JX516088), was isolated for the first time from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba. SmHDR1 contains a 1389-bp open reading frame encoding 463 amino acids. The deduced SmHDR1 protein, which shows high identity to HDRs of other plant species, is predicted to possess a chloroplast transit peptide at the N-terminus and four conserved cysteine residues. Transcription pattern analysis revealed that SmHDR1 has high levels of transcription in leaves and low levels of transcription in roots and stems. The expression of SmHDR1 was induced by 0.1 mM methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA), but not by 0.1 mM abscisic acid (ABA), in the hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba. Complementation of SmHDR1 in the Escherichia coli HDR mutant MG1655 ara < > ispH demonstrated the function of this enzyme. A functional color assay in E. coli showed that SmHDR1 accelerates the biosynthesis of β-carotene, indicating that SmHDR1 encodes a functional protein. Overexpression of SmHDR1 enhanced the production of tanshinones in cultured hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba. These results indicate that SmHDR1 is a novel and important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of diterpenoid tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba.

  10. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    PubMed

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-03

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations.

  11. Efficacy of Some Essential Oils Against Aspergillus flavus with Special Reference to Lippia alba Oil an Inhibitor of Fungal Proliferation and Aflatoxin B1 Production in Green Gram Seeds during Storage.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhay K; Sonker, Nivedita; Singh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    During mycofloral analysis of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) seed samples taken from different grocery stores by agar and standard blotter paper methods, 5 fungal species were identified, of which Aspergillus flavus exhibited higher relative frequency (75.20% to 80.60%) and was found to produce aflatoxin B1 . On screening of 11 plant essential oils against this mycotoxigenic fungi, Lippia alba essential oil was found to be most effective and showed absolute inhibition of mycelia growth at 0.28 μL/mL. The oil of L. alba was fungistatic and fungicidal at 0.14 and 0.28 μL/mL, respectively. Oil had broad range of fungitoxicity at its MIC value and was absolutely inhibited the AFB1 production level at 2.0 μL/mL. Chemical analysis of this oil revealed geranial (36.9%) and neral (29.3%) as major components followed by myrcene (18.6%). Application of a dose of 80 μL/0.25 L air of Lippia oil in the storage system significantly inhibited the fungal proliferation and aflatoxin production without affecting the seed germination rate. By the virtue of fungicidal, antiaflatoxigenic nature and potent efficacy in storage food system, L. alba oil can be commercialized as botanical fungicide for the protection of green gram seeds during storage.

  12. Ex vivo effects of flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba on cytokines and nitric oxide production in Algerian patients with Adamantiades-Behçet's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adamantiades-Behçet's disease (ABD) is a chronic multisystemic inflammation with unknown pathophysiology. This disorder is associated with a dysregulation of the cytokine network that hyperactivates neutrophils and macrophages. In this study, we investigate the modulatory effects of flavonoïd compounds extracted from Algerian medicinal plant Artemisia herba alba on Th1 and Th2 cytokines and nitric oxide production. Methods The modulatory effects of flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba on cytokines and nitric oxide production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from Algerian ABD patients and healthy controls were respectively measured by means of ELISA assays and Griess modified method. Results Our results show that flavonoïds significantly reduce the production of interleukin-12, the key effector of T helper 1 (Th1) cells and nitric oxide in a dose-dependent manner in Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. In contrast, the production of IL-4, the key marker of Th2 cells was increased. Conclusion This study suggests that in vitro supplementation with flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba could have potential immuno-modulatory effects characterised by a down-regulation and up-regulation of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively. Moreover, flavonoïds may prevent nitric oxide induced damages. PMID:22104639

  13. Carbon Allocation into Different Fine-Root Classes of Young Abies alba Trees Is Affected More by Phenology than by Simulated Browsing

    PubMed Central

    Endrulat, Tina; Buchmann, Nina; Brunner, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (European silver fir) was used to investigate possible effects of simulated browsing on C allocation belowground by 13CO2 pulse-labelling at spring, summer or autumn, and by harvesting the trees at the same time point of the labelling or at a later season for biomass and for 13C-allocation into the fine-root system. Before budburst in spring, the leader shoots and 50% of all lateral shoots of half of the investigated 5-year old Abies alba saplings were clipped to simulate browsing. At harvest, different fine-root classes were separated, and starch as an important storage compartment was analysed for concentrations. The phenology had a strong effect on the allocation of the 13C-label from shoots to roots. In spring, shoots did not supply the fine-roots with high amounts of the 13C-label, because the fine-roots contained less than 1% of the applied 13C. In summer and autumn, however, shoots allocated relatively high amounts of the 13C-label to the fine roots. The incorporation of the 13C-label as structural C or as starch into the roots is strongly dependent on the root type and the root diameter. In newly formed fine roots, 3–5% of the applied 13C was incorporated, whereas 1–3% in the ≤0.5 mm root class and 1–1.5% in the >0.5–1.0 mm root class were recorded. Highest 13C-enrichment in the starch was recorded in the newly formed fine roots in autumn. The clipping treatment had a significant positive effect on the amount of allocated 13C-label to the fine roots after the spring labelling, with high relative 13C-contents observed in the ≤0.5 mm and the >0.5–1.0 mm fine-root classes of clipped trees. No effects of the clipping were observed after summer and autumn labelling in the 13C-allocation patterns. Overall, our data imply that the season of C assimilation and, thus, the phenology of trees is the main determinant of the C allocation from shoots to roots and is clearly more important than browsing. PMID:27123860

  14. Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade of Fire House No. 4 from North Base Road (3rd Street). In addition to cottonwood trees, numerous mulberries (Morus alba) have been planted around the parking lot and grounds - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Fire House No. 4, Near Second & A Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Laurel D.; Kishore, Venkata K.; Knapp, Steven J.; Kling, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the Δ5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA Δ5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), Δ5 desaturase (Δ5DS), lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT), and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT). Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG), and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM). The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop. PMID:26038713

  16. Discrimination and chemical characterization of different Paeonia lactifloras (Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra) by infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Ping; Xu, Changhua; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun; Shi, Zhe; Li, Jin; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Cui, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Paeonia lactiflora, a commonly used herbal medicine (HM) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), mainly has two species, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR), for different clinical applications in TCM. For expounding the chemical profile of RPA and RPR and ensuring the clinical efficacy and safety, an infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation method integrated with statistical pattern recognition was developed to analyze and discriminate the two Paeonia lactifloras. In IR spectra, the major difference between the two was in the range of 1200-900 cm-1: the strongest peak of RPA was at 1024 cm-1, while that of RPR was 1049 cm-1. The difference was magnified in second derivative spectra. The findings were further verified by investigating the separation process of total glucosides, stepwisely monitored by both of IR and UPLC-MS/MS. Simultaneously, the aqueous extracts of RPA and RPR had been separated continuously to acquire the comprehensively hierarchical chemical characteristics for undoubtedly identification and subsequently discrimination of the two herbs. Moreover, 60 batches of the two HMs (30 for each) were objectively classified by principal component regression (PCR) model based on IR macro-fingerprints.

  17. Light acclimation of photosynthesis in two closely related firs (Abies pinsapo Boiss. and Abies alba Mill.): the role of leaf anatomy and mesophyll conductance to CO2

    PubMed Central

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-01-01

    Leaves growing in the forest understory usually present a decreased mesophyll conductance (gm) and photosynthetic capacity. The role of leaf anatomy in determining the variability in gm among species is known, but there is a lack of information on how the acclimation of gm to shade conditions is driven by changes in leaf anatomy. Within this context, we demonstrated that Abies pinsapo Boiss. experienced profound modifications in needle anatomy to drastic changes in light availability that ultimately led to differential photosynthetic performance between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. In contrast to A. pinsapo, its congeneric Abies alba Mill. did not show differences either in needle anatomy or in photosynthetic parameters between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. The increased gm values found in trees of A. pinsapo grown in the open field can be explained by occurrence of stomata at both needle sides (amphistomatous needles), increased chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular airspace, decreased cell wall thickness and, especially, decreased chloroplast thickness. To the best of our knowledge, the role of such drastic changes in ultrastructural needle anatomy in explaining the response of gm to the light environment has not been demonstrated in field conditions. PMID:26543153

  18. Food partitioning between breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scheibler, D R

    2007-02-01

    I examined the diet of breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in an agrarian area of southern Brazil by analyzing regurgitated prey remains. The objective was to evaluate how these raptors, which differ markedly in their hunting activity periods (owls are nocturnal and kites diurnal), share their mammalian food component. 2,087 prey consumed by Barn Owls and 1,276 by White-tailed Kites were identified. They presented a high overlap of food-niches (Piankas index was 0.98). Based on the daily activity period of their main small mammal prey, a lower overlap would be expected. The crepuscular/nocturnal Mus musculus was the main prey for the diet of breeding Barn Owls (81%) and White-tailed Kites (63%). This small exotic rodent provided 63% of the small mammal biomass ingested by owls and 44% by kites. Larger native small mammals were also considered important for the diet of kites, mainly because of their biomass contribution. Although these raptors differ markedly in their hunting activity periods, Barn Owls and White-tailed Kites are very similar predators in southern Brazil, overlapping their diets.

  19. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  20. Isolation of methyl syringate as a specific aflatoxin production inhibitor from the essential oil of Betula alba and aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Jermnak, Usuma; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Tsuyuki, Rie; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2012-02-15

    Methyl syringate was isolated from the essential oil of Betula alba as an aflatoxin production inhibitor. It inhibited aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus with IC(50) values of 0.9 and 0.8 mM, respectively, without significantly inhibiting fungal growth. Methyl syringate reduced mRNA levels of genes (aflR, pksA, and omtB) [corrected] encoding proteins required for aflatoxin biosynthesis. Methyl gallate, methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, and methyl 3-O-methylgallate inhibited both aflatoxin production and fungal growth of A. parasiticus and A. flavus. However, their acids and syringic acid did not inhibit aflatoxin production and growth of A. parasiticus significantly, although gallic acid inhibited aflatoxin production of A. flavus with selectivity. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of methyl syringate was much weaker than that of gallic acid. These results showed that methyl syringate has a unique inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production with a different mode of action from that of gallic acid.

  1. Genetic divergence analysis of the Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and the Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile using COI sequence

    PubMed Central

    Colihueque, Nelson; Gantz, Alberto; Rau, Jaime Ricardo; Parraguez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper new mitochondrial COI sequences of Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile are reported and compared with sequences from other parts of the World. The intraspecific genetic divergence (mean p-distance) was 4.6 to 5.5% for the Common Barn Owl in comparison with specimens from northern Europe and Australasia and 3.1% for the Short-eared Owl with respect to samples from north America, northern Europe and northern Asia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinctive groups for the Common Barn Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) plus Central and North America, (ii) northern Europe and (iii) Australasia, and two distinctive groups for the Short-eared Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) and (ii) north America plus northern Europe and northern Asia. The level of genetic divergence observed in both species exceeds the upper limit of intraspecific comparisons reported previously for Strigiformes. Therefore, this suggests that further research is needed to assess the taxonomic status, particularly for the Chilean populations that, to date, have been identified as belonging to these species through traditional taxonomy. PMID:26668551

  2. Genetic divergence analysis of the Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and the Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile using COI sequence.

    PubMed

    Colihueque, Nelson; Gantz, Alberto; Rau, Jaime Ricardo; Parraguez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper new mitochondrial COI sequences of Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile are reported and compared with sequences from other parts of the World. The intraspecific genetic divergence (mean p-distance) was 4.6 to 5.5% for the Common Barn Owl in comparison with specimens from northern Europe and Australasia and 3.1% for the Short-eared Owl with respect to samples from north America, northern Europe and northern Asia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinctive groups for the Common Barn Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) plus Central and North America, (ii) northern Europe and (iii) Australasia, and two distinctive groups for the Short-eared Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) and (ii) north America plus northern Europe and northern Asia. The level of genetic divergence observed in both species exceeds the upper limit of intraspecific comparisons reported previously for Strigiformes. Therefore, this suggests that further research is needed to assess the taxonomic status, particularly for the Chilean populations that, to date, have been identified as belonging to these species through traditional taxonomy.

  3. On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Camilla T; Holand, Anna M; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Roulin, Alexandre

    2014-05-01

    Genetic evaluation using animal models or pedigree-based models generally assume only autosomal inheritance. Bayesian animal models provide a flexible framework for genetic evaluation, and we show how the model readily can accommodate situations where the trait of interest is influenced by both autosomal and sex-linked inheritance. This allows for simultaneous calculation of autosomal and sex-chromosomal additive genetic effects. Inferences were performed using integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), a nonsampling-based Bayesian inference methodology. We provide a detailed description of how to calculate the inverse of the X- or Z-chromosomal additive genetic relationship matrix, needed for inference. The case study of eumelanic spot diameter in a Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) population shows that this trait is substantially influenced by variation in genes on the Z-chromosome ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). Further, a simulation study for this study system shows that the animal model accounting for both autosomal and sex-chromosome-linked inheritance is identifiable, that is, the two effects can be distinguished, and provides accurate inference on the variance components.

