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Sample records for moss hylocomium splendens

  1. Testate amoebae (Protista) communities in Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. (Bryophyta): relationships with altitude, and moss elemental chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Edward A D; Bragazza, Luca; Gerdol, Renato

    2004-12-01

    We studied the testate amoebae in the moss Hylocomium splendens along an altitudinal gradient from 1000 to 2200 m asl. in the south-eastern Alps of Italy in relation to micro- and macro-nutrient content of moss plants. Three mountainous areas were chosen, two of them characterised by calcareous bedrock, the third by siliceous bedrock. A total of 25 testate amoebae taxa were recorded, with a mean species richness of 9.3 per sampling plot. In a canonical correspondence analysis, 63.1% of the variation in the amoebae data was explained by moss tissue chemistry, namely by C, P, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Na content and a binary site variable. We interpreted this result as an indirect effect of moss chemistry on testate amoebae through an influence on prey organisms. Although two species responded to altitude, there was no overall significant relationship between testate amoebae diversity or community structure and altitude, presumably because our sampling protocol aimed at minimizing the variability due to vegetation types and soil heterogeneity. This suggests that previous evidence of altitudinal or latitudinal effects on testate amoebae diversity may at least in part be due to a sampling bias, namely differences in soil type or moss species sampled.

  2. Magnetic properties of terrestrial moss (Hylocomium splendens) along a north-south profile crossing the city of Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; McEnroe, Suzanne A; Willemoes-Wissing, Bjørn

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic measurements are routinely used in geophysics and environmental sciences to obtain detailed information about concentrations and quality of iron minerals. Here, magnetic properties of 38 terrestrial moss samples (Hylocomium splendens) from a ~120km south-north transect through Oslo are studied to gain better insight into the nature and origin of their Fe fraction. The concentration-dependent quantities, magnetic susceptibility k, and isothermal remanent magnetization IRM(700mT) after weight normalization have significantly higher values in urban regions, and parallel the previously found concentration signals of 16 out of 29 chemical elements (Ag, Al, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pt, Sb, Ti, and Zn). Because there is no evidence that Hylocomium splendens produces biogenic magnetic remanence carriers, the increase in IRM is attributed to adsorption of dust containing iron oxide minerals. This agrees with previous observations that Ti concentrations, related to local mineral dust, have a peak in Oslo, and at sites close to known dust sources. Scanning electron microscopy images also showed an increased density of minerogenic particles on the moss surfaces in the urban samples, which qualitatively supports the dust based interpretation. The concentration-independent ratios k/Fe and IRM(700mT)/Fe also have extreme values in the urban parts of the transect. This indicates that more of the total iron occurs in magnetically ordered form and in remanence carriers, interpreted as adsorbed dust. In addition, purely magnetic ratios displayed differences in urban and rural areas, indicating that their magnetic dust particles are inherently of different types. Therefore, it is likely that anthropogenic dust sources contribute considerably to the magnetic signal. Urban dust enhancement is not exclusively due to increased erosion, leading to higher loads of geogenic dust in the atmosphere, but also to specific anthropogenic sources from combustion, corrosion

  3. Mercury in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska: understanding the origin of pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Dołegowska, Sabina; Crock, James G; Lamothe, Paul J

    2010-09-01

    This report shows baseline concentrations of mercury in the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area and the remaining Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) region (south-central Poland), and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Like mosses from many European countries, Polish mosses were distinctly elevated in Hg, bearing a signature of cross-border atmospheric transport combined with local point sources. In contrast, Alaskan mosses showed lower Hg levels, reflecting mostly the underlying geology. Compared to HCM, Alaskan and Kielce mosses exhibited more uneven spatial distribution patterns of Hg. This variation is linked to topography and location of local point sources (Kielce) and underlying geology (Alaska). Both H. splendens and P. schreberi showed similar bioaccumulative capabilities of Hg in all four study areas. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mercury in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska: Understanding the origin of pollution sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Galuszka, A.; Dole, ogonekgowska S.; Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    This report shows baseline concentrations of mercury in the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area and the remaining Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) region (south-central Poland), and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Like mosses from many European countries, Polish mosses were distinctly elevated in Hg, bearing a signature of cross-border atmospheric transport combined with local point sources. In contrast, Alaskan mosses showed lower Hg levels, reflecting mostly the underlying geology. Compared to HCM, Alaskan and Kielce mosses exhibited more uneven spatial distribution patterns of Hg. This variation is linked to topography and location of local point sources (Kielce) and underlying geology (Alaska). Both H. splendens and P. schreberi showed similar bioaccumulative capabilities of Hg in all four study areas. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Stable sulphur isotope ratios in the moss species Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from the Kielce area (south-central Poland).

    PubMed

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Dołegowska, Sabina; Hałas, Stanisław; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2010-06-01

    Stable sulphur isotope determinations were performed on 18 moss samples collected at nine sites in forested areas of the city of Kielce. The delta(34)S of Hylocomium splendens varied from 4.4 to 7.1 per thousand, whereas the delta(34)S of Pleurozium schreberi was in the range of 3.7-9.1 per thousand. The Holy Cross Mountains mosses display a positive delta(34)S signature of airborne SO(2) and sulphates of anthropogenic origin, which is characteristic for this part of Europe. Some spatial variations in the delta(34)S of mosses are due to the interactions that occur between coal combustion emissions with diverse isotopic imprints, variations in wind direction and topographic features combined with biological fractionation.

  6. Distribution patterns of PAHs and trace elements in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from different forest communities: a case study, south-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka

    2007-04-01

    Twenty samples of the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi were collected at 10 sites of the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland) and analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 33 elements. The ring sequence of PAHs in the moss samples is: 4 (92-1040 ng x g(-1))>3 and 5 (21-272 ng x g(-1))>6 (<5-131 ng x g(-1)). H. splendens accumulates PAHs more effectively than P. schreberi, and therefore the former may be regarded as a better bioindicator of PAHs. No correlation was found between concentrations of PAHs and elements. However, both H. splendens and P. schreberi shows different bioaccumulative capabilities depending on the plant communities. The mosses growing in the dry pine forest Cladonio-Pinetum reveal higher levels of Fe, Na, Sr, Ti, Cr, Mo, Ni, V and higher mean concentrations of summation operator16 PAHs, whereas those from the continental coniferous forest Querco roboris-Pinetum are highlighted by elevated levels of B, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, Rb and Sb and lower mean concentrations of summation operator16 PAHs. These differences seem to be brought about by a higher biodiversity of the second forest type and its higher productivity that favors more effective cycling of elements.

  7. Interspecies and interregional comparisons of the chemistry of PAHs and trace elements in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Galuszka, A.; Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.; Dolegowska, S.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative biogeochemical studies performed on the same plant species in remote areas enable pinpointing interspecies and interregional differences of chemical composition. This report presents baseline concentrations of PAHs and trace elements in moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland) (HCM) and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Total PAH concentrations in the mosses of HCM were in the range of 473-2970 ??g kg-1 (dry weight basis; DW), whereas those in the same species of Alaska were 80-3390 ??g kg-1 DW. Nearly all the moss samples displayed the similar ring sequence: 3 > 4 > 5 > 6 for the PAHs. The 3 + 4 ring/total PAH ratios show statistically significant differences between HCM (0.73) and Alaska (0.91). The elevated concentrations of PAHs observed in some sampling locations of the Alaskan parks were linked to local combustion of wood, with a component of vehicle particle- and vapor-phase emissions. In HCM, the principal source of PAH emissions has been linked to residential and industrial combustion of coal and vehicle traffic. In contrast to HCM, the Alaskan mosses were distinctly elevated in most of the trace elements, bearing a signature of??the underlying geology. H.??splendens and P. schreberi showed diverse bioaccumulative capabilities of PAHs in all three study areas. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. [Annual production of moss layer in dark coniferous forests of Ket-Chulym Forest District (by the example of Moss Hylocomium splendens)].

    PubMed

    Koshurnikova, N N

    2007-01-01

    The biological production of the moss layer was analyzed in dark coniferous stands in progressive succession in the southern taiga in West Siberia. The rate of organic matter production by mosses changed from 15-22.2 g/(m2 y) in 50-90-year-old fir forests to 51.6 g/(m2 y) in 170-year-old mixed Siberian pine-spruce-fir stands. In forest phytocenosis that were formed with species replacement (after cuttings with understory clearing), the annual moss production (net primary production) ranged from 2.8 to 20.6 g/(m2 y). The annual moss cover production amounted to 35-36% of the moss photosynthetic biomass irrespective of the type of native stand progressive succession and the stand age.

  9. Boreal feather mosses secrete chemical signals to gain nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Bay, Guillaume; Nahar, Nurun; Oubre, Matthieu; Whitehouse, Martin J; Wardle, David A; Zackrisson, Olle; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Ulla

    2013-10-01

    The mechanistic basis of feather moss-cyanobacteria associations, a main driver of nitrogen (N) input into boreal forests, remains unknown. Here, we studied colonization by Nostoc sp. on two feather mosses that form these associations (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) and two acrocarpous mosses that do not (Dicranum polysetum and Polytrichum commune). We also determined how N availability and moss reproductive stage affects colonization, and measured N transfer from cyanobacteria to mosses. The ability of mosses to induce differentiation of cyanobacterial hormogonia, and of hormogonia to then colonize mosses and re-establish a functional symbiosis was determined through microcosm experiments, microscopy and acetylene reduction assays. Nitrogen transfer between cyanobacteria and Pleurozium schreberi was monitored by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). All mosses induced hormogonia differentiation but only feather mosses were subsequently colonized. Colonization on Pleurozium schreberi was enhanced during the moss reproductive phase but impaired by elevated N. Transfer of N from cyanobacteria to their host moss was observed. Our results reveal that feather mosses likely secrete species-specific chemo-attractants when N-limited, which guide cyanobacteria towards them and from which they gain N. We conclude that this signalling is regulated by N demands of mosses, and serves as a control of N input into boreal forests. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Air Pollution Studies in Tver Region of Russia using Moss-Biomonitoring with Nuclear Analytical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vergel, K. N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Povtoreyko, E. A.

    2007-11-26

    Results of the trace element atmospheric deposition in the Tver region based on moss analysis are presented. Moss samples were collected in the summer of 1999 and 2004 from 174 sites evenly distributed over the region. As bioaccumulators, two common mosses were used: Pleurozium schreberi ({approx}80%) and Hylocomium splendens ({approx}20%). The moss samples were subject to neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor JINR Dubna. The purpose of this study was to determine deposition patterns of potent sources of air pollution such as the largest Russian thermal power plant nearby the town of Konakovo and to reveal previously unknown pollution sources located in towns and settlements within the sampled territory. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to determine possible pollution sources over the examined territory. Comparison of the results obtained with those from other surveys in Russia and Europe shows that Tver region could be considered as a background territory for the Russian Federation.

  11. Analysis of mosses and topsoils for detecting sources of heavy metal pollution: multivariate and enrichment factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Dragović, S; Mihailović, N

    2009-10-01

    In order to assess the contribution of emission sources to the pollution of areas remote from industrial facilities, a combined approach of enrichment factor analysis and multivariate statistics was used for detecting the origin of heavy metal pollution in the Zlatibor ecosystem, in Serbia. Samples of moss (Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Scleropodium purum, Hypnum cupressiforme and Thuidum delicatulum) and of topsoil (0-5 cm) were collected in 2005. The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in moss and soil samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained by enrichment factor analysis and two multivariate statistical methods, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, enabled discrimination of the lithologic and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals in the mosses. Enrichment factors, calculated to evaluate the contribution to the metal content in moss from anthropogenic sources, revealed pollution of the investigated area by Cd and Pb, originating from long-range transport and fossil fuel burning.

  12. Air Pollution Studies in Opole Region, Poland, using the Moss Biomonitoring and INAA

    SciTech Connect

    Korzekwa, S.; Pankratova, Yu. S.; Frontasyeva, M.V.

    2007-11-26

    Biomonitoring of heavy metal atmospheric deposition with terrestrial moss is a well established technique for environmental studies. Moss samples of Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi have been collected around the city of Opole. A total of 34 elements including heavy metals and rare earths have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. We observe pronounced contamination of the sampled area with pollutants such as As, Sb, V, Ni, Mo, etc. at levels similar to those in the neighboring industrial regions. These results evidences long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants along with the influence of local pollution sources.

  13. Changes in Species, Areal Cover, and Production of Moss across a Fire Chronosequence in Interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; Munster, J.; Manies, K.L.; Mack, M.C.; Bubier, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to characterize the species and production rates of various upland mosses and their relationship to both site drainage and time since fire, annual net primary production of six common moss species was measured. Several stands located near Delta Junction, interior Alaska, were located. These stands ranged from one to 116 years since fire in well-drained (dry) and moderately to somewhat poorly drained (wet) black spruce (Picea mariana)-feathermoss systems. Moss species composition varied greatly during the fire cycle, with Ceratodon purpureus dominating the earliest years after a fire, Aulacomnium palustre dominating the transitional and older stages, and Hylocomium splendens dominating the oldest, mature sites. Polytrichum spp. was found at all sites. Average moss cover ranged from <10 percent in the youngest sites to almost 90 percent in the mature sites. Species from the genus Polytrichum were the most productive and contributed up to 30 g m2 of organic matter in one growing season. Least productive was Rhytidium rugosum, which contributed about 1.5 g m2 of organic matter in mature stands. Recovery of moss productivity after fire was not significantly different for wet and dry sites.

  14. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with chromium in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Ivana; Spirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the atmospheric deposition of chromium in Croatia by using moss biomonitoring technique and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Moss samples (Hylocomium splendens, Hypnum cupressiforme, Brachythecium rutabulum and Homalothecium Sericeum) were collected from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the country, during the summer and autumn of 2010. Collected samples were air dried, then cleaned and digested by using microwave digestion system. The median value obtained in this study (1.94 mg kg⁻¹) compared with the median value of previous investigation performed in 2006 (2.75 mg kg⁻¹) shows that the content of chromium decreased. Higher contents of chromium were found in moss samples collected in the regions of Central Croatia, in/near the cities of Zagreb, Sisak and Kutina, which, in the most of the cases, are result of anthropogenic activities. In Costal Croatia, higher values have a natural origin due to the significantly higher content of Cr in soil from this region. The results were compared with those from similar studies in neighboring and other Balkan countries. It was established that the content of chromium in Croatia is lower than in the most of these countries.

  15. The impact of simulated chronic nitrogen deposition on the biomass and N₂-fixation activity of two boreal feather moss-cyanobacteria associations.

    PubMed

    Gundale, Michael J; Bach, Lisbet H; Nordin, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Bryophytes achieve substantial biomass and play several key functional roles in boreal forests that can influence how carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling respond to atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (Nr). They associate with cyanobacteria that fix atmospheric N₂, and downregulation of this process may offset anthropogenic Nr inputs to boreal systems. Bryophytes also promote soil C accumulation by thermally insulating soils, and changes in their biomass influence soil C dynamics. Using a unique large-scale (0.1 ha forested plots), long-term experiment (16 years) in northern Sweden where we simulated anthropogenic Nr deposition, we measured the biomass and N₂-fixation response of two bryophyte species, the feather mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi. Our data show that the biomass declined for both species; however, N₂-fixation rates per unit mass and per unit area declined only for H. splendens. The low and high treatments resulted in a 29% and 54% reduction in total feather moss biomass, and a 58% and 97% reduction in total N₂-fixation rate per unit area, respectively. These results help to quantify the sensitivity of feather moss biomass and N₂ fixation to chronic Nr deposition, which is relevant for modelling ecosystem C and N balances in boreal ecosystems.

  16. The Sensitivity of Moss-Associated Nitrogen Fixation towards Repeated Nitrogen Input

    PubMed Central

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation is a major source of available N in ecosystems that receive low amounts of atmospheric N deposition. In boreal forest and subarctic tundra, the feather moss Hylocomium splendens is colonized by N2 fixing cyanobacteria that could contribute fundamentally to increase the N pool in these ecosystems. However, N2 fixation in mosses is inhibited by N input. Although this has been shown previously, the ability of N2 fixation to grow less sensitive towards repeated, increased N inputs remains unknown. Here, we tested if N2 fixation in H. splendens can recover from increased N input depending on the N load (0, 5, 20, 80, 320 kg N ha-1 yr-1) after a period of N deprivation, and if sensitivity towards increased N input can decrease after repeated N additions. Nitrogen fixation in the moss was inhibited by the highest N addition, but was promoted by adding 5 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and increased in all treatments during a short period of N deprivation. The sensitivity of N2 fixation towards repeated N additions seem to decrease in the 20 and 80 kg N additions, but increased in the highest N addition (320 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Recovery of N in leachate samples increased with increasing N loads, suggesting low retention capabilities of mosses if N input is above 5 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results demonstrate that the sensitivity towards repeated N additions is likely to decrease if N input does not exceed a certain threshold. PMID:26731691

  17. The Sensitivity of Moss-Associated Nitrogen Fixation towards Repeated Nitrogen Input.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation is a major source of available N in ecosystems that receive low amounts of atmospheric N deposition. In boreal forest and subarctic tundra, the feather moss Hylocomium splendens is colonized by N2 fixing cyanobacteria that could contribute fundamentally to increase the N pool in these ecosystems. However, N2 fixation in mosses is inhibited by N input. Although this has been shown previously, the ability of N2 fixation to grow less sensitive towards repeated, increased N inputs remains unknown. Here, we tested if N2 fixation in H. splendens can recover from increased N input depending on the N load (0, 5, 20, 80, 320 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) after a period of N deprivation, and if sensitivity towards increased N input can decrease after repeated N additions. Nitrogen fixation in the moss was inhibited by the highest N addition, but was promoted by adding 5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), and increased in all treatments during a short period of N deprivation. The sensitivity of N2 fixation towards repeated N additions seem to decrease in the 20 and 80 kg N additions, but increased in the highest N addition (320 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). Recovery of N in leachate samples increased with increasing N loads, suggesting low retention capabilities of mosses if N input is above 5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). Our results demonstrate that the sensitivity towards repeated N additions is likely to decrease if N input does not exceed a certain threshold.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Feather Moss Associated Nitrogen Fixation in Coniferous and Deciduous Dominated Alaskan Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Dominant canopy tree species have strong effects on the composition and function of understory species. In boreal forests, forest floor bryophytes and their associated microbes are a primary source of ecosystem nitrogen (N) inputs, and thus an important process regulating ecosystem productivity. Bryophyte composition and abundance varies with forest composition, yet how such changes can affect ecosystem processes such as N fixation is still poorly understood. Our goal is to investigate how cyanobacteria-based N fixation occurring in the two most common feather mosses in the Alaskan boreal forest (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) varies among coniferous and deciduous forest types, over the growing season, and across a nutrient availability gradient. Twelve patches of H. splendens and P. schreberi were identified in three pairs (blocks) of adjacent stands of paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) and black spruce (Picea mariana) near Fairbanks, interior Alaska. Sampling occurred in one block in June, July, August, and September 2014, and in the three blocks once in August 2014. Moss leaf area, moisture and weight, as well as environmental variables such as air temperature and canopy cover were recorded. Fixation rates were consistently higher for P. schreberi than for H. splendens. Overall, N fixation rates were lower in birch than in spruce stands and peaked in August, or July for P. schreberi in birch stands. Moreover, fixation rates varied along the nutrient availability gradient, with fixation rates higher where nutrient availability was lower. This difference was especially clear in spruce stands. Our preliminary results suggest that moss species, canopy type, and environmental factors all influence N fixation rates in Alaskan boreal forests. Our results will enhance the knowledge of the processes that drive N fixation in boreal forests, which is important for predicting ecosystem consequences of changing forest composition.

  19. Moss species benefits from breakdown of cyclic rodent dynamics in boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Rydgren, Knut; Økland, Rune H; Picó, F Xavier; de Kroon, Hans

    2007-09-01

    Bryophytes have increased in abundance in northern regions, and climate changes have been proposed to account for this change. However, changes in the population dynamics of microtine rodents may also contribute to changes in bryophyte abundance. New evidence indicates a tendency for microtine rodent population oscillations to change from periodicity of 3-5 years to become irregular or acyclic. The impact on ecosystem functioning is potentially great. We study the impact of variation in microtine rodent population characteristics, such as cycle length and amplitude, on the population dynamics of the boreal, clonal moss Hylocomium splendens. We use experimental and observational demographic data to construct 127 scenarios representing all combinations of disturbance type (gap formation and/or clipping), period (cyclic with 4, 6, 12, or 24 years between rodent peaks; or acyclic with constant or stochastically varying annual disturbance severity) and disturbance severity (fraction of individuals affected by disturbance in each year relative to the maximum disturbance carried out in the field experiment; seven levels). Population data collected in the field during 13 years were used as a baseline scenario. By subjecting all scenarios to stochastic matrix modeling, we demonstrate considerable impact of microtine rodent on the population dynamics of H. splendens, most notably when rodent populations fluctuate with short periods and high peak disturbance severities. Under the same average disturbance severity, H. splendens population growth rates are highest in acyclic scenarios and are progressively reduced with increasing peak disturbance severities (i.e., with increasing period). Stochastic elasticity analyses show that in less variable environments mature segment survival contributes more to the population growth rate, while in more variable environments the regeneration pathway (branching of older parts of the plant) plays a stronger role, inevitably leading to lower

  20. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Methanotrophy Induces Nitrogen Fixation in Boreal Mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiirola, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Many methanotrophic bacterial groups fix nitrogen in laboratory conditions. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient in many environments where methane concentrations are highest. Despite these facts, methane-induced N fixation has previously been overlooked, possibly due to methodological problems. To study the possible link between methanotrophy and diazotrophy in terrestrial and aquatic habitats, we measured the co-occurrence of these two processes in boreal forest, peatland and stream mosses using a stable isotope labeling approach (15 N2 and 13 CH4 double labeling) and sequencing of the nifH gene marker. N fixation associated with forest mosses was dependent on the annual N deposition, whereas methane stimulate N fixation neither in high (>3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) nor low deposition areas, which was in accordance with the nifH gene sequencing showing that forest mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens ) carried mainly cyanobacterial N fixers. On the other extreme, in stream mosses (Fontinalis sp.) methane was actively oxidized throughout the year, whereas N fixation showed seasonal fluctuation. The co-occurrence of the two processes in single cell level was proven by co-localizing both N and methane-carbon fixation with the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) approach. Methanotrophy and diazotrophy was also studied in peatlands of different primary successional stages in the land-uplift coast of Bothnian Bay, in the Siikajoki chronosequence, where N accumulation rates in peat profiles indicate significant N fixation. Based on experimental evidence it was counted that methane-induced N fixation explained over one-third of the new N input in the younger peatland successional stages, where the highest N fixation rates and highest methane oxidation activities co-occurred in the water-submerged Sphagnum moss vegetation. The linkage between methanotrophic carbon cycling and N fixation may therefore constitute an important mechanism in the rapid

  2. Mosses as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: comparison with total deposition and evaluation of bioconcentration factors. A year-long case-study.

    PubMed

    Foan, Louise; Domercq, Maria; Bermejo, Raúl; Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Simon, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) atmospheric deposition was evaluated at a remote site in Northern Spain using moss biomonitoring with Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., and by measuring the total deposition fluxes of PAHs. The year-long study allowed seasonal variations of PAH content in mosses to be observed, and these followed a similar trend to those of PAH fluxes in total deposition. Generally, atmospheric deposition of PAHs is greater in winter than in summer, due to more PAH emissions from domestic heating, less photoreactivity of the compounds, and intense leaching of the atmosphere by wet deposition. However, fractionation of these molecules between the environmental compartments occurs: PAH fluxes in total deposition and PAH concentrations in mosses are correlated with their solubility (r=0.852, p<0.01) and lipophilic properties (KOW, r=0.768, p<0.01), respectively. This annual study therefore showed that atmospheric PAH fluxes can be estimated with moss biomonitoring data if the bioconcentration or 'enriching' factors are known.

  3. Moss as bio-indicator of long term pollution spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombert, S.; Leblond, S.; Losno, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, C.; Costes, S.; Colin, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    Bio indicators are very interesting to track atmospheric pollution on large time and space scale because of the very low cost of the sampling system. As a replicate of a similar campaign made in France during the year 1996, moss field sampling was carried out during the summer 2000 (July-September). Moss samples were collected on 528 sites, located in a 33x33 km grid, leading to a density of 1 site per 1000 square kilometer. Samples sites were located as far as possible from local contamination. Five moss species were collected: Scleropodium purum (Hedw.) Limpr. (56% of all the samples collected), Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. (18%), Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. (18%), Thuidium tamariscinum (Hedw.) B.S.G. (4.5%), and Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. (3.5%). All the sampling and analytical procedures were carried out with ultra-trace measurement standards. Beside the geographical distribution of the elements, we will compare here the temporal evolution of measured moss concentration for more than 25 elements. This comparison is not evident because of many possible artifacts, and we will discuss here their relative importance. This includes: 1/ The analytical comparison between the two laboratories implicated in the year respectively 1996 and 2000. 2/ The behaviour of the elements between the different species. 3/ The behaviour of the elements between different parts of the moss (green apical or brown basal part) used for deposition monitoring. 4/ The residence time of the elements in the living moss. Concerning the last point, we have chosen a rural site where we continuously monitor atmospheric deposition by classical method. There we have sprayed diluted solution containing spikes of dissolved metals to provide a transient signal sharper and stronger than the atmospheric fluxes. We have followed the evolution of these metal concentrations during 6 months showing large differences between elements especially after a rain event. The usage of bio indicator

  4. Seasonal variation in nifH abundance and expression of cyanobacterial communities associated with boreal feather mosses

    PubMed Central

    Warshan, Denis; Bay, Guillaume; Nahar, Nurun; Wardle, David A; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Dinitrogen (N2)-fixation by cyanobacteria living in symbiosis with pleurocarpous feather mosses (for example, Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) represents the main pathway of biological N input into N-depleted boreal forests. Little is known about the role of the cyanobacterial community in contributing to the observed temporal variability of N2-fixation. Using specific nifH primers targeting four major cyanobacterial clusters and quantitative PCR, we investigated how community composition, abundance and nifH expression varied by moss species and over the growing seasons. We evaluated N2-fixation rates across nine forest sites in June and September and explored the abundance and nifH expression of individual cyanobacterial clusters when N2-fixation is highest. Our results showed temporal and host-dependent variations of cyanobacterial community composition, nifH gene abundance and expression. N2-fixation was higher in September than June for both moss species, explained by higher nifH gene expression of individual clusters rather than higher nifH gene abundance or differences in cyanobacterial community composition. In most cases, ‘Stigonema cluster' made up less than 29% of the total cyanobacterial community, but accounted for the majority of nifH gene expression (82–94% of total nifH expression), irrespective of sampling date or moss species. Stepwise multiple regressions showed temporal variations in N2-fixation being greatly explained by variations in nifH expression of the ‘Stigonema cluster'. These results suggest that Stigonema is potentially the most influential N2-fixer in symbiosis with boreal forest feather mosses. PMID:26918665

  5. Analysis of mosses and soils for quantifying heavy metal concentrations in Sicily: a multivariate and spatial analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Battaini, Francesca; Giani, Elisa; Papa, Ester; Jones, Robert J A; Preatoni, Damiano; Cenci, Roberto M

    2006-01-01

    The use of vegetal organisms as indicators of contamination of the environment is partially replacing traditional monitoring techniques. Amongst the vegetal organisms available, mosses appear to be good bioindicators and are used for monitoring anthropogenic and natural fall-out on soils. This study has two objectives: the evaluation of the concentrations of heavy metals in soils and mosses of the Sicily Region, in Italy and the identification of the origin of fall-out of heavy metals. Mosses and the surface soil were sampled at 28 sites, only the youngest segments of Hylocomium splendens and Hypnum cupressiforme, corresponding to the plant tissues produced during the last 3 years, were taken. The elements Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were analysed by ICP-MS and Hg by AAS. Statistical analysis was by PCA and spatial representation by GIS. In the mosses sampled in Sicily, the highest concentrations of Cd were found around the cities of Palermo and Messina. The highest concentrations of Hg were recorded in the northern part of the island between Trapani and Messina, similar to the distribution of Cu. Different areas with the highest concentrations of Ni were found near the south coast, in the vicinity of Palermo and around the Volcano Etna. The highest concentrations of Pb were found in the south-west coast near Agrigento, where important chemical plants and petroleum refineries are located. Except for a few locations, Zn fall-out was found to be evenly distributed throughout Sicily. The sites where the concentrations of heavy metals cause greatest concern have been revealed by the PCA analysis and portrayed using GIS. Also of some concern is the diffuse and anthropogenic origin of Hg and Cd. The combined approach of using soil and mosses, together with pedological interpretation and application of multivariate statistical techniques has provided valuable insight into the environmental aspects of heavy metal deposition in a region of southern Europe. Further insight into

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wook; Son, Kun Ho; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Bae, KiHwan; Kang, Sam Sik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2003-03-01

    Elsholtzia splendens Nakai has been used in North-East Asia as an ingredient of folk medicines for treating cough, headache and inflammation. The present investigation was carried out to establish its in vivo anti-inflammatory activity using several animal models of inflammation and pain. The 75% ethanol extract of the aerial part of E. splendens significantly inhibited mouse croton oil-induced, as well as arachidonic acid-induced, ear edema by oral administration (44.6% inhibition of croton oil-induced edema at 400 mg/kg). This plant material also showed significant inhibitory activity against the mouse ear edema induced by multiple treatment of phorbol ester for 3 days, which is an animal model of subchronic inflammation. In addition, E. splendens exhibited significant analgesic activity against mouse acetic acid-induced writhing (50% inhibition at 400 mg/kg), while indomethacin (5 mg/kg) demonstrated 95% inhibition. E. splendens (5-100 microg/mL) significantly inhibited PGE2 production by pre-induced cyclooxygenase-2 of lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting that cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition might be one of the cellular mechanisms of anti-inflammation.

  7. Moss hair water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Wu, Nan; Hurd, Randy; Thomson, Scott; Pitt, William; Truscott, Tadd

    2013-11-01

    We present an investigation of water transportation on a moss (Syntrichia caninervis) indigenous to temperate deserts. The moss typically appears to be in a dry, brown state, but is rehydrated by water during the wet season, making the desert green. Small hairs (500-2000 μm in length, and 40 μm in diameter, d) growing out from the tip of the moss leaves transport water back to the leaves. Through high speed observations and mathematical modeling it appears that this transportation is driven by two different mechanisms. 1) Droplet transport is achieved in three ways: i) A large (10d) droplet attached between two intersecting fibers will move toward the bases of the leaves by the changing angle between the two hairs. ii) The shape of the moss hair is conical, thicker at the base, producing a gradient that moves fluid (5d) toward the leaf similar to cactus spines. iii) We also observe that in some cases a Plateau-Rayleigh instability trigger a series of droplets moving toward the base. 2) Micro-grooves on the moss hair transport a film of water along the moss hair when larger droplets are not available. These various water transportation strategies combine to help the moss to survive in the desert and provide valuable insight.

  8. Reproductive biology of alfonsino Beryx splendens.

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Wiff, R; Gálvez, P; Díaz, E

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to provide a detailed analysis of the reproductive cycle of Beryx splendens in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. The gonadosomatic index (I(G)) and maturity ogives in both sexes were estimated using an extensive database collected by onboard scientific observers between January 2006 and October 2009. A histological analysis of maturation was also completed for females collected between May and December 2001. Variations in both I(G) and proportion of mature individuals were observed in fish with a fork length (L(F)) >37 cm for females and >33 cm for males. The main reproductive season was in the austral winter and spring (June to November). Fork length at 50% maturity (L(50)) was estimated as 39·67 cm for females (95% c.i. =39·34, 40·02 cm) and 36·88 cm for males (95% c.i. =36·45, 37·36 cm) using macroscopic analysis of gonads. Estimates for females using histological data varied slightly with an estimated L(50) of 43·67 cm (95% c.i. =42·82, 44·91 cm). Changes in I(G) and maturity were modelled as a function of month and L(F) within a generalized additive model framework. A high porportion of immature individuals were found throughout the year. The results of this study are compared with reproductive traits reported for B. splendens in other areas of its distribution and are discussed with reference to exploitation, vulnerability and conservation of the B. splendens stock in Juan Fernández Archipelago.

  9. GIRAS TO MOSS INTERFACE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiNardo, Thomas P.; Jackson, R. Alan

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of land use change for an area in Boulder County, Colorado, was conducted using digital cartographic data. The authors selected data in the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) format which is digitized from the 1:250,000-scale land use and land cover map series. The Map Overlay and Statistical System (MOSS) was used as an analytical tool for the study. The authors describe the methodology used in converting the GIRAS file into a MOSS format and the activities associated with the conversion.

  10. Evaluation of Toxorhynchites Splendens as a Bioassay Host for Dengue Viruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    dengue viruses. All dengue virus serotypes and strains attained titers in T. splendens comparable to those observed for 2 strains of Aedes aegypti. Peak...splendens comparable to those observed for 2 strains of Aedes aegvnti. Peak virus titers occurred in Tx. splendens approximately 6 days postinoculation...inoculation with dengue viruses was Ij, coiipared to 41 and f2g" or 2 strains of male Ae. aegyti . These fizidiii, imply that Tx. splendens would be more

  11. How Betta splendens finds its way.

    PubMed

    Luchiari, Ana C

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens performance in associating a stimulus with a specific cue when distractors are present. After trained to associate a specific color cue to a stimulus (conspecific) in a tank containing three colored distractors, the fish was challenged to locate the exact place where the stimulus fish was presented. With only color cues as guides, the Siamese fighting fish spent most of its time close to the color where the stimulus fish was previously presented, regardless of the distractors. However, fish trained to associate an empty place (no cues) to a stimulus fish, and then tested to localize the specific zone where the stimulus was shown, succeeded to locate the place even without any obvious cues/distractors for orientation. This study confirms that Siamese fighting fish show good conditioned learning and cannot be distracted by other stimuli. In addition, an unexpected good performance in the absence of cues may suggest the Betta's ability to orientate by using another sensorial modalities, as magnetic orientation. Collectively, the results of this study confirm Betta as a valid and reliable model for learning and memory tests, and suggest more studies should be developed for the better understanding of the fish's spatial orientation mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Resurgence in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Stephanie P; Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2014-03-01

    Resurgence of previously reinforced responding was investigated in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Swimming through a ring produced 15-s mirror presentations according to, with different fish, either a fixed-ratio 1 or a variable-interval 60-s schedule of reinforcement. When responding was stable, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule was substituted for the mirror-presentation schedule. Following this, mirror presentations were discontinued (extinction). During this latter phase, there were transient increases in the ring-swim response relative to the frequency of such responding during the differential-reinforcement-of-other behavior schedule. Resurgence was similar for the fish exposed previously to the fixed-ratio or to the variable-interval schedule. These results extend to Siamese fighting fish a well-established behavioral phenomenon previously not observed in this species or with this response topography, and only rarely reported following the removal of a non-consumable reinforcer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. MADS about MOSS

    PubMed Central

    Singer, SD

    2009-01-01

    Classic MIKC-type MADS-box genes (MIKCc) play diverse and crucial roles in angiosperm development, the most studied and best understood of which is the specification of floral organ identities. To shed light on how the flower evolved, phylogenetic and functional analyses of genes involved in its ontogeny, such as the MIKCc genes, must be undertaken in as broad a selection as possible of plants with disparate ancestries. Since little is known about the functions of these genes in non-seed plants, we investigated the developmental roles of a subset of the MIKCc genes present in the moss, Physcomitrella patens, which is positioned informatively near the base of the land plant evolutionary tree. We observed that transgenic lines possessing an antisense copy of a MIKCc gene characteristically displayed knocked-down expression of the corresponding native MIKCc gene as well as multiple diverse phenotypic alterations to the haploid gametophytic and diploid sporophytic generations of the life cycle.1 In this addendum, we re-examine our findings in the light of recent pertinent literature and provide additional data concerning the effects of simultaneously knocking out multiple MIKCc genes in this moss. PMID:19649183

  14. Visual Reinforcement in the Female Siamese Fighting Fish, "Betta Splendens"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcoro, Mirari; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Operant conditioning with "Betta splendens" ("Bettas") has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female "Bettas" have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male "Bettas". Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female "Bettas" to examine the…

  15. Latex of "coroa de cristo" (Euphorbia splendens): an effective molluscicide.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcellos, M C; Schall, V T

    1986-01-01

    An aqueous solution of the latex of "coroa de cristo" (Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii) showed molluscicide action (LD90) at a concentration lower than 0.5 ppm on Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila reared in laboratory and at a concentration lower than 4.0 ppm for field B. tenagophila.

  16. Visual Reinforcement in the Female Siamese Fighting Fish, "Betta Splendens"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcoro, Mirari; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Operant conditioning with "Betta splendens" ("Bettas") has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female "Bettas" have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male "Bettas". Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female "Bettas" to examine the…

  17. Accumulation and ultrastructural distribution of copper in Elsholtzia splendens *

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong-yun; Yang, Xiao-e; Tian, Sheng-ke

    2005-01-01

    Copper accumulation and intracellular distribution in Elsholtzia splendens, a native Chinese Cu-tolerant and accumulating plant species, was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and gradient centrifugation techniques. Copper concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of E. splendens increased with increasing Cu levels in solution. After exposure to 500 μmol/L Cu for 8 d, about 1000 mg/kg Cu were accumulated in the stem and 250 mg/kg Cu in the leaf of E. splendens. At 50 µmol/L Cu, no significant toxicity was observed in the chloroplast and mitochondrion within its leaf cells, but separation appeared at the cytoplasm and the cell wall within the root cells. At >250 µmol/L Cu, both root and leaf organelles in E. splendens were damaged heavily by excessive Cu in vivo. Copper subcellular localization in the plant leaf after 8 days’ exposure to 500 µmol/L Cu using gradient centrifugation techniques was found to be decreased in the order: chloroplast>cell wall>soluble fraction>other organelles. The plant root cell wall was found to be the site of highest Cu localization. Increase of Cu exposure time from 8 d to 16 d, increased slightly Cu concentration in cell wall fraction in roots and leaves, while that in the chloroplast fraction decreased in leaves of the plants grown in both 0.25 μmol/L and 500 μmol/L Cu. TEM confirmed that much more Cu localized in cell walls of E. splendens roots and leaves, but also more Cu localized in E. splendens’ chloroplast when the plant is exposed to Cu levels>250 μmol/L, as compared to those in the plant grown in 0.25 μmol/L Cu. Copper treatment at levels>250 μmol/L caused pronounced damage in the leaf chloroplast and root organelles. Copper localization in cell walls and chloroplasts could mainly account for the high detoxification of Cu in E. splendens. PMID:15822140

  18. Visual perception of texture in aggressive behavior of Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Bando, T

    1991-07-01

    In order to elucidate the role of texture in fish vision, the agonistic behavior of male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) was tested in a response to models composed by means of image processing techniques. Using the models with the contour shape of a side view of Betta splendens in an aggressive state, the responses were vigorous when there was a fine distribution of brightness and naturalistic color, producing textures like a scale pattern. Reactions became weaker as the brightness and color distribution reverted to more homogeneous levels and the scale pattern disappeared. When the artificial models with the circular contour shape were used, models with the scale pattern evoked more aggressive behaviors than those without it, while the existence of spherical gradation affected the behavior slightly. These results suggest that texture plays an important role in fish visual perception.

  19. Two new jaspamide derivatives from the marine sponge Jaspis splendens.

    PubMed

    Ebada, Sherif S; Wray, Victor; de Voogd, Nicole J; Deng, Zhiwei; Lin, Wenhan; Proksch, Peter

    2009-09-15

    Two new jaspamide derivatives 2 and 3, together with the parent compound jaspamide (1) have been isolated from the marine sponge Jaspis splendens collected in Kalimantan (Indonesia). The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated based on 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, mass spectrometry and comparison with jaspamide (1). The new derivatives inhibited the growth of mouse lymphoma (L5178Y) cell line in vitro with IC(50) values of <0.1 microg/mL.

  20. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat moss must be stockpiled under cover to allow drainage and reduce its moisture content. (b) The cargo...

  1. Evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface

    Treesearch

    D.S. Nichols; J.M. Brown

    1980-01-01

    Peat cores, 45 cm in diameter, were collected from a sphagnum bog in northern Minnesota, and used to measure the effects of different temperatures and water levels on evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface in a growth chamber. Under all conditions, evaporation from the moss surface was greater than that from a free-water surface. Evaporation from the moss increased...

  2. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  3. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  4. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  5. Mosses new to New Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A bryophyte inventory was conducted in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP), New Mexico, from 2009 to 2011. Specimens representing 113 species of bryophytes were collected. Of those bryophytes, seven of the mosses were new to New Mexico: Atrichum tenellum (Rohling) Bruch & Schimper, Dicranum ...

  6. Lead tolerance and cellular distribution in Elsholtzia splendens using synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Shohag, M J I; Liao, Haibing; Yang, Xiaoe

    2011-12-15

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the tolerance and spatial distribution of lead (Pb) in Elsholtzia splendens-a copper (Cu) accumulator plant using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence. According to chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, E. splendens displayed certain tolerance at 100 μM Pb treatment. Lead concentration in roots, stems and leaves of E. splendens reached 45,183.6, 1657.6, and 380.9 mg kg(-1), respectively. Pb was mostly accumulated in the roots, and there were also high concentrations of Pb been transported into stems and leaves. Micro-XRF analysis of the stem and leaf cross section revealed that Pb was mostly restricted in the vascular bundles and epidermis tissues of both stem and leaf of E. splendens. The correlation between distribution of K, Ca, Zn and Pb were analyzed. There were significant positive correlations (P<0.01) among Pb and Ca, K, Zn distribution both in stem and leaf of E. splendens. However, among the three elements, Ca shared the most similar distribution pattern and the highest correlation coefficients with Pb in both stem and leaf cross section of E. splendens. This suggests that Ca may play an important role in Pb accumulation in stem and leaf of E. splendens.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Song, Ying-Nan; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Li, Jiong-Tang

    2016-11-01

    The Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) is one of the popular aquarium fish. Serious attentions have been paid to the biodiversity of the fish. The mitochondrial genome of the Siamese fighting fish is reported to be 17 099 bp and includes 37 genes. The gene organization is similar to other fish mitogenomes. The control region is AT-rich and includes three tandem repeats. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the fish is close to fish in the Macropodus genus. This mitogenome will assist in studying the mitochondrial variations and population structure in this fish and examine the evolutionary relationship among fish in the Osphronemidae family.

  8. Social conditioning and dominance in male betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Wallen, K; Wojciechowski-Metzlar, C I

    1985-08-01

    To determine whether social conditioning modifies relative dominance in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens ), individual fish were matched for gill cover erection frequency (GCEF) to a mirror. One member of each pair experienced a series of four winning encounters (dominants) while the other of the pair experienced four losing encounters (subordinates). After the fighting experience, matched pairs were placed together and aggressive responses of both fish were recorded. Fish experiencing wins displayed significantly more and were more aggressive than fish experiencing losses which showed significantly higher levels of avoidance. However, no change in mirror GCEF occurred as a result of differential experience. Copyright © 1985. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Health studies on the Indian house crow (Corvus splendens).

    PubMed

    Cooper, J E

    1996-06-01

    Fifteen Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) were obtained from a live-trap in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Two died soon after arrival. The remainder were examined clinically prior to euthanasia. All birds were examined post-mortem and a limited number of laboratory investigations was performed. None of the birds showed significant clinical signs or pathological lesions. Lice were found on one. Only Escherichia coli and Proteus spp. were isolated from the rectum. Coccidia were detected in three birds and cestodes in one. Haematological values were low. No blood parasites were seen. More extensive studies are warranted on the possible role of this species in the dissemination of pathogens.

  10. Instrumental conditioning of choice behavior in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Craft, Baine B.; Velkey, Andrew J.; Szalda-Petree, Allen

    2003-07-31

    Despite the differences in the response of male Betta splendens toward various stimuli, no research has attempted to determine the preference for a live conspecific versus a mirror presentation. A submerged T-maze was used to present both stimuli to healthy male B. splendens (N=16). The results indicated that subjects' start box and swimway latencies decreased significantly over the 30 trials. Moreover, the analysis of choices demonstrated a modest, but statistically significant, preference for the live conspecific over the mirror presentation. The results are discussed in terms of the stimuli qualities that elicit an aggressive response in B. splendens and the implications for common experimental procedures.

  11. MOSS, an evaluation of software engineering techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounds, J. R.; Pruitt, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation of the software engineering techniques used for the development of a Modular Operating System (MOSS) was described. MOSS is a general purpose real time operating system which was developed for the Concept Verification Test (CVT) program. Each of the software engineering techniques was described and evaluated based on the experience of the MOSS project. Recommendations for the use of these techniques on future software projects were also given.

  12. Direct uptake of soil nitrogen by mosses.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Edward; van der Wal, René; Sommerkorn, Martin; Bardgett, Richard D

    2006-06-22

    Mosses are one of the most diverse and widespread groups of plants and often form the dominant vegetation in montane, boreal and arctic ecosystems. However, unlike higher plants, mosses lack developed root and vascular systems, which is thought to limit their access to soil nutrients. Here, we test the ability of two physiologically and taxonomically distinct moss species to take up soil- and wet deposition-derived nitrogen (N) in natural intact turfs using stable isotopic techniques (15N). Both species exhibited increased concentrations of shoot 15N when exposed to either soil- or wet deposition-derived 15N, demonstrating conclusively and for the first time, that mosses derive N from the soil. Given the broad physiological and taxonomic differences between these moss species, we suggest soil N uptake may be common among mosses, although further studies are required to test this prediction. Soil N uptake by moss species may allow them to compete for soil N in a wide range of ecosystems. Moreover, since many terrestrial ecosystems are N limited, soil N uptake by mosses may have implications for plant community structure and nutrient cycling. Finally, soil N uptake may place some moss species at greater risk from N pollution than previously appreciated.

  13. Direct uptake of soil nitrogen by mosses

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Edward; van der Wal, René; Sommerkorn, Martin; Bardgett, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Mosses are one of the most diverse and widespread groups of plants and often form the dominant vegetation in montane, boreal and arctic ecosystems. However, unlike higher plants, mosses lack developed root and vascular systems, which is thought to limit their access to soil nutrients. Here, we test the ability of two physiologically and taxonomically distinct moss species to take up soil- and wet deposition-derived nitrogen (N) in natural intact turfs using stable isotopic techniques (15N). Both species exhibited increased concentrations of shoot 15N when exposed to either soil- or wet deposition-derived 15N, demonstrating conclusively and for the first time, that mosses derive N from the soil. Given the broad physiological and taxonomic differences between these moss species, we suggest soil N uptake may be common among mosses, although further studies are required to test this prediction. Soil N uptake by moss species may allow them to compete for soil N in a wide range of ecosystems. Moreover, since many terrestrial ecosystems are N limited, soil N uptake by mosses may have implications for plant community structure and nutrient cycling. Finally, soil N uptake may place some moss species at greater risk from N pollution than previously appreciated. PMID:17148384

  14. Interval timing in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Higa, J J; Simm, L A

    2004-11-30

    The present study evaluated the temporal performance of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) given short-term exposure to four fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement, FI 30, 60, 120, and 240 s, during which a reinforcer (mirror image) was given for the first response (swimming through a hoop) after the interval requirement had elapsed. Response levels were generally low early in an interval and increased as the interval elapsed; wait times and break points in an interval increased with increases in the FI requirement. The results were similar to that obtained with other species and different types of responses and reinforcers, and demonstrate that the procedure is a feasible method for studying interval timing in fish.

  15. Biochemical energetics of hierarchy formation in Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Haller, J; Wittenberger, C

    1988-01-01

    Two different stages of hierarchy formation in Betta splendens were considered. Winners and losers in a short social contact, and dominant and submissive individuals after the establishment of a hierarchy, respectively, were identified. Metabolical determinations (free glucose, glycogen and protein content, glycogen and protein synthesis, glucose and amino acid oxidation, carbohydrate degradation) were performed. Winners and dominant individuals were shown to be able to produce more energy per unit time than losers and submissives, respectively. Differences in energy metabolism between individuals found in different stages of hierarchy formation also occurred: the carbohydrate degradation reached very high values after a short social contact. This is related to the noticed substitution of aggressive encounters with threat displays in the course of cohabitation.

  16. Visual reinforcement in the female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Elcoro, Mirari; Silva, Stephanie P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2008-07-01

    Operant conditioning with Betta splendens (Bettas) has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female Bettas have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male Bettas. Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female Bettas to examine the generality of a widely reported finding with males: mirror-image reinforcement. Swimming through a ring was reinforced by a 10-s mirror presentation. As with males, ring swimming was acquired and maintained when mirror presentations were immediate (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and delayed (Experiment 4). The failure of conventional extinction (Experiments 1 and 2) and response-independent mirror presentations (Experiment 3) to maintain responding confirmed the reinforcing properties of mirror presentation. These results extend previous findings of mirror images as reinforcers in males of the same species and illustrate a complementarity between behavioral ecology and the experimental analysis of behavior.

  17. Splendid coloration of the peacock spider Maratus splendens.

    PubMed

    Stavenga, Doekele G; Otto, Jürgen C; Wilts, Bodo D

    2016-08-01

    Jumping spiders are well known for their acute vision and often bright colours. The male peacock spider Maratus splendens is richly coloured by scales that cover the body. The colours of the white, cream and red scales, which have an elaborate shape with numerous spines, are pigmentary. Blue scales are unpigmented and have a structural colour, created by an intricate photonic system consisting of two chitinous layers with ridges, separated by an air gap, with on the inner sides of the chitin layers an array of filaments. We have characterized the optical properties of the scales by microspectrophotometry, imaging scatterometry and light and scanning electron microscopy. Optical modelling revealed that the filament array constitutes a novel structural coloration system, which subtly fine tunes the scale reflectance to the observed blue coloration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Splendid coloration of the peacock spider Maratus splendens

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Jürgen C.

    2016-01-01

    Jumping spiders are well known for their acute vision and often bright colours. The male peacock spider Maratus splendens is richly coloured by scales that cover the body. The colours of the white, cream and red scales, which have an elaborate shape with numerous spines, are pigmentary. Blue scales are unpigmented and have a structural colour, created by an intricate photonic system consisting of two chitinous layers with ridges, separated by an air gap, with on the inner sides of the chitin layers an array of filaments. We have characterized the optical properties of the scales by microspectrophotometry, imaging scatterometry and light and scanning electron microscopy. Optical modelling revealed that the filament array constitutes a novel structural coloration system, which subtly fine tunes the scale reflectance to the observed blue coloration. PMID:27512139

  19. Visual Reinforcement in the Female Siamese Fighting Fish, Betta Splendens

    PubMed Central

    Elcoro, Mirari; da Silva, Stephanie P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2008-01-01

    Operant conditioning with Betta splendens (Bettas) has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female Bettas have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male Bettas. Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female Bettas to examine the generality of a widely reported finding with males: mirror-image reinforcement. Swimming through a ring was reinforced by a 10–s mirror presentation. As with males, ring swimming was acquired and maintained when mirror presentations were immediate (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and delayed (Experiment 4). The failure of conventional extinction (Experiments 1 and 2) and response-independent mirror presentations (Experiment 3) to maintain responding confirmed the reinforcing properties of mirror presentation. These results extend previous findings of mirror images as reinforcers in males of the same species and illustrate a complementarity between behavioral ecology and the experimental analysis of behavior. PMID:18683612

  20. Solute Transport in Unsaturated Sphagnum Mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J. S.; Faux, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    Natural Sphagnum cushions develop an upwardly increasing concentration of dissolved solutes during periods of sustained upward capillary flow of solutes, and become enriched by evaporative loss of water. The transport process is poorly documented as a consequence of poor parameterization of unsaturated flow parameters, and the lack of transport parameters such as dispersivity and solute retardation coefficients for flow in unsaturated mosses. Sphagnum mosses contain hyaline cells and dead-end pores that can store but not transmit water and solute. Since these spaces do not drain at moderate (negative) pressures (ψ), the ratio of fluid actively flowing in films in the unsaturated moss to that which is stored decreases as the moss drains. Solutes can pass by diffusion from the film of flowing water into these closed spaces resulting in increased dispersion of the flowing solute, and retardation of even conservative solutes like chloride. These processes were demonstrated in unsaturated Sphagnum mosses using a step input solute (NaCl) source from a constant head device for undecomposed near-surface moss (~5 cm depth), and slightly more decomposed deeper moss (~25 cm depth). Smaller water retention in the undecomposed upper moss sample resulted in lower unsaturated hydraulic conductivity thus lower flow rates. When the sample was initially drained (ψ = ~ 4 cm of water) it was determined that the solute breakthrough expressed as relative concentration (C/C0 = 0.5) occurred at a cumulative discharge of 91.5 ml and at 5.8 minutes in the upper moss, compared to 233.2 ml after 2.8 minutes in the lower (more decomposed) sample. In a drier state (ψ = ~ 16 cm of water), C/C0 = 0.5 was reached after 67.9 ml of discharge at 37.9 minutes in the upper moss compared to 109.2 ml and at 22.4 minutes in the lower sample. Thus less solute flow is required for breakthrough in less decomposed mosses, and in mosses that are relatively dry. Dispersivity was determined on the basis of

  1. 78 FR 41397 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 28, 2013, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC (Moss Bluff) filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC) pursuant to sections 284.123 and 284.224 of the Commission's regulations, (18 CFR 284.123 and 284.224). Moss...

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi facilitate rapid adaptation of Elsholtzia splendens to copper.

    PubMed

    Li, Junmin; Liang, Huijuan; Yan, Ming; Chen, Luxi; Zhang, Huating; Liu, Jie; Wang, Suizi; Jin, Zexin

    2017-12-01

    Closely associated microbes have been shown to drive local adaptation of plants. However, few studies provide direct evidence, disclosing the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) in their rapid adaptation of plants toward heavy metal tolerance. Elsholtzia splendens is a Cu-tolerant plant that was used as a model plant to study seed morphological traits as well as traits related to seed germination and seedling growth. This was achieved after acclimation for two generations with 1000mg/kg CuSO4 in either absence or presence of AMF. In the absence of AMF, acclimation to Cu for two generations significantly decreased surface area, perimeter length, and perimeter width of E. splendens seeds, as well as seedling survival rate and fresh weight of the radicle of seedlings. However, in the presence of AMF, both the germination rate and the germination index of E. splendens seeds as well as the fresh weights of hypocotyl and radicle significantly increased. These results revealed that after Cu acclimation treatment, seeds and seedlings that had been inoculated with AMF outperformed those without AMF inoculation under Cu addition, indicating that AMF can facilitate rapid adaptation of E. splendens to Cu stress. In addition, two generations of Cu acclimation under AMF absence significantly increased radicle length, while amplitude increased under AMF presence, indicating that the direct adaptive plasticity response of radicle length to Cu stress helps with the Cu stress adaptation of E. splendens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Feed of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, (Regan, 1910) in open pond: live and formulated diets.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Appoloni, A M; Fernandes, J B K; Millan, R N

    2016-06-01

    The growth rate and percent survival of Betta splendens when submitted to formulated diet and live food treatments are evaluated. The three different diets were used and designated as: formulated diet (basal diet); live food diet (plankton) and mixed diet (formulated diet with plankton). The live food diet contained plankton belonging to an open pond. High mortality was reported with live food (plankton) treatment whereas higher percent survival occurred with formulated diet. Highest specific growth rate, weight gain and final weight were reported in the mixed diet treatment and were significantly different (p<0.01) from those in formulated diet and live food treatments. The gut contents of B. splendens in mixed diet and live food treatments comprised, Rotifera and Bacillariophyceae species in high percentages or rather, over 78% of total organisms. Lecane sp. was the most ingested zooplankton species by B. splendens in both treatments (mixed diet and live food), with the phytoplankton species Asterionella sp. and Melosira sp. respectively in mixed diet and in live food, respectively. Results indicated that the formulated diet influenced the water parameters dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids and pH. The live food in the open pond was not enough to improve the growth rate and percent survival of B. splendens. The growth performance of B. splendens; had the best results with mixed diet which was capable of maintaining species's survival (82%) and development in artificial conditions, benefiting the culture management of ornamental fish.

  4. Immunocompetence, developmental stability and wingspot size in the damselfly Calopteryx splendens L.

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, M J; Koskimäki, J; Taskinen, J; Tynkkynen, K; Suhonen, J

    2000-01-01

    Calopteryx splendens males exhibit a remarkable variation in wing pigmentation both within and between populations. In this study, we examined whether the wingspots of male C. splendens are related to male quality. We measured the nylon implant encapsulation rate for 85 males and found that males with larger wingspots had a faster encapsulation rate, indicating a better immunocompetence. We also found that the encapsulation rate was positively correlated with the density of haemocytes in the haemolymph. Another measurement of male quality, fluctuating asymmetry of wingspots, correlated negatively with the size of the wingspots. Males with asymmetrical wingspots also had lower encapsulation rates than more symmetrical males. Our results suggest that the size of wingspot is an indicator of male quality in C. splendens. PMID:11133037

  5. Development of Betta splendens embryos and larvae reveals variation in pigmentation patterns.

    PubMed

    Carey, Alexis N; Lyvers, Benjamin H; Ferrill, Rachel N; Johnson, Rachel L; Dumaine, Anne Marie; Sly, Belinda J

    2016-06-01

    Vertebrate pigmentation provides an ideal system for studying the intersections between evolution, genetics, and developmental biology. Teleost fish, with their accessible developmental stages and intense and diverse colours produced by chromatophores, are an ideal group for study. We set out to test whether Betta splendens is a good model organism for studying the evolution and development of diverse pigmentation. Our results demonstrate that B. splendens can be bred to produce large numbers of offspring with easily visualized pigment cells. Depending on the colour of the parents, there was variation in larval pigmentation patterns both within and between breeding events. In juveniles the developing adult pigmentation patterns showed even greater variation. These results suggest that B. splendens has great potential as a model organism for pigmentation studies.

  6. Characterization of the surface and interfacial properties of the lamina splendens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexwinkle, Joe T.; Hunt, Heather K.; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.

    2017-06-01

    Joint disease affects approximately 52.5 million patients in the United States alone, costing 80.8 billion USD in direct healthcare costs. The development of treatment programs for joint disease and trauma requires accurate assessment of articular cartilage degradation. The articular cartilage is the interfacial tissue between articulating surfaces, such as bones, and acts as low-friction interfaces. Damage to the lamina splendens, which is the articular cartilage's topmost layer, is an early indicator of joint degradation caused by injury or disease. By gaining comprehensive knowledge on the lamina splendens, particularly its structure and interfacial properties, researchers could enhance the accuracy of human and animal biomechanical models, as well as develop appropriate biomimetic materials for replacing damaged articular cartilage, thereby leading to rational treatment programs for joint disease and injury. Previous studies that utilize light, electron, and force microscopy techniques have found that the lamina splendens is composed of collagen fibers oriented parallel to the cartilage surface and encased in a proteoglycan matrix. Such orientation maximizes wear resistance and proteoglycan retention while promoting the passage of nutrients and synovial fluid. Although the structure of the lamina splendens has been explored in the literature, the low-friction interface of this tissue remains only partially characterized. Various functional models are currently available for the interface, such as pure boundary lubrication, thin films exuded under pressure, and sheets of trapped proteins. Recent studies suggest that each of these lubrication models has certain advantages over one another. Further research is needed to fully model the interface of this tissue. In this review, we summarize the methods for characterizing the lamina splendens and the results of each method. This paper aims to serve as a resource for existing studies to date and a roadmap of the

  7. De Novo Assembly and Annotation of Salvia splendens Transcriptome Using the Illumina Platform

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aiping; Liu, Kefeng

    2014-01-01

    Background As an important perennial herbaceous flower, Salvia splendens possesses high ornamental value. Understanding its branching processes may help scientists select the best plant type. Although Salvia splendens is a frequently-used horticultural flower, only limited transcriptomic or genomic research is available in public databases. In the present study, we, for the first time, constructed a comprehensive dataset for Salvia splendens through de novo high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing on two different branching type plants (Strain 35 and Cailinghong) using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. For Strain 35, a total of 16,488,829 reads were generated and assembled into 38,498 unigenes, with a mean length of approximately 779 bp. For Cailinghong, 16,464,713 reads were generated and assembled into 34,302 unigenes, with a mean length of approximately 812 bp. Moreover, a total of 49,310 unigenes for Salvia splendens were identified, among them 33,925 (68.80%) were annotated in the non-redundant NCBI database, 25,371 (51.45%) were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database, while 24,888 (50.47%) and 9,896 (20.07%) unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database, we identified 134 differently expressed unigenes between Strain 35 and Cailinghong, and then these unigenes were mapped to 79 pathways. In addition, we detected 2,453 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Conclusions We obtained a comprehensive transcriptomic information from this work and provided a valuable resource of transcript sequences of Salvia splendens in public databases. Moreover, some candidate genes potentially involved in branching were identified. Furthermore, numerous obtained SSRs might contribute to marker-assisted selection. These data could be further utilized in functional genomics

  8. Characterization of the surface and interfacial properties of the lamina splendens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexwinkle, Joe T.; Hunt, Heather K.; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.

    2017-01-01

    Joint disease affects approximately 52.5 million patients in the United States alone, costing 80.8 billion USD in direct healthcare costs. The development of treatment programs for joint disease and trauma requires accurate assessment of articular cartilage degradation. The articular cartilage is the interfacial tissue between articulating surfaces, such as bones, and acts as low-friction interfaces. Damage to the lamina splendens, which is the articular cartilage's topmost layer, is an early indicator of joint degradation caused by injury or disease. By gaining comprehensive knowledge on the lamina splendens, particularly its structure and interfacial properties, researchers could enhance the accuracy of human and animal biomechanical models, as well as develop appropriate biomimetic materials for replacing damaged articular cartilage, thereby leading to rational treatment programs for joint disease and injury. Previous studies that utilize light, electron, and force microscopy techniques have found that the lamina splendens is composed of collagen fibers oriented parallel to the cartilage surface and encased in a proteoglycan matrix. Such orientation maximizes wear resistance and proteoglycan retention while promoting the passage of nutrients and synovial fluid. Although the structure of the lamina splendens has been explored in the literature, the low-friction interface of this tissue remains only partially characterized. Various functional models are currently available for the interface, such as pure boundary lubrication, thin films exuded under pressure, and sheets of trapped proteins. Recent studies suggest that each of these lubrication models has certain advantages over one another. Further research is needed to fully model the interface of this tissue. In this review, we summarize the methods for characterizing the lamina splendens and the results of each method. This paper aims to serve as a resource for existing studies to date and a roadmap of the

  9. Tolerance to environmental desiccation in moss sperm.

    PubMed

    Shortlidge, Erin E; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Eppley, Sarah M

    2012-05-01

    • Sexual reproduction in mosses requires that sperm be released freely into the environment before finding and fertilizing a receptive female. After release from the male plant, moss sperm may experience a range of abiotic stresses; however, few data are available examining stress tolerance of moss sperm and whether there is genetic variation for stress tolerance in this important life stage. • Here, we investigated the effects of environmental desiccation and recovery on the sperm cells of three moss species (Bryum argenteum, Campylopus introflexus, and Ceratodon purpureus). • We found that a fraction of sperm cells were tolerant to environmental desiccation for extended periods (d) and that tolerance did not vary among species. We found that this tolerance occurs irrespective of ambient dehydration conditions, and that the addition of sucrose during dry-down improved cell recovery. Although we observed no interspecific variation, significant variation among individuals within species in sperm cell tolerance to environmental desiccation was observed, suggesting selection could potentially act on this basic reproductive trait. • The observation of desiccation-tolerant sperm in multiple moss species has important implications for understanding bryophyte reproduction, suggesting the presence of a significant, uncharacterized complexity in the ecology of moss mating systems.

  10. Maintained aggressive behavior in gonadectomized male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Weiss, C S; Coughlin, J P

    1979-07-01

    Adult male Betta splendens were gonadectomized and tested twice for aggressive behavior two weeks later. In a mutual viewing test environment, it was found that gonadectomized animals maintained their aggressive behavior on all six indices of aggression at a level equal to controls. Animals that showed some testis regeneration and sham operated fish were also equal to controls. The results are interpreted to mean that adult aggressive behavior in male B. splendens may not be under the control of gonadal hormones. Pituitary gonadotropins, interrenal gland, and critical period hypotheses are given as possible explanations of the maintained aggressiveness following castration.

  11. Prey processing in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Krijestorac, Belma; Sanford, Christopher P J; Boistel, Renauld; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-07-01

    We studied prey processing in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), involving slow, easily observed head-bobbing movements, which were compared with prey processing in other aquatic feeding vertebrates. We hypothesized that head-bobbing is a unique prey-processing behaviour, which alternatively could be structurally and functionally analogous with raking in basal teleosts, or with pharyngognathy in neoteleosts. Modulation of head-bobbing was elicited by prey with different motility and toughness. Head-bobbing involved sustained mouth occlusion and pronounced cranial elevation, similar to raking. However, the hyoid and pectoral girdle were protracted, and not retracted as in both raking and pharyngognathy. High-speed videofluoroscopy of hyoid movements confirmed that head-bobbing differs from other known aquatic prey-processing behaviours. Nevertheless, head-bobbing and other prey-processing behaviours converge on a recurrent functional theme in the trophic ecology of aquatic feeding vertebrates; the use of intraoral and oropharyngeal dentition surfaces to immobilize, reduce and process relatively large, tough or motile prey. Prey processing outside the pharyngeal region has not been described for neoteleosts previously, but morphological evidence suggests that relatives of Betta might use similar processing behaviours. Thus, our results suggest that pharyngognathy did not out-compete ancestral prey-processing mechanisms completely during the evolution of neoteleosts.

  12. Oxylipins in moss development and defense

    PubMed Central

    de León, Inés Ponce; Hamberg, Mats; Castresana, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Oxylipins are oxygenated fatty acids that participate in plant development and defense against pathogen infection, insects, and wounding. Initial oxygenation of substrate fatty acids is mainly catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOXs) and α-dioxygenases but can also take place non-enzymatically by autoxidation or singlet oxygen-dependent reactions. The resulting hydroperoxides are further metabolized by secondary enzymes to produce a large variety of compounds, including the hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and short-chain green leaf volatiles. In flowering plants, which lack arachidonic acid, oxylipins are produced mainly from oxidation of polyunsaturated C18 fatty acids, notably linolenic and linoleic acids. Algae and mosses in addition possess polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, which can also be oxidized by LOXs and transformed into bioactive compounds. Mosses are phylogenetically placed between unicellular green algae and flowering plants, allowing evolutionary studies of the different oxylipin pathways. During the last years the moss Physcomitrella patens has become an attractive model plant for understanding oxylipin biosynthesis and diversity. In addition to the advantageous evolutionary position, functional studies of the different oxylipin-forming enzymes can be performed in this moss by targeted gene disruption or single point mutations by means of homologous recombination. Biochemical characterization of several oxylipin-producing enzymes and oxylipin profiling in P. patens reveal the presence of a wider range of oxylipins compared to flowering plants, including C18 as well as C20-derived oxylipins. Surprisingly, one of the most active oxylipins in plants, JA, is not synthesized in this moss. In this review, we present an overview of oxylipins produced in mosses and discuss the current knowledge related to the involvement of oxylipin-producing enzymes and their products in moss development and defense. PMID:26191067

  13. Oxylipins in moss development and defense.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, Inés; Hamberg, Mats; Castresana, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Oxylipins are oxygenated fatty acids that participate in plant development and defense against pathogen infection, insects, and wounding. Initial oxygenation of substrate fatty acids is mainly catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOXs) and α-dioxygenases but can also take place non-enzymatically by autoxidation or singlet oxygen-dependent reactions. The resulting hydroperoxides are further metabolized by secondary enzymes to produce a large variety of compounds, including the hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and short-chain green leaf volatiles. In flowering plants, which lack arachidonic acid, oxylipins are produced mainly from oxidation of polyunsaturated C18 fatty acids, notably linolenic and linoleic acids. Algae and mosses in addition possess polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, which can also be oxidized by LOXs and transformed into bioactive compounds. Mosses are phylogenetically placed between unicellular green algae and flowering plants, allowing evolutionary studies of the different oxylipin pathways. During the last years the moss Physcomitrella patens has become an attractive model plant for understanding oxylipin biosynthesis and diversity. In addition to the advantageous evolutionary position, functional studies of the different oxylipin-forming enzymes can be performed in this moss by targeted gene disruption or single point mutations by means of homologous recombination. Biochemical characterization of several oxylipin-producing enzymes and oxylipin profiling in P. patens reveal the presence of a wider range of oxylipins compared to flowering plants, including C18 as well as C20-derived oxylipins. Surprisingly, one of the most active oxylipins in plants, JA, is not synthesized in this moss. In this review, we present an overview of oxylipins produced in mosses and discuss the current knowledge related to the involvement of oxylipin-producing enzymes and their products in moss development and defense.

  14. Phytofiltration of copper from contaminated water: growth response, copper uptake and lignin content in Elsholtzia splendens and Elsholtzia argyi.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shengke; Peng, Hongyun; Yang, Xiaoe; Lu, Lingli; Zhang, Ling

    2008-07-01

    Phytofiltration of Cu from water by Elsholtzia plants were investigated hydroponically. Both E. splendens and E. argyi could effectively clean up lower Cu contaminated water, probably attributed to their extremely high surface area of roots. The removal rate of Cu was concentration-dependent and showed a monotonic decline with time. At higher external Cu concentration, the growth of E. argyi has been considerably inhibited while E. splendens still grew normally. E. splendens has the greater capacity to absorb Cu to roots from water and translocate Cu from roots to shoots. Lignin in roots probably has no significant effect on immobilizing Cu.

  15. A stereotaxic atlas for the telencephalon of the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Marino-Neto, J; Sabbatini, R M

    1988-01-01

    1. A stereotaxic technique for electrode positioning in the telencephalic nuclei of the Siamese Fighting fish (Betta splendens) is described. 2. The forebrain atlas was based on paraffin-embedded, in situ-sectioned, Nissl-stained material. Brain measurements were corrected for tissue shrinkage due to histological procedures. The atlas and methods have already been tested and have shown good accuracy and reproducibility.

  16. Environmental modulation of the onset of air breathing and survival of Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Sanchez, J F; Burggren, W W

    2014-03-01

    The effect of hypoxia on air-breathing onset and survival was determined in larvae of the air-breathing fishes, the three spot gourami Trichopodus trichopterus and the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens. Larvae were exposed continuously or intermittently (12 h nightly) to an oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) of 20, 17 and 14 kPa from 1 to 40 days post-fertilization (dpf). Survival and onset of air breathing were measured daily. Continuous normoxic conditions produced a larval survival rate of 65-75% for B. splendens and 15-30% for T. trichopterus, but all larvae of both species died at 9 dpf in continuous hypoxia conditions. Larvae under intermittent (nocturnal) hypoxia showed a 15% elevated survival rate in both species. The same conditions altered the onset of air breathing, advancing onset by 4 days in B. splendens and delaying onset by 9 days in T. trichopterus. These interspecific differences were attributed to air-breathing characteristics: B. splendens was a non-obligatory air breather after 36 dpf, whereas T. trichopterus was an obligatory air breather after 32 dpf. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Risky Behaviors: Effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) Predator on the Behavior of Three Mosquito Species

    PubMed Central

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady

    2015-01-01

    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. “Thrashing” and “browsing” activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the “wall” position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti. PMID:26386041

  18. Toxicity and deficiency of copper in Elsholtzia splendens affect photosynthesis biophysics, pigments and metal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hongyun; Kroneck, Peter M H; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-06-18

    Elsholtzia splendens is a copper-tolerant plant species growing on copper deposits in China. Spatially and spectrally resolved kinetics of in vivo absorbance and chlorophyll fluorescence in mesophyll of E. splendens were used to investigate the copper-induced stress from deficiency and toxicity as well as the acclimation to excess copper stress. The plants were cultivated in nutrient solutions containing either Fe(III)-EDTA or Fe(III)-EDDHA. Copper toxicity affected light-acclimated electron flow much stronger than nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) or dark-acclimated photochemical efficiency of PSIIRC (Fv/Fm). It also changed spectrally resolved Chl fluorescence kinetics, in particular by strengthening the short-wavelength (<700 nm) part of NPQ altering light harvesting complex II (LHCII) aggregation. Copper toxicity reduced iron accumulation, decreased Chls and carotenoids in leaves. During acclimation to copper toxicity, leaf copper decreased but leaf iron increased, with photosynthetic activity and pigments recovering to normal levels. Copper tolerance in E. splendens was inducible; acclimation seems be related to homeostasis of copper and iron in E. splendens. Copper deficiency appeared at 10 mg copper per kg leaf DW, leading to reduced growth and decreased photosynthetic parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII). The importance of these results for evaluating responses of phytoremediation plants to stress in their environment is discussed.

  19. Influence of temperature on Pythium splendens--induced root disease on carambola, Averrhoa carambola.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2004-02-01

    A series of glasshouse and incubator studies were conducted to investigate the role played by Pythium splendens in a decline disorder of carambola, Averrhoa carambola. Plants, 4-6 months old, were grown in native calcareous soil either infested or not infested with the pathogen. Isolates recovered from atemoya, carambola and passion fruit grew optimally at 30 degrees C, and significantly (P < 0.05) increased root necrosis and reduced root, shoot and total biomass of carambola. Temperature had a profound impact on the latter relationships. Two or more times more necrosis developed at 10 and 15 degrees C than at 25 and 30 degrees C. Total biomass accumulations were over four times greater at 30 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, and were always lower in soil infested with P. splendens. When biomass totals from infested and noninfested soil were compared, relative values were lowest at 15 and 20 degrees C and were almost two times greater at 30 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. Root infection by P. splendens was greatest at 15 and 20 degrees C, far below the species' optimum for growth, and at 30 degrees C was over nine times lower than at 15 and 20 degrees C. This is the first detailed report of P. splendens as a pathogen of carambola.

  20. Risky behaviors: effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) predator on the behavior of three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady

    2015-01-01

    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. "Thrashing" and "browsing" activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the "wall" position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti.

  1. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  2. Genomic Features of the Damselfly Calopteryx splendens Representing a Sister Clade to Most Insect Orders

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Simao, Felipe A.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Manni, Mosè; Seppey, Mathieu; Robertson, Hugh M.; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Insects comprise the most diverse and successful animal group with over one million described species that are found in almost every terrestrial and limnic habitat, with many being used as important models in genetics, ecology, and evolutionary research. Genome sequencing projects have greatly expanded the sampling of species from many insect orders, but genomic resources for species of certain insect lineages have remained relatively limited to date. To address this paucity, we sequenced the genome of the banded demoiselle, Calopteryx splendens, a damselfly (Odonata: Zygoptera) belonging to Palaeoptera, the clade containing the first winged insects. The 1.6 Gbp C. splendens draft genome assembly is one of the largest insect genomes sequenced to date and encodes a predicted set of 22,523 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analyses with other sequenced insects identified a relatively small repertoire of C. splendens detoxification genes, which could explain its previously noted sensitivity to habitat pollution. Intriguingly, this repertoire includes a cytochrome P450 gene not previously described in any insect genome. The C. splendens immune gene repertoire appears relatively complete and features several genes encoding novel multi-domain peptidoglycan recognition proteins. Analysis of chemosensory genes revealed the presence of both gustatory and ionotropic receptors, as well as the insect odorant receptor coreceptor gene (OrCo) and at least four partner odorant receptors (ORs). This represents the oldest known instance of a complete OrCo/OR system in insects, and provides the molecular underpinning for odonate olfaction. The C. splendens genome improves the sampling of insect lineages that diverged before the radiation of Holometabola and offers new opportunities for molecular-level evolutionary, ecological, and behavioral studies. PMID:28137743

  3. Genomic features of the damselfly Calopteryx splendens representing a sister clade to most insect orders.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Simao, Felipe A; Waterhouse, Robert M; Manni, Mosè; Seppey, Mathieu; Robertson, Hugh M; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver; Zdobnov, Evgeny M

    2017-01-30

    Insects comprise the most diverse and successful animal group with over one million described species that are found in almost every terrestrial and limnic habitat, with many being used as important models in genetics, ecology, and evolutionary research. Genome sequencing projects have greatly expanded the sampling of species from many insect orders, but genomic resources for species of certain insect lineages have remained relatively limited to date. To address this paucity, we sequenced the genome of the banded demoiselle, Calopteryx splendens, a damselfly (Odonata: Zygoptera) belonging to Palaeoptera, the clade containing the first winged insects. The 1.6 Gbp C. splendens draft genome assembly is one of the largest insect genomes sequenced to date and encodes a predicted set of 22,523 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analyses with other sequenced insects identified a relatively small repertoire of C. splendens detoxification genes, which could explain its previously noted sensitivity to habitat pollution. Intriguingly, this repertoire includes a cytochrome P450 gene not previously described in any insect genome. The C. splendens immune gene repertoire appears relatively complete and features several genes encoding novel multi-domain peptidoglycan recognition proteins. Analysis of chemosensory genes revealed the presence of both gustatory and ionotropic receptors, as well as the insect odorant receptor coreceptor gene (OrCo) and at least four partner odorant receptors (ORs). This represents the oldest known instance of a complete OrCo/OR system in insects, and provides the molecular underpinning for odonate olfaction. The C. splendens genome improves the sampling of insect lineages that diverged before the radiation of Holometabola and offers new opportunities for molecular-level evolutionary, ecological, and behavioral studies.

  4. Mosses beta radioactivity in Katirli mountain-Bursa, TURKEY

    SciTech Connect

    Kahraman, A. G.; Kaynak, G.; Akkaya, G.; Gultekin, A.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.

    2007-04-23

    Mosses are one of the most widely used procedures to determine via plant of radioactive contamination. The high concentrating capacity of mosses may be used as bioindicator of environmental radioactive contamination. In this study, the mosses were collected in region of Katirli Mountain in northwestern Turkey, activities were determined using TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. Samples of mosses growing on soil, rock, and tree bark were collected.

  5. Translocation in the nonpolytrichaceous moss grimmia laevigata

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, P. )

    1989-10-01

    A superficially rhizomatous habit suggested that the moss Grimmia laevigata might function as a clonal, rhizomatous plant and translocate photoassimilates to below ground organs, even though the species is outside the order Polytrichales, which includes the only mosses known to posses sieve cells. Labelling with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} indicated that at least 10% of newly assimilated carbon was translocated out of leafy shoot portions within 26 hr. Of this carbon, approximately 75% was apparently moved into leafless, basal shoot portions and 25% into below ground stems. Infrared gas analysis of net CO{sup 2} flux was used to check that labelling gave a realistic measure of photosynthesis. Physiological integration and clonal spread may account for the unusual ability of this moss to colonize extremely xeric microsites.

  6. The Moss Techniques for Air Pollution Study in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, S.; Marinov, A.; Frontasyeva, M.; Strelkova, L.; Yurukova, L.; Steinnes, E.

    2010-01-21

    The paper presents new results on atmospheric deposition of 41 elements in four areas of Bulgaria during the European moss survey in 2005. The results have been obtained by the moss biomonitoring technique. Ninety seven moss samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).

  7. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  12. 77 FR 70431 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 15, 2012, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC, (Moss Bluff) filed to revise its Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC)...

  13. Thermal energy storage composition comprising peat moss

    SciTech Connect

    Rueffel, P.G.

    1980-11-04

    Peat moss is used in a thermal energy storage composition to provide a network in which to trap an incongruently melting salt hydrate capable of storing thermal energy as latent heat of phase change. The peat moss network is effective in preventing the segregation of a dehydrated form of the salt between heating and cooling cycles. In a preferred embodiment that salt hydrate is the decahydrate of sodium sulphate. A nucleating agent such as sodium tetraborate decahydrate is included to prevent supercooling in the composition, and promote crystallization of the decahydrate of sodium sulphate.

  14. 77 FR 14963 - Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... Lake, Moss Point, MS, on April 28- 29, 2012. This action is necessary for the safeguarding...

  15. Field observation on the efficacy of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) as a biocontrol agent against Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae in a cemetery.

    PubMed

    Nyamah, M A; Sulaiman, S; Omar, B

    2011-08-01

    This study explored the efficacy of Toxorhynchites splendens, predator of Aedes albopictus as a biocontrol agent. There was a negative correlation between Ae. albopictus larval population and Tx. splendens larval population in ovitraps (r=-0.287, R²=0.0821). The correlation is higher between the mean number of Ae. albopictus larvae per ovitrap and the number of Tx. splendens larvae in an ovitrap (r=-0.987, R²=0.9737). Larvae of Tx. splendens were observed to co-exist with larvae of Ae. albopictus and Culex fuscocephala in the ovitraps placed in the study area. The existence of Tx. splendens larvae in the study area coincides with their habit, preferring to breed in bamboo stumps. A total of 480 ovitraps were inspected for 30-week study period and 281 ovitraps were positive with Ae. albopictus larvae respectively. There was a significant difference between numbers of ovitrap positive for Ae. albopictus larvae with number of Tx. splendens larvae in the ovitraps (ANOVA, F((4,475)) 2.655, p<0.05). Of 281 ovitraps positive with Ae. albopictus larvae, 255 ovitraps contained only one Tx. splendens larva each. Only one ovitrap contained four, the most number of Tx. splendens larvae (p< 0.05). Thus, Tx. splendens could be utilised as an alternative for dengue vector control programme.

  16. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  17. Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alison W.; Roberts, Eric M.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the moss Physcomitrella patens has stimulated new research examining the cell wall polysaccharides of mosses and the glycosyl transferases that synthesize them as a means to understand fundamental processes of cell wall biosynthesis and plant cell wall evolution. The cell walls of mosses and vascular plants are composed of the same classes of polysaccharides, but with differences in side chain composition and structure. Similarly, the genomes of P. patens and angiosperms encode the same families of cell wall glycosyl transferases, yet, in many cases these families have diversified independently in each lineage. Our understanding of land plant evolution could be enhanced by more complete knowledge of the relationships among glycosyl transferase functional diversification, cell wall structural and biochemical specialization, and the roles of cell walls in plant adaptation. As a foundation for these studies, we review the features of P. patens as an experimental system, analyses of cell wall composition in various moss species, recent studies that elucidate the structure and biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in P. patens, and phylogenetic analysis of P. patens genes potentially involved in cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:22833752

  18. EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM MOSSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene emission has been documented and characterized from species in all major groups of vascular plants. We report in our survey that isoprene emission is much more common in mosses and ferns than later divergent land plants but is absent in liverworts and hornworts. The li...

  19. EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM MOSSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene emission has been documented and characterized from species in all major groups of vascular plants. We report in our survey that isoprene emission is much more common in mosses and ferns than later divergent land plants but is absent in liverworts and hornworts. The li...

  20. Consort contact dermatitis due to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Held, J L; Ruszkowski, A M; Deleo, V A

    1988-02-01

    An allergic contact dermatitis in a woman was found to be due to oak moss in her husband's after-shave lotion. When routine patch testing reveals a positive reaction, the dermatologist should consider exposure to the antigen not only in the patient but also through contact with the patient's consort.

  1. Chemical Composition Analysis, Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity Screening of Moss Extracts (Moss Phytochemistry).

    PubMed

    Klavina, Laura; Springe, Gunta; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Martsinkevich, Illia; Nakurte, Ilva; Dzabijeva, Diana; Steinberga, Iveta

    2015-09-18

    Mosses have been neglected as a study subject for a long time. Recent research shows that mosses contain remarkable and unique substances with high biological activity. The aim of this study, accordingly, was to analyze the composition of mosses and to screen their antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The total concentration of polyphenols and carbohydrates, the amount of dry residue and the radical scavenging activity were determined for a preliminary evaluation of the chemical composition of moss extracts. In order to analyze and identify the substances present in mosses, two types of extrahents (chloroform, ethanol) and the GC/MS and LC-TOF-MS methods were used. The antimicrobial activity was tested on four bacteria strains, and the anticancer activity on six cancer cell lines. The obtained results show the presence of a high number of primary (fatty acids and amino acids), but mainly secondary metabolites in moss extracts-including, sterols, terpenoids, polyphenols and others-and a high activity with respect to the studied test organisms.

  2. Dynamic Moss Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy; Morton, Richard; Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), flown on 11 July 2012, has revealed an unprecedented level of detail and substructure within the solar corona. Hi-­-C imaged a large active region (AR11520) with 0.2-0.3'' spatial resolution and 5.5s cadence over a 5 minute period. An additional dataset with a smaller FOV, the same resolution, but with a higher temporal cadence (1s) was also taken during the rocket flight. This dataset was centered on a large patch of 'moss' emission that initially seemed to show very little variability. Image processing revealed this region to be much more dynamic than first thought with numerous bright and dark features observed to appear, move and disappear over the 5 minute observation. Moss is thought to be emission from the upper transition region component of hot loops so studying its dynamics and the relation between the bright/dark features and underlying magnetic features is important to tie the interaction of the different atmospheric layers together. Hi-C allows us to study the coronal emission of the moss at the smallest scales while data from SDO/AIA and HMI is used to give information on these structures at different heights/temperatures. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of Hi-C the observed moss features were tracked and the distribution of displacements, speeds, and sizes were measured. This allows us to comment on both the physical processes occurring within the dynamic moss and the scales at which these changes are occurring.

  3. Dynamic Moss Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy; Morton, Richard; Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), flown on 11 July 2012, has revealed an unprecedented level of detail and substructure within the solar corona. Hi-C imaged a large active region (AR11520) with 0.2-0.3'' spatial resolution and 5.5s cadence over a 5 minute period. An additional dataset with a smaller FOV, the same resolution, but with a higher temporal cadence (1s) was also taken during the rocket flight. This dataset was centered on a large patch of 'moss' emission that initially seemed to show very little variability. Image processing revealed this region to be much more dynamic than first thought with numerous bright and dark features observed to appear, move and disappear over the 5 minute observation. Moss is thought to be emission from the upper transition region component of hot loops so studying its dynamics and the relation between the bright/dark features and underlying magnetic features is important to tie the interaction of the different atmospheric layers together. Hi-C allows us to study the coronal emission of the moss at the smallest scales while data from SDO/AIA and HMI is used to give information on these structures at different heights/temperatures. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of Hi-C the observed moss features were tracked and the distribution of displacements, speeds, and sizes were measured. This allows us to comment on both the physical processes occurring within the dynamic moss and the scales at which these changes are occurring.

  4. Lateralization of displays during aggressive and courtship behaviour in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Cantalupo, C; Bisazza, A; Vallortigara, G

    1996-07-01

    Evidence for right-left asymmetries in eye use at the individual level in the Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, is reported. When faced with their mirror image (in two daily trials of 10 min each), adult male Betta splendens showed consistency in their right or left eye use during threat lateral displays. Moreover, if one side was preferred by an individual to exhibit the lateral displays, then the duration of the displays on that side was longer than the duration of the displays on the other side. Similar findings were obtained when a sample of animals was tested for eye use during courtship displays in the presence of a female. Furthermore, consistency in eye use was observed in fish tested first with the mirror and then, 2 months later, with the female. Results are discussed with respect to the issue of the evolution of brain lateralization.

  5. Reproductive activity alterations on the Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex.

    PubMed

    Mello-Silva, Clélia Christina; Vilar, Mônica Magno; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; Vasconcellos, Maurício Carvalho de; Pinheiro, Jairo; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de A

    2007-09-01

    The reproductive activity of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex was evaluated. Parameters related to fecundity and fertility were observed. The snails were exposed to the LD50 (1 mg/l) of crude latex. At the first week post exposure (p.e.), the egg laying was reduced. After the fourth week p.e., an increase of the number of eggs/snail occurred. The results showed a marked reduction in the hatching of the snails, revealing an interference of latex exposure with the reproductive process of B. glabrata of E. splendens var. hislopii. The LD50 of the latex may be used as an alternative method to control the size of the populations of B. glabrata in field.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the invasive house crow Corvus splendens (Passeriformes: Corvidae).

    PubMed

    Krzeminska, Urszula; Wilson, Robyn; Rahman, Sadequr; Song, Beng Kah; Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the invasive house crow (Corvus splendens) was sequenced (GenBank accession number: KJ766304) using the MiSeq Personal Sequencer (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The mitochondrial genome is 16,962 bp in length, comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes and a non-coding control region. The mitogenome structural organization is identical to that of the other Corvus species and related genera. The overall base composition of C. splendens is 30.65% for A, 29.71% for C, 14.84% for G and 24.80% for T, with an AT content of 55.45%. We propose to use full mitochondrial genome to address taxonomic issues and to study the population genetics of crows.

  7. Influence of container design on predation rate of potential biocontrol agent, Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) against dengue vector.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, N; Zuharah, W F

    2014-03-01

    Toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, Aedes albopictus. This study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of Tx. splendens third instar larvae on Ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. Each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. Predation rate of Tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. The experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (tin cans, plastic drinking glasses and rubber tires) and natural container (bamboo stumps) which were filled with different water volumes (full, half full, 1/4 full, and 1/8 full). The prey density and the characteristics of the container were found as significant factors which influence the predation rate of Tx. splendens. The predator consumed significantly more prey at higher prey densities (40 and 50 preys) compared to the lowest density (10 preys) (F=3.935, df=4, p=0.008). The results showed significantly higher consumption in horizontal shaped container of rubber tire than in vertical shape of bamboo stumps (F=3.100, df=3, p=0.029). However, the water volume had no significant effect on predation rate of Tx. splendens (F=1.736, df=3, p=0.162). We generally suggest that Tx. splendens is best to be released in discarded tires or any other containers with horizontal shape design with wide opening since Tx. splendens can become more effective in searching prey in this type of container design. This predator is also a suitable biocontrol candidates to be introduced either in wet and dry seasons in Malaysia.

  8. Early development of Betta splendens under stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Fernanda Nogueira; do Nascimento, Nivaldo Ferreira; da Silva, Regiane Cristina; Fernandes, João Batista Kochenborger; Giannecchini, Luiz Gustavo; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada

    2015-04-01

    Betta splendens is a very important ornamental species. The current paper describes the embryonic and larval development of B. splendens under stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Eggs and larvae from natural spawning were collected at different developmental stages at previously established intervals and analysed. The eggs of B. splendens are yellowish, clear, spherical, demersal, translucent and telolecithal with a large amount of yolk. Between 0-2 h post-initial collection (hpIC), the eggs were at the egg cell, first cleavage and morula stages. The blastula stage was identified at 2-3 hpIC and the early gastrula phase was observed at 3-4 hpIC with 20% epiboly, which was finalized after 13-18 hpIC. When the pre-larvae were ready to hatch, the appearance of somites and the free tail were observed, at 23-25 hpIC. At 29 hpIC, the majority of larvae had already hatched at an average temperature of 28.4 ± 0.2°C. The newly hatched larvae measured 2.47 ± 0.044 mm total length. The mouth opened at 23 h post-hatching (hPH) and the yolk sac was totally absorbed at 73 hPH. After 156 hPH, the heart was pumping blood throughout the entire larval body. The caudal fin, operculum and eyes were well developed at 264 hPH. When metamorphosis was complete at 768 hPH, the larvae became juveniles. The current study presents the first results about early development of B. splendens and provides relevant information for its reproduction, rearing and biology.

  9. A multistate outbreak of sporotrichosis associated with sphagnum moss.

    PubMed

    Coles, F B; Schuchat, A; Hibbs, J R; Kondracki, S F; Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Chang, H G; Duncan, R A; Hurd, N J; Morse, D L

    1992-08-15

    In the spring of 1988, the largest documented US outbreak of cutaneous sporotrichosis to date occurred, with 84 cases among persons from 15 states who were exposed to Wisconsin-grown sphagnum moss used in packing evergreen tree seedlings. In New York State, 13 cases occurred among 109 forestry workers. All 13 cases occurred among 76 workers who had handled evergreen seedlings and moss (attack rate = 17%). For those exposed to evergreens and moss, the risk of infection increased as worktime exposure to moss increased (attack rates: less than 10 hours, 8%; 10-19 hours, 12%; greater than 19 hours, 33%). While environmental samples of moss from the Wisconsin supplier were negative, Sporothrix schenckii was cultured from multiple samples of the sphagnum moss obtained from one of six Pennsylvania tree nurseries, representing the nursery that was identified as the source for 79 (94%) of the moss-associated cases. Differences in tree-handling procedures at this nursery--including the use of 1- to 3-year-old moss to pack seedlings, use of a pond water source to wet the moss, use of an organic polymer gel on the seedling root system, and underground storage and longer storage of moss-packed seedlings before shipping--suggested possible explanations for the association. Efforts to prevent sporotrichosis among persons handling evergreen seedlings should include the use of alternate types of packing material (e.g., cedar wood chips or shredded paper) and protective clothing such as gloves and long-sleeved shirts.

  10. Modulation of monoamine neurotransmitters in fighting fish Betta splendens exposed to waterborne phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2010-12-01

    Endogenous estrogens are known to affect the activity of monoamine neurotransmitters in vertebrate animals, but the effects of exogenous estrogens on neurotransmitters are relatively poorly understood. We exposed sexually mature male fighting fish Betta splendens to environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses of three phytoestrogens that are potential endocrine disruptors in wild fish populations: genistein, equol, and β-sitosterol. We also exposed fish to two doses of the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol, which we selected as a positive control because phytoestrogens are putative estrogen mimics. Our results were variable, but the effects were generally modest. Genistein increased dopamine levels in the forebrains of B. splendens at both environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses. The environmentally relevant dose of equol increased dopamine levels in B. splendens forebrains, and the pharmacological dose decreased norepinephrine (forebrain), dopamine (hindbrain), and serotonin (forebrain) levels. The environmentally relevant dose of β-sitosterol decreased norepinephrine and dopamine in the forebrain and hindbrain, respectively. Our results suggest that sources of environmental phytoestrogens, such as runoff or effluent from agricultural fields, wood pulp mills, and sewage treatment plants, have the potential to modulate neurotransmitter activity in free-living fishes in a way that could interfere with normal behavioral processes.

  11. Heat stress-induced response of the proteomes of leaves from Salvia splendens Vista and King

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salvia splendens Ker-Gawl, most commonly used in China to add a splash of brilliant color to the surroundings during the warm season, is subject to heat stress, which can greatly affect its growth and yield. Results To gain a comprehensive understanding of heat-tolerance mechanisms of S. splendens, we assessed the heat-stress responses and characterized the proteomes of leaves from two varieties, Vista (heat resistant) and King (heat sensitive). Denaturing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2–DE) and tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify heat-responsive proteins. Heat stress induced the reversible inactivation of photosystem II reaction centers and increased the amounts of antioxidative enzymes, thereby decreasing oxidative damage. Vista leaves had a much greater ability than King leaves to develop light-protective and oxygen-scavenging systems in response to heat stress. More than 1213 leaf proteome spots were reproducibly detected in the gels, with a total of 33 proteins in each leaf type differentially regulated when Salvia splendens were heat stress treated. Of these proteins, 23 and 28 from Vista and King, respectively, were identified. Conclusions Most of the identified proteins are involved in photosynthesis, metabolism, protein processing, or stress response, indicating that many different processes work together to establish a new cellular homeostasis in response to heat stress. PMID:23773552

  12. Serotonin decreases aggression via 5-HT1A receptors in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Hare, Erin P; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2007-01-01

    The role of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the modulation of conspecific aggression in the fighting fish (Betta splendens) was investigated using pharmacological manipulations. We used a fish's response to its mirror image as our index of aggressive behavior. We also investigated the effects of some manipulations on monoamine levels in the B. splendens brain. Acute treatment with 5-HT and with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT both decreased aggressive behavior; however, treatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 did not increase aggression. Chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine caused no significant changes in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. Treatment with the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in no change in aggression, yet serotonergic activity decreased significantly. Finally, a diet supplemented with L-tryptophan (Trp), the precursor to 5-HT, showed no consistent effects on aggressive behavior or brain monoamine concentrations. These results suggest a complex role for serotonin in the expression of aggression in teleost fishes, and that B. splendens may be a useful model organism in pharmacological and toxicological studies.

  13. Alfred E. Moss: 1924 Indy 500 race driver, British dentist and father of Sir Stirling Moss.

    PubMed

    Christen, Joan A

    2005-03-01

    Alfred Ethelbert Moss (1896-1972), a highly successful London dentist, was also a pioneer in English auto racing. In 1923, 27-year old Alfred (already a dentist), arrived in Indianapolis, Indiana, ostensibly to study "advanced dental practice" at the Indiana Dental College. However, his primary motive for coming to Indianapolis was to participate in the Indy 500 race. On Friday, May 30, 1924, 22 car racers started the 12th running of the Indy 500. Among them was Alfred, who finished respectably, in 16th place. Thus, he became the first dentist to compete in the famed Indianapolis 500 race. In 1925, after months of dirt-track running around the U.S., he returned to England. His initial plan was to continue racing in his own country. However, this goal vanished as his dental career began to flourish. Soon he had developed a large and prosperous dental practice in London. In 1927, Moss married Aileen Craufurd, who eventually became a champion female race car driver in England. In 1929, the couple had a son, Stirling. By the 1950s, Stirling Moss was hailed as Britain's best known sports star, and one of the world's fastest and most versatile race drivers of all time. This article follows the life and times of the Moss family, with an emphasis on Alfred's two life endeavors racing and dentistry, and on Stirling's famed racing career. In 1999, Stirling Moss was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

  14. Calculating the Velocity in the Moss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womebarger, Amy R.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of the warm (1 MK) plasma in the footpoint of the hot coronal loops (commonly called moss) could help discriminate between different heating frequencies in the active region core. Strong velocities would indicated low-frequency heating, while velocities close to zero would indicate high-frequency heating. Previous results have found disparaging observations, with both strong velocities and velocities close to zero reported. Previous results are based on observations from Hinode/EIS. The wavelength arrays for EIS spectra are typically calculated by assuming quiet Sun velocities are zero. In this poster, we determine the velocity in the moss using observations with SoHO/SUMER. We rely on neutral or singly ionized spectral lines to determine accurately the wavelength array associated with the spectra. SUMER scanned the active region twice, so we also report the stability of the velocity.

  15. The effect of body coloration and group size on social partner preferences in female fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Blakeslee, C; McRobert, S P; Brown, A C; Clotfelter, E D

    2009-02-01

    Females of the fighting fish Betta splendens have been shown to associate with other B. splendens females in a manner reminiscent of shoaling behavior. Since body coloration varies dramatically in this species, and since body coloration has been shown to affect shoalmate choice in other species of fish, we examined the influence of body coloration on association preferences in female B. splendens. In dichotomous choice tests, B. splendens females spent more time swimming near groups of females (regardless of coloration) than swimming near an empty chamber, and chose to swim near fish of similar coloration to their own when choosing between two distinctly colored groups of females. When examining the interplay between body coloration and group size, focal fish spent more time swimming near larger groups (N=5) of similarly colored fish than swimming near an individual female of similar coloration. However, focal fish showed no preference when presented with an individual female of similar coloration and a larger group of females of dissimilar coloration. These results suggest that association choices in B. splendens females are strongly affected by both body coloration and by group size.

  16. The meteorite Moss - a rare carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilet, M.; Roaldset, E.

    2014-07-01

    On July 14, 2006, at about 10:20 a.m. local daylight time (UTC+2), a bright fireball travelling SSE-NNV was witnessed from the Baltic Sea to SE Norway. On the east side of the Oslo fiord, around Moss, an explosion and a rumbling sound was heard, and pieces were observed falling. Rapid recovery of meteorite stones gave an opportunity for detailed petrological and geochemical investigations, including analyses of indigenous organic species, and short lived isotopes. The meteorite is a chondritic stone meteorite, with some carbon (0.21-0.25 wt% C). The cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age is 14 Ma, i.e. when Moss was ejected from its parent body. Gas retention ages are approximately 3.95x10^9 yr (U/Th/He) and 4.43x10^9 yr (K/Ar), respectively. The meteorite has the official name Moss, and is classified as carbonaceous chondrite type CO3.6. It was the first witnessed fall of a CO3 chondrite since Kainsaz in Russia in 1937.

  17. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-03-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin acids which are ingredients of another lichen, tree moss. Resin acids, e.g. abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid, are also the main allergens in colophonium. The aim of the study was to assess whether the contamination of oak moss absolute and thus the FM with resin acids had affected their diagnostic value so that they, instead of indicating fragrance allergy, had become indicators of allergy to resin acids and thus colophonium. Two studies were undertaken. First the relationship between patch test reactions to FM, oak moss absolute, both with contents of resin acids, and colophonium were assessed in 885 consecutive patients. A significant relationship between reactions to colophonium and FM was seen (p < 0.001) as well as a significant relationship between oak moss absolute and colophonium (p < 0.001). The relationship between colophonium and FM was still significant when all reactions to oak moss absolute were disregarded (p < 0.001), showing a relationship also between colophonium and fragrance ingredients other than oak moss absolute. Second, 119 consecutive patients were tested with an old and a new version of oak moss absolute containing resin acid (0.05%) and no measurable resin acid, respectively, and with the corresponding FM. No overall difference in reactivity to the old and new version of oak moss absolute/FM was seen. It is concluded the diagnostic value of oak moss absolute as indicator fragrance contact allergy has been and is unaffected by the resin acid contamination.

  18. Monitoring trace metals using moss bags in Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2010-05-01

    As well known anthropic activities are producing an increase of trace metal concentration in the terrestrial ecosystems. Previous researches have shown that several species of cryptogams can be used as a low-cost bio-accumulator to detect metal deposition. In this study biomonitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as a bio-accumulator for the estimation of atmospheric traces metal deposition in three sites characterized by different source of pollution around an industrialized area and two urban areas (north-west of Sardinia, Italy). Moss carpets were collected from trees in a forest of central Sardinia where air pollution is not present. In the laboratory, the moss plant samples were cleaned and moss bags were prepared by weighing out 2 g air-dried weight, and packing it loosely in nylon nets of 12 x 12 cm with mesh of 4 mm2. In each site the moss bags were exposed for six weeks during autumn, winter, spring and summer seasons from November 2007 to July 2008. Two moss bags, used as control, were not exposed. Following exposure the moss samples were analyzed for total concentration of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Results obtained showed higher values of trace metal load factor for the following elements: Cu, Ni, Zn, and As. The most accumulation values were found in moss bags exposed in the industrial area for all period of experimentation.

  19. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial site in Romania: relative accumulation of 36 elements in moss-bags.

    PubMed

    Culicov, O A; Mocanu, R; Frontasyeva, M V; Yurukova, L; Steinnes, E

    2005-09-01

    Active moss biomonitoring using the species Sphagnum girgensohnii was tested at a strongly polluted site in Romania (Baia Mare) according to a novel sampling design. Nine moss transplants from each of the two background areas (Dubna, Russia and Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) were deployed in parallel on balconies about 24 m above street level for 4 months. The samples were analyzed for 36 elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Based on the results obtained the sampling variability is discussed in relation to the analytical variability, and the relative uptake of the different elements is assessed. The moss-bags using Sphagnum girgensohnii demonstrate a high or a very high relative uptake for a majority of the 36 investigated elements, but the values depend on the initial element concentration in the moss. Moss leaves analyzed separately showed somewhat higher levels than stems for many elements. Practical considerations however still speak in favor of using the whole moss for transplants.

  20. From salmon pink to blue natural sensitizers for solar cells: Canna indica L., Salvia splendens, cowberry and Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Luo, Peihui; Niu, Haijun; Zheng, Gang; Bai, Xuduo; Zhang, Milin; Wang, Wen

    2009-11-01

    Study on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with extracts of Canna indica L., Salvia splendens, Solanum nigrum L. as sensitizers is firstly reported in this paper. DSSCs were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from C. indica L., S. splendens, cowberry and S. nigrum L. as sensitizers. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dyes of C. indica L., S. splendens, cowberry and S. nigrum L. was 0.29%, 0.26%, 0.13% and 0.31%, respectively. A novel technique was taken to fabricate TiO(2) electrode films by electrophoresis. We present FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy studies of structures and light absorption of these four kinds of natural dyes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the interface resistance of cells. The result indicated that high resistance existed in the interfaces of cell with cowberry extract as sensitizer.

  1. From salmon pink to blue natural sensitizers for solar cells: Canna indica L., Salvia splendens, cowberry and Solanum nigrum L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peihui; Niu, Haijun; Zheng, Gang; Bai, Xuduo; Zhang, Milin; Wang, Wen

    2009-11-01

    Study on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with extracts of Canna indica L., Salvia splendens, Solanum nigrum L. as sensitizers is firstly reported in this paper. DSSCs were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from C. indica L., S. splendens, cowberry and S. nigrum L. as sensitizers. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dyes of C. indica L., S. splendens, cowberry and S. nigrum L. was 0.29%, 0.26%, 0.13% and 0.31%, respectively. A novel technique was taken to fabricate TiO 2 electrode films by electrophoresis. We present FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy studies of structures and light absorption of these four kinds of natural dyes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the interface resistance of cells. The result indicated that high resistance existed in the interfaces of cell with cowberry extract as sensitizer.

  2. Simultaneous separation of apigenin, luteolin and rosmarinic acid from the aerial parts of the copper-tolerant plant Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hongyun; Xing, Yan; Gao, Lingling; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Guolin

    2014-01-01

    Elsholtzia splendens is a copper-tolerant plant species which grows on copper deposits in China. The generation of a valuable E. splendens biomass on specific contaminated sites has become one of the promising phytotechnologies. The simultaneous separations of apigenin, luteolin, and rosmarinic acid yielded in the ethyl acetate extracts of the flowering aerial parts was achieved by the use of a macroporous resin, polyamide, and silicagel columns during chromatography. Chemical identification confirmed the structures based on the spectra of FTIR, NMR, and HPLC/ESI-MS. The isolated compounds of purity above 98.3% were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines including A549 (non-small lung), A431 (skin), and Bcap37 (breast). Among these compounds, luteolin and apigenin presented the best cytotoxic activities against A549, A431, and Bcap37 cells and, therefore, both could be the valuable products for the post-harvest processing of E. splendens biomass.

  3. Arctic mosses govern below-ground environment and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Gornall, J L; Jónsdóttir, I S; Woodin, S J; Van der Wal, R

    2007-10-01

    Mosses dominate many northern ecosystems and their presence is integral to soil thermal and hydrological regimes which, in turn, dictate important ecological processes. Drivers, such as climate change and increasing herbivore pressure, affect the moss layer thus, assessment of the functional role of mosses in determining soil characteristics is essential. Field manipulations conducted in high arctic Spitsbergen (78 degrees N), creating shallow (3 cm), intermediate (6 cm) and deep (12 cm) moss layers over the soil surface, had an immediate impact on soil temperature in terms of both average temperatures and amplitude of fluctuations. In soil under deep moss, temperature was substantially lower and organic layer thaw occurred 4 weeks later than in other treatment plots; the growing season for vascular plants was thereby reduced by 40%. Soil moisture was also reduced under deep moss, reflecting the influence of local heterogeneity in moss depth, over and above the landscape-scale topographic control of soil moisture. Data from field and laboratory experiments show that moss-mediated effects on the soil environment influenced microbial biomass and activity, resulting in warmer and wetter soil under thinner moss layers containing more plant-available nitrogen. In arctic ecosystems, which are limited by soil temperature, growing season length and nutrient availability, spatial and temporal variation in the depth of the moss layer has significant repercussions for ecosystem function. Evidence from our mesic tundra site shows that any disturbance causing reduction in the depth of the moss layer will alleviate temperature and moisture constraints and therefore profoundly influence a wide range of ecosystem processes, including nutrient cycling and energy transfer.

  4. First Report of Stemonitis splendens Rostaf Causing Bark Decay of Oak Logs Used for Shiitake Cultivation in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Da-Ran; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2014-09-01

    Severe bark decay disease was observed on oak logs at a shiitake cultivation farm in Geochang-gun, Gyeongnam province. The symptoms observed were fruiting bodies that had developed on the top and side surface of oak logs. As a result, the bark came off easily exposing the sapwood. Slime mold specimens collected from oak logs showed developing fruiting bodies comprising of stalks, hypothallus, capillitium, and columella, and the causal agent of bark decay disease was identified as Stemonitis splendens on the basis of morphological characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Stemonitis splendens causing bark decay of oak logs used for shiitake mushroom cultivation in Korea.

  5. Pythium infection activates conserved plant defense responses in mosses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The moss Physcomitrella patens (P. patens) is a useful model to study abiotic stress responses since it is highly tolerant to drought, salt and osmotic stress. However, little is known about the defense mechanisms activated in this moss after pathogen assault. Here the induction of defense responses...

  6. Using essential oils to control moss and liverwort in containers

    Treesearch

    Nabil Khadduri

    2011-01-01

    Liverwort and moss are economically significant weeds across a range of US container production sites, including forest seedling greenhouse culture in the Pacific Northwest. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of essential oils, or distilled plant extracts, in controlling liverwort and moss container weeds over three seasons of trials. When applied at the...

  7. Moss on a Roof, and What Lives in It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbet, Sarah; Lan, Oey Biauw

    1974-01-01

    Based on the assumption that even city dwellers have access to clumps of moss growing on buildings and on pavements, information concerning some of the inhabitants of these mosses and some aspects of the environment in which they live is presented. (PEB)

  8. Moss on a Roof, and What Lives in It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbet, Sarah; Lan, Oey Biauw

    1974-01-01

    Based on the assumption that even city dwellers have access to clumps of moss growing on buildings and on pavements, information concerning some of the inhabitants of these mosses and some aspects of the environment in which they live is presented. (PEB)

  9. 78 FR 21930 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 29, 2013, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC filed to revise its Statement of Operating Conditions to modify Sections 3.4.4,...

  10. 76 FR 10581 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 11, 2011, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC filed to revise its Statement of General Terms and Standard Operating Conditions...

  11. Reproductive consequences of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Louise M; Brown, Alexandria C; Montgomery, Tracy M; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2011-04-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that can act as endocrine disruptors in vertebrates. Biologically active levels of phytoestrogens have been found in aquatic habitats near wood pulp and paper mills, biofuel manufacturing plants, sewage-treatment plants, and agricultural fields. Phytoestrogens are known to cause hormonal and gonadal changes in male fish, but few studies have connected these effects to outcomes relevant to reproductive success. In one experiment, we exposed sexually mature male fighting fish Betta splendens to environmentally relevant (1 μg L(-1)) and pharmacological concentrations (1000 μg L(-1)) of the phytoestrogen genistein as well as to a positive control of waterborne 17β-estradiol (E2; 1 μg L(-1)), and a negative control of untreated water. In a second experiment, we exposed male B. splendens to environmentally relevant concentrations (1 μg L(-1)) of genistein and β-sitosterol singly and in combination as well as to the positive and negative controls. All exposures were 21 days in duration. We measured sex-steroid hormone levels, gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm concentration and motility, and fertilization success in these fish. We found that exposure to genistein did not affect circulating levels of the androgen 11-ketotestosterone or the estrogen E2 relative to negative-control fish. We also found that neither of the compounds nor their mixture affected GSI, sperm concentration or motility, or fertilization success in exposed fish relative to negative-control fish. However, fish exposed to phytoestrogens showed some evidence of fewer but more motile sperm than fish exposed to the positive control E2. We conclude that sexually mature male B. splendens are relatively immune to reproductive impairments from short-term exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  12. Wound healing properties and kill kinetics of Clerodendron splendens G. Don, a Ghanaian wound healing plant

    PubMed Central

    Gbedema, Stephen Y.; Emelia, Kisseih; Francis, Adu; Kofi, Annan; Eric, Woode

    2010-01-01

    As part of our general objective of investigating indigenous plants used in wound healing in Ghana, we hereby report our findings from some in vitro and in vivo studies related to wound healing activities of Clerodendron splendens G. Don (Verbanaceae). Methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus flavus, as well as resistant strains of Staph. aureus SA1199B, RN4220 and XU212), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteous mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Candida albicans using the micro-well dilution method. Survivor–time studies of the microorganisms, radical scavenging activity using 2,2’-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and various in vivo wound healing activity studies were also conducted on the extract. The extract exhibited biostatic action against all the test microorganisms with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) ranging between 64 and 512 μg/ml and a free radical scavenging property with an IC50 value of 103.2 μg/ml. The results of the in vivo wound healing tests showed that upon application of C. splendens ointment, there was a reduction in the epithelization period from 26.7 days (control) to 13.6 days along with a marked decrease in the scar area from 54.2 mm2 (control) to 25.2 mm2. Significant increase in the tensile strength and hydroxyproline content were also observed as compared to the control and was comparable to nitrofurazone. The above results appear to justify the traditional use of C. splendens in wound healing and treatment of skin infections in Ghana. PMID:21808542

  13. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  14. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: a review.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Foan, L; Simon, V; Mills, G

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring nitrogen accumulation in mosses in central European forests.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Schmidt, Gunther; Genssler, Lutz

    2008-10-01

    In order to assess whether nitrogen (N) loads in mosses reflect different land uses, 143 sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, the Weser-Ems Region and the Euro Region Nissa were sampled between 2000 and 2005. The data were analysed statistically with available surface information on land use and forest conditions. N bioaccumulation in mosses in the Weser-Ems Region with high densities of agricultural land use and livestock exceeded the concentrations in the more industrialised Euro Region Nissa. In all three study areas agricultural and livestock spatial densities were found to be positively correlated with N bioaccumulation in mosses. In North Rhine-Westphalia, the N concentrations in mosses was also moderately correlated with N concentrations in leaves and needles of forest trees. The moss method proved useful to assess the spatial patterns of N bioaccumulation due to land use.

  16. Moss systems biology en route: phytohormones in Physcomitrella development.

    PubMed

    Decker, E L; Frank, W; Sarnighausen, E; Reski, R

    2006-05-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens has become a powerful model system in modern plant biology. Highly standardized cell culture techniques, as well as the necessary tools for computational biology, functional genomics and proteomics have been established. Large EST collections are available and the complete moss genome will be released soon. A simple body plan and the small number of different cell types in Physcomitrella facilitate the study of developmental processes. In the filamentous juvenile moss tissue, developmental decisions rely on the differentiation of single cells. Developmental steps are controlled by distinct phytohormones and integration of environmental signals. Especially the phytohormones auxin, cytokinin, and abscisic acid have distinct effects on early moss development. In this article, we review current knowledge about phytohormone influences on early moss development in an attempt to fully unravel the complex regulatory signal transduction networks underlying the developmental decisions of single plant cells in a holistic systems biology approach.

  17. Muscle metabolic changes during the first six hours of cohabitation in pairs of male Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Haller, J

    1991-06-01

    Muscle metabolic effects of aggression were investigated during the first 6 hours of dyadic contests in male Betta splendens. In the first 10 minutes the free amino acid content of the carcass was reduced. At the end of the fight (after 30 minutes) a significant reduction in glycogen content and an increase in free glucose were noticed while amino acids were still reduced. The reduction in glycogen was more intense, while the increase in free glucose was smaller in losers. These modifications disappeared after 360 minutes, but at this time a significant reduction of protein content (both in winners and losers) and an increase of amino acids in winners were noticed.

  18. [Finding of the bacterial species Edwardsiella tarda in the aquarium fish Betta splendens].

    PubMed

    Vladík, P; Prouza, A; Vítovec, J

    1983-01-01

    A case of the mass occurrence of a disease in the aquarium fish species Betta splendens is described; morphologically the disease was characterized by the finding of large dermal changes located mainly in the dorsal part and by miliary granulomata in liver, spleen and kidneys. The granulomata consisted of epitheloid light cells with centrally located necrosis. Gram-negative bacteria with morphological and biochemical characteristics corresponding to the bacterial species Edwardsiella tarda were isolated from the kidneys, liver and from the dermal lesion. The characteristics of the strains isolated by us were compared with the reference Edwardsiella strain (Bth 1/64) obtained from the Czechoslovak collection of type cultures, Prague.

  19. MIF-1 (Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2) decreases activity in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Brown, M M; Sardenga, P B; Olson, G A; Delatte, S W; Olson, R D

    1984-04-01

    The effects of MIF-1 (Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2) on activity and aggression of male Siamese Fighting Fish ( Betta splendens) were considered. Animals were given intraperitoneal injections of 0.0 or 10.0 mg/kg MIF-1. After a 10-minute delay, they were placed in a 10 gallon aquarium and their activity was monitored for 60 minutes. Although aggressive responses in the presence of suitable opponents were not reliably affected, as significant decrease in general activity was produced. This is compatible with differential effects of MIF-1 across species.

  20. Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenoids from Salvia splendens and evaluation of Opioid Receptor affinity.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Gianfranco; Savona, Giuseppe; Rodríguez, Benjamín; Dersch, Christina M; Rothman, Richard B; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2008-12-20

    Salvinorin A (1), a neoclerodane diterpene from the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum, is the only known non-nitrogenous and specific kappa-opioid agonist. Several structural congeners of 1 isolated from Salvia splendens (2 - 8) together with a series of semisynthetic derivatives (9 - 24), some of which possess a pyrazoline structural moiety (9, 19 - 22), have been tested for affinity at human mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. None of these compounds showed high affinity binding to these receptors. However, 10 showed modest affinity for kappa receptors suggesting other naturally neoclerodanes from different Salvia species may possess opioid affinity.

  1. Synthetic studies on neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia splendens: oxidative modifications of ring A.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Gianfranco; Savona, Giuseppe; Rodríguez, Benjamín; Dersch, Christina M; Rothman, Richard B; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2009-02-21

    Salvinorin A (1), a neoclerodane diterpene from the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum, is the only known naturally occurring non-nitrogenous and specific κ-opioid agonist. Some oxidative modifications of the A ring in the congeners of 1 isolated from Salvia splendens salviarin, splenolide B, splendidin and in the non-natural 8-epi-salviarin gave new derivatives, some of which were tested as agonists at opioid receptors. However, none of these compounds were active. The presence of the C-18, C-19 lactone could be at the origin of the observed lack of binding affinity.

  2. Synthetic studies on neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia splendens: oxidative modifications of ring A

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Gianfranco; Savona, Giuseppe; Rodríguez, Benjamín; Dersch, Christina M.; Rothman, Richard B.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Salvinorin A (1), a neoclerodane diterpene from the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum, is the only known naturally occurring non-nitrogenous and specific κ-opioid agonist. Some oxidative modifications of the A ring in the congeners of 1 isolated from Salvia splendens salviarin, splenolide B, splendidin and in the non-natural 8-epi-salviarin gave new derivatives, some of which were tested as agonists at opioid receptors. However, none of these compounds were active. The presence of the C-18, C-19 lactone could be at the origin of the observed lack of binding affinity. PMID:21544261

  3. [Morphogenesis of proximal branch leaves in mosses].

    PubMed

    Ignatov, M S; Spirina, U N

    2012-01-01

    The formation of deeply dissected and compound leaves at the bases of branches, their homology between different groups of mosses, and probable factors responsible for their development are considered. Previous authors differ in the interpretation of such leaves and in most cases describe them as special morphological structures named pseudoparaphyllia. It is shown, however, that this term has been applied both to whole leaves and to separate leaf parts. Among the patterns of leaf formation deviating from the basic type, a special place belongs to the Hampeella variant, where deeply dissected and compound leaves are formed due to the delayed development of branch primordia. The families representing this variant occupy a basal position in the phylogenetic tree of pleurocarpous mosses. The Leucodon variant, where splitting of leaves into lobes is apparently explained by strong stem extension, is not specific for any definite phylogenetic group and manifests itself in different families. The Hypnum variant is also not associated with certain phylogenetic lineages, but it provides an example of more profound specialization.

  4. Exploring the Influence of Environmental Factors on Bacterial Communities within the Rhizosphere of the Cu-tolerant plant, Elsholtzia splendens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Longfei; Song, Mengke; Yang, Li; Zhang, Dayi; Sun, Yingtao; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial communities of rhizospheric soils play an important role in the tolerance and uptake of metal-tolerant/hyperaccumulating plants to metals, e.g. the Cu-tolerant Elsholtzia splendens native to China. In this work, pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was firstly applied to investigate the rhizospheric bacterial community of E. splendens grown at Cu contaminated sites. The 47 phyla including 11 dominant phyla (>1%) in E. splendens rhizosphere were presented. The effects of Cu and other environmental factors (total organic carbon, total nitrogen and pH) on the rhizospheric bacterial community were studied comprehensively. The phyla abundances were affected by the environmental factors to different extent, and we found pH, instead of Cu concentration, influenced UniFrac distance significantly and was identified as the most important environmental factor affecting bacterial community. In addition, the influence of environmental factors on gene profiles was explored according to the predicted metagenomes obtained by PICRUSt (phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states). Our study illustrates a view about Cu-tolerant E. splendens rhizospheric bacterial communities (composition, diversity and gene profiles) and their influencing factors, giving a hand for the understanding on bacterial community is formed and affected in rhizosphere.

  5. Exploring the Influence of Environmental Factors on Bacterial Communities within the Rhizosphere of the Cu-tolerant plant, Elsholtzia splendens

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Longfei; Song, Mengke; Yang, Li; Zhang, Dayi; Sun, Yingtao; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial communities of rhizospheric soils play an important role in the tolerance and uptake of metal-tolerant/hyperaccumulating plants to metals, e.g. the Cu-tolerant Elsholtzia splendens native to China. In this work, pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was firstly applied to investigate the rhizospheric bacterial community of E. splendens grown at Cu contaminated sites. The 47 phyla including 11 dominant phyla (>1%) in E. splendens rhizosphere were presented. The effects of Cu and other environmental factors (total organic carbon, total nitrogen and pH) on the rhizospheric bacterial community were studied comprehensively. The phyla abundances were affected by the environmental factors to different extent, and we found pH, instead of Cu concentration, influenced UniFrac distance significantly and was identified as the most important environmental factor affecting bacterial community. In addition, the influence of environmental factors on gene profiles was explored according to the predicted metagenomes obtained by PICRUSt (phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states). Our study illustrates a view about Cu-tolerant E. splendens rhizospheric bacterial communities (composition, diversity and gene profiles) and their influencing factors, giving a hand for the understanding on bacterial community is formed and affected in rhizosphere. PMID:27782202

  6. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Desert Herbaceous Achnatherum splendens (Achnatherum) Seedlings and Identification of Salt Tolerance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangtao; Zhou, Yuelong; Luo, Changxin; Xiang, Yun; An, Lizhe

    2016-01-01

    Achnatherum splendens is an important forage herb in Northwestern China. It has a high tolerance to salinity and is, thus, considered one of the most important constructive plants in saline and alkaline areas of land in Northwest China. However, the mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in A. splendens remain unknown. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can be used for global gene expression profiling. In this study, we examined sequence and transcript abundance data for the root/leaf transcriptome of A. splendens obtained using an Illumina HiSeq 2500. Over 35 million clean reads were obtained from the leaf and root libraries. All of the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) reads were assembled de novo into a total of 126,235 unigenes and 36,511 coding DNA sequences (CDS). We further identified 1663 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between the salt stress treatment and control. Functional annotation of the DEGs by gene ontology (GO), using Arabidopsis and rice as references, revealed enrichment of salt stress-related GO categories, including “oxidation reduction”, “transcription factor activity”, and “ion channel transporter”. Thus, this global transcriptome analysis of A. splendens has provided an important genetic resource for the study of salt tolerance in this halophyte. The identified sequences and their putative functional data will facilitate future investigations of the tolerance of Achnatherum species to various types of abiotic stress. PMID:27023614

  7. The role of mosses in ecosystem succession and function in Alaska's boreal forest

    Treesearch

    Merritt R. Turetsky; Michelle C. Mack; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; Jennifer W. Harden

    2010-01-01

    Shifts in moss communities may affect the resilience of boreal ecosystems to a changing climate because of the role of moss species in regulating soil climate and biogeochemical cycling. Here, we use long-term data analysis and literature synthesis to examine the role of moss in ecosystem succession, productivity, and decomposition. In Alaskan forests, moss abundance...

  8. Fluoxetine exposure impacts boldness in female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L; Kane, Jessica L; Campbell, Brennah A; Lavin, Lindsey E

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, on the behavior of female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, in three different boldness assays (Empty Tank, Novel Environment, Social Tendency). When females were unexposed to fluoxetine, boldness was consistent within a context and correlated across assays. Fluoxetine exposure affected behavior within and among individuals on multiple levels. Exposure reduced overall boldness levels, made females behave in a less consistent manner, and significantly reduced correlations over time and across contexts. Fluoxetine exerted its effects on female Betta splendens behavior in a dose-dependent fashion and these effects persisted even after females were housed in clean water. If fluoxetine exposure impacts behaviors such as exploration that are necessary to an individual’s success, this may yield evolutionary consequences. In conclusion, the results show that fluoxetine exposure alters behavior beyond the level of overall response and highlights the importance of studying the behavioral effects of inadvertent pharmaceutical exposure in multiple contexts and with different dosing regimes.

  9. Morphological and molecular characterization of Anisakis larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Beryx splendens from Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Murata, Rie; Suzuki, Jun; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2011-06-01

    The third-stage (L3) larvae of Anisakis, which are the etiological agents of human anisakiasis, have been categorized morphologically into Anisakis Type I larvae and Anisakis Type II larvae. Genetic analysis has allowed easy identification of these larvae: Anisakis Type I larvae include the species Anisakis simplex sensu stricto, Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis simplex C, Anisakis typica, Anisakis ziphidarum, and Anisakis nascettii, whereas Anisakis Type II larvae include the species Anisakis physeteris, Anisakis brevispiculata, and Anisakis paggiae. Since human consumption of raw fish and squid is common in Japan, we investigated Anisakis L3 larvae in 44 specimens of Beryx splendens from Japanese waters. A total of 730 Anisakis L3 larvae collected from B. splendens were divided morphologically into 4 types: Type I, Type II, and 2 other types that were similar to Anisakis Type III and Type IV described by Shiraki (1974). Anisakis Type II, Type III, and Type IV larvae all had a short ventriculus, but their tails were morphologically different. In addition, data from genetic analysis indicated that Anisakis Type II, Type III, and Type IV larvae could be identified as A. physeteris, A. brevispiculata, and A. paggiae, respectively. Therefore, A. physeteris, A. brevispiculata, and A. paggiae can be readily differentiated not only by genetic analysis but also by morphological characteristics of L3 larvae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phytochrome mediated gravimorphogenesis in the moss protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkiv, O.; Khorkavtsiv, Y.

    Moss protonemata are among the few cell types known that both sense and respond to gravity and light. Apical cells of moss protonemata grow by oriented tip growth which is negatively gravitropic in the dark or positively phototropic in unilateral light. Gametophore buds always arise some 4 - 6 cells behind the apical cells of main protonemal filaments differentiating from apical cells of shortened side branches. It has been shown, however, that in Pohlia nutans, as in Pottia intermedia (Ripetskyj et al, 1997) the apical cells of main filaments of dark grown protonemata differentiate buds under the influence of light. We tested the effectiveness of white and monochromatic light of the visible spectrum on the bud formation of Pohlia nutans which had been grown in darkness. The most morphogenetically effective light was red light, but green, yellow and white light were also active. Blue light alone completely inhibits bud formation but supplemented with red light this inhibitory effect of blue light is couneracted and buds are formed, provided a minimum exposure of red light is maintained. M.Bopp (1985) had demosnrated that exclusively cell that had not reached 80 μm in length initiated bud formation. Red light seemed to inhibit growth of apical cells and to promote bud formation. The action spectra for the induction of buds formation are, as expected, very similar to the absorption spectra of Pf r . The relatively small effectivity of quanta in the short-wave spectral range is caused by the strong absorption of radiation of < 520 nm by carotenoids and flavines. Red light might act as a triger for morphogenetic processes in dark-grown cells. The white or red light stopped an elongation of main filaments apical cells of protonema grown in the dark for 7 days retaining the rate of the cell divisions practically constant. As a result short apical cells are formed ready for a transition to new morphogenetic pathway of gametophore buds formation. The reaction proved to be

  11. Effect of copper tolerant Elsholtzia splendens on bacterial community associated with Commelina communis on a copper mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruyi; Guo, Fuyu; Li, Jing; Su, Nannan; Shao, Zongyuan; Zan, Shuting

    2016-08-01

    Facilitation, or positive plant-plant interaction, has received increasing concern from ecologists over the last two decades. Facilitation may occur through direct mitigation of severe environments or indirect mediation by a third participant from the same or different trophic levels. The copper (Cu) tolerant species Elsholtzia splendens facilitates the establishment and growth of co-occurring Commelina communis through indirect enrichment of microbial activity. However, whether and how E. splendens impacts the microbial community that is associated with C. communis is less known. We characterized the soil bacterial community in the rhizosphere of C. communis in the absence and presence of E. splendens using PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and sequencing. The result showed that the richness of the bacterial community increased, but diversity and evenness remained similar, in the presence of E. splendens. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most dominant bacteria. The relative abundance of dominant and minor bacterial groups showed distinctly different responses to E. splendens. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis indicated that variation of the bacterial community was determined by multiple factors and might be driven by the tested soil parameters collectively, or alternatively changed through plant root exudates or other microorganisms. Our results enhance the understanding of how the bacterial community associated with a beneficiary plant responds to a benefactor plant and suggests that the changes of bacterial community composition may have far-reaching influence on plant-soil feedback and the aboveground plant community in the long run. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. [CO2-gas exchange of mosses following water vapour uptake].

    PubMed

    Lange, O L

    1969-03-01

    The CO2-gas exchange of dry mosses which were exposed to air of high water vapour content has been followed. Some moss species behave as do lichens and aerophilic green algae: they are able to take up enough water vapour to make a rather high photosynthetic activity possible. Other species lack this ability. They need liquid water for reactivation of photosynthesis, as do poikilohydric ferns and phanerogams. In this respect too the mosses are located between the real thallophytes and the cormophytes. From this point of view they are useful objects for studying the relationships between water vapour reactivation, morphological organisation and ecological capability.

  13. Evaporation Dynamics of Moss and Bare Soil in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, S.; Young, J. M.; Barron, C. G.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Evaporation dynamics of mosses is a critical process in boreal and arctic systems and represents a key uncertainty in hydrology and climate models. At this point, moss evaporation is not well quantified at the plot or landscape scale. Relative to bare soil or litter evaporation, moss evaporation can be challenging to predict because the water flux is not isolated to the moss surface. Evaporation can originate from nearly 10 cm below the surface. Some mosses can wick moisture from even deeper than 10 cm, which subsequently evaporates. The goal of this study was to use field measurements to quantify the moss evaporation dynamics in a coniferous forest relative to bare ground or litter evaporation dynamics in a deciduous forest in Interior Alaska. Measurements were made in two ecosystem types within the boreal forest of Interior Alaska: a deciduous forest devoid of moss and a coniferous forest with a thick moss layer. A small clear chamber was attached to a LiCor 840 infrared gas analyzer in a closed loop system with a low flow rate. Water fluxes were measured for ~ 90 seconds on each plot in dry and wet soil and moss conditions. Additional measurements included: soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, barometric pressure, dew point, relative humidity, and wind speed. Thermal infrared images were also captured in congruence with water flux measurements to determine skin temperature. We found that the moss evaporation rate was over 100% greater than the soil evaporation rate (0.057 g/min vs. 0.024 g/min), and evaporation rates in both systems were most strongly driven by relative humidity and surface temperature. Surface temperature was lower at the birch site than the black spruce site because trees shade the surface beneath the birch. High fluxes associated with high water content were sustained for a longer period of time over the mosses compared to the bare soil. The thermal IR data showed that skin temperature lagged the evaporation flux, such that the

  14. New moss species with gravitropic protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobachevska, O. V.

    Gravitropism of 30 moss species was analysed at different stages of development: germination of spores, protonemata, gametophore and sporophyte formation. Spores were sowed in sterile conditions from the closed capsules on 1 % bactoagar with 0,2 % glucose and cultivated in the dark in vertically oriented petri dishes. In the same conditions fragments of protonemata and gametophores were grown being transferred aseptically from sterile cultures of spores germinated in controled light conditions. To assess gravity sensitivity the dishes were kept upright for 7 10 days in darkness and then 90o turned. After 20 h gravistimulation the angles of apical cell gravity bending were determined. The amount of amyloplasts and their distribution during growth and spatial reorientation of sporophytes selected from nature samples on different stages of species-specific capsule formation were analyzed after JK2J staining. The gravitropic sensing was established in 7 new moss species only. The general traits of all such species were the ark-like cygneous seta bending and inclined, to pendulous, capsules. JK2J staining of young isolated sporophytes has shown, that twisting and bending of seta as well as the spatial capsule reorientation result from the changes of distribution of amyloplasts in the direction of gravitropic growth or caused by their lateral sedimentation. In the dark protonemata of investigated mosses grew upwards on agar surface giving rise to bundles of negatively gravitropic stolons in 7-10 days. During germination at first negatively gravitropic primary chloronema and then positively gravitropic primary rizoid appeared. In 3 days, however, the growth of all primary filaments was negatively gravitropic. In Dicranella cerviculata majority of primary filaments were negatively gravitropic from the very beginning. After 20 h gravistimulation of protonemata of different moss species the following mean values of gravity bending (degrees) were established: Leptobryum

  15. Comparison of heavy metal immobilization in contaminated soils amended with peat moss and peat moss-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Seul-Ji; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Chung, Jae Woo

    2016-04-01

    There have been contradictory viewpoints whether soil amendments immobilize or mobilize heavy metals. Therefore, this study evaluated the mobility and bioavailability of Pb, Cu, and Cd in contaminated soil (1218 mg Pb per kg, 63.2 mg Cu per kg, 2.8 mg Cd per kg) amended with peat moss (0.22, 0.43, and 1.29% carbon ratio) and peat moss-derived biochar (0.38, 0.75, and 2.26% carbon ratio) at 0.5, 1, 3% levels. The more peat moss added, the stronger both mobility and bioavailability of Pb, Cu, and Cd would be. In contrast, the addition of peat moss-derived biochar significantly reduced both mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals through the coordination of metal electrons to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C (π-electron) bonds and increased pH. Maximum immobilization was observed in 3% peat moss-derived biochar treatment after 10 days of incubation, which was measured at 97.8%, 100%, and 77.2% for Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively. Since peat moss and peat moss-derived biochar showed conflicting effectiveness in mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals, soil amendments should be carefully applied to soils for remediation purposes.

  16. Distinguishing metal bioconcentration from particulate matter in moss tissue: testing methods of removing particles attached to the moss surface.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S; Pérez-Llamazares, A; Ares, A; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R

    2013-10-01

    Accurate differentiation of the proportion of bioconcentrated metals (i.e. incorporated into cells) and the proportion that is not bioconcentrated (i.e. adsorbed at the surface) would lead to a better understanding of the uptake processes and would represent an advance in the use of mosses as biomonitors. Traditionally the methods used to remove contaminants that are not bioconcentrated were to wash the plant material with water or to apply the sequential elution technique, but nowadays both options are considered inaccurate for these purposes. The remaining possibilities are to clean the moss samples with a nitrogen jet or by power ultrasound. Samples of terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum (Hewd.) Fleisch. were collected from five sampling stations. Different nitrogen jet cleaning procedures and ultrasound cleaning procedures were applied to the mosses. To determine whether any of the treatments altered the membrane integrity of the moss samples, the concentrations of K were determined. The shoots were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and the size and number of particles were determined. Nitrogen jet cleaning was determined to be unacceptable because it damaged the phyllids and/or altered the membrane permeability and did not eliminate the particles from the moss surface. Moreover, ultrasound cleaning treatment should also discarded because of the loss of extracellular metals that are transferred to the water in which the moss is cleaned.

  17. Post-Fire Moss Recovery in Northern Peatlands: Separating the Effects of Species and Water Content on Moss Water Repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Paul; Lukenbach, Max; Waddington, James Michael

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, where northern peat reserves are becoming increasingly vulnerable to wildfire as climate change is projected to enhance the length and severity of the fire season. However, little is known about the spatio-temporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e., Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands has been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate effects of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a drying experiment in the lab where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes as well as for unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ~3 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by combustion. Based on field GWC, we show that there are significant differences in the frequency distribution of near-surface GWC between moss type and burn severity. The differences in the distributions of field GWC are related to characteristic moisture retention curves of unburned samples measured in the lab, as well as morphological differences between moss type.

  18. The impact of simulated chronic nitrogen deposition on the biomass and N2-fixation activity of two boreal feather moss–cyanobacteria associations

    PubMed Central

    Gundale, Michael J.; Bach, Lisbet H.; Nordin, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Bryophytes achieve substantial biomass and play several key functional roles in boreal forests that can influence how carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling respond to atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (Nr). They associate with cyanobacteria that fix atmospheric N2, and downregulation of this process may offset anthropogenic Nr inputs to boreal systems. Bryophytes also promote soil C accumulation by thermally insulating soils, and changes in their biomass influence soil C dynamics. Using a unique large-scale (0.1 ha forested plots), long-term experiment (16 years) in northern Sweden where we simulated anthropogenic Nr deposition, we measured the biomass and N2-fixation response of two bryophyte species, the feather mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi. Our data show that the biomass declined for both species; however, N2-fixation rates per unit mass and per unit area declined only for H. splendens. The low and high treatments resulted in a 29% and 54% reduction in total feather moss biomass, and a 58% and 97% reduction in total N2-fixation rate per unit area, respectively. These results help to quantify the sensitivity of feather moss biomass and N2 fixation to chronic Nr deposition, which is relevant for modelling ecosystem C and N balances in boreal ecosystems. PMID:24196519

  19. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  20. The Morocco Oukaimeden Sky Survey, the MOSS Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhaldoun, Z.; Rinner, C.; Ory, M.; Daassou, A.; Colas, F.

    2012-05-01

    The MOSS program, is an international cooperation between France Swiss and Morocco. The aim of this program is the use of 500 mm robotic telescope in remote mode for monitoring the sky over Oukaimeden.

  1. The use of mosses as environmental metal pollution indicators.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Abollino, Ornella; Conca, Raffaele; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of using mosses as environmental indicators of metal pollution has been investigated. Mosses of the species Bryum argenteum were collected from different parts of Piedmont (Italy), ranging from highly polluted areas to nearly uncontaminated mountain areas. Periodical samplings were planned in every site on a monthly base, in order to check variations of metal uptake throughout one year; correlations with pluviometric and thermal patterns were investigated for all sampling stations. On every moss sample 20 elements, ranging from major (K, P, Al, Ca, Fe and Mg) to minor (Mn, Na, Ti and Zn) and trace (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb and Sr), were quantitatively determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry or graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry, depending on the needed sensitivity. Statistical analyses, carried out with principal component analysis and cluster analysis methods, revealed that a good correlation exists between metal content in mosses and pollution degree in the areas sampled.

  2. Active region moss. Basic physical parameters and their temporal variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, D.; Mason, H. E.; Del Zanna, G.; Young, P. R.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Active region moss are transition region phenomena, first noted in the images recorded by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) in λ171. Moss regions are thought to be the footpoints of hot loops (3-5 MK) seen in the core of active regions. These hot loops appear “fuzzy” (unresolved). Therefore, it is difficult to study the physical plasma parameters in individual hot core loops and hence their heating mechanisms. Moss regions provide an excellent opportunity to study the physics of hot loops. In addition, they allow us to study the transition region dynamics in the footpoint regions. Aims: To derive the physical plasma parameters such as temperature, electron density, and filling factors in moss regions and to study their variation over a short (an hour) and a long time period (5 consecutive days). Methods: Primarily, we have analyzed spectroscopic observations recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) aboard Hinode. In addition we have used supplementary observations taken from TRACE and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) aboard Hinode. Results: The moss emission is strongest in the Fe XII and Fe XIII lines. Based on analyses using line ratios and emission measure we found that moss regions have a characteristic temperature of log T[K] = 6.2. The temperature structure in moss region remains almost identical from one region to another and it does not change with time. The electron densities measured at different locations in the moss regions using Fe XII ratios are about 1-3 × 1010 cm-3 and about 2-4 × 109 cm-3 using Fe XIII and Fe XIV. The densities in the moss regions are similar in different places and show very little variation over short and long time scales. The derived electron density substantially increased (by a factor of about 3-4 or even more in some cases) when a background subtraction was performed. The filling factor of the moss plasma can vary between 0.1-1 and the path length along which the emission

  3. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting boreal peatlands, however, little is known about the controls on post-fire peatland vegetation recovery. While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce post-fire moss water availability, high water table (WT) positions following wildfire are also critical to enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Thus, post-fire moss water availability is also likely a function of landscape-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in Alberta's Boreal Plains. At all sites, variation in burn severity resulted in a dichotomy between post-fire surface covers that: (1) exhibited low water availability, regardless of WT position, and had minimal (<5%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned feather mosses and severely burned Sphagnum fuscum) or (2) exhibited high water availability, depending on WT position, and had substantial (>50%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned S. fuscum and where depth of burn was >0.05 m). Notably, hydrogeological setting influenced the spatial coverage of these post-fire surface covers by influencing pre-fire WTs and stand characteristics (e.g., shading). Because feather moss cover is controlled by tree shading, lightly burned feather mosses were ubiquitous (>25%) in drier peatlands (deeper pre-fire WTs) that were densely treed and had little connection to large groundwater flow systems. Moreover, hydrogeological setting also controlled post-fire WT positions, thereby affecting moss re-establishment in post-fire surface covers that were dependent on WT position (e.g., lightly burned S. fuscum). