Science.gov

Sample records for mosaicism

  1. Mosaicism

    MedlinePlus

    ... different genetic makeup. This condition can affect any type of cell, including: Blood cells Egg and sperm cells Skin cells Causes Mosaicism is caused by an error in cell division very early in the development of the unborn baby. Examples of mosaicism include: ...

  2. Mosaic Horses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudecki, Maryanna

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a lesson inspired by Sicilian mosaics. The author first presented a PowerPoint presentation of mosaics from the Villa Romana del Casale and reviewed complementary and analogous colors. Students then created mosaics using a variety of art materials. They presented their work to their peers and discussed the thought and…

  3. Mosaic Horses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudecki, Maryanna

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a lesson inspired by Sicilian mosaics. The author first presented a PowerPoint presentation of mosaics from the Villa Romana del Casale and reviewed complementary and analogous colors. Students then created mosaics using a variety of art materials. They presented their work to their peers and discussed the thought and…

  4. Garden Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ann Marie; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes Garden Mosaics, a program funded by the National Science Foundation. Garden Mosaics combines science learning with intergenerational mentoring, multicultural understanding, and community service. The program's mission is "connecting youth and elders to explore the mosaics of plants, people, and cultures in gardens, to learn…

  5. Garden Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ann Marie; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes Garden Mosaics, a program funded by the National Science Foundation. Garden Mosaics combines science learning with intergenerational mentoring, multicultural understanding, and community service. The program's mission is "connecting youth and elders to explore the mosaics of plants, people, and cultures in gardens, to learn…

  6. Mosaic Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldauf, Annemarie

    2012-01-01

    Through the generosity of a Lowes Toolbox for Education Grant and a grant from the Bill Graham Foundation, an interdisciplinary mosaic mural was created and installed at Riverview Middle School in Bay Point, California. The actual mural, which featured a theme of nurturing students through music, art, sports, science, and math, took about three…

  7. A Question of Mosaics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrasjid, Dorine

    1983-01-01

    At the Grand Royal Palace Compound in Bangkok, mosaics speak to art teachers in new forms. Thai culture can be linked to the study of mosaics, inspire subject matter, and lead to new approaches in mosaic work. (AM)

  8. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  9. CCD Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, D.

    2002-05-01

    First-generation CCD cameras were relatively small (32k pixels to 90k pixels). Photographic film, in comparison, has literally millions of indivi- dual grains. In a practical sense, however, the resolution of a typical film image is about six megapixel. Nevertheless, this is over 60X larger than a first-generation camera. So while the high sensitivity of a CCD camera made it very effective for high resolution imaging, it could not compare with photographic film for wide field imaging. Commercially available CCD cameras now range up to 16 megapixel. Unfortun- ately, these large arrays come at an extremely high cost. Fortunately, 1-2 megapixel cameras are available in a price range within reach of many amateur astronomers. With this size of array, building 6-20 megapixel or larger mosaics is quite possible using suitable equipment.

  10. Monosomy 22 with mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Moghe, M S; Patel, Z M; Peter, J J; Ambani, L M

    1981-01-01

    A 2-year-old male child with mosaicism for monosomy of chromosome 22 is described. He had moderate psychomotor retardation, generalised hypotonia, large ears, epicanthus, synophrys, and cutaneous syndactyly between all the fingers. Images PMID:7253004

  11. Mosaic tetrasomy 8p.

    PubMed

    Newton, D; Hammond, L; Wiley, J; Kushnick, T

    1993-06-15

    We report on a patient with mosaic tetrasomy 8p [46,XX/47,XX+i(8p)]. The patient has 2 fused vertebrae, abnormal ribs, congenital heart defects, agenesis of corpus callosum, hypotonia, and delayed development. The patient's developmental delays are most marked in receptive and expressive language skills, with more moderate delays on cognitive, sensorimotor, and motor skill testing. These findings are similar to those of the 3 previously reported patients with mosaic i(8p).

  12. Generalized mosaicing: polarization panorama.

    PubMed

    Schechner, Yoav Y; Nayar, Shree K

    2005-04-01

    We present an approach to image the polarization state of object points in a wide field of view, while enhancing the radiometric dynamic range of maging systems by generalizing image mosaicing. The approach is biologically-inspired, as it emulates spatially varying polarization sensitivity of some animals. In our method, a spatially varying polarization and attenuation filter is rigidly attached to a camera. As the system moves, it senses each scene point multiple times, each time filtering it through a different filter polarizing angle, polarizance, and transmittance. Polarization is an additional dimension of the generalized mosaicing paradigm, which has recently yielded high dynamic range images and multispectral images in a wide field of view using other kinds of filters. The image acquisition is as easy as in traditional image mosaics. The computational algorithm can easily handle nonideal polarization filters (partial polarizers), variable exposures, and saturation in a single framework. The resulting mosaic represents the polarization state at each scene point. Using data acquired by this method, we demonstrate attenuation and enhancement of specular reflections and semireflection separation in an image mosaic.

  13. MOSAIC: a new wavefront metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher; Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-02-02

    MOSAIC is a new wavefront metrology that enables complete wavefront characterization from print or aerial image based measurements. Here we describe MOSAIC and verify its utility with a model-based proof of principle.

  14. Parental trisomy 21 mosaicism.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D J; Begleiter, M L; Chamberlin, J; Hankins, L; Magenis, R E

    1982-01-01

    A family with three children with trisomy 21 in which the mother is a phenotypically normal, trisomy 21/normal mosaic was studied. Chromosome 21 fluorescent heteromorphisms were used to document that two of the three number 21's in two of the Down syndrome offspring were of maternal origin. Five cytogenetic surveys in which both parents of a child with trisomy 21 were studied have been reviewed. From these data, it is estimated that 3% of couples producing a child with trisomy 21 can be explained by parental mosaicism. From 17 informative sibships, with one parent mosaic, the segregation ratio was estimated to be 0.43 +/- 0.11. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6211090

  15. Moon - North Pole Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-05

    This view of the Moon north pole is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by NASA's Galileo imaging system through a green filter as the spacecraft flew by on December 7, 1992. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00130

  16. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This false-color mosaic of part of the Moon was constructed from 54 images taken by the imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo as the spacecraft flew past the Moon on December 7, 1992. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00129

  17. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

  18. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

  19. Handmade Tile Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Just like the classroom, children's outdoor environments should be filled with artistic creations that add sparkle and imagination to the space. One of the author's favorite ways to add art to the outdoors is by installing a mosaic mural of child-made tiles. The process of making the tiles is fun for all; each tile is a charming work of art in…

  20. NIMS Callisto Global Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-26

    NASA Galileo spacecraft acquired this global mosaic right during Galileo third orbit on Nov. 4, 1996. The lighter bluish area in the upper latitudes is the Asgard multi-ring structure with crater Burr to the north and Tornasuk to the east.

  1. Earth - Antarctica Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-01

    This color picture of the limb of the Earth, looking north past Antarctica, is a mosaic of 11 images taken during a ten-minute period near 5:45 p.m. PST Dec. 8, 1990, by NASA’s Galileo imaging system. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00116

  2. Restoring the subalpine mosaic

    Treesearch

    Ward McCaughey; Cathy Stewart; Colin. Hardy

    1996-01-01

    Fire dependent lodgepole pine communities are an important component of upper elevation forests of the Bitterroot Mountains and the Northern Rockies in generaL A study of 1937 aerial photos from the Bitterroot National Forest is describing the pre- 1900 disturbances that shaped lodgepole pine mosaics, The 1937 photos will be compared with stand history information...

  3. Middle East Mosaic

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... camera (right) are comprised of data covering World Reference System-2 paths 165-179 for the period August 16 - August 30, ... mosaic. Because these images are created from 400-kilometer wide orbital swaths acquired on different dates, discontinuities are visible ...

  4. Large-Scale Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Greater Latrobe Senior High School in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, is a school where art is supported both by the administration and the local community. While the school was undergoing renovations, this author was given the task of creating a six-foot round mosaic in the entrance of the school. The design was to be student-created and was to represent…

  5. Apple mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  6. Large-Scale Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Greater Latrobe Senior High School in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, is a school where art is supported both by the administration and the local community. While the school was undergoing renovations, this author was given the task of creating a six-foot round mosaic in the entrance of the school. The design was to be student-created and was to represent…

  7. Mosaics and moles

    PubMed Central

    Sunde, Lone; Niemann, Isa; Hansen, Estrid Staehr; Hindkjaer, Johnny; Degn, Birte; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Bolund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Hydatidiform mole (HM) is an abnormal human pregnancy, where the placenta presents with vesicular swelling of the chorionic villi. A fetus is either not present, or malformed and not viable. Most moles are diploid androgenetic as if one spermatozoon fertilized an empty oocyte, or triploid with one maternal and two paternal chromosome sets as if two spermatozoa fertilized a normal oocyte. However, diploid moles with both paternal and maternal markers of the nuclear genome have been reported. Among 162 consecutively collected diploid moles, we have earlier found indications of both maternal and paternal genomes in 11. In the present study, we have performed detailed analysis of DNA-markers in tissue and single cells from these 11 HMs. In 3/11, we identified one biparental cell population only, whereas in 8/11, we demonstrated mosaicism: one biparental cell population and one androgenetic cell population. One mosaic mole was followed by persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). In seven of the mosaics, one spermatozoon appeared to have contributed to the genomes of both cell types. Our observations make it likely that mosaic conceptuses, encompassing an androgenetic cell population, result from various postzygotic abnormalities, including paternal pronuclear duplication, asymmetric cytokinesis, and postzygotic diploidization. This corroborates the suggestion that fertilization of an empty egg is not mandatory for the creation of an androgenetic cell population. Future studies of mosaic conceptuses may disclose details about fertilization, early cell divisions and differentiation. Apparently, only a minority of diploid moles with both paternal and maternal markers are ‘genuine' diploid biparental moles (DiBiparHMs). PMID:21654731

  8. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic of part of the Moon was constructed from 54 images taken by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew past the Moon on December 7, 1992. The mosaic images were processed to exaggerate the colors of the lunar surface for analytical purposes. Titanium-rich soils, typical of the Apollo 11 landing site, appear blue, as seen in Mare Tranquillitatis, left side; soils lower in titanium appear orange, as seen in Mare Serenitatis, center right. Most of the lunar highlands appear red, indicating their low titanium and iron composition. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  9. Moon - North Pole Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Moon's north pole is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by Galileo's imaging system through a green filter as the spacecraft flew by on December 7, 1992. The left part of the Moon is visible from Earth; this region includes the dark, lava-filled Mare Imbrium (upper left); Mare Serenitatis (middle left); Mare Tranquillitatis (lower left), and Mare Crisium, the dark circular feature toward the bottom of the mosaic. Also visible in this view are the dark lava plains of the Marginis and Smythii Basins at the lower right. The Humboldtianum Basin, a 650-kilometer (400-mile) impact structure partly filled with dark volcanic deposits, is seen at the center of the image. The Moon's north pole is located just inside the shadow zone, about a third of the way from the top left of the illuminated region.

  10. In Situ Mosaic Brightness Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Lorre, Jean J.

    2012-01-01

    In situ missions typically have pointable, mast-mounted cameras, which are capable of taking panoramic mosaics comprised of many individual frames. These frames are mosaicked together. While the mosaic software applies radiometric correction to the images, in many cases brightness/contrast seams still exist between frames. This is largely due to errors in the radiometric correction, and the absence of correction for photometric effects in the mosaic processing chain. The software analyzes the overlaps between adjacent frames in the mosaic and determines correction factors for each image in an attempt to reduce or eliminate these brightness seams.

  11. Center of parcel with mosaics. Mosaics consist of everyday throwaway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center of parcel with mosaics. Mosaics consist of everyday throwaway objects of all kinds set in concrete mortar on ground. Leaning Tower of Bottle Village in front of Rumpus Room primary façade with 12' scale (in tenths). Camera facing north. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  12. Global Mercator Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-04

    Io's volcanic plains are shown in this Voyager 1 image mosaic which covers the area roughly from latitude 60 degrees N. to latitude 60 degrees S. and longitude 100-345. North is up. Numerous volcanic calderas, lava flows, and volcanic eruption plumes are visible here. The composition of Io's volcanic plains and lava flows has not been determined, but they could consist dominantly of sulfur with surface frosts of sulfur dioxide or of silicates (such as basalt) encrusted with sulfur and sulfur dioxide condensates. The bright whitish patches probably consist of freshly deposited sulfur dioxide frost. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00319

  13. The genetic mosaic.

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, G

    1993-01-01

    Blaschko's lines are the acknowledged markers which represent the patterns of systematized naevi. Their interpretation has remained mysterious, because certain special features which they exhibit are impossible to reconcile with any known anatomical system in the human body. It is proposed that by changing one's views on the nature and growth of the dermatome, the patterns of zoster, and the behaviour of tissue mosaicism, the major difficulties hitherto experienced will be overcome. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. (a) Figure 3. (b) Figure 3. (c) Figure 3. (d) Figure 4a Figure 4b Figure 4c PMID:8505730

  14. USGS Alaska State Mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska State Mosaic consists of portions of scenes from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics 2001 (MRLC 2001) collection. The 172 selected scenes have been geometrically and radiometrically aligned to produce a seamless, relatively cloud-free image of the State. The scenes were acquired between July 1999 and September 2002, resampled to 120-meter pixels, and cropped to the State boundary. They were reprojected into a standard Alaska Albers projection with the U.S. National Elevation Dataset (NED) used to correct for relief.

  15. Rock Garden Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image mosaic of part of the 'Rock Garden' was taken by the Sojourner rover's left front camera on Sol 71 (September 14). The rock 'Shark' is at left center and 'Half Dome' is at right. Fine-scale textures on the rocks are clearly seen. Broken crust-like material is visible at bottom center.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  16. Color Mosaic of Olympus Mons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-04

    Color mosaic of Olympus Mons volcano on Mars from the Viking 1 Orbiter. The mosaic was created using images from orbit 735 taken 22 June 1978. Olympus Mons is about 600 km in diameter and the summit caldera is 24 km above the surrounding plains.

  17. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Description Fact sheet introduces the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) with images from a section of the mosaic over McMurdo Station, descriptions of the four versions of LIMA, where to access and download LIMA, and a brief explanation of the Antarctic Web portal.

  18. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  19. Satellite Image Mosaic Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2006-01-01

    A computer program automatically builds large, full-resolution mosaics of multispectral images of Earth landmasses from images acquired by Landsat 7, complete with matching of colors and blending between adjacent scenes. While the code has been used extensively for Landsat, it could also be used for other data sources. A single mosaic of as many as 8,000 scenes, represented by more than 5 terabytes of data and the largest set produced in this work, demonstrated what the code could do to provide global coverage. The program first statistically analyzes input images to determine areas of coverage and data-value distributions. It then transforms the input images from their original universal transverse Mercator coordinates to other geographical coordinates, with scaling. It applies a first-order polynomial brightness correction to each band in each scene. It uses a data-mask image for selecting data and blending of input scenes. Under control by a user, the program can be made to operate on small parts of the output image space, with check-point and restart capabilities. The program runs on SGI IRIX computers. It is capable of parallel processing using shared-memory code, large memories, and tens of central processing units. It can retrieve input data and store output data at locations remote from the processors on which it is executed.

  20. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  1. Moon - 18 Image Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This mosaic picture of the Moon was compiled from 18 images taken with a green filter by Galileo's imaging system during the spacecraft's flyby on December 7, 1992, some 11 hours before its Earth flyby at 1509 UTC (7:09 a.m. Pacific Standard Time) December 8. The north polar region is near the top part of the mosaic, which also shows Mare Imbrium, the dark area on the left; Mare Serenitatis at center; and Mare Crisium, the circular dark area to the right. Bright crater rim and ray deposits are from Copernicus, an impact crater 96 kilometers (60 miles) in diameter. Computer processing has exaggerated the brightness of poorly illuminated features near the day/night terminator in the polar regions, giving a false impression of high reflectivity there. The digital image processing was done by DLR the German aerospace research establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  2. Composing mosaic holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Paula H.

    2004-06-01

    The division of a picture surface into discrete units makes it possible to structure an image in a unique way. Holographic imaging processes which employ computer graphics as subject matter frequently employ sequential exposures to small sections of the hologram plate or film. The making of complete holograms from hundreds of small slices or squares has been refined in recent years to enable millions of 1mm hologram pixels to be successfully exposed to make one visually continuous three-dimensional scene. These techniques of making one hologram through the exposure of thousands of discrete image elements enables the subject and its lighting to be shaped and changed very subtlety over every tiny picture unit. In some ways the small holographic pixels of fringe digital holograms are similar to the glass and gilded tesserae of early mosaic art works. This paper compares the different compositional possibilities between early glass and gold mosaics, optically formed fringe digital holograms and my optical and recent tesserae holograms. This recent use of small hologram fragments with gilding and silvering is set against the context of the interrelationship of artistic pictorial style and the technical evolution of holographic image making.

  3. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-23

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes. Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the "texture" of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of the

  4. Registration assisted mosaic generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorre, Jean J.; Handley, Thomas H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a general strategy for assembling mosaics from numerous individual images where uncertainty exists in the position and orientation of those images. Both of the presented applications relate to remotely operated camera platforms, the first being the Galileo solid state imaging (SSI) camera presently in orbit around Jupiter, and the second being the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) stereo camera on Mars. A basic strategy in both applications is to determine the correct relative camera pointing followed by direct map projection of the images. It is assumed that approximate camera pointing exists sufficient to locate adjacent images and to place initial tiepoints within reach of the correlator. Spatial correlation is used to fix tiepoints whose initial locations are predicted by the camera pointing. We use either an fast fourier transform (fft) algorithm or a variant of Gruen's scheme permitting limited image rotation and skew. The Gruen correlator has three hierarchical modes: 1) A classical spatial least squares correlation on integral pixel boundaries used when rotation is small. 2) An annealing non-deterministic search used when rotations are unknown. A simplex deterministic search used for the end game. The correlation operation can be performed either interactively or autonomously. The final camera pointing solution relies upon a simplex downhill search in 2n or 3n dimensions where n is the number of images comprising the mosaic and the objective function to be minimized is the disagreement between tiepoint locations predicted from the camera pointing with those observed by the correlator. For Galileo the 3n unknowns are euler angles defining camera pointing in planet coordinates, and for Mars Pathfinder they are 2n unknowns representing commanded azimuth and elevation in the Lander coordinate system.

  5. The Viking Mosaic Catalog, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, N.

    1982-01-01

    A collection of more than 500 mosaics prepared from Viking Orbiter images is given. Accompanying each mosaic is a footprint plot, which identifies by location, picture number, and order number, each frame in the mosaic. Corner coordinates and pertinent imaging information are also included. A short text provides the camera characteristics, image format, and data processing information necessary for using the mosaic plates as a research aide. Procedures for ordering mosaic enlargements and individual images are also provided.

  6. Viking Lander Mosaics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Viking Lander 1 and 2 cameras acquired many high-resolution pictures of the Chryse Planitia and Utopia Planitia landing sites. Based on computer-processed data of a selected number of these pictures, eight high-resolution mosaics were published by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the Atlas of Mars, Miscellaneous Investigation Series. The mosaics are composites of the best picture elements (pixels) of all the Lander pictures used. Each complete mosaic extends 342.5 deg in azimuth, from approximately 5 deg above the horizon to 60 deg below, and incorporates approximately 15 million pixels. Each mosaic is shown in a set of five sheets. One sheet contains the full panorama from one camera taken in either morning or evening. The other four sheets show sectors of the panorama at an enlarged scale; when joined together they make a panorama approximately 2' X 9'.

  7. Mars Image Collection Mosaic Builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian; Hare, Trent

    2008-01-01

    A computer program assembles images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) collection to generate a uniform-high-resolution, georeferenced, uncontrolled mosaic image of the Martian surface. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the mosaic covered 7 percent of the Martian surface and contained data from more than 50,000 source images acquired under various light conditions at various resolutions.

  8. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of

  9. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of

  10. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

  11. Full Jupiter Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of Jupiter is produced from a 2x2 mosaic of photos taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), and assembled by the LORRI team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The telescopic camera snapped the images during a 3-minute, 35-second span on February 10, when the spacecraft was 29 million kilometers (18 million miles) from Jupiter. At this distance, Jupiter's diameter was 1,015 LORRI pixels -- nearly filling the imager's entire (1,024-by-1,024 pixel) field of view. Features as small as 290 kilometers (180 miles) are visible.

    Both the Great Red Spot and Little Red Spot are visible in the image, on the left and lower right, respectively. The apparent 'storm' on the planet's right limb is a section of the south tropical zone that has been detached from the region to its west (or left) by a 'disturbance' that scientists and amateur astronomers are watching closely.

    At the time LORRI took these images, New Horizons was 820 million kilometers (510 million miles) from home -- nearly 51/2 times the distance between the Sun and Earth. This is the last full-disk image of Jupiter LORRI will produce, since Jupiter is appearing larger as New Horizons draws closer, and the imager will start to focus on specific areas of the planet for higher-resolution studies.

  12. MOSAIC: Software for creating mosaics from collections of images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varosi, F.; Gezari, D. Y.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a powerful, versatile image processing and analysis software package called MOSAIC, designed specifically for the manipulation of digital astronomical image data obtained with (but not limited to) two-dimensional array detectors. The software package is implemented using the Interactive Data Language (IDL), and incorporates new methods for processing, calibration, analysis, and visualization of astronomical image data, stressing effective methods for the creation of mosaic images from collections of individual exposures, while at the same time preserving the photometric integrity of the original data. Since IDL is available on many computers, the MOSAIC software runs on most UNIX and VAX workstations with the X-Windows or Sun View graphics interface.

  13. Mars Digital Image Mosaic Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The photomosaic that forms the base for this globe was created by merging two global digital image models (DIM's) of Mars-a medium-resolution monochrome mosaic processed to emphasize topographic features and a lower resolution color mosaic emphasizing color and albedo variations.

    The medium-resolution (1/256 or roughly 231 m/pixel) monochromatic image model was constructed from about 6,000 images having resolutions of 150-350 m/pixel and oblique illumination (Sun 20 o -45 o above the horizon). Radiometric processing was intended to suppress or remove the effects of albedo variations through the use of a high-pass divide filter, followed by photometric normalization so that the contrast of a given topographic slope would be approximately the same in all images.

    The global color mosaic was assembled at 1/64 or roughly 864 m/pixel from about 1,000 red- and green-filter images having 500-1,000 m/pixel resolution. These images were first mosaiced in groups, each taken on a single orbit of the Viking spacecraft. The orbit mosaics were then processed to remove spatially and temporally varying atmospheric haze in the overlap regions. After haze removal, the per-orbit mosaics were photometrically normalized to equalize the contrast of albedo features and mosaiced together with cosmetic seam removal. The medium-resolution DIM was used for geometric control of this color mosaic. A green-filter image was synthesized by weighted averaging of the red- and violet-filter mosaics. Finally, the product seen here was obtained by multiplying each color image by the medium-resolution monochrome image. The color balance selected for images in this map series was designed to be close to natural color for brighter, redder regions, such as Arabia Terra and the Tharsis region, but the data have been stretched so that the relatively dark regions appear darker and less red than they actually are.

    The images are presented in a projection that portrays the entire surface of Mars in a

  14. Mars Digital Image Mosaic Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The photomosaic that forms the base for this globe was created by merging two global digital image models (DIM's) of Mars-a medium-resolution monochrome mosaic processed to emphasize topographic features and a lower resolution color mosaic emphasizing color and albedo variations.

    The medium-resolution (1/256 or roughly 231 m/pixel) monochromatic image model was constructed from about 6,000 images having resolutions of 150-350 m/pixel and oblique illumination (Sun 20 o -45 o above the horizon). Radiometric processing was intended to suppress or remove the effects of albedo variations through the use of a high-pass divide filter, followed by photometric normalization so that the contrast of a given topographic slope would be approximately the same in all images.

    The global color mosaic was assembled at 1/64 or roughly 864 m/pixel from about 1,000 red- and green-filter images having 500-1,000 m/pixel resolution. These images were first mosaiced in groups, each taken on a single orbit of the Viking spacecraft. The orbit mosaics were then processed to remove spatially and temporally varying atmospheric haze in the overlap regions. After haze removal, the per-orbit mosaics were photometrically normalized to equalize the contrast of albedo features and mosaiced together with cosmetic seam removal. The medium-resolution DIM was used for geometric control of this color mosaic. A green-filter image was synthesized by weighted averaging of the red- and violet-filter mosaics. Finally, the product seen here was obtained by multiplying each color image by the medium-resolution monochrome image. The color balance selected for images in this map series was designed to be close to natural color for brighter, redder regions, such as Arabia Terra and the Tharsis region, but the data have been stretched so that the relatively dark regions appear darker and less red than they actually are.

    The images are presented in a projection that portrays the entire surface of Mars in a

  15. Neurocutaneous Manifestations of Genetic Mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    van Steensel, Maurice A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mosaicism is defined as the presence of two or more genetically distinct cell populations in a single individual. Ever more disorders are found to be manifestations of mosaicism and together constitute a significant proportion of the morbidity confronting pediatric specialists. An emerging category is that of overgrowth syndromes with skin manifestations and neurological or developmental abnormalities, such as the well-known Proteus syndrome. In recent years, we have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of these disorders and we now know the genetic basis of many of them. This has profound consequences for diagnosis, counselling, and even treatment, with therapies targeted to specific pathways becoming available for clinical use. Recognizing such overgrowth syndromes, therefore, is more important than ever. Fortunately, their skin manifestations can provide important diagnostic clues when evaluated in the entire phenotypic context. In this review, I provide an overview of the most frequently seen mosaic neurocutaneous phenotypes and discuss their molecular basis. PMID:27617125

  16. Modern Mosaics: From Mundane Materials to Magnificence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basso, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Provides historical background on mosaics. Describes an art activity in which students create their own mosaics. Discusses what the students can use as material to make the project much more cost effective and explains the process of creating the mosaics in detail. (CMK)

  17. Mosaic of coded aperture arrays

    DOEpatents

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Cannon, Thomas M.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a mosaic of coded aperture arrays which is capable of imaging off-axis sources with minimum detector size. Mosaics of the basic array pattern create a circular on periodic correlation of the object on a section of the picture plane. This section consists of elements of the central basic pattern as well as elements from neighboring patterns and is a cyclic version of the basic pattern. Since all object points contribute a complete cyclic version of the basic pattern, a section of the picture, which is the size of the basic aperture pattern, contains all the information necessary to image the object with no artifacts.

  18. Cassini "Noodle" Mosaic of Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-24

    This mosaic of images combines views captured by NASA's Cassini spacecraft as it made the first dive of the mission's Grand Finale on April 26, 2017. It shows a vast swath of Saturn's atmosphere, from the north polar vortex to the boundary of the hexagon-shaped jet stream, to details in bands and swirls at middle latitudes and beyond. The mosaic is a composite of 137 images captured as Cassini made its first dive toward the gap between Saturn and its rings. It is an update to a previously released image product. In the earlier version, the images were presented as individual movie frames, whereas here, they have been combined into a single, continuous mosaic. The mosaic is presented as a still image as well as a video that pans across its length. Imaging scientists referred to this long, narrow mosaic as a "noodle" in planning the image sequence. The first frame of the mosaic is centered on Saturn's north pole, and the last frame is centered on a region at 18 degrees north latitude. During the dive, the spacecraft's altitude above the clouds changed from 45,000 to 3,200 miles (72,400 to 8374 kilometers), while the image scale changed from 5.4 miles (8.7 kilometers) per pixel to 0.6 mile (1 kilometer) per pixel. The bottom of the mosaic (near the end of the movie) has a curved shape. This is where the spacecraft rotated to point its high-gain antenna in the direction of motion as a protective measure before crossing Saturn's ring plane. The images in this sequence were captured in visible light using the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera. The original versions of these images, as sent by the spacecraft, have a size of 512 by 512 pixels. The small image size was chosen in order to allow the camera to take images quickly as Cassini sped over Saturn. These images of the planet's curved surface were projected onto a flat plane before being combined into a mosaic. Each image was mapped in stereographic projection centered at 55 degree north latitude. A movie is

  19. Cucumber mosaic virus in Rubus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been reported on red raspberry in Chile, Scotland and the Soviet Union and in Chile on blackberry. Its occurrence in Rubus is rare and seems to cause little damage. Except for one early, unconfirmed report, CMV has not been reported on Rubus in North America. This vir...

  20. Map characteristics of Landsat mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Map characteristics of the Landsat mosaics developed at JPL are considered. Procedures for digital mosaicking of Landsat frames to standard map projections were used to mosaic at full resolution ten scenes over the California desert region and twenty-one scenes over Arizona. The procedures are analyzed for horizontal positioning error (global and local) and the potential for classification error associated with the adjustment of brightness of Z values between frames; the use of this technology for the mapping of extensive features is discussed. Mosaicking facilities, techniques, mapping accuracy, and thematic mapping characteristics are described. A comparative analysis of Landsat mosaicking technology developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, IBM Gaithersburg, and USGS Flagstaff is made, and suggestions are given for algorithm development to improve systems capacity and ability to handle a variety of cases.

  1. Map characteristics of Landsat mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Map characteristics of the Landsat mosaics developed at JPL are considered. Procedures for digital mosaicking of Landsat frames to standard map projections were used to mosaic at full resolution ten scenes over the California desert region and twenty-one scenes over Arizona. The procedures are analyzed for horizontal positioning error (global and local) and the potential for classification error associated with the adjustment of brightness of Z values between frames; the use of this technology for the mapping of extensive features is discussed. Mosaicking facilities, techniques, mapping accuracy, and thematic mapping characteristics are described. A comparative analysis of Landsat mosaicking technology developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, IBM Gaithersburg, and USGS Flagstaff is made, and suggestions are given for algorithm development to improve systems capacity and ability to handle a variety of cases.

  2. Io 2x2 Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Perhaps the most spectacular of all the Voyager photos of Io is this mosaic obtained by Voyager 1 on March 5 at a range of 400,000 kilometers. A great variety of color and albedo is seen on the surface, now thought to be the result of surface deposits of various forms of sulfur and sulfur dioxide. The two great volcanoes Pele and Loki (upper left) are prominent.

  3. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic...

  4. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic...

  5. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic...

  6. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic...

  7. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic...

  8. Trisomy 4 mosaicism: Delineation of the phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bouman, Arjan; van der Kevie-Kersemaekers, Anne-Marie; Huijsdens-van Amsterdam, Karin; Dahhan, Nordin; Knegt, Lia; Vansenne, Fleur; Cobben, Jan Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Trisomy 4 mosaicism in liveborns is very rare. We describe a 17-month-old girl with trisomy 4 mosaicism. Clinical findings in this patient are compared to previously reported patients. Based on the few descriptions available in the literature the common phenotype of trisomy 4 mosaicism seems to consist of IUGR, low birth weight/length/OFC, congenital heart defects, characteristic thumb anomalies (aplasia/hypoplasia), skin abnormalities (hypo-/hyperpigmentation), several dysmorphic features, and likely some degree of intellectual disability. When trisomy 4 mosaicism is suspected clinicians should be aware that a normal karyotype in lymphocytes does not exclude mosaicism for trisomy 4. This report contributes to a further delineation of the phenotype associated with trisomy 4 mosaicism.

  9. Mosaic trisomy 13 and a sacral appendage.

    PubMed

    Pachajoa, Harry; Meza Escobar, Luis Enrique

    2013-07-31

    Mosaic trisomy 13 occurs when there is a percentage of trisomic cells for an entire chromosome 13, while the remaining percentage of cells is euploid. The prevalence of this syndrome ranges from 1 in 10 000 to 1 in 20 000 births. Complete, partial or mosaic forms of this disorder can occur. The phenotype of mosaic trisomy 13 patients varies widely. Patients with mosaic trisomy 13 usually have a longer survival and a less severe phenotype compared to patients with complete trisomy 13. Genetic counselling is difficult due to the wide variation among the clinical manifestations of these patients. There have been 49 cases of mosaic trisomy 13 reported in the literature. We report the case of a patient with mosaic trisomy 13, a sacral appendage and a cleft lip and palate.

  10. Mosaic trisomy 13 and a sacral appendage

    PubMed Central

    Pachajoa, Harry; Meza Escobar, Luis Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Mosaic trisomy 13 occurs when there is a percentage of trisomic cells for an entire chromosome 13, while the remaining percentage of cells is euploid. The prevalence of this syndrome ranges from 1 in 10 000 to 1 in 20 000 births. Complete, partial or mosaic forms of this disorder can occur. The phenotype of mosaic trisomy 13 patients varies widely. Patients with mosaic trisomy 13 usually have a longer survival and a less severe phenotype compared to patients with complete trisomy 13. Genetic counselling is difficult due to the wide variation among the clinical manifestations of these patients. There have been 49 cases of mosaic trisomy 13 reported in the literature. We report the case of a patient with mosaic trisomy 13, a sacral appendage and a cleft lip and palate. PMID:23904413

  11. Near Global Mosaic of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K. J.; Robinson, M. S.; Becker, T. L.; Weller, L. A.; Turner, S.; Nguyen, L.; Selby, C.; Denevi, B. W.; Murchie, S. L.; McNutt, R. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008 the MESSENGER spacecraft made two close flybys (M1 and M2) of Mercury and imaged about 74% of the planet at a resolution of 1 km per pixel, and at higher resolution for smaller portions of the planet. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged about 42% of Mercury’s surface more than 30 years ago. Combining image data collected by the two missions yields coverage of about 83% of Mercury’s surface. MESSENGER will perform its third and final flyby of Mercury (M3) on 29 September 2009. This will yield approximately 86% coverage of Mercury, leaving only the north and south polar regions yet to be imaged by MESSENGER after orbit insertion in March 2011. A new global mosaic of Mercury was constructed using 325 images containing 3566 control points (8110 measures) from M1 and 225 images containing 1465 control points (3506 measures) from M2. The M3 flyby is shifted in subsolar longitude only by 4° from M2, so the added coverage is very small. However, this small slice of Mercury fills a gore in the mosaic between the M1 and M2 data and allows a complete cartographic tie around the equator. We will run a new bundle block adjustment with the additional images acquired from M3. This new edition of the MESSENGER Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) global mosaic of Mercury includes many improvements since the M2 flyby in October 2008. A new distortion model for the NAC camera greatly improves the image-to-image registration. Optical distortion correction is independent of pointing error correction, and both are required for a mosaic of high quality. The new distortion model alone reduced residual pointing errors for both flybys significantly; residual pixel error improved from 0.71 average (3.7 max) to 0.13 average (1.7 max) for M1 and from 0.72 average (4.8 max.) to 0.17 average (3.5 max) for M2. Analysis quantifying pivot motor position has led to development of a new model that improves accuracy of the pivot platform attitude. This model improves

  12. Mosaic: NCSA Internet Network Navigational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes Mosaic, an Internet resource locator and navigation tool developed at the University of Illinois' National Center for Super-Computing Applications (NCSA). Topics discussed include the relationship with the World Wide Web; flexibility; obtaining Mosaic client software; and file transfer protocol instructions. (Contains seven references.)…

  13. Mental Development in Down Syndrome Mosaicism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishler, Karol; Koch, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of the mental status of 30 subjects with Down's Syndrome mosaicism and 30 matched subjects with trisomy 21 Down's Syndrome found that the mean intelligent quotient of the mosaic Down's Syndrome group was significantly higher and that this group showed better verbal abilities and more normal visual-perceptual skills. (Author/DB)

  14. Mental Development in Down Syndrome Mosaicism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishler, Karol; Koch, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of the mental status of 30 subjects with Down's Syndrome mosaicism and 30 matched subjects with trisomy 21 Down's Syndrome found that the mean intelligent quotient of the mosaic Down's Syndrome group was significantly higher and that this group showed better verbal abilities and more normal visual-perceptual skills. (Author/DB)

  15. Web Map Services (WMS) Global Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percivall, George; Plesea, Lucian

    2003-01-01

    The WMS Global Mosaic provides access to imagery of the global landmass using an open standard for web mapping. The seamless image is a mosaic of Landsat 7 scenes; geographically-accurate with 30 and 15 meter resolutions. By using the OpenGIS Web Map Service (WMS) interface, any organization can use the global mosaic as a layer in their geospatial applications. Based on a trade study, an implementation approach was chosen that extends a previously developed WMS hosting a Landsat 5 CONUS mosaic developed by JPL. The WMS Global Mosaic supports the NASA Geospatial Interoperability Office goal of providing an integrated digital representation of the Earth, widely accessible for humanity's critical decisions.

  16. Web Map Services (WMS) Global Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percivall, George; Plesea, Lucian

    2003-01-01

    The WMS Global Mosaic provides access to imagery of the global landmass using an open standard for web mapping. The seamless image is a mosaic of Landsat 7 scenes; geographically-accurate with 30 and 15 meter resolutions. By using the OpenGIS Web Map Service (WMS) interface, any organization can use the global mosaic as a layer in their geospatial applications. Based on a trade study, an implementation approach was chosen that extends a previously developed WMS hosting a Landsat 5 CONUS mosaic developed by JPL. The WMS Global Mosaic supports the NASA Geospatial Interoperability Office goal of providing an integrated digital representation of the Earth, widely accessible for humanity's critical decisions.

  17. [Revertant somatic mosaicism in primary immunodeficiency diseases].

    PubMed

    Wada, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Revertant somatic mosaicism has been described in an increasing number of genetic disorders including primary immunodeficiency diseases. Both back mutations leading to restoration of wild-type sequences and second-site mutations resulting in compensatory changes have been demonstrated in mosaic individuals. Recent studies identifying revertant somatic mosaicism caused by multiple independent genetic changes further support its frequent occurrence in primary immunodeficiency diseases. Revertant mosaicism acquires a particular clinical relevance because it may lead to selective growth advantage of the corrected cells, resulting in improvement of disease symptoms or atypical clinical presentations. This phenomenon also provides us unique opportunities to evaluate the biological effects of restored gene expression in different cell lineages. Here we review the recent findings of revertant somatic mosaicism in primary immunodeficiency diseases and discuss its clinical implications.

  18. Moon - North Polar Mosaic, Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Moon. The Galileo spacecraft surveyed the Moon on December 7, 1992, on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-1997. The left part of this north pole view is visible from Earth. This color picture is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by Galileo's imaging system through a green filter. The left part of this picture shows the dark, lava-filled Mare Imbrium (upper left); Mare Serenitatis (middle left), Mare Tranquillitatis (lower left), and Mare Crisium, the dark circular feature toward the bottom of the mosaic. Also visible in this view are the dark lava plains of the Marginis and Smythii Basins at the lower right. The Humboldtianum Basin, a 650-kilometer (400-mile) impact structure partly filled with dark volcanic deposits, is seen at the center of the image. The Moon's north pole is located just inside the shadow zone, about a third of the way from the top left of the illuminated region. The Galileo project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  19. Virus Strains Causing Mosaic in Louisiana and Florida Sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), respectively, affects sugarcane in Louisiana and Florida. Between 2004 and 2007, surveys were conducted in both states to determine which virus and virus strains were causing mosaic of sugarcane. In Louisiana, leaf sam...

  20. Genetic mechanisms of Maize dwarf mosaic virus resistance in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize resistance to viruses has been well-characterized at the genetic level, and loci responsible for resistance to potyviruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), have been mapped in several ge...

  1. Discoveries and controversies in cutaneous mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Tadini, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    Genetic mosaicism is thought to be a common phenomenon in inherited skin disorders. It is the leading molecular mechanism explaining cutaneous hamartomas and nevoid disorders, skin manifestations of most X-linked genodermatoses and specific forms of clinical variability and topographic distribution in autosomal skin disorders. The developmental (in utero) origin and timing dependence are two major attributes for the current definition of cutaneous mosaicism. Chromosomal mosaicism, lyonization in X-linked genodermatoses, and various types of mosaicism (i.e. type 1, type 2 and revertant mosaicism) in autosomal skin disorders are mechanisms well defined at the molecular level. All these concepts have been fully included in the current medical terminology in dermatology and genetics. Mitotic crossing-over, paradominant inheritance, monoallelic expression of autosomal traits and mosaicism in acquired skin disorders remain without a formal molecular proof and still represent sources of debate in the scientific community. This review summarizes current concepts, discoveries and controversies in the field of cutaneous mosaicism for practitioners and clinical researchers to enhance their understanding of such a underestimated clinical phenomenon and its biological basis.

  2. A MOSAIC for the Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Needles, M. M.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Costa, D.; Cadigan, J.; Clements, C.; May, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    MOSAIC (Mesospheric Ozone System for Atmospheric Investigations in the Classroom) is a project to engage secondary and undergraduate students in authentic inquiry-based science learning using a network of inexpensive spectrometers monitoring the mesospheric ozone concentration. The MOSAIC system observes the 11 GHz emission line of ozone using electronics built around satellite television equipment. The possibilities for student investigation are broad and scientifically significant. MOSAIC observations have confirmed diurnal variations in mesospheric ozone concentration and detected semiannual variations that may be due to inter-hemispheric meridional circulation of water vapor. Possible future projects include monitoring the temperature of the mesosphere and correlations with the solar cycle. Students are also encouraged to design their own investigations with MOSAIC data. Early results have been reported in a major scientific journal, and further scientific progress is likely as future MOSAIC systems are deployed -- increasing the sensitivity and geographic coverage of the network. Complete teaching units, including slides, laboratory activities, background information, student worksheets, and conformance with national and Massachusetts educational standards, have been developed to integrate MOSAIC into a classroom environment. One unit introduces the layers of the atmosphere, Earth's energy balance, the greenhouse effect, processes of ozone creation and destruction, noctilucent clouds, heat transfer, the laws of thermodynamics, radio waves (including radio astronomy), and fluid behavior. A second unit, currently being tested in classrooms, uses the MOSAIC system to motivate and deepen understanding of a large portion of electromagnetism in a conceptual physics class. MOSAIC has also been used in a local high school chemistry class. MOSAIC is still in development and is funded by the National Science Foundation.

  3. Hepatoblastoma in a mosaic trisomy 18 patient.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elaine Maria; Marion, Robert; Ramesh, K H; Kim, Jane S; Ewart, Michelle; Ricafort, Rosanna

    2012-05-01

    We report a case of hepatoblastoma in a 10-year-old girl with mosaic-type trisomy 18. A comprehensive literature review reveals only 2 cases involving mosaic trisomy 18 patients. Our patient underwent an abbreviated chemotherapy course before complete surgical resection. Her hepatoblastoma did not contain cells with trisomy 18. The conservative management approach resulted in a successful outcome; she remains disease free >2 years after surgery. Along with presenting a literature review, this report demonstrates a favorable outcome in a mosaic trisomy 18 child with hepatoblastoma where tumor cells lacked a trisomy 18 karyotype.

  4. Mosaic organization of DNA nucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Havlin, S.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    Long-range power-law correlations have been reported recently for DNA sequences containing noncoding regions. We address the question of whether such correlations may be a trivial consequence of the known mosaic structure ("patchiness") of DNA. We analyze two classes of controls consisting of patchy nucleotide sequences generated by different algorithms--one without and one with long-range power-law correlations. Although both types of sequences are highly heterogenous, they are quantitatively distinguishable by an alternative fluctuation analysis method that differentiates local patchiness from long-range correlations. Application of this analysis to selected DNA sequences demonstrates that patchiness is not sufficient to account for long-range correlation properties.

  5. Mosaic organization of DNA nucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Havlin, S.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    Long-range power-law correlations have been reported recently for DNA sequences containing noncoding regions. We address the question of whether such correlations may be a trivial consequence of the known mosaic structure ("patchiness") of DNA. We analyze two classes of controls consisting of patchy nucleotide sequences generated by different algorithms--one without and one with long-range power-law correlations. Although both types of sequences are highly heterogenous, they are quantitatively distinguishable by an alternative fluctuation analysis method that differentiates local patchiness from long-range correlations. Application of this analysis to selected DNA sequences demonstrates that patchiness is not sufficient to account for long-range correlation properties.

  6. Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text.

    Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired.

    This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text.

    Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired.

    This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Mars Pathfinder 'Filled Donut' Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is a product of 3data sets: a color mosaic image of the 'Gallery Panorama', an image which indicates the distance to the nearest object at each pixel location, referred to as a range image, and a digital image of a full-scale museum model of the MPF Lander.

    The Gallery Pan image and the range image were projected onto a continuous cylindrical/perspective coordinate system spanning 360 degrees of azimuth. The range image was then treated as a displacement map with respect to a sphere's surface, and the color image mosaic was draped onto the inside of the sphere so that lines of constant azimuth radiate from the center and lines of constant elevation are concentric circles. The position of the camera is fixed at the sphere's center, while its viewing direction is in this case looking at the south pole of the sphere. This projection preserves the resolution of the original panorama.

    The distortion visible near the edges of this image is due to the large field of view, as well as the limitation introduced by using cylindrically-projected images on the sphere - the effects of which are less apparent when smaller fields of view are used.

    The center of the image consists of the museum model image, which has been geometrically warped to spatially register with the projected Gallery Pandata. The position of the camera was fixed above the model so that the IMPMast was roughly at Nadir.

    The image has been rotated so that the main points of interest, which are the 'Rock Garden', the rover Sojourner and the rock 'Yogi', are visible arching across the upper hemisphere. In fixed Mars Surface coordinates, the top of the image looks out towards a point a few degrees north of West. Color has been enhanced to improve contrast in features, and is derived from IMP spectral filters 5, 9 and 0.

  9. Mosaic Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_MOSAIC33)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The COA_Mosaic33 layer designates areas with potential for forest/grassland mosaic conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest/grassland mosaic land cover patches that are at least 75 meters away from roads and away from patch edges. OAs were modeled by creating distance grids using the National Land Cover Database and the Census Bureau's TIGER roads files

  10. Mastcam Stereo Analysis and Mosaics (MSAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, R. G.; Maki, J. N.; Algermissen, S. S.; Abarca, H. E.; Ruoff, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Describes a new PDART task that will generate stereo analysis products (XYZ, slope, etc.), terrain meshes, and mosaics (stereo, ortho, and Mast/Nav combos) for all MSL Mastcam images and deliver the results to PDS.

  11. Somatic Mosaicism in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Donald; Stevens, Eric L.; Pevsner, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Somatic mosaicism refers to the occurrence of two genetically distinct populations of cells within an individual, derived from a postzygotic mutation. In contrast to inherited mutations, somatic mosaic mutations may affect only a portion of the body and are not transmitted to progeny. These mutations affect varying genomic sizes ranging from single nucleotides to entire chromosomes and have been implicated in disease, most prominently cancer. The phenotypic consequences of somatic mosaicism are dependent upon many factors including the developmental time at which the mutation occurs, the areas of the body that are affected, and the pathophysiological effect(s) of the mutation. The advent of second-generation sequencing technologies has augmented existing array-based and cytogenetic approaches for the identification of somatic mutations. We outline the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques and highlight recent insights into the role of somatic mosaicism in causing cancer, neurodegenerative, monogenic, and complex disease. PMID:25513881

  12. Revertant mosaicism in skin: natural gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lai-Cheong, Joey E.; McGrath, John A.; Uitto, Jouni

    2011-01-01

    Revertant mosaicism is a naturally occurring phenomenon involving spontaneous correction of a pathogenic mutation in a somatic cell. Recent studies suggest that it is not a rare event and that it could be clinically relevant to phenotypic expression and patient treatment. Indeed, revertant cell therapy represents a potential “natural gene therapy” because in vivo reversion obviates the need for further genetic correction. Revertant mosaicism has been observed in several inherited conditions, including epidermolysis bullosa, a heterogeneous group of blistering skin disorders. These diseases provide a useful model for studying revertant mosaicism because of the visual and accessible nature of skin. This overview highlights the latest developments in revertant mosaicism and the translational implications germane to heritable skin disorders. PMID:21195026

  13. Asteroid Ida - Five Frame Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the asteroid 243 Ida is a mosaic of five image frames acquired by the Galileo spacecraft's solid-state imaging system at ranges of 3,057 to 3,821 kilometers (1,900 to 2,375 miles) on August 28, 1993, about 3-1/2 minutes before the spacecraft made its closest approach to the asteroid. Galileo flew about 2,400 kilometers (1,500 miles) from Ida at a relative velocity of 12.4 km/sec (28,000 mph). Asteroid and spacecraft were 441 million kilometers (274 million miles) from the Sun. Ida is the second asteroid ever encountered by a spacecraft. It appears to be about 52 kilometers (32 miles) in length, more than twice as large as Gaspra, the first asteroid observed by Galileo in October 1991. Ida is an irregularly shaped asteroid placed by scientists in the S class (believed to be like stony or stony iron meteorites). It is a member of the Koronis family, presumed fragments left from the breakup of a precursor asteroid in a catastrophic collision. This view shows numerous craters, including many degraded craters larger than any seen on Gaspra. The extensive cratering seems to dispel theories about Ida's surface being geologically youthful. This view also seems to rule out the idea that Ida is a double body. The south pole is believed to be in the darkside near the middle of the asteroid. The camera's clear filter was used to produce this extremely sharp picture. Spatial resolution is 31 to 38 meters (roughly 100 feet) per pixel. A 30-frame mosaic was taken to assure capturing Ida; its position was somewhat uncertain before the Galileo encounter. Galileo shuttered and recorded a total of 150 images in order to capture Ida 21 different times during a five hour period (about one rotation of the asteroid). Color filters were used at many of these times to allow reconstruction of color images. Playback to Earth of the remaining images is planned for April through June 1994. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995

  14. Incidence of Wheat streak mosaic virus, Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus in wheat curl mites recovered from maturing winter wheat spikes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat curl mites (WCM; Aceria tosichella) transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), and Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. These viruses can be detected in single, double, or triple combinations i...

  15. Diploid/Tetraploid Mosaicism in the Offspring of a 46XX/47XXX Mosaic Mother

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Churku Mohan; Singh, D. N.; Crump, E. Perry

    1977-01-01

    A 10½-year-old boy with an IQ of 71, short stature, and isolated growth hormone deficiency was found to have diploid/tetraploid mosaicism. He was born to a 46xx/47xxx mosaic mother. The mother was found to be moderately mentally retarded but showed no other abnormalities. A review of literature pertinent to this case is presented. PMID:904007

  16. Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

  17. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  18. Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Viurus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully reduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystals grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were visually perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the x-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This stylized ribbon model shows the protein coat in white and the nucleic acid in yellow. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California at Irvin.

  19. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  20. Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully deduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the same time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystal grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were viusally perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This computer model shows the external coating or capsid. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, Univeristy of California at Irvin.

  1. Generating Mosaics of Astronomical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergou, Attila; Berriman, Bruce; Good, John; Jacob, Joseph; Katz, Daniel; Laity, Anastasia; Prince, Thomas; Williams, Roy

    2005-01-01

    "Montage" is the name of a service of the National Virtual Observatory (NVO), and of software being developed to implement the service via the World Wide Web. Montage generates science-grade custom mosaics of astronomical images on demand from input files that comply with the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) standard and contain image data registered on projections that comply with the World Coordinate System (WCS) standards. "Science-grade" in this context signifies that terrestrial and instrumental features are removed from images in a way that can be described quantitatively. "Custom" refers to user-specified parameters of projection, coordinates, size, rotation, and spatial sampling. The greatest value of Montage is expected to lie in its ability to analyze images at multiple wavelengths, delivering them on a common projection, coordinate system, and spatial sampling, and thereby enabling further analysis as though they were part of a single, multi-wavelength image. Montage will be deployed as a computation-intensive service through existing astronomy portals and other Web sites. It will be integrated into the emerging NVO architecture and will be executed on the TeraGrid. The Montage software will also be portable and publicly available.

  2. Mosaic trisomy 9 hematopoietic chimera.

    PubMed

    DeLoache, Kristina B; Bradshaw, Wanda T

    2014-06-01

    A 1.57-kg infant presented at a major medical center in the southeastern United States at 32 weeks of gestation with growth restriction and no major anomalies after an uncomplicated pregnancy. At 1 month of life, the infant was found to be chimeric for blood types O and A. Genetic testing revealed mosaic trisomy 9 as the cause for the 2 distinct blood types. Without phenotypic presentation of trisomy 9, the infant's genetic diagnosis was not detected until an issue arose. Genetic diagnosis and treatment and future considerations are discussed in this article. Full-text English articles from CINAHL and PubMed were analyzed for assistance in understanding the infant's condition. Book chapters, review articles, and meta-analyses were also reviewed. Implications of this case study indicate that phenotypically normal presenting infants may still have underlying issues that should be investigated genetically when they arise. This article cannot be generalized to the population because of its specific situation, but the underlying concept can be applied to any case.

  3. Thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S.; Hasell, Philip G.; Sellman, Albert N.; Smedes, Harry W.

    1976-01-01

    An uncontrolled thermographic mosaic, which covers most of the area of Yellowstone National Park, has been compiled. The recording of aerial thermographic data on videotape is established as one of the prerequisites for the preparation of more accurate mosaics. Post-mission processing of the videotape record can rectify the nadir line to a topographic map base, correct for v/h variations in adjacent flight lines, correct for yaw distortions, rectify distortions caused by pitch, and rectify distortions produced by non-linearity of the side-wise scan. Installation of a thermal infrared scanning radiometer in a gyrostabilized mount and post-mission processing of the videotape record (principally rectification of side-wise scan distortion) would yield a controlled, photogrammetrically accurate thermographic mosaic. However, the techniques used in the preparation of the uncontrolled thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park can be immediately applied to the preparation of regional thermographic mosaics, important to geologists and other scientists and engineers in studies of geothermal and volcanic areas, and to other types of environmental investigations such as pollution studies of large water bodies (e.g., harbors, estuaries, lakes, etc.), where a precise planimetric image is not critical.

  4. Global Color Mosaic of Triton

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-04

    Global color mosaic of Triton, taken in 1989 by Voyager 2 during its flyby of the Neptune system. Color was synthesized by combining high-resolution images taken through orange, violet, and ultraviolet filters; these images were displayed as red, green, and blue images and combined to create this color version. With a radius of 1,350 (839 mi), about 22% smaller than Earth's moon, Triton is by far the largest satellite of Neptune. It is one of only three objects in the Solar System known to have a nitrogen-dominated atmosphere (the others are Earth and Saturn's giant moon, Titan). Triton has the coldest surface known anywhere in the Solar System (38 K, about -391 degrees Fahrenheit); it is so cold that most of Triton's nitrogen is condensed as frost, making it the only satellite in the Solar System known to have a surface made mainly of nitrogen ice. The pinkish deposits constitute a vast south polar cap believed to contain methane ice, which would have reacted under sunlight to form pink or red compounds. The dark streaks overlying these pink ices are believed to be an icy and perhaps carbonaceous dust deposited from huge geyser-like plumes, some of which were found to be active during the Voyager 2 flyby. The bluish-green band visible in this image extends all the way around Triton near the equator; it may consist of relatively fresh nitrogen frost deposits. The greenish areas includes what is called the cantaloupe terrain, whose origin is unknown, and a set of "cryovolcanic" landscapes apparently produced by icy-cold liquids (now frozen) erupted from Triton's interior. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00317

  5. Global Color Mosaic of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Global color mosaic of Triton, taken in 1989 by Voyager 2 during its flyby of the Neptune system. Color was synthesized by combining high- resolution images taken through orange, violet, and ultraviolet filters; these images were displayed as red, green, and blue images and combined to create this color version. With a radius of 1,350 (839 mi), about 22% smaller than Earth's moon, Triton is by far the largest satellite of Neptune. It is one of only three objects in the Solar System known to have a nitrogen-dominated atmosphere (the others are Earth and Saturn's giant moon, Titan). Triton has the coldest surface known anywhere in the Solar System (38 K, about -391 degrees Farenheit); it is so cold that most of Triton's nitrogen is condensed as frost, making it the only satellite in the Solar System known to have a surface made mainly of nitrogen ice. The pinkish deposits constitute a vast south polar cap believed to contain methane ice, which would have reacted under sunlight to form pink or red compounds. The dark streaks overlying these pink ices are believed to be an icy and perhaps carbonaceous dust deposited from huge geyser-like plumes, some of which were found to be active during the Voyager 2 flyby. The bluish-green band visible in this image extends all the way around Triton near the equator; it may consist of relatively fresh nitrogen frost deposits. The greenish areas include what is called the cataloupe terrain, whose origin is unknown, and a set of 'cryovolcanic' landscapes apparently produced by icy-cold liquids (now frozen) erupted from Triton's interior.

  6. Global Color Mosaic of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Global color mosaic of Triton, taken in 1989 by Voyager 2 during its flyby of the Neptune system. Color was synthesized by combining high-resolution images taken through orange, violet, and ultraviolet filters; these images were displayed as red, green, and blue images and combined to create this color version. With a radius of 1,350 (839 mi), about 22% smaller than Earth's moon, Triton is by far the largest satellite of Neptune. It is one of only three objects in the Solar System known to have a nitrogen-dominated atmosphere (the others are Earth and Saturn's giant moon, Titan). Triton has the coldest surface known anywhere in the Solar System (38 K, about -391 degrees Fahrenheit); it is so cold that most of Triton's nitrogen is condensed as frost, making it the only satellite in the Solar System known to have a surface made mainly of nitrogen ice. The pinkish deposits constitute a vast south polar cap believed to contain methane ice, which would have reacted under sunlight to form pink or red compounds. The dark streaks overlying these pink ices are believed to be an icy and perhaps carbonaceous dust deposited from huge geyser-like plumes, some of which were found to be active during the Voyager 2 flyby. The bluish-green band visible in this image extends all the way around Triton near the equator; it may consist of relatively fresh nitrogen frost deposits. The greenish areas includes what is called the cantaloupe terrain, whose origin is unknown, and a set of 'cryovolcanic' landscapes apparently produced by icy-cold liquids (now frozen) erupted from Triton's interior.

  7. QUOTA - An Advanced Mosaic Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, George; Howell, S.; Harbeck, D.; Sawyer, D.

    2009-01-01

    QUOTA is an 8Kx8K (16'x16') optical imager that uses four 4Kx4K orthogonal transfer CCDs arrays (OTAs). Each OTA has 64 nearly independent CCDs having 480x494 12µm pixels. By reading out several of the CCDs rapidly (20 Hz), the centroids of the stars in those CCDs can be used to measure image motion due to atmospheric effects, telescope shake, and guide errors. Motions are fed back to the remaining 250 CCDs that continue to integrate normally, allowing a shift of the collecting charge packets so that they always fall under the moving star images, thereby effecting low order AO tip/tilt correction in the silicon to improve image quality. As a bonus, the stars that are read rapidly can be studied for high speed variability. Although QUOTA was intended as a pioneering prototype for WIYN's 32Kx32K One Degree Imager (ODI), providing a means to test the technical developments needed for ODI (e.g., detectors, controllers, optics, software), it is a useful mosaic camera on its own. With WIYN's r-band median seeing of 0.7", we have already seen that orthogonal transfer guiding improves the images by about 0.15", to about 0.55". The gains are most effective over the isokinetic patch, 2' from a guide star. QUOTA's design allows for up to 32 guide stars across the field of view to provide for excellent correction when the target field is rich in bright stars (V<14). In its current configuration, QUOTA will have been to the telescope twice prior to the AAS Meeting. We will report on the performance of this imager: the degree of image quality improvement with readout speed and wavelength, the field over which the correction is effective, and the accuracy of the high speed photometry. QUOTA was funded in part by NSF/ATI grant AST-0352979.

  8. Infrared image mosaic using point feature operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Hou, Junjie; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study infrared image mosaic around a single point of rotation, aiming at expanding the narrow view range of infrared images. We propose an infrared image mosaic method using point feature operators including image registration and image synthesis. Traditional mosaic algorithms usually use global image registration methods to extract the feature points in the global image, which cost too much time as well as considerable matching errors. To address this issue, we first roughly calculate the image shift amount using phase correlation and determine the overlap region between images, and then extract image features in overlap region, which shortens the registration time and increases the quality of feature points. We improve the traditional algorithm through increasing constraints of point matching based on prior knowledge of image shift amount based on which the weighted map is computed using fade in-out method. The experimental results verify that the proposed method has better real time performance and robustness.

  9. Outcome of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 6 mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Robert; Oh, Tracey; Durcan, Judy; Abdelhak, Yaakov; Clachko, Mark; Aviv, Hana

    2002-08-01

    We report the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 6 mosaicism via amniocentesis, in which trisomy 6 cells were identified in three of five culture vessels with 33% (5/15) of colonies showing trisomic cells. The pregnancy was electively terminated and examination revealed minor abnormalities (shortening of the femurs, micrognathia, posterior malrotation of the ears, and bilateral camptomelia of the second digit of the hands and fifth digits of the feet). Cytogenetic analysis of the placenta showed trisomy 6 in 100% of 20 cells studied. Karyotype was 46,XX in 100 cells examined from fetal skin. There are relatively few prenatally diagnosed cases of mosaic trisomy 6 at amniocentesis. Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has been postulated in other cases where follow-up cytogenetic studies were not available. The present case differs from those previously reported, as it appears to represent CPM of chromosome 6 with phenotypic effects to the fetus. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Image mosaic with color and brightness correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yili; Xu, Dan; Pan, Zhigeng

    2004-03-01

    Image mosaic is comprised of building a large field of view from a sequence of smaller images. It can be performed by registering, projective warping, resampling and compositing a serials of images. Due to the many possible factors for color and brightness variations when taking images, it is possible to lead to misalignment and obtain poor stitching result. Despite image mosaic can be manually adjusted using some photo editors like PhotoShop, this is not only tedious but also requires skills, knowledge and experience. Automatic adjustment is therefore desirable. By converting images to lαβ space and applying a special statistical analysis, color and brightness correction can be done automatically and improved image mosaic can be obtained.

  11. Somatic Mosaicism in Cases with Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Liehr, Thomas; Karamysheva, Tatyana; Merkas, Martina; Brecevic, Lukrecija; Hamid, Ahmed B.; Ewers, Elisabeth; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Weise, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Somatic mosaicism is something that is observed in everyday lives of cytogeneticists. Chromosome instability is one of the leading causes of large-scale genome variation analyzable since the correct human chromosome number was established in 1956. Somatic mosaicism is also a well-known fact to be present in cases with small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC), i.e. karyotypes of 47,+mar/46. In this study, the data available in the literature were collected concerning the frequency mosaicism in different subgroups of patients with sSMC. Of 3124 cases with sSMC 1626 (52%) present with somatic mosaicism. Some groups like patients with Emanuel-, cat-eye- or i(18p)- syndrome only tend rarely to develop mosaicism, while in Pallister-Killian syndrome every patient is mosaic. In general, acrocentric and non-acrocentric derived sSMCs are differently susceptible to mosaicism; non-acrocentric derived ones are hereby the less stable ones. Even though, in the overwhelming majority of the cases, somatic mosaicism does not have any detectable clinical effects, there are rare cases with altered clinical outcomes due to mosaicism. This is extremely important for prenatal genetic counseling. Overall, as mosaicism is something to be considered in at least every second sSMC case, array-CGH studies cannot be offered as a screening test to reliably detect this kind of chromosomal aberration, as low level mosaic cases and cryptic mosaics are missed by that. PMID:21358988

  12. Triticum mosaic virus isolates in the southern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, a Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV)-resistant wheat variety RonL was found to have mosaic symptoms similar to WSMV. The virus inducing the symptoms was determined to be previously unknown and given the name Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV). Since, TriMV has been found in plant samples isolate...

  13. Genetic diversity of viruses causing mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) contributed to the near collapse of Louisiana’s sugarcane industry in the early 20th Century. By the 1950s, the cultivation of resistant cultivars eliminated mosaic as a major disease problem; however, new strains arose among previously resistant cultiv...

  14. Mosaic focal plane for star sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, N. C.

    1981-02-01

    The basic principles of star sensors are reviewed with reference to the advantages of replacing photodiodes, image dissectors, and vidicons with mosaic charge transfer device (CTD) focal planes. The desirable characteristics of CTD focal planes include: high uniformity, high transfer effect, low dark current, low hot and cold spots, low dead space, low angular misalignment, high coplanarity, and high thermal stability. An implementation of a mosaic CTD array star sensor which achieves high angular position accuracy and frequency attitude update is presented. Two focal plane packaging concepts, the planar and vertical board packagings, are examined.

  15. Directional imaging of the retinal cone mosaic.

    PubMed

    Vohnsen, Brian; Iglesias, Ignacio; Artal, Pablo

    2004-05-01

    We describe a near-IR scanning laser ophthalmoscope that allows the retinal cone mosaic to be imaged in the human eye in vivo without the use of wave-front correction techniques. The method takes advantage of the highly directional quality of cone photoreceptors that permits efficient coupling of light to individual cones and subsequent detection of most directional components of the backscattered light produced by the light-guiding effect of the cones. We discuss details of the system and describe cone-mosaic images obtained under different conditions.

  16. Mosaic Conservation Opportunity Areas - Conservativel Model (ECO_RES.COA_MOSAIC66)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The COA_Mosaic66 layer designates areas with potential for forest/grassland mosaic conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest/grassland land cover patches that area at least 395 meters away from roads and away from patch edges. OAs were modeled by creating distance grids using the National Land Cover Database and the Census Bureau's TIGER road files.

  17. Chromosomal mosaicism in amniotic fluid cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Peakman, D C; Moreton, M F; Corn, B J; Robinson, A

    1979-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, using in situ processing methods, we have identified 32 cases of mosaicism in amniotic fluid cell cultures prepared from 1,100 samples. Two of these (45,X/46,XX and 46,XX/47,XX, + 21) were called true mosaics because multiple colonies demonstrated the same abnormal chromosome complement, and on subsequent evaluation of the newborn blood or fetal tissues, mosaicism was confirmed. Of the remaining cases, 29 were designated as pseudomosaics because only single or partial colonies exhibited an aberrant chromosome complement, 12 having a trisomy 2 line. In the final case, a double trisomy was demonstrated in only one of eight colonies in the first culture, but in the culture from a repeat sample an additional two colonies showed the same double trisomy. Since no abnormal cells were observed in infant blood, it was postulated that the mosaicism may only have been present in the extraembryonic tissues. It is our conviction that the use of these cloning methods should diminish the danger of misdiagnosis in genetic amniocentesis. PMID:453199

  18. Tobacco mosaic virus: Proof by synthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A linear, non-self-replicating DNA molecule encoding Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was enzymatically synthesized in vitro from DNA templates made from overlapping oligonucleotides. The molecule was a replica of the alphabetic text rendering of the first TMV genome sequence elucidated by Goelet et al. ...

  19. Infection of Plants by Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry; Maratos, Marina; Farabaugh, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Provides three exercises that introduce high school and college students to a common strain of the tobacco mosaic virus and the study of some basic biological processes. Activities involve inoculation of plants and observing and recording symptom development in infected plants. (DDR)

  20. Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Zack; Farve, Catharine L.; Harvey, Craig

    2003-01-01

    A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of .5 in latitude by .6 in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bitmap file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

  1. The Viking Mosaic catalog, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, N.

    1982-01-01

    Martian geographic location information for Viking Orbiter mosaic images is provided. The photographic sequences were chosen based upon image content. The footprinting task was carried out, post factor, in order to facilitate research activities. Early activities were centered around the examination of candidate landing sites.

  2. In vivo micro-image mosaicing.

    PubMed

    Loewke, Kevin E; Camarillo, David B; Piyawattanametha, Wibool; Mandella, Michael J; Contag, Christopher H; Thrun, Sebastian; Salisbury, J Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in optical imaging have led to the development of miniature microscopes that can be brought to the patient for visualizing tissue structures in vivo. These devices have the potential to revolutionize health care by replacing tissue biopsy with in vivo pathology. One of the primary limitations of these microscopes, however, is that the constrained field of view can make image interpretation and navigation difficult. In this paper, we show that image mosaicing can be a powerful tool for widening the field of view and creating image maps of microanatomical structures. First, we present an efficient algorithm for pairwise image mosaicing that can be implemented in real time. Then, we address two of the main challenges associated with image mosaicing in medical applications: cumulative image registration errors and scene deformation. To deal with cumulative errors, we present a global alignment algorithm that draws upon techniques commonly used in probabilistic robotics. To accommodate scene deformation, we present a local alignment algorithm that incorporates deformable surface models into the mosaicing framework. These algorithms are demonstrated on image sequences acquired in vivo with various imaging devices including a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope, a miniature two-photon microscope, and a commercially available confocal microendoscope.

  3. Pulling the Internet Together with Mosaic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Presents the history of the Internet with specific emphasis on Mosaic; discusses hypertext and hypermedia information; and describes software and hardware requirements. Sidebars include information on the National Center for Super Computing Applications (NCSA); World Wide Web browsers for use in Windows, Macintosh, and X-Windows (UNIX); and…

  4. Sequence diversity of wheat mosaic virus isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High Plains disease of wheat and maize emerged in the United States in 1993 and its distribution has expanded in subsequent years. Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), transmitted by eriophyid wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella) is the causal agent of disease. WMoV and other members of the genus Emaravirus...

  5. Supernumerary chromosomes in mosaic Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thong, M K; Manonmani, V; Norlasiah, I S

    1996-12-01

    The finding of a supernumerary or marker chromosome in a karyotype poses difficulty in genetic counselling. The true incidence and significance of this chromosomal aberration is unknown in Malaysia. We report two patients who presented with supernumerary chromosomes in mosaic Turner syndrome.

  6. Chromosomal mosaicism in amniotic fluid cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Peakman, D C; Moreton, M F; Corn, B J; Robinson, A

    1979-03-01

    Over the past 6 years, using in situ processing methods, we have identified 32 cases of mosaicism in amniotic fluid cell cultures prepared from 1,100 samples. Two of these (45,X/46,XX and 46,XX/47,XX, + 21) were called true mosaics because multiple colonies demonstrated the same abnormal chromosome complement, and on subsequent evaluation of the newborn blood or fetal tissues, mosaicism was confirmed. Of the remaining cases, 29 were designated as pseudomosaics because only single or partial colonies exhibited an aberrant chromosome complement, 12 having a trisomy 2 line. In the final case, a double trisomy was demonstrated in only one of eight colonies in the first culture, but in the culture from a repeat sample an additional two colonies showed the same double trisomy. Since no abnormal cells were observed in infant blood, it was postulated that the mosaicism may only have been present in the extraembryonic tissues. It is our conviction that the use of these cloning methods should diminish the danger of misdiagnosis in genetic amniocentesis.

  7. Infection of Plants by Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry; Maratos, Marina; Farabaugh, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Provides three exercises that introduce high school and college students to a common strain of the tobacco mosaic virus and the study of some basic biological processes. Activities involve inoculation of plants and observing and recording symptom development in infected plants. (DDR)

  8. Pulling the Internet Together with Mosaic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Presents the history of the Internet with specific emphasis on Mosaic; discusses hypertext and hypermedia information; and describes software and hardware requirements. Sidebars include information on the National Center for Super Computing Applications (NCSA); World Wide Web browsers for use in Windows, Macintosh, and X-Windows (UNIX); and…

  9. Increased chromosome 21 mosaicism in older Down syndrome individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, E.C.; Schupf, N.; Harris, M.

    1994-09-01

    Loss of one chromosome 21 in older Down syndrome individuals has been reported recently. During a study of the familial aggregation of Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease, our preliminary observations indicated increased mosaicism for the loss of a chromosome 21 in whole blood cultures from Down syndrome individuals who were age 50 or over from a cohort of 22 individuals. We retrospectively reviewed our experience in 189 cases of Down syndrome ranging in age from 1 day to 71 years. In a combined total of 212 individuals, 39 were age 50 or more of whom 7 or 18% were mosaic, while 169 were under age 50 of whom 4 or 2% were mosaic. Therefore the occurrence of mosaicism was strikingly increased in the group of individuals who were age 50 or over ({chi}{sup 2}=12.8, p<.001). Our observations confirm the above reports of increased mosaicism for chromosome 21 loss in lymphocyte cultures from older Down syndrome individuals. Since the older individuals were not karyotyped at birth, it is not possible to determine whether the age-related increase in mosaicism is due to increased survival of mosaic individuals or acquired mosaicism. Assuming 1% mosaicism at birth for Down syndrome and assuming the general population`s death rates for these mosaic individuals, life table methods showed that the expected proportion of these individuals at age 70 was 5%. This was less than 1/3 of our observations suggesting that acquired mosaicism was the predominant mechanism for our findings.

  10. Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

  11. MOSAIC for multiple-reward environments.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Norikazu; Haruno, Masahiko; Doya, Kenji; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2012-03-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) can provide a basic framework for autonomous robots to learn to control and maximize future cumulative rewards in complex environments. To achieve high performance, RL controllers must consider the complex external dynamics for movements and task (reward function) and optimize control commands. For example, a robot playing tennis and squash needs to cope with the different dynamics of a tennis or squash racket and such dynamic environmental factors as the wind. In addition, this robot has to tailor its tactics simultaneously under the rules of either game. This double complexity of the external dynamics and reward function sometimes becomes more complex when both the multiple dynamics and multiple reward functions switch implicitly, as in the situation of a real (multi-agent) game of tennis where one player cannot observe the intention of her opponents or her partner. The robot must consider its opponent's and its partner's unobservable behavioral goals (reward function). In this article, we address how an RL agent should be designed to handle such double complexity of dynamics and reward. We have previously proposed modular selection and identification for control (MOSAIC) to cope with nonstationary dynamics where appropriate controllers are selected and learned among many candidates based on the error of its paired dynamics predictor: the forward model. Here we extend this framework for RL and propose MOSAIC-MR architecture. It resembles MOSAIC in spirit and selects and learns an appropriate RL controller based on the RL controller's TD error using the errors of the dynamics (the forward model) and the reward predictors. Furthermore, unlike other MOSAIC variants for RL, RL controllers are not a priori paired with the fixed predictors of dynamics and rewards. The simulation results demonstrate that MOSAIC-MR outperforms other counterparts because of this flexible association ability among RL controllers, forward models, and reward

  12. Wheat Genotypes With Combined Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite, Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus, Wheat Mosaic Virus, and Triticum Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wen-Po; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Khalaf, Luaay Kahtan; Zhang, Guorong; Fritz, Allan K; Whitfield, Anna E; Smith, C Michael

    2017-01-13

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, (WCM) is a global pest of bread wheat that reduces yields significantly. In addition, WCM carries Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, family Potyviridae, genus Tritimovirus), the most significant wheat virus in North America; High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV, genus Emaravirus, formerly High plains virus); and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, family Potyviridae, genus Poacevirus). Viruses carried by WCM have reduced wheat yields throughout the U.S. Great Plains for >50 yr, with average yield losses of 2-3% and occasional yield losses of 7-10%. Acaricides are ineffective against WCM, and delayed planting of winter wheat is not feasible. Five wheat breeding lines containing Cmc4, a WCM resistance gene from Aegilops tauschii, and Wsm2, a WSMV resistance gene from wheat germplasm CO960293-2 were selected from the breeding process and assessed for phenotypic reaction to WCM feeding, population increase, and the degree of WSMV, HPWMoV, and TriMV infection. Experiments determined that all five lines are resistant to WCM biotype 1 feeding and population increase, and that two breeding lines contain resistance to WSMV, HPWMoV, and TriMV infection as well. These WCM-, WSMV-, HPWMoV-, and TriMV-resistant genotypes can be used improve management of wheat yield losses from WCM-virus complexes.

  13. Maize dwarf mosaic disease in different regions of China is caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J X; Zhou, X P

    2002-12-01

    Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) was detected in all 62 maize samples collected from eight maize-growing provinces in China showing dwarf mosaic symptoms by immunocapture reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), however, were not detected in any of the samples by RT-PCR. Eleven cDNA fragments of approximately 0.8 kilobases covering most of the coat protein (CP) gene of SCMV were sequenced and sequence analysis indicates that these eleven isolates share 98.1 to 100 % identity at the amino acid level. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the CP genes from the eleven Chinese isolates as well as 21 SCMV subgroup virus isolates indicate that the eleven Chinese virus isolates were closely related to SCMV with 97.0 to 98.1 % sequence identity at the amino acid level, while relatively lower sequence identity was found with MDWV, SrMV or JGMV. The results indicate that the Chinese isolates are members of the SCMV species, and thus, SCMV can be considered as the most common and important potyvirus infecting maize in China.

  14. Global Mosaics of Pluto and Charon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-14

    Global mosaics of Pluto and Charon projected at 300 meters (985 feet) per pixel that have been assembled from most of the highest resolution images obtained by the Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) and the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) onboard New Horizons. Transparent, colorized stereo topography data generated for the encounter hemispheres of Pluto and Charon have been overlain on the mosaics. Terrain south of about 30°S on Pluto and Charon was in darkness leading up to and during the flyby, so is shown in black. "S" and "T" respectively indicate Sputnik Planitia and Tartarus Dorsa on Pluto, and "C" indicates Caleuche Chasma on Charon. All feature names on Pluto and Charon are informal. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21862

  15. Mosaic Infrared Sensor for Space Astronomy (MIRSSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development of mosaic infrared detector/focal plane arrays for space astronomy is reported. The Mosaic IR Sensor for Space Astronomy (MIRSSA) Program is an effort to develop PV HgCdTe detector arrays with the spectral response of up to 5 micron and silicon CCDs for low temperature applications. Desired background-limited performance (BLIP) for space applications requires an extremely high R sub A product which can be achieved by selecting the detector materials and the operating temperature. The parameters were determined by measurement of HgCdTe PV detector arrays at various temperatures in the SW and MW spectral bands. It is demonstrated that high performance PV HgCdTe detectors can be fabricated for low temperature applications.

  16. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    For most of us, Antarctica was at best a distant acquaintance. Now, with the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA), we are on intimate terms. In stunning, up-close and personal detail, LIMA brings Antarctica to life. Explore this virtually cloudless, seamless, most geometrically accurate, and highest resolution satellite mosaic of Antarctica. A team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Antarctic Survey, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with funding from the National Science Foundation, created LIMA in support of the International Polar Year (IPY; 2007?08). As the first major scientific outcome of the IPY, LIMA truly fulfills the IPY goals. LIMA is an international effort, supports current scientific polar research, encourages new projects, and helps the general public visualize Antarctica and changes happening in this southernmost environment. Researchers and the general public can download LIMA and all component Landsat scenes at no charge.

  17. Assembling the HST Carina Nebula Mosaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levay, Zoltan G.; Smith, N.; Bond, H. E.; Christian, C. A.; Frattare, L. M.; Hamilton, F.; Januszewski, W.; Mutchler, M.; Knoll, K. S.

    2007-12-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has obtained numerous images of the Carina Nebula with ACS/WFC using the F658N filter (Hα+[N II]), revealing exquisite detail in this active star-forming region rich in finely detailed structure. Forty-eight overlapping fields were composited into a nearly contiguous mosaic of WFC pointings, resulting in a monochrome image of roughly 500 megapixels spanning ˜24'×12'. In addition, overlapping, wider-field images obtained with the CTIO 4m and MOSAIC2 camera in three narrow-band filters were combined into a color composite. We demonstrate a luminosity layering technique (LRGB) to reconstruct a high-resolution color image by combining the monochrome HST image with the color composite CTIO data which preserves the high spatial resolution brightness structure superimposed on the lower spatial resolution color values. We also touch on some cosmetic techniques to clean the image, including filling in small areas of data gaps and saturation.

  18. Beautiful New Landsat Mosaic of Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Aug 30, 2011 USGS has released a new mosaic of the Chesapeake Bay. Using six Landsat 5 images collected in July 2009 and 2011 a beautiful, seamless mosaic of the Chesapeake Bay region was created by the USGS Landsat team. The Washington D.C.-Baltimore-Philadelphia-New York City corridor can be clearly seen (look for silvery purple) as can the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays and the coastal Atlantic barrier islands from Fishermans Island, Virginia to Sandy Hook, New Jersey. To download the full high res go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/news/news-archive/news_0387.html Credit: NASA/USGS/Landsat 5 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. Mosaic Turner syndrome associated with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sook Young; Park, Joo Won; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jun, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Seop; Lee, Ji Eun

    2014-03-01

    Turner syndrome is a sex-chromosome disorder; occurring in 1 in 2,500 female births. There are sporadic few case reports of concomitant Turner syndrome with schizophrenia worldwide. Most Turner females had a 45,X monosomy, whereas the majority of comorbidity between Turner syndrome and schizophrenia had a mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX). We present a case of a 21-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX), showing mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. HOPA gene within Xq13 is related to mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. Our case may be a potential clue which supports the hypothesis for involvement of genes on X chromosome in development of schizophrenia. Further studies including comorbid cases reports are need in order to discern the cause of schizophrenia in patients having Turner syndrome.

  20. Digital Elevation Model Mosaic of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A. C.; Watters, T. R.; Robinson, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    At CEPS (Center for Earth and Planetary Studies) work has been underway since 2000 to semi-automatically stereo match all Mariner 10 stereo pairs. The resulting matched image coordinates are converted into longitude, latitude, and height points and then combined to form a map projected Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic of the planet's surface. Stereo images from Mariner 10 cover one quarter of the planet's surface, mostly in the southern hemisphere. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Diffraction studies of papaya mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Tollin, P; Bancroft, J B; Richardson, J F; Payne, N C; Beveridge, T J

    1979-10-15

    X-ray and optical diffraction studies of the flexuous papaya mosaic virus are described. The virus is constructed so that there are 35 coat protein subunits in 4 turns of the helix. The virus contains about 1410 protein subunits and 6800 nucleotides and has a molecular weight of about 33 x 10(6). The structure of tubes assembled in vitro from coat protein both in the presence and absence of nucleic acid resembles that of the native virus.

  2. Germline mosaicism at the fragile X locus

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, T.W.; Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.

    1995-01-30

    We have identified a fragile X syndrome pedigree where the disorder is associated with a molecular deletion. The deletion was present in the DNA of 2 sons but was absent in the mother`s somatic cell (lymphocyte) DNA. The results are consistent with the deletion arising as a postzygotic event in the mother, who therefore is germinally mosaic. This finding has important implications for counseling fragile X families with deletion mutations. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Relicensing the Montage Image Mosaic Engine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, the Montage Image Mosaic software (http://montage.ipac.caltech.edu) was relicensed from a proprietary clickwrap license, which forbade redistribution of the software, to a BSD 3-clause license. This decision was made primarily in response to requests from end-users wishing to redistribute and modify the software. The reasoning behind the choice of license and the benefits and consequences of this choice will be described.

  4. Germline mosaicism at the fragile X locus.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Guida, M; Enrile, B G

    1995-01-30

    We have identified a fragile X syndrome pedigree where the disorder is associated with a molecular deletion. The deletion was present in the DNA of 2 sons but was absent in the mother's somatic cell (lymphocyte) DNA. The results are consistent with the deletion arising as a postzygotic event in the mother, who therefore is germinally mosaic. This finding has important implications for counseling fragile X families with deletion mutations.

  5. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Mullins, J.; Binnie, D.; Paulsen, S.J.; Granneman, B.; Gorodetzky, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) is the first true-color, high-spatial-resolution image of the seventh continent. It is constructed from nearly 1100 individually selected Landsat-7 ETM+ scenes. Each image was orthorectified and adjusted for geometric, sensor and illumination variations to a standardized, almost seamless surface reflectance product. Mosaicing to avoid clouds produced a high quality, nearly cloud-free benchmark data set of Antarctica for the International Polar Year from images collected primarily during 1999-2003. Multiple color composites and enhancements were generated to illustrate additional characteristics of the multispectral data including: the true appearance of the surface; discrimination between snow and bare ice; reflectance variations within bright snow; recovered reflectance values in regions of sensor saturation; and subtle topographic variations associated with ice flow. LIMA is viewable and individual scenes or user defined portions of the mosaic are downloadable at http://lima.usgs.gov. Educational materials associated with LIMA are available at http://lima.nasa.gov.

  6. Confined placental mosaicisms and uniparental disomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K.; Langlois, S.; Harrison, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 2% of pregnancies studied with chorionic villous sampling (CVS) show confined placental mosaicism (CPM) which persists to term in 50-70% of cases. An increased frequency of complications, such as intrauterine fetal growth restriction or intrauterine death, is observed in these pregnancies. As trisomic zygote rescue is a common mechanism responsible for CPM, fetal uniparental disomy (UPD), resulting from the loss of the extra trisomic chromosome in the embryonic stem cells, would be expected to occur in a proportion of pregnancies with CPM. We have studied 27 pregnancies with CPM involving trisomies for chromosomes 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, and 16 for involvement of specific cell lineage(s) and levels of mosaicism in term placentas. Also, DNA from the parents and infant was analyzed for UPD or biparental disomy (BPD). Five infants with UPD for chromosome 16 and one infant with UPD for chromosome 7 were detected. All other infants showed BPD for the chromosome involved in CPM. For trisomy 16 mosaic gestations, a close correlation between high levels of trisomic cells in placenta and intrauterine fetal growth restriction has been found irrespective of the type of disomy present in the infant. The effect of other trisomies (2, 7, 9, 10, 12) on placental function appears to be similar, but the low numbers of pregnancies studied and lack of detection of UPD for chromosomes 2, 9, 10 and 12 does not allow a definitive conclusion.

  7. MOSAIC: a data model and file formats for molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Hinsen, Konrad

    2014-01-27

    The MOlecular SimulAtion Interchange Conventions (MOSAIC) consist of a data model for molecular simulations and of concrete implementations of this data model in the form of file formats. MOSAIC is designed as a modular set of specifications, of which the initial version covers molecular structure and configurations. A reference implementation in the Python language facilitates the development of simulation software based on MOSAIC.

  8. Complete genome sequences of Maize dwarf mosaic and Sugarcane mosaic virus isolates coinfecting maize in Spain.

    PubMed

    Achon, M A; Serrano, L; Alonso-Dueñas, N; Porta, C

    2007-01-01

    The genomes of Spanish isolates of Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV-Sp) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV-Sp) were completely sequenced. Nucleotide sequence identities of SCMV-Sp to those of other SCMV isolates ranged from 79 to 90%. MDMV-Sp shared 85% nucleotide identity with the only other fully sequenced isolate of MDMV. MDMV-Sp and SCMV-Sp differed from each other by 31% in their nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analyses showed that SCMV isolates group by host rather than by geographical location. Two significant recombination signals were identified in the NIa and NIb regions of the SCMV-Sp genome.

  9. The Contribution of Mosaic Variants to Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Donald; Pevsner, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    De novo mutation is highly implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the contribution of post-zygotic mutation to ASD is poorly characterized. We performed both exome sequencing of paired samples and analysis of de novo variants from whole-exome sequencing of 2,388 families. While we find little evidence for tissue-specific mosaic mutation, multi-tissue post-zygotic mutation (i.e. mosaicism) is frequent, with detectable mosaic variation comprising 5.4% of all de novo mutations. We identify three mosaic missense and likely-gene disrupting mutations in genes previously implicated in ASD (KMT2C, NCKAP1, and MYH10) in probands but none in siblings. We find a strong ascertainment bias for mosaic mutations in probands relative to their unaffected siblings (p = 0.003). We build a model of de novo variation incorporating mosaic variants and errors in classification of mosaic status and from this model we estimate that 33% of mosaic mutations in probands contribute to 5.1% of simplex ASD diagnoses (95% credible interval 1.3% to 8.9%). Our results indicate a contributory role for multi-tissue mosaic mutation in some individuals with an ASD diagnosis. PMID:27632392

  10. MOSAIC: a web-interface for statistical analyses in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Charles, Sandrine; Veber, Philippe; Delignette-Muller, Marie Laure

    2017-08-26

    In ecotoxicology, bioassays are standardly conducted in order to measure acute or chronic effects of potentially toxic substances on reproduction, growth, and/or survival of living animals. MOSAIC, standing for MOdeling and StAtistical tools for ecotoxICology, is a user-friendly web interface dedicated to the mathematical and statistical modelling of such standard bioassay data. Its simple use makes MOSAIC a turnkey decision-making tool for ecotoxicologists and regulators. Without wasting time on extensive mathematical and statistical technicalities, users are provided with advanced and innovative methods for a valuable quantitative environmental risk assessment. MOSAIC is available at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/software/mosaic/ .

  11. View of Chapel mosaic tile ceiling featuring "doves of heaven" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Chapel mosaic tile ceiling featuring "doves of heaven" motifs on a stepped concrete shell. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Chapel, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  12. Response of maize (Zea mays L.) lines carrying Wsm1, Wsm2 and Wsm3 to the potyviruses Johnsongrass mosaic virus and Sorghum mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize dwarf mosaic disease is one of the most important viral diseases of maize throughout the world. It is caused by a set of related viruses in the family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), and S...

  13. Dohi Memorial Lecture. New aspects of cutaneous mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Happle, Rudolf

    2002-11-01

    The concept of cutaneous mosaicism has today been proven at the cellular level in at least fifteen different skin disorders. We can distinguish five different patterns of mosaicism, including the phylloid pattern and the lateralization pattern. Etiologically, cutaneous mosaics can be divided into two large categories, epigenetic mosaicism and genomic mosaicism. All forms of epigenetic mosaicism known so far, including the various patterns of X-inactivation, appear to be caused by the action of retrotransposons. A new concept is functional autosomal mosaicism transmittable through the action of retrotransposons, which has been described in mice and dogs and may explain, for example, the familial occurrence of pigmentary mosaicism along the Blaschko lines in human skin. Among the examples of mosaicism of autosomal lethal mutations, phylloid hypomelanosis is a recently recognized neurocutaneous entity caused by mosaic trisomy 13. Possible examples of a type 2 segmental manifestation now include at least fifteen different autosomally dominant skin disorders. This phenomenon is most frequently found in glomangiomatosis, cutaneous leiomyomatosis, and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. Recently proposed examples of didymosis (twin spotting) include cutis tricolor, paired patches of excessive or absent involvement in Darier disease, and didymosis aplasticosebacea characterized by coexistent aplasia cutis congenita and nevus sebaceus. To the list of possible examples of paradominant inheritance, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita and speckled lentiginous nevus syndrome have now been added. Revertant mosaicism giving rise to unaffected skin areas in autosomally recessive cutaneous traits will certainly likewise be recognized more often when clinicians are bearing this concept in mind. Such cases can be taken as examples of "natural gene therapy".

  14. First report of blueberry mosaic disease caused by blueberry mosaic associated virus in Kentucky

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2011, a grower in Casey County Kentucky observed persistent yellow, green, and red mosaic patterns on leaves of highbush blueberry plants. Twenty-three randomly-scattered ‘Bluecrop’ plants out of approximately 1,400 5-year-old plants showed symptoms, with coverage ranging from 5% to 100%. Asympto...

  15. First report of Sorghum mosaic virus causing mosaic in Miscanthus sinesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Miscanthus is being evaluated as a bioenergy feedstock because of its potentially significant biomass production, perennial habit, and lack of major diseases and pests. It is also a valuable parent in the sugarcane breeding program as source of cold tolerance. Mosaic symptoms were observed on a clo...

  16. Germline mosaicism at the fragile X locus

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.; Sedra, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X full mutation, which is associated with the phenotypic expression of the disorder, is characterized by an expansion of CGG repeat and hypermethylation of the CpG island adjacent to the FMR1 gene. New mutations leading to amplification of the CGG repeat have not been reported. We have identified a fragile X syndrome pedigree where the disorder is associated with a molecular deletion. The deletion was present in the DNA of two affected sons but was absent in the mother`s somatic cell (lymphocyte) DNA. This was confirmed by dosage analysis of the Southern blot using StB12-3 and an additional probe against the dystrophin gene and by PCR analysis of DXS548 alleles. The results are consistent with the deletion arising as a postzygotic event in the mother, who therefore is germinally mosaic. The case reported here clearly demonstrates that FMR1 deletions, unlike the expansions, are not always inherited and the finding of heterozygosity or normal dosage from lymphocyte DNA in the mother of a deletion case does not necessarily rule out the possibility of having a second affected child. The deletion of FMR1 gene may be responsible for a small but significant number of fragile X cases. Therefore, it is imperative that those involved in genetic counseling recognize this diagnostic pitfall. Since it depends upon the size of the mutant clone in the mosaic mother, the exact recurrence risk in germline carriers is unknown. However, prenatal and carrier testing should be performed independently of the outcome of the mother. Furthermore, it is possible that the deletion may not be restricted to the germline, and therefore the mother may actually be a somatic mosaic.

  17. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Morin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The first-ever true-color, high-resolution digital mosaic of Antarctica has been produced from nearly 1100 Landsat-7 ETM+ images collected between 1999 and 2003. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) project was an early benchmark data set of the International Polar Year and represents a close and successful collaboration between NASA, USGS, the British Antarctic Survey and the National Science Foundation. The mosaic was successfully merged with lower resolution MODIS data south of Landsat coverage to produce a complete true-color data set of the entire continent. LIMA is being used as a platform for a variety of education and outreach activities. Central to this effort is the NASA website 'Faces of Antarctica' that offers the web visitor the opportunity to explore the data set and to learn how these data are used to support scientific research. Content is delivered through a set of mysteries designed to pique the user's interest and to motivate them to delve deeper into the website where there are various videos and scientific articles for downloading. Detailed lesson plans written by teachers are provided for classroom use and Java applets let the user track the motion of ice in sequential Landsat images. Web links take the user to other sites where they can roam over the imagery using standard pan and zoom functions, or search for any named feature in the Antarctic Geographic Names data base that returns to the user a centered true-color view of any named feature. LIMA also has appeared is a host of external presentations from museum exhibits, to postcards and large posters. It has attracted various value-added providers that increase LIMA's accessibility by allowing users to specify subsets of the very large data set for individual downloads. The ultimate goal of LIMA in the public and educational sector is to enable everyone to become more familiar with Antarctica.

  18. Subassembly aggregates of papaya mosaic virus protein.

    PubMed

    Erickson, J W; Hallett, F R; Bancroft, J B

    1983-08-01

    An examination of the number of subunits in small aggregates of papaya mosaic virus (PMV) coat protein is presented based on a model system which gives results consistent with the experimental observation that the 14 S subassembly species is a double disc, composed of two rows of nine subunits each. The estimated hydration of the disc, about 0.85 g 1H20/9 protein, is unusually large and indicates a cavitated structure for the disc. Comparison with other rod-shaped viruses suggests that the flexuous nature of PMV is a consequence of sparse axial inter-subunit contacts at high radius.

  19. Goldenhar sequence and mosaic trisomy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Pridjian, G.; Gill, W.L.; Shapira, E.

    1995-12-04

    We describe a term infant with facio-auriculo-vertebral {open_quotes}dysplasia{close_quotes} (Goldenhar sequence), hypertelorism, and mosaic trisomy 22: peripheral blood, 46, XY/47, XY,+22 (72%/28%); skin fibroblasts, 47, XY,+22(100%). This is the second report of Goldenbar anomaly with epibulbar dermoids in a live-born infant with aneuploidy. Hypertelorism is rare in Goldenhar sequence, but typical of trisomy 22. We recommend chromosome analysis in all patients with Goldenhar sequence. Those with hypertelorism may be more likely to have aneuploidy as well. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Curating and cataloging the Carina Nebula mosaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutchler, Max

    2009-07-01

    We will enable new and deeper analyses of this prototypical nearby star-formation region, especially the largest structures which require fully assembled mosaics. We will deliver a legacy ACS dataset, including WFPC2 parallel observations, expertly and uniformly prepared beyond the capabilites of any existing or currently planned automated pipelines, and we will do this at a small fraction of the cost of similar ACS legacy datasets. The dataset will become a High-Level Science Product {HLSP}, and will be ingested into the Hubble archive {MAST} and also conform to, and by be fully accessible by, NVO, etc.

  1. [Chromosomal mosaicism in the r (15) syndrome].

    PubMed

    Malygina, N A; Mutovin, G R; Filina, N P; Akif'ev, A P

    1980-01-01

    Clinical, biochemical and cytogenetic description of a boy with a karyotype 46, XY, r(15) is given. The data obtained suggest that the phenotypic abnormalities of the propositus may be conditioned by the following reasons: 1) deletion of some genetic material from the chromosome 15; 2) position effect of the genes situated near the break points; 3) mosaicism of the chromosome sets owing to sister chromatid exchanges in the ring chromosome. Some clinical traits (nanism and mental retardation) of the children with a ring chromsome 15 confirm the originality of the r(15) syndrome.

  2. Thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Sellman, A. N.; Smedes, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    An uncontrolled aerial thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park was assembled from the videotape record of 13 individual thermographs obtained with linescan radiometers. Post mission processing of the videotape record rectified the nadir line to a topographic map base, corrected for v/h variations in adjacent flight lanes, corrected for yaw and pitch distortions, and distortions produced by nonlinearity of the side-wise scan. One of the purposes of the thermographic study was to delineate the areas of thermal emission (hot springs, geysers, etc.) throughout the Park, a study which could have great value in reconnaissance surveys of geothermal areas in remote regions or regions of high relief.

  3. Flow visualization using tobacco mosaic virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, David L.; Goreau, Thomas J.; Bush, John W. M.

    2009-03-01

    A flow visualization technique using dilute solutions of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is described. Rod-shaped TMV-particles align with shear, an effect that produces a luminous interference pattern when the TMV solution is viewed between crossed polarizers. Attractive features of this technique are that it is both transparent to the naked eye and benign to fish. We use it here to visualize the evolution and decay of the flows that they produce. We also report that dilute solutions of Kalliroscope are moderately birefringent and so may similarly be used for qualitative in situ flow visualizations.

  4. The Gorgeous Mosaic Project. Coordinator's Packet & Mounting Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gura, Mark

    This packet contains information and directions for those teachers or administrators coordinating and implementing the Gorgeous Mosaic Project at their elementary schools, middle schools, or high schools. This packet is to be used with the teacher's packet. The Gorgeous Mosaic is a project being carried out by the classroom art teachers of the…

  5. Sex mosaics in a male dimorphic ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Juri; Mimori, Kohei; Yamauchi, Katsusuke; Tsuchida, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Gynandromorphy, or the development of organisms with a combination of male and female morphological features, is common in Hymenoptera. The underlying mechanism is likely associated with the sex-determination system, and studying this phenomenon should lead to a deeper understanding of both embryonic development and sex determination. The reproductive capabilities of gynandromorphs (hereafter, sex mosaics) remain unclear. We studied gynandromorphy in the Malaysian ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi, which has sex mosaics of queens (gynandromorphs; mosaic of queens and winged male) and workers (ergatandromorphs; mosaic of worker and wingless ergatoid male). These sex mosaics were classified into seven morphological categories. Most individuals had more male than female body areas. Behavioral observations revealed that sex mosaics behave more in accordance with the “sex” of their brain than that of the reproductive organs (gaster). Relative DNA quantities showed that both female and male regions contained haploid and diploid nuclei, irrespective of their phenotypic appearance, indicating that external appearance did not reflect internal tissues. Nearly one third of the adults were sex mosaics and they were not infected with Wolbachia. Our results suggest that the production of sex mosaics in this species does not pose a substantial cost to colonies and that the underlying causes are therefore not strongly selected against.

  6. First Report of Pepino Mosaic Virus Infecting Tomato in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pepino mosaic has become endemic greenhouse tomato disease in many countries around the world. Its occurrence in Mexico has yet to be determined. In early spring of 2010, symptoms of yellow mosaic, chlorotic patches and fruit marbling were observed in approximately 50% of tomato plants in a commerc...

  7. Ectopia cordis in a fetus with mosaic trisomy 16.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutoglou, Christos; Meditskou, Soultana; Keivanidou, Anastasia; Manthou, Marilena; Anesidis, Nikolaos; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Kumar, Sailesh

    2010-09-01

    Ectopia cordis and mosaic trisomy 16 are two rare fetal anomalies, which have not been reported in association. We report a case of an isolated ectopia cordis at 11(+3) weeks. Subsequent embryological examination confirmed thoracic ectopia cordis with normal heart structure and array comparative genomic hybridization of fetal tissue detected trisomy 16 mosaicism.

  8. NOAA-AVHRR image mosaics applied to vegetation identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Maria d. G.; Ruddorff, Bernardo F.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, the maximum-value composite of images procedure from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is used to get a cloud free image mosaic. The image mosaic is used to identify vegetation targets such as tropical forest, savanna and caatinga as well to make the vegetation cover mapping of Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  9. An Experimental Host Range of Triticum Mosaic Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered virus isolated from wheat. This study was conducted to determine an experimental host range for TriMV and identify species that could serve as differential hosts for isolating TriMV from Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV). Plants tested were mechan...

  10. Molecular characterization and population structure of Blueberry mosaic associated virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry mosaic disease was first described in the 1950s but the causal agent has not been characterized to date. Next generation sequencing was employed in the identification of the causal agent and an undescribed ophiovirus, tentatively named as Blueberry mosaic associated virus (BlMaV), was dete...

  11. Confirmation of prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism.

    PubMed

    McFadden, D E; Kalousek, D K

    1989-04-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism causes problems in interpretation and in genetic counselling. Part of the difficulty with any prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism is interpretation of results without knowing the exact origin, embryonic or extraembryonic, of the abnormal cell line. To confuse the issue in cases of prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is the recent demonstration that a diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY made prenatally is not necessarily associated with the same phenotype as when diagnosed postnatally. We present two cases of prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism (45,X/46,XY and 45,X/47,XYY). Posttermination examination of the phenotypically normal male fetuses and their placentas established that the placenta was the most likely source of the 45,X cell line. An approach to confirming the prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism and establishing its origin utilizing detailed cytogenetic examination of both fetus and placenta is suggested.

  12. Dawn FC2 Derived Ceres Mosaics V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Elgner, S.; Schroeder, S. E.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-10-01

    This accumulating data set includes Ceres global mosaics and quadrangles derived from images acquired by the Framing Camera 2 (FC2) on the NASA Dawn spacecraft. Global mosaics are provided in cylindrical and polar stereographic projections. The quadrangle mosaics use Mercator (equatorial), Lambert conformal (mid-latitude) and stereographic projections. Global color filter mosaics are provided for data acquired during the high altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) on volume DWNCHFFC2_2. Global mapping in all filters at low altitude was not possible due to time and downlink limitations. Attempts were made to acquire color imaging of selected Ceres targets but with only limited success because of issues related to ephemeris predictability. Clear filter global mosaics and quadrangle maps are provided for both HAMO (DWNCHCFC2_2) and the low altitude mapping orbit (LAMO, DWNCLCFC2_2) science phases.

  13. Hepatoblastoma in a mosaic trisomy 18 child with hemihypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Naveed; Wheeler, Kate; Stewart, Helen; Campbell, Carolyn

    2016-01-21

    To date, there are 12 reported cases of hepatoblastoma in trisomy 18 patients, three of whom had a mosaic chromosome pattern. We report on an 18-month-old child who had hemihypertrophy and developmental delay, was found to have hepatoblastoma on surveillance ultrasound scan, and was subsequently diagnosed with mosaic trisomy 18 on array comparative genomic hybridisation from a peripheral blood sample and molecular cytogenetic analysis of the tumour specimen. Although hemihypertrophy has been associated with mosaic trisomies, there are only a couple of published case reports of hemihypertrophy or asymmetry in mosaic trisomy 18 patients and none in the reported cases of hepatoblastoma in a mosaic trisomy 18 setting. We have reviewed the published case reports of hepatoblastoma in trisomy 18 patients and found that they seem to tolerate the intensive treatment very well if there are no significant comorbidities.

  14. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; Williams, Dewight; Bian, Wen; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Stubbs, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus.

  15. Resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus in wheat lines carrying Wsm1 and Wsm3

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are important viruses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains of United States. In addition to agronomic practices to prevent damage from these viruses, temperature sensitive resistance genes Wsm1, Wsm2 and Wsm3, have bee...

  16. Somatic mosaicism for a DMD gene deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Kayoko; Ikeya, Kiyoko; Kondo, Eri

    1995-03-13

    Mosaicism is a mixed state, with two cell populations of different genetic origins caused by a cell mutation occurring after fertilization. In the present case, DNA analysis of lymphocytes led to a DMD diagnosis before death. Postmortem immunocytochemical and DNA analysis showed somatic mosaicism. At age 18 years, blood lymphocyte DNA analysis showed a DMD gene deletion, upstream from exon 7 to the 5{prime} end containing both muscle and brain promoters. As the patient`s mother and elder sister had no deletions, he was considered to have a new mutation. Immunocytochemical studies of postmortem tissues showed that dystrophin was absent from the tongue, deltoid, intercostal, psoas and rectus femoris muscles, but there was a mix of dystrophin-positive and negative fibers in the rectus abdominis, cardiac, temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles. All diaphragm cells were dystrophin positive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from all tissues except the temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles, diaphragm and kidney, in which no deletion was found, showed the deletion from at least exon 6 to the 5{prime} end containing both muscle and brain promoters. In this case, a genomic deletion of the DMD gene contributed to the formation of tissues derived from both ectoderm and endoderm, and cells of mesodermal origin showed genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Our results indicate a mutation of the present case may have occurred just before the period of germ layer formation. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Earth - False Color Mosaic of the Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic of the central part of the Andes mountains of South America (70 degrees west longitude, 19 degrees south latitude) is made up of 42 images acquired by the Galileo spacecraft from an altitude of about 25,000 kilometers (15,000 miles). A combination of visible (green) and near-infrared (0.76 and 1.0-micron) filters was chosen for this view to separate regions with distinct vegetation and soil types. The mosaic shows the area where Chile, Peru and Bolivia meet. The Pacific Coast appears at the left of the image-- Galileo captured this view as it traveled west over the Pacific Ocean, looking back at the Andes. Lakes Titicaca and Poopo are nearly black patches at the top and center, respectively; a large light-blue area below and to the left of Lake Poopo is Salar de Uyuni, a dry salt lake some 120 kilometers (75 miles) across. These lakes lie in the Altiplano, a region between the western and eastern Andes, which are covered by clouds. The vegetation-bearing Gran Chaco plains east of the Andes appear pale green. Light-blue patches in the mountains to the north are glaciers.

  18. Venus - Mosaic of Bahet and Onatah Coronae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-26

    This mosaic of Magellan data in the Fortuna region of Venus, centered at 49 degrees north latitude, 2 degrees longitude, shows two coronae. Coronae are large circular or oval structures first identified in Soviet radar images of Venus. The structure on the left, Bahet Corona, is about 230 kilometers (138 miles) long and 150 kilometers (90 miles) across. A portion of Onatah Corona, over 350 kilometers (210 miles) in diameter, can be seen on the right of the mosaic. Both features are surrounded by a ring of ridges and troughs, which in places cut more radially-oriented fractures. The centers of the features also contain radial fractures as well as volcanic domes and flows. Coronae are thought to form due to the upwelling of hot material from deep in the interior of Venus. The two coronae may have formed at the same time over a single upwelling, or may indicate movement of the upwelling or the upper layers of the planet to the west over time. A 'pancake' dome, similar to low-relief domes see in the southern hemisphere, is located just to the southwest of Bahet. Resolution of the Magellan data is about 120 meters (400 feet). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00461

  19. Smoothing the mosaic subclinical melanoderma by calcipotriol.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Paquet, P; Quatresooz, P; Piérard, G E

    2007-05-01

    The observation of photo-exposed skin under ultraviolet light reveals a mosaic pattern of varying intensity in epidermal melanization. Several patterns of mosaic subclinical melanoderma (MSM) have been described using a specially designed CCD camera and the ultraviolet light-enhanced visualization (ULEV) method. Vitamin D(3) and its analogues influence the biology of keratinocytes and melanocytes. To assess the effect of calcipotriol on MSM. This randomized split-face study was conducted in 27 men to compare the effect of once daily applications of 5% calcipotriol cream or a moisturizing cream on the heterogeneity of facial MSM. Computerized image analysis of video images was used at 1-month intervals before and during a 2-month treatment, as well as during a 3-month follow-up. At both sites, the average melanin content of the epidermis showed no significant change over time. However, the mottled appearance was smoothened at the calcipotriol site, whereas it was increased at the site receiving the moisturizer. The decreased heterogeneity in MSM after calcipotriol applications suggests a control of the epidermal melanocyte unit by the vitamin D(3) derivative.

  20. Detection of Corchorus golden mosaic virus Associated with Yellow Mosaic Disease of Jute (Corchorus capsularis).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Raju; Palit, Paramita; Paul, Sujay; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Roy, Anirban

    2012-06-01

    Yellow mosaic disease, caused by a whitefly transmitted New World Begomovirus, named Corchorus golden mosaic virus (CoGMV), is emerging as a serious biotic constraint for jute fibre production in Asia. For rapid and sensitive diagnosis of the Begomovirus associated with this disease, a non-radiolabelled diagnostic probe, developed against the DNA A component of the east Indian isolate of CoGMV, detected the presence of the virus in infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies following Southern hybridization and nucleic acid spot hybridization tests. Presence of the virus was also confirmed when polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed using virus-specific primers on DNA templates isolated from infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies.

  1. Custom Sky-Image Mosaics from NASA's Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph; Collier, James; Craymer, Loring; Curkendall, David

    2005-01-01

    yourSkyG is the second generation of the software described in yourSky: Custom Sky-Image Mosaics via the Internet (NPO-30556), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 6 (June 2003), page 45. Like its predecessor, yourSkyG supplies custom astronomical image mosaics of sky regions specified by requesters using client computers connected to the Internet. Whereas yourSky constructs mosaics on a local multiprocessor system, yourSkyG performs the computations on NASA s Information Power Grid (IPG), which is capable of performing much larger mosaicking tasks. (The IPG is high-performance computation and data grid that integrates geographically distributed 18 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2005 computers, databases, and instruments.) A user of yourSkyG can specify parameters describing a mosaic to be constructed. yourSkyG then constructs the mosaic on the IPG and makes it available for downloading by the user. The complexities of determining which input images are required to construct a mosaic, retrieving the required input images from remote sky-survey archives, uploading the images to the computers on the IPG, performing the computations remotely on the Grid, and downloading the resulting mosaic from the Grid are all transparent to the user

  2. Parallel-Processing Software for Creating Mosaic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Deen, Robert; McCauley, Michael; DeJong, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A computer program implements parallel processing for nearly real-time creation of panoramic mosaics of images of terrain acquired by video cameras on an exploratory robotic vehicle (e.g., a Mars rover). Because the original images are typically acquired at various camera positions and orientations, it is necessary to warp the images into the reference frame of the mosaic before stitching them together to create the mosaic. [Also see "Parallel-Processing Software for Correlating Stereo Images," Software Supplement to NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 9 (September 2007) page 26.] The warping algorithm in this computer program reflects the considerations that (1) for every pixel in the desired final mosaic, a good corresponding point must be found in one or more of the original images and (2) for this purpose, one needs a good mathematical model of the cameras and a good correlation of individual pixels with respect to their positions in three dimensions. The desired mosaic is divided into slices, each of which is assigned to one of a number of central processing units (CPUs) operating simultaneously. The results from the CPUs are gathered and placed into the final mosaic. The time taken to create the mosaic depends upon the number of CPUs, the speed of each CPU, and whether a local or a remote data-staging mechanism is used.

  3. Solar System Portrait - 60 Frame Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-13

    The cameras of Voyager 1 on Feb. 14, 1990, pointed back toward the sun and took a series of pictures of the sun and the planets, making the first ever portrait of our solar system as seen from the outside. In the course of taking this mosaic consisting of a total of 60 frames, Voyager 1 made several images of the inner solar system from a distance of approximately 4 billion miles and about 32 degrees above the ecliptic plane. Thirty-nine wide angle frames link together six of the planets of our solar system in this mosaic. Outermost Neptune is 30 times further from the sun than Earth. Our sun is seen as the bright object in the center of the circle of frames. The wide-angle image of the sun was taken with the camera's darkest filter (a methane absorption band) and the shortest possible exposure (5 thousandths of a second) to avoid saturating the camera's vidicon tube with scattered sunlight. The sun is not large as seen from Voyager, only about one-fortieth of the diameter as seen from Earth, but is still almost 8 million times brighter than the brightest star in Earth's sky, Sirius. The result of this great brightness is an image with multiple reflections from the optics in the camera. Wide-angle images surrounding the sun also show many artifacts attributable to scattered light in the optics. These were taken through the clear filter with one second exposures. The insets show the planets magnified many times. Narrow-angle images of Earth, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were acquired as the spacecraft built the wide-angle mosaic. Jupiter is larger than a narrow-angle pixel and is clearly resolved, as is Saturn with its rings. Uranus and Neptune appear larger than they really are because of image smear due to spacecraft motion during the long (15 second) exposures. From Voyager's great distance Earth and Venus are mere points of light, less than the size of a picture element even in the narrow-angle camera. Earth was a crescent only 0.12 pixel in size

  4. Pre- and postnatal findings in trisomy 17 mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Utermann, Barbara; Riegel, Mariluce; Leistritz, Dru; Karall, Thomas; Wisser, Josef; Meisner, Lorraine; Fauth, Christine; Baldinger, Rosa; Johnson, Julie; Erdel, Martin; Taralczak, Malgorzata; Pauli, Richard M; Baumer, Alessandra; Schinzel, Albert; Kotzot, Dieter

    2006-08-01

    Trisomy 17 mosaicism is one of the rarest autosomal trisomies in humans. Thus far, only 23 cases have been described, most of them detected prenatally. In only five instances has mosaicism been demonstrated in lymphocytes and/or fibroblasts postnatally, and only in these have multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), facial dysmorphisms, and mental retardation been reported. Patients with trisomy 17 mosaicism at amniocentesis and a normal karyotype in blood and fibroblasts (n = 17) were always healthy. Here, we report on pre- and postnatal clinical, cytogenetic, molecular-cytogenetic, and molecular findings in four patients with trisomy 17 mosaicism. The first case was detected in cultured but not in short-term chorionic villi and amniocytes. Due to MCA on prenatal ultrasound examination the pregnancy was terminated. The second patient is a 13-month-old healthy boy, in whom low level trisomy 17 mosaicism was detected in cultured chorionic villi only. The third patient is a 2-year-old girl with growth retardation, developmental delay, MCA, and trisomy 17 mosaicism in amniocytes, fibroblasts, and placenta, but not in blood and buccal smear. The fourth patient is a 9-year-old boy with growth and mental retardation, sensoneurinal hearing loss, and MCA. Cytogenetic analyses showed trisomy 17 mosaicism in amniocytes, skin fibroblasts, and urinary sediment cells, whereas in blood and buccal smear a 46,XY karyotype was found. Molecular investigations in all four cases indicated biparental inheritance of chromosome 17. Formation of trisomy was most likely due to a maternal meiosis I error in Patient 1 and a postzygotic non-disjunction of the paternal chromosome 17 in Patient 4. Cerebellar malformations, reported in two cases from the literature and in two reported here may be a specific feature of trisomy 17 mosaicism. Since the aberration has rarely been reported in lymphocytes, chordocentesis is not indicated in prenatal diagnosis. Prenatal genetic counseling for trisomy 17

  5. Optical flow with structure information for epithelial image mosaicing.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sharib; Faraz, Khuram; Daul, Christian; Blondel, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Mosaicing of biological tissue surfaces is challenging due to the weak image textures. This contribution presents a mosaicing algorithm based on a robust and accurate variational optical flow scheme. A Riesz pyramid based multiscale approach aims at overcoming the "flattening-out" problem at coarser levels. Moreover, the structure information present in images of epithelial surfaces is incorporated into the data-term to improve the algorithm robustness. The algorithm accuracy is first assessed with simulated sequences and then used for mosaicing standard clinical endoscopic data.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of a trisomy 7/trisomy 13 mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Huijsdens-van Amsterdam, Karin; Barge-Schaapveld, Daniela Qcm; Mathijssen, Inge B; Alders, Mariëlle; Pajkrt, Eva; Knegt, Alida C

    2012-01-27

    Double aneuploidy mosaicism of two different aneuploidy cell lines is rare. We describe for the first time a double trisomy mosaicism, involving chromosomes 7 and 13 in a fetus presenting with multiple congenital anomalies. No evidence for chimerism was found by DNA genotyping. The origin of both trisomies are consistent with isodisomy of maternal origin. Therefore, it is most likely that the double trisomy mosaicism arose from two independent events very early in embryonic development. The trisomy 7 and 13 cells were shown to be of maternal origin.

  7. Mosaic tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, Philip J.; Amodeo, Nina; Roberts, Adam P.

    2016-01-01

    First reported in 2003, mosaic tetracycline resistance genes are a subgroup of the genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins (RPPs). They are formed when two or more RPP-encoding genes recombine resulting in a functional chimera. To date, the majority of mosaic genes are derived from sections of three RPP genes, tet(O), tet(W) and tet(32), with others comprising tet(M) and tet(S). In this first review of mosaic genes, we report on their structure, diversity and prevalence, and suggest that these genes may be responsible for an under-reported contribution to tetracycline resistance in bacteria. PMID:27494928

  8. Reproductive performance in women with sex chromosome mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Singh, D N; Hara, S; Foster, H W; Grimes, E M

    1980-05-01

    Among chromosomal analyses performed in 23 couples with a history of 2 or more spontaneous abortions, 5 women had mosaicism of the sex chromosomes, 46,XX/47,XXX, but all the men had normal 46,XY chromosomal complements. A review of the literature revealed that 75% of the fetuses of mothers with sex chromosome mosaicism were abnormal. Fifty percent of theses pregnancies ended in abortion and one third of the infants exhibited a chromosomal or physical abnormality. The possible effect of sex chromosome mosaicism on outcome of pregnancy is emphasized.

  9. Mosaic tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Philip J; Amodeo, Nina; Roberts, Adam P

    2016-12-01

    First reported in 2003, mosaic tetracycline resistance genes are a subgroup of the genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins (RPPs). They are formed when two or more RPP-encoding genes recombine resulting in a functional chimera. To date, the majority of mosaic genes are derived from sections of three RPP genes, tet(O), tet(W) and tet(32), with others comprising tet(M) and tet(S). In this first review of mosaic genes, we report on their structure, diversity and prevalence, and suggest that these genes may be responsible for an under-reported contribution to tetracycline resistance in bacteria.

  10. Nucleotide sequence of papaya mosaic virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Sit, T L; Abouhaidar, M G; Holy, S

    1989-09-01

    The RNA genome of papaya mosaic virus is 6656 nucleotides long [excluding the poly(A) tail] with six open reading frames (ORFs) more than 200 nucleotides long. The four nearest the 5' end each overlap with adjacent ORFs and could code for proteins with Mr 176307, 26248, 11949 and 7224 (ORFs 1 to 4). The fifth ORF produces the capsid protein of Mr 23043 and the sixth ORF, located completely within ORF1, could code for a protein with Mr 14113. The translation products of ORFs 1 to 3 show strong similarity with those of other potexviruses but the ORF 4 protein has only limited similarity with the other potexvirus ORF 4 proteins of 7K to 11K.

  11. Methods of Spectral Analysis in C++ (MOSAIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engesser, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Stellar spectroscopic classification is most often still done by hand. MOSAIC is a project focused on the collection and classification of astronomical spectra using a computerized algorithm. The code itself attempts to accurately classify stellar spectra according to the broad spectral classes within the Morgan-Keenan system of spectral classification, based on estimated temperature and the relative abundances of certain notable elements (Hydrogen, Helium, etc.) in the stellar atmosphere. The methodology includes calibrating the wavelength for pixels across the image by using the wavelength dispersion of pixels inherent with the spectrograph used. It then calculates the location of the peak in the star's Planck spectrum in order to roughly classify the star. Fitting the graph to a blackbody curve is the final step for a correct classification. Future work will involve taking a closer look at emission lines and luminosity classes.

  12. Molecular variation of hop mosaic virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Poke, Fiona S; Crowle, Damian R; Whittock, Simon P; Wilson, Calum R

    2010-10-01

    Hop mosaic virus (HpMV), a member of the genus Carlavirus, is importance to hop production worldwide. We identified variation in nucleic and amino acid sequences among 23 HpMV isolates from Australia, the USA, the Czech Republic, South Africa and Japan using a 1,455-bp fragment covering the 3' end of the virus genome including ORFs 4, 5 and 6. Three clusters of two or more isolates were identified in phylogenies of the total nucleotide sequence and the coat protein (ORF5) amino acid sequence. Two of these clusters combined in analyses of ORF4 and ORF6 amino acid sequences. Isolates from within and outside of Australia were found in each cluster, indicating that sequence variation was not associated with geographic source. Monitoring of HpMV variants in the field and evaluation of the impact of variants on vector association, rate of spread, and hop yield and quality can now be undertaken.

  13. Peach latent mosaic viroid: not so latent.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ricardo; Delgado, Sonia; Rodio, María-Elena; Ambrós, Silvia; Hernández, Carmen; Serio, Francesco D I

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is the type species of the genus Pelamoviroid within the family Avsunviroidae of chloroplastic viroids with hammerhead ribozymes. Physical properties: A small circular RNA of 336-351 nt (differences in size result from the absence or presence of certain insertions) adopting a branched conformation stabilized by a pseudoknot between two kissing loops. This particular conformation is most likely responsible for the insolubility of PLMVd in highly saline conditions (in which other viroids adopting a rod-like conformation are soluble). Both polarity strands are able to form hammerhead structures and to self-cleave during replication as predicted by these ribozymes. Biological properties: Although most infections occur without conspicuous symptoms, certain PLMVd isolates induce leaf mosaics, blotches and in the most extreme cases albinism (peach calico, PC), flower streaking, delays in foliation, flowering and ripening, deformations and decolorations of fruits, which usually present cracked sutures and enlarged roundish stones, bud necrosis, stem pitting and premature ageing of the trees, which also adopt a characteristic growing pattern (open habit). The molecular determinant for PC has been mapped at a 12-14-nt insertion that folds into a hairpin capped by a U-rich loop present only in certain variants. PLMVd is horizontally transmitted by the propagation of infected buds and to a lesser extent by pruning tools and aphids, but not by pollen; the viroid is not vertically transmitted through seed. Interesting features: This provides a suitable system for studying how a minimal non-protein-coding catalytic RNA replicates (subverting a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe an RNA template), moves, interferes with the metabolism of its host (inciting specific symptoms and a defensive RNA silencing response) and evolves following a quasi-species model characterized by a complex spectrum of variants.

  14. Uruk Sulcus Mosaic - Galileo over Voyager Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A mosaic of four Galileo images of the Uruk Sulcus region on Ganymede (Latitude 11 N, Longitude: 170 W) is shown overlayed on the data obtained by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, nearly overhead. The area shown is about 120 by 110 kilometers (75 by 68 miles) in extent and the smallest features that can be discerned are 74 meters (243 feet) in size in the Galileo images and 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) in the Voyager data. The higher resolution Galileo images unveil the details of parallel ridges and troughs that are principal features in the brighter regions of Ganymede. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,448 kilometers (4,628 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  15. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  16. Paspalum striate mosaic virus: an Australian mastrevirus from Paspalum dilatatum.

    PubMed

    Geering, Andrew D W; Thomas, John E; Holton, Timothy; Hadfield, James; Varsani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Three monocot-infecting mastreviruses from Australia, all found primarily in pasture and naturalised grasses, have been characterised at the molecular level. Here, we present the full genome sequence of a fourth, Paspalum striate mosaic virus (PSMV), isolated from Paspalum dilatatum from south-east Queensland. The genome was 2816 nt long and had an organisation typical of other monocot-infecting mastreviruses. Its nearest relative is Bromus cartharticus striate mosaic virus (BCSMV), with which it shares an overall genome identity of 75%. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome and each of the putative viral proteins places PSMV in a group with the other three Australian striate mosaic viruses. PSMV, BCSMV and Digitaria didactyla striate mosaic virus all contain a similar, small recombinant sequence in the small intergenic region.

  17. Mosaic triple X syndrome in a female with primary amenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshwari, A.; Srimanjari, K.; Srilekha, A.; Begum, Ashrafunnisa; Sujatha, M.; Sunitha, T.; Nallari, Pratibha; Jyothy, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Turner's syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality in females, affecting 1 in 2,500 live female births. It is a result of absence of an X chromosome or the presence of a structurally abnormal X chromosome. Its most consistent clinical features are short stature and ovarian failure. AIM: The aim of the study was to report a rare case of mosaic triple X syndrome in a female with primary amenorrhea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chromosomal analysis using GTG banding was carried out, which revealed a mosaicism with 45,XO/47,XXX chromosomal constitution. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was also carried out to further confirm the observation made in the study. CONCLUSION: The physical features presented by the female could be due to the 45,XO/47,XXX mosaicism and the karyotype analysis was consistent with the diagnosis and clinical symptoms. Triple X mosaicism was confirmed with conventional and molecular cytogenetic analysis. PMID:23162306

  18. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    DOEpatents

    Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Perkins, Simon [Los Alamos, NM; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos, NM; Fischer, William M [Los Alamos, NM; Theiler, James [Los Alamos, NM; Letvin, Norman [Boston, MA; Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos, NM; Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  19. Ganymede Global Geologic Map and Global Image Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-12

    To present the best information in a single view of Jupiter moon Ganymede, a global image mosaic was assembled, incorporating the best available imagery from NASA Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft and NASA Galileo spacecraft.

  20. Mosaic Double Aneuploidy of X and G Chromosomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Singh, D. N.

    1975-01-01

    Reported are case histories of three severely retarded adolescents with typical Down's Syndrome features but whose cytogenetic analysis revealed a rare chromosomal anomaly of mosaicism of Down's and Turner's syndromes. (CL)

  1. True hermaphroditism in 45,X/46,XY mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Linskens, R K; Odink, R J; van der Linden, J C; Ekkelkamp, S; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the clinical findings on two patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, two boys presented with penile hypospadias and cryptorchidism. A dysgenetic ovary and a testis were found in one boy, and a dysgenetic ovary in the other. Both patients can be considered to be true hermaphrodites on the basis of histology and clinical and hormonal observations. 45,X/46,XY mosaics have a wide range of phenotypic appearances and their gonadal morphology can also show great differences. However, the incidence of true hermaphroditism in individuals with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is low and the reports in the literature rare. It is likely that males with 45,X/46,XY who suffer only mild maldevelopment of the external genitalia will not be recognized. In all patients with penoscrotal hypospadias and cryptorchidism with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, the possibility of true hermaphroditism should be considered.

  2. Great Red Spot Mosaic - Near-infrared Filter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-07

    The Great Red Spot GRS of Jupiter as seen by NASA Galileo imaging system. The image is a mosaic of six images taken over an 80 second interval during the first GRS observing sequence on June 26, 1996.

  3. Mosaic generalized neurofibromatosis 1: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Jori; Behm, Allan; Haber, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of mosaic generalized neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and review the history of the classification of segmental neurofibromatosis (SNF; Ricardi type NF-V). Somatic mutations giving rise to limited disease, such as segmental neurofibromatosis are manifestations of mosaicism. If the mutation occurs before tissue differentiation, the clinical phenotype will be generalized disease. Mutations that occur later in development give rise to disease that is confined to a single region. Segmental neurofibromatosis is caused by a somatic mutation of neurofibromatosis type 1, and should not be regarded as a distinct entity from neurofibromatosis 1. Cases previously referred to as unilateral or bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis are now best referred to as mosaic generalized or mosaic localized neurofibromatosis 1.

  4. A new national mosaic of state landcover data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, I.; Handley, Lawrence R.; D'Erchia, Frank J.; Charron, Tammy M.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation reviewed current landcover mapping efforts and presented a new preliminary, national mosaic of Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MRLC) landcover data with a discussion of techniques, problems faced, and future refinements.

  5. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. SHOWING ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN TILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. SHOWING ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN TILE FLOOR, TILE WAINSCOT AND SHOWER SURROUND, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type J, 701 Beard Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  6. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN FLOOR TILE, ASBESTOS CEMENT WALL BOARD, AND OPEN TRANSOM OVER THE SHOWER DOORWAY. VIEW FACING WEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type D, 111 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Automatic seamless image mosaic method based on SIFT features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meiying; Wen, Desheng

    2017-02-01

    An automatic seamless image mosaic method based on SIFT features is proposed. First a scale-invariant feature extracting algorithm SIFT is used for feature extraction and matching, which gains sub-pixel precision for features extraction. Then, the transforming matrix H is computed with improved PROSAC algorithm , compared with RANSAC algorithm, the calculate efficiency is advanced, and the number of the inliers are more. Then the transforming matrix H is purify with LM algorithm. And finally image mosaic is completed with smoothing algorithm. The method implements automatically and avoids the disadvantages of traditional image mosaic method under different scale and illumination conditions. Experimental results show the image mosaic effect is wonderful and the algorithm is stable very much. It is high valuable in practice.

  8. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 2. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 2. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN FLOOR TILE, EXPOSED-CORNER TUB, FLUSH VALVE TOILET, TILE WAINSCOT, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type B, 704 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Clinical features of trisomy 12 mosaicism-Report and review.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bo; Zunich, Janice; Openshaw, Amanda; M Toydemir, Reha

    2017-03-27

    Trisomy 12 mosaicism is a rare condition. Herein, we report a patient with mosaic trisomy 12 who was conceived by in vitro fertilization. She presented with mild dysmorphic features at birth, including down-slanting palpebral fissures, a depressed and creased nasal bridge, and mild rhizomelic shortening of the limbs. She had age-appropriate development at 6 months of age, but displayed slightly more dysmorphic features than at birth. Chromosome analysis on peripheral blood revealed a normal female karyotype in 50 metaphases. A concurrent genomic microarray analysis showed trisomy 12 in about 25% of the specimen, which was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with the CEP12 probe. Our findings further delineate the clinical features in trisomy 12 mosaicism in liveborns and demonstrate the utility of genomic microarray analysis in identification of mosaic aneuploidies.

  10. Mosaic Double Aneuploidy of X and G Chromosomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Singh, D. N.

    1975-01-01

    Reported are case histories of three severely retarded adolescents with typical Down's Syndrome features but whose cytogenetic analysis revealed a rare chromosomal anomaly of mosaicism of Down's and Turner's syndromes. (CL)

  11. Controlled Color Mosaics of Vesta with Dawn Framing Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Corre, L.; Becker, K. J.; Gaskell, R.; Li, J.-Y.; Reddy, V.; Blewett, D. T.; Lucey, P.

    2017-06-01

    Registration of Dawn Framing Camera color images from High Altitude Mapping Orbit phases to an updated shape model of Vesta allows the creation of controlled mosaics for photometric modeling and study of space weathering of the surface.

  12. Global and regional/seasonal color mosaics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Alfred S.; Soderblom, Laurence A.

    1993-01-01

    Four regional mosaics of Mars acquired during different seasons, along with their composite as a single global mosaic, have been completed in two colors (red and violet) at scales of 1/16 and 1/64 degrees/pixel. These mosaics were put together from a set of 51 separate mosaics, each acquired from a single Viking orbiter spacecraft orbital revolution. Special techniques were developed and applied to suppress large variations between mosaics introcued by highly variable, optically thin, condensate hazes. The techniques utilize a combination of the spatial characteristics of the hazes (generally broad, low-frequency) along with their modulation of the reginal color ratios (strongly enhancing the violet/red ratios). Photometric-function normalization was applied following the haze removal. Most of the single-orbit mosaics consist of red and violet or red, green, and violet filters, but a few mosaics with only red-filter data were included to fill gaps in global coverage at high northern latitudes. Global coverage is approximately 99 percent complete in red-filter mosaics and approximately 95 percent and approximately 60 percent complete in corresponding violet- and green-filter mosaics, respectively. All of the mosaics are geometrically tied to the 1/256 deg per pixel Mars Digital Image Map (MDIM), which is available on Compact Disk (CD), and which will be used as the base map for Mars Observer data sets. Early in 1993, the single-orbit color mosaics will be distributed to the science community in a six-volume set of CDs. Perhaps the most scientifically interesting parts of this dataset are the overlap regions, which show significant temporal variations in surface and atmospheric features. Surface changes can be categorized as (1) changes that probably occurred during the great dust storms of 1977; (2) changes that occurred soon after 1977 storms due to removal of redistribution of recently deposited dust; (3) changes in the northern lowlands that probably occurred

  13. Delineation of a clinical syndrome caused by mosaic trisomy 15

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, E.M.; Bienz, G.; Straumann, E.; Bosceh, N.

    1996-03-15

    We report on a boy with mosaic trisomy 15. The clinical manifestations are compared with those of the few cases reported up to now. A clinical syndrome is delineated consisting of a characteristic shape of the nose and other minor craniofacial anomalies, as well as typical deformities of the hands and feet. Different degrees of mosaicism may explain the more or less severe manifestations in individual patients. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Host susceptibility of the papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, R H; Herath, H M

    1981-01-01

    75 plant species from 11 families were tested in Sri Lanka for their susceptibility to transferring the papaya mosaic virus. After inoculation with this virus, six species, Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus, Nicotiana tabacum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, Gomphrena globosa and Lycopersicum esculentum, developed such symptoms, and after re-isolation from the host plant the virus again infected papaya plants. Thus these species are possible alternate hosts of papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.

  15. 43. CUTTING APART PIECES OF A MOSAIC. WHEN SEPARATED, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. CUTTING APART PIECES OF A MOSAIC. WHEN SEPARATED, THE PIECES CAN BE INDIVIDUALLY GLAZED, SMOKED, OR FINISH FIRED TO PRODUCE A MULTI-COLORED IMAGE WHEN REASSEMBLED. NOTE THE SUBSTITUTION OF BUFF FOR RED CLAY IN SEVERAL PIECES OF MOSAIC ON THE LEFT. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  16. Detail view looking down at mosaics of everyday objects next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking down at mosaics of everyday objects next to Living Trailer (rear steps seen frame left). "They Last" tile in center surrounded by tiles, irons, glasses, toy guns, license plates, bottle caps, and plastic parts. The mosaic was created in sections as squares and linear strips, as cement was mixed and objects were collected – the edges of these sections and variation of objects is noticeable. View looking north. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  17. Mosaic trisomy 8 detected by fibroblasts cultured of skin.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Gustavo; Gómez, Ana M; Mora, Lina; Suarez-Obando, Fernando; Moreno, Olga

    2016-06-30

    Mosaic trisomy 8 or "Warkany's Syndrome" is a chromosomopathy with an estimated prevalance of 1:25,000 to 1:50,000, whose clinical presentation has a wide phenotypic variability. Patient aged 14 years old with antecedents of global retardation of development, moderate cognitive deficit and hypothyroidism of possible congenital origin. Physical examination revealed palpebral ptosis, small corneas and corectopia, hypoplasia of the upper maxilla and prognathism, dental crowding, high-arched palate, anomalies of the extremities such as digitalization of the thumbs, clinodactyly and bilateral shortening of the fifth finger, shortening of the right femur, columnar deviation and linear brown blotches that followed Blaschko's lines. Cerebral nuclear magnetic resonance revealed type 1 Chiari's malformation and ventriculomegaly. Although the karyotype was normal in peripheral blood (46,XY), based on the finding of cutaneous mosaicism the lesions were biopsied and cytogenetic analysis demonstrated mosaic trisomy 8: mos 47,XY,+8[7]/46,XY[93]. Trisomy 8 is clinically presented as a mosaic, universal cases being unfailingly lethal. In this particular case, cutaneous lesions identified the mosaic in tissue, although the karyotype was normal in peripheral blood. The cutaneous mosaicism represented by brown linear blotches which follow Blaschko's lines is a clinical finding that has not previously been described in Warkany's syndrome.

  18. Mosaic trisomy 8 detected by fibroblasts cultured of skin

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Ana M; Mora, Lina; Suarez-Obando, Fernando; Moreno, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mosaic trisomy 8 or "Warkany's Syndrome" is a chromosomopathy with an estimated prevalance of 1:25,000 to 1:50,000, whose clinical presentation has a wide phenotypic variability. Case Description: Patient aged 14 years old with antecedents of global retardation of development, moderate cognitive deficit and hypothyroidism of possible congenital origin. Clinical Findings: Physical examination revealed palpebral ptosis, small corneas and corectopia, hypoplasia of the upper maxilla and prognathism, dental crowding, high-arched palate, anomalies of the extremities such as digitalization of the thumbs, clinodactyly and bilateral shortening of the fifth finger, shortening of the right femur, columnar deviation and linear brown blotches that followed Blaschko's lines. Cerebral nuclear magnetic resonance revealed type 1 Chiari's malformation and ventriculomegaly. Although the karyotype was normal in peripheral blood (46,XY), based on the finding of cutaneous mosaicism the lesions were biopsied and cytogenetic analysis demonstrated mosaic trisomy 8: mos 47,XY,+8[7]/46,XY[93]. Clinical Relevance: Trisomy 8 is clinically presented as a mosaic, universal cases being unfailingly lethal. In this particular case, cutaneous lesions identified the mosaic in tissue, although the karyotype was normal in peripheral blood. The cutaneous mosaicism represented by brown linear blotches which follow Blaschko's lines is a clinical finding that has not previously been described in Warkany's syndrome. PMID:27546932

  19. A conceptual model for ray tracing calculations with mosaic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Bernstorff, S.; Savoia, A.; Cerrina, F.

    1992-01-01

    Mosaic crystals provide an interesting choice for synchrotron radiation monochromators under certain conditions. They show a wider and lower reflectivity curve than perfect crystals, but a higher integrated reflectivity. Some mosaic crystals such as graphite or beryllium could be considered as monochromators or premonochromators for third generation synchrotron radiation machines (Sincrotrone Trieste, European Synchrotron Radiation facility, etc.). In order to assess these possibilities, we have implemented a new mosaic crystal part in the ray tracing code SHADOW. The effect of the random distribution of the crystallites in a mosaic crystal can be analyzed efficiently with a Monte Carlo method. Taking into account the random distribution of the crystal planes, modeled as a Gaussian of standard deviation κ, it is possible to reproduce the well known focusing and defocusing properties of these crystals. For reflectivity calculations we have implemented in the computer code the Mosaic Crystals Theory of Zachariasen. As secondary extinction is not negligible in mosaic crystals, we have also included the penetration effect of the x-ray beam inside the crystal.

  20. Effects of single and double infections of winter wheat by Triticum mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus on yield determinants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a recently discovered virus infecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. It is transmitted by wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella Keifer) which also transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Wheat mosaic virus. In a gree...

  1. Mosaic-Detector-Based Fluorescence Spectral Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-Ah; Moon, Jeong

    2007-01-01

    A battery-powered, pen-sized, portable instrument for measuring molecular fluorescence spectra of chemical and biological samples in the field has been proposed. Molecular fluorescence spectroscopy is among the techniques used most frequently in laboratories to analyze compositions of chemical and biological samples. Heretofore, it has been possible to measure fluorescence spectra of molecular species at relative concentrations as low as parts per billion (ppb), with a few nm spectral resolution. The proposed instrument would include a planar array (mosaic) of detectors, onto which a fluorescence spectrum would be spatially mapped. Unlike in the larger laboratory-type molecular fluorescence spectrometers, mapping of wavelengths to spatial positions would be accomplished without use of relatively bulky optical parts. The proposed instrument is expected to be sensitive enough to enable measurement of spectra of chemical species at relative concentrations <1 ppb, with spectral resolution that could be tailored by design to be comparable to a laboratory molecular fluorescence spectrometer. The proposed instrument (see figure) would include a button-cell battery and a laser diode, which would generate the monochromatic ultraviolet light needed to excite fluorescence in a sample. The sample would be held in a cell bounded by far-ultraviolet-transparent quartz or optical glass. The detector array would be, more specifically, a complementary metal oxide/ semiconductor or charge-coupled- device imaging photodetector array, the photodetectors of which would be tailored to respond to light in the wavelength range of the fluorescence spectrum to be measured. The light-input face of the photodetector array would be covered with a matching checkerboard array of multilayer thin film interference filters, such that each pixel in the array would be sensitive only to light in a spectral band narrow enough so as not to overlap significantly with the band of an adjacent pixel. The

  2. Galileo Regio Mosaic - Galileo over Voyager Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A mosaic of four Galileo images of the Galileo Regio region on Ganymede (Latitude 18 N, Longitude: 149 W) is shown overlayed on the data obtained by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, about 58 degrees above the horizon. The smallest features that can be discerned are about 80 meters (262 feet) in size in the Galileo images. These Galileo images show fine details of the dark terrain that makes up about half of the surface of the planet-sized moon. Ancient impact craters of various sizes and states of degradation testify to the great age of the terrain, dating back several billion years. The images reveal distinctive variations in albedo from the brighter rims, knobs, and furrow walls to a possible accumulation of dark material on the lower slopes, and crater floors. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,580 kilometers (4,738 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system. Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  3. Keratinocyte cytogenetics in 10 patients with pigmentary mosaicism: identification of one case of trisomy 20 mosaicism confined to keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Taibjee, S M; Hall, D; Balderson, D; Larkins, S; Stubbs, T; Moss, C

    2009-10-01

    Hypomelanosis of Ito and linear and whorled hypermelanosis are pigmentary disorders that follow Blaschko's lines and are associated with cytogenetic mosaicism. However, mosaicism cannot always be shown using conventional karyotyping of blood lymphocytes or skin fibroblasts. This may be because these cell lines originate from mesoderm, whereas Blaschko's lines are an ectodermal phenomenon. To investigate the diagnostic value of keratinocyte cytogenetics in patients with pigmentary mosaicism (PM). We undertook a prospective study of 10 patients with clinically suspected PM. Previous karyotyping of blood, and in some cases skin fibroblasts, was normal in all cases. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were cultured from skin biopsies taken from light and dark skin, and examined for cytogenetic abnormalities. In 9 of 10 cases both keratinocyte and fibroblast cytogenetic analyses were normal. The remaining patient showed trisomy 20 mosaicism confined to keratinocytes from hypopigmented skin. Fluorescent in situ hybridization using a probe for 20q confirmed trisomy 20 mosaicism in keratinocytes but not fibroblasts, with higher signal expression in hypopigmented compared with normal skin. In patients with clinically suspected PM but normal blood cytogenetics, keratinocytes may be more sensitive than skin fibroblasts in identifying cytogenetic mosaicism in selected patients. However, the additional diagnostic yield appears to be insufficient to justify routine keratinocyte cytogenetic investigation. Our findings indirectly support the hypothesis that Blaschko's lines delineate the embryonal migration paths taken by ectodermal cells including keratinocytes and melanocytes.

  4. Sequence diversity of wheat mosaic virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy R

    2016-02-02

    Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), transmitted by eriophyid wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella) is the causal agent of High Plains disease in wheat and maize. WMoV and other members of the genus Emaravirus evaded thorough molecular characterization for many years due to the experimental challenges of mite transmission and manipulating multisegmented negative sense RNA genomes. Recently, the complete genome sequence of a Nebraska isolate of WMoV revealed eight segments, plus a variant sequence of the nucleocapsid protein-encoding segment. Here, near-complete and partial consensus sequences of five more WMoV isolates are reported and compared to the Nebraska isolate: an Ohio maize isolate (GG1), a Kansas barley isolate (KS7), and three Ohio wheat isolates (H1, K1, W1). Results show two distinct groups of WMoV isolates: Ohio wheat isolate RNA segments had 84% or lower nucleotide sequence identity to the NE isolate, whereas GG1 and KS7 had 98% or higher nucleotide sequence identity to the NE isolate. Knowledge of the sequence variability of WMoV isolates is a step toward understanding virus biology, and potentially explaining observed biological variation.

  5. Further applications for mosaic pixel FPA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2011-06-01

    In previous papers to this SPIE forum the development of novel technology for next generation PIR security sensors has been described. This technology combines the mosaic pixel FPA concept with low cost optics and purpose-designed readout electronics to provide a higher performance and affordable alternative to current PIR sensor technology, including an imaging capability. Progressive development has resulted in increased performance and transition from conventional microbolometer fabrication to manufacture on 8 or 12 inch CMOS/MEMS fabrication lines. A number of spin-off applications have been identified. In this paper two specific applications are highlighted: high performance imaging IRFPA design and forest fire detection. The former involves optional design for small pixel high performance imaging. The latter involves cheap expendable sensors which can detect approaching fire fronts and send alarms with positional data via mobile phone or satellite link. We also introduce to this SPIE forum the application of microbolometer IR sensor technology to IoT, the Internet of Things.

  6. The Mosaic Type IV Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative and -positive bacteria employ type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to translocate DNA and protein substrates, generally by contact-dependent mechanisms, to other cells. The T4SSs functionally encompass two major subfamilies, the conjugation systems and the effector translocators. The conjugation systems are responsible for interbacterial transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, virulence determinants, and genes encoding other traits of potential benefit to the bacterial host. The effector translocators are used by many Gram-negative pathogens for delivery of potentially hundreds of virulence proteins termed effectors to eukaryotic cells during infection. In E. coli and other species of Enterobacteriaceae, T4SSs identified to date function exclusively in conjugative DNA transfer. In these species, the plasmid-encoded systems can be classified as the P, F, and I types. The P-type systems are the simplest in terms of subunit composition and architecture, and members of this subfamily share features in common with the paradigmatic Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/VirD4 T4SS. This review will summarize our current knowledge of the E. coli systems and the A. tumefaciens P-type system, with emphasis on the structural diversity of the T4SSs. Ancestral P-, F-, and I-type systems were adapted throughout evolution to yield the extant effector translocators, and information about well-characterized effector translocators also is included to further illustrate the adaptive and mosaic nature of these highly versatile machines. PMID:27735785

  7. The genomic mosaicism of hybrid speciation

    PubMed Central

    Elgvin, Tore O.; Trier, Cassandra N.; Tørresen, Ole K.; Hagen, Ingerid J.; Lien, Sigbjørn; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Ravinet, Mark; Jensen, Henrik; Sætre, Glenn-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization is widespread in nature and, in some instances, can result in the formation of a new hybrid species. We investigate the genetic foundation of this poorly understood process through whole-genome analysis of the hybrid Italian sparrow and its progenitors. We find overall balanced yet heterogeneous levels of contribution from each parent species throughout the hybrid genome and identify areas of novel divergence in the hybrid species exhibiting signals consistent with balancing selection. High-divergence areas are disproportionately located on the Z chromosome and overrepresented in gene networks relating to key traits separating the focal species, which are likely involved in reproductive barriers and/or species-specific adaptations. Of special interest are genes and functional groups known to affect body patterning, beak morphology, and the immune system, which are important features of diversification and fitness. We show that a combination of mosaic parental inheritance and novel divergence within the hybrid lineage has facilitated the origin and maintenance of an avian hybrid species. PMID:28630911

  8. Building mosaics of therapeutic plasmid gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Tolmachov, Oleg E

    2011-12-01

    Plasmids are circular or linear DNA molecules propagated extra-chromosomally in bacteria. Evolution shaped plasmids are inherently mosaic structures with individual functional units represented by distinct segments in the plasmid genome. The patchwork of plasmid genetic modules is a convenient template and a model for the generation of artificial plasmids used as vehicles for gene delivery into human cells. Plasmid gene vectors are an important tool in gene therapy and in basic biomedical research, where these vectors offer efficient transgene expression in many settings in vitro and in vivo. Plasmid vectors can be attached to nuclear directing ligands or transferred by electroporation as naked DNA to deliver the payload genes to the nuclei of the target cells. Transgene expression silencing by plasmid sequences of bacterial origin and immune stimulation by bacterial unmethylated CpG motifs can be avoided by the generation of plasmid-based minimized DNA vectors, such as minicircles. Systems of efficient site-specific integration into human chromosomes and stable episomal maintenance in human cells are being developed for further reduction of the chances for transgene silencing. The successful generation of plasmid vectors is governed by a number of vector design rules, some of which are common to all gene vectors, while others are specific to plasmid vectors. This review is focused both on the guiding principles and on the technical know-how of plasmid gene vector design.

  9. Mosaic origin of the mitochondrial proteome.

    PubMed

    Szklarczyk, Radek; Huynen, Martijn A

    2010-11-01

    Although the origin of mitochondria from the endosymbiosis of an α-proteobacterium is well established, the nature of the host cell, the metabolic complexity of the endosymbiont and the subsequent evolution of the proto-mitochondrion into all its current appearances are still the subject of discovery and sometimes debate. Here we review what has been inferred about the original composition and subsequent evolution of the mitochondrial proteome and essential mitochondrial systems. The evolutionary mosaic that currently constitutes mitochondrial proteomes contains (i) endosymbiotic proteins (15-45%), (ii) proteins without detectable orthologs outside the eukaryotic lineage (40%), and (iii) proteins that are derived from non-proteobacterial Bacteria, Bacteriophages and Archaea (15%, specifically multiple tRNA-modification proteins). Protein complexes are of endosymbiotic origin, but have greatly expanded with novel eukaryotic proteins; in contrast to mitochondrial enzymes that are both of proteobacterial and non-proteobacterial origin. This disparity is consistent with the complexity hypothesis, which argues that proteins that are a part of large, multi-subunit complexes are unlikely to undergo horizontal gene transfer. We observe that they neither change their subcellular compartments in the course of evolution, even when their genes do.

  10. Phase diagram of tobacco mosaic virus solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Hartmut; Löwen, Hartmut

    1999-02-01

    The phase behavior of an aqueous suspension of rodlike tobacco mosaic viruses is investigated theoretically as a function of the virus density and the concentration of added salt. The total free energy involves ``volume terms'' from the microscopic counter- and co-ions and an effective pair interaction between the colloidal rods described by a Yukawa-segment model according to linear screening theory. Within a thermodynamic perturbation approach, the short-range repulsion between the rods is mapped onto a reference system of effective hard spherocylinders. The free energy of the spherocylinder system is gained from combining a cell model with scaled particle theory, which yields a reasonable phase diagram. The remaining long-range interaction is treated within a mean-field approximation. As a result we find stable fluid, nematic, and smectic phases as well as AAA- and ABC-stacked crystals. For increasing salt concentration at fixed rod concentration, there is a nematic reentrant transition. We finally discuss our results in view of experimental data.

  11. A New Moon: Improved Lunar Orbiter Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Photographs of the five Lunar Orbiter missions in 1965 and 1966 provide comprehensive coverage of the moon at resolutions in the range of about 1 meter to 300 meters. With a few exceptions, they are taken at a moderately low sun angle to clearly show the topography. These photos, especially the set edited by Bowker and Hughes, are still in active use in books, papers, and slide presentations and they are likely to be used in planning the missions of future lunar spacecraft. Scanning artifacts (sometimes called the 'venetian blind effect') detract from the visual quality of the photographs, particularly when they are printed at high contrast to show albedo variations such as rays or subtle topology features such as the margins of lava flows. The author has written a program to estimate and remove the artifacts from the pictures, greatly improving their cosmetic quality. The program detects lines between framelets of a mosaic, removes the lines caused by light leaking between framelets, estimates the systematic streaks caused by cathode ray tube scanning in the spacecraft and the Ground Reconstruction Equipment, and compensates for these streaks. Non-linearity introduced by contrast enhancement in the production of the input photos is considered in the compensation process.

  12. The mosaic of "seronegative" antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Conti, Fabrizio; Capozzi, Antonella; Truglia, Simona; Lococo, Emanuela; Longo, Agostina; Misasi, Roberta; Alessandri, Cristiano; Valesini, Guido; Sorice, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In the clinical practice it is possible to find patients with clinical signs suggestive of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), who are persistently negative for the laboratory criteria of APS, that is, anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL), anti-β2-GPI antibodies and lupus anticoagulant. Therefore, it was proposed for these cases the term of seronegative APS (SN-APS). In order to detect autoantibodies with different methodological approaches, sera from 24 patients with SN-APS were analysed for anti-phospholipid antibodies using TLC immunostaining, for anti-vimentin/cardiolipin antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for anti-annexin V and anti-prothrombin antibodies by ELISA and dot blot. Control groups of our study were 25 patients with APS, 18 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 32 healthy controls. Results revealed that 13/24 (54.2%) SN-APS sera were positive for aCL (9 of whom were also positive for lysobisphosphatidic acid) by TLC immunostaining, 11/24 (45.8%) for anti-vimentin/cardiolipin antibodies, 3/24 (12.5%) for anti-prothrombin antibodies, and 1/24 (4.2%) for anti-annexin V antibodies. These findings suggest that in sera from patients with SN-APS, antibodies may be detected using "new" antigenic targets (mainly vimentin/cardiolipin) or methodological approaches different from traditional techniques (mainly TLC immunostaining). Thus, SN-APS represents a mosaic, in which antibodies against different antigenic targets may be detected.

  13. [Mosaic forms of ataxia-telangiectasia].

    PubMed

    Kuranova, M L; Pleskach, N M; Ledashcheva, T A; Mikhel'son, V M; Spivak, I M

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a severe hereditary autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease associated with accelerated aging and caused by mutation in both alleles of atm gene. This gene encodes a key protein of cell response to DNA damage--an ATM protein kinase. Normally, upon formation of DNA double strand breaks ATM is autophosphorylated and its active form phospho-ATM (P-ATM) appears. Here we describe a mosaic form of AT in which cells of the same patient with normal atm gene demonstrated the accumulation of P-ATM in response to DNA double-strand breaks-inducing factors whereas in cells bearing a mutant form of atm P-ATM was not detected. The epigenetic markers such as histone deacetylases SIRT1 and SIRT6, and trimethylated forms of histone H3 - H3K9me3 and H3K27me3--were studied in the nuclei of primary fibroblasts derived from patients with different forms of AT and the increase of SIRT6 level was revealed.

  14. Prenatal studies of a family with 4p- mosaicism

    SciTech Connect

    Pulijaal, V.; Ben-Yishay, M.; Nitowsky, H.M.

    1994-09-01

    Mosaicism for an autosomal structural abnormality is rare. Only two cases have been reported for mosaicism involving a deletion of the short arm of number 4 chromosome (one prenatal and one postnatal). We report mosaicism for 4p- in the amniocyte cultures from a G3P2 41-year-old patient who had amniocentesis for advanced maternal age. Chromosome analysis of amniotic cultures by in situ and flask methods in Chang-supplemented McCoy`s medium revealed a mosaic karyotype, 46,XX/46,XX,del(4)(p13) with 15 (62.5%) and 9 (37.5%) metaphases, respectively. Parental blood chromosome studies yielded a paternal mosaic karyotype with 2 out of 98 cells (2%) exhibiting a deletion in the short arm of number 4 chromosome (46,XX,del(4)(p13)) as seen in the fetus. After genetic counseling, the family decided to terminate the pregnancy. Studies of fetal tissue confirmed the amniocentesis results for 4p- mosaicism (18.3%). Cytogenetic studies in father confirmed mosaicism for 4p- in fibroblast cultures from skin (2%). In none of the blood or skin fibroblast cultures was there evidence of a spontaneous fragile site at 4p13. However, cytogenetic studies of peripheral blood under conditions of folate deprivation (medium 199) showed a fragile site at 4q13 in 30% of the metaphases and 4p- cells are absent. The coincidence of the breakpoints and folate-induced fragile site in 4p- may be related phenomena in this family.

  15. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses.

  16. Inheritance of resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus and watermelon mosaic virus in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Kang, D; Shi, Z; Shen, H; Wehner, T

    2004-01-01

    High resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus-China strain (ZYMV-CH) and moderate resistance to watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) were found in a selection of PI 595203 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus), an Egusi type originally collected in Nigeria. Mixed inoculations showed primarily that these two viruses have no cross-protection. This fact may explain the high frequency of mixed infection often observed in commercial fields. When plants were inoculated with a mixture of the two viruses, the frequency of plants resistant to ZYMV was lower than expected, indicating that WMV infection may reduce the ability of a plant to resist ZYMV. We studied inheritance of resistance to ZYMV-CH and WMV, using crosses between a single-plant selection of PI 595203 and the ZYMV-susceptible watermelon inbreds 9811 and 98R. According to virus ratings of the susceptible parents, the resistant parent, and the F1, F2, and BC1 generations, resistance to ZYMV-CH was conferred by a single recessive gene, for which the symbol zym-CH is suggested. The high tolerance to WMV was controlled by at least two recessive genes.

  17. Sida micrantha mosaic is associated with a complex infection of begomoviruses different from Abutilon mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jovel, J; Reski, G; Rothenstein, D; Ringel, M; Frischmuth, T; Jeske, H

    2004-04-01

    We report on the nucleotide sequences of geminiviruses of the genus Bemogovirus infecting Sida micrantha Schr., a common weed in Brazil. For decades, the mosaic frequently associated with Sida plants was considered to be caused by a Brazilian strain of Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV). By infection studies and sequence comparisons, we demonstrate that it is associated with a complex of at least two begomoviruses as different from AbMV as most South American geminiviruses. Two molecules of DNA A (A1, A2) and three of DNA B (B1, B2, B3) were cloned and sequenced. According to the high homology in their common regions, DNA A1 and DNA B3, as well as DNA A2 and DNA B2, are cognate components of two begomoviruses, which were infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. No trans-replication was found for any other A/B combination. The intergenic region of DNA B2 appears to be the product of the recombination between DNA B1 and DNA A2. These results show that a coinfection of begomoviruses can persist over decades, producing a reservoir of partially recombined but distinct geminiviruses.

  18. Mosaic Trisomy 17: Variable Clinical and Cytogenetic Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Daber, Robert D.; Chapman, Kimberly A.; Ruchelli, Eduardo; Kasperski, Stefanie; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Thiel, Brian D.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Zackai, Elaine H.; Conlin, Laura K.; Spinner, Nancy B.

    2011-01-01

    Mosaic trisomy 17 is rare with only 28 cases reported and the clinical presentation is highly variable. The diagnosis is most commonly made by prenatal karyotype and in most cases is followed by a normal postnatal karyotype on blood lymphocytes. We present two cases of mosaic trisomy 17 diagnosed prenatally, with follow up in multiple tissues at birth. In the first case, trisomy 17 was identified in all amniocytes, and at birth standard results of chromosome analysis in peripheral blood were normal, but mosaic trisomy 17 was identified (50–75%) in skin fibroblasts by genome-wide SNP array analysis. This patient presented with minor anomalies, congenital heart disease, asymmetry, intestinal malrotation and died on day 9 of life. In the second patient amniocentesis after ultrasound finding of tetralogy of Fallot showed mosaic trisomy 17. Postnatally, results of a SNP array were normal in blood, buccal mucosa and skin. It is possible that the cardiac defect is related to trisomy 17 in key tissues during heart development, although at birth the aneuploidy could not be identified in tissues that are routinely analyzed for diagnosis. These cases add to our understanding of mosaic trisomy 17, highlighting the failure to diagnose this aneuploidy in peripheral blood. PMID:21998853

  19. Report of a Case with Trisomy 9 Mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Miryounesi, Mohammad; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Shadmani, Zahra; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2016-01-01

    Trisomy 9 is a rare chromosome disorder with high neonatal mortality. It is often seen in mosaic form. Most patients who survive are severely mentally retarded. The main features of this syndrome are “bulbous” nose, microphthalmia, dislocated limbs, and other anomalies of skeletal, cardiac, genitourinary, and central nervous system. Most patients have developmental and cognitive impairment. Patients with mosaicism survive longer than non-mosaics, but it was believed that the degree of mosaicism in lymphocytes or fibroblasts does not associate with survival or degree of impairment. In this report, we present a 2.5-year-old male case of mosaic trisomy 9, to show the wide range of clinical findings in this chromosome disorder. The patient had cardiac anomalies, inguinal hernia, and undescendent testes. He had low-set slightly malformed ears, deeply-set malformed eyes, small palpebral fissures, micrognathia, developmental delay and unilateral optic hypoplasia. The most prominent facial anomaly in this patient was eye anomalies. Cytogenetic analysis with G banding showed karyotype 47XY,+9 in 44% of peripheral lymphocytes examined (47XY,+9[22], 46XY[28]). His parents’ karyotypes were normal. Moderate developmental delay, which was detected in this patient shows that the range of motor and cognitive impairment in this chromosomal disorder is quite broad. This fact should be considered in genetic counseling as well as prenatal diagnosis of this chromosomal disorder. PMID:27217611

  20. Image mosaics system based on TMS320DM642

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Gui-Lan; Tian, Wei-Jian; Qu, You-Shan; Ge, Wei

    2006-01-01

    When the size of a needing scene is beyond the scope of an optical sensor, it is difficult to take the whole scene at the same time. In this case, the needing scene can be captured by several optical sensors at one time, the overlapped images can be taken. Using the images, the whole scene is reproduced. This paper presents a robust image mosaics method that employs wavelet transform technique. The new developed registration and fusion algorithm implemented automatically and simultaneously without known camera motion and focal length. Wavelet transform guarantees not only a global optimal solution, but also scale and transform invariance for image alignment. This feature guarantees that the scheme has higher performance than the traditional mosaic techniques. In the same time, the hardware structure and the software designing principle of the Image Mosaics System (IMS) based on the Digital Signal Processor are expounded. To further improve the image mosaics quality, an image enhancement approach is also employed. In the paper, the concept, algorithm and experiments are described. The test results showed that the IMS is efficient and accurate for acquisition of seamless mosaic of the overlapped images, and at the same time, is adaptive to the real-time requirements. An adaptive resolution, seamless and a wide field of view image can be acquired.

  1. Clinical Report: Germline Mosaicism in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Thomas P.; Lazebnik, Noam; Clark, Dinah M.; Vengoechea, Jaime; Cohen, Leslie; Kaur, Maninder; Konczal, Laura; Crowe, Carol A.; Corteville, Jane E.; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J.; Byrne, Janice L.; Jackson, Laird G.; Krantz, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a genetic disorder associated with delayed growth, intellectual disability, limb reduction defects and characteristic facial features. Germline mosaicism has been a described mechanism for CdLS when there are several affected offspring of apparently unaffected parents. Presently, the recurrence risk for CdLS has been estimated to be as high as 1.5%; however, this figure may be an underrepresentation. We report on the molecularly defined germline mosaicism cases from a large CdLS database, representing the first large case series on germline mosaicism in CdLS. Of the 12 families, eight have been previously described; however, four have not. No one specific gene mutation, either in the NIPBL or the SMC1A gene, was associated with an increased risk for germline mosaicism. Suspected or confirmed cases of germline mosaicism in our database range from a conservative 3.4% up to 5.4% of our total cohort. In conclusion, the potential reproductive recurrence risk due to germline mosiacism should be addressed in prenatal counseling for all families who have had a previously affected pregnancy or child with CdLS. PMID:22581668

  2. Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Julie; Paques, Michel; Krivosic, Valérie; Dupas, Bénédicte; Couturier, Aude; Kulcsar, Caroline; Tadayoni, Ramin; Massin, Pascale; Gaudric, Alain

    2015-01-01

    To explore the anatomic correlation of the retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. Retrospective nonconsecutive observational case series. A retrospective review of the multimodal imaging charts of 6 patients with focal alteration of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics was performed. Retinal diseases included acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (n = 1), hydroxychloroquine retinopathy (n = 1), and macular telangiectasia type 2 (n = 4). High-resolution retinal images were obtained using a flood-illumination adaptive optics camera. Images were recorded using standard imaging modalities: color and red-free fundus camera photography; infrared reflectance scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. On OCT, in the marginal zone of the lesions, a disappearance of the interdigitation zone was observed, while the ellipsoid zone was preserved. Image recording demonstrated that such attenuation of the interdigitation zone co-localized with the disappearance of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. In 1 case, the restoration of the interdigitation zone paralleled that of the cone mosaic after a 2-month follow-up. Our results suggest that the interdigitation zone could contribute substantially to the reflectance of the cone photoreceptor mosaic. The absence of cones on adaptive optics images does not necessarily mean photoreceptor cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Persistent aerial video registration and fast multi-view mosaicing.

    PubMed

    Molina, Edgardo; Zhu, Zhigang

    2014-05-01

    Capturing aerial imagery at high resolutions often leads to very low frame rate video streams, well under full motion video standards, due to bandwidth, storage, and cost constraints. Low frame rates make registration difficult when an aircraft is moving at high speeds or when global positioning system (GPS) contains large errors or it fails. We present a method that takes advantage of persistent cyclic video data collections to perform an online registration with drift correction. We split the persistent aerial imagery collection into individual cycles of the scene, identify and correct the registration errors on the first cycle in a batch operation, and then use the corrected base cycle as a reference pass to register and correct subsequent passes online. A set of multi-view panoramic mosaics is then constructed for each aerial pass for representation, presentation and exploitation of the 3D dynamic scene. These sets of mosaics are all in alignment to the reference cycle allowing their direct use in change detection, tracking, and 3D reconstruction/visualization algorithms. Stereo viewing with adaptive baselines and varying view angles is realized by choosing a pair of mosaics from a set of multi-view mosaics. Further, the mosaics for the second pass and later can be generated and visualized online as their is no further batch error correction.

  4. LEOPARD syndrome with partly normal skin and sex chromosome mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Writzl, Karin; Hoovers, Jan; Sistermans, Erik A; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2007-11-01

    We report on a family with LEOPARD syndrome which was molecularly proven (p.Thr468Met in PTPN11) in a father and his adult son. The father had multiple lentigines dispersed equally over his body; the son was similarly affected except for the left part of thorax, back and left arm, which were completely devoid of lentigines and only showed a few nevi. In addition, the son was found to have a mosaic karyotype, 47,XYY/46,XY, in lymphocytes. Skin biopsies from the pigmented and unpigmented forearm showed that mainly a 47,XYY karyotype was present in the pigmented skin and mainly a 46,XY karyotype in the unpigmented skin. In both fibroblast cultures the PTPN11 mutation was present, and no additional mutation could be detected. We discuss the various possible explanations for this phenotype, which include the possibility of coincidence; revertant mosaicism; silencing of a second PTPN11 mutation; gene(s) located on a sex chromosome influencing the phenotype; and epigenetic influences. We favor that the co-occurrence of a sex chromosome mosaicism and mosaicism for skin symptoms in a single patient with LEOPARD syndrome is coincidence, but that mosaicism for LEOPARD skin symptoms in itself may well be more frequent and needs additional studies. Each of the above-hypothesized mechanisms may then remain possible.

  5. Fusion Based Seamless Mosaic for Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ting; Li, Shutao; Fu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    A fusion based seamless mosaic method for stitching remote sensing images is introduced in this paper. The proposed method focuses on one major problem in the process of mosaic: how to generate visually pleasant stitching result in the cases of misalignment, global and local intensity differences between images. First, two partially overlapped images are decomposed into high-frequency components and low-frequency components with Gaussian low-pass filter. Second, by considering the information characteristics contained in both separated components, different mosaic schemes are designed to accomplish stitching process accordingly. For the low-frequency components consisting of coarse shape and illumination information, two-dimension weighted blending rule is utilized to achieve smoothing transition. For the high-frequency components including rich details, an improved seam searching strategy based on dynamic programming is introduced. With the obtained stitching seam guiding the stitching process, visible structural break can be avoided. Finally, the mosaic result is produced by linearly composing both stitching results of different components together. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in generating seamless mosaic results without introducing any unexpected blurring or artifacts.

  6. Next generation sequencing in sporadic retinoblastoma patients reveals somatic mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Amitrano, Sara; Marozza, Annabella; Somma, Serena; Imperatore, Valentina; Hadjistilianou, Theodora; De Francesco, Sonia; Toti, Paolo; Galimberti, Daniela; Meloni, Ilaria; Cetta, Francesco; Piu, Pietro; Di Marco, Chiara; Dosa, Laura; Lo Rizzo, Caterina; Carignani, Giulia; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra; Ariani, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    In about 50% of sporadic cases of retinoblastoma, no constitutive RB1 mutations are detected by conventional methods. However, recent research suggests that, at least in some of these cases, there is somatic mosaicism with respect to RB1 normal and mutant alleles. The increased availability of next generation sequencing improves our ability to detect the exact percentage of patients with mosaicism. Using this technology, we re-tested a series of 40 patients with sporadic retinoblastoma: 10 of them had been previously classified as constitutional heterozygotes, whereas in 30 no RB1 mutations had been found in lymphocytes. In 3 of these 30 patients, we have now identified low-level mosaic variants, varying in frequency between 8 and 24%. In 7 out of the 10 cases previously classified as heterozygous from testing blood cells, we were able to test additional tissues (ocular tissues, urine and/or oral mucosa): in three of them, next generation sequencing has revealed mosaicism. Present results thus confirm that a significant fraction (6/40; 15%) of sporadic retinoblastoma cases are due to postzygotic events and that deep sequencing is an efficient method to unambiguously distinguish mosaics. Re-testing of retinoblastoma patients through next generation sequencing can thus provide new information that may have important implications with respect to genetic counseling and family care.

  7. Art with Stones: From the Cave Age until Today with Parallels Seen in the Artistic, Symbolic and Creative Development of Young Children's Mosaic Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matejovsky-Nikoltsos, Catherine

    This paper first gives a historical overview of mosaics, discussing mosaic masks made by the Aztecs and floor mosaics made by the Greeks, as well as the Roman mosaics at Pompeii and the Byzantine decorative mosaics exemplified by those at Ravenna. The paper then elaborates on children's mosaic making observed during research conducted between 1986…

  8. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The “presence” of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its “absence” in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted ∼2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a “soft” polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  9. Multiple temporal mosaicing for Landsat satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yi; Li, Feng; Caccetta, Peter; Devereux, Drew

    2017-01-01

    Cloud removal is a very important preprocessing step when using aerial and spaceborne optical sensors for land surface and cover applications. Methods that have been proposed for identifying cloud-affected pixels range from classification and segmentation type approaches applied to individual images to outlier detection type methods applied to time-series of images. The choice of method is influenced by considerations including the requirements of the application, the image characteristics, and how frequently images over a given area are acquired. When many images are acquired in a period where land surface cover exhibits negligible change, an image formed by compositing from a series of images taken in a relatively short period of time will suffice for further analysis. It is highly desirable to fully automate this compositing process. To this end, we propose the multiple temporal mosaicing (MTM) algorithm. It uses, in the first instance, a cloud score for each pixel in the images to separate/partially separate cloud-affected pixels from noncloud pixels. These cloud scores are then combined with the output from existing cloud identification methods and date preference to determine the likelihood of given pixels being considered as good candidates to be included in the final image. Moreover, the spatial smoothness is incorporated to ensure that the pixels of a small neighborhood are from the same image so that the final image looks smoother. We apply MTM to two Landsat scenes. The resulting images show the effectiveness of this method. The methodology can be applied to images acquired from other sensors.

  10. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Tomato Mosaic Virus Isolated from Jasmine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fillmer, Kornelia; Adkins, Scott; Pongam, Patchara

    2015-01-01

    Tomato mosaic virus was reported from jasmine in Florida. We present the first complete genome sequence of a tomato mosaic virus isolate from this woody perennial plant in the United States. PMID:26159525

  12. New View of the Martian Surface: THEMIS Global Thermal Inertia Mosaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergason, R. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2009-03-01

    We are generating a new global thermal inertia mosaic using THEMIS IR data at 256 m per pixel. This mosaic has facilitated an improved understanding of geologic processes acting on local scales, including the nature of moderate TI surfaces.

  13. Mosaic KCNJ2 mutation in Andersen-Tawil syndrome: targeted deep sequencing is useful for the detection of mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K; Ohno, S; Kimura, H; Itoh, H; Makiyama, T; Yoshida, Y; Horie, M

    2015-03-01

    Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is an inherited disease characterized by ventricular arrhythmias, periodic paralysis, and dysmorphic features. It results from a heterozygous mutation of KCNJ2, but little is known about mosaicism in ATS. We performed genetic analysis of KCNJ2 in 32 ATS probands and their family members and identified KCNJ2 mutations in 25 probands, 20 families who underwent extensive genetic testing. These tests revealed that seven probands carried de novo mutations while 13 carried inherited mutations from their parents. We then specifically assessed a single proband and the respective family. The proband was a 9 year old girl who fulfilled the ATS triad and carried an insertion mutation (p.75_76insThr). We determined that the proband's mother carried a somatic mosaicism and that the proband's younger brother also carried the ATS phenotype with the same insertion mutation. The mother, who exhibited mosaicism, was asymptomatic, although she exhibited Q(T)U prolongation. Mutant allele frequency was 11% as per TA cloning and 17.3% as per targeted deep sequencing. Our observations suggest that targeted deep sequencing is useful for the detection of mosaicism and that the detection of mosaic mutations in parents of apparently sporadic ATS patients can help in the process of genetic counseling.

  14. Meiotic segregation of sex chromosomes in mosaic and non-mosaic XYY males: case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rives, N; Siméon, N; Milazzo, J P; Barthélémy, C; Macé, B

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of sex chromosome aneuploidy in spermatozoa of two males with a 47,XYY karyotype and one male with a 46,XY/47,XYY constitution. Spermatozoa obtained from two oligospermic patients and one volunteer semen donor were studied by multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the XY/XYY male, the frequencies of X-bearing to Y-bearing sperm were significantly different from the 1 : 1 expected ratio. Significantly increased frequencies were found in the mosaic and non-mosaic males for 24,XX and 24,YY sperm when compared with control donors. The number of 24,XY sperm was significantly different from the controls in the XYY males, but not in the mosaic male. The incidence of disomy 18 and the rate of diploidy also increased in the three patients. However, the mosaic male had the lowest cumulative rate of disomic and diploid spermatozoa when compared with the two XYY patients. Our data suggest that: (i) chromosome abnormalities observed in spermatozoa of the two XYY oligoasthenoteratospermic (OAT) males arise through segregation errors in XY germ cells rather than normal meiosis of XYY germ cells, (ii) mosaic XYY males with normal semen parameters have a lower risk of producing offspring with a sex chromosomal abnormality than OAT males with XYY karyotype.

  15. Somatic Mosaicism: Implications for Disease and Transmission Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ian M.; Shaw, Chad A.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lupski, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all of the genetic material among cells within an organism is identical. However, single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels, copy number variants (CNVs), and other structural variants (SVs) continually accumulate as cells divide during development. This process results in an organism composed of countless cells, each with its own unique personal genome. Thus, every human is undoubtedly mosaic. Mosaic mutations can go unnoticed, underlie genetic disease or normal human variation, and may be transmitted to the next generation as constitutional variants. Here, we review the influence of the developmental timing of mutations, the mechanisms by which they arise, methods for detecting mosaic variants, and the risk of passing these mutations on to the next generation. PMID:25910407

  16. Mosaic acquisition and processing for optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Peng; Shi, Wei; Chee, Ryan K. W.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2012-08-01

    In optical-resolution photo-acoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), data acquisition time is limited by both laser pulse repetition rate (PRR) and scanning speed. Optical-scanning offers high speed, but limited, field of view determined by ultrasound transducer sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a hybrid optical and mechanical-scanning OR-PAM system with mosaic data acquisition and processing. The system employs fast-scanning mirrors and a diode-pumped, nanosecond-pulsed, Ytterbium-doped, 532-nm fiber laser with PRR up to 600 kHz. Data from a sequence of image mosaic patches is acquired systematically, at predetermined mechanical scanning locations, with optical scanning. After all imaging locations are covered, a large panoramic scene is generated by stitching the mosaic patches together. Our proposed system is proven to be at least 20 times faster than previous reported OR-PAM systems.

  17. Phenotypic extremes in liveborn monozygotic twins with mosaic Edwards syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Neidin; Cunningham, Katie; Green, Andrew; Ryan, C Anthony

    2015-11-11

    Mosaic trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) in monozygotic diamniotic liveborn twins is rare. We describe such a case involving preterm male infants. Although both infants had a low percentage of trisomy 18 cells in peripheral blood leucocytes, their varied phenotypic presentation of mosaic trisomy 18 resulted in one twin surviving, with the other twin's demise at 1 month of age. Despite the presence of trisomy 18 in peripheral leucocytes, further analysis of a buccal smear and skin biopsy of the surviving twin did not show evidence of trisomy 18. Establishing such diagnoses in a timely manner is imperative for the child, parents and clinicians. The clinical course of these twins reflects the unpredictable prognosis associated with the diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 18, and emphasises the challenges that can be encountered when counselling parents.

  18. Evaluating Descriptive Metrics of the Human Cone Mosaic

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Robert F.; Wilk, Melissa A.; Tarima, Sergey; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate how metrics used to describe the cone mosaic change in response to simulated photoreceptor undersampling (i.e., cell loss or misidentification). Methods Using an adaptive optics ophthalmoscope, we acquired images of the cone mosaic from the center of fixation to 10° along the temporal, superior, inferior, and nasal meridians in 20 healthy subjects. Regions of interest (n = 1780) were extracted at regular intervals along each meridian. Cone mosaic geometry was assessed using a variety of metrics − density, density recovery profile distance (DRPD), nearest neighbor distance (NND), intercell distance (ICD), farthest neighbor distance (FND), percentage of six-sided Voronoi cells, nearest neighbor regularity (NNR), number of neighbors regularity (NoNR), and Voronoi cell area regularity (VCAR). The “performance” of each metric was evaluated by determining the level of simulated loss necessary to obtain 80% statistical power. Results Of the metrics assessed, NND and DRPD were the least sensitive to undersampling, classifying mosaics that lost 50% of their coordinates as indistinguishable from normal. The NoNR was the most sensitive, detecting a significant deviation from normal with only a 10% cell loss. Conclusions The robustness of cone spacing metrics makes them unsuitable for reliably detecting small deviations from normal or for tracking small changes in the mosaic over time. In contrast, regularity metrics are more sensitive to diffuse loss and, therefore, better suited for detecting such changes, provided the fraction of misidentified cells is minimal. Combining metrics with a variety of sensitivities may provide a more complete picture of the integrity of the photoreceptor mosaic. PMID:27273598

  19. Mosaic structural variation in children with developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    King, Daniel A.; Jones, Wendy D.; Crow, Yanick J.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Foster, Nicola A.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Harris, Jade; Hellens, Stephen W.; Homfray, Tessa; Innes, Josie; Jones, Elizabeth A.; Joss, Shelagh; Kulkarni, Abhijit; Mansour, Sahar; Morris, Andrew D.; Parker, Michael J.; Porteous, David J.; Shihab, Hashem A.; Smith, Blair H.; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Tolmie, John L.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vasudevan, Pradeep C.; Wakeling, Emma; Wright, Michael; Plomin, Robert; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Hurles, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Delineating the genetic causes of developmental disorders is an area of active investigation. Mosaic structural abnormalities, defined as copy number or loss of heterozygosity events that are large and present in only a subset of cells, have been detected in 0.2–1.0% of children ascertained for clinical genetic testing. However, the frequency among healthy children in the community is not well characterized, which, if known, could inform better interpretation of the pathogenic burden of this mutational category in children with developmental disorders. In a case–control analysis, we compared the rate of large-scale mosaicism between 1303 children with developmental disorders and 5094 children lacking developmental disorders, using an analytical pipeline we developed, and identified a substantial enrichment in cases (odds ratio = 39.4, P-value 1.073e − 6). A meta-analysis that included frequency estimates among an additional 7000 children with congenital diseases yielded an even stronger statistical enrichment (P-value 1.784e − 11). In addition, to maximize the detection of low-clonality events in probands, we applied a trio-based mosaic detection algorithm, which detected two additional events in probands, including an individual with genome-wide suspected chimerism. In total, we detected 12 structural mosaic abnormalities among 1303 children (0.9%). Given the burden of mosaicism detected in cases, we suspected that many of the events detected in probands were pathogenic. Scrutiny of the genotypic–phenotypic relationship of each detected variant assessed that the majority of events are very likely pathogenic. This work quantifies the burden of structural mosaicism as a cause of developmental disorders. PMID:25634561

  20. Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Peters, Len K.

    2008-07-03

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a new Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC), with a special focus on addressing the long-standing issues associated with solving the dynamic partitioning of semi-volatile inorganic gases (HNO3, HCl, and NH3) to size-distributed atmospheric aerosol particles. The coupled ordinary differential equations (ODE) for dynamic gas-particle mass transfer are extremely stiff, and the available numerical techniques are either too expensive or produce oscillatory and/or inaccurate steady-state solutions. These limitations are overcome in MOSAIC, which couples an accurate and computationally efficient thermodynamic module [Zaveri et al., 2005a,b] with a new dynamic gas-particle partitioning module described here. The algorithm involves time-split integrations of non-volatile and semi-volatile species, and a new concept of “dynamic pH” and an adaptive time-stepping scheme hold the key to smooth, accurate, and efficient solutions over the entire relative humidity range. MOSAIC is found to be in excellent agreement with a benchmark version of the model that uses LSODES (a Gear solver) for rigorously integrating the stiff ODEs. The steady-state MOSAIC results for monodisperse aerosol test cases are also in excellent agreement with those obtained with the benchmark equilibrium model AIM. MOSAIC is also evaluated within a 3-D model, and the average CPU speed is estimated to be over 100 times faster than the dynamic aerosol model MADM [Pilinis et al., 2000]. These results suggest that MOSAIC is highly attractive for use in 3-D aerosol and air quality models in which both accuracy and efficiency are critically important.

  1. Characterisation and diagnosis of frangipani mosaic virus from India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Solanki, Vikas; Verma, H N; Mandal, Bikash

    2015-10-01

    Frangipani mosaic virus (FrMV) is known to infect frangipani tree (Plumeria rubra f. acutifolia) in India but the virus has not been characterized at genomic level and diagnosis is not available. In the present study, an isolate of FrMV (FrMV-Ind-1) showing greenish mosaic and vein-banding symptoms in P. rubra f. acutifolia in New Delhi was characterized based on host reactions, serology and genome sequence. The virus isolate induced local symptoms on several new experimental host species: Capsicum annuum (chilli), Nicotiana benthamiana, Solanum lycopersicum and S. melongena. N. benthamiana could be used as an efficient propagation host as it developed systemic mottle mosaic symptoms all round the year. The genome of FrMV-Ind-1 was 6643 (JN555602) nucleotides long with genome organization similar to tobamoviruses. The Indian isolate of FrMV shared a very close genome sequence identity (98.3 %) with the lone isolate of FrMV-P from Australia. FrMV-Ind-1 together with FrMV-P formed a new phylogenetic group i.e. Apocynaceae-infecting tobamovirus. The polyclonal antiserum generated through the purified virus preparation was successfully utilized to detect the virus in field samples of frangipani by ELISA. Of the eight different tobamoviruses tested, FrMV-Ind-1 shared distant serological relationships with only cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, tobacco mosaic virus, bell pepper mottle virus and kyuri green mottle mosaic virus. RT-PCR based on coat protein gene primer successfully detected the virus in frangipani plants. This study is the first comprehensive description of FrMV occurring in India.

  2. Spectral reflectance pattern in soybean for assessing yellow mosaic disease.

    PubMed

    Gazala, I F Saad; Sahoo, R N; Pandey, Rakesh; Mandal, Bikash; Gupta, V K; Singh, Rajendra; Sinha, P

    2013-09-01

    Remote sensing technique is useful for monitoring large crop area at a single time point, which is otherwise not possible by visual observation alone. Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) is a serious constraint in soybean production in India. However, hardly any basic information is available for monitoring YMD by remote sensing. Present study examines spectral reflectance of soybean leaves due to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) infection in order to identify YMD sensitive spectral ratio or reflectance. Spectral reflectance measurement indicated significant (p < 0.001) change in reflectance in the infected soybean canopy as compared to the healthy one. In the infected canopy, reflectance increased in visible region and decreased in near infra-red region of spectrum. Reflectance sensitivity analysis indicated wavelength ~642, ~686 and ~750 nm were sensitive to YMD infection. Whereas, in yellow leaves induced due to nitrogen deficiency, the sensitive wavelength was ~589 nm. Due to viral infection, a shift occurred in red and infra-red slope (called red edge) on the left in comparison to healthy one. Red edge shift was a good indicator to discriminate yellow mosaic as chlorophyll gets degraded due to MYMIV infection. Correlation of reflectance at 688 nm (R688) and spectral reflectance ratio at 750 and 445 nm (R750/R445) with the weighted mosaic index indicated that detection of yellow mosaic is possible based on these sensitive bands. Our study for the first time identifies the yellow mosaic sensitive band as R688 and R750/R445, which could be utilized to scan satellite data for monitoring YMD affected soybean cropping regions.

  3. Mosaic structural variation in children with developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel A; Jones, Wendy D; Crow, Yanick J; Dominiczak, Anna F; Foster, Nicola A; Gaunt, Tom R; Harris, Jade; Hellens, Stephen W; Homfray, Tessa; Innes, Josie; Jones, Elizabeth A; Joss, Shelagh; Kulkarni, Abhijit; Mansour, Sahar; Morris, Andrew D; Parker, Michael J; Porteous, David J; Shihab, Hashem A; Smith, Blair H; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Tolmie, John L; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vasudevan, Pradeep C; Wakeling, Emma; Wright, Michael; Plomin, Robert; Timpson, Nicholas J; Hurles, Matthew E

    2015-05-15

    Delineating the genetic causes of developmental disorders is an area of active investigation. Mosaic structural abnormalities, defined as copy number or loss of heterozygosity events that are large and present in only a subset of cells, have been detected in 0.2-1.0% of children ascertained for clinical genetic testing. However, the frequency among healthy children in the community is not well characterized, which, if known, could inform better interpretation of the pathogenic burden of this mutational category in children with developmental disorders. In a case-control analysis, we compared the rate of large-scale mosaicism between 1303 children with developmental disorders and 5094 children lacking developmental disorders, using an analytical pipeline we developed, and identified a substantial enrichment in cases (odds ratio = 39.4, P-value 1.073e - 6). A meta-analysis that included frequency estimates among an additional 7000 children with congenital diseases yielded an even stronger statistical enrichment (P-value 1.784e - 11). In addition, to maximize the detection of low-clonality events in probands, we applied a trio-based mosaic detection algorithm, which detected two additional events in probands, including an individual with genome-wide suspected chimerism. In total, we detected 12 structural mosaic abnormalities among 1303 children (0.9%). Given the burden of mosaicism detected in cases, we suspected that many of the events detected in probands were pathogenic. Scrutiny of the genotypic-phenotypic relationship of each detected variant assessed that the majority of events are very likely pathogenic. This work quantifies the burden of structural mosaicism as a cause of developmental disorders. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Study on distortion correction for image mosaic of surface defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shitong; Liu, Dong; Chen, Xiaoyu; Cao, Pin; Yang, Yongying

    2012-10-01

    It is hard to quantitate the micron-scale defects on large aperture (102mm×102mm) optical components by the conventional optical testing methods. This paper proposes a super-smooth surface defects measurement and evaluation system, achieved by using microscopic dark-field scattering imaging device, two-dimensional sub-image scanning mechanism and multi-cycle image mosaic algorithm. The defects detecting system, with a lateral resolution of 0.5μm, applies a large field of view design (largest FOV: 15mm×15mm). In order to test the largest element (430mm×430mm), however, over 1000 sub-pictures are captured. It takes more than 30 minutes to process these sub-pictures by multi-cycle image mosaic algorithm. This paper also presents a distortion correction method to revise the image mosaic mismatch caused by the optical distortion in the defects testing system on the platform of MATLAB. A binary optical grid plate (BOE) is fabricated as standard board to evaluate distortion. The proposed method applies image division multi-steps to build a look-up matrix of distortion parameters. According to the look-up matrix, all pixels on a sub-image are repositioned from the distortion Cartesian coordinates to the ideal Cartesian coordinates. Finally, feasibility of the distortion correction method is demonstrated by comparing the mosaic results of defect images before and after this process. The full field view distortion is reduced from more than 4% to less than 0.1%. After distortion correction, subimages can be directly mosaicked without using multi-cycle image mosaic algorithm, which improves test efficiency significantly. The method mentioned in this paper may also apply to other optical testing systems for image mosaic.

  5. Extended image differencing for change detection in UAV video mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Günter; Krüger, Wolfgang; Schumann, Arne

    2014-03-01

    Change detection is one of the most important tasks when using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for video reconnaissance and surveillance. We address changes of short time scale, i.e. the observations are taken in time distances from several minutes up to a few hours. Each observation is a short video sequence acquired by the UAV in near-nadir view and the relevant changes are, e.g., recently parked or moved vehicles. In this paper we extend our previous approach of image differencing for single video frames to video mosaics. A precise image-to-image registration combined with a robust matching approach is needed to stitch the video frames to a mosaic. Additionally, this matching algorithm is applied to mosaic pairs in order to align them to a common geometry. The resulting registered video mosaic pairs are the input of the change detection procedure based on extended image differencing. A change mask is generated by an adaptive threshold applied to a linear combination of difference images of intensity and gradient magnitude. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are stereo disparity at 3D structures of the scene, changed size of shadows, and compression or transmission artifacts. The special effects of video mosaicking such as geometric distortions and artifacts at moving objects have to be considered, too. In our experiments we analyze the influence of these effects on the change detection results by considering several scenes. The results show that for video mosaics this task is more difficult than for single video frames. Therefore, we extended the image registration by estimating an elastic transformation using a thin plate spline approach. The results for mosaics are comparable to that of single video frames and are useful for interactive image exploitation due to a larger scene coverage.

  6. First report of Sugarcane mosaic virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mosaic symptoms in sorghum can be caused by several potyviruses [family Potyviridae], including Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). SrMV and SCMV are responsible for global economic losses in sorghum, maize, and sugarcane. Ten plants of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum) exhib...

  7. First report of Apple necrotic mosaic virus infecting apple trees in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In September 2016, two apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Shinano Sweet showing bright cream spot and mosaic patterns on leaves were observed in Pocheon, South Korea. Mosaic symptoms are common on leaves of apple trees infected with Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Symptomatic leaves were tested by e...

  8. Role of wheat streak mosaic virus-encoded proteins in disease development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eriophyid mite-transmitted wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are the type species of Tritimovirus and Poacevirus genera, respectively, in the family Potyviridae. TriMV and WSMV exhibit differential symptom phenotypes on wheat: TriMV elicits mild mosaic and mottling ...

  9. Environmental characteristics of the Grand Fir Mosaic and adjacent habitat types

    Treesearch

    Dennis E. Ferguson; John C. Byrne

    2000-01-01

    Grand Fir Mosaic habitats differ from adjacent forest habitats in their slow rate of secondary succession to woody vegetation. Remote monitoring stations were used to sample the environment at a Grand Fir Mosaic site and three adjacent habitat types. The Grand Fir Mosaic site has shorter growing seasons, cooler temperatures, and more soil moisture than the other sites...

  10. [Clinical characteristics of the mosaic variant of Down's disease].

    PubMed

    Beliakova, T K; Gavrilov, V I

    1975-01-01

    The authors studied the clinical features in 19 patients with the mosaic variety of Down's disease and 63 patients with trisomia in relation to the 21st chromosome. It was demonstrated that mild forms of mental retardation are mainly seen in mosaicism rather than in the trisome variety, although severe forms of retardation may be seen in the first group as well. A full correlation between the severity of mental retardation and the % of the aneuploid cell content in the peripheral blood was not always observed.

  11. A new ophiovirus is associated with blueberry mosaic disease.

    PubMed

    Thekke-Veetil, Thanuja; Ho, Thien; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2014-08-30

    Blueberry mosaic disease (BMD) was first described more than 60 years ago and is caused by a yet unidentified graft transmissible agent. A combination of traditional methods and next generation sequencing disclosed the presence of a new ophiovirus in symptomatic plants. The virus was detected in all BMD samples collected from several production areas of North America and was thus named blueberry mosaic associated virus. Phylogenetic analysis, supported by high bootstrap values, places the virus within the family Ophioviridae. The genome organization resembles that of citrus psorosis virus, the type member of the genus Ophiovirus. The implications of this discovery in BMD control and blueberry virus certification schemes are also discussed.

  12. Thermoluminescence (TL) characterisation and dating feasibility of ancient glass mosaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavari, Cristina; Martini, Marco; Sibilia, Emanuela; Vandini, Mariangela

    2001-12-01

    To achieve a better comprehension of the thermoluminescence (TL) properties and dating feasibility of mosaic glasses, a study on the connections between chemical composition and general TL behaviour of glass tesserae has been carried out. Elemental analysis of the samples has been performed through electron microscopy with microprobe, inductively coupled plasma and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Preliminary results, relative to the study of the TL behaviour of different groups of glass mosaic tesserae, classified by provenance and by chemical analyses, are reported and discussed.

  13. Digital Mammography with a Mosaic of CCD Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); McAdoo, James A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A digital mammography device uses a mosaic of electronic digital imaging arrays to scan an x-ray image is discussed. The mosaic of arrays is repositioned several times to expose different portions of the image, until the entire image is scanned. The data generated by the arrays during each exposure is stored in a computer. After the final exposure, the computer combines data of the several partial images to produce a composite of the original x-ray image. An aperture plate is used to reduce scatter and the overall exposure of the patient to x-rays.

  14. Wheat streak mosaic virus-Structural parameters for a Potyvirus

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Lauren; Kendall, Amy; Berger, P.H.; Shiel, P.J.; Stubbs, Gerald . E-mail: gerald.stubbs@vanderbilt.edu

    2005-09-15

    Wheat streak mosaic virus is a Tritimovirus, a member of the Potyviridae family, which includes the very large Potyvirus genus. We have examined wheat streak mosaic virus by electron microscopy and fiber diffraction from partially oriented sols, and analyzed the results to estimate the symmetry and structural parameters of the viral helix. The virions have an apparent radius of 63 {+-} 5 A. The viral helix has a pitch of 33.4 A {+-} 0.6 A. There appear to be 6.9 subunits per turn of the helix, although we cannot completely eliminate values of 5.9 or 7.9 for this parameter.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis and gonadal findings in X/XXX mosaicism.

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, G; Cohen, M M; Beyth, Y; Ornoy, A

    1977-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of a case of X/XXX mosaicism is presented. In spite of the fact that over 50% of the cells cultured from both ovaries were trisomic for the X chromosome, fetal öocytes were rarely found. This case illustrates that the presence of a triple-X cell line, even in a relatively high percentage of ovarian cells, does not necessarily protect the ovary from 'aöogenesis'. This observation might prove useful in the counselling of future cases involving the prenatal detection of sex chromosome mosaicism. Images PMID:856232

  16. Turner syndrome and 45,X/47,XXX mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Akbas, E; Mutluhan, H; Savasoglu, K; Soylemez, F; Ozturk, I; Yazici, G

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of double aneuploidy is a relatively rare phenomenon. We report on a 17-year-old woman with short stature, minimal pubic and axillar hair and short hands. In cultured lymphocyte a double aneuploidy mosaicism was detected, consisting of a cell line with trisomy for X chromosome and a cell line with monosomy for the X-chromosome and no cell line with a normal karyotype. To our knowledge, this is the first case of mosaic 45,X/47,XXX in Turkey.

  17. False Color Mosaic Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    False color representation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) taken through three different near-infrared filters of the Galileo imaging system and processed to reveal cloud top height. Images taken through Galileo's near-infrared filters record sunlight beyond the visible range that penetrates to different depths in Jupiter's atmosphere before being reflected by clouds. The Great Red Spot appears pink and the surrounding region blue because of the particular color coding used in this representation. Light reflected by Jupiter at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane strongly absorbs is shown in red. Due to this absorption, only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (732 nm) where methane absorbs less strongly is shown in green. Lower clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere is shown in blue: This light is reflected from the deepest clouds. Thus, the color of a cloud in this image indicates its height. Blue or black areas are deep clouds; pink areas are high, thin hazes; white areas are high, thick clouds. This image shows the Great Red Spot to be relatively high, as are some smaller clouds to the northeast and northwest that are surprisingly like towering thunderstorms found on Earth. The deepest clouds are in the collar surrounding the Great Red Spot, and also just to the northwest of the high (bright) cloud in the northwest corner of the image. Preliminary modeling shows these cloud heights vary over 30 km in altitude. This mosaic, of eighteen images (6 in each filter) taken over a 6 minute interval during the second GRS observing sequence on June 26, 1996, has been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet

  18. Molecular identification of Cucumber mosaic virus isolates of subgroup IB associated with mosaic disease of eggplant in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Susheel; Gautam, Karmveer Kumar; Raj, Shri Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Association of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) with severe mosaic disease of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) collected from Lucknow and Kanpur, India was initially detected by host reaction and serological assay and confirmed by RT-PCR employing coat protein gene specific primers. Further, molecular identification of the virus isolates was done by cloning and sequence analysis of the complete RNA3 genome. Based on 97-99 % identities and phylogenetic relationships, the virus isolates infecting eggplant were identified as members of CMV subgroup IB.

  19. The mosaics of Mars: As seen by the Viking Lander cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinthal, E. C.; Jones, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The mosaics and derivative products produced from many individual high resolution images acquired by the Viking Lander Camera Systems are described: A morning and afternoon mosaic for both cameras at the Lander 1 Chryse Planitia site, and a morning, noon, and afternoon camera pair at Utopia Planitia, the Lander 11 site. The derived products include special geometric projections of the mosaic data sets, polar stereographic (donut), stereoscopic, and orthographic. Contour maps and vertical profiles of the topography were overlaid on the mosaics from which they were derived. Sets of stereo pairs were extracted and enlarged from stereoscopic projections of the mosaics.

  20. Detail view looking down at mosaics of everyday objects next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking down at mosaics of everyday objects next to Living Trailer. Bottle Village is spelled out in shell casings, there are also keys, tiles, watch faces, and plastic parts. View looking north. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a Mosaic Bacteriophage, Waukesha92

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, A. Brooke; Carter, Brandon; Langouet Astrie, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of a mosaic bacteriophage, Waukesha92, which was isolated from soil using Bacillus thuringiensis as the host organism. This temperate Myoviridae bacteriophage has similarities to phages SpaA1 and BceA1 and the Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid pBMB165. PMID:25146131

  2. gmos: Rapid Detection of Genome Mosaicism over Short Evolutionary Distances

    PubMed Central

    Domazet-Lošo, Mirjana; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotic and viral genomes are often altered by recombination and horizontal gene transfer. The existing methods for detecting recombination are primarily aimed at viral genomes or sets of loci, since the expensive computation of underlying statistical models often hinders the comparison of complete prokaryotic genomes. As an alternative, alignment-free solutions are more efficient, but cannot map (align) a query to subject genomes. To address this problem, we have developed gmos (Genome MOsaic Structure), a new program that determines the mosaic structure of query genomes when compared to a set of closely related subject genomes. The program first computes local alignments between query and subject genomes and then reconstructs the query mosaic structure by choosing the best local alignment for each query region. To accomplish the analysis quickly, the program mostly relies on pairwise alignments and constructs multiple sequence alignments over short overlapping subject regions only when necessary. This fine-tuned implementation achieves an efficiency comparable to an alignment-free tool. The program performs well for simulated and real data sets of closely related genomes and can be used for fast recombination detection; for instance, when a new prokaryotic pathogen is discovered. As an example, gmos was used to detect genome mosaicism in a pathogenic Enterococcus faecium strain compared to seven closely related genomes. The analysis took less than two minutes on a single 2.1 GHz processor. The output is available in fasta format and can be visualized using an accessory program, gmosDraw (freely available with gmos). PMID:27846272

  3. The Grand Fir Mosaic Ecosystem -- History and Management Impacts

    Treesearch

    D. E. Ferguson; J. L. Johnson-Maynard; P. A. McDaniel

    2007-01-01

    The Grand Fir Mosaic (GFM) ecosystem is found on ash-cap soils in some mid-elevation forests of northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon. Harvesting on GFM sites results in successional plant communities that are dominated by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and western coneflower (Rudbeckia occidentalis), and have large...

  4. Real-time mosaicing of fetoscopic videos using SIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daga, Pankaj; Chadebecq, François; Shakir, Dzhoshkun I.; Herrera, Luis Carlos G.; Tella, Marcel; Dwyer, George; David, Anna L.; Deprest, Jan; Stoyanov, Danail; Vercauteren, Tom; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2016-03-01

    Fetoscopic laser photo-coagulation of the placental vascular anastomoses remains the most effective therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in monochorionic twin pregnancies. However, to ensure the success of the intervention, complete photo-coagulation of all anastomoses is needed. This is made difficult by the limited field of view of the fetoscopic video guidance, which hinders the surgeon's ability to locate all the anastomoses. A potential solution to this problem is to expand the field of view of the placental surface by creating a mosaic from overlapping fetoscopic images. This mosaic can then be used for anastomoses localization and spatial orientation during surgery. However, this requires accurate and fast algorithms that can operate within the real-time constraints of fetal surgery. In this work, we present an image mosaicing framework that leverages the parallelism of modern GPUs and can process clinical fetoscopic images in real-time. Initial qualitative results on ex-vivo placental images indicate that the proposed framework can generate clinically useful mosaics from fetoscopic videos in real-time.

  5. Introduction to the World Wide Web and Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, Jim

    1994-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to some of the terminology related to the use of the World Wide Web and Mosaic. It is assumed that the user has some prior computer experience. References are included to other sources of additional information.

  6. Sequence variability between Plantago asiatica mosaic virus isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) was described four decades ago from the weedy species Plantago asiatica in the Russian Far East, but has also been reported from lilies (Lilium spp.) and primrose (Primula seiboldii) in Japan. More recently PlAMV has been reported in the Netherlands and elsewhe...

  7. Congenital ocular anomaly in an infant with trisomy 14 mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun Ho; Choi, Youn Joo; Kim, So Young

    2012-08-01

    Trisomy 14 mosaicism is a rare chromosomal abnormality with distinct and recognizable clinical features. We report a patient with presumed retinal dystrophy having diffuse retinal pigment epithelial abnormalities, which has not been previously reported in association with trisomy 14. This case expands the clinical spectrum of this rare entity.

  8. Somatic mosaicism in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Colman, S. D.; Rasmussen, S. A.; Ho, V. T.; Abernathy, C. R.; Wallace, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    Using loss of heterozygosity analysis, a method designed to detect moderate to large gene deletions, we have identified a new-mutation neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patient who is somatically mosaic for a large maternally derived deletion in the NF1 gene region. The deletion extends at least from exon 4 near the 5' end of the gene to intron 39 near the 3' end. The gene-coding region is, therefore, mostly or entirely deleted, encompassing a loss of > or = 100 kb. We hypothesize that the deletion occurred at a relatively early developmental timepoint, since signs of NF1 in this patient are not confined to a specific body region, as seen in "segmental" NF, and since both mesodermally and ectodermally derived cells are affected. This report provides the first molecular evidence of somatic mosaicism in NF1 and, taken together with a recent report of germ-line mosaicism in NF1, adds credence to the concept that mosaicism plays an important role in phenotypic and genetic aspects of NF1 and may even be a relatively common phenomenon. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8644707

  9. gmos: Rapid Detection of Genome Mosaicism over Short Evolutionary Distances.

    PubMed

    Domazet-Lošo, Mirjana; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotic and viral genomes are often altered by recombination and horizontal gene transfer. The existing methods for detecting recombination are primarily aimed at viral genomes or sets of loci, since the expensive computation of underlying statistical models often hinders the comparison of complete prokaryotic genomes. As an alternative, alignment-free solutions are more efficient, but cannot map (align) a query to subject genomes. To address this problem, we have developed gmos (Genome MOsaic Structure), a new program that determines the mosaic structure of query genomes when compared to a set of closely related subject genomes. The program first computes local alignments between query and subject genomes and then reconstructs the query mosaic structure by choosing the best local alignment for each query region. To accomplish the analysis quickly, the program mostly relies on pairwise alignments and constructs multiple sequence alignments over short overlapping subject regions only when necessary. This fine-tuned implementation achieves an efficiency comparable to an alignment-free tool. The program performs well for simulated and real data sets of closely related genomes and can be used for fast recombination detection; for instance, when a new prokaryotic pathogen is discovered. As an example, gmos was used to detect genome mosaicism in a pathogenic Enterococcus faecium strain compared to seven closely related genomes. The analysis took less than two minutes on a single 2.1 GHz processor. The output is available in fasta format and can be visualized using an accessory program, gmosDraw (freely available with gmos).

  10. Hispanic Women's Health Issues: Understanding A Mosaic Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Cousins, Jennifer C.

    According to recent research, Hispanic women are a "mosaic" population, being characterized not only according to subethnic group (Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Spanish speakers from other countries) and social dimension (educational attainment, linguistic facilities, cultural and ethnic self-identification), but also…

  11. RNAi mediated, stable resistance to Triticum mosaic virus in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), discovered in 2006, affects wheat production systems in the Great Plains of the United States. There are no available TriMV resistant commercial varieties. RNA interference (RNAi) was evaluated as an alternative strategy to generate resistance to TriMV. An RNAi pANDA...

  12. First report of apple mosaic virus in Alaska

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, family Bromoviridae, genus Ilarvirus) is one of the oldest and most economically important viruses of apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Yield losses may vary from negligible to as high as fifty percent, depending on the affected cultivar. Although ApMV is found worldwide...

  13. Fluid Mosaic Membranes and the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannay, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the fluid mosaic membrane structure and light reactions of photosynthesis as exemplified by the Hill and Bendall "Z-scheme"; (2) the arrangement of light-harvesting pigments, electron transport components, and ATP synthesis on chloroplast membranes; and (3) how these topics are treated in A-level textbooks. (JN)

  14. Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica): New host for cucumber mosaic virus

    Treesearch

    Courtney L. Pariera Dinkins; Sue K. Brumfield; Robert K. D. Peterson; William E. Grey; Sharlene E. Sing

    2007-01-01

    To date, there have been no reports of Dalmatian toadflax serving as a host for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Infestations of Dalmatian toadflax may serve as a reservoir of CMV, thereby facilitating aphid transmission of CMV to both agricultural crops and native plants. The goal of this study was to determine whether Dalmatian toadflax is a host for CMV. Dalmatian...

  15. Mosaic protein and nucleic acid vaccines against hepatitis C virus

    DOEpatents

    Yusim, Karina; Korber, Bette T. M.; Kuiken, Carla L.; Fischer, William M.

    2013-06-11

    The invention relates to immunogenic compositions useful as HCV vaccines. Provided are HCV mosaic polypeptide and nucleic acid compositions which provide higher levels of T-cell epitope coverage while minimizing the occurrence of unnatural and rare epitopes compared to natural HCV polypeptides and consensus HCV sequences.

  16. A nearly real-time UAV video flow mosaic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Jiang, C.; Sun, M.; Li, X. D.; Xiang, R.; Liu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    In order to solve the problem of low accuracy and high computation cost of current video mosaic methods, and also to acquire large field of view images by the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), which have high accuracy and high resolution, this paper propose a method for near real-time mosaic of video flow, so that we can provide essential reference data for the earthquake relief, as well as post-disaster reconstruction and recovery, in time. In this method, we obtain the flight area scope in the route planning process, and calculate the sizes of each frame with sensor sizes and altitudes. Given an overlap degree, time intervals are calculated, and key frames are extracted. After that, feature points are detected in each frame, and they are matched using Hamming distance. The RANSAC algorithm is then applied to remove error matching and calculate parameters of the transformation model. In one-strip case, the newly extracted frame is taken as the reference image in the first half, while after the middle frame is extracted, it is the reference one until the end. Experimental results show that our method can reduce the cascading error, and improve the accuracy and quality of the mosaic images, near real-time mosaic of aerial video flow is feasible.

  17. Variability in alternanthera mosaic virus isolates from different hosts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have determined the complete genome sequences of Alternanthera mosaic virus phlox isolate PA (AltMV-PA) and four infectious clone variants derived from AltMV-SP, as well as partial sequences of other isolates from various types of phlox, and from portulaca, nandina, and cineraria. Phylogenetic co...

  18. Wheat streak mosaic virus resistance in eight wheat germplasm lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) disease is an important disease in wheat. Use of resistant cultivars is the most effective approach to reduce the yield losses caused by the disease. To identify new sources of resistance to WSMV, eight resistant wheat lines that were selected based on the results fr...

  19. 42. PRESSING A SLAB OF CLAY ONTO A MOSAIC MOLD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. PRESSING A SLAB OF CLAY ONTO A MOSAIC MOLD. THE MOLD, WHICH HAS A RAISED DESIGN, LEAVES AND OUTLINE IN THE SLAB, THE PIECES THUS DEFINED, ARE THEN CUT APART TO BE FIRED SEPARATELY AND REASSEMBLED. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  20. Zucchini tigre mosaic virus infection of cucurbits in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zucchini tigre mosaic virus (ZTMV) was identified infecting cucurbits in Florida in 2002 and again in 2015. This is the first report of ZTMV in the U.S. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants, and research and regulatory scientists....

  1. Lunar Orbiter Digital Frame Mosaics: Ready for Prime Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, L.; Becker, T.; Weller, L.; Hare, T.; Isbell, C.

    2009-03-01

    This abstract announces the availability of Lunar Orbiter (LO) projected and cosmetically processed frame mosaics. Frames from medium- and high-resolution cameras from LO missions III, IV, and V are available via the Lunar Orbiter Frame Viewer web tool at USGS.

  2. Agropyron mosaic virus detected in Ohio wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agropyron mosaic virus (AgMV) was identified in Ohio wheat during a 2016 field survey by RNA-Seq. AgMV was confirmed in 3 counties by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and transmitted to wheat. Isolated Ohio AgMV infected wheat, ryegrass, and rye, but not oat, maize, sorghum, or orcha...

  3. The Lowenfeld Mosaic Test: review of its use.

    PubMed

    Ames, L B

    1986-01-01

    The Lowenfeld Mosaic Test (LMT), despite rich potential for yielding information about ways in which subjects experience themselves and the world, has for many years gone unstudied and unused. A forthcoming book on this test, the first in over 20 years, may generate some renewed interest in it. As background, this article reviews the history and development of the LMT.

  4. Heterochromia of the scalp hair: a result of pigmentary mosaicism?

    PubMed

    Restano, L; Barbareschi, M; Cambiaghi, S; Gelmetti, C; Ghislanzoni, M; Caputo, R

    2001-07-01

    Five patients who presented stable bands of hair of a different color with respect to the surrounding hair are reported. In 4 patients this was an isolated finding. One patient also had diffuse linear skin hypopigmentation and other abnormalities. We hypothesize that these 5 cases represent a distinct type of hair heterochromia, possibly because of somatic mosaicism for genes affecting pigmentation.

  5. [Mosaic portrait method in the prognosis of myocardial infarct complications].

    PubMed

    Iakovlev, G M; Ardashev, V N; Kats, M D; Galkina, T A

    1981-06-01

    A mosaic portrait of variants of the course of myocardial infarction differing in the clinical picture of the first days of the disease was created by means of methods of Boolean algebra and electronic computers. A total of 354 patients with transmural myocardial infarction were examined., The created models allow the development of some complications of myocardial infarction to be prognosticated exact within 90%.

  6. Fluid Mosaic Membranes and the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannay, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the fluid mosaic membrane structure and light reactions of photosynthesis as exemplified by the Hill and Bendall "Z-scheme"; (2) the arrangement of light-harvesting pigments, electron transport components, and ATP synthesis on chloroplast membranes; and (3) how these topics are treated in A-level textbooks. (JN)

  7. Familial Recurrences of FOXG1-Related Disorder: Evidence for Mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kelly Q.; Papandreou, Apostolos; Ma, Mandy; Barry, Brenda J.; Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; Dobyns, William B.; Scott, Richard H.; Trump, Natalie; Kurian, Manju A.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.

    2015-01-01

    FOXG1-related disorders are caused by heterozygous mutations in FOXG1 and result in a spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes including postnatal microcephaly, intellectual disability with absent speech, epilepsy, chorea, and corpus callosum abnormalities. The recurrence risk for de novo mutations in FOXG1-related disorders is assumed to be low. Here, we describe three unrelated sets of full siblings with mutations in FOXG1 (c.515_577del63, c.460dupG, and c.572T>G), representing familial recurrence of the disorder. In one family, we have documented maternal somatic mosaicism for the FOXG1 mutation, and all of the families presumably represent parental gonadal (or germline) mosaicism. To our knowledge, mosaicism has not been previously reported in FOXG1-related disorders. Therefore, this report provides evidence that germline mosaicism for FOXG1 mutations is a likely explanation for familial recurrence and should be considered during recurrence risk counseling for families of children with FOXG1-related disorders. PMID:26364767

  8. Methodologies for digital 3D acquisition and representation of mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manferdini, Anna Maria; Cipriani, Luca; Kniffitz, Linda

    2011-07-01

    Despite the recent improvements and widespread of digital technologies and their applications in the field of Cultural Heritage, nowadays Museums and Institutions still aren't encouraged to adopt digital procedures as a standard practice to collect data upon the heritage they are called to preserve and promote. One of the main reasons for this lack can be singled out in the high costs connected with these procedures and with their increasing due to difficulties connected with digital survey of artifacts and artworks which present evident intrinsic complexities and peculiarities that cannot be reconnected to recurrences. The aim of this paper is to show the results of a research conducted in order to find the most suitable digital methodology and procedure to be adopted to collect geometric and radiometric data upon mosaics that can straightforward both the preservation of the consistency of information about its geometry and the management of huge amount of data. One of the most immediate application of digital 3d survey of mosaics is the substitution of plaster casts that are usually built to add the third dimension to pictorial or photographic surveys before restoration interventions in order to document their conservation conditions and ease reconstruction procedures. Moreover, digital 3d surveys of mosaics allow to reproduce restoration interventions in digital environment able to perform reliable preliminary evaluations; in addition, 3d reality-based models of mosaics can be used within digital catalogues or for digital exhibitions and reconstruction aims.

  9. Image panoramic mosaicing with global and local registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Ji, Zhen; Zhang, Jihong

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents techniques for constructing full view panoramic mosaics from sequences of images. The goal of this work is to remove too many limitations for pure panning motion. The best reference block is critical for the block- matching method for improving the robustness and performance. It is automatically selected in the high- frequency image, which always contains the plenty visible features. In order to reduce accumulated registration errors, the global registration using the phase-correlation matching method with rotation adjustment is applied to the whole sequence of images, which results in an optimal image mosaic with resolving translational or rotational motion. The local registration using the Levenberg-Marquardt iterative non-linear minimization algorithm is applied to compensate for small amounts of motion parallax introduced by translations of the camera and other unmodeled distortions, when minimize the discrepancy after applying the global registration. The accumulated misregistration errors may cause a visible gap between the two images. A smoothing filter is introduced, derived from Marr's computer vision theory for removing the visible artifact. By combining both global and local registration, together with artifact smoothing, the quality of the image mosaics is significantly improved, thereby enabling the creation of full view panoramic mosaics with hand-held cameras.

  10. Somatic mosaicism in a patient with neurofibromomatosis type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.D.; Rasmussen, S.A.; Ho, V.T.

    1996-03-01

    Using loss of heterozygosity analysis, a method designed to detect moderate to large gene deletions, we have identified a new-mutation neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patient who is somatically mosaic for a large maternally derived deletion in the NF1 gene region. The deletion extends at least from exon 4 near the 5{prime} end of the gene to intron 39 near the 3{prime} end. The gene-coding region is, therefore, mostly or entirely deleted, encompassing a loss of {>=}100 kb. We hypothesize that the deletion occurred at a relatively early developmental timepoint, since signs of NF in this patient are not confined to a specific body region, as seen in {open_quotes}segmental{close_quotes} NF, and since both mesodermally and ectodermally derived cells are affected. This report provides the first molecular evidence of somatic mosaicism in NF1 and, taken together with a recent report of germ-line mosaicism in NF1, adds credence to the concept that mosaicism plays an important role in phenotypic and genetic aspects of NF1 and may even be a relatively common phenomenon. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  11. A new Ophiovirus is associated with blueberry mosaic disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry mosaic disease (BMD) was first described more than 60 years ago and is caused by a yet unidentified graft transmissible agent. A combination of traditional methods and next generation sequencing disclosed the presence of a new negative-strand RNA virus in symptomatic plants. The virus was ...

  12. Analysis of Genetic Mosaics of the Nematode CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Robert K.

    1984-01-01

    A new method for producing genetic mosaics, which involves the spontaneous somatic loss of free chromosome fragments, is demonstrated. Four genes that affect the behavior of C. elegans were studied in mosaic animals. The analysis was greatly aided by the fact that the complete cell lineage of wild-type animals is known. Two of the mutant genes affect certain sensory responses and prevent uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) by certain sensory neurons. Mosaic analysis indicated that one of these mutant genes is cell autonomous with respect to its effect on FITC uptake and the other is cell nonautonomous. In the latter case, the genotype of a non-neuronal supporting cell that surrounds the processes of the neurons that normally take up FITC probably is critical. The other two mutant genes affect animal movement. Mosaic analysis indicated that the expression of one of these genes is specific to certain neurons (motor neurons of the ventral and dorsal nerve cords are prime candidates) and the expression of the other gene is specific to muscle cells. PMID:6434374

  13. Multispectral Mosaic of the Aristarchus Crater and Plateau

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-03

    The Aristarchus region is one of the most diverse and interesting areas on the Moon. About 500 images from NASA's Clementine spacecraft were processed and combined into a multispectral mosaic of this region. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00090

  14. Asymmetry and skin pigmentary anomalies in chromosome mosaicism.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, C G; Bankier, A; Curry, J; Sheffield, L J; Slaney, S F; Smith, K; Voullaire, L; Wellesley, D

    1994-01-01

    We report six persons mosaic for a chromosome anomaly. All were mentally retarded and dysmorphic. Unilateral or asymmetrical features were found in all cases, in one an unusual transverse terminal limb anomaly, and in the others various degrees of hemiatrophy of the left side of the body. Five of the subjects had skin pigmentary anomalies which were distributed in the lines of Blaschko. The abnormal cell lines found were ring chromosome 22, trisomy 22, a large acrocentric marker, a deletion of 18q, a deletion of 8q, and triploidy. In four cases the clinical diagnosis was only confirmed by skin biopsy. In one case low level mosaicism in blood was fortuitously detected because of cytogenetic fragile X screening and confirmed in a skin biopsy. The sixth case was of dynamic mosaicism of a non-mosaic deletion 18q with a chromosome 18 derived marker present in a proportion of cells. Chromosome mosaicisn may cause subtle and asymmetrical clinical features and can require repeated cytogenetic investigations. The diagnosis should be actively sought as it enables accurate genetic counselling to be given. Images PMID:7815438

  15. Identifying a new causal agent of mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a pathogen of economic concern that infects maize, sorghum, and sugarcane worldwide. It is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae and contains a linear, positive sense ssRNA genome 10 kb long. It is transmitted non-persistently via aphids and ...

  16. Characterization of Large Structural Genetic Mosaicism in Human Autosomes

    PubMed Central

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zhou, Weiyin; Sampson, Joshua N.; Dean, Michael C.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Black, Amanda; Brinton, Louise A.; Chang, I-Shou; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Cook, Linda S.; Crous Bou, Marta; De Vivo, Immaculata; Doherty, Jennifer; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hartge, Patricia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J.; Jessop, Lea; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Robert; Kraft, Peter; Lan, Qing; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Rastogi, Radhai; Risch, Harvey A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Seow, Adeline; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; VanDen Berg, David; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Yi-Long; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Abnet, Christian C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Bracci, Paige M.; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary A.; Carreón, Tania; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chung, Charles C.; Cook, Michael B.; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G.; Ding, Ti; Duell, Eric J.; Epstein, Caroline G.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Freedman, Neal D.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Greene, Mark H.; Hallmans, Goran; Harris, Curtis C.; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hu, Nan; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Landgren, Annelie; Landi, Maria Teresa; Li, Donghui; Liao, Linda M.; Malats, Nuria; McGlynn, Katherine A.; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Mirabello, Lisa; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark; Qiao, You-Lin; Rabe, Kari G.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Severi, Gianluca; Silverman, Debra T.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R.; Teras, Lauren R.; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Viswanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Zhaoming; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wu, Xifeng; Wunder, Jay S.; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Ziegler, Regina G.; de Andrade, Mariza; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Beaty, Terri H.; Bierut, Laura J.; Desch, Karl C.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Ginsburg, David; Heit, John A.; Kang, Jae H.; Laurie, Cecilia A.; Li, Jun Z.; Lowe, William L.; Marazita, Mary L.; Melbye, Mads; Mirel, Daniel B.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelson, Sarah C.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Rice, Kenneth; Wiggs, Janey L.; Wise, Anastasia; Tucker, Margaret; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data have revealed that detectable genetic mosaicism involving large (>2 Mb) structural autosomal alterations occurs in a fraction of individuals. We present results for a set of 24,849 genotyped individuals (total GWAS set II [TGSII]) in whom 341 large autosomal abnormalities were observed in 168 (0.68%) individuals. Merging data from the new TGSII set with data from two prior reports (the Gene-Environment Association Studies and the total GWAS set I) generated a large dataset of 127,179 individuals; we then conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the patterns of detectable autosomal mosaicism (n = 1,315 events in 925 [0.73%] individuals). Restricting to events >2 Mb in size, we observed an increase in event frequency as event size decreased. The combined results underscore that the rate of detectable mosaicism increases with age (p value = 5.5 × 10−31) and is higher in men (p value = 0.002) but lower in participants of African ancestry (p value = 0.003). In a subset of 47 individuals from whom serial samples were collected up to 6 years apart, complex changes were noted over time and showed an overall increase in the proportion of mosaic cells as age increased. Our large combined sample allowed for a unique ability to characterize detectable genetic mosaicism involving large structural events and strengthens the emerging evidence of non-random erosion of the genome in the aging population. PMID:25748358

  17. Characterization of large structural genetic mosaicism in human autosomes.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Zhou, Weiyin; Sampson, Joshua N; Dean, Michael C; Jacobs, Kevin B; Black, Amanda; Brinton, Louise A; Chang, I-Shou; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Cook, Linda S; Crous Bou, Marta; De Vivo, Immaculata; Doherty, Jennifer; Friedenreich, Christine M; Gaudet, Mia M; Haiman, Christopher A; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartge, Patricia; Henderson, Brian E; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H Dean; Hsiung, Chao A; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J; Jessop, Lea; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Robert; Kraft, Peter; Lan, Qing; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Rastogi, Radhai; Risch, Harvey A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Seow, Adeline; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; VanDen Berg, David; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Yi-Long; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Abnet, Christian C; Albanes, Demetrius; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Berndt, Sonja I; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Bracci, Paige M; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E; Butler, Mary A; Carreón, Tania; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chung, Charles C; Cook, Michael B; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G; Ding, Ti; Duell, Eric J; Epstein, Caroline G; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Freedman, Neal D; Fuchs, Charles S; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M; Greene, Mark H; Hallmans, Goran; Harris, Curtis C; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Robert N; Hu, Nan; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C; LaCroix, Andrea; Landgren, Annelie; Landi, Maria Teresa; Li, Donghui; Liao, Linda M; Malats, Nuria; McGlynn, Katherine A; McNeill, Lorna H; McWilliams, Robert R; Melin, Beatrice S; Mirabello, Lisa; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark; Qiao, You-Lin; Rabe, Kari G; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X; Riboli, Elio; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M; Savage, Sharon A; Schwartz, Ann G; Schwartz, Kendra L; Sesso, Howard D; Severi, Gianluca; Silverman, Debra T; Spitz, Margaret R; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R; Teras, Lauren R; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Viswanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Zhaoming; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K; Wolpin, Brian M; Wu, Xifeng; Wunder, Jay S; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Ziegler, Regina G; de Andrade, Mariza; Barnes, Kathleen C; Beaty, Terri H; Bierut, Laura J; Desch, Karl C; Doheny, Kimberly F; Feenstra, Bjarke; Ginsburg, David; Heit, John A; Kang, Jae H; Laurie, Cecilia A; Li, Jun Z; Lowe, William L; Marazita, Mary L; Melbye, Mads; Mirel, Daniel B; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelson, Sarah C; Pasquale, Louis R; Rice, Kenneth; Wiggs, Janey L; Wise, Anastasia; Tucker, Margaret; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Laurie, Cathy C; Caporaso, Neil E; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J

    2015-03-05

    Analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data have revealed that detectable genetic mosaicism involving large (>2 Mb) structural autosomal alterations occurs in a fraction of individuals. We present results for a set of 24,849 genotyped individuals (total GWAS set II [TGSII]) in whom 341 large autosomal abnormalities were observed in 168 (0.68%) individuals. Merging data from the new TGSII set with data from two prior reports (the Gene-Environment Association Studies and the total GWAS set I) generated a large dataset of 127,179 individuals; we then conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the patterns of detectable autosomal mosaicism (n = 1,315 events in 925 [0.73%] individuals). Restricting to events >2 Mb in size, we observed an increase in event frequency as event size decreased. The combined results underscore that the rate of detectable mosaicism increases with age (p value = 5.5 × 10(-31)) and is higher in men (p value = 0.002) but lower in participants of African ancestry (p value = 0.003). In a subset of 47 individuals from whom serial samples were collected up to 6 years apart, complex changes were noted over time and showed an overall increase in the proportion of mosaic cells as age increased. Our large combined sample allowed for a unique ability to characterize detectable genetic mosaicism involving large structural events and strengthens the emerging evidence of non-random erosion of the genome in the aging population. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for Concerted and Mosaic Brain Evolution in Dragon Lizards.

    PubMed

    Hoops, Daniel; Vidal-García, Marta; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Janke, Andrew L; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Duchêne, David A; Price, William S; Whiting, Martin J; Keogh, J Scott

    2017-09-05

    The brain plays a critical role in a wide variety of functions including behaviour, perception, motor control, and homeostatic maintenance. Each function can undergo different selective pressures over the course of evolution, and as selection acts on the outputs of brain function, it necessarily alters the structure of the brain. Two models have been proposed to explain the evolutionary patterns observed in brain morphology. The concerted brain evolution model posits that the brain evolves as a single unit and the evolution of different brain regions are coordinated. The mosaic brain evolution model posits that brain regions evolve independently of each other. It is now understood that both models are responsible for driving changes in brain morphology; however, which factors favour concerted or mosaic brain evolution is unclear. Here, we examined the volumes of the 6 major neural subdivisions across 14 species of the agamid lizard genus Ctenophorus (dragons). These species have diverged multiple times in behaviour, ecology, and body morphology, affording a unique opportunity to test neuroevolutionary models across species. We assigned each species to an ecomorph based on habitat use and refuge type, then used MRI to measure total and regional brain volume. We found evidence for both mosaic and concerted brain evolution in dragons: concerted brain evolution with respect to body size, and mosaic brain evolution with respect to ecomorph. Specifically, all brain subdivisions increase in volume relative to body size, yet the tectum and rhombencephalon also show opposite patterns of evolution with respect to ecomorph. Therefore, we find that both models of evolution are occurring simultaneously in the same structures in dragons, but are only detectable when examining particular drivers of selection. We show that the answer to the question of whether concerted or mosaic brain evolution is detected in a system can depend more on the type of selection measured than on the

  19. Occurrance in Korea of three major soybean viruses, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) revealed by a nationwide survey of soybean fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) were recently isolated in Korea, and it hasn’t been reported how these two viruses were dispersed in Korea. In 2012, we performed a nationwide survey of subsistence soybean farms in Korea. Leaves that appeared ...

  20. The Montage Image Mosaic Service: Custom Image Mosaics On-Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. B.; Good, J. C.; Laity, A. C.; Kong, M.

    2008-08-01

    The Montage software suite has proven extremely useful as a general engine for reprojecting, background matching, and mosaicking astronomical image data from a wide variety of sources. The processing algorithms support all common World Coordinate System (WCS) projections and have been shown to be both astrometrically accurate and flux conserving. The background `matching' algorithm does not remove background flux but rather finds the best compromise background based on all the input and matches the individual images to that. The Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), part of the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) at Caltech, has now wrapped the Montage software as a CGI service and provided a compute and request management infrastructure capable of producing approximately 2 TBytes / day of image mosaic output (e.g. from 2MASS and SDSS data). Besides the basic Montage engine, this service makes use of a 16-node LINUX cluster (dual processor, dual core) and the ROME request management software developed by the National Virtual Observatory (NVO). ROME uses EJB/database technology to manage user requests, queue processing and load balance between users, and managing job monitoring and user notification. The Montage service will be extended to process user-defined data collections, including private data uploads.

  1. Mosaic Genes and Mosaic Chromosomes: Intra- and Interspecies Genomic Variation of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Hakenbeck, Regine; Balmelle, Nadège; Weber, Beate; Gardès, Christophe; Keck, Wolfgang; de Saizieu, Antoine

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major causative agent of serious human diseases. The worldwide increase of antibiotic resistant strains revealed the importance of horizontal gene transfer in this pathogen, a scenario that results in the modulation of the species-specific gene pool. We investigated genomic variation in 20 S. pneumoniae isolates representing major antibiotic-resistant clones and 10 different capsular serotypes. Variation was scored as decreased hybridization signals visualized on a high-density oligonucleotide array representing 1,968 genes of the type 4 reference strain KNR.7/87. Up to 10% of the genes appeared altered between individual isolates and the reference strain; variability within clones was below 2.1%. Ten gene clusters covering 160 kb account for half of the variable genes. Most of them are associated with transposases and are assumed to be part of a flexible gene pool within the bacterial population; other variable loci include mosaic genes encoding antibiotic resistance determinants and gene clusters related to bacteriocin production. Genomic comparison between S. pneumoniae and commensal Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis strains indicates distinct antigenic profiles and suggests a smooth transition between these species, supporting the validity of the microarray system as an epidemiological and diagnostic tool. PMID:11254610

  2. Improvements to Color HRSC+OMEGA Image Mosaics of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, P. C.; Audouard, J.; Dumke, A.; Dunker, T.; Gross, C.; Kneissl, T.; Michael, G.; Ody, A.; Poulet, F.; Schreiner, B.; van Gasselt, S.; Walter, S. H. G.; Wendt, L.; Zuschneid, W.

    2015-10-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express (MEx) orbiter has acquired 3640 images (with 'preliminary level 4' processing as described in [1]) of the Martian surface since arriving in orbit in 2003, covering over 90% of the planet [2]. At resolutions that can reach 10 meters/pixel, these MEx/HRSC images [3-4] are constructed in a pushbroom manner from 9 different CCD line sensors, including a panchromatic nadir-looking (Pan) channel, 4 color channels (R, G, B, IR), and 4 other panchromatic channels for stereo imaging or photometric imaging. In [5], we discussed our first approach towards mosaicking hundreds of the MEx/HRSC RGB or Pan images together. The images were acquired under different atmospheric conditions over the entire mission and under different observation/illumination geometries. Therefore, the main challenge that we have addressed is the color (or gray-scale) matching of these images, which have varying colors (or gray scales) due to the different observing conditions. Using this first approach, our best results for a semiglobal mosaic consist of adding a high-pass-filtered version of the HRSC mosaic to a low-pass-filtered version of the MEx/OMEGA [6] global mosaic. Herein, we will present our latest results using a new, improved, second approach for mosaicking MEx/HRSC images [7], but focusing on the RGB Color processing when using this new second approach. Currently, when the new second approach is applied to Pan images, we match local spatial averages of the Pan images to the local spatial averages of a mosaic made from the images acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor TES bolometer. Since these MGS/TES images have already been atmospherically-corrected, this matching allows us to bootstrap the process of mosaicking the HRSC images without actually atmospherically correcting the HRSC images. In this work, we will adapt this technique of MEx/HRSC Pan images being matched with the MGS/TES mosaic, so that instead, MEx/HRSC RGB images

  3. Two-dimensional mesh-based mosaic representation for manipulation of video objects with occlusion.

    PubMed

    Toklu, C; Tanju Erdem, A; Murat Tekalp, A

    2000-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional (2-D) mesh-based mosaic representation, consisting of an object mesh and a mosaic mesh for each frame and a final mosaic image, for video objects with mildly deformable motion in the presence of self and/or object-to-object (external) occlusion. Unlike classical mosaic representations where successive frames are registered using global motion models, we map the uncovered regions in the successive frames onto the mosaic reference frame using local affine models, i.e., those of the neighboring mesh patches. The proposed method to compute this mosaic representation is tightly coupled with an occlusion adaptive 2-D mesh tracking procedure, which consist of propagating the object mesh frame to frame, and updating of both object and mosaic meshes to optimize texture mapping from the mosaic to each instance of the object. The proposed representation has been applied to video object rendering and editing, including self transfiguration, synthetic transfiguration, and 2-D augmented reality in the presence of self and/or external occlusion. We also provide an algorithm to determine the minimum number of still views needed to reconstruct a replacement mosaic which is needed for synthetic transfiguration. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate both the 2-D mesh-based mosaic synthesis and two different video object editing applications on real video sequences.

  4. Application of non-destructive techniques to assess the state of Hagia Sophia's mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moropoulou, Antonia; Karoglou, Maria; Labropoulos, Kyriakos C.; Delegou, Ekaterini T.; Katsiotis, Nikolaos K.; Karagiannis-Bakolas, Asterios

    2012-04-01

    The church of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul is a world heritage monument that epitomizes the byzantine ecclesiastic architecture. The church is decorated with mosaics from various historic periods. The preservation state of the mosaics is of high importance. In this study, non-destructive techniques (ground penetrating radar, infra-red thermography, fibreoptics microscopy) were employed on south upper gallery mosaic areas. The main aim of this on-site investigation was the evaluation of the preservation state of the mosaics and the previous interventions (materials characterization and decay diagnosis) in order to assess the performance of previous conservation/restoration interventions, as well as to verify the presence of mosaics in layers below the external plaster surfaces. Results indicated that is indeed possible to locate the grid of rendered mosaics. Regarding the preservation state of the mosaics, it was indicated that the main environmental decay factors were the high relative humidity levels with co-action of salt damp as well as the air pollutants. Moreover, it was revealed that previous incompatible restoration/conservation interventions have often accelerated the mosaics' degradation processes. Using non-destructive techniques it was possible to identify areas where the mosaic materials (tesserae and mortars) presented decay problems and in addition identify sub-layers that pose risk of detachment or decay intensification. In this way, NDT can contribute to the development of a strategic planning for mosaics conservation, protection and revealing.

  5. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350–600 ce

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Results and Conclusions Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350–600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round–pyriform and probably used as vessels. PMID:24948671

  6. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350-600 ce.

    PubMed

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S

    2014-08-01

    Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350-600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round-pyriform and probably used as vessels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  7. Association of a cucumber mosaic virus strain with mosaic disease of banana, Musa paradisiaca--an evidence using immuno/nucleic acid probe.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Raj, S K; Haq, Q M; Srivastava, K M; Singh, B P; Sane, P V

    1995-12-01

    Virus causing severe chlorosis/mosaic disease of banana was identified as a strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Association of CMV with the disease was established by Western immunoblot using polyclonal antibodies to CMV-T and slot blot hybridization with nucleic acid probe of CMV-P genome.

  8. Wheat Cultivar-Specific Disease Synergism and Alteration of Virus Accumulation During Co-Infection with Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), the type member of the newly proposed Poacevirus genus and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), the type member of Tritimovirus genus of the family Potyviridae, infect wheat naturally in the Great Plains and are transmitted by wheat curl mites. In this study, we examined ...

  9. Impact of Wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus co-infection of wheat on transmission rates by wheat curl mites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are transmitted by the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer). Previous work has shown that different mite genotypes transmit TriMV at different rates. The objective of this research was to determine if mite genotypes differ...

  10. Development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of Sugarcane mosaic virus and Sorghum mosaic virus in sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for detecting Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) in sugarcane. Six sets of four primers corresponding to the conserved coat protein gene were designed for each virus and their succ...

  11. Global Hybrid HRSC+OMEGA Image Mosaics of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, P. C.; Walter, S. H. G.; van Gasselt, S.; Dunke, A.; Dunker, T.; Gross, C.; Michael, G.; Wendt, L.; Audouard, J.; Ody, A.; Poulet, F.

    2014-04-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express (MEx) orbiter has acquired 3640 images (with 'preliminary level 4' processing as described in [1]) of the Martian surface since arriving in orbit in 2003, covering over 90% of the planet [2]. At resolutions that can reach 10 meters/pixel, these MEx/HRSC images [3-4] are constructed in a pushbroom manner from 9 different CCD line sensors, including a panchromatic nadir-looking (Pan) channel, 4 color channels (R, G, B, IR), and 4 other panchromatic channels for stereo imaging or photometric imaging. In [5], we discussed our approach towards automatically mosaicking hundreds of the MEx/HRSC Pan or RGB images together. Herein, we present our latest results using this approach (Fig. 1; PDF is zoomable). Currently, our best results consist of adding a high-pass-filtered version of the HRSC mosaic to a low-pass-filtered version of the MEx/OMEGA [6] global mosaic.

  12. Mercury's global color mosaic: An update from MESSENGER's orbital observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, Deborah L.; Murchie, Scott L.; Denevi, Brett W.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2015-09-01

    We report an update to the photometric correction used to produce global color mosaics of Mercury, derived from an analysis of photometric observations acquired during the orbital phase of MESSENGER's primary mission. Comparisons between versions of the color mosaic produced with photometric corrections derived from flyby and orbital data indicate that areas imaged at high incidence and emission angles (>50°) are better standardized to a common illumination and viewing geometry with the orbit-derived corrections. Seams between images taken at very different illumination geometries, however, are still present at visually detectable levels. Further improvements to the photometric correction await updates to the radiometric calibration that will enable data retrieval over a larger range of photometric angles.

  13. Towards Daily 5 m Resolution Mosaics of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordahl, K. A.; Simmon, R. B.; Kapadia, A.; Kington, J. D., IV; Wurster, K.; Schönert, M.

    2016-12-01

    Planet operates dozens of 3U-class nanosatellites imaging the Earth at 3-5 m spatial resolution in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Currently acquiring over 10,000 km^2 daily, we are progressing towards imaging the Earth at daily cadence in 2017. Dynamically updated global mosaics are created by selecting, color balancing, and seamlessly mosaicking millions of scenes to create time slices at regular intervals. The data shown in these mosaics present an unprecedented opportunity to observe the Earth at better than 5 m spatial resolution and approaching daily temporal resolution. Daily data at high spatial resolution opens up new analysis techniques previously limited by the relatively low-resolution of instruments such as MODIS and VIIRS.

  14. RNA: protein interactions associated with satellites of panicum mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Desvoyes, B; Scholthof, K B

    2000-11-17

    The interactions between satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) capsid protein (CP) and its 824 nucleotide (nt) single stranded RNA were investigated by gel mobility shift assay and Northwestern blot assay. SPMV CP has specificity for its RNA at high affinity, but little affinity for non-viral RNA. The SPMV CP also bound a 350 nt satellite RNA (satRNA) that, like SPMV, is dependent on panicum mosaic virus for its replication. SPMV CP has the novel property of encapsidating SPMV RNA and satRNA. Competition gel mobility shift assays performed with a non-viral RNA and unlabeled SPMV RNA and satRNA revealed that these RNA:protein interactions were in part sequence specific.

  15. Interactive Visualization of Computational Fluid Dynamics using Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clucas, Jean; Watson, Velvin; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Web provides new Methods for accessing Information world-wide, but the current text-and-pictures approach neither utilizes all the Web's possibilities not provides for its limitations. While the inclusion of pictures and animations in a paper communicates more effectively than text alone, It Is essentially an extension of the concept of "publication." Also, as use of the Web increases putting images and animations online will quickly load even the "Information Superhighway." We need to find forms of communication that take advantage of the special nature of the Web. This paper presents one approach: the use of the Internet and the Mosaic interface for data sharing and collaborative analysis. We will describe (and In the presentation, demonstrate) our approach: using FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit), a scientific visualization package, as a data viewer and interactive tool called from MOSAIC. Our intent is to stimulate the development of other tools that utilize the unique nature of electronic communication.

  16. Familial hypopituitarism associated with mosaic form of Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lomna-Bogdanov, Elzbieta; Bolanowski, Marek; Slezak, Ryszard; Sokolska, Violetta; Pałczyiński, Bogusław; Spring, Adam; Demissie, Marek

    2005-01-01

    We present herein an unusual coincidence of familial hypopituitarism associated with a mosaic form of Turner syndrome in two adult sisters (51 and 43 years old). Both patients had hypopituitarism diagnosed in childhood. They have never been administered growth hormone, and remained short in stature. They were not given long-term estrogen-progestin treatment, despite lack of menstruation. Early in childhood both received thyroid hormone substitution. Pituitary imaging revealed pituitary hypoplasia with partial empty sella in one sister, and pituitary hypoplasia in the other. Very recently, during endocrinological evaluation, they were diagnosed with a mosaic form of Turner syndrome, additionally to their hypopituitarism. In this paper, we place special emphasis on the results of hormonal analyses and discuss the differential diagnosis.

  17. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Auroral spectral estimation with wide-band color mosaic CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackel, B. J.; Unick, C.; Syrjäsuo, M. T.; Partamies, N.; Wild, J. A.; Woodfield, E. E.; McWhirter, I.; Kendall, E.; Spanswick, E.

    2013-12-01

    Color mosaic CCDs use a matrix of different wide-band micro-filters in order to produce images with several (often three) color channels. These devices are increasingly employed in auroral studies to provide time sequences of two dimensional luminosity maps, but the color information is typically only used for qualitative analysis. In this study we use Backus-Gilbert linear inversion techniques to obtain quantitative measures of effective spectral resolution for multi-channel color mosaic CCDs. These techniques also allow us to explore the possibility of further improvements by modifying or combining multiple detectors. We consider two spectrally calibrated commercial color CCDs (Sony ICX285AQ and ICX429AKL) in order to determine effective wavelength resolution of each device individually, together, and with additional filters. From these results we develop methods to enhance the utility of existing data sets, and propose ways to improve the next generation of low-cost color auroral imaging systems.

  19. Natural recombination between tobacco and tomato mosaic viruses.

    PubMed

    He, Mei; He, Cheng-Qiang; Ding, Nai-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense plant RNA virus which has a wide host range and a worldwide distribution. Other than a troublesome pathogen, TMV is regarded as a model system pioneering biologic research for a century. The tomato strain of TMV has been recognized to be a distinct tobamovirus as the tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). Recombination has been increasingly recognized as an important factor generating genetic diversity in many RNA viruses. However, it is still unclear whether recombination can function in driving the evolution of tobamoviruses. Herein, based on sequence comparison, we found three recombinants involving each viral gene, all of which might be derived from homologous or aberrant homologous recombination between TMV and ToMV. The study provided evidence that recombination did contribute to the genetic diversity of tobamoviruses.

  20. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) inhibitors from Picrasma quassioides Benn.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Yan, Xiao-Hui; Dong, Jia-Hong; Sang, Peng; Fang, Xin; Di, Ying-Tong; Zhang, Zhong-Kai; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2009-08-12

    To investigate natural inhibitors against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) from plants, 10 known beta-carboline alkaloids and one quassinoid have been isolated from MeOH extract of the wood of Picrasma quassioides Benn. These compounds were screened for their inhibitory activities against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The activity of each compound against TMV infection and replication was tested using a half-leaf assay method, a leaf-disk method, and Western blotting analyses. All of the beta-carboline alkaloids showed moderate anti-TMV activities and exhibited synergistic effects when combined with the quassinoid nigakilactone B (11). To our knowledge, this is the first report on anti-TMV activity of beta-carbolines and their synergistic effects against TMV when combined with a quassinoid.

  1. Mosaic VSGs and the scale of Trypanosoma brucei antigenic variation.

    PubMed

    Hall, James P J; Wang, Huanhuan; Barry, J David

    2013-01-01

    A main determinant of prolonged Trypanosoma brucei infection and transmission and success of the parasite is the interplay between host acquired immunity and antigenic variation of the parasite variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. About 0.1% of trypanosome divisions produce a switch to a different VSG through differential expression of an archive of hundreds of silent VSG genes and pseudogenes, but the patterns and extent of the trypanosome diversity phenotype, particularly in chronic infection, are unclear. We applied longitudinal VSG cDNA sequencing to estimate variant richness and test whether pseudogenes contribute to antigenic variation. We show that individual growth peaks can contain at least 15 distinct variants, are estimated computationally to comprise many more, and that antigenically distinct 'mosaic' VSGs arise from segmental gene conversion between donor VSG genes or pseudogenes. The potential for trypanosome antigenic variation is probably much greater than VSG archive size; mosaic VSGs are core to antigenic variation and chronic infection.

  2. 45,X/47,XXX Mosaicism and Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Tsilianidis, Laurie A.; Haider, Anzar; Rogers, Douglas G.; Schweiger, Bahareh

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a ten-year-old girl with short stature and 45,X/47,XXX genotype. She also suffered from vesicoureteric reflux and kidney dysfunction prior to having surgery on her ureters. Otherwise, she does not have any of the characteristics of Turner nor Triple X syndrome. It has been shown that this mosaic condition as well as other varieties creates a milder phenotype than typical Turner syndrome, which is what we mostly see in our patient. However, this patient is a special case, because she is exceptionally short. Overall, one cannot predict the resultant phenotype in these mosaic conditions. This creates difficulty in counseling parents whose children or fetuses have these karyotypes. PMID:26137340

  3. 45,X/47,XXX Mosaicism and Short Stature.

    PubMed

    Everest, Erica; Tsilianidis, Laurie A; Haider, Anzar; Rogers, Douglas G; Raissouni, Nouhad; Schweiger, Bahareh

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a ten-year-old girl with short stature and 45,X/47,XXX genotype. She also suffered from vesicoureteric reflux and kidney dysfunction prior to having surgery on her ureters. Otherwise, she does not have any of the characteristics of Turner nor Triple X syndrome. It has been shown that this mosaic condition as well as other varieties creates a milder phenotype than typical Turner syndrome, which is what we mostly see in our patient. However, this patient is a special case, because she is exceptionally short. Overall, one cannot predict the resultant phenotype in these mosaic conditions. This creates difficulty in counseling parents whose children or fetuses have these karyotypes.

  4. Real-time 4D ultrasound mosaicing and visualization.

    PubMed

    Brattain, Laura J; Howe, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Intra-cardiac 3D ultrasound imaging has enabled new minimally invasive procedures. Its narrow field of view, however, limits its efficacy in guiding beating heart procedures where geometrically complex and spatially extended moving anatomic structures are often involved. In this paper, we present a system that performs electrocardiograph gated 4D mosaicing and visualization of 3DUS volumes. Real-time operation is enabled by GPU implementation. The method is validated on phantom and porcine heart data.

  5. X/XYq - mosaicism and mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, E; Silva, R; Ramirez, E; Nossa, M A

    1977-01-01

    A non-fluorescent Y chromosome was observed in a phenotypic male with 45,X/46,XYq-mosaicism and mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Q-banding of the father's chromosomes showed a normally fluorescent Y. Measurements of the Y chromosomes in the father and the patient showed a significant difference in length. Evidence for translocation of the Y fluorescent segment to another chromosome was lacking in the present case. Images PMID:926138

  6. Pathogenetics of 45,X/46,XY gonadal mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K S; Sulcova, V

    1998-01-01

    Five patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism ranging from 8% to 66% of 46, XY lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were studied. Their age when chromosome studies were performed ranged from a few days to 37 yr. The phenotypic presentations were two females with gonadal dysgenesis and Turner syndrome features (cases 1 and 2), two males with ambiguous genitalia and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (cases 3 and 4), and an infertile male with an atrophic testis (case 5). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using dual-color X and Y probes on paraffin-embedded sections of the gonads was performed to assess mosaicism. A mosaic cell line with a Y chromosome was present in the streak ovary, dysgenetic gonad, and testis. In the mixed gonadal dysgenesis cases (cases 3 and 4), the testis had a higher percentage (greater than two fold) of XY cells than the ovary had. However, the highest ratio of cells with a Y chromosome was in the atrophic testis of the infertile male (case 5). The distribution of mosaic clones in the different gonadal cell types was examined. Both females (cases 1 and 2) with dysgenetic gonads had scant ovarian stroma and nests of Leydig or hilus cells. In FISH studies, the coelomic epithelial cells were predominantly 46,XY; in comparison, the Leydig and hilus cells had a lower percentage and the ovarian stroma the least number of cells with a Y signal. A mixed gonadal dysgenesis case (case 3) possessed a right testis with an XY complement in approximately 21% of Sertoli cells and approximately 14% of Leydig cells. The infertile male had an atrophic testis with interstitial hyperplasia (case 5). His testis contained Sertoli cells but no evidence of spermatogenesis. FISH detected a Y signal in about 50-60% of the Sertoli and Leydig cells.

  7. Precise determination of the helical repeat of tobacco mosaic virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Stubbs, Gerald

    2007-12-05

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a distance standard in electron microscopy, fiber diffraction, and other imaging techniques. The dimension used as a reference is the pitch of the viral helix, 23 A. This distance, however, has never been measured with any great degree of precision. The helical pitch of TMV has been determined to be 22.92 {+-} 0.03 A by X-ray fiber diffraction methods using highly collimated synchrotron radiation.

  8. Precise Determination of the Helical Repeat of Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, A.; McDonald, M.; Stubbs, G.

    2009-06-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a distance standard in electron microscopy, fiber diffraction, and other imaging techniques. The dimension used as a reference is the pitch of the viral helix, 23 {angstrom}. This distance, however, has never been measured with any great degree of precision. The helical pitch of TMV has been determined to be 22.92 {+-}0.03 {angstrom} by X-ray fiber diffraction methods using highly collimated synchrotron radiation.

  9. A Mole's Eye View: Marcellus as Mosaic by Rachel Sager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, R.

    2013-12-01

    I am an artist living and working in the energy vortex of Southwestern Pennsylvania and am watching great upheaval, both good and bad, happen to my land and its citizens due to the phenomenon caused by our particular geologic formation; the Marcellus Shale. My work embraces the earth itself through the medium of mosaic, and I have found it to be a great communicator to many groups of people: landowners, gas industry workers, environmentalists. I tell the story of how I came to be so dependent on my native stone, coming from a long line of coal miners and farmers who taught me to be aware of what lies beneath my feet. With my stone hammer, I chop up shale, sandstone, limestone, and coal, transforming it into tiny, expressive pieces that tell stories and help people to grasp geologic concepts that can otherwise be overwhelming and mysterious. I address the industry itself by representing the controversial enterprise of fracking, but also delve intimately into building relationships with the stone that I gather, wash, categorize, cut, and lay into mortar. By depicting these layers of earth, I am building touchable, organic images of geologic time that are highly accessible to the human brain and sensibility. There is something personal and immediate about standing in front of one of these mosaics, being able to touch it that gives the viewer power over an idea that often leaves them feeling in the dark. As a classically trained mosaic artist, I bring back the skills, culture, and tradition of a Euro-centered art form and weave it into my North American geology. Through a highly detailed and dynamic PowerPoint presentation of my work, I help people to see the earth beneath their feet with new eyes. Rachel Sager, artist www.rachelsagermosaics.com Contemporary Art in a Geologic Medium: Rachel Sager Mosaics

  10. Turner Phenotype: Mosaic 45,X/47,XY,+18

    PubMed Central

    Schinzel, A.; Schmid, W.; Prader, A.

    1974-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl with Turner phenotype is described, whose lymphocyte and skin fibroblast cultures both revealed a 45,X/47,XY,+18 chromosomal mosaicism. In blood cultures one third and in fibroblasts 7% of the cells had 47 chromosomes. The identity of the Y and the supernumerary 18 were determined by fluorescence and Giemsa banding patterns. The patient is of normal intelligence and does not exhibit any signs of masculinization or stigmata of trisomy 18. Images PMID:4135076

  11. Mosaic and Concerted Evolution in the Visual System of Birds

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Moore, Bret A.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Corfield, Jeremy R.; Krilow, Justin M.; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Wylie, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Two main models have been proposed to explain how the relative size of neural structures varies through evolution. In the mosaic evolution model, individual brain structures vary in size independently of each other, whereas in the concerted evolution model developmental constraints result in different parts of the brain varying in size in a coordinated manner. Several studies have shown variation of the relative size of individual nuclei in the vertebrate brain, but it is currently not known if nuclei belonging to the same functional pathway vary independently of each other or in a concerted manner. The visual system of birds offers an ideal opportunity to specifically test which of the two models apply to an entire sensory pathway. Here, we examine the relative size of 9 different visual nuclei across 98 species of birds. This includes data on interspecific variation in the cytoarchitecture and relative size of the isthmal nuclei, which has not been previously reported. We also use a combination of statistical analyses, phylogenetically corrected principal component analysis and evolutionary rates of change on the absolute and relative size of the nine nuclei, to test if visual nuclei evolved in a concerted or mosaic manner. Our results strongly indicate a combination of mosaic and concerted evolution (in the relative size of nine nuclei) within the avian visual system. Specifically, the relative size of the isthmal nuclei and parts of the tectofugal pathway covary across species in a concerted fashion, whereas the relative volume of the other visual nuclei measured vary independently of one another, such as that predicted by the mosaic model. Our results suggest the covariation of different neural structures depends not only on the functional connectivity of each nucleus, but also on the diversity of afferents and efferents of each nucleus. PMID:24621573

  12. Mosaic Decisionmaking and Reemergent Agency after Severe Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Fins, Joseph J

    2017-09-18

    In this article, I will discuss the challenge posed by the reemergent agency of individuals with severe brain injury whose ability to communicate has been partially restored by neuroprosthetics, drugs, and rehabilitation. Instead of categorically distinguishing patients as either competent or incompetent, these technologies necessitate a more nuanced approach to intermediate states of decisionmaking capacity. This indeterminacy is addressed through a mosaic approach to decisionmaking, which seeks to achieve a proportionate and prudent balance between unbridled self-determination and conventional surrogate representation.

  13. The contribution of germinal mosaicism to human aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Ghevaria, Harita; SenGupta, Sioban; Sarna, Urvashi; Sargeant, Susannah; Serhal, Paul; Delhanty, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Germinal mosaicism in a parent is considered to be a rare cause of aneuploidy in the offspring. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of pre-meiotic errors, indicative of germinal mosaicism, leading to aneuploidy compared with those that occur at meiosis I. The material consisted of 126 oocytes, unexposed to sperm, donated by 57 women with an average maternal age of 35. The oocytes were at various stages of maturity and were analysed by array comparative genomic hybridisation. Of these, 102 gave conclusive results, comprising 47 that were immature, at the germinal vesicle (GV) or metaphase I stage (MI); 34 complete metaphase II-first polar body (MII-PB) complexes together with 21 incomplete complexes. Oocytes at the GV or MI stage provide direct evidence of pre-meiotic aneuploidy. Complete MII-PB complexes with the expected reciprocal gains/losses provide information on MI errors; those with non-reciprocal gains have pre-meiotic errors. Overall, 29 oocytes were aneuploid, and the source of the error was known for 21. In 8 (from 7 women) the error was pre-meiotic consisting of 4 MI oocytes and 4 MII-PB complexes with non-reciprocal gains. The remaining 13 were the result of errors at meiosis I. Although pre-meiotic errors occurred in only 10% of informative oocytes, most notable was the fact that for those oocytes where the source of the error was known, 38% were caused by germinal mosaicism compared with 62% that were the outcome of a meiosis I error. None of the women with germinal mosaicism were infertile.

  14. Fixation of Emerging Interviral Recombinants in Cucumber Mosaic Virus Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Justin S.

    2013-01-01

    Interstrain recombinants were observed in the progenies of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) reassortant L1L2F3 containing RNAs 1 and 2 from LS-CMV and RNA 3 from Fny-CMV. We characterized these recombinants, and we found that their fixation was controlled by the nature of the replicating RNAs 1 and 2. We demonstrate that the 2b gene partially affects this fixation process, but only in the context of homologous RNAs 1 and 2. PMID:23115282

  15. High Resolution Mosaic of Ridges, Plains, and Mountains on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic shows some of the highest resolution images obtained by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its eleventh orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image. The sun illuminates the scene from the left, showing hundreds of ridges that cut across each other, indicating multiple episodes of ridge formation either by volcanic or tectonic activity within the ice. Also visible in the image are numerous isolated mountains or 'massifs'. The highest of these, located in the upper right corner and lower center of the mosaic, are approximately 500 meters (1,640 feet) high. Irregularly shaped areas where the ice surface appears to be lower than the surrounding plains (e.g., in the left-center and lower left corner of the mosaic) may be related to the 'chaos' areas of iceberg-like features seen in earlier SSI images of Europa.

    The mosaic, centered at 35.4 degrees north latitude and 86.8 degrees west longitude, covers an area of 108 kilometers by 90 kilometers (66 miles by 55 miles). The smallest distinguishable features in the image are about 68 meters (223 feet) across. These images were obtained on November 6, 1997, when the Galileo spacecraft was approximately 3,250 kilometers (1,983 miles) from Europa.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of California Institute of Technology.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  16. Gentian mosaic virus: A New Species in the Genus Fabavirus.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y O; Kobayashi, A; Hagiwara, K; Uga, H; Mikoshiba, Y; Naito, T; Honda, Y; Omura, T

    2005-02-01

    ABSTRACT A viral isolate, designated N-1 and obtained from a gentian (Gentiana scabra) plant that exhibited mosaic symptoms, was transmitted mechanically to nine plant species in six families. These plants are known as hosts of fabaviruses. The N-1 isolate was composed of isometric particles 30 nm in diameter and included two RNA molecules of approximately 6.0 and 3.6 kb in length, as estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The RNAs were encapsidated separately in two of the three types of particle. Each particle contained two distinct proteins with Mr values of 39.3 x 10(3) and 26.6 x 10(3), as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of complete nucleotide sequences of the RNAs suggested that each encoded a single large polyprotein, in which putative functional proteins were arranged in a manner similar to those in Broad bean wilt virus 1 (BBWV-1) and Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV-2), which are members of the genus Fabavirus (family Comoviridae). Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the proteins indicated that those of isolate N-1 shared 38 to 66% identity with those of BBWV-1 and BBWV-2 but only 16 to 42% identity with those of a comovirus, Cowpea mosaic virus. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the amino acid sequences of RNA polymerase, placed isolate N-1 in a separate lineage from BBWV-1 and BBWV-2. In indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, isolate N-1 exhibited distant serological relationship to BBWV-1, BBWV-2, and Lamium mild mosaic virus, another fabavirus. Our results suggest that N-1 represents a new species of Fabavirus. We propose the name Gentian mosaic virus for this new species.

  17. An indicator of forest dynamics using a shifting landscape mosaic

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Timothy G. Wade

    2009-01-01

    The composition of a landscape is a fundamental indicator in land-cover pattern assessments. The objective of this paper was to evaluate a landscape composition indicator called ‘landscape mosaic’ as a framework for interpreting land-cover dynamics over a 9-year period in a 360,000 km2 study area in the southern United States. The indicator...

  18. Concurrent insulinoma with mosaic Turner syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoyun; Yang, Lijuan; Li, Jie; Mu, Yiming

    2015-03-01

    Turner syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality in which the majority of patients have a 45XO karyotype, while a small number have a 45XO/47XXX karyotype. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia has been previously reported in patients with Turner syndrome. Although insulinomas are the most common type of functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and have been reported in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasias, the tumors have not been reported in patients with mosaic Turner syndrome. The present study reports the first case of an insulinoma in a patient with 45XO/47XXX mosaic Turner syndrome. The patient suffered from recurrent hypoglycemia, which was relieved following ingestion of glucose or food. A 5-h glucose tolerance test was performed and the levels of glucose, C-Peptide and insulin were detected. In addition, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound scanning were performed to evaluate the possibility of an insulinoma. Pathological examination and karyotyping were performed on a surgical specimen and a whole blood sample, respectively. The patient was found to suffer from premature ovarian failure, and a physical examination was consistent with a diagnosis of Turner syndrome. An ultrasound scan demonstrated streak ovaries and the patient was found to have a 45XO/47XXX karyotype. Furthermore, a lesion was detected in the pancreas following CT scanning, which was identified as an insulinoma following surgical removal and histological examination. In conclusion, the present study reports the first case of an insulinoma in a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome. Since mosaic Turner syndrome and insulinoma are rare diseases, an association may exist that has not been previously identified.

  19. Breadth of cellular and humoral immune responses elicited in rhesus monkeys by multi-valent mosaic and consensus immunogens.

    PubMed

    Santra, Sampa; Muldoon, Mark; Watson, Sydeaka; Buzby, Adam; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Carlson, Kevin R; Mach, Linh; Kong, Wing-Pui; McKee, Krisha; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Rao, Srinivas S; Mascola, John R; Nabel, Gary J; Korber, Bette T; Letvin, Norman L

    2012-07-05

    To create an HIV-1 vaccine that generates sufficient breadth of immune recognition to protect against the genetically diverse forms of the circulating virus, we have been exploring vaccines based on consensus and mosaic protein designs. Increasing the valency of a mosaic immunogen cocktail increases epitope coverage but with diminishing returns, as increasingly rare epitopes are incorporated into the mosaic proteins. In this study we compared the immunogenicity of 2-valent and 3-valent HIV-1 envelope mosaic immunogens in rhesus monkeys. Immunizations with the 3-valent mosaic immunogens resulted in a modest increase in the breadth of vaccine-elicited T lymphocyte responses compared to the 2-valent mosaic immunogens. However, the 3-valent mosaic immunogens elicited significantly higher neutralizing responses to Tier 1 viruses than the 2-valent mosaic immunogens. These findings underscore the potential utility of polyvalent mosaic immunogens for eliciting both cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Breadth of cellular and humoral immune responses elicited in rhesus monkeys by multi-valent mosaic and consensus immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Santra, Sampa; Muldoon, Mark; Watson, Sydeaka; Buzby, Adam; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Carlson, Kevin R.; Mach, Linh; Kong, Wing-Pui; McKee, Krisha; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Rao, Srinivas S.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Korber, Bette T.; Letvin, Norman L.

    2013-01-01

    To create an HIV-1 vaccine that generates sufficient breadth of immune recognition to protect against the genetically diverse forms of the circulating virus, we have been exploring vaccines based on consensus and mosaic protein designs. Increasing the valency of a mosaic immunogen cocktail increases epitope coverage but with diminishing returns, as increasingly rare epitopes are incorporated into the mosaic proteins. In this study we compared the immunogenicity of 2-valent and 3-valent HIV-1 envelope mosaic immunogens in rhesus monkeys. Immunizations with the 3-valent mosaic immunogens resulted in a modest increase in the breadth of vaccine-elicited T lymphocyte responses compared to the 2-valent mosaic immunogens. However, the 3-valent mosaic immunogens elicited significantly higher neutralizing responses to Tier 1 viruses than the 2-valent mosaic immunogens. These findings underscore the potential utility of polyvalent mosaic immunogens for eliciting both cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-1. PMID:22521913

  1. Sonograph mosaic of U. S. west coast Exclusive Economic Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Karl, H.A.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-07-01

    The Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic (GLORIA) side-scanning sonar system was used to obtain data that were compiled as an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor from the edge of the continental shelf to 200 nmi offshore within the US Exclusive Economic Zone off California, Oregon, and Washington. The mosaic clearly displays the large-scale geomorphic and sedimentologic features of the sea floor, including spreading centers, seamounts, fracture zones, sediment fans, continental-slope canyons, and abyssal-plain channels. Hundreds of seamounts (some previously uncharted) dot the deep sea floor, and many have large summit craters and attendant volcanic flows. The major Nitinat, Astoria, Delgada, and Monterey sediment fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes that extend from morphologically diverse canyons on the adjacent continental slope. Areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the complexes. Some channels on the abyssal plain are straight whereas others are highly sinuous, suggesting that various channel-forming processes occur on the sea floor. The contrast between the transform tectonic regime south of Cape Mendocino and the convergent tectonic regime to the north is particularly apparent on the mosaic. The linear basement ridges that were generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers and were later moved apart by sea-floor spreading are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones that accommodate horizontal slip between adjacent lithospheric plates.

  2. Mosaic pattern of sucrase isomaltase deficiency in two brothers.

    PubMed

    Reinshagen, Konrad; Keller, Klaus M; Haase, Bianca; Leeb, Tosso; Naim, Hassan Y; Zimmer, Klaus P

    2008-01-01

    The pathophysiology of mucosal changes observed in infants with chronic protracted diarrhea is poorly understood. We report on two brothers suffering from a special form of sucrase isomaltase (SI) deficiency. The children presented with weight loss and dyspepsia after sucrose exposition. We performed an H respiration test, which showed a pathologic result in the younger brother. Analysis of the brush border enzyme activities showed low expression of lactase and SI. Immunoelectron microscopy of duodenal biopsies showed an isolated SI deficiency in a mosaic pattern [e.g., 42% (14%) crypt enterocytes and 64% (59%) villus enterocytes with decreased amounts of SI on microvilli], whereas lactase and aminopeptidase n (ApN) were present at the apical membrane of all cells in a normal range. The SI mosaic pattern of these patients shows that the enterocytes contain low amounts of SI on the apical membrane but express normal quantities of other disaccharidases. These findings suggest the existence of different clonal expressions or specific (posttranslational) mechanisms of postGolgi transportation for individual brush border enzymes. It remains unresolved whether the mosaic distribution is part of a normal maturation process or caused by a lack of an overall control mechanism in the expression of brush border hydrolases.

  3. Differential interaction between cassava mosaic geminiviruses and geminivirus satellites.

    PubMed

    Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Fauquet, Claude M

    2010-07-01

    Geminiviruses are often associated with subviral agents called DNA satellites that require proteins encoded by the helper virus for their replication, movement and encapsidation. Hitherto, most of the single-stranded DNA satellites reported to be associated with members of the family Geminiviridae have been associated with monopartite begomoviruses. Cassava mosaic disease is known to be caused by viruses belonging to nine different begomovirus species in the African continent and the Indian subcontinent. In addition to these species, several strains have been recognized that exhibit contrasting phenotypes and infection dynamics. It is established that Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus can trans-replicate betasatellites and can cross host barriers. To extend these studies further, we carried out an exhaustive investigation of the ability of geminiviruses, selected to represent all cassava-infecting geminivirus species, to trans-replicate betasatellites (DNA-beta) and to interact with alphasatellites (nanovirus-like components; previously called DNA-1). Each of the cassava-infecting geminiviruses showed a contrasting and differential interaction with the DNA satellites, not only in the capacity to interact with these molecules but also in the modulation of symptom phenotypes by the satellites. These observations could be extrapolated to field situations in order to hypothesize about the possibility of acquisition of such DNA satellites currently associated with other begomoviruses. These results call for more detailed analyses of these subviral components and an investigation of their possible interaction with the cassava mosaic disease complex.

  4. Germline mosaicism in Rett syndrome identified by prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mari, F; Caselli, R; Russo, S; Cogliati, F; Ariani, F; Longo, I; Bruttini, M; Meloni, I; Pescucci, C; Schurfeld, K; Toti, P; Tassini, M; Larizza, L; Hayek, G; Zappella, M; Renieri, A

    2005-03-01

    Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental dominant disorder that affects almost exclusively girls. The vast majority of cases are sporadic and are caused by de novo mutations in the MECP2 gene, located in Xq28. Only few familial cases have been reported: in four cases, the mother was an asymptomatic carrier and in other four cases, the germline mosaicism in the mother was postulated. Owing to the above reported cases of germline mosaicism, we decided to offer prenatal diagnosis to all expectant mothers with a Rett daughter despite the absence of the causative mutation in parents' blood. We describe here the outcome of the first nine cases of prenatal diagnosis followed by our center. In eight cases, the fetus did not carry the mutation. In one case, the female fetus did carry the same mutation of the affected sister. The couple decided to interrupt the pregnancy and to devolve fetal tissues for research purposes. Our results indicate that prenatal diagnosis should be proposed to all couples with a Rett daughter, even when the mutation is apparently de novo. Moreover, one positive prenatal test among the first nine cases indicates that germline mosaicism may be seriously considered for the assessment of recurrence risk during genetic counseling.

  5. Model Development and Testing for THEMIS Controlled Mars Mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archinal, B. A.; Sides, S.; Weller, L.; Cushing, G.; Titus, T.; Kirk, R. L.; Soderblom, L. A.; Duxbury, T. C.

    2005-01-01

    As part of our work [1] to develop techniques and procedures to create regional and eventually global THEMIS mosaics of Mars, we are developing algorithms and software to photogrammetrically control THEMIS IR line scanner camera images. We have found from comparison of a limited number of images to MOLA digital image models (DIMs) [2] that the a priori geometry information (i.e. SPICE [3]) for THEMIS images generally allows their relative positions to be specified at the several pixel level (e.g. approx.5 to 13 pixels). However a need for controlled solutions to improve this geometry to the sub-pixel level still exists. Only with such solutions can seamless mosaics be obtained and likely distortion from spacecraft motion during image collection removed at such levels. Past experience has shown clearly that such mosaics are in heavy demand by users for operational and scientific use, and that they are needed over large areas or globally (as opposed to being available only on a limited basis via labor intensive custom mapping projects). Uses include spacecraft navigation, landing site planning and mapping, registration of multiple data types and image sets, registration of multispectral images, registration of images with topographic information, recovery of thermal properties, change detection searches, etc.

  6. E4 True and False Color Hot Spot Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-06

    True and false color views of Jupiter from NASA's Galileo spacecraft show an equatorial "hotspot" on Jupiter. These images cover an area 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles). The top mosaic combines the violet and near infrared continuum filter images to create an image similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundances of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The bottom mosaic uses Galileo's three near-infrared wavelengths displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Bluish clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are low, and white clouds are high and thick. The dark blue hotspot in the center is a hole in the deep cloud with an overlying thin haze. The light blue region to the left is covered by a very high haze layer. The multicolored region to the right has overlapping cloud layers of different heights. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter. North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes 1 to 10 degrees and is centered at longitude 336 degrees west. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on December 17, 1996, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers (about 930,000 miles) by the Solid State Imaging camera system aboard Galileo. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00602

  7. Spatial geographic mosaic in an aquatic predator-prey network.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin

    2011-01-01

    The geographic mosaic theory of coevolution predicts 1) spatial variation in predatory structures as well as prey defensive traits, and 2) trait matching in some areas and trait mismatching in others mediated by gene flow. We examined gene flow and documented spatial variation in crushing resistance in the freshwater snails Mexipyrgus churinceanus, Mexithauma quadripaludium, Nymphophilus minckleyi, and its relationship to the relative frequency of the crushing morphotype in the trophically polymorphic fish Herichthys minckleyi. Crushing resistance and the frequency of the crushing morphotype did show spatial variation among 11 naturally replicated communities in the Cuatro Ciénegas valley in Mexico where these species are all endemic. The variation in crushing resistance among populations was not explained by geographic proximity or by genetic similarity in any species. We detected clear phylogeographic patterns and limited gene flow for the snails but not for the fish. Gene flow among snail populations in Cuatro Ciénegas could explain the mosaic of local divergence in shell strength and be preventing the fixation of the crushing morphotype in Herichthys minckleyi. Finally, consistent with trait matching across the mosaic, the frequency of the fish morphotype was negatively correlated with shell crushing resistance likely reflecting the relative disadvantage of the crushing morphotype in communities where the snails exhibit relatively high crushing resistance.

  8. Spatial Geographic Mosaic in an Aquatic Predator-Prey Network

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Johnson, Steven G.; Hulsey, C. Darrin

    2011-01-01

    The geographic mosaic theory of coevolution predicts 1) spatial variation in predatory structures as well as prey defensive traits, and 2) trait matching in some areas and trait mismatching in others mediated by gene flow. We examined gene flow and documented spatial variation in crushing resistance in the freshwater snails Mexipyrgus churinceanus, Mexithauma quadripaludium, Nymphophilus minckleyi, and its relationship to the relative frequency of the crushing morphotype in the trophically polymorphic fish Herichthys minckleyi. Crushing resistance and the frequency of the crushing morphotype did show spatial variation among 11 naturally replicated communities in the Cuatro Ciénegas valley in Mexico where these species are all endemic. The variation in crushing resistance among populations was not explained by geographic proximity or by genetic similarity in any species. We detected clear phylogeographic patterns and limited gene flow for the snails but not for the fish. Gene flow among snail populations in Cuatro Ciénegas could explain the mosaic of local divergence in shell strength and be preventing the fixation of the crushing morphotype in Herichthys minckleyi. Finally, consistent with trait matching across the mosaic, the frequency of the fish morphotype was negatively correlated with shell crushing resistance likely reflecting the relative disadvantage of the crushing morphotype in communities where the snails exhibit relatively high crushing resistance. PMID:21799865

  9. The geographic selection mosaic for squirrels, crossbills and Aleppo pine.

    PubMed

    Mezquida, E T; Benkman, C W

    2005-03-01

    The interactions between many species are structured in a geographic mosaic of populations among which selection is divergent. Here we tested the hypothesis that such a geographic selection mosaic arises for common crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) feeding on seeds in the cones of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) because of geographic variation in the occurrence of European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). On the Iberian Peninsula, Sciurus exerted directional selection favouring larger cones with larger scales, which has caused cones there to be larger than in the Balearic Islands where Sciurus are absent. Moreover, cones on the Iberian Peninsula are so large that they are apparently little used by the relatively small-billed crossbills on the Peninsula; selection by Sciurus seems to have made the cones so difficult to feed on that crossbills rely mostly on the seeds of other conifers. Where crossbills are present but Sciurus are absent (Mallorca Island), cones were smaller as a result of relaxation of selection by Sciurus. However, cones on Mallorca had proportionally thicker scales in comparison to where both Sciurus and crossbills are absent (Ibiza Island), presumably as an adaptation against crossbill predation. Here crossbills specialize on Aleppo pine, have relatively large bills and have apparently coevolved in an arms race with Aleppo pine. These results suggest that Sciurus has influenced both the geographic selection mosaics for crossbills and conifers and the adaptive radiation of crossbills in Eurasia much like Tamiasciurus has done in the North America.

  10. Model Development and Testing for THEMIS Controlled Mars Mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archinal, B. A.; Sides, S.; Weller, L.; Cushing, G.; Titus, T.; Kirk, R. L.; Soderblom, L. A.; Duxbury, T. C.

    2005-01-01

    As part of our work [1] to develop techniques and procedures to create regional and eventually global THEMIS mosaics of Mars, we are developing algorithms and software to photogrammetrically control THEMIS IR line scanner camera images. We have found from comparison of a limited number of images to MOLA digital image models (DIMs) [2] that the a priori geometry information (i.e. SPICE [3]) for THEMIS images generally allows their relative positions to be specified at the several pixel level (e.g. approx.5 to 13 pixels). However a need for controlled solutions to improve this geometry to the sub-pixel level still exists. Only with such solutions can seamless mosaics be obtained and likely distortion from spacecraft motion during image collection removed at such levels. Past experience has shown clearly that such mosaics are in heavy demand by users for operational and scientific use, and that they are needed over large areas or globally (as opposed to being available only on a limited basis via labor intensive custom mapping projects). Uses include spacecraft navigation, landing site planning and mapping, registration of multiple data types and image sets, registration of multispectral images, registration of images with topographic information, recovery of thermal properties, change detection searches, etc.

  11. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nicholas P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit paths by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabricated parts were hybridized using a flip-chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  12. Highest-resolution Europa Image & Mosaic from Galileo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-08

    This mosaic of images includes the most detailed view of the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa obtained by NASA's Galileo mission. The topmost footprint is the highest resolution image taken by Galileo at Europa. It was obtained at an original image scale of 19 feet (6 meters) per pixel. The other seven images in this observation were obtained at a resolution of 38 feet (12 meters) per pixel, thus the mosaic, including the top image, has been projected at the higher image scale. The top image is also provided at its original resolution, as a separate image file. It includes a vertical black line that resulted from missing data that was not transmitted by Galileo. This is the highest resolution view of Europa available until a future mission visits the icy moon. The right side of the image was previously published as PIA01180. Although this data has been publicly available in NASA's Planetary Data System archive for many years, NASA scientists have not previously combined these images into a mosaic for public release. This observation was taken with the sun relatively high in the sky, so most of the brightness variations visible here are due to color differences in the surface material rather than shadows. Bright ridge tops are paired with darker valleys, perhaps due to a process in which small temperature variations allow bright frost to accumulate in slightly colder, higher-elevation locations. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21431

  13. 45,X mosaicism with Y chromosome presenting female phenotype.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shinji; Watanabe, Masato; Yoshino, Kaoru

    2015-07-01

    Prophylactic gonadectomy is recommended in patients with 45,X mosaicism with the Y chromosome and presenting a female phenotype because of the risk of gonadoblastoma development. The characteristics of this disorder remain unclear because of its low incidence. We report 4 patients with 45,X mosaicism with the Y chromosome and presenting complete female external genitalia. We analyzed the characteristics and the macroscopic and histopathological findings of their gonads and performed hormonal assays of the 4 patients. All 4 patients were referred to us with short stature as the chief complaint. Chromosomal studies revealed 45,X/47,XYY in 1, and the others had a 45,X/46,XY karyotype. Three patients (6 gonads) underwent laparoscopic bilateral gonadectomy. The macroscopic appearance of gonads of 1 patient was similar to an ovary, whereas gonads of the rest appeared as streak gonads. The histopathological findings revealed bilateral gonadoblastoma in 1 patient, although the macroscopic findings did not show tumor characteristics. It is impossible to distinguish the histopathological findings of gonads according to their macroscopic appearance among patients with 45,X mosaicism with the Y chromosome and presenting a female phenotype.

  14. Somatic mosaicism in trichorhinophalangeal syndrome: a lesson for genetic counseling

    PubMed Central

    Corsini, Carole; Gencik, Martin; Willems, Marjolaine; Decker, Eva; Sanchez, Elodie; Puechberty, Jacques; Schneider, Anouck; Girard, Manon; Edery, Patrick; Bretonnes, Patricia; Cottalorda, Jérôme; Lefort, Geneviève; Jeandel, Claire; Sarda, Pierre; Genevieve, David

    2014-01-01

    Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I (TRPSI) is a genetic disorder characterized by sparse hair, a bulbous nasal tip, short stature with severe generalized shortening of all phalanges, metacarpal and metatarsal bones and cone-shaped epiphyses. This syndrome is caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the TRPS1 gene. However, because recurrence has been observed in siblings from healthy parents, an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance has also been suggested. We report on a male patient, born to healthy unrelated parents, with TRPSI. Using Sanger sequencing, we identified a mutation in the TRPS1 gene (c.2735 G>A, P.Cys912Tyr). The same mutation was detected as a 10% mosaic mutation by Pyrosequencing in blood-derived DNA from his healthy mother. To our knowledge, this is the first time that somatic mosaicism has been identified in TRPSI. This data combined with the observations of recurrences in siblings from healthy parents modifies the genetic counseling for TRPSI, which should discuss a 5–10 percent recurrence risk for healthy parents with an affected child because of the possibility of germinal mosaicism. PMID:23572024

  15. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nick P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit patbs by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabric.ted parts were hybridized using a Suss FCI50 flip chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  16. Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Kevin B; Yeager, Meredith; Zhou, Weiyin; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Zhaoming; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Hutchinson, Amy; Deng, Xiang; Liu, Chenwei; Horner, Marie-Josephe; Cullen, Michael; Epstein, Caroline G; Burdett, Laurie; Dean, Michael C; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Sampson, Joshua; Chung, Charles C; Kovaks, Joseph; Gapstur, Susan M; Stevens, Victoria L; Teras, Lauren T; Gaudet, Mia M; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Taylor, Philip R; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Goldstein, Alisa M; Hu, Nan; Yu, Kai; Yuan, Jian-Min; Liao, Linda; Ding, Ti; Qiao, You-Lin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Koh, Woon-Puay; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Fan, Jin-Hu; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harris, Curtis C; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret R; Wiencke, John K; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Zanetti, Krista A; Ziegler, Regina G; Figueroa, Jonine D; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Malats, Nuria; Marenne, Gaelle; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Johnson, Alison; Landi, Maria Teresa; Goldin, Lynn; Consonni, Dario; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Rotunno, Melissa; Rajaraman, Preetha; Andersson, Ulrika; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Berg, Christine D; Buring, Julie E; Butler, Mary A; Carreon, Tania; Feychting, Maria; Ahlbom, Anders; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartge, Patricia; Henriksson, Roger; Inskip, Peter D; Johansen, Christoffer; Landgren, Annelie; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Michaud, Dominique S; Melin, Beatrice S; Peters, Ulrike; Ruder, Avima M; Sesso, Howard D; Severi, Gianluca; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Silverman, Debra T; Kogevinas, Manolis; Gonzalez, Juan R; Villa, Olaya; Li, Donghui; Duell, Eric J; Risch, Harvey A; Olson, Sara H; Kooperberg, Charles; Wolpin, Brian M; Jiao, Li; Hassan, Manal; Wheeler, William; Arslan, Alan A; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Fuchs, Charles S; Gallinger, Steven; Gross, Myron D; Holly, Elizabeth A; Klein, Alison P; LaCroix, Andrea; Mandelson, Margaret T; Petersen, Gloria; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bracci, Paige M; Canzian, Federico; Chang, Kenneth; Cotterchio, Michelle; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goggins, Michael; Bolton, Judith A Hoffman; Jenab, Mazda; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C; McWilliams, Robert R; Mendelsohn, Julie B; Rabe, Kari G; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Elena, Joanne W; Yu, Herbert; Amundadottir, Laufey; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Kraft, Peter; Schumacher, Fredrick; Stram, Daniel; Savage, Sharon A; Mirabello, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L; Wunder, Jay S; García, Ana Patiño; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Barkauskas, Donald A; Gorlick, Richard G; Purdue, Mark; Chow, Wong-Ho; Moore, Lee E; Schwartz, Kendra L; Davis, Faith G; Hsing, Ann W; Berndt, Sonja I; Black, Amanda; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; McGlynn, Katherine A; Cook, Michael B; Graubard, Barry I; Kratz, Christian P; Greene, Mark H; Erickson, Ralph L; Hunter, David J; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N; Real, Francisco X; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Caporaso, Neil E; Tucker, Margaret; Rothman, Nathaniel; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Chanock, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls drawn from 13 genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones from DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. Mosaic chromosomal abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of size >2 Mb were observed in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%) with abnormal cell proportions between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, the frequency increased with age; 0.23% under 50 and 1.91% between 75 and 79 (p=4.8×10−8). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid-tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals, OR=1.25, p=0.016), with a stronger association for cases who had DNA collected prior to diagnosis or treatment (OR=1.45, p=0.0005). Detectable clonal mosaicism was common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least one year prior to diagnosis of leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR=35.4, p=3.8×10−11). These findings underscore the importance of the role and time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and other late-onset diseases. PMID:22561519

  17. Cassini Near-Infrared "Noodle" Mosaic of Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-24

    This mosaic of 30 images was captured by NASA's Cassini spacecraft on June 29, 2017, as it raced toward the gap between Saturn and its rings during one of 22 close passes over Saturn that comprise the mission's final phase, called the Grand Finale. For the first frame of the mosaic, Cassini's camera was pointed toward a location at approximately 80 degrees north latitude, as the spacecraft was flying 16,000 miles (26,000 kilometers) above the top of the clouds at 45 degrees north latitude. When the last frame was captured, the orbiter was 8,000 miles (13,000 kilometers) above 30 degrees north latitude and looking straight down at the planet. The images in this sequence were captured in near-infrared wavelengths using the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera. The near-infrared channel centered at 752 nanometers was chosen for this imaging sequence because it is most sensitive to Saturn's cloud-top altitudes. The original versions of these images, as sent by the spacecraft, have a size of 512 by 512 pixels. The small image size was chosen in order to allow the camera to take images quickly as Cassini sped over Saturn. These images of the planet's curved surface were projected onto a flat plane before being combined into a mosaic. Each image was mapped in stereographic projection centered at 55 degrees north latitude. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21622

  18. Chromosomal mosaicism of extraembryonic cells detected by prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotukhina, T.V.; Shilova, N.V.

    1995-09-01

    Data on detection of chromosomal mosaicism in amniotic cells and chorionic villi obtained by prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis are presented. The frequency of chromosomal mosaicism in preparations of amniotic fluid cell culture was 2.6% (6 out of 226), and that in {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} villus preparations was 1.6% (13 out of 774). The necessity to perform an additional analysis of other fetal cells or neonatal lymphocytes to specify the diagnosis was shown. The analysis of the outcome of pregnancies during which chromosomal mosaicism in the extraembryonic cells was detected indicates that these women form a high-risk group, both genetically and obstetrically; in only 8 out of 19 cases did pregnancies end in normal deliveries at term; in three cases, spontaneous abortions occurred at 16-31 weeks of gestation; in three cases, the pregnancies were terminated due to fetal chromosomal aberrations in nonmosaic form; the outcome of pregnancy in five cases was preterm delivery of an underweight newborn. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  19. PCDH19-related epilepsy in two mosaic male patients.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Alessandra; Trivisano, Marina; Cusmai, Raffaella; De Palma, Luca; Fusco, Lucia; Compagnucci, Claudia; Bertini, Enrico; Vigevano, Federico; Specchio, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19 gene mutations have been recently associated with an epileptic syndrome characterized by focal and generalized seizures. The PCDH19 gene (Xq22.1) has an unusual X-linked inheritance with a selective involvement for female subjects. A cellular interference mechanism has been hypothesized and male patients can manifest epilepsy only in the case of a mosaicism. So far about 100 female patients, and only one symptomatic male have been described. Using targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) approach we found a PCDH19 point mutation in two male patients with a clinical picture suggestive of PCDH19-related epilepsy. The system allowed us to verify that the two c.1352 C>T; p.(Pro451Leu) and c.918C>G; p.(Tyr306*) variants occurred in mosaic status. Mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Up to now, the traditional molecular screening for PCDH19-related epilepsy has been targeted to all females with early onset epilepsy with or without cognitive impairment. Male patients were generally excluded. We describe for the first time two mosaic PCDH19 point mutations in two male patients with a clinical picture suggestive of PCDH19-related epilepsy. This finding opens new opportunities for the molecular diagnoses in patients with a peculiar type of epilepsy that remains undiagnosed in male patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Large-field high-resolution mosaic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Sliepen, Guus; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sütterlin, Peter; Lin, Yong; Martin, Sara F.; Panasenco, Olga; Romashets, Eugene P.

    2013-08-01

    Movies with fields-of-view larger than normal, for high-resolution telescopes, will give a better understanding of processes on the Sun such as filament and active region developments and their possible interactions. New active regions can serve as an igniter of the eruption of a nearby filament. A method to create a large field-of-view is to join several fields-of-view into a mosaic. Fields are imaged quickly, one after another, using fast telescope-pointing. Such a pointing cycle has been automated at the Dutch open telescope (DOT), a high-resolution solar telescope located on the Canary Island La Palma. The number and positions of the subfields are calculated automatically and represented by an array of bright points in the guider image which indicates the subfield centers inside the drawn rectangle of the total field on the computer screen with the whole-sun image. Automatic production of flats is also programmed. For the first time, mosaic movies were programmed from stored information on automated telescope motions. The mosaic movies show larger regions of the solar disk in high resolution and fill a gap between available whole-sun images with limited spatial resolution of synoptic telescopes including space instruments and small-field high-cadence movies of high-resolution solar telescopes.

  1. LANDSAT M. S. S. IMAGE MOSAIC OF TUNISIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boswell-Thomas, J. C.; ,

    1984-01-01

    The Landsat mosaic of Tunisia funded by USAID for the Remote Sensing Laboratory, Soils Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Tunisia, was completed by the USGS in September 1983. It is a mixed mosaic associating digital corrections and enhancements to manual mosaicking and corresponding to the Tunisian request for high resolution and the limited available funds. The scenes were processed by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, resampling the data geodesically corrected to fit the Universal Transverse Mercator projection using control points from topographic maps at 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scales available in the U. S. The mosaicking was done in the Eastern Mapping Center under the supervision of the Graphic Arts System Section. The three black and white mosaics were made at the 1:1,000,000 scale and various products generated. They included color film positives at 1:2,000,000 and 1:4,000,000 scales reproducible in the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Tunis and corresponding color prints as well as tricolor prints at various scales from 1:500,000 to 1:2,000,000.

  2. Strip mosaicing confocal microscopy for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeytunge, Sanjee; Li, Yongbiao; Larson, Bjorg; Peterson, Gary; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-03-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy is a developing technology platform for imaging tumor margins directly in fresh tissue, without the processing that is required for conventional pathology. Previously, basal cell carcinoma margins were detected by mosaicing of confocal images of 12 x 12 mm2 of excised tissue from Mohs surgery. This mosaicing took 9 minutes. Recently we reported the initial feasibility of a faster approach called "strip mosaicing" on 10 x 10 mm2 of tissue that was demonstrated in 3 minutes. In this paper we report further advances in instrumentation and software. Rapid mosaicing of confocal images on large areas of fresh tissue potentially offers a means to perform pathology at the bedside. Thus, strip mosaicing confocal microscopy may serve as an adjunct to pathology for imaging tumor margins to guide surgery.

  3. [Somatic mosaicism of expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA)].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, F; Ito, Y; Sobue, G

    1999-04-01

    The CAG repeat in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is relatively stable in mitotic and meiotic processes as compared with other CAG repeat diseases. Previous reports indicate that SBMA does not manifest somatic mosaicism. However, detailed analysis in various tissues from 20 SBMA including 4 autopsied patients revealed the presence of the tissue-specific pattern of mosaicism. The prominent somatic mosaicism was observed in the cardiac and skeletal muscles, which are predominantly composed of postmitotic cells, and in the skin, prostate, and testis. The central nervous system (CNS) tissues, liver, and spleen showed smallest mosaicism. Such tissue-specific pattern of somatic mosaicism in SBMA is not explained by cell composition with different cell turnover rates. Other cell specific factors are likely more important for the somatic mosaicism in SBMA.

  4. Chromosomal Mosaicism in Human Feto-Placental Development: Implications for Prenatal Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Grati, Francesca Romana

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal mosaicism is one of the primary interpretative issues in prenatal diagnosis. In this review, the mechanisms underlying feto-placental chromosomal mosaicism are presented. Based on the substantial retrospective diagnostic experience with chorionic villi samples (CVS) of a prenatal diagnosis laboratory the following items are discussed: (i) The frequency of the different types of mosaicism (confined placental, CPM, and true fetal mosaicisms, TFM); (ii) The risk of fetal confirmation after the detection of a mosaic in CVS stratified by chromosome abnormality and placental tissue involvement; (iii) The frequency of uniparental disomy for imprinted chromosomes associated with CPM; (iv) The incidence of false-positive and false-negative results in CVS samples analyzed by only (semi-)direct preparation or long term culture; and (v) The implications of the presence of a feto-placental mosaicism for microarray analysis of CVS and non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS). PMID:26237479

  5. Trisomy 18 mosaicism in a 15-year-old boy with normal intelligence and short stature

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    We report a 15-year-old boy with mosaicism for trisomy 18 and normal intelligence. Approximately 50% of his leukocytes are trisomic. This patient represents the sixth report of an individual with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence. Those individuals with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence need to be advised of increased risks for offspring with chromosome abnormalities and offered the option of prenatal diagnosis for cytogenetic anomalies. 6 refs.

  6. Self-standing quasi-mosaic crystals for focusing hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo; Bellucci, Valerio; Neri, Ilaria; Frontera, Filippo; Jentschel, Michael

    2013-05-01

    A quasi mosaic bent crystal for high-resolution diffraction of X and γ rays has been realized. A net curvature was imprinted to the crystal thanks to a series of superficial grooves to keep the curvature without external devices. The crystal highlights very high diffraction efficiency due to quasi mosaic curvature. Quasi mosaic crystals of this kind are proposed for the realization of a high-resolution focusing Laue lens for hard X-rays.

  7. Single- and double-stranded viral RNAs in plants infected with the potexviruses papaya mosaic virus and foxtail mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Mackie, G A; Johnston, R; Bancroft, J B

    1988-01-01

    Three classes of viral RNA were recovered from polyribosomes purified from papaya leaves infected with papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and from barley leaves infected with foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV): full-length viral RNAs [6.8 and 6.2 kilobases (kb), respectively]; less abundant intermediate subgenomic RNAs (2.2 and 1.9 kb), and abundant, small subgenomic RNAs (1 and 0.9 kb). Small amounts of the PapMV-specified 1.0-kb subgenomic RNA were encapsidated, whereas no encapsidated subgenomic RNAs could be found in preparations of FoMV. Immunoprecipitation of the products of in vitro translation of the small subgenomic RNA of both viruses showed that it codes for the corresponding viral coat protein. FoMV genomic RNA isolated from polyribosomes also directed the efficient synthesis of a 37- to 38-kilodalton protein which was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum raised against the coat protein. We presume this product to be a readthrough protein initiated to the 5' side of and in the same reading frame as the coat protein-coding sequences in FoMV RNA. The predominant double-stranded viral-specified RNAs in tissues infected with PapMV, FoMV, and clover yellow mosaic virus were genome sized (6.8, 6.2, and 7.0 kb pairs, respectively). If double-stranded RNAs corresponding to coat protein subgenomic RNAs exist, they must be present in much lower relative abundances.

  8. Rhizobacteria-mediated resistance against the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of bean common mosaic virus in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Udaya Shankar, Arakere Chunchegowda; Chandra Nayaka, Siddaiah; Niranjan-Raj, Sathyanarayana; Bhuvanendra Kumar, Hanumanthaiah; Reddy, Munagala S; Niranjana, Siddapura Ramachandrappa; Prakash, Harishchandra Sripathy

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of seven Bacillus-species plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) seed treatments on the induction of disease resistance in cowpea against mosaic disease caused by the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). Initially, although all PGPR strains recorded significant enhancement of seed germination and seedling vigour, GBO3 and T4 strains were very promising. In general, all strains gave reduced BCMV incidence compared with the non-bacterised control, both under screen-house and under field conditions. Cowpea seeds treated with Bacillus pumilus (T4) and Bacillus subtilis (GBO3) strains offered protection of 42 and 41% against BCMV under screen-house conditions. Under field conditions, strain GBO3 offered 34% protection against BCMV. The protection offered by PGPR strains against BCMV was evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with lowest immunoreactive values recorded in cowpea seeds treated with strains GBO3 and T4 in comparison with the non-bacterised control. In addition, it was observed that strain combination worked better in inducing resistance than individual strains. Cowpea seeds treated with a combination of strains GBO3 + T4 registered the highest protection against BCMV. PGPR strains were effective in protecting cowpea plants against BCMV under both screen-house and field conditions by inducing resistance against the virus. Thus, it is proposed that PGPR strains, particularly GBO3, could be potential inducers against BCMV and growth enhancers in cowpea. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Mixed mosaic membranes prepared by layer-by-layer assembly for ionic separations.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Sahadevan; Yan, Yu; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Gao, Haifeng; Phillip, William A

    2014-12-23

    Charge mosaic membranes, which possess distinct cationic and anionic domains that traverse the membrane thickness, are capable of selectively separating dissolved salts from similarly sized neutral solutes. Here, the generation of charge mosaic membranes using facile layer-by-layer assembly methodologies is reported. Polymeric nanotubes with pore walls lined by positively charged polyethylenimine moieties or negatively charged poly(styrenesulfonate) moieties were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly using track-etched membranes as sacrificial templates. Subsequently, both types of nanotubes were deposited on a porous support in order to produce mixed mosaic membranes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that the facile deposition techniques implemented result in nanotubes that are vertically aligned without overlap between adjacent elements. Furthermore, the nanotubes span the thickness of the mixed mosaic membranes. The effects of this unique nanostructure are reflected in the transport characteristics of the mixed mosaic membranes. The hydraulic permeability of the mixed mosaic membranes in piezodialysis operations was 8 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1). Importantly, solute rejection experiments demonstrate that the mixed mosaic membranes are more permeable to ionic solutes than similarly sized neutral molecules. In particular, negative rejection of sodium chloride is observed (i.e., the concentration of NaCl in the solution that permeates through a mixed mosaic membrane is higher than in the initial feed solution). These properties illustrate the ability of mixed mosaic membranes to permeate dissolved ions selectively without violating electroneutrality and suggest their utility in ionic separations.

  10. Detection of low level sex chromosome mosaicism in Ullrich-Turner syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Wiktor, Anne E; Van Dyke, Daniel L

    2005-10-15

    Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS) is most commonly due to a 45,X chromosome defect, but is also seen in patients with a variety of X-chromosome abnormalities or 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. The phenotype of UTS patients is highly variable, and depends largely on the karyotype. Patients are at an increased risk of gonadoblastoma when a Y-derived chromosome or chromosome fragment is present. Since constitutional mosaicism is present in approximately 50% of UTS patients, the identification of minor cell populations is clinically important and a challenge to laboratories. We identified 50 females with a 45,X karyotype as the sole abnormality or as part of a more complex karyotype. Twenty two (44%) had a 45,X karyotype; mosaicism for a second normal or structurally abnormal X was observed in 24 (48%) samples, and mosaicism for Y chromosomal material in 4 (8%) cases. To further investigate the possibility of mosaicism in the 22 patients with an apparently non-mosaic 45,X karyotype, we performed FISH using centromere probes for the X and Y chromosomes. A minor XX cell line was identified in 3 patients, and the 45,X result was confirmed in 19 samples. No samples with XY mosaicism were identified. We describe our validation process for a FISH assay to be used in clinical practice to identify XX or XY mosaicism. FISH as an adjunct to karyotype analysis provides a sensitive and cost-effective technique to identify sex chromosome mosaicism in UTS patients.

  11. Diploid-triploid mosaicism and tissue ploidy diversity within Platemys platycephala from Suriname.

    PubMed

    Bickham, J W; Hanks, B G

    2009-01-01

    The twist-necked turtle, Platemys platycephala, is 1 of only 2 known species to possess sexual reproduction and diploid-triploid mosaicism. Previous studies have shown that mosaics occur in Suriname and French Guiana but only diploids are known from Bolivia and Brazil. In this paper, the frequency of ploidy mosaicism was studied in a large sample of P. platycephala from Suriname to more fully explore the diversity of ploidy levels within and among individuals. Flow-cytometric analysis of blood revealed a wide diversity of conditions including diploids, diploid-triploid mosaics, triploids, and triploid-tetraploid mosaics. The largest frequency class was 100% diploid, and the second largest was 100% triploid. However, mosaic individuals were observed from the entire spectrum of mixtures ranging from nearly all-diploid to nearly all-triploid and 2 individuals were triploid-tetraploid mosaics. It appears likely that diploids, triploids and mosaics do not represent distinct biotypes, but simply different conditions within a spectrum of possible ploidy mixtures. Studies of multiple tissues from 5 individuals showed blood alone is a good indicator of ploidy, but subtle differences were found among tissues for some individuals, and some individuals that were all-diploid or all-triploid in blood were found to be mosaic in other tissues. Triploidy was statistically associated with males, and we hypothesize that genome size plays a role in sex determination in this species.

  12. Surgical Repair of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection in a Neonate With Mosaic Trisomy 8.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomomi; Oshima, Yoshihiro; Sato, Yumi; Tanaka, Akiko

    2016-03-01

    Trisomy 8 mosaicism is a relatively rare chromosomal abnormality and has extremely variable phenotype with a wide range of clinical manifestations. Although no well-defined criteria for cardiac surgical indications are available for patients with mosaic trisomy 8, we present a case of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) in a neonate with mosaic trisomy 8. Although primary sutureless repair of TAPVC with concomitant bilateral pulmonary artery banding was performed successfully in this case, the indications for cardiac surgery in patients with mosaic trisomy 8 should be carefully individualized. The entire dialog with parents and family, including the process of informed consent, is of great importance.

  13. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N.; Freedman, Neal D.; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Abnet, Christian C.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Arslan, Alan A.; Beane-Freeman, Laura E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Bracci, Paige M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary A.; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G.; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C.; Cook, Linda S.; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J.; Epstein, Caroline G.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Harris, Curtis C.; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N.; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P.; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M.; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P.; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R.; Teras, Lauren R.; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S.; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G.; Perez-Jurado, Luis A.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases. PMID:27291797

  14. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N; Freedman, Neal D; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B; Abnet, Christian C; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Arslan, Alan A; Beane-Freeman, Laura E; Berndt, Sonja I; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Bracci, Paige M; Brinton, Louise A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E; Butler, Mary A; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C; Cook, Linda S; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J; Epstein, Caroline G; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Friedenreich, Christine M; Fuchs, Charles S; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M; Haiman, Christopher A; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Harris, Curtis C; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N; Hsiung, Chao A; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H; McWilliams, Robert R; Melin, Beatrice S; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M; Savage, Sharon A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G; Schwartz, Kendra L; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T; Spitz, Margaret R; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R; Teras, Lauren R; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K; Wolpin, Brian M; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G; Perez-Jurado, Luis A; Caporaso, Neil E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J

    2016-06-13

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases.

  15. E4 True and false color hot spot mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color views of Jupiter from NASA's Galileo spacecraft show an equatorial 'hotspot' on Jupiter. These images cover an area 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles). The top mosaic combines the violet and near infrared continuum filter images to create an image similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundances of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The bottom mosaic uses Galileo's three near-infrared wavelengths displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Bluish clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are low, and white clouds are high and thick. The dark blue hotspot in the center is a hole in the deep cloud with an overlying thin haze. The light blue region to the left is covered by a very high haze layer. The multicolored region to the right has overlapping cloud layers of different heights. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes 1 to 10 degrees and is centered at longitude 336 degrees west. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on December 17, 1996, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers (about 930,000 miles) by the Solid State Imaging camera system aboard Galileo. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  16. Large-field high-resolution mosaic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Sliepen, Guus; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sütterlin, Peter; Martin, Sara F.

    2012-09-01

    Movies with fields-of-view larger than normal for high-resolution telescopes will give a better understanding of processes on the Sun, such as filament and active region developments and their possible interactions. New active regions can influence, by their emergence, their environment to the extent of possibly serving as an igniter of the eruption of a nearby filament. A method to create a large field-of-view is to join several fields-of-view into a mosaic. Fields are imaged quickly one after another using fast telescope-pointing. Such a pointing cycle has been automated at the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT), a high-resolution solar telescope located on the Canary Island La Palma. The observer can draw with the computer mouse the desired total field in the guider-telescope image of the whole Sun. The guider telescope is equipped with an H-alpha filter and electronic enhancement of contrast in the image for good visibility of filaments and prominences. The number and positions of the subfields are calculated automatically and represented by an array of bright points indicating the subfield centers inside the drawn rectangle of the total field on the computer screen with the whole-sun image. When the exposures start the telescope repeats automatically the sequence of subfields. Automatic production of flats is also programmed including defocusing and fast motion over the solar disk of the image field. For the first time mosaic movies were programmed from stored information on automated telescope motions from one field to the next. The mosaic movies fill the gap between whole-sun images with limited resolution of synoptic telescopes including space instruments and small-field high-cadence movies of high-resolution solar telescopes.

  17. Mosaic Activating Mutations in FGFR1 Cause Encephalocraniocutaneous Lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James T.; Tan, Tiong Yang; Alcantara, Diana; Tétrault, Martine; Timms, Andrew E.; Jensen, Dana; Collins, Sarah; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J.M.; Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Christensen, Katherine M.; Braddock, Stephen R.; Brandling-Bennett, Heather; Hennekam, Raoul C.M.; Chung, Brian; Lehman, Anna; Su, John; Ng, SuYuen; Amor, David J.; Majewski, Jacek; Biesecker, Les G.; Boycott, Kym M.; Dobyns, William B.; O’Driscoll, Mark; Moog, Ute; McDonell, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) is a sporadic condition characterized by ocular, cutaneous, and central nervous system anomalies. Key clinical features include a well-demarcated hairless fatty nevus on the scalp, benign ocular tumors, and central nervous system lipomas. Seizures, spasticity, and intellectual disability can be present, although affected individuals without seizures and with normal intellect have also been reported. Given the patchy and asymmetric nature of the malformations, ECCL has been hypothesized to be due to a post-zygotic, mosaic mutation. Despite phenotypic overlap with several other disorders associated with mutations in the RAS-MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways, the molecular etiology of ECCL remains unknown. Using exome sequencing of DNA from multiple affected tissues from five unrelated individuals with ECCL, we identified two mosaic mutations, c.1638C>A (p.Asn546Lys) and c.1966A>G (p.Lys656Glu) within the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR1, in two affected individuals each. These two residues are the most commonly mutated residues in FGFR1 in human cancers and are associated primarily with CNS tumors. Targeted resequencing of FGFR1 in multiple tissues from an independent cohort of individuals with ECCL identified one additional individual with a c.1638C>A (p.Asn546Lys) mutation in FGFR1. Functional studies of ECCL fibroblast cell lines show increased levels of phosphorylated FGFRs and phosphorylated FRS2, a direct substrate of FGFR1, as well as constitutive activation of RAS-MAPK signaling. In addition to identifying the molecular etiology of ECCL, our results support the emerging overlap between mosaic developmental disorders and tumorigenesis. PMID:26942290

  18. Mosaic paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Diana; Atwal, Paldeep Singh; Angell, Cathy; Gadi, Inder; Wallerstein, Robert

    2015-10-01

    We report on a 6-month-old girl with two apparent cell lines; one with trisomy 21, and the other with paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy (GWUPiD), identified using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based microarray and microsatellite analysis of polymorphic loci. The patient has Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) due to paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) at chromosome location 11p15 (UPD 11p15), which was confirmed through methylation analysis. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is present, which is associated with paternal UPD 11p15.5; and she likely has medullary nephrocalcinosis, which is associated with paternal UPD 20, although this was not biochemically confirmed. Angelman syndrome (AS) analysis was negative but this testing is not completely informative; she has no specific features of AS. Clinical features of this patient include: dysmorphic features consistent with trisomy 21, tetralogy of Fallot, hemihypertrophy, swirled skin hyperpigmentation, hepatoblastoma, and Wilms tumor. Her karyotype is 47,XX,+21[19]/46,XX[4], and microarray results suggest that the cell line with trisomy 21 is biparentally inherited and represents 40-50% of the genomic material in the tested specimen. The difference in the level of cytogenetically detected mosaicism versus the level of mosaicism observed via microarray analysis is likely caused by differences in the test methodologies. While a handful of cases of mosaic paternal GWUPiD have been reported, this patient is the only reported case that also involves trisomy 21. Other GWUPiD patients have presented with features associated with multiple imprinted regions, as does our patient. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Regional Mosaic of Chaos and Gray Band on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic of part of Jupiter's moon, Europa, shows a region that is characterized by mottled (dark and splotchy) terrain. The images in this mosaic were obtained by Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its eleventh orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image, and the sun illuminates the scene from the right. Prior to obtaining these pictures, the age and origin of mottled terrain were not known. As seen here, the mottled appearance results from areas of the bright, icy crust that have been broken apart (known as 'chaos' terrain), exposing a darker underlying material. This terrain is typified by the area in the upper right-hand part of the image. The mottled terrain represents some of the most recent geologic activity on Europa. Also shown in this image is a smooth, gray band (lower part of image) representing a zone where the Europan crust has been fractured, separated, and filled in with material derived from the interior. The chaos terrain and the gray band show that this satellite has been subjected to intense geological deformation.

    The mosaic, centered at 2.9 degrees south latitude and 234.1 degrees west longitude, covers an area of 365 kilometers by 335 kilometers (225 miles by 210 miles). The smallest distinguishable features in the image are about 460 meters (1500 feet) across. These images were obtained on November 6, 1997, when the Galileo spacecraft was approximately 21,700 kilometers (13,237 miles) from Europa.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of California Institute of Technology.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  20. Regional Mosaic of Chaos and Gray Band on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic of part of Jupiter's moon, Europa, shows a region that is characterized by mottled (dark and splotchy) terrain. The images in this mosaic were obtained by Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its eleventh orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image, and the sun illuminates the scene from the right. Prior to obtaining these pictures, the age and origin of mottled terrain were not known. As seen here, the mottled appearance results from areas of the bright, icy crust that have been broken apart (known as 'chaos' terrain), exposing a darker underlying material. This terrain is typified by the area in the upper right-hand part of the image. The mottled terrain represents some of the most recent geologic activity on Europa. Also shown in this image is a smooth, gray band (lower part of image) representing a zone where the Europan crust has been fractured, separated, and filled in with material derived from the interior. The chaos terrain and the gray band show that this satellite has been subjected to intense geological deformation.

    The mosaic, centered at 2.9 degrees south latitude and 234.1 degrees west longitude, covers an area of 365 kilometers by 335 kilometers (225 miles by 210 miles). The smallest distinguishable features in the image are about 460 meters (1500 feet) across. These images were obtained on November 6, 1997, when the Galileo spacecraft was approximately 21,700 kilometers (13,237 miles) from Europa.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of California Institute of Technology.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  1. Mosaic Activating Mutations in FGFR1 Cause Encephalocraniocutaneous Lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James T; Tan, Tiong Yang; Alcantara, Diana; Tétrault, Martine; Timms, Andrew E; Jensen, Dana; Collins, Sarah; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J M; Lindhurst, Marjorie J; Christensen, Katherine M; Braddock, Stephen R; Brandling-Bennett, Heather; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Chung, Brian; Lehman, Anna; Su, John; Ng, SuYuen; Amor, David J; Majewski, Jacek; Biesecker, Les G; Boycott, Kym M; Dobyns, William B; O'Driscoll, Mark; Moog, Ute; McDonell, Laura M

    2016-03-03

    Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) is a sporadic condition characterized by ocular, cutaneous, and central nervous system anomalies. Key clinical features include a well-demarcated hairless fatty nevus on the scalp, benign ocular tumors, and central nervous system lipomas. Seizures, spasticity, and intellectual disability can be present, although affected individuals without seizures and with normal intellect have also been reported. Given the patchy and asymmetric nature of the malformations, ECCL has been hypothesized to be due to a post-zygotic, mosaic mutation. Despite phenotypic overlap with several other disorders associated with mutations in the RAS-MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways, the molecular etiology of ECCL remains unknown. Using exome sequencing of DNA from multiple affected tissues from five unrelated individuals with ECCL, we identified two mosaic mutations, c.1638C>A (p.Asn546Lys) and c.1966A>G (p.Lys656Glu) within the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR1, in two affected individuals each. These two residues are the most commonly mutated residues in FGFR1 in human cancers and are associated primarily with CNS tumors. Targeted resequencing of FGFR1 in multiple tissues from an independent cohort of individuals with ECCL identified one additional individual with a c.1638C>A (p.Asn546Lys) mutation in FGFR1. Functional studies of ECCL fibroblast cell lines show increased levels of phosphorylated FGFRs and phosphorylated FRS2, a direct substrate of FGFR1, as well as constitutive activation of RAS-MAPK signaling. In addition to identifying the molecular etiology of ECCL, our results support the emerging overlap between mosaic developmental disorders and tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In-Situ Mosaic Production at JPL/MIPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Multimission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) at JPL is responsible for (among other things) the ground-based operational image processing of all the recent in-situ Mars missions: (1) Mars Pathfinder (2) Mars Polar Lander (3) Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) (4) Phoenix (5) Mars Science Lab (MSL) Mosaics are probably the most visible products from MIPL (1) Generated for virtually every rover position at which a panorama is taken (2) Provide better environmental context than single images (3) Valuable to operations and science personnel (4) Arguably the signature products for public engagement

  3. Characterizations of the mirror attenuator mosaic - Solar diffuser plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Avis, Lee M.; Gibson, M. A.; Kopia, Leonard P.

    1992-01-01

    The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was used for the flight calibration of the broadband shortwave (0.2-5-microns) and total (0.2 to greater than 200-microns) Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanning thermistor bolometer radiometers. The MAM solar-reflecting surface consisted of a tightly packed array of vacuum-deposited aluminum, concave spherical mirrors, while its solar-absorbing surface consisted of black chrome. The effective reflectance of the MAM was constant to within +/- 2 percent after almost 2 years in orbit, a marked improvement over earlier solar diffusers.

  4. In vivo imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic

    PubMed Central

    Doble, Nathan; Choi, Stacey S.; Codona, Johanan L.; Christou, Julian; Enoch, Jay M.; Williams, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Although single cone receptors have been imaged in the living human eye, there has been no observation of rods in vivo. Using an adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscope and post processing, evidence of rod mosaic was observed at 5° and 10° eccentricities in the horizontal, temporal retina. For 4 normal human subjects, small structures were observed in between the larger cones, and were observed repeatedly at the same locations on different days and with varying wavelengths. Image analysis gave spacings that agree well with rod measurements from histological data. PMID:21209677

  5. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins.

  6. Beijerinck's work on tobacco mosaic virus: historical context and legacy.

    PubMed

    Bos, L

    1999-03-29

    Beijerinck's entirely new concept, launched in 1898, of a filterable contagium vivum fluidum which multiplied in close association with the host's metabolism and was distributed in phloem vessels together with plant nutrients, did not match the then prevailing bacteriological germ theory. At the time, tools and concepts to handle such a new kind of agent (the viruses) were non-existent. Beijerinck's novel idea, therefore, did not revolutionize biological science or immediately alter human understanding of contagious diseases. That is how bacteriological dogma persisted, as voiced by Loeffler and Frosch when showing the filterability of an animal virus (1898), and especially by Ivanovsky who had already in 1892 detected filterability of the agent of tobacco mosaic but kept looking for a microbe and finally (1903) claimed its multiplication in an artificial medium. The dogma was also strongly advocated by Roux in 1903 when writing the first review on viruses, which he named 'so-called "invisible" microbes', unwittingly including the agent of bovine pleuropneumonia, only much later proved to be caused by a mycoplasma. In 1904, Baur was the first to advocate strongly the chemical view of viruses. But uncertainty about the true nature of viruses, with their similarities to enzymes and genes, continued until the 1930s when at long last tobacco mosaic virus particles were isolated as an enzyme-like protein (1935), soon to be better characterized as a nucleoprotein (1937). Physicochemical virus studies were a key element in triggering molecular biology which was to provide further means to reveal the true nature of viruses 'at the threshold of life'. Beijerinck's 1898 vision was not appreciated or verified during his lifetime. But Beijerinck already had a clear notion of the mechanism behind the phenomena he observed. Developments in virology and molecular biology since 1935 indicate how close Beijerinck (and even Mayer, Beijerinck's predecessor in research on tobacco

  7. AFGL ten micron mosaic array spectrometer: Recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levan, Paul D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements were made with a novel mosaic array prism spectrometer on long period variable stars of carbon and oxygen-rich atmospheres. These stars have generally large IR excesses and show strong SiC and silicate emission features, respectively. A comparison is provided by published spectra obtained with the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer. Emission feature equivalent widths are independent of the absolute photometric level of the spectra and provide information on the relative variation of the feature and continuum fluxes between the epochs of the space and groundbased observations.

  8. Beijerinck's work on tobacco mosaic virus: historical context and legacy.

    PubMed Central

    Bos, L

    1999-01-01

    Beijerinck's entirely new concept, launched in 1898, of a filterable contagium vivum fluidum which multiplied in close association with the host's metabolism and was distributed in phloem vessels together with plant nutrients, did not match the then prevailing bacteriological germ theory. At the time, tools and concepts to handle such a new kind of agent (the viruses) were non-existent. Beijerinck's novel idea, therefore, did not revolutionize biological science or immediately alter human understanding of contagious diseases. That is how bacteriological dogma persisted, as voiced by Loeffler and Frosch when showing the filterability of an animal virus (1898), and especially by Ivanovsky who had already in 1892 detected filterability of the agent of tobacco mosaic but kept looking for a microbe and finally (1903) claimed its multiplication in an artificial medium. The dogma was also strongly advocated by Roux in 1903 when writing the first review on viruses, which he named 'so-called "invisible" microbes', unwittingly including the agent of bovine pleuropneumonia, only much later proved to be caused by a mycoplasma. In 1904, Baur was the first to advocate strongly the chemical view of viruses. But uncertainty about the true nature of viruses, with their similarities to enzymes and genes, continued until the 1930s when at long last tobacco mosaic virus particles were isolated as an enzyme-like protein (1935), soon to be better characterized as a nucleoprotein (1937). Physicochemical virus studies were a key element in triggering molecular biology which was to provide further means to reveal the true nature of viruses 'at the threshold of life'. Beijerinck's 1898 vision was not appreciated or verified during his lifetime. But Beijerinck already had a clear notion of the mechanism behind the phenomena he observed. Developments in virology and molecular biology since 1935 indicate how close Beijerinck (and even Mayer, Beijerinck's predecessor in research on tobacco

  9. Leprechaunism with mosaicism 46, XX/47, XX extra ring chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Ventruto, V; Sebastio, L; Sebastio, G; DeMasi, R V; Vota, U; Farina, L; Festa, B

    1977-01-01

    A case of leprechaunism with a chromosomal abnormality is reported. The patient was a female infant, born to healthy, consanguineous young parents. Her course was one of extreme marasmus, with death at 3 months of age. She presented the classical features of the syndrome and chromosome mosaicism 46, XX/47, XX, +r(?). It was not possible to identify the origin of the extra ring chromosome. It is difficult to establish the role of such a cytogenetic finding in the aetiology of the syndrome. Images PMID:592357

  10. Genome sequence of vanilla distortion mosaic virus infecting Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Adams, I P; Rai, S; Deka, M; Harju, V; Hodges, T; Hayward, G; Skelton, A; Fox, A; Boonham, N

    2014-12-01

    The 9573-nucleotide genome of a potyvirus was sequenced from a Coriandrum sativum plant from India with viral symptoms. On analysis, this virus was shown to have greater than 85 % nucleotide sequence identity to vanilla distortion mosaic virus (VDMV). Analysis of the putative coat protein sequence confirmed that this virus was in fact VDMV, with greater than 91 % amino acid sequence identity. The genome appears to encode a 3083-amino-acid polyprotein potentially cleaved into the 10 mature proteins expected in potyviruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that VDMV is a distinct but ungrouped member of the genus Potyvirus.

  11. The population genetics of maize dwarf mosaic virus in Spain.

    PubMed

    Achon, M A; Larrañaga, A; Alonso-Dueñas, N

    2012-12-01

    The population genetics of maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) in Spain was assessed by analysis of the P1-HC region. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 363 isolates revealed that the MDMV population consisted of 69 haplotypes. Sequence analysis of 112 isolates confirmed a high degree of nucleotide sequence diversity (0.143), which was higher for P1 than for the HC. Twelve sequences showed a single different recombination event. Selection pressure analysis revealed that the P1-HC region was under strong negative selection. The MDMV population was spatially structured but not structured temporally or by host. Phylogenetic analysis split the sequences into five major groups.

  12. Elucidation of the genome organization of tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed Central

    Zaitlin, M

    1999-01-01

    Proteins unique to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-infected plants were detected in the 1970s by electrophoretic analyses of extracts of virus-infected tissues, comparing their proteins to those generated in extracts of uninfected tissues. The genome organization of TMV was deduced principally from studies involving in vitro translation of proteins from the genomic and subgenomic messenger RNAs. The ultimate analysis of the TMV genome came in 1982 when P. Goelet and colleagues sequenced the entire genome. Studies leading to the elucidation of the TMV genome organization are described below. PMID:10212938

  13. JERS-1 SAR Mosaics of the North American Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B.; McDonald, K.; McGarragh, G.; Williams, C.

    2002-12-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) initiated the Global Boreal Forest Mapping (GBFM) project in the mid-1990s, in collaboration with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC), the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF), and a team of investigators from around the world. The objective of this project was to use the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to image at high resolution the Earth's Boreal forests. Since SAR can obtain imagery independent of solar illumination and cloud conditions, it was possible to image these regions during the winter, as well as the summer. Within the receiving station mask of ASF (which covers Alaska and much of Western Canada), particularly good temporal diversity was obtained since direct downlinks to ASF were possible. Outside of the ASF mask the data were recorded and then retransmitted later to receiving stations, which limited the data acquisitions. However, it was still possible to produce "winter" and "summer" mosaics of most of boreal North America (within three month temporal windows). The mosaics were produced at 100 m resolution, and are sensitive to land cover structural and moisture properties including forest structure, freeze/thaw state, and forest inundation. The methods used to mosaic the imagery were also used for mapping South America in the Global Rain Forest Mapping (GRFM) project, and similar to techniques applied by the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (STRM). Mosaicking and co-registering the North American data set were particularly difficult due to the large number of scenes (14,000), the large geo-location corrections that were required, and the convergence of the image swaths at the far northern latitudes. The mosaics will be distributed freely on DVD media for scientific and educational purposes. The techniques developed for this task will be useful for mosaicking imagery from the SAR on-board the NASDA

  14. Characterizations of the mirror attenuator mosaic: solar diffuser plate.

    PubMed

    Lee, R B; Avis, L M; Gibson, M A; Kopia, L P

    1992-11-01

    The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was used for the flight calibration of the broadband shortwave (0.2-5-microm) and total (0.2 to >200-microm) Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanning thermistor bolometer radiometers. The MAM solar-reflecting surface cosisted of a tightly packed array of vacuum-deposited aluminum, concave spherical mirrors, while its solar-absorbing surface consisted of black chrome. The effective reflectance of the MAM was constant to within +/-2% after almost 2 years in orbit, a marked improvement over earlier solar diffusers.

  15. Engineering of Brome mosaic virus for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Ibrahim; Tsvetkova, Irina; Wen, Amy M.; Shukla, Sourabh; Masarapu, M. Hema; Dragnea, Bogdan; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2016-01-01

    Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are becoming versatile tools in platform technology development. Their well-defined structures as well as their programmability through chemical and genetic modification allow VNPs to be engineered for potential imaging and therapeutic applications. In this article, we report the application of a variety of bioconjugation chemistries to the plant VNP Brome mosaic virus (BMV). Functional BMV nanoparticles displaying multiple copies of fluorescent dyes, PEG molecules, chemotherapeutic drug moieties, targeting proteins and cell penetrating peptides were formulated. This opens the door for the application of BMV in nanomedicine. PMID:28018580

  16. Characterizations of the mirror attenuator mosaic - Solar diffuser plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Avis, Lee M.; Gibson, M. A.; Kopia, Leonard P.

    1992-01-01

    The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was used for the flight calibration of the broadband shortwave (0.2-5-microns) and total (0.2 to greater than 200-microns) Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanning thermistor bolometer radiometers. The MAM solar-reflecting surface consisted of a tightly packed array of vacuum-deposited aluminum, concave spherical mirrors, while its solar-absorbing surface consisted of black chrome. The effective reflectance of the MAM was constant to within +/- 2 percent after almost 2 years in orbit, a marked improvement over earlier solar diffusers.

  17. Hypomelanosis of Ito associated with mosaicism for trisomy 7 and apparent 'pseudomosaicism' at amniocentesis.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, D; Martin, K; Young, I D

    1993-01-01

    We describe a patient with hypomelanosis of Ito (HI) and typical characteristics. Cytogenetic analysis of fibroblast cultures showed mosaicism for trisomy 7. The trisomy cell line was first observed in an amniotic fluid culture and illustrates the problem of distinguishing pseudomosaicism from true mosaicism. Images PMID:8411076

  18. Relationships between early spring wheat streak mosaic severity levels and grain yield: Implications for management decisions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) caused by Wheat streak mosaic virus, which is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella), is a major yield-limiting disease in the Texas High Plains. In addition to its impact on grain production, the disease reduces water-use efficiency by affecting root develo...

  19. Regular G21-trisomy in 3 sibs from mother with trisomy 21 mosaicism.

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, A; Moreno, A

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes a family with 3 affected sibs with regular trisomy 21 Down syndrome. The condition seems to be transmitted from a phenotypically normal mother in whom G-trisomy mosaicism was identified. Giemsa banding depicted trisomy 21 mosaicism in cells from the mother. Chromosomes from the children showed a trisomy 21 in all the cells analysed. Images PMID:144798

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in a fetus with asymmetric gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Kirkilionis, A J; Rodney, P; Sergovich, F R; Armstrong, R

    1987-09-01

    An 18 week abortus had been prenatally diagnosed as a 45,X/46,XY mosaic. The fetus was a phenotypic male with glandular hypospadias, a horseshoe kidney and asymmetric gonadal dysgenesis. This case represents a rare instance of prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism with an abnormal phenotype.

  1. Satellite RNA associated with bamboo mosaic potexvirus shares similarity with satellites associated with sobemoviruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, J S; Lin, N S

    1995-01-01

    A putative nonstructural protein encoded by a satellite RNA associated with bamboo mosaic potexvirus shares 46% identity with the capsid protein of satellite virus of panicum mosaic sobemovirus. The sequence similarity among satellite plant viruses which have no apparent relationship implies a common origin.

  2. Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus infectious clone and manipulation for gene-carrying capacity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is a bipartite single stranded positive sense RNA virus with rigid-rod shaped virions. Taxonomically the virus is in the family Viragviridae, as are commonly used gene silencing or expression viral vectors, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Barley stripe mosaic viru...

  3. Trisomy 9 mosaicism in two girls with multiple congenital malformations and mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, C; Chognot, D; Halb, A; Luckel, J C

    1993-01-01

    Two girls with mosaicism for an extra chromosome 9 are reported. Clinical findings included growth and mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, delayed ossification, single flexion crease, gastro-oesophageal reflux in one girl, and ventricular and atrial septal defects in the other patient. These findings are compared to the other previously reported cases of trisomy 9 mosaicism. Images PMID:8320712

  4. Frequency of somatic and germ-line mosaicism in retinoblastoma: implications for genetic counseling.

    PubMed Central

    Sippel, K C; Fraioli, R E; Smith, G D; Schalkoff, M E; Sutherland, J; Gallie, B L; Dryja, T P

    1998-01-01

    Although mosaicism can have important implications for genetic counseling of families with hereditary disorders, information regarding the incidence of mosaicism is available for only a few genetic diseases. Here we describe an evaluation of 156 families with retinoblastoma; the initial oncogenic mutation in the retinoblastoma gene had been identified in these families. In 15 ( approximately 10%) families, we were able to document mosaicism for the initial mutation in the retinoblastoma gene, either in the proband or in one of the proband's parents. The true incidence of mosaicism in this group of 156 families is probably higher than our findings indicate; in some additional families beyond the 15 we identified, mosaicism was likely but could not be proven, because somatic or germ-line DNA from key family members was unavailable. Germ-line DNA from two mosaic fathers was analyzed: in one of these, the mutation was detected in both sperm and leukocyte DNA; in the other, the mutation was detected only in sperm DNA. Our data suggest that mosaicism is more common than is generally appreciated, especially in disorders such as retinoblastoma, in which a high proportion of cases represent new mutations. The possibility of mosaicism should always be considered during the genetic counseling of newly identified families with retinoblastoma. As demonstrated here, genetic tests of germ-line DNA can provide valuable information that is not available through analysis of somatic (leukocyte) DNA. PMID:9497263

  5. Parental Somatic Mosaicism Is Underrecognized and Influences Recurrence Risk of Genomic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ian M.; Yuan, Bo; Robberecht, Caroline; Pfundt, Rolph; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Nagamani, Sandesh C.S.; Erez, Ayelet; Bartnik, Magdalena; Wiśniowiecka-Kowalnik, Barbara; Plunkett, Katie S.; Pursley, Amber N.; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Bi, Weimin; Lalani, Seema R.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Vast, Mala; Marks, Karen; Patton, Michael; Olofsson, Peter; Patel, Ankita; Veltman, Joris A.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Shaw, Chad A.; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Lupski, James R.; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    New human mutations are thought to originate in germ cells, thus making a recurrence of the same mutation in a sibling exceedingly rare. However, increasing sensitivity of genomic technologies has anecdotally revealed mosaicism for mutations in somatic tissues of apparently healthy parents. Such somatically mosaic parents might also have germline mosaicism that can potentially cause unexpected intergenerational recurrences. Here, we show that somatic mosaicism for transmitted mutations among parents of children with simplex genetic disease is more common than currently appreciated. Using the sensitivity of individual-specific breakpoint PCR, we prospectively screened 100 families with children affected by genomic disorders due to rare deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) determined to be de novo by clinical analysis of parental DNA. Surprisingly, we identified four cases of low-level somatic mosaicism for the transmitted CNV in DNA isolated from parental blood. Integrated probabilistic modeling of gametogenesis developed in response to our observations predicts that mutations in parental blood increase recurrence risk substantially more than parental mutations confined to the germline. Moreover, despite the fact that maternally transmitted mutations are the minority of alleles, our model suggests that sexual dimorphisms in gametogenesis result in a greater proportion of somatically mosaic transmitting mothers who are thus at increased risk of recurrence. Therefore, somatic mosaicism together with sexual differences in gametogenesis might explain a considerable fraction of unexpected recurrences of X-linked recessive disease. Overall, our results underscore an important role for somatic mosaicism and mitotic replicative mutational mechanisms in transmission genetics. PMID:25087610

  6. Error Estimation Techniques to Refine Overlapping Aerial Image Mosaic Processes via Detected Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, William Glenn

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I propose to demonstrate a means of error estimation preprocessing in the assembly of overlapping aerial image mosaics. The mosaic program automatically assembles several hundred aerial images from a data set by aligning them, via image registration using a pattern search method, onto a GIS grid. The method presented first locates…

  7. Application of COLD-PCR for improved detection of NF2 mosaic mutations.

    PubMed

    Paganini, Irene; Mancini, Irene; Baroncelli, Marta; Arena, Guido; Gensini, Francesca; Papi, Laura; Sestini, Roberta

    2014-07-01

    Somatic mosaicism represents the coexistence of two or more cell populations with different genotypes in one person, and it is involved in >30 monogenic disorders. Somatic mosaicism characterizes approximately 25% to 33% of patients with de novo neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). The identification of mosaicism is crucial to patients and their families because the clinical course of the disease and its transmission risk is influenced by the degree and distribution of mutated cells. Moreover, in NF2, the capability of discriminating patients with mosaicism is especially important to make differential diagnosis with schwannomatosis. However, the identification of mosaic variants is considerably difficult, and the development of specific molecular techniques to detect low levels of unknown molecular alterations is required. Co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature (COLD)-PCR has been described as a powerful method to selectively amplify minority alleles from mixtures of wild-type and mutation-containing sequences. Here, we applied COLD-PCR to molecular analysis of patients with NF2 mosaicism. With the use of COLD-PCR, followed by direct sequencing, we were able to detect NF2 mutations in blood DNA of three patients with NF2 mosaicism. Our study has shown the capability of COLD-PCR in enriching low-represented mutated allele in blood DNA sample, making it usable for molecular diagnosis of patients with mosaicism.

  8. Mosaic Stunting in jack pine seedlings in a northern Michigan bareroot nursery

    Treesearch

    Lynette Potvin; R. Kasten Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Dana Richter

    2010-01-01

    Mosaic, or patchy, stunting of bareroot conifer seedlings is thought to be caused by deficiencies of mycorrhizal fungi following fumigation, resulting in reduced nutrient uptake, particularly phosphorus. Mosaic stunting of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings was observed in 2005 at the USDA Forest Service JW Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. We initiated a study to...

  9. Mosaic stunting in bareroot Pinus banksiana seedlings is unrelated to colonization by mycorrhizal fungi

    Treesearch

    Lynette R. Potvin; Martin F. Jurgensen; R. Kasten Dumroese; Dana L. Richter; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Mosaic stunting, the occurrence of random patches of chlorotic seedlings with reduced shoot and diameter growth amidst more robust cohorts within bareroot nurseries, is classically associated with poor colonization by mycorrhizal fungi. We examined possible relationships among soil fertility, mycorrhizas, and random patches of mosaic stunting in bareroot Pinus...

  10. Blueberry mosaic associated virus – A putative, new member of Ophioviridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry mosaic initially was reported more than 50 years ago and is now known from different parts of the world. A new virus, closely associated with the disease has been identified recently. The virus tentatively named as Blueberry mosaic associated virus (BlMaV), is a putative member of the gen...

  11. Genetic Composition of Pepino mosaic virus Population in North American Greenhouse Tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a member of the genus Potexvirus within the family Flexiviridae. Pepino mosaic is an emerging disease in greenhouse tomato in Europe, North America and South America. Previous research in several laboratories suggests that PepMV consists of numerous sequence variants...

  12. Application of SFM and laser scanning technology to the description of mosaics piece by piece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajioka, O.; Hori, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Mosaic floors of surviving buildings in Ostia have been mainly recorded in photographs. From 2008, Japanese research group carries out a project of 3d measuring of the whole structure of ancient Roman city Ostia using laser scanners, including its landscape, city blocks, streets, buildings, wall paintings and mosaics. The laser scanner allows for a more detailed analysis and a greater potential for recording mosaics. We can record the data of mosaics, which are described piece by piece. However it is hard to acquire enough high dense point cloud and the internal camera of the laser scanner produce low quality images. We introduce a possible technology of 3D recording of mosaics with high-quality colour information; SFM. The use of this technique permits us to create 3D models from images provided from a CCD camera without heavy and large laser scanners. We applied SFM system to different three types of the mosaics laid down on the floors of "the House of the Dioscuroi", "the Insula of the Muse" and "the House of Jove and Ganymede", and created high resolution orthographic images. Then we examined to compare these orthographic images with that are created from the point cloud data. As a result, we confirmed that SFM system has sufficient practical utility for the mosaic research. And we present how much of density of point cloud or ground resolution are required for the documentation of mosaics accurately.

  13. Molecular, serological and biological characterization of the emerging tomato mottle mosaic virus on tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For many years, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) are the two major tobamoviruses that have a serious impact on tomato productions worldwide. These seed-borne and mechanically transmitted viruses are difficult to control. The most effective disease management has been the u...

  14. First Report of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Infecting Gherkin (Cucumis anguira) in India.

    PubMed

    Anthony Johnson, A M; Vidya, T; Papaiah, S; Srinivasulu, M; Mandal, Bikash; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-09-01

    A field visit in September 2011 to the Cucumis anguira (Gherkin) growing regions of Kuppam, Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India revealed occurrence of mosaic, blistering and fruit malformation leading to the crop losses. Analysis of field samples revealed association of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) with the disease. This is the first confirmed report of natural occurrence of ZYMV on Gherkin in India.

  15. Case of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism with non-mosaic discordance between short-term villi (45,X) and cultured villi (46,XY).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, C; Van Opstal, D; Brandenburg, H; Los, F J

    2000-07-31

    We report on a prenatally detected case of discordant non-mosaic karyotypes following chorionic villus sampling. A 45,X karyotype was found in cytotrophoblast cells and a 46,XY karyotype in mesenchymal core cells. A subsequent amniocentesis showed a true 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. Confirmatory studies, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in various fetal and placental tissues as well as in the original villi preparations changed the presumed condition of generalized mosaicism with culture confined normality to that of generalized mosaicism with absolute concordance. This case underscores the importance of the investigation of both short-term and cultured villi preparations, the implementation of prenatal FISH studies, and the need for thorough follow-up investigation in cases of discrepant results.

  16. The polarity of assembly of papaya mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus RNAs with PMV-protein under conditions of nonspecificity.

    PubMed

    Abouhaidar, M G; Bancroft, J B

    1980-11-01

    The problem of the rapid multiinitiation of papaya mosaic virus or tobacco mosaic virus RNA by PMV-protein near pH 7.0 at low ionic strength has been overcome. If NaCl is added to 0.1 M, both RNAs are first encapsidated at their respective 5' ends. This shows that the initial site of helix formation depends on the protein rather than the RNA.

  17. a Multi-Core Parallel Mosaic Alorithm for Multi-View Uav Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Zhao, X.; Gao, D.; Li, X.

    2017-09-01

    As the spread of the error and accumulation often lead to distortion or failure of image mosaic during the multi-view UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) images stitching. In this paper, to solve the problem we propose a mosaic strategy to construct a mosaic ring and multi-level grouping parallel acceleration as an auxiliary. First, the input images will be divided into several groups, each group in the ring way to stitch. Then, use SIFT for matching, RANSAC to remove the wrong matching points. And then, calculate the perspective transformation matrix. Finally weaken the error by using the adjustment equation. All these steps run between different groups at the same time. By using real UAV images, the experiment results show that this method can effectively reduce the influence of accumulative error, improve the precision of mosaic and reduce the mosaic time by 60 %. The proposed method can be used as one of the effective ways to minimize the accumulative error.

  18. Engineering Resistance Against Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus Using Antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Haq, Q M I; Ali, Arif; Malathi, V G

    2010-06-01

    Yellow mosaic disease of cultivated legumes in South-East Asia, is caused by Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) and Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) belonging to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. Efforts to engineer resistance against the genus Begomovirus are focused mainly on silencing of complementary-sense virus genes involved in virus replication. Here we have targeted a complementary-sense gene (ACI) encoding Replication initiation Protein (Rep) to develop resistance against soybean isolate of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus-[India:New Delhi:Soybean 2:1999], a bipartite begomovirus prevalent throughout the Indian subcontinent. We show that the legume host plants co-agroinoculated with infectious constructs of soybean isolate of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus [India:New Delhi:Soybean 2:1999] along with this antisense Rep gene construct show resistance to the virus.

  19. Passive and active infrared thermography: An overview of applications for the inspection of mosaic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakeas, P.; Cheilakou, E.; Ftikou, E.; Koui, M.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared Thermography is a non destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) technique, which has been widely used for the investigation of cultural heritage and art objects. The main purpose of this study is to present the capabilities of both passive and active thermography for the inspection of mosaic structures, evaluating the performance of each testing approach through its application in representative mosaic structures. In situ passive thermography was applied on mosaic pavements in an attempt to acquire knowledge about their preservation state, while the active approach was used in order to study plastered mosaics and characterise the tesserae layer beneath the plaster. The results from this study revealed that passive approach can be efficiently applied as a moisture detection tool and a rapid monitoring technique of the mosaic condition, while the active thermographic investigation showed much more potentiality as quantitative information for the detected feature was further retrieved.

  20. Use of superparamagnetic beads for the isolation of a peptide with specificity to cymbidium mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Diana Jia Miin; Dzulkurnain, Adriya; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Lim, Saw Hoon; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2006-09-01

    A modified method for the rapid isolation of specific ligands to whole virus particles is described. Biopanning against cymbidium mosaic virus was carried out with a commercial 12-mer random peptide display library. A solution phase panning method was devised using streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic beads. The solution based panning method was more efficient than conventional immobilized target panning when using whole viral particles of cymbidium mosaic virus as a target. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of cymbidium mosaic virus-binding peptides isolated from the library identified seven peptides with affinity for cymbidium mosaic virus and one peptide which was specific to cymbidium mosaic virus and had no significant binding to odontoglossum ringspot virus. This method should have broad application for the screening of whole viral particles towards the rapid development of diagnostic reagents without the requirement for cloning and expression of single antigens.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  4. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are exempt...

  5. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are exempt...

  6. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are exempt...

  7. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are exempt...

  8. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are exempt...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  10. Winter wheat cultivars with temperature sensitive resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus do not recover from early season infections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus, all vectored by the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella Keifer, frequently cause devastating losses to winter wheat production throughout the central and western Great Plains. Resistant 'Mace' and 'RonL' are commercially ...

  11. Cell-differentiation rules that generate regular mosaic patterns: modelling motivated by cone mosaic formation in fish retina.

    PubMed

    Takesue, A; Mochizuki, A; Iwasa, Y

    1998-10-21

    We study characteristics of cell-differentiation rules that realize stable formation of regularly arranged checker-board patterns, exemplified by cone "mosaic" zebrafish retina, or the regular arrangement of cone photoreceptor cells. We consider the situation in which cells are arranged on a square lattice and are initially undifferentiated. Later each cell becomes one of the two differentiated states, affected by the state of the neighboring cells. The cells that undergo differentiation form a "morphogenetic cell row" which sweeps from one end to the other end of the lattice through time. This models an outward sweep of the margin of expanding mosaic region of the retina which occurs as undifferentiated photoreceptor cells become differentiated in concentric circles, joining the mosaic. We introduce an index to measure the ability of cell-differentiation rules to generate regular checker-board patterns from irregular initial patterns, and attempt to characterize the successful rules. We first show the importance of six "preservation conditions" which guarantee perfectly regular photoreceptor arrangement for all the rows after a regular row. Then we select an additional six "optimizing conditions" for responses to configuration that are consistently shown by the rules of high average scores. We also examine the effect of interaction between responses to different configurations. Finally we examine the concept of morphogenetic row precedence, i.e. that the successful rules generating a high score tend to treat the consistency with neighbors in the newly differentiated cells (those in the morphogenetic cell row) as more important that the consistency with previously differentiated neighbors.

  12. Apple latent spherical virus vector as vaccine for the prevention and treatment of mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants by bean yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-11-07

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  13. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases. PMID:25386843

  14. Discordant circulating fetal DNA and subsequent cytogenetics reveal false negative, placental mosaic, and fetal mosaic cfDNA genotypes.

    PubMed

    Lebo, Roger V; Novak, Robert W; Wolfe, Katherine; Michelson, Melonie; Robinson, Haynes; Mancuso, Melissa S

    2015-08-11

    The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) and Maternal Fetal Medicine (MFM) Societies recommended that abnormal cfDNA fetal results should be confirmed by amniocentesis and karyotyping. Our results demonstrate that normal cfDNA results inconsistent with high-resolution abnormal ultrasounds should be confirmed by karyotyping following a substantial frequency of incorrect cfDNA results. Historical review of our ~4,000 signed prenatal karyotypes found ~24% of reported abnormalities would not have been detected by cfDNA. Akron Children's Hospital Cytogenetics Laboratory has completed 28 abnormal cfDNA cases among the 112 amniocenteses karyotyped. Following abnormal cfDNA results our karyotypes confirmed only 60% of the cfDNA results were consistent. Our cases found a normal cfDNA test result followed by a 20 weeks anatomical ultrasound detected a false negative trisomy 18 cfDNA result. One cfDNA result that reported trisomy 21 in the fetus was confirmed by karyotyping which also added an originally undetected balanced reciprocal translocation. Another reported karyotyped case followed by a repeated microarray of pure fetal DNA, together revealed one phenotypically normal newborn with a complex mosaic karyotype substantially decreasing the newborn's eventual reproductive fitness. This second case establishes the importance of karyotyping the placenta and cord or peripheral blood when inconsistent or mosaic results are identified following an abnormal cfDNA result with a normal newborn phenotype without a prenatal karyotype. These Maternal Fetal Medicine referrals demonstrate that positive NIPT results identify an increased abnormal karyotypic frequency as well as a substantial proportion of discordant fetal results. Our results found: (1) a normal NIPT test result followed by a 20 week anatomical ultrasound detected a false negative trisomy 18 NIPT result, (2) a substantial proportion of abnormal NIPT tests identify chromosomal mosaicism that may or

  15. Sequence of figwort mosaic virus DNA (caulimovirus group).

    PubMed Central

    Richins, R D; Scholthof, H B; Shepherd, R J

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of figwort mosaic virus (FMV) was determined using the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. The double-stranded DNA genome (7743 base pairs) contained eight open reading frames (ORFs), seven of which corresponded approximately in size and location to the ORFs found in the genome of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and carnation etched ring virus (CERV). ORFs I and V of FMV demonstrated the highest degrees of nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology with the equivalent coding regions of CaMV and CERV. Regions II, III and IV showed somewhat less homology with the analogous regions of CaMV and CERV, and ORF VI showed homology with the corresponding gene of CaMV and CERV in only a short segment near the middle of the putative gene product. A 16 nucleotide sequence, complementary to the 3' terminus of methionine initiator tRNA (tRNAimet) and presumed to be the primer binding site for initiation of reverse transcription to produce minus strand DNA, was found in the FMV genome near the discontinuity in the minus strand. Sequences near the three interruptions in the plus strand of FMV DNA bear strong resemblance to similarly located sequences of 3 other caulimoviruses and are inferred to be initiation sites for second strand DNA synthesis. Additional conserved sequences in the small and large intergenic regions are pointed out including a highly conserved 35 bp sequence that occurs in the latter region. PMID:3671088

  16. Analysis of figwort mosaic virus (plant pararetrovirus) polyadenylation signal.

    PubMed

    Sanfaçon, H

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) polyadenylation (poly(A)) signal has revealed several striking differences to poly(A) signals from animal genes such as the absence of activating sequences downstream from the cleavage site. Instead, upstream sequences were shown to induce recognition of an AAUAAA sequence. To test whether these features are representative of other plant pararetrovirus poly(A) signals, a characterization of the figwort mosaic virus (FMV) poly(A) signal is presented here. The FMV RNAs were isolated from infected plants and mapped, and the different elements composing the FMV poly(A) signal were identified. Multiple upstream sequences were found to be essential for efficient processing at the FMV poly(A) site and could be replaced by the CaMV upstream elements. The FMV upstream sequences showed homologies to other characterized upstream sequences from CaMV, from animal viruses, and from plant poly(A) signals. Surprisingly, neither the FMV nor the CaMV upstream elements could induce recognition of an AAUAAA sequence present in the FMV poly(A) signal, instead a UAUAAA sequence 55 nucleotides further downstream was utilized. It is proposed that additional features may be required for appropriate cleavage such as the context of the AAUAAA-like sequence or perhaps the cleavage site itself.

  17. Sequence of figwort mosaic virus DNA (caulimovirus group).

    PubMed

    Richins, R D; Scholthof, H B; Shepherd, R J

    1987-10-26

    The nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of figwort mosaic virus (FMV) was determined using the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. The double-stranded DNA genome (7743 base pairs) contained eight open reading frames (ORFs), seven of which corresponded approximately in size and location to the ORFs found in the genome of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and carnation etched ring virus (CERV). ORFs I and V of FMV demonstrated the highest degrees of nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology with the equivalent coding regions of CaMV and CERV. Regions II, III and IV showed somewhat less homology with the analogous regions of CaMV and CERV, and ORF VI showed homology with the corresponding gene of CaMV and CERV in only a short segment near the middle of the putative gene product. A 16 nucleotide sequence, complementary to the 3' terminus of methionine initiator tRNA (tRNAimet) and presumed to be the primer binding site for initiation of reverse transcription to produce minus strand DNA, was found in the FMV genome near the discontinuity in the minus strand. Sequences near the three interruptions in the plus strand of FMV DNA bear strong resemblance to similarly located sequences of 3 other caulimoviruses and are inferred to be initiation sites for second strand DNA synthesis. Additional conserved sequences in the small and large intergenic regions are pointed out including a highly conserved 35 bp sequence that occurs in the latter region.

  18. Cassava Mosaic and Brown Streak Diseases: Current Perspectives and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Rey, Chrissie; Vanderschuren, Hervé Vanderschuren

    2017-06-23

    Cassava is the fourth largest source of calories in the world but is subject to economically important yield losses due to viral diseases, including cassava brown streak disease and cassava mosaic disease. Cassava mosaic disease occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and the Asian subcontinent and is associated with nine begomovirus species, whereas cassava brown streak disease has to date been reported only in sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by two distinct ipomovirus species. We present an overview of key milestones and their significance in the understanding and characterization of these two major diseases as well as their associated viruses and whitefly vector. New biotechnologies offer a wide range of opportunities to reduce virus-associated yield losses in cassava for farmers and can additionally enable the exploitation of this valuable crop for industrial purposes. This review explores established and new technologies for genetic manipulation to achieve desired traits such as virus resistance. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology Volume 4 is September 29, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  19. Chayote mosaic virus, a New Tymovirus Infecting Cucurbitaceae.

    PubMed

    Bernal, J J; Jiménez, I; Moreno, M; Hord, M; Rivera, C; Koenig, R; Rodríguez-Cerezo, E

    2000-10-01

    ABSTRACT Chayote mosaic virus (ChMV) is a putative tymovirus isolated from chayote crops in Costa Rica. ChMV was characterized at the host range, serological, and molecular levels. ChMV was transmitted mechanically and induced disease symptoms mainly in Cucurbitaceae hosts. Asymptomatic infections were detected in other host families. Serologically, ChMV is related to the Andean potato latent virus (APLV) and the Eggplant mosaic virus (EMV), both members of the genus Tymovirus infecting solanaceous hosts in the Caribbean Basin and South America. The sequence of the genomic RNA of ChMV was determined and its genetic organization was typical of tymoviruses. Comparisons with other tymoviral sequences showed that ChMV was a new member of the genus Tymovirus. The phylogenetic analyses of the coat protein gene were consistent with serological comparisons and positioned ChMV within a cluster of tymoviruses infecting mainly cucurbit or solanaceous hosts, including APLV and EMV. Phylogenetic analyses of the replicase protein gene confirmed the close relationship of ChMV and EMV. Our results suggest that ChMV is related to two tymoviruses (APLV and EMV) of proximal geographical provenance but with different natural host ranges. ChMV is the first cucurbit-infecting tymovirus to be fully characterized at the genomic level.

  20. Calibrated Landsat ETM+ nonthermal-band image mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970s by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production and characteristics of the fundamental satellite image databases produced for these assessments, which are calibrated image mosaics of all six Landsat nonthermal (reflected) bands.

  1. Landsat ETM+ False-Color Image Mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970's by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production of the Landsat false-color image database produced for these assessments, which was produced from the calibrated Landsat ETM+ image mosaics described by Davis (2006).

  2. Mosaicing of fisheye images through conformal projection and sphere matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Jing; Xu, Wei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Maojun

    2017-02-01

    The use of fisheye image stitching is a popular method to produce panoramic images rapidly. A fisheye lens with a large angle can reduce the number of times of image acquisition, but distortion makes the registration of images difficult. As a key determinant of the effect of fisheye image mosaic quality, the estimation of external parameters of images has become a core issue in panorama generation. Previously established methods require additional measurement devices or are only suitable for specific scenarios. In this study, we develop an image mosaic method. A large-angle fisheye lens is adopted for conformal projection and spherical matching. First, to facilitate the search for corresponding corners, the source images are rotated by 90°. Then, conformal projection transformation is utilized to present the feature structures of the overlap area of two images in a consistent manner. Second, the searched corner points are projected onto the unit sphere, and the motion parameters are estimated with the direct linear transform method. Experimental results show that our method can efficiently complete image registration with a large angle between fisheye images. Hence, a full-view panoramic image of 360°×180° can be obtained with the use of two fisheye cameras with an angle of more than 180°.

  3. Catharanthus mosaic virus: A potyvirus from a gymnosperm, Welwitschia mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Shu Hui; Li, Hua; Admiraal, Ryan; Jones, Michael G K; Wylie, Stephen J

    2015-05-04

    A virus from a symptomatic plant of the gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis Hook. growing as an ornamental plant in a domestic garden in Western Australia was inoculated to a plant of Nicotiana benthamiana where it established a systemic infection. The complete genome sequence of 9636 nucleotides was determined using high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. The genome sequence shared greatest identity (83% nucleotides and 91% amino acids) with available partial sequences of catharanthus mosaic virus, indicating that the new isolate belonged to that taxon. Analysis of the phylogeny of the complete virus sequence placed it in a monotypic group in the genus Potyvirus. This is the first record of a virus from W. mirabilis, the first complete genome sequence of catharanthus mosaic virus determined, and the first record from Australia. This finding illustrates the risk to natural and managed systems posed by the international trade in live plants and propagules, which enables viruses to establish in new regions and infect new hosts. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Retinal image mosaicing using the radial distortion correction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangyeol; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2008-03-01

    Fundus camera imaging can be used to examine the retina to detect disorders. Similar to looking through a small keyhole into a large room, imaging the fundus with an ophthalmologic camera allows only a limited view at a time. Thus, the generation of a retinal montage using multiple images has the potential to increase diagnostic accuracy by providing larger field of view. A method of mosaicing multiple retinal images using the radial distortion correction (RADIC) model is proposed in this paper. Our method determines the inter-image connectivity by detecting feature correspondences. The connectivity information is converted to a tree structure that describes the spatial relationships between the reference and target images for pairwise registration. The montage is generated by cascading pairwise registration scheme starting from the anchor image downward through the connectivity tree hierarchy. The RADIC model corrects the radial distortion that is due to the spherical-to-planar projection during retinal imaging. Therefore, after radial distortion correction, individual images can be properly mapped onto a montage space by a linear geometric transformation, e.g. affine transform. Compared to the most existing montaging methods, our method is unique in that only a single registration per image is required because of the distortion correction property of RADIC model. As a final step, distance-weighted intensity blending is employed to correct the inter-image differences in illumination encountered when forming the montage. Visual inspection of the experimental results using three mosaicing cases shows our method can produce satisfactory montages.

  5. Digital Mammography with a Mosaic of CCD-Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); McAdoo, James A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to a mammography device and method and more particularly to a novel digital mammography device and method to detect microcalcifications of precancerous tissue. A digital mammography device uses a mosaic of electronic digital imaging arrays to scan an x-ray image. The mosaic of arrays is repositioned several times to expose different portions of the image, until the entire image is scanned. The data generated by the arrays during each exposure is stored in a computer. After the final exposure, the computer combines data of the several partial images to produce a composite of the original x-ray image. An aperture plate is used to reduce scatter and the overall exposure of the patient to x-rays. The novelty of this invention is that it provides a digital mammography device with large field coverage, high spatial resolution, scatter rejection, excellent contrast characteristics and lesion detectability under clinical conditions. This device also shields the patient from excessive radiation, can detect extremely small calcifications and allows manipulation and storage of the image.

  6. Mosaic of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (Violet Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Great Red Spot of Jupiter as seen through the violet (404 nm) filter of the Galileo imaging system. The image is a mosaic of six images that have been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top. The mosaic was taken over a 75 second interval beginning at universal time 4 hours, 18 minutes, 8 seconds on June 26, 1996. The Red Spot is 20,000 km long and has been followed by observers on Earth since the telescope was invented 300 years ago. It is a huge storm made visible by variations in the composition of the cloud particles. The Red Spot is not unique, but is simply the largest of a class of long-lived vortices, some of which are visible in the lower part of the image. The range is 1.76 million kilometers.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  7. Large-area CCD mosaic for astronomical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, J. Anthony; Bernstein, Gary M.; Blouke, Morley; Lee, Robert W.

    1992-08-01

    Large area charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with unprecedentedly low noise and high quantum efficiency are revolutionizing astronomy probing the universe to record faint levels while imaging relatively large areas of the sky. On-line intelligent pattern recognition software transforms these large images into photometrically accurate catalogs of colors sizes and shapes of thousands of stars and galaxies. The scientific driver for this is starvation: much of modern optical and JR astronomy is " photon starved" . Current research involving faint imaging and spectroscopy often requires total exposure times longer than several nights to obtain good signal-to-noise ratio. One must use the highest quantum efficiency detectors on the largest telescopes and develop image acquisition and reduction techniques which cancel systematic errors to high accuracy. We describe here a CCD mosaic camera and data handling system which will make full use of the light collected by the largest existing telescopes. It uses off-the-shelf CCDs in a mosaic configuration together with automated data acquisition and processing. 2. ULTRA-FAINTCCI) IMAGING IN ASTRONOMY In practice an arbitrary precision in photometry cannot be reached even in an arbitrarily long integration time. Accurate surface photometry to 30-3 1 magnitude arcsecond2 requires the correction of systematic errors to iO-4 of the moonless night sky background. New techniques for ultra-deep imaging made possible by the dimensional and temporal stability of CCDs permit photometry at this level. A series of guided exposures each

  8. Invertebrate community response to a shifting mosaic of habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, David M.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Roper, A.; Leslie, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Grazing management has focused largely on promoting vegetation homogeneity through uniform distribution of grazing to minimize area in a pasture that is either heavily disturbed or undisturbed. An alternative management model that couples grazing and fire (i.e., patch burning) to promote heterogeneity argues that grazing and fire interact through a series of positive and negative feedbacks to cause a shifting mosaic of vegetation composition and structure across the landscape. We compared patch burning with traditional homogeneity-based management in tallgrass prairie to determine the influence of the two treatments on the aboveground invertebrate community. Patch burning resulted in a temporal flush of invertebrate biomass in patches transitional between unburned and patches burned in the current year. Total invertebrate mass was about 50% greater in these transitional patches within patch-burned pastures as compared to pastures under traditional, homogeneity-based management. Moreover, the mosaic of patches in patch-burned pastures contained a wider range of invertebrate biomass and greater abundance of some invertebrate orders than did the traditionally managed pastures. Patch burning provides habitat that meets requirements for a broad range of invertebrate species, suggesting the potential for patch burning to benefit other native animal assemblages in the food chain.

  9. Structural Lability of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Virions

    PubMed Central

    Semenyuk, Pavel I.; Abashkin, Dmitry A.; Kalinina, Natalya O.; Arutyunyan, Alexsandr M.; Solovyev, Andrey G.; Dobrov, Eugeny N.

    2013-01-01

    Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP) were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed. PMID:23613760

  10. Evolutionary liberties of the Abutilon mosaic virus cluster.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Alexander; Strohmeier, Stephan; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger

    2015-02-01

    Two new strains of Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV; Geminiviridae) from Germany (Stuttgart) and France (Paris) have been characterized by circomics, direct pyrosequencing of rolling circle amplification (RCA) products, as well as conventional cloning and Sanger sequencing. RCA combined with an analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms confirmed the completeness of the sequence determination and a close relationship of both isolates for DNA A with 99 % nucleotide sequence identity. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction supported their clustering with other AbMV strains in a clade with Middle American begomoviruses, whereas South American begomoviruses that infect Abutilon or Sida micrantha are less closely related. Comparing the coat protein (CP) genes of the AbMV cluster, with those of related Middle and South American begomoviruses revealed a remarkable overrepresentation for non-synonymous nucleotide exchanges for certain amino acid positions in the AbMV cluster. Projection of these positions to a structural model of the African cassava mosaic virus CP yielded a non-random distribution at the periphery and, most importantly, highlighted those amino acids that had been identified in whitefly-transmission experiments before. These results establish the basis for an analysis of the evolutionary liberty of certain amino acid positions of the CP, and their impact on the deciphering of insect transmission determinants is discussed.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of heterokaryotypic mosaic twins discordant for fetal sex.

    PubMed

    Schmid, O; Trautmann, U; Ashour, H; Ulmer, R; Pfeiffer, R A; Beinder, E

    2000-12-01

    The presence of a monozygotic twin gestation with discordant sex of the twins is a very rare constellation, which is referred to as heterokaryotypic monozygotic pregnancy. This constellation can develop either due to a chromosomal aberration after twinning or is - as in the following case - due to a mitotic error before twinning and an unequal distribution of mosaicism in both embryos. So far the diagnosis of heterokaryotypic monozygotic pregnancy has always been made postnatally, with only one exception (Gonsoulin et al., 1990). In this case we suspected the presence of monozygotic twins ultrasonically because of the chorionic and amniotic membrane characteristics. Surprisingly the sex of the fetuses was discrepant. As one of them had hydrops and a structural heart defect, we carried out an amniocentesis, which revealed mosaicism [45,X/46,X,i(Y)(p10)] of both fetuses. The female fetus with a predominant 45,X set of chromosomes and the typical intrauterine signs of the Ullrich-Turner syndrome (massive hygroma colli, hydrops fetalis and multiple cardiac defects) died during the 25th week of gestation due to cardiac decompensation. The other fetus appeared to be male with a predominance of a 46,X,i(Y)(p10) set of chromosomes and was born a few days after the intrauterine death of the hydropic fetus. In conclusion, our observation shows that ultrasonic evidence of discordant fetal sex in twins does not necessarily exclude monozygosity. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Statistical characterization of engineered tissues using confocal mosaic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitz, David; Ardeshiri, Ardalan; Ahmed, Jabeer; Gareau, Daniel S.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2010-02-01

    Characterization of engineered tissues using optical methods often involves tradeoff between the fraction of total volume that is imaged and the spatial resolution. The limitation is not technological but rather practical, having more to do with effective probe designs and computer memory storage for large datasets. In this paper, we propose using confocal mosaicing, a technique used to characterize large volumes of excisioned biopsies from Mohs surgeries, to characterizing collagen gels. This technique stitches together high-resolution 3D images of a series adjacent millimeter sized regions that collectively make up areas that are ~cm2. Image acquisition time is approximately 5 min. The resulting high-resolution images closely resemble hematoxylin and eosin histological sections, only obtained without the time-consuming embedding and sectioning steps. Disk-shaped collagen gels that are 1 ml volume and ~1.5 cm diameter were prepared with smooth muscle cells and imaged at days 1 and 5. Using the digital staining technique, we were able to survey the spatial distribution of cells in the hydrogel and assess spatial heterogeneity in 3D from the fluorescence data. The reflectance data provided information on collagen fibril structure and matrix remodeling by the cells. Digital staining presented the data in a way that is easily interpreted by tissue engineers. Altogether, we believe confocal mosaicing and digital staining represents an important technological novelty that significantly advances nondestructive optical evaluation of engineered tissues.

  13. The retinal mosaics of opsin expression in invertebrates and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Rister, Jens; Desplan, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Colour vision is found in many invertebrate and vertebrate species. It is the ability to discriminate objects based on the wavelength of emitted light independent of intensity. As it requires the comparison of at least two photoreceptor types with different spectral sensitivities, this process is often mediated by a mosaic made of several photoreceptor types. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the formation of retinal mosaics and the regulation of photopigment (opsin) expression in the fly, mouse and human retina. Despite distinct evolutionary origins, as well as major differences in morphology and phototransduction machineries, there are significant similarities in the stepwise cell-fate decisions that lead from progenitor cells to terminally differentiated photoreceptors that express a particular opsin. Common themes include i) the use of binary transcriptional switches that distinguish classes of photoreceptors, ii) the use of gradients of signaling molecules for regional specializations, iii) stochastic choices that pattern the retina and iv) the use of permissive factors with multiple roles in different photoreceptor types. PMID:21557510

  14. A Physics MOSAIC: Scientific Skills and Explorations for Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, S.; Clements, C.; Erickson, P. J.; Rogers, A.

    2010-12-01

    A 21st century education needs to teach students how to manage information in an ever more digital age. High school students (like all of us) are inundated with information, and informed citizenship increasingly depends on the ability to be a critical consumer of data. In the scientific community, experimental data from remote, high quality systems are becoming increasingly available in real time. The same networks providing data also allow scientists to use the ubiquity of internet access to enlist citizen scientists to help with research. As a means of addressing and leveraging these trends, we describe a classroom unit developed as part of the NSF Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program at MIT Haystack Observatory in the summer of 2010. The unit uses accessible, real-time science data to teach high school physics students about the nature and process of scientific research, with the goal of teaching how to be an informed citizen, regardless of eventual vocation. The opportunity to study the atmosphere provides increased engagement in the classroom, and students have an authentic experience of asking and answering scientific questions when the answer cannot simply be found on the Web. MOSAIC (Mesospheric Ozone System for Atmospheric Investigations in the Classroom) is a relatively inexpensive tool for measuring mesospheric ozone by taking advantage of the sensitivity of commercially produced satellite TV dishes to the 11.072545 GHz rotational transition of ozone. Because the signal from ozone in the lower atmosphere is pressure-broadened, the system is able to isolate the signal from the 1% of Earth’s ozone that comes from the mesosphere. Our teaching unit takes advantage of measurements collected since 2008 from six East Coast observing sites at high schools and colleges. Data are available online within a day of their collection, and an easy to use web interface allows students to track mesospheric ozone in frequency, time of day, or day of year. The

  15. The entry of cucumber mosaic virus into cucumber xylem is facilitated by co-infection with zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Nobuhara, Shinya; Nishimura, Miho; Ryang, Bo-Song; Naoe, Masaki; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Kosaka, Yoshitaka; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the synergistic effects of co-infection by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on viral distribution in the vascular tissues of cucumber. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that ZYMV was present in both the phloem and xylem tissues. ZYMV-RNA was detected in both the xylem wash and guttation fluid of ZYMV-inoculated cucumber. Steam treatment at a stem internode indicated that ZYMV enters the xylem vessels and moves through them but does not cause systemic infection in the plant. CMV distribution in singly infected cucumbers was restricted to phloem tissue. By contrast, CMV was detected in the xylem tissue of cotyledons in plants co-infected with CMV and ZYMV. Although both ZYMV-RNA and CMV-RNA were detected in the xylem wash and upper internodes of steam-treated, co-infected cucumbers grown at 24 °C, neither virus was detected in the upper leaves using an ELISA assay. Genetically modified CMV harboring the ZYMV HC-Pro gene was distributed in the xylem and phloem tissues of singly inoculated cucumber cotyledons. These results indicate that the ZYMV HC-Pro gene facilitates CMV entry into the xylem vessels of co-infected cucumbers.

  16. Virus-derived transgenes expressing hairpin RNA give immunity to Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An effective method for obtaining resistant transgenic plants is to induce RNA silencing by expressing virus-derived dsRNA in plants and this method has been successfully implemented for the generation of different plant lines resistant to many plant viruses. Results Inverted repeats of the partial Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) gene and the partial Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) replication protein (Rep) gene were introduced into the plant expression vector and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was carried out and three transgenic tobacco lines (MP16-17-3, MP16-17-29 and MP16-17-58) immune to TMV infection and three transgenic tobacco lines (Rep15-1-1, Rep15-1-7 and Rep15-1-32) immune to CMV infection were obtained. Virus inoculation assays showed that the resistance of these transgenic plants could inherit and keep stable in T4 progeny. The low temperature (15℃) did not influence the resistance of transgenic plants. There was no significant correlation between the resistance and the copy number of the transgene. CMV infection could not break the resistance to TMV in the transgenic tobacco plants expressing TMV hairpin MP RNA. Conclusions We have demonstrated that transgenic tobacco plants expressed partial TMV movement gene and partial CMV replicase gene in the form of an intermolecular intron-hairpin RNA exhibited complete resistance to TMV or CMV infection. PMID:21269519

  17. The genome structure of kyuri green mottle mosaic tobamovirus and its comparison with that of cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus.

    PubMed

    Tan, S H; Nishiguchi, M; Murata, M; Motoyoshi, F

    2000-01-01

    The genome of the Y strain of kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV-Y) has been completely sequenced. Its genomic structure and sequence show it to be a typical tobamovirus, that is closest to, but distinct from, that of cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus (CGMMV). The genomic sequence of KGMMV-Y was compared in detail with that of the SH strain of CGMMV. The sequences of their 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions were 74% and 63% identical. The amino acid sequences of the shorter and longer (read through) RNA replicase components, movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP) were 58, 58. 60 and 46% identical, respectively. The KGMMV-Y genome sequence was also compared partly to that of another strain of KGMMV, KGMMV-C. The CP sequences of KGMMV-Y and KGMMV-C differed by 20 amino acid residues, suggesting that their relationship is more distant than the relationship between CGMMV-SH and CGMMV-W whose CP sequences are identical. The MPs of KGMMV-Y and KGMMV-C, however, differ only by one amino acid residue, although three amino acid substitutions are present in the MPs between CGMMV-SH and CGMMV-W. Two long stretches, one in the RNA replicase and the other in the MP, were highly conserved in KGMMV and CGMMV.

  18. Recombination analysis of Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) in the Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup of potyviruses.

    PubMed

    Gell, Gyöngyvér; Sebestyén, Endre; Balázs, Ervin

    2015-02-01

    Recombination among RNA viruses is a natural phenomenon that appears to have played a significant role in the species development and the evolution of many strains. It also has particular significance for the risk assessment of plants which have been genetically modified for disease resistance by incorporating viral sequences into their genomes. However, the exact recombination events taking place in viral genomes are not investigated in detail for many virus groups. In this analysis, different single-stranded positive-sense RNA potyviruses were compared using various in silico recombination detection methods and new recombination events in the Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup were detected. For an extended in silico recombination analysis, two of the analyzed Maize dwarf mosaic virus full-length genomes were sequenced additionally during this work. These results strengthen the evidence that recombination is a major driving force in virus evolution, and the emergence of new virus variants in the SCMV subgroup, paired with mutations, could generate viruses with altered biological properties. The intra- and interspecific homolog recombinations seem to be a general trait in this virus group, causing little or no changes to the amino acid of the progenies. However, we found a few breakpoints between the members of SCMV subgroup and the weed-infecting distant relatives, but only a few methods of the RDP3 package predicted these events with low significance level.

  19. Increased low-level chromosome 21 mosaicism in older individuals with Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, E.C.; Genovese, M.; Ye, Ling Ling

    1997-01-20

    During a study of the familial aggregation of Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer disease (AD), we observed an increase in mosaicism for disomy 21 in older individuals with DS. In a total of 213 DS subjects who were studied cytogenetically, only 1 of 121 (0.8%) under age 45 exhibited mosaicism, while 14 of 92 (15.2%) who were age 45 or older had mosaicism. Mosaicism in this report connotes {open_quotes}low-level{close_quotes} mosaicism, where all 15 individuals exhibited a modal chromosome number of 47 (i.e., trisomy 21), and at least two cells lacked one of the three chromosomes 21. The occurrence of aneuploidy for chromosomes 15, 17, and X increased with age, and an inverse correlation between chromosome loss and size was also observed. Because older individuals had not been karyotyped at birth, it was not possible to determine whether our observations were due to either increased survival of mosaic individuals or accumulation of disomy 21 cells via increased chromosome loss with aging of the trisomy 21 individual. Using a modeling approach involving life table methods, we obtained results that suggested acquired mosaicism as the predominant mechanism to explain our findings. These results support the hypothesis that as individuals with DS age, there is an increased loss of chromosome 21. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Mosaicism for dominant collagen VI mutations as a cause for intra-familial phenotypic variability

    PubMed Central

    Donkervoort, Sandra; Hu, Ying; Stojkovic, Tanya; Voermans, Nicol; Foley, A. Reghan; Leach, Meganne E; Dastgir, Jahannaz; Bolduc, Veronique; Cullup, Thomas; de Becdelièvre, Alix; Yang, Lin; Su, Hai; Meilleur, Katherine; Schindler, Alice B.; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Richard, Pascale; Butterfield, Russell; Winder, Thomas L.; Crawford, Thomas; Weiss, Robert B.; Muntoni, Francesco; Allamand, Valérie; Bönnemann, Carsten G.

    2015-01-01

    Collagen VI-related dystrophies and myopathies (COL6-RD) are a group of disorders that form a wide phenotypic spectrum, ranging from severe Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), intermediate phenotypes, to the milder Bethlem myopathy (BM). Both inter- and intra-familial variable expressivity are commonly observed. We present clinical, immunohistochemical, and genetic data on four COL6-RD families with marked inter-generational phenotypic heterogeneity. This variable expression seemingly masquerades as anticipation is due to parental mosaicism for a dominant mutation, with subsequent full inheritance and penetrance of the mutation in the heterozygous offspring. We also present an additional 5th simplex patient identified as a mosaic carrier. Parental mosaicism was confirmed in the four families through quantitative analysis of the ratio of mutant versus wild-type allele (COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3) in genomic DNA (gDNA) from various tissues; including blood, saliva, and dermal fibroblasts. Consistent with somatic mosaicism, parental samples had lower ratios of mutant versus wild-type allele compared to the fully heterozygote offspring. However, there was notable variability of the mutant allele levels between tissues tested, ranging from 16% (saliva) to 43% (fibroblasts) in one mosaic father. This is the first report demonstrating mosaicism as a cause of intra-familial/inter-generational variability of COL6-RD, and suggests that sporadic and parental mosaicism may be more common than previously suspected. PMID:25204870

  1. Implications of fetoplacental mosaicism on cell-free DNA testing for sex chromosome aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Grati, Francesca Romana; Bajaj, Komal; Zanatta, Valentina; Malvestiti, Francesca; Malvestiti, Barbara; Marcato, Livia; Grimi, Beatrice; Maggi, Federico; Simoni, Giuseppe; Gross, Susan J; Ferreira, Jose

    2017-08-11

    The unique biological behavior of sex chromosomes has implications for cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing. Our purpose is to predict the (1) false positive/negative rates of cfDNA testing consequent to fetoplacental mosaicism for any sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCA) and (2) positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values of a high-risk and low-risk cfDNA result for any SCA. This is a retrospective analysis of 67 030 chorionic villus sampling karyotypes, including fetoplacental mosaicism cases. Non-mosaic 45, X is associated with cystic hygroma/increased nuchal translucency and fetal anomalies. The false positive rate consequent to confined placental mosaicism is predicted to be 0.05%. The estimated false negative rate is in the range of 0% to 5.7% for all non-mosaic SCAs; it is 70% for mosaic 45, X with normal ultrasound. The predicted PPV on amniocytes is very high for most SCAs (94.4-99.4%). However, the stratified analysis shows that the PPV is much lower for 45, X without ultrasound anomalies compared with 45, X with abnormal scan (51% or 71%, vs 99%, respectively). Mosaicism is a major issue for SCA cfDNA testing, and prenatal confirmation, preferentially with amniocentesis if there are no ultrasound anomalies, remains important in counseling. As PPV varies on the basis of the presence of an ultrasound anomaly, skilled evaluation is critical. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Mosaic variegated aneuploidy with microcephaly: A rare cytogenetic syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Meck, J.M.; Kozma, C.; Stratakis, C.

    1994-09-01

    The term {open_quotes}mosaic variegated aneuploidy with microcephaly{close_quotes} describes the finding of a variety of chromosomal aneuploidies within the same individual. This mutation affecting mitotic segregation has been reported previously in only 7 persons. We report here on male and female siblings with this condition. Proband 1 died at 57 days of age; proband 2 is 7 months old. Amniocentesis performed on the first sibling only revealed multiple aneuploidies (+2, +6, +X, tetrasomy 2, double trisomy X and 11, and deletion Xq); the majority of cells were normal and the abnormal cells did not constitute true mosaicism. Postnatally, blood on proband 1 had 20/50 cells (40%) with +18, single cells with +10 and +20, and 28/50 normal cells (56%). This was initially interpreted as trisomy 18 mosaicism not detected in amniocytes. Blood from proband 2 showed the following; after 48 hrs in culture, 4/50 trisomic cells (+3, +6, +18, XXY); after 72 hrs 3/50 trisomic cells (+5, +6, +18); after 96 hrs, 7/50 aneuploid cells (+2, +8, +9, +10, +18, double trisomy 11 and 18, tetrasomy 2 with +18). Skin biopsy on proband 2 revealed trisomy 2 in 5/140 cells (4%), one cell each +18 and +19, on cell tetrasomy 2, one cell XXY and +5; 131 cells (94%) were normal. Paternal skin fibroblasts had trisomy 6 in 2/100 cells and 1 cell trisomy 5; the remainder were normal. One trisomic cell (+18) in 100 was found in maternal skin fibroblasts. Trisomy 18 was the most common aneuploidy in the probands` blood. Aneuploidy for chromosomes 2 and X were more common in amniocytes and skin. No trisomies of chromosomes 1, 4, 12-17, 22 or Y were observed; acrocentrics rarely malsegregated. These findings are consistent with those of the other 7 reported patients, and constitute a distinct syndrome of multiple chromosomal aneuploidies associated with microcephaly. Although rare, cytogeneticists and clinical geneticists should be aware of this mitotic mutant.

  3. CRISM MTRDR Applications - Hyperspectral Targeted Observation Local Area Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, F. P.; Seelos, K. D.; Viviano, C. E.; Morgan, F.; Humm, D. C.; Murchie, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    for the majority of the Mars science community. For sites where multiple overlapping high quality CRISM targeted observations are available, the MTRDR data processing also allows for the generation of scientifically compelling mosaic products. The first such product set was generated for the Gale Crater MSL landing ellipse and field site and was made available to the MSL team prior to landing. The CRISM Gale Crater mosaic product set illustrates local area VNIR and IR surface spectral variability and the distribution of ferric and mafic minerals, hydrated phases, and phyllosilicates. The Gale Crater product set and targeted observations mosaics for additional sites of particular scientific interest will be presented in detail, highlighting the integrated utility of the end-to-end CRISM hyperspectral targeted observation data processing pipeline and mosaicking procedures.

  4. 45,X/46,XY mosaicism: the role of ultrasound in prenatal diagnosis and counselling.

    PubMed

    Lazebnik, N; Filkins, K A; Jackson, C L; Linn, K B; Doshi, N N; Hogge, W A

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the benefit of ultrasound evaluation for fetuses with prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. The charts of all patients who underwent chorionic villus sampling and/or amniocentesis between 1 March 1990 and 31 October 1995 were screened for 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. Cases were divided on the basis of the results of the confirmatory amniocentesis into two groups: (1) confined placental mosaicism (n = 4); and (2) true fetal 45,X/46,XY mosaicism (n = 4). All patients underwent high-resolution detailed ultrasound study between 16 and 22 weeks. If the initial ultrasound study failed to visualize fetal genitalia, scanning was repeated in 2 weeks. Chromosome analysis was carried out on the newborn's skin to confirm the prenatal result. Six cases were found to have 45,X/46,XY mosaicism on chorionic villus sampling. Amniocentesis indicated a normal 46,XY male karyotype for three fetuses and true fetal 45,X/46,XY mosaicism for two cases. One patient declined follow-up amniocentesis. At birth, this newborn was documented to have normal male genitalia and a 46,XY karyotype. An additional two cases underwent amniocentesis only and were documented to have 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. High-resolution detailed ultrasound study between 16 and 22 weeks revealed seven fetuses with normal male genitalia and one fetus with ambiguous genitalia. Of the four neonates with true 45,X/46,XY mosaicism this was the only one found to have ambiguous genitalia. We conclude that the work-up of patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism should include ultrasound study to look for ambiguous genitalia. This allows appropriate counselling regarding the natural history of the condition and aids in the planning for management in the postnatal period.

  5. Properties of a virus causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea L. in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, T A; Taiwo, M A; Thottappilly, G A; Shoyinka, S A; Proll, E; Rabenstein, F

    1998-06-01

    A sap transmissible virus, causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea, was isolated at vegetable farms in Amuwo Odofin, Tejuoso, and Abule Ado, Lagos, Nigeria. The virus had a restricted host range confined to a few species of the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae families. It failed to infect several other species of the Aizoaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae and Tiliaceae families. The virus was transmitted in a non-persistent manner by Aphis spiraecola and Toxoptera citricidus but not by eight other aphid species tested. There was no evidence of transmission by seeds of C. argentae varieties. The viral coat protein had a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of about 30.2 K. Electron microscopy of purified virus preparations revealed flexuous rod shaped particles of about 750 nm in length. Serological studies were performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and Western blot analysis. The virus reacted positively with an universal potyvirus group monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and MoAb P-3-3H8 raised against peanut stripe potyvirus. It also reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against several potyviruses including asparagus virus-1 (AV-1), turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2), plum pox virus (PPV), soybean mosaic virus (SoyMV), lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and beet mosaic virus (BMV) in at least one of the serological assays used. On the basis of host range, mode of transmission, and available literature data, the celosia virus seems to be different from potyviruses previously reported to infect vegetables in Nigeria. The name celosia mosaic virus (CIMV) has been proposed for this virus.

  6. Detection of SRY in 45,X/47,XYY mosaicism leading to phenotypic female.

    PubMed

    Imai, A; Horibe, S; Fuseya, T; Takagi, H; Takagi, A; Tamaya, T

    1997-02-01

    SRY on the Y chromosome initiates male sex determination. We tested a phenotypic female with sex chromosome mosaicism, X/XYY, for SRY expression. SRY was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in genomic DNA from a female patient with a sex chromosome mosaic complement, 45,X/47,XYY, followed by sequencing analyses. The patient yielded the PCR product with predicted size and homology to the consensus sequence of SRY. The demonstration of SRY provides evidence that the female phenotype in the presence of sex chromosome mosaicism, X/XYY, may result from alterations in another part of the sex-determining pathway or downstream from SRY.

  7. A haploid-diploid-triploid mosaic of the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa.

    PubMed

    Lampert, K P; Steinlein, C; Schmid, M; Fischer, P; Schartl, M

    2007-01-01

    We report the finding of the first haploid-diploid-triploid mosaic fish from the family Poeciliidae. The animal was derived from a laboratory cross of a female F1 hybrid of Poecilia mexicana and P. latipinna with a male from an ornamental strain derived from P. mexicana and P. sphenops (Black molly). It was identified because of its unusual pigmentation pattern and molecular methods (flow cytometry, NOR staining) confirmed its mosaic genotype. The mode of mosaic formation and the possible importance for poeciliid fish evolution are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Nondestructive testing of plastered mosaics with the use of active thermography approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheilakou, Eleni; Avdelidis, Nico P.; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Koui, Maria; Bendada, Abdel Hakim; Maldague, Xavier P.

    2010-05-01

    In this work, different mosaics covered with various plasters (of thickness and compositions) were evaluated in lab by means of active long wave and mid wave thermography approaches, with the intention of detecting the tesserae beneath the plastered surface. Thermal images as well as thermal contrast curves between plastered surfaces and plastered mosaics were recorded. Special considerations concerning the applicability and accuracy of the used approaches for this specific application are presented. Results from the assessment are presented and discussed, indicating that images seeing through the mortar-plaster on plastered mosaic surfaces can be obtained using active thermography approaches.

  9. Study on hologram mosaic algorithm based on Harris corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jiabao; Tian, Qiuhong; Sun, Zhengrong; Huang, Liu; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of the small field of the view caused by CCD in the process of the hologram record, the hologram mosaic algorithm based on the Harris corners is proposed. The Harris corners in multi-scale are extracted and the mismatching points are removed. The final homography is calculated by using the improved RANSAC algorithm based on L-M algorithm. Finally, the stitched hologram with high quality can be obtained based on the weighted average fusion algorithm. It can overcome the influence to the hologram that the incident angles of the object beam are not consistent. Two experiments carried out with different reconstructed distance demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can realize the measurement of the big object by using the hologram method. Furthermore, it has high accuracy and strong robustness.

  10. The assembly of papaya mosaic virus coat protein with DNA.

    PubMed

    Erickson, J W; Bancroft, J B

    1980-01-01

    Products of specific (pH 8.0-8.5) and nonspecific (pH 6.0) assembly reactions of papaya mosaic virus (PMV) coat protein with DNA are described. The strandedness, topology, and sugar moiety of the nucleic acid are important parameters for assembly in nonspecific conditions. The linear, single-stranded form of lambda DNA, but not the double-stranded form, reacted with PMV protein to form multiply initiated particles whose helical segments apparently annealed to produce continuous tubular particles. With the circular, single-stranded DNA of phi X174, partially tubular, partially extended particles were made. Poly(dA), unlike poly(A) [Erickson JW, AbouHaidar M, Bancroft JB: Virology 90:60, 1978], was not encapsidated by PMV protein under specific assembly conditions. With all DNAs tested, extended particles were the only products formed in specific conditions at pH 8.5.

  11. Quasispecies nature of Pepino mosaic virus and its evolutionary dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Jackowiak, Paulina; Borodynko, Natasza; Figlerowicz, Marek; Pospieszny, Henryk

    2010-10-01

    Genetic variability is an essential feature of RNA viruses. It allows them to adapt to the ever-changing environmental conditions. Important biological properties of the viruses, their infectivity, adaptability, and host range, may also depend on the level of quasispecies diversity. Here, we present the analysis of the genetic polymorphism of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). The examined populations were isolated from the naturally infected tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum). In order to determine the complexity of the PepMV populations, the number of different viral variants and their genetic diversity was established. Moreover, phylogenetic trees were created to depict relations between the identified variants. For the first time we have shown that the PepMV exists as a quasispecies. The observed level of genetic variability allows PepMV for a quick and flexible adaptation to different hosts. Our results suggest that the level of PepMV variability possibly influences the course of infection.

  12. Segmentation of mosaicism in cervicographic images using support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhiyun; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Jeronimo, Jose; Thoma, George R.

    2009-02-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM), in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), is creating a large digital repository of cervicographic images for the study of uterine cervix cancer prevention. One of the research goals is to automatically detect diagnostic bio-markers in these images. Reliable bio-marker segmentation in large biomedical image collections is a challenging task due to the large variation in image appearance. Methods described in this paper focus on segmenting mosaicism, which is an important vascular feature used to visually assess the degree of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The proposed approach uses support vector machines (SVM) trained on a ground truth dataset annotated by medical experts (which circumvents the need for vascular structure extraction). We have evaluated the performance of the proposed algorithm and experimentally demonstrated its feasibility.

  13. Multimodal confocal mosaicing microscopy: an emphasis on squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nathaniel W.; Sensibaugh, Jordan; Ardeshiri, Ardaland; Blanchard, Adam; Jacques, Steven; Gareau, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Our previous study reported a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 89.2% in rapidly detecting Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCCs) when nuclei were stained with acridine orange. Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCCs) and infiltrative BCCs remain difficult to detect. More complete screening can be achieved utilizing both acridine orange for nuclei staining and eosin for cytoplasmic contrast, using two lasers to excite the two stains independently. Nuclear fluorescence is achieved by staining with acridine orange (0.5mM, 60 s), and cytoplasmic fluorescence is achieved by staining with eosin working solution (30 s). This work shows good morphological contrast of SCC and infiltrative BCC with eosin, acridine orange, and reflectance, and presents a means for rapid SCC and infiltrative BCC detection in fresh skin excisions using multimodal confocal microscopy. In addition, digital staining is shown to effectively simulate hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology with confocal mosaics.

  14. The epigenetic landscape of aneuploidy: constitutional mosaicism leading the way?

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Josef

    2014-02-01

    The role of structural genetic changes in human disease has received substantial attention in recent decades, but surprisingly little is known about numerical chromosomal abnormalities, even though they have been recognized since the days of Boveri as partaking in different cellular pathophysiological processes such as cancer and genomic disorders. The current knowledge of the genetic and epigenetic consequences of aneuploidy is reviewed herein, with a special focus on using mosaic genetic syndromes to study the DNA methylation footprints and expressional effects associated with whole-chromosomal gains. Recent progress in understanding the debated role of aneuploidy as a driver or passenger in malignant transformation, as well as how the cell responds to and regulates excess genetic material in experimental settings, is also discussed in detail.

  15. Effect of abscissic acid on tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M D; Ghosh, A; Verma, V S; Dattagupta, M

    1983-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) did not affect the infectivity of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in vitro. The same dilutions of ABA when applied on the leaves of Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reyn. at different intervals before inoculation affected development of local lesions variably at different dilutions. The inhibition of local lesion formation was reduced at other intervals leading to stimulation at thirty minutes and six hours intervals. Post-inoculation treatments with 2 mg/l of ABA gave stimulation of local lesion formation, though other dilutions gave inhibition. Viral concentration was stimulated in the tomato seedlings root dipped in 0.2 mg/l of ABA for 6 hours and inoculated 24 hours after transplantation. Incorporation of different concentrations of ABA into tissue culture medium reduced the growth of the TMV infected tobacco callus tissue and stimulated the infectivity of the tissue grown over it assayed after three weeks.

  16. Characterization of crystals of satellite panicum mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Day, J; Ban, N; Patel, S; Larson, S B; McPherson, A

    1994-05-20

    Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) has been purified from pearl millet and obtained in a variety of different crystal forms, at least two of which appear suitable for high resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. The first is of cubic space group P4(2)32 with a = b = c = 183.1 A and two virus particles in the unit cell. The second is of a primitive orthorhombic space group with a = 166.1 A, b = 266.7 A and c = 269.1 A, with four virus particles in the unit cell. While the cubic crystal has as its asymmetric unit one twelfth of the icosahedron, or five capsid protein subunits, the asymmetric unit of the orthorhombic crystals is an entire particle. The cubic crystals diffract to at least 2.8 A resolution. We have also succeeded in crystallizing, but not yet characterizing the master virus, PMV.

  17. Heterogeneity in pepper isolates of cucumber mosaic virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez-Alvarado, G.; Kurath, G.; Dodds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) field isolates from pepper crops in Cali-fornia were characterized and compared by nucleic acid hybridization subgrouping, virion electrophoresis, and biological effects in several hosts. Isolates, belonging to subgroup I or subgroup II, were found that induced severe symptoms in mechanically inoculated bell pep-pers. Only two isolates, both from subgroup II, were mild. A group of 19 isolates collected from a single field were all in subgroup II and appeared identical by virion electrophoresis, but they exhibited varying degrees of symptom severity in peppers. As a more detailed indicator of heterogeneity, these 19 isolates were examined by RNase protection assays to delect sequence variation in the coat protein gene region of their genomes. The patterns of bands observed were complex and a high degree of genomic heterogeneity was detected between isolates, with no apparent correlation to symptomatology in bell pepper.

  18. Striping artifact reduction in lunar orbiter mosaic images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mlsna, P.A.; Becker, T.

    2006-01-01

    Photographic images of the moon from the 1960s Lunar Orbiter missions are being processed into maps for visual use. The analog nature of the images has produced numerous artifacts, the chief of which causes a vertical striping pattern in mosaic images formed from a series of filmstrips. Previous methods of stripe removal tended to introduce ringing and aliasing problems in the image data. This paper describes a recently developed alternative approach that succeeds at greatly reducing the striping artifacts while avoiding the creation of ringing and aliasing artifacts. The algorithm uses a one dimensional frequency domain step to deal with the periodic component of the striping artifact and a spatial domain step to handle the aperiodic residue. Several variations of the algorithm have been explored. Results, strengths, and remaining challenges are presented. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  19. Technology for large digital mosaics of Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Mcleod, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures and software for the digital mosaicking of Landsat data are discussed. It is noted that image processing in support of JPL's planetary program has furnished the software and procedures necessary to achieve digital image mosaicking of vidicon imagery using rigid projective geometry. The incorporation of ground-control points, by either manual or automatic ground-control point file identification, has yielded rms positional accuracies exceeding the National Map Accuracy Standards. Rotation to north vertical is effected at low computational cost. It is possible to cut input data frames in any arbitrary shape to remove cloud cover and accommodate terrain offset effects. In similar fashion, the final digital mosaic can be segmented arbitrarily to conform to user requirements. Information is presented on applications in Pennsylvania and Bolivia.

  20. Rapid evolutionary dynamics of zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Heather E; Holmes, Edward C; Stephenson, Andrew G

    2008-04-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important virus of cucurbit crops. However, little is known about the rate at which this virus has evolved within members of the family Cucurbitaceae, or the timescale of its epidemiological history. Herein, we present the first analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of ZYMV. Using a Bayesian coalescent approach we show that the coat protein of ZYMV has evolved at a mean rate of 5.0 x 10(-4) nucleotide substitutions per site, per year. Notably, this rate is equivalent to those observed in animal RNA viruses. Using the same approach we show that the lineages of ZYMV sampled here have an ancestry that dates back no more than 800 years, suggesting that human activities have played a central role in the dispersal of ZYMV. Finally, an analysis of phylogeographical structure provides strong evidence for the in situ evolution of ZYMV within individual countries.