  4. The physiological response of Populus tremula x alba leaves to the down-regulation of PIP1 aquaporin gene expression under no water stress

    PubMed Central

    Secchi, Francesca; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the role of PIP1 aquaporins in leaf water and CO2 transport, several lines of PIP1-deficient transgenic Populus tremula x alba were generated using a reverse genetic approach. These transgenic lines displayed no visible developmental or morphological phenotypes when grown under conditions of no water stress. Major photosynthetic parameters were also not affected by PIP1 down regulation. However, low levels of PIP1 expression resulted in greater leaf hydraulic resistance (an increase of 27%), which effectively implicated PIP1 role in water transport. Additionally, the expression level of PIP1 genes in the various transgenic lines was correlated with reductions in mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm), suggesting that in poplar, these aquaporins influenced membrane permeability to CO2. Overall, although analysis showed that PIP1 genes contributed to the mass transfer of water and CO2 in poplar leaves, their down-regulation did not dramatically impair the physiological needs of this fast growing tree when cultivated under conditions of no stress. PMID:24379822

  5. Chemical composition and biological activity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils and characterization of their seed hydrolates.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Maciąg, Agnieszka; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities, as well as the cytotoxicity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils were investigated. Additionally, their seed hydrolates were characterized. In the examined oils and hydrolates, a total of 174 compounds were identified, which comprised 95.6-99.9% of the volatiles. The essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, whereas the composition of the hydrolates, differing from the seed oils of the corresponding fir species, consisted mainly of oxygenated derivatives of sesquiterpenes. The seed and cone essential oils of both firs exhibited DPPH-radical-scavenging properties and low antibacterial activity against the bacterial strains tested. Moreover, they evoked only low cytotoxicity towards normal fibroblasts and the two cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MBA-231. At concentrations up to 50 μg/ml, all essential oils were safe in relation to normal fibroblasts. Although they induced cytotoxicity towards the cancer cells at concentrations slightly lower than those required for the inhibition of fibroblast proliferation, their influence on cancer cells was weak, with IC50 values similar to those observed towards normal fibroblasts.

  6. Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Luana G.; Santos, Kátia C.; Cunha, Patrícia S.; Barreto, André S.; Peixoto, Magna G.; Arrigoni-Blank, Fátima; Blank, Arie F.; Alves, Péricles B.; Bonjardin, Leonardo R.; Santos, Márcio R.V.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect of the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) in rat mesenteric artery. Material and Methods: Chemical composition of EOLA was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Vasorelaxant effect was evaluated in vitro in rat superior mesenteric artery rings. Results: GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 19 compounds, with geranial (48.58%) and neral (35.42%) being the major constituents. In intact rings precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe: 1 μM), EOLA (100-1000 μg/mL) induced relaxation, where the maximal effect (Emax) was 110.8 ± 10.8%. This effect was not modified after endothelium removal (Emax = 134.8 ± 16.5%), after tetraethylammonium (TEA) (Emax = 117.2 ± 4.96%), or in rings precontracted with KCl (80 mM) (Emax = 112.6 ± 6.70%). In addition, EOLA was able to inhibit the contraction caused by CaCl2 and produced a small but significant (P<0.05) additional effect (from 70.5 ± 3.4 to 105.3 ± 13.5%, n = 5) on the maximal relaxation of nifedipine (NIF: 10 μM). Conclusions: The results demonstrated that EOLA induces endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, which appears to be caused, at least in part, by blocking Ca2+ influx through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. PMID:22144776

  7. Action Spectra for the Inhibition of Hypocotyl Growth by Continuous Irradiation in Light and Dark-Grown Sinapis alba L. Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Christopher J.; Holmes, M. Geoffrey; Jabben, Merten; Schäfer, Eberhard

    1980-01-01

    Action spectra for the inhibition by continuous (24-hour) irradiation of hypocotyl growth in 54-hour-old Sinapis alba L. seedlings were measured using seedlings which had had four different pretreatments. These seedlings were either (a) dark-grown with a high total phytochrome level, (b) dark-grown with a low total phytochrome level, (c) light-grown with chlorophyll, or (d) light-grown with no chlorophyll [treated with 4-chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-(α,α,α-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3(2H) -pyridazinone (San 9789)]. The resulting action spectra show that the blue, red, and far-red (716 nm) wavebands are most inhibitory for dark-grown plants with high phytochrome content, whereas hypocotyl growth in dark-grown plants with a low phytochrome content are only slightly inhibited by blue and far-red radiation. In light-grown plants, the effectiveness of blue and far-red light almost disappears. The position of red light effectiveness in chlorophyll-containing plants is shifted to lower wavelengths compared with those containing no chlorophyll. PMID:16661489

  8. Response to drought and salt stress in leaves of poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa): expression profiling by oligonucleotide microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seo-Kyung; Park, Eung-Jun; Choi, Young-Im; Bae, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Joon-Hyeok; Park, So-Young; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Lee, Hyoshin

    2014-11-01

    Drought and salt stresses are major environmental constraints on forest productivity. To identify genes responsible for stress tolerance, we conducted a genome-wide analysis in poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) leaves exposed to drought and salt (NaCl) stresses. We investigated gene expression at the mRNA level using oligonucleotide microarrays containing 44,718 genes from Populus trichocarpa. A total of 1604 and 1042 genes were up-regulated (≥2-fold; P value < 0.05) by drought and salt stresses, respectively, and 765 genes were up-regulated by both stresses. In addition, 2742 and 1685 genes were down-regulated by drought and salt stresses, respectively, and 1564 genes were down-regulated by both stresses. The large number of genes regulated by both stresses suggests that crosstalk occurs between the drought and salt stress responses. Most up-regulated genes were involved in functions such as subcellular localization, signal transduction, metabolism, and transcription. Among the up-regulated genes, we identified 47 signaling proteins, 65 transcription factors, and 43 abiotic stress-related genes. Several genes were modulated by only one of the two stresses. About 25% of the genes significantly regulated by these stresses are of unknown function, suggesting that poplar may provide an opportunity to discover novel stress-related genes.

  9. Drought, salt and wounding stress induce the expression of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein 1 gene in poplar (Populus alba×P. tremula var. glandulosa).

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Hyoshin; Lee, Jae-Soon; Noh, Eun-Woon

    2011-09-01

    Water uptake across cell membranes is a principal requirement for plant growth at both the cellular and whole-plant levels; water movement through plant membranes is regulated by aquaporins (AQPs) or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). We examined the expression characteristics of the poplar plasma membrane intrinsic protein 1 gene (PatPIP1), a type of MIP, which was isolated from a suspension cell cDNA library of Populus alba×P. tremula var. glandulosa. Examination of protoplasts expressing the p35S-PatPIP1::sGFP fusion protein revealed that the protein was localized in the plasma membrane. Northern blot analysis revealed that the gene was strongly expressed in poplar roots and leaves. Gene expression was inducible by abiotic factors including drought, salinity, cold temperatures and wounding, and also by plant hormones including gibberellic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Since we found that the PatPIP1 gene was strongly expressed in response to mannitol, NaCl, jasmonic acid and wounding, we propose that PatPIP1 plays an essential role in the defense of plants against water stress.

  10. Enhanced expression of glutamine synthetase (GS1a) confers altered fibre and wood chemistry in field grown hybrid poplar (Populus tremula X alba) (717-1B4).

    PubMed

    Coleman, Heather D; Cánovas, Francisco M; Man, Huimin; Kirby, Edward G; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2012-09-01

    Hybrid poplar (Populus tremula X P. alba) genetically engineered to express the pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene (GS1a) has been previously shown to display desirable field performance characteristics, including enhancements in growth and nitrogen use efficiency. Analysis of wood samples from a 3-year-old field trial of three independently transformed GS1a transgenic hybrid poplar lines revealed that, when compared with wild-type controls, ectopic expression of GS1a resulted in alterations in wood properties and wood chemistry. Included were significant enhancements in wood fibre length, wood density, microfibre angle, per cent syringyl lignin and elevated concentrations of wood sugars, specifically glucose, galactose, mannose and xylose. Total extractive content and acid-insoluble lignin were significantly reduced in wood of GS1a transgenics when compared with wild-type trees. Together, these cell wall characteristics resulted in improved wood pulping attributes, including improved lignin solubilization with no concurrent decrease in yield. Trees with increased GS1a expression have improved characteristics for pulp and paper production and hold potential as a feedstock for biofuels production.

  11. Molecular expression of l-asparaginase gene from Nocardiopsis alba NIOT-VKMA08 in Escherichia coli: A prospective recombinant enzyme for leukaemia chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Shridhar, Divya; Raghavan, Rangamaran Vijaya; Dharani, Gopal; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2016-09-30

    l-Asparaginase is an antineoplastic agent that selectively reduces the level of l-asparagine in blood and diminishes the proliferation of cancerous cells. Studies were carried out on the cloning and heterologous expression of l-asparaginase biosynthesis gene (ansA) from Nocardiopsis alba NIOT-VKMA08 to achieve the stable inducible system that overproduces the glutaminase-free recombinant l-asparaginase. Overexpression of recombinant l-asparaginase was achieved with an optimized final concentration of 1.5mM of isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG) and the enzyme was expressed as a soluble protein. The recombinant enzyme was purified using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) chromatography and the purified enzyme disclosed an elevated level of asparaginase activity (158.1IU/mL). Optimum pH and temperature of the purified l-asparaginase for the hydrolysis of l-asparagine were 8.0 and 37°C and it was very specific for its natural substrate, l-asparagine. Detailed studies were carried out on the kinetics of enzyme reaction, catalytic activity, temperature and ionic strength and the thermostability of the l-asparaginase enzyme. The functional characterisation of the recombinant l-asparaginase was studied through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), in silico sequence analysis and protein structural modelling. Glutaminase activity was not detected in the recombinant l-asparaginase, which could reduce the probable side effects during leukaemia therapy.

  12. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Su-Hong, Chen; Qi, Chen; Bo, Li; Jian-Li, Gao; Jie, Su; Gui-Yuan, Lv

    2015-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD-) induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg) or captopril (15 mg/kg) all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg) could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) levels. PMID:25784949

  13. Determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in three-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, D. M.; Novović, I.; Vilotić, D.; Ignjatović, Lj.

    2007-09-01

    The U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply was applied for the determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. By optimization of the operating parameters and by selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (20 s for Fe, Mn, and Pb and 30 s for Hg), the obtained limits of detection for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are 5.8, 2.6, 1.6, and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The detection limits achieved by this method for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are comparable with the detection limits obtained for these elements by such methods as inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasmatomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), and microwave-induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). We used the tree-rings of poplar from two different locations. The first one is in the area close to the power plant “Nikola Tesla” TENT A, Obrenovac, while the other one is in the urban area of Novi Sad. In almost all cases, samples from the location at Obrenovac registered elevated average concentrations of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in the tree-rings of poplar.

  14. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

  15. Novel buccal adhesive tablets using Aloe vera L and Sinapis alba--a promising option for improved bioavailability of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Yajaman; Bandyopadhyay, A K

    2008-01-01

    In the current investigation, white mustard mucilage from whole seeds of Sinapis alba was evaluated for its physical properties and compared with the other mucoadhesive polymers such as hydroxy propyl methylcellulose 5Cps and Carbopol 934P. Further, methanol precipitable solids from whole leaves of Aloe Vera L were used as permeation enhancer. To achieve improved bioavailability of diltiazem, novel buccal adhesive tablets (NBATs) in cup and core fashion designed to achieve unidirectional release towards mucosa were prepared in a three-stage process using specially fabricated punches. The adhesive cups were studied for its shear, tensile, and peel strengths by specially designed apparatus using excised ruminant and porcine buccal mucosa as model substrates. Ex vivo permeation studies in a Franz diffusion cell were conducted through porcine buccal mucosa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies and differential scanning calorimetry thermographs showed no remarkable interactions. Histopathological studies showed no remarkable damage of buccal mucosa by the NBATs. In vivo studies were conducted on anaesthetized male New Zealand albino rabbits, estimated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the pharmacokinetics were compared with the oral and intravenous bolus injection. NBATs exhibited a Cmax 74.6 ng/mL, Tmax 3.5 h, t(1/2) 4.36 h. The NBATs prevented salivary scavenging effect and exhibited 82.1% bioavailability.

  16. Social calls produced within and near the roost in two species of tent-making bats, Dermanura watsoni and Ectophylla alba.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Erin H; Chaverri, Gloriana; Montero, Karina; Sagot, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Social animals regularly face the problem of relocating conspecifics when separated. Communication is one of the most important mechanisms facilitating group formation and cohesion. Known as contact calls, signals exchanged between conspecifics that permit group maintenance are widespread across many taxa. Foliage-roosting bats are an excellent model system for studying the evolution of contact calling, as there are opportunities to compare closely related species that exhibit major differences in ecology and behavior. Further, foliage-roosting bats rely on relatively ephemeral roosts, which leads to major challenges in maintaining group cohesion. Here, we report findings on the communication signals produced by two tent-making bats, Dermanura watsoni and Ectophylla alba. We found that both species produced calls in the early morning near the roost that were associated with roostmate recruitment. Calling often ended once other bats arrived at the tent, suggesting that calls may be involved in roostmate recruitment and group formation. The structure and function of these calls are described and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Climatic and anthropogenic forcing of prehistorical vegetation succession and fire dynamics in the Lago di Como area (N-Italy, Insubria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Elisa; Michetti, Alessandro Maria; Colombaroli, Daniele; Mazzola, Eleonora; Motella De Carlo, Sila; Livio, Franz; Gilli, Adrian; Ferrario, Maria Francesca; Höbig, Nicole; Brunamonte, Fabio; Castelletti, Lanfredo; Tinner, Willy

    2017-04-01

    Combined pollen, charcoal and modeling evidence from the Insubria Region suggests that fire was a major driver of late Holocene vegetation change. However, the extent and timing of fire response dynamics are not clear yet. We use lacustrine sediments from Lago di Como (N-Italy, S-Alps) to assess if the reconstructed vegetation and fire dynamics were relevant at large scales and if they coincided in time with those observed at smaller sites. The lake, due to its size (142 km2) and economic potential, was very attractive for early land use and human presence in this area is well documented since ca. 10,000 yrs ago (Mesolithic). We used pollen, plant macrofossils and charcoal to reconstruct the vegetation composition and fire activity. During the Younger Dryas and the Early Holocene until ca. 8000 cal BP natural dynamics prevailed. Subsequently, land use and slash-and-burn activities increased at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition and became widespread around ca. 6500 cal BP. Microscopic charcoal and numerical analyses demonstrate that anthropogenic fires had a determinant influence on long-term vegetation dynamics at regional scales in Insubria. Microscopic charcoal and pollen and spores indicative of land use show that human pressure intensified after ca. 5300 cal yr BP and even more since ca. 4300 cal yr BP. Our results suggest that important species which disappeared or were strongly reduced by land use and fire (e.g. Abies alba, Tilia, Ulmus) will potentially reestablish in the Lago di Como area and elsewhere in Insubria, if land abandonment initiated in the 1950s will continue.

  18. Morus spp. as a New Biomass Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generating enthusiasm from political or business entities to promote conservation requires economic viability in times of economic downturn. Massive reforestation is being considered as a governmental policy to address the climate crisis. It offers an enormous opportunity to redefine forestry plan...

  19. Carbon-nutrient interactions in response to CO/sub 2/ enrichment: physiological and long-term perspectives. [Quercus alba L

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, R.J.; Pastor, J.; Melillo, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The responses of forest trees to atmospheric CO/sub 2/ enrichment will depend in part on carbon-nutrient linkages. Insights into the possible long-term ecological consequences of CO/sub 2/ enrichment can be gained from studying physiological responses in short-term experiments. One-year-old white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were grown in an unfertilized forest soil for 40 weeks in controlled-environment chambers with ambient (362 ..mu..L.L/sup -1/) or elevated (690 ..mu..L.L/sup -1/) CO/sub 2/. Seedling dry weight was 85% greater in the elevated CO/sub 2/ environment, despite a severe nitrogen deficiency in all seedlings. The increase in growth occurred without a concomitant increase in nitrogen uptake, indicating an increase in nitrogen-use efficiency in elevated CO/sub 2/. The weight of new buds was greater in elevated CO/sub 2/, suggesting that shoot growth in the next year would have been enhanced relative to that of seedlings in ambient CO/sub 2/. However, there was a lower amount of translocatable nitrogen in perennial woody tissue in elevated CO/sub 2/; thus, further increases in nitrogen-use efficiency may not be possible. The leaves that abscised from seedlings in elevated CO/sub 2/ contained higher amounts of soluble sugars and tannin and a lower amount of lignin compared with amounts in abscised leaves in ambient CO/sub 2/. Based on lignin to N and lignin to P ratios, the rates of litter decomposition might not be greatly affected by CO/sub 2/ enrichment, but the total amount of nitrogen returned to soil would be lower in elevated CO/sub 2/.

  20. Prey type and foraging ecology of Sanderlings Calidris alba in different climate zones: are tropical areas more favourable than temperate sites?

    PubMed Central

    Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Piersma, Theunis; Reneerkens, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Sanderlings (Calidris alba) are long-distance migratory shorebirds with a non-breeding range that spans temperate and tropical coastal habitats. Breeding in the High Arctic combined with non-breeding seasons in the tropics necessitate long migrations, which are energetically demanding. On an annual basis, the higher energy expenditures during migration might pay off if food availability in the tropics is higher than at temperate latitudes. We compared foraging behaviour of birds at a north temperate and a tropical non-breeding site in the Netherlands and Ghana, respectively. In both cases the birds used similar habitats (open beaches), and experienced similar periods of daylight, which enabled us to compare food abundance and availability, and behavioural time budgets and food intake. During the non-breeding season, Sanderlings in the Netherlands spent 79% of their day foraging; in Ghana birds spent only 38% of the daytime period foraging and the largest proportion of their time resting (58%). The main prey item in the Netherlands was the soft-bodied polychaete Scolelepis squamata, while Sanderlings in Ghana fed almost exclusively on the bivalve Donax pulchellus, which they swallowed whole and crushed internally. Average availability of polychaete worms in the Netherlands was 7.4 g ash free dry mass (AFDM) m−2, which was one tenth of the 77.1 g AFDM m−2 estimated for the beach in Ghana. In the tropical environment of Ghana the Sanderlings combined relatively low energy requirements with high prey intake rates (1.64 mg opposed to 0.13 mg AFDM s−1 for Ghana and the Netherlands respectively). Although this may suggest that the Ghana beaches are the most favourable environment, processing the hard-shelled bivalve (D. pulchellus) which is the staple food could be costly. The large amount of daytime spent resting in Ghana may be indicative of the time needed to process the shell fragments, rather than indicate rest. PMID:26290790

  1. Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzanera, Jose A.; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F.

    2007-12-01

    In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity.

  2. Experimental Assessment of the Effects of Temperature and Food Availability on Particle Mixing by the Bivalve Abra alba Using New Image Analysis Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Guillaume; Duchêne, Jean-Claude; Romero-Ramirez, Alicia; Lecroart, Pascal; Maire, Olivier; Ciutat, Aurélie; Deflandre, Bruno; Grémare, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The effects of temperature and food addition on particle mixing in the deposit-feeding bivalve Abra alba were assessed using an experimental approach allowing for the tracking of individual fluorescent particle (luminophore) displacements. This allowed for the computations of vertical profiles of a set of parameters describing particle mixing. The frequency of luminophore displacements (jumps) was assessed through the measurement of both waiting times (i.e., the time lapses between two consecutive jumps of the same luminophore) and normalized numbers of jumps (i.e., the numbers of jumps detected in a given area divided by the number of luminophores in this area). Jump characteristics included the direction, duration and length of each jump. Particle tracking biodiffusion coefficients (Db) were also computed. Data originated from 32 experiments carried out under 4 combinations of 2 temperature (Te) and 2 food addition (Fo) levels. For each of these treatments, parameters were computed for 5 experimental durations (Ed). The effects of Se, Fo and Ed were assessed using PERmutational Multivariate ANalyses Of VAriance (PERMANOVAs) carried out on vertical depth profiles of each particle mixing parameter. Inversed waiting times significantly decreased with Ed whereas the normalized number of jumps did not, thereby suggesting that it constitutes a better proxy of jump frequency when assessing particle mixing based on the measure of individual particle displacements. Particle mixing was low during autumn temperature experiments and not affected by Fo, which was attributed to the dominant effect of low temperature. Conversely, particle mixing was high during summer temperature experiments and transitory inhibited by food addition. This last result is coherent with the functional responses (both in terms of activity and particle mixing) already measured for individual of the closely related clam A. ovata originating from temperate populations. It also partly resulted from a

  3. Fish anesthesia: effects of the essential oils of Hesperozygis ringens and Lippia alba on the biochemistry and physiology of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).

    PubMed

    Toni, Cândida; Becker, Alexssandro Geferson; Simões, Larissa Novaes; Pinheiro, Carlos Garrido; de Lima Silva, Lenise; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Caron, Braulio Otomar; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2014-06-01

    The anesthetic activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Hesperozygis ringens (EOHR) and Lippia alba (EOLA) and their effects in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after anesthesia and recovery were investigated. Fish (32.19 ± 1.24 g) were submitted to one of the following treatments for each EO: basal group, control, or anesthesia (150, 300, or 450 μL L(-1) EO). After that the anesthesia was induced or simulated and the biometric measurements were completed, fish were transferred to anesthetic-free aquaria to allow for recovery. Fish were sampled at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 240 min after recovery. At time 0 of recovery, the ventilatory rate was lower in the groups anesthetized with either EO. In comparison with the basal group, control fish showed an increase in plasma glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Na(+) levels and a reduction in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at 0 min of recovery. Plasma levels of ammonia and Na(+) were lower in the fish anesthetized with EOLA (450 μL L(-1)) and EOHR (all concentrations), respectively, than in the control fish. Additionally, lactate, AST, alanine aminotransferase, K(+) plasma levels, and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-ATPase activities were higher in the fish anesthetized with either EOHR or EOLA than in the control fish. The EOs promoted slight changes in silver catfish that enabled both an adaptive response and the recovery of most of the measured parameters after 240 min regardless of concentration or EO that was used. These findings support the use of EOHR and EOLA as anesthetics for fish.

  4. Uptake of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements (La, Gd, Er, Nd) by white mustard (Brassica alba L.) and common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) as affected by Phosphorus Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zill, Juliane; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The effect of phosphate nutrition is important due to the future usage of fertilizer treatment in phytomining experiments e.g. in accumulation of the economically important rare earth elements (REE). It is expected that the trivalent charge of REE will result in complexation with phosphate and REEs could be immobilized and not further bioavailable for plants which would cause losses of REE concentration in biomass. To investigate this influence on lanthanum, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium two plant species Brassica alba (white mustard) and Panicum miliaceum (common millet) were cultured in a greenhouse study. The plants were cultivated onto two different substrates and were poured with modified REE and phosphate solutions within an eight-week period. The concentrations of REE in soil, soil solution and plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show an increase of concentration of REE with increasing levels of element solution applied for both species. REE accumulations are elevated in roots and decrease in the order of roots> leaves> stem> fruit/blossom. Brassica accumulated more REE in root whereas Panicum showed higher REE concentrations in leaves. Exposure to increased phosphate addition did not significantly change the concentrations of REE in both plant species yet the REE concentrations in leaves slightly decreased with increasing phosphate addition. For root and stem no precise trend could be determined. It is most likely that REEs precipitate with phosphate on root surfaces and in the roots. The bioavailability of REE to plants is affected by complexation processes of REEs with phosphate in the rhizosphere. The results indicate that phosphate application plays an important role on REE uptake by roots and accumulation in different parts of a plant and it might have an influence on translocation of REE within the plant.

  5. Immunolabelling of intervessel pits for polysaccharides and lignin helps in understanding their hydraulic properties in Populus tremula × alba

    PubMed Central

    Herbette, Stéphane; Bouchet, Brigitte; Brunel, Nicole; Bonnin, Estelle; Cochard, Hervé; Guillon, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The efficiency and safety functions of xylem hydraulics are strongly dependent on the pits that connect the xylem vessels. However, little is known about their biochemical composition and thus about their hydraulic properties. In this study, the distribution of the epitopes of different wall components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins and lignins) was analysed in intervessel pits of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × alba). Methods Immunogold labelling with transmission electron microscopy was carried out with a set of antibodies raised against different epitopes for each wall polysaccharide type and for lignins. Analyses were performed on both immature and mature vessels. The effect of sap ionic strength on xylem conductance was also tested. Key Results In mature vessels, the pit membrane (PM) was composed of crystalline cellulose and lignins. None of the hemicellulose epitopes were found in the PM. Pectin epitopes in mature vessels were highly concentrated in the annulus, a restricted area of the PM, whereas they were initially found in the whole PM in immature vessels. The pit border also showed a specific labelling pattern, with higher cellulose labelling compared with the secondary wall of the vessel. Ion-mediated variation of 24 % was found for hydraulic conductance. Conclusions Cellulose microfibrils, lignins and annulus-restricted pectins have different physicochemical properties (rigidity, hydrophobicity, porosity) that have different effects on the hydraulic functions of the PM, and these influence both the hydraulic efficiency and vulnerability to cavitation of the pits, including ion-mediated control of hydraulic conductance. Impregnation of the cellulose microfibrils of the PM with lignins, which have low wettability, may result in lower cavitation pressure for a given pore size and thus help to explain the vulnerability of this species to cavitation. PMID:25452248

  6. Comparison of the fractional CO2 laser and the combined use of a pulsed dye laser with fractional CO2 laser in striae alba treatment

    PubMed Central

    Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi; Nikyar, Zahra; Mokhtari, Fateme; Bahrami, Ahmadreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: No ideal treatment has been established for Striae distensae (SD), particularly in the late phase (Striae Alba (SA)). Various types of lasers have been recently proposed as treatment options for SD. This study aims to compare the clinical efficacy of a fractional CO2 laser as well as a combination of fractional CO2 laser and Pulsed dye Laser (PDL) in the treatment of SA. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight SA lesions in three female patients were included. Lesions on each half of the body were randomly enrolled in each group. Group 1 (n = 44) were treated by Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing and group 2 (n = 44) by a combination of PDL and Fractional CO2 laser, alternately. Digital Photographs were taken and the surface area of each lesion was measured digitally (using the PictZar Digital Planimetry Software) at the baseline and four weeks after treatment. The clinical improvement was assessed by comparison of the pre- and post-treatment photos and the participants’ views about their degree of improvement, using a 10-point verbal analog scale (VAS). Results: The mean surface area decreased significantly in both groups after treatment. The mean difference between the pre- and post-treatment surface area was 0.62 ± 053 for group 2 and 0.41 ± 0.43 for group 1 (P-value = 0.03). Mean VAS and dermatologist assessed improvement scale in group 2 (6.68 ± 0.77 and 2.2 ± 0.76 respectively) were significantly higher than those in group 1 (5.45 ± 0.90 and 1.8±0.72 respectively, P-value <0.001 and 0.04 respectively). Conclusion: The combination of PDL and fractional CO2 laser was more effective than fractional CO2 laser alone and could be suggested as a clinical option in the treatment of SA. PMID:25250298

  7. Citral and carvone chemotypes from the essential oils of Colombian Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown: composition, cytotoxicity and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Arango, Ana Cecilia; Montiel-Ramos, Jehidys; Zapata, Bibiana; Durán, Camilo; Betancur-Galvis, Liliana; Stashenko, Elena

    2009-09-01

    Two essential oils of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenacea), the carvone and citral chemotypes and 15 of their compounds were evaluated to determine cytotoxicity and antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity assays for both the citral and carvone chemotypes were carried out with tetrazolium-dye, which showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against HeLa cells. Interestingly, this effect on the evaluated cells (HeLa and the non-tumoural cell line, Vero) was lower than that of commercial citral alone. Commercial citral showed the highest cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus strains following the standard protocols, Antifungal Susceptibility Testing Subcommittee of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing and CLSI M38-A. Results demonstrated that the most active essential oil was the citral chemotype, with geometric means-minimal inhibitory concentration (GM-MIC) values of 78.7 and 270.8 microg/mL for A. fumigatus and C. krusei, respectively. Commercial citral showed an antifungal activity similar to that of the citral chemotype (GM-MIC values of 62.5 microg/mL for A. fumigatus and 39.7 microg/mL for C. krusei). Although the citronellal and geraniol were found in lower concentrations in the citral chemotype, they had significant antifungal activity, with GM-MIC values of 49.6 microg/mL for C. krusei and 176.8 microg/mL for A. fumigatus.

  8. Increased rodenticide exposure rate and risk of toxicosis in barn owls (Tyto alba) from southwestern Canada and linkage with demographic but not genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Andrew C; Elliott, John E; Hindmarch, Sofi; Lee, Sandi L; Maisonneuve, France; Bowes, Victoria; Cheng, Kimberly M; Martin, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Among many anthropogenic drivers of population decline, continual rapid urbanization and industrialization pose major challenges for the survival of wildlife species. Barn owls (Tyto alba) in southwestern British Columbia (BC) face a multitude of threats ranging from habitat fragmentation to vehicle strikes. They are also at risk from secondary poisoning of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), a suite of toxic compounds which at high doses results in a depletion of blood clotting factors leading to internal bleeding and death. Here, using long-term data (N = 119) for the hepatic residue levels of SGAR, we assessed the risk of toxicosis from SGAR for the BC barn owl population over the past two decades. We also investigated whether sensitivity to SGAR is associated with genetic factors, namely Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the CYP2C45 gene of barn owls. We found that residue concentration for total SGAR was significantly higher in 2006-2013 (141 ng/g) relative to 1992-2003 (57 ng/g). The proportion of owls exposed to multiple SGAR types was also significantly higher in 2006-2013. Those measures accordingly translate directly into an increase in toxicosis risk level. We also detected demographic differences, where adult females showed on average lower concentration of total SGAR (64 ng/g) when compared to adult males (106 ng/g). Juveniles were overall more likely to show signs of toxicosis than adults (33.3 and 6.9 %, respectively), and those symptoms were positively predicted by SGAR concentrations. We found no evidence that SNPs in the CYP2C45 gene of barn owls were associated with intraspecific variation in SGAR sensitivity. We recommend several preventative measures be taken to minimize wildlife exposure to SGAR.

  9. Construction of a genetic linkage map and QTL analysis of erucic acid content and glucosinolate components in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is an important condiment crop for the spice trade in the world. It has lagged behind oilseed Brassica species in molecular marker development and application. Intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers are highly polymorphic, co-dominant and cost-effective. The cross-species applicability of ILP markers from Brassica species and Arabidopsis makes them possible to be used for genetic linkage mapping and further QTL analysis of agronomic traits in yellow mustard. Results A total of 250 ILP and 14 SSR markers were mapped on 12 linkage groups and designated as Sal01-12 in yellow mustard. The constructed map covered a total genetic length of 890.4 cM with an average marker interval of 3.3 cM. The QTL for erucic content co-localized with the fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) gene on Sal03. The self-(in)compatibility gene was assigned to Sal08. The 4-hydroxybenzyl, 3-indolylmethyl and 4-hydroxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate contents were each controlled by one major QTL, all of which were located on Sal02. Two QTLs, accounting for the respective 20.4% and 19.2% of the total variation of 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl glucosinolate content, were identified and mapped to Sal02 and Sal11. Comparative synteny analysis revealed that yellow mustard was phylogenetically related to Arabidopsis thaliana and had undergone extensive chromosomal rearrangements during speciation. Conclusion The linkage map based on ILP and SSR markers was constructed and used for QTL analysis of seed quality traits in yellow mustard. The markers tightly linked with the genes for different glucosinolate components will be used for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. The ILP markers and linkage map provide useful molecular tools for yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24066707

  10. Purification strategies, characteristics and thermodynamic analysis of a highly thermostable alkaline protease from a salt-tolerant alkaliphilic actinomycete, Nocardiopsis alba OK-5.

    PubMed

    Gohel, Sangeeta D; Singh, Satya P

    2012-03-15

    An alkaline protease from salt tolerant alkaliphilic actinomycetes, Nocardiopsis alba strain OK-5 was purified to homogeneity by 27 and 13 fold with a yield of 35 and 13% using two-steps and one-step method, respectively. The purification methods involved hydrophobic interaction on phenyl sapharose matrix. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The temperature optimum shifted from 70 to 80°C in 4M NaCl and 30% Na-glutamate, with significant stability at 60-80°C in Na-glutamate. Deactivation rate constant (K(d)) increased and half life (t(1/2)) decreased with the increasing temperatures from 37 to 80°C. The order of stability was: 30% Na-glutamate>4M NaCl>2M NaCl>0M NaCl. The enzyme was stable even at 80°C in 30% Na-glutamate with K(d) 4.11 and t(1/2) 168.64 min. The activation energies (E), enthalpy (ΔH*) and entropy (ΔS*) for protease deactivation in with Na-glutamate were 31.97 kJ/mole, 29.23 kJ/mole and -211.83 J/mole, respectively. The change in free energy (ΔG*) for protease deactivation at 60°C in 30% Na-glutamate was 101.70 kJ/mole. Protease had the highest activity and stability at pH 10-11. While the enzyme was highly resistant against chemical denaturation, it had varied responses to metal ions. Complete inhibition by PMSF confirmed serine nature of the protease. Na-glutamate, H(2)O(2), β-mercaptoethanol and different surfactants enhanced the activity.

  11. Perfluoroalkyl substances in soft tissues and tail feathers of Belgian barn owls (Tyto alba) using statistical methods for left-censored data to handle non-detects.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Veerle L B; Herzke, Dorte; Eulaers, Igor; Gillespie, Brenda W; Eens, Marcel

    2013-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in tail feathers and soft tissues (liver, muscle, preen gland and adipose tissue) of barn owl (Tyto alba) road-kill victims (n=15) collected in the province of Antwerp (Belgium). A major PFAS producing facility is located in the Antwerp area and levels of PFASs in biota from that region have been found to be very high in previous studies. We aimed to investigate for the first time the main sources of PFASs in feathers of a terrestrial bird species. Throughout this study, we have used statistical methods for left-censored data to cope with levels below the limit of detection (LOD), instead of traditional, potentially biased, substitution methods. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in all tissues (range: 11ng/g ww in muscle-1208ng/g ww in preen oil) and in tail feathers (<2.2-56.6ng/g ww). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was measured at high levels in feathers (<14-670ng/g ww), but not in tissues (more than 50%

  12. Microautoradiographic localization of phosphate and carbohydrates in mycorrhizal roots of Populus tremula x Populus alba and the implications for transfer processes in ectomycorrhizal associations.

    PubMed

    Bücking, H; Heyser, W

    2001-02-01

    Microautoradiographic studies were carried out to examine the distribution and exchange of phosphate and labeled carbohydrates in mycorrhizal roots of Populus tremula x Populus alba L. following application of 33P-orthophosphate (Pi) and 14CO2. Labeled Pi was not homogeneously distributed along the mycorrhizal longitudinal axis. The fungal sheath and the Hartig net contained more 33Pi in the median parts of the root than in the apical or basal root zones, indicating that uptake and transfer of Pi to the host plant was localized mainly in this area. The Pi was translocated by the Hartig net and the interfacial apoplast to the host plant. It was distributed by way of the stele within the plant. Young leaves and meristematic tissue in the shoot tip were the main sinks for Pi. In plants that were left in the dark for 5 days before 33Pi application, the reduced carbohydrate supply caused a decrease in Pi absorption by mycorrhizal roots. Microautoradiography of mycorrhizal roots after assimilation of 14CO2 revealed that: (1) the fungal partner had a high capacity to attract photosynthates; (2) the main transfer of carbohydrates was localized in the median zone of a mycorrhizal root; (3) carbohydrates that were absorbed by the mycorrhizal fungus were translocated to the fungal sheath and were homogeneously distributed; and (4) in the main exchange zone, cortical cell nuclei showed a high sink capacity, indicating increased metabolic activity in these cells. We postulate that (1) the phosphate demand of the host plant regulates absorption of Pi by the fungus, and (2) a bidirectional transfer of carbohydrates and Pi occurs across the same interface structure in ectomycorrhizal roots of Populus.

  13. Diversity of organotrophic bacteria, activity of dehydrogenases and urease as well as seed germination and root growth Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba under the influence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lipińska, Aneta; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds with highly toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties, which adversely affect the basic biological parameters of the soil, including the count of microorganisms, and the enzymatic activity. In addition to disturbances to the biological activity of the soil, PAHs may also exhibit toxic effects on plants. In view of the above, the study involved testing aimed at the determination of the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a form of naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene on the count, colony development (CD) index, ecophysiological (EP) diversity index of organotrophic bacteria, and the activity of soil dehydrogenases and soil urease. Moreover, an attempt was made to determine the soil's resistance based on the activity of the above-listed enzymes, and the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on seed germination and root growth was assessed by Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum, and Sinapis alba. In addition, the species of bacteria found in a soil subjected to strong pressure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were isolated. The experiment was performed in a laboratory on samples of loamy sand. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were introduced into the soil in an amount of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg kg(-1) of soil dry matter. Germination and growth of cress (L. sativum), white mustard (S. alba), and sweet sorghum (S. saccharatum) were determined using Phytotoxkit tests. It was found that the tested PAHs increased the average colony counts of organotrophic soil bacteria; pyrene did so to the greatest extent (2.2-fold relative to non-contaminated soil), phenanthrene to the smallest extent (1.4-fold relative to non-contaminated soil). None of the PAHs changed the value of the bacterial colony development (CD) index, while anthracene and pyrene increased the value of the eco-physiological (EP) diversity indicator. PAHs lowered the activity of the tested enzymes. The activity of

  14. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusi

  15. Efficacy of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil and its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against fungi isolated from some edible legume seeds and aflatoxin B1 production.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2009-10-31

    The present study deals with evaluation of antifungal properties of Lippia alba essential oil (EO) and two of its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against legume-contaminating fungi. Seventeen different fungal species were isolated from 11 varieties of legumes, and aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified. Hydrodistillation method was used to extract the EO from fresh leaves. The GC and GC-MS analysis of EO revealed the monoterpene aldehydes viz. geranial (22.2%) and neral (14.2%) as the major components. The antifungal activity of EO, geranial and neral was evaluated by contact assay on Czapek's-dox agar. The EO (0.25-1 microL/mL) and its two constituents (1 microL/mL) showed remarkable antifungal effects against all the fungal isolates (growth inhibition range 32.1-100%). Their minimal inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations for A. flavus were lower than those of the systemic fungicide Bavistin. Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production by three isolates of A. flavus was strongly inhibited even at the lower fungistatic concentration of EO and its constituents. There was no adverse effect of treatments on seed germination, and rather, there was enhanced seedling growth in the EO-treated seeds. It is concluded that L. alba EO and two of its constituents could be safely used as effective preservative for food legumes against fungal infections and mycotoxins.

  16. Improvements of Sound Localization Abilities by the Facial Ruff of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) as Demonstrated by Virtual Ruff Removal

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Laura; von Campenhausen, Mark; Endler, Frank; Singheiser, Martin; Wagner, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Background When sound arrives at the eardrum it has already been filtered by the body, head, and outer ear. This process is mathematically described by the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), which are characteristic for the spatial position of a sound source and for the individual ear. HRTFs in the barn owl (Tyto alba) are also shaped by the facial ruff, a specialization that alters interaural time differences (ITD), interaural intensity differences (ILD), and the frequency spectrum of the incoming sound to improve sound localization. Here we created novel stimuli to simulate the removal of the barn owl's ruff in a virtual acoustic environment, thus creating a situation similar to passive listening in other animals, and used these stimuli in behavioral tests. Methodology/Principal Findings HRTFs were recorded from an owl before and after removal of the ruff feathers. Normal and ruff-removed conditions were created by filtering broadband noise with the HRTFs. Under normal virtual conditions, no differences in azimuthal head-turning behavior between individualized and non-individualized HRTFs were observed. The owls were able to respond differently to stimuli from the back than to stimuli from the front having the same ITD. By contrast, such a discrimination was not possible after the virtual removal of the ruff. Elevational head-turn angles were (slightly) smaller with non-individualized than with individualized HRTFs. The removal of the ruff resulted in a large decrease in elevational head-turning amplitudes. Conclusions/Significance The facial ruff a) improves azimuthal sound localization by increasing the ITD range and b) improves elevational sound localization in the frontal field by introducing a shift of iso–ILD lines out of the midsagittal plane, which causes ILDs to increase with increasing stimulus elevation. The changes at the behavioral level could be related to the changes in the binaural physical parameters that occurred after the virtual

  17. Anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Populus L.. Differentiation between Populus nigra, Populus alba and Populus tremula.

    PubMed

    Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Rodríguez de la Cruz, David; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Three main species of Popululs L. (Salicaceae) have been reported to occur in the Iberian Peninsula: Populus nigra L., Populus alba L. and Populus tremula L. The degree of pilosity of the bracts of the male catkins is a key character for their differentiation. The anthers of these poplar species possess anthocyanins that provide them a red colouration. Since these poplars are wind-pollinated and, consequently, do not need to attract pollinators, anthocyanins in the anthers might be acting as photoprotectors, shielding pollen grains from excessive sunlight. In order to verify this hypothesis, the first objective of this study was to establish if there is any relationship between the degree of pilosity of the bracts (related to the physical shading of the pollen grains) and the levels and types of anthocyanins in the anthers of these three species. This study also aimed to check the usefulness of the anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers, through the study of the differences in the anthocyanin composition between these poplar species. Anthocyanins were identified from the data supplied by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) analyses. Seventeen different compounds, including mono-, di- and triglycosides and anthocyanin-derived pigments (F-A(+) dimers) have been identified. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the major compound in all the samples (>60% of the total content), which may be in accordance with the photoprotective role proposed for them. However, qualitative and quantitative differences were detected among samples. Cyanidin and delphinidin 3-O-sambubiosides have been detected only in the anthers of P. tremula as well as cyanidin 3-O-(2″-O-xyloxyl)rutinoside, making them valuable chemotaxonomic markers for this species. Hierarchical Cluster and Principal Components Analyses (HCA and PCA) carried out with the anthocyanin percent composition data have allowed a separation of the samples that is in accordance with the initial classification of the samples made from the

  18. Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better

  19. Cloning, Characterization and Expression Pattern Analysis of a Cytosolic Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase (SaCSD1) in a Highly Salt Tolerant Mangrove (Sonneratia alba)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Enze; Yi, Shanze; Bai, Fang; Niu, Dewei; Zhong, Junjie; Wu, Qiuhong; Chen, Shufang; Zhou, Renchao; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves are critical marine resources for their remarkable ability to tolerate seawater. Antioxidant enzymes play an especially significant role in eliminating reactive oxygen species and conferring abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SaCSD1) cDNA of Sonneratia alba, a mangrove species with high salt tolerance, was successfully cloned and then expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (designated as SaCSD1). SaCSD1 comprised a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 459 bp which encoded a protein of 152 amino acids. Its mature protein is predicted to be 15.32 kDa and the deduced isoelectric point is 5.78. SaCSD1 has high sequence similarity (85%–90%) with the superoxide dismutase (CSD) of some other plant species. SaCSD1 was expressed with 30.6% yield regarding total protein content after being introduced into the pET-15b (Sma I) vector for expression in Rosetta-gami and being induced with IPTG. After affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA, recombinant SaCSD1 was obtained with 3.2-fold purification and a specific activity of 2200 U/mg. SaCSD1 showed good activity as well as stability in the ranges of pH between 3 and 7 and temperature between 25 and 55 °C. The activity of recombinant SaCSD1 was stable in 0.25 M NaCl, Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO), glycerol, and chloroform, and was reduced to a great extent in β-mercaptoethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), H2O2, and phenol. Moreover, the SaCSD1 protein was very susceptive to pepsin digestion. Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay demonstrated that SaCSD1 was expressed in leaf, stem, flower, and fruit organs, with the highest expression in fruits. Under 0.25 M and 0.5 M salt stress, the expression of SaCSD1 was down-regulated in roots, but up-regulated in leaves. PMID:26703583

  20. Determination of 1-deoxynojirimycin in mulberry leaves using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Saito, Yuko; Yamagishi, Kenji; Suzuki, Masahiro; Yamaki, Kohji; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2004-03-24

    A simple and rapid method for determining 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent glucosidase inihibitor present in mulberry leaves (Morus alba and Morus bombysis), by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) has been developed. DNJ was separated from an extract of mulberry leaves on a TSKgel Amide-80 column, which is a representative column for hydrophilic interaction chromatography. During postcolumn detection, DNJ was detected by ELSD and concurrently identified by mass spectrometry. The detection limit was 100 ng. This method is sufficiently sensitive for determining DNJ in mulberry leaves and other related products.

  1. Simultaneous determination of bioactive components of Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple in rat plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Niancui; Li, Zhenhao; Qian, Dawei; Qian, Yefei; Guo, Jianming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Min

    2014-07-15

    A highly sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of seven components in rat plasma and five components in rat tissues after oral administration of the extracts of different combination Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple and has been applied to compare the different pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of these bioactive components. The extracts of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple (RRHC) were orally administrated to rats, respectively. The concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ligustilide, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in rat plasma and the concentrations of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the tissue samples were homogenated with water and pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase for gradient elution. A triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source was used as detector operating both in positive and negative ionization mode and operated by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 program. The differences between each group were compared by SPSS 16.0 with Independent-Samples T-test. The pharmacokinetic parameters (such as Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, AUC0-T, MRT0-T, Vz/F or CLz/F) of all the detected components between the single herb (RAS or RPA) and herb pair (RRHP) showed significant differences (P<0.05). It indicated that the compatibility of RAS and RPA could alter the pharmacokinetics features

  2. Carbon assimilation, translocation and respiration in Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba stands measured by gas exchange and isotopic techniques during two contrasting climatic years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Scartazza, Andrea; Zampedri, Roberto; Cavagna, Mauro; Sottocornola, Matteo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Global warming is tremendously influencing the climate of mountain areas through constantly rising temperatures and changes in local hydrological cycle. Increase of precipitation extremes, seasonal shifts of rainfall regime, heat waves are becoming more and more frequent events here. Vulnerability and plasticity of the local individual tree species under changing climate has still to be evaluated under field conditions. Two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013 were quite distinct in the climatic conditions during the plant growing season. Summer 2012 was characterized by a prolonged summer drought with almost no precipitation in central Italy from the end of May up to the end of August. The situation was aggravated by a very dry winter during this year. Mean annual temperatures in 2012 were 2oC higher in respect to the temperatures measured in the last 10 years. Conversely, year 2013 was milder with occasional rain events also during the summer months and temperatures close to the average values. In the Alpine zone the difference between two years were less pronounced with 2012 being slightly warmer than average and 2013 was characterized by unusually abundant spring precipitations. Taking advantage of these two contrasting years, we have monitored a functional response of one deciduous and one coniferous mountain forest stands growing in different mountain climate zones to variations in the local climate. The first, a deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, is located in the Appennine region of Italy at 1700 m height (Collelongo site, AQ) and characterized by a Mountain-Mediterranean climate. The second is a mixed forest dominated by Silver fir (Abies alba) which was chosen as a target species for our study. The site is located at 1350m height in the south-eastern Alps (Lavarone, TN) and is characterized by a mountain temperate climate. Sampling of plant material and point flux measurements were performed in the beginning, middle and the end of the growing

  3. Salix alba and Populus nigra seedlings resistance to physical hydro-sedimentary stresses: nursery experimental approach compared to in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintenberger, Coraline; Rodrigues, Stephane; Breheret, Jean-Gabriel; Jugé, Philippe; Villar, Marc

    2014-05-01

    In Europe, riparian Salicaceae is declining following the loss of potential germination areas associated with river management. Nevertheless, as an exception for lowland rivers, the Loire River (France) shows in its middle reaches an efficient sexual regeneration of Populus nigra and Salix alba species on bare sediments deposited during flood events. The study focuses on the influence of flow, sediment dynamics and fluvial maintenance operations on the establishment and survival of black poplar and white willow seedlings during the first year of development in a lowland sandy-gravel river, the Middle Loire. Main questions are: what is the influence of morphological and sedimentary features on seedlings recruitment and how do they withstand the hydro-sedimentary stresses occurring during high flow periods? How fluvial management works, and induced morphology and sedimentary features, modify the sediment dynamics and subsequent establishment and maintenance of seedlings? To answer these questions, we developed an ex-situ approach which allowed, under controlled conditions, to determine the influence of the sedimentological characteristics of the substrate on the development and maintenance of seedlings with a specific focus on the root system. Three experiments were carried out for three sedimentary mixtures from the river (sand, sand-gravel and 0.2 m of sand superimposed on sand-gravel mixture) that correspond to grain size and stratigraphy conditions often observed on bars and secondary channels in the Loire. The experimental design includes 108 plots of 1 m3, with 400 seeds per plot (corresponding to the Loire density measurements) and combining seeds from two species, three sedimentary mixtures, four replicates and three experiments. Experiment 1 (control) is based on the architecture of root systems using the WinRHIZO image analysis software. Experiment 2 is relative to the evaluation of constraints leading to "uprooting" of seedlings. Experiment 3 provides data

  4. Larval performance of the mustard leaf beetle (Phaedon cochleariae, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) on white mustard (Sinapis alba) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale) leaves in dependence of plant exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Reifenrath, Kerstin; Müller, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    Short-term exposure to ambient or attenuated ultraviolet (UV) radiation resulted in shifts in plant metabolite concentrations of the Brassicaceae Sinapis alba and Nasturtium officinale. Leaf quality also varied between plant species and within species due to age. Larvae of the oligophagous leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae were raised on these different host leaves, in order to investigate the effects of variable plant chemistry on this herbivore. The performance of P. cochleariae was influenced by chemical differences between and within plant species but it responded with high plasticity to plants stressed by ultraviolet radiation. Body mass increase and developmental times of larvae were exclusively affected by plant species and leaf-age. However, developmental differences were fully compensated in the pupal stage. We suggest that the plasticity of herbivores may depend on the degree of specialisation, and insect performance may not necessarily be altered by stress-induced host plants.

  5. Dimeric procyanidins: screening for B1 to B8 and semisynthetic preparation of B3, B4, B6, And B8 from a polymeric procyanidin fraction of white willow bark (Salix alba).

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-07-14

    Fifty-seven samples have been analyzed with regard to the occurrence of dimeric procyanidins B1-B8 as well as the composition of polymeric procyanidins. Fifty-two samples were found to contain polymeric procyanidins. In most of the samples, (-)-epicatechin was the predominant unit present. In white willow bark (Salix alba), however, large amounts of (+)-catechin (81.0%) were determined by means of phloroglucinolysis. White willow bark has therefore been used for the semisynthetic formation of dimeric procyanidins B3 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 8-(+)-C)], B4 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 8-(-)-EC)], B6 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 6-(+)-C)], and B8 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 6-(-)-EC)]. The reaction mixtures of the semisynthesis were successfully fractionated with high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and dimeric procyanidins B3, B4, B6, and B8 were obtained on a preparative scale.

  6. Cuticular uptake of xenobiotics into living plants. Part 2: influence of the xenobiotic dose on the uptake of bentazone, epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin, applied in the presence of various surfactants, into Chenopodium album, Sinapis alba and Triticum aestivum leaves.

    PubMed

    Forster, W Alison; Zabkiewicz, Jerzy A; Liu, Zhiqian

    2006-07-01

    This study has determined the uptake of three pesticides, applied as commercial or model formulations in the presence of a wide range of surfactants, into the leaves of three plant species (bentazone into Chenopodium album L. and Sinapis alba L., epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin into Triticum aestivum L.). The results have confirmed previous findings that the initial dose (nmol mm(-2)) of xenobiotic applied to plant foliage is a strong, positive determinant of uptake. This held true for all the pesticide formulations studied, although surfactant concentration was found to have an effect. The lower surfactant concentrations studied showed an inferior relationship between the amount of xenobiotic applied and uptake. High molecular mass surfactants also produced much lower uptake than expected from the dose uptake equations in specific situations.

  7. The Safety and Efficacy of the 1540nm Non-Ablative Fractional XD Probe of Star Lux 500 Device in the Treatment of Striae Alba: Before-After Study

    PubMed Central

    Malekzad, Farhad; Shakoei, Safoura; Ayatollahi, Azin; Hejazi, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Striae distensae (SD) are a frequent skin condition for which treatment remains a challenge. The 1540-nm non-ablative fractional laser (Star Lux 500) has been shown to improve atrophic scars by increasing the amount of dermal collagen. To assess the safety and efficacy of the Star Lux 500 laser in the treatment of mature hypopigmented striae in Persian people (Striae Alba). Methods: Ten women aged 26–50 years with SD and Fitzpatrick skin types III–V were enrolled in the study. The exclusion criteria were a history of keloids, photosensitivity and collagen, elastin disorders as well as history of other striae treatment within one year. The lesions were treated with non-ablative fractional laser 1540nm, and a total of four treatments were given at 4-week intervals. Clinical standard photographs were taken before each treatment. Also, patients were followed up at 3 months after the last treatment. Clinical improvement was assessed by comparing baseline and post-treatment photographs by two independent blinded physicians using grading scale. Treatment efficacy analysis was performed via the comparison between the images taken before and after each treatment session. Results: There was a clinically appreciable improvement in striae ranging from 1 to 24%. A significant improvement in striae between the 16-week treatment and the 4-week treatment was identified (P<0.0001). Three months after the final treatment, patients showed noticeable improvement in the striae, compared with baseline (P<0.048). Mild post inflammatory hyperpigmentation was observed in one patient after the 8-week treatment and mild to moderate acne occurred in another patient after 4 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Therapy with Star lux 500 laser had clinically and statistically striae improvement with no adverse events. This may be a safe and an effective treatment modality for Striae Alba lesions. PMID:25653821

  8. Thermal efficiency and particulate pollution estimation of four biomass fuels grown on wasteland

    SciTech Connect

    Kandpal, J.B.; Madan, M.

    1996-10-01

    The thermal performance and concentration of suspended particulate matter were studied for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels, namely Acacia nilotica, Leucaena leucocepholea, Jatropha curcus, and Morus alba grown in wasteland. Among the four biomass fuels, the highest thermal efficiency was achieved with Acacia nilotica. The suspended particulate matter concentration for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels ranged between 850 and 2,360 {micro}g/m{sup 3}.

  9. Intercultural Usage of Mori Folium: Comparison Review from a Korean Medical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Byungjin; Jeon, Eun Sang; Lim, Su Hye; Park, Yu Lee; Park, Wansu; Chae, Han

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. A review on studies related to the use of Mori folium, the leaves of Morus alba, was conducted with the goal of identifying new clinical applications in Korean medicine. Methods. Global literature search was conducted using three electronic databases up to January 2015 with the term Morus alba and its Korean terms. KM literatures including textbooks and standard pharmacopoeia were separately hand-searched and reviewed to provide comparison. Data were extracted according to predetermined criteria, and clinical uses were standardized with ICD-10 categories. Results. 159 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 18 articles including 12 ethnopharmacologic and 6 clinical studies were finally included in this analysis. Ethnopharmacologic studies from 8 countries provided 17 clinical uses. We found that five out of six clinical trials were related to diabetes and suggested a moderate short-term to mild long-term effect. And 43 Korean texts also provided 156 clinical uses in 35 categories including ocular and respiratory disorders. Discussion and Conclusions. Though majority of the clinical uses were also found in Korean medicine literature, treatment of infertility, jaundice, cognitive disorder, and hyperpigmentation was found to be effective and diabetes with Morus alba was recognized to have clinical importance. PMID:26539223

  10. LA BIOÉTICA COMO QUEHACER FILOSÓFICO

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jorge José

    2009-01-01

    El artículo examina el estatuto epistemológico de la bioética como disciplina académica. El autor sostiene que el estatuto epistemológico de un discurso lo determina la pregunta fundamental que se plantea y la respuesta que se busca, focos integradores del discurso. En el caso de la bioética, la pregunta fundamental es de índole moral. La bioética es pues una disciplina ética que tiene su hogar epistemológico en la filosofía. El autor también defiende el concepto de “éticas aplicadas”. Sugiere finalmente que el método de la bioética, sobre todo la que se hace desde nuestras latitudes, debería adoptar el círculo hermenéutico como metodología para su filosofar. PMID:20463860

  11. Reduced climate sensitivity of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring cellulose of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) influenced by background SO2 in Franconia (Germany, Central Europe).

    PubMed

    Boettger, Tatjana; Haupt, Marika; Friedrich, Michael; Waterhouse, John S

    2014-02-01

    The climate sensitivity of carbon (δ(13)C), oxygen (δ(18)O) and hydrogen (δ(2)H) isotope signatures in tree-ring cellulose of Abies alba Mill. from a marginally industrialized area of Franconia (Germany) was analysed for the last 130 years. All isotopes preserve climatic signals up to c. 1950 AD. After 1950 we observe a clear reduction in climate sensitivity of δ(13)C and δ(2)H while δ(18)O - climate relations remain well pronounced. Nevertheless statistical tests implied that SO2 background emissions of West Germany had influenced isotope signatures long before 1950. The relationships between isotope values and concentrations of SO2, dust, O3 and NO2 at the regional level during the period 1979-2006 indicate that δ(13)C and δ(18)O were influenced primarily by SO2. The impact of SO2 on δ(2)H was negligible, but the observed reduction of climate sensitivity may be caused by synergic influences. The results have significant implications if isotope signatures from tree-rings from anthropogenic influenced regions are used to reconstruct past climate.

  12. The influence of pH on concentrations of protein and phenolics and resource quality of decomposing floating leaf material of Nymphaea alba L. (Nymphaeaceae) for the detritivore Asellus aquaticus (L.).

    PubMed

    Kok, C J; Hof, C H J; Lenssen, J P M; van der Velde, G

    1992-08-01

    Senescent floating leaf material of Nymphaea alba L., collected in an acidified moorland pool, was used in decomposition studies in two aquatic systems that differed greatly in pH, alkalinity and nutrient concentration. Concentrations of extractable protein and phenolics in the decomposing leaf material were measured during the incubation period. Protein levels were not significantly different in the leaf material from the two study sites, whereas the concentrations of phenolics in the degrading leaf blades from the acid site remained higher than in the material from the alkaline site. The resource quality of the decomposing leaf material was estimated by feeding tests using Asellus aquaticus (L.) in the laboratory. The effect of an artificially increased level of tannin on the feeding activity of A. aquaticus was also studied. Material from the acid system was consumed at a lower rate than material from the other system. The phenolic content of the material was found to be the most important feeding cue. The protein level of the leaf blade detritus seems to be of less importance. The structure of the decomposing leaf blades may have influenced the resource quality in the later stages of the experiment.

  13. PtaRHE1, a Populus tremula × Populus alba RING-H2 protein of the ATL family, has a regulatory role in secondary phloem fibre development.

    PubMed

    Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Moussawi, Jihad; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Van Acker, Rebecca; Kohler, Annegret; Candiracci, Julie; Twyffels, Laure; Spokevicius, Antanas V; Bossinger, Gerd; Laurans, Françoise; Brunel, Nicole; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Boerjan, Wout; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2015-06-01

    REALLY INTERESTING NEW GENE (RING) proteins play important roles in the regulation of many processes by recognizing target proteins for ubiquitination. Previously, we have shown that the expression of PtaRHE1, encoding a Populus tremula × Populus alba RING-H2 protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, is associated with tissues undergoing secondary growth. To further elucidate the role of PtaRHE1 in vascular tissues, we have undertaken a reverse genetic analysis in poplar. Within stem secondary vascular tissues, PtaRHE1 and its corresponding protein are expressed predominantly in the phloem. The downregulation of PtaRHE1 in poplar by artificial miRNA triggers alterations in phloem fibre patterning, characterized by an increased portion of secondary phloem fibres that have a reduced cell wall thickness and a change in lignin composition, with lower levels of syringyl units as compared with wild-type plants. Following an RNA-seq analysis, a biological network involving hormone stress signalling, as well as developmental processes, could be delineated. Several candidate genes possibly associated with the altered phloem fibre phenotype observed in amiRPtaRHE1 poplar were identified. Altogether, our data suggest a regulatory role for PtaRHE1 in secondary phloem fibre development.

  14. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  15. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 21 mycotoxins in Radix Paeoniae Alba by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry and QuEChERS for sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yanyan; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Wanyang; Li, Dongxiang; Yu, Zhiguo; Tong, Ling; Zhao, Yunli

    2016-09-15

    A high-throughput method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 21 mycotoxins in Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) was developed by coupling the modified QuEChERS method with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqLIT-MS). The 21 mycotoxins were extracted and cleaned up using QuEChERS-based procedure, then further separated on a C18 column and detected by a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in the multiple reaction monitoring-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) mode. Under this technique, 13 mycotoxins were detected using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase in positive mode while the other 8 mycotoxins were detected using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% ammonia as the mobile phase in negative mode. The calibration curves of all analytes showed good linearity (r(2)>0.995) within test ranges. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.031 to 5.4μg/kg and 0.20 to 22μg/kg, respectively. Additionally, recoveries were all above 75.3% with relative standard deviations within 15%. The method proposed herein with significant advantages including simple pretreatment, rapid determination as well as high sensitivity, accuracy and throughput would be a preferred candidate for the determination and quantification of multi-class mycotoxin contaminants in real samples.

  16. Microarray and suppression subtractive hybridization analyses of gene expression in hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus tremula var. glandulosa) cell suspension cultures after exposure to NaCl.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Hyoshin; Lee, Jae-Soon; Noh, Eun-Woon; Choi, Young-Im; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Choi, Dong-Woog

    2012-09-01

    The gene expression profiles of hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus tremula var. glandulosa) cells in suspension culture after exposure to salinity (NaCl) induced stress were examined by constructing two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries. cDNA from non-treated cells was used as a driver and cDNA samples from cell suspension cultures exposed to 150 mM NaCl for 2 or 10 h were used as testers. Randomly selected clones from each SSH library were sequenced and 727 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained and analyzed. Four novel ESTs were identified. Between the two libraries, 542 unique SSH clones were selected for placement on a cDNA microarray. In total, 18 differentially expressed genes were identified with 4 and 12 genes being significantly differentially expressed 2 and 10 h after the treatment, respectively. Genes related to metabolism and protein synthesis and several genes whose protein products are implicated in salt or other abiotic stress-related responses were expressed in the salt-stressed cells.

  17. Recent DDT and PCB contamination in the sediment and biota of the Como Bay (Lake Como, Italy).

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, R; Quadroni, S; Boggio, E; Galassi, S

    2016-01-15

    Due to its peculiar geographical and morphological characteristics, Lake Como (Northern Italy) represents an interesting study-case for investigating the sub-basin scale circulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that, despite being banned since the 1970s, have reached surprisingly high concentrations in some southern alpine lakes as a consequence of their release from melting glaciers in recent years. In particular, the Como Bay, which is located in the city of Como, seems noteworthy because its waters have a longer residence time than the other areas of the lake. The analyses of the historical concentration of PCBs, pp′DDT and its metabolites in a sediment core sampled from the Como Bay covering a time-period from their ban to recent times, showed that the DDTs have never experienced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease over time, with concentrations of the most abundant homologue, pp′DDE, ranging from 27 to 75 ng g(-1) d.w. Conversely PCBs significantly (p < 0.05) decreased towards recent times, reaching concentrations around 80 ng g(-1) d.w. The contribution of high altitude and local sources was recorded also in the food web: both zooplankton and the zooplanktivorous fish agone were mainly contaminated by pp′DDE (81.4 ng g(-1) w.w. and 534.6 ng g(-1) w.w. respectively) and by the PCB metabolite hexa-CB (449.7 ng g(-1) w.w. and 1672.1 ng g(-1) w.w. respectively). The DDT concentrations in the agone (sampled during the years 2006–2009) never exceeded the limits for human consumption in Italy, while concentrations of six selected PCBs exceeded human health advisory recommendations in one of the fish samples analysed, when it was approximately two times higher than the recommended value of 125 ng g(-1) w.w.

  18. Circadian oscillations of a transcript encoding a germin-like protein that is associated with cell walls in young leaves of the long-day plant Sinapis alba L.

    PubMed Central

    Heintzen, C; Fischer, R; Melzer, S; Kappeler, K; Apel, K; Staiger, D

    1994-01-01

    As part of an attempt to analyze rhythmic phenomena in the long-day plant Sinapis alba L. at the molecular level, we have searched for mRNAs whose concentration varies as a function of time of day. Differential screening of a cDNA library established from mRNAs expressed at the end of the daily light phase with probes representing transcripts expressed predominantly in the morning or evening has identified one major transcript. The cDNA, Saglp, encodes a predicted 22-kD protein with an N-terminal signal sequence. The protein shows homology to germin, a protein expressed in wheat embryos after onset of germination. The Saglp mRNA level undergoes circadian oscillations in light/dark cycles with maxima between 8 and 12 PM (zeitgeber time [zt]12-zt16) and minima around 8 PM (zt0). In plants grown from seed in constant light, transcript levels are constitutive. In constant light regular temperature shifts function as an alternative "zeitgeber" to initiate Saglp transcript oscillations. At the cellular level, Saglp transcripts are expressed in the epidermis and spongy parenchyma of young leaves, and in distinct regions of the epidermis and the cortex in stems and petioles. Strong signals are observed in these tissues around zt12, whereas little expression is found around zt20, suggesting that the underlying oscillatory mechanism(s) operate(s) synchronously in different plant organs. The SaGLP steady-state protein concentration remains constant over light/dark cycles. Immunogold labeling shows that the SaGLP protein is associated with primary cell walls. PMID:7824658

  19. Pharmacokinetic comparisons by UPLC-MS/MS of isomer paeoniflorin and albiflorin after oral administration decoctions of single-herb Radix Paeoniae Alba and Zengmian Yiliu prescription to rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Can; Yang, Hong; Wei, Hai; Qi, Cong; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    Zengmian Yiliu (ZMYL), a traditional Chinese formula, is designed to improve clinical efficacy and reduce adverse effects in combination with cisplatin in ovarian cancer chemotherapy. In ZMYL, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA, made from root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) acts as an adjunctive drug in cancer treatment by ameliorating side effects induced by radio- and chemotherapy. The pharmacokinetics differences between isomer albiflorin and paeoniflorin, the main components of RPA, after oral administration decoction of single-herb RPA and ZMYL were compared using a sensitive and accurate UPLC-MS/MS. The results indicate that there are statistically significant differences between the pharmacokinetic parameters: decreasing area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), maximum concentration (Cmax ), elimination rate constant (Ke ) and increasing apparent volume of distribution (Vd ) and clearance (CL) for albiflorin, increasing distribution half-life (T1/2d ) and decreasing elimination half-life (T1/2e ), distribution rate constant (Kd ) and absorption rate constant (Ka ) for paeoniflorin in the ZMYL group compared with the single-herb RPA group. In comparison with albiflorin, the pharmacokinetic parameters of paeoniflorin included significantly increasing mean residence time (MRT) and Vd , decreasing CL and Ke in the single-herb RPA group and increasing MRT and T1/2d and decreasing CL, Ke and Kd in the ZMYL group. Both paeoniflorin and albiflorin are more likely, as the main active ingredients in RPA and ZMYL, to play a variety of pharmacological effects, and herb-herb interactions occur, resulting in different pharmacokinetics of albiflorin and paeoniflorin in RPA and ZMYL.

  20. Analysis of the major chiral compounds of Artemisia herba-alba essential oils (EOs) using reconstructed vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra: En route to a VCD chiral signature of EOs.

    PubMed

    Said, Mohammed El-Amin; Vanloot, Pierre; Bombarda, Isabelle; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Dahmane, El Montassir; Aamouche, Ahmed; Jean, Marion; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Dupuy, Nathalie; Roussel, Christian

    2016-01-15

    An unprecedented methodology was developed to simultaneously assign the relative percentages of the major chiral compounds and their prevailing enantiomeric form in crude essential oils (EOs). In a first step the infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of the crude essential oils were recorded and in a second step they were modelized as a linear weighted combination of the IR and VCD spectra of the individual spectra of pure enantiomer of the major chiral compounds present in the EOs. The VCD spectra of enantiomer of known enantiomeric excess shall be recorded if they are not yet available in a library of VCD spectra. For IR, the spectra of pure enantiomer or racemic mixture can be used. The full spectra modelizations were performed using a well known and powerful mathematical model (least square estimation: LSE) which resulted in a weighting of each contributing compound. For VCD modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the associate compound while the attached sign addressed the correctness of the enantiomeric form used to build the model. As an example, a model built with the non-prevailing enantiomer will show a negative sign of the weighting value. For IR spectra modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the compounds without of course accounting for the chirality of the prevailing enantiomers. Comparison of the weighting values issuing from IR and VCD spectra modelizations is a valuable source of information: if they are identical, the EOs are composed of nearly pure enantiomers, if they are different the chiral compounds of the EOs are not in an optically pure form. The method was applied on four samples of essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba in which the three major compounds namely (-)-α-thujone, (+)-β-thujone and (-)-camphor were found in different proportions as determined by GC-MS and chiral HPLC using polarimetric detector. In order to validate the

  1. Effect of meteorological parameters and regions on accumulation pattern of phenolic compounds in different mulberry cultivars grown in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiufang; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Qing; Gu, Liwei; Liu, Xuanjun; Li, Jingming; Ni, Yuanying

    2017-05-01

    The compositions of phenolic compounds in 10 cultivars of two mulberry species (Morus atropurpurea Roxb. and Morus alba Linn.) grown in four regions of China were analysed using HPLC-TOF-MS. Results showed that a total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in these mulberry cultivars. The Taiwan cultivar from the Jiangsu region showed the highest concentration of hydroxycinnamic acids, quercetin derivatives, and anthocyanins. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that six mulberry cultivars grown in the region of Jiangsu, Ningxia, and Guangdong were differentiated regarding their species feature and regional characteristics. Cyanidin rhamnosylglucoside, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, dihydroquercetin, and quercetin were further screened out to be the key compounds for the differentiation of these cultivars. The correlation between the regional climate feature (including rainfall, humidity, and temperature) and the accumulation of phenolic compounds in these mulberry cultivars was established.

  2. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a

  3. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District published a document in the Federal Register of June...

  4. Bioactive benzofuran derivatives: moracins A-Z in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ravi; Harmalkar, Dipesh S; Xu, Xuezhen; Jang, Kyusic; Lee, Kyeong

    2015-01-27

    Benzofuran heterocycles are fundamental structural units in a variety of biologically active natural products as well as synthetic materials. Over the time, benzofuran derivatives have attracted many researchers due to the broad scope of their biological activity, which include anticancer, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Egonol, homoegonol and moracin families are biologically active natural products containing benzofuran heterocycle as basic structural units. This paper focuses on the moracin family (moracin A to Z). Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10-16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries. The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Morus alba, M. lhou, Morus macroura are the main sources for arylbenzofuran derivatives including the moracins. A large volume of research has been carried out on moracins and their derivatives, which has shown the pharmacological importance of this benzofuran heterocyclic nucleus. In this mini-review, we attempt to highlight the importance of moracins, as they have been a major source for drug development. Herein, we also summarize the current state of the art concerning the synthesis and medicinal use of moracins A-Z.

  5. Cúmulos globulares como trazadores de bimodalidad estelar en galaxias cD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se muestra que tanto la forma de los perfiles de brillo como de color observados en dos galaxias arquetípicas de tipo cD (NGC 1399 y NGC 4486) son compatibles con la presencia de poblaciones estelares bi-modales que comparten la misma distribución espacial y composición química de las familias dominantes de cúmulos globulares asociadas con ellas. El modelo resultante también predice una variación de la frecuencia específica de los cúmulos como función del radio galactocéntrico. Se discute este resultado en el contexto de una variedad de escenarios astrofísicos que intentan describir la formación de galaxias cD.

  6. Chemical properties in fruits of mulberry species from the Xinjiang province of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Nie, Wen-Jing

    2015-05-01

    Mulberries are a widely cultivated foodstuff both in China and worldwide. However, there are stark differences in the nutritional values of mulberry species. To better appreciate these differences, we here describe the chemical characteristics of white (Morus alba L.), Russian (M. alba var. tatarica L.), and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry fruits cultivated in the Xinjiang province of China. The chemical composition analysis was performed by official methods procedures. The amino acids were analysed by the phenyl isothiocyanate method. The 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method, the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, and the pH differential method were also used in measuring the content of reduced ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, and total monomeric anthocyanins, respectively. The black mulberry fruits had the highest content of reduced ascorbic acid (48.4 mg/100 g fw), titratable acidity (47.1 mg/g fw), and Fe (11.9 mg/100 g fw) of these 3 species. The Russian mulberry fruits had the highest EAA/TAA (essential amino acid/total amino acid) ratio at 44% followed by the white mulberry (42%) and the black mulberry (29%). The black mulberry fruits had found to be richest in terms of total flavonoids and total monomeric anthocyanins. These results are helpful for selecting mulberry species with abundant nutrients and phytochemicals for commercial cultivation.

  7. Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.

    PubMed

    Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V

    2014-08-01

    This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity.

  8. Recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the Comoé valley in Southwest Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Koala, Lassane; Nikiema, Achille; Post, Rory J; Paré, Alain Brice; Kafando, Claude Montant; Drabo, François; Traoré, Soungalo

    2017-02-01

    Onchocerciasis control by vector control was instigated in southwest Burkina Faso in January 1969 by ORSTOM/OCCGE, and continued until operations were taken over by the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) in February 1975, which itself ceased operations in the area in 1989 when onchocerciasis was judged to have been reduced to insignificant levels. Initially (1969-1975) vector immigration maintained unacceptably high levels of transmission, but OCP was much larger than the preceding campaign and in 1975 the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP) dropped below 100 at all sites in the Comoé river valley except Folonzo, which continued to be subject to reinvasion, along with the whole of the Léraba river valley. However, after the southern extension of the OCP in 1979, ATPs dropped below 100 everywhere in the Comoé basin (including the Léraba valley), and further dropped to insignificant levels after the western extension of the OCP in 1985. Thus transmission dropped more quickly in the Comoé river valley than the Léraba river valley (which had been subject to vector reinvasion), and this was also reflected in prevalence of microfilaraemia in the human population. After 1986 prevalence was less than 5% in all villages in the Comoé river valley (except for two, which subsequently dropped to 0% and 3.7% by 1999). However, in 2001 (12 years after the cessation of vector control) the prevalence in one village in the Comoé river valley had increased to 39.6%, and two more had increased above 5% by 2007. New epidemiological surveys in 2011 and 2012 showed that in 13 out of 30 villages in the Comoé river valley prevalence of microfilaraemia was above 5%, although this was not observed in the Léraba river valley where prevalence remained low. This is the first documented case of recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the old OCP area, and the reasons are not clear. It is possible that there has been immigration of parasites with humans or vectors from areas where

  9. Fluid dipping technology of chimpanzees in Comoé National Park, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Lapuente, Juan; Hicks, Thurston C; Linsenmair, K Eduard

    2016-12-21

    Over a 6 month period during the dry season, from the end of October 2014 to the beginning of May 2015, we studied tool use behavior of previously unstudied and non-habituated savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in the Comoé National Park, Ivory Coast (CI). We analyzed all the stick tools and leaf-sponges found that the chimpanzees used to forage for ants, termites, honey, and water. We found a particular behavior to be widespread across different chimpanzee communities in the park, namely, dipping for water from tree holes using sticks with especially long brush-tip modifications, using camera traps, we recorded adults, juveniles, and infants of three communities displaying this behavior. We compared water dipping and honey dipping tools used by Comoé chimpanzees and found significant differences in the total length, diameter, and brush length of the different types of fluid-dipping tools used. We found that water dipping tools had consistently longer and thicker brush-tips than honey dipping tools. Although this behavior was observed only during the late dry season, the chimpanzees always had alternative water sources available, like pools and rivers, in which they drank without the use of a tool. It remains unclear whether the use of a tool increases efficient access to water. This is the first time that water dipping behavior with sticks has been found as a widespread and well-established behavior across different age and sex classes and communities, suggesting the possibility of cultural transmission. It is crucial that we conserve this population of chimpanzees, not only because they may represent the second largest population in the country, but also because of their unique behavioral repertoire.

  10. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the Comoe River Basin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Yéo, Wonnan Eugène; Goula, Bi Tié Albert; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Afouda, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is impacting water users in many sectors: water supply, farming, industry, hydropower, fishing, housing, navigation and health. Existing situations, like population growth, movement of populations from rural to urban areas, poverty and pollution can aggravate the impacts of climate change. The aim of the study is to evaluate the vulnerability of different water user groups to climate change and define communities' adaptation strategies in the Comoe River Basin. Information was collected on communities' concerns and perception on changes in climate and potential adaptation measures and strategies. Results show that 95 % of the sample in the study communities had heard of it and are aware that climate change is occurring. They have been experiencing changes in economic activity and cropping pattern, reduced water level in rivers, crop failure, delay in cropping season, new pests and diseases, food insecurity, drop in income and decline in crop yield. Results also show that communities employ various adaptation strategies including crops diversification, substitution and calendar redefinition, agroforestry, borrowing from friends and money lenders and increasing fertilizer application.

  11. Kinetic modeling of the SWNT growth by CO disproportionation on CoMo catalysts.

    PubMed

    Monzon, A; Lolli, G; Cosma, S; Mohamed, S B; Resasco, D E

    2008-11-01

    A kinetic model has been developed to describe the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in the CoMoCAT method, which is based on the disproportionation of CO on supported CoMo catalysts. The model attempts to capture mathematically the different stages involved in this method: (i) catalyst activation or in-situ creation of active sites, i.e., reduced Co clusters by transformation of CoMoOx precursor species, or oxidized sites; (ii) CO decomposition over active sites, which increases the surface fugacity of carbon until reaching a certain threshold; (iii) nucleation of ordered forms of carbon; (iv) C diffusion (both across the surface and into the metal particle); (v) SWNT growth; (vi) termination, by either deactivation of the catalyst active sites or by increase in the carbon concentration at the metal/SWNT interface, approaching that of the metal/gas interface and eliminating the driving force for diffusion. Previous investigations have only explained the growth termination by the former. Here, we emphasize the possible contribution of the later and propose a novel "hindrance factor" to quantify the effect of nanotube interaction with its surroundings on the growth termination. To test the kinetic model and obtain typical values of the physical parameters, experiments have been conducted on a CoMo/SiO2 catalyst in a laboratory flow reactor, in which the rate of carbon deposition was continuously evaluated by the direct measurement of the CO2 evolution as a function of time. The experimental data are fitted very well with model.

  12. Ecology of invasive Melilotus alba on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White sweetclover has recently invaded glacial river floodplains in Alaska. We sampled vegetation and measured environmental variables along transects located along the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to describe plant communities and to determine the effects of white sweetclover on other plan...

  13. Efficacy and Safety of White Willow Bark (Salix alba) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Shara, Mohd; Stohs, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Willow bark extract has been used for thousands of years as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic. In spite of its long history of use, relatively few human and animal studies have been published that confirm anecdotal observations. A small number of clinical studies have been conducted that support the use of willow bark extracts in chronic lower back and joint pain and osteoarthritis. Willow bark extracts also are widely used in sports performance and weight loss products presumably because of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, although no human studies have been published that specifically and directly document beneficial effects. In recent years, various in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of willow bark extract is associated with down regulation of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-kappa B. Although willow bark extracts are generally standardized to salicin, other ingredients in the extracts including other salicylates as well as polyphenols, and flavonoids may also play prominent roles in the therapeutic actions. Adverse effects appear to be minimal as compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin. The primary cause for concern may relate to allergic reactions in salicylate-sensitive individuals.

  14. A concept for the Spanish light source—ALBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordas, J.; Campmany, J.; Einfeld, D.; Ferrer, S.; Muñoz, M.; Pérez, F.; Pont, M.

    2005-05-01

    In Spring 2003, the Spanish and Catalan Governments created a public consortium for the construction, equipment, and exploitation of a third-generation synchrotron light source. The foundation was based upon a proposal presented at the end of 1997 to build a 2.5 GeV, 12 fold symmetry accelerator with a circumference of 250 m. In order to optimise the spectral characteristics of the synchrotron radiation a re-design of the light source is currently taking place. It will include several new developments that had been demonstrated feasible in third-generation light sources currently in operation: toping-up injection, storage ring and booster in a same tunnel, improvements in orbit stability, etc. In addition, the energy of the design has been upgraded to 3 GeV and a new, more performing lattice is being studied. The main candidate for the lattice, describing the linear parameters, beam dynamics, and estimation of the lifetime will also be discussed. Also the key design decisions, the project status and the schedule will be given. In order to analyse the performance of the different lattices, some general purpose IDs have been considered.

  15. Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic α-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting≥ 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 μgml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440

  16. Enterobacter morus sp. nov., a novel Enterobacter species associated with bacterial wilt on mulberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mulberry pathogenetic bacterial strain R18-2T isolated from the diseased mulberry root was analyzed by a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis combined with rpoB gene sequence analysis allocated the strain R18-2T to the genus Enterobacter. The strain was Gram nega...

  17. Comparison of mineral contents of mulberry (Morus spp.) fruits and their pekmez (boiled mulberry juice) samples.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Mehmet; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2009-05-01

    Mineral contents of four mulberry fruits and their pekmez samples growing particularly in the Malatya province in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All samples contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and sulphur. The highest mineral concentrations for mulberry fruits were measured between 1,873.65 and 4,437.52 mg/kg for calcium, 10.860 and 15.269 g/kg for potassium, 904.48 and 1033.11 mg/kg for magnesium, 115.29 and 252.33 mg/kg for sodium, 1.831 and 2.329 g/kg for phosphorus, and 493.35 and 642.25 mg/kg for sulphur. These values for pekmez samples varied between 135.76 and 575.84 mg/kg for calcium, 5.853 and 8.146 g/kg for potassium, 187.96 and 389.86 mg/kg for magnesium, 20.40 and 43.55 mg/kg for sodium, 285.10 and 517.72 mg/kg for phosphorus and 121.21 and 303.57 mg/kg for sulphur. Potassium content was high compared with other minerals. The highest potassium level was 15.269 g/kg for red mulberry fruit, whereas the lowest potassium content was 5.8523 g/kg for black mulberry pekmez sample. The mineral content of pekmez samples of black and red mulberry fruits decreased at the important levels compared with those of white mulberries during pekmez production. As a result, mulberry fruits and their pekmez samples contain nutrient elements of vital importance in man's metabolism.

  18. DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACIÓN ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA

    PubMed Central

    Silvia, Mejía-Arango; Clemente, y Zúñiga-Gil

    2012-01-01

    Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

  19. Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

    A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

  20. Inhibitory activity of plant stilbenoids against nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Nassra, Merian; Krisa, Stéphanie; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Kapche, Gilbert Deccaux; Bisson, Jonathan; André, Caroline; Konsman, Jan-Pieter; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre

    2013-07-01

    Microglia-driven inflammatory processes are thought to play an important role in ageing and several neurological disorders. Since consumption of a diet rich in polyphenols has been associated with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, we studied the effects of twenty-five stilbenoids isolated from Milicia excelsa, Morus alba, Gnetum africanum, and Vitis vinifera. These compounds were tested at 5 and 10 µM on BV-2 microglial cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Ten stilbenoids reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production at 5 and/or 10 µM. Two tetramers, E-vitisin A and E-vitisin B, were the most effective molecules. Moreover, they attenuated the expression of the inducible NO synthase protein and gene.

  1. Cytotoxic activities of several geranyl-substituted flavanones.

    PubMed

    Smejkal, Karel; Svacinová, Jana; Slapetová, Tereza; Schneiderová, Kristýna; Dall'acqua, Stefano; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Závalová, Veronika; Kollár, Peter; Chudík, Stanislav; Marek, Radek; Julínek, Ondrej; Urbanová, Marie; Kartal, Murat; Csöllei, Marek; Dolezal, Karel

    2010-04-23

    Nine geranylated flavanones isolated from the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa (4-12) and two from the roots of Morus alba (13 and 14) were examined for cytotoxicity to selected human cancer cell lines and normal human fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity was determined in vitro using a calcein AM cytotoxicity assay. Cytotoxicity for the THP-1 monocytic leukemia cell line was tested using erythrosin B cell staining. The geranylated compounds tested were compared with the known simple flavanone standards taxifolin (1), naringenin (2), and hesperetin (3) and with the standard anticancer drugs olomoucine II, diaziquone, and oxaliplatin and the antineoplastic compound camptothecin, and showed different levels of cytotoxicity. The effects of structural changes on cytotoxic activity, including geranyl substitution of the flavanone skeleton and the oxidation pattern of ring B of the flavanones, are discussed.

  2. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) of Rosales trees in Iran: two new species and three new records.

    PubMed

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; De Lillo, Enrico

    2014-09-11

    This paper describes two new species of Eriophyoidea associated with trees belonging to the order Rosales in the south-western portion of East Azerbaijan province, Iran, collected during a survey in 2011: Aceria lobolinguae n. sp. on Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae) and Rhinophytoptus nemalobos n. sp. on Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae). Additionally, Phyllocoptes abaenus Keifer on Prunus armeniaca L. (Rosaceae), Aculus fockeui (Nalepa & Trouessart) on Prunus amygdalus Stokes and Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), and Aceria mori (Keifer) on Morus alba L. (Moraceae) were collected and are new records for the mite fauna of Iran. New locality records and host plant data are provided for Eriophyes similis (Nalepa), Eriophyes pyri (Pagenstecher) and Calepitrimerus baileyi (Keifer) which are eriophyoid species previously known from Iran. 

  3. Quantitative determination of 1-deoxynojirimycin in mulberry leaves using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nuengchamnong, Nitra; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Kaewruang, Wiroje; Wongareonwanakij, Sathaporn; Hongthongdaeng, Bhinai

    2007-08-15

    A novel HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative determination of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent glucosidase inhibitor present in mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.). DNJ was isolated from the mulberry leave extract on a TSKgel Amide-80 column using a mixture of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization source in a positive ion mode under multiple reaction monitoring with the [M+H]+ ions, m/z 164.4/109.9 was used. The detection limit (S/N=3) was 75 pg and quantitation limit (S/N=10) was 100 pg. The comparison of mulberry leaves of different ages showed that the DNJ level was higher in mulberry shoots than young and mature leaves.

  4. Bioactive compounds and sensory quality of black and white mulberries grown in Spain.

    PubMed

    Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Martínez-Nicolás, Juan José; Munera-Picazo, Sandra; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare, for the first time, white and black mulberry species in terms of main phytochemical, volatile composition and sensory profile characteristics in eight Spanish clones. The results showed that black and white mulberry species displayed significant different characteristics. PLS analysis has allowed grouping of the clones into four groups (i) MA1, MA2 and MN2, (ii) MN3 and MN4, (iii) MA3 and MA4, and (iv) MN1. Experimental results proved that Spanish mulberries have potential for fresh consumption due to their high antioxidant capacity (10.7-86.1 mg Trolox 100 g(-1)), polyphenol (76.7-180 mg gallic acid 100 g(-1)) and ellagic acid content (8.7-15.5 mg 100 g(-1)) as well as considerable amount of volatile compounds (35) with desirable attributes, which were scored high by a trained panel. Cultivars from the Morus nigra species seem to provide fruits with higher content of bioactive compounds and better aptitude for fresh consumption than Morus alba. Differences among the species should be attributed to genetics because they were cultivated under same conditions.

  5. Effect of Cultivar, Temperature, and Environmental Conditions on the Dynamic Change of Melatonin in Mulberry Fruit Development and Wine Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Yin, Li-Yuan; Shi, Xue-Ying; Xiao, Hua; Kang, Kun; Liu, Xing-Yan; Zhan, Ji-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2016-04-01

    High levels of melatonin have been reported in various foods but not in mulberry or its wine. This study investigated the dynamic changes of melatonin levels during mulberry fruit development and ethanol fermentation of 2 different colored mulberry cultivars ("Hongguo2ˮ Morus nigra, black and "Baiyuwangˮ Morus alba, white) at 2 fermentation temperatures (16 and 25 °C). Our results showed that the melatonin level increased in the beginning of mulberry development but decreased in the end. The MnTDC gene expression level correlated with melatonin production, which implied that TDC may be the rate-limiting enzyme of the melatonin biosynthetic process in mulberries. During mulberry fermentation, the melatonin concentration increased rapidly in the beginning and then decreased gradually. Low temperature delayed the melatonin production during fermentation. A relatively high level of melatonin was found in "Hongguo2ˮ compared with "Baiyuwangˮ during fruit development and fermentation. The variation of melatonin correlated with the ethanol production rate, suggesting that melatonin may participate in physiological regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentation stage.

  6. Anti-microbial principles of selected remedial plants from Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Tirupathi, Rao G; Suresh, Babu K; Ujwal, Kumar J; Sujana, P; Raoa, A Veerabhadr; Sreedhar, AS

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the anti-bacterial activity of leaf extracts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Piper betel L. (Piperaceae), and seed extracts of Bombax ceiba L. (Borabacaceae). Methods We have partially purified plant extracts by solvent extraction method, and evaluated the effect of individual fractions on bacterial growth using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacterial strains. Results Compared with Morus and Bombax fractions, Piper fractions showed significant growth inhibition on all the three types of bacteria studied. The EtOAc-hexane fractions of Piper leaves exhibited significant anti-bacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 50 µg/mL culture against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The EtOAc-fractions I, II, and IV inhibited bacterial colony formation on soft agar in addition to growth inhibition. A combination treatment of piper fractions with ampicillin resulted in significant growth inhibition in E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and combination with anticancer drug geldanamycin (2µg/mL) showed selective growth inhibition against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Three major compounds, i.e., eugenol, 3-hexene-ol and stigmasterol, were primarily identified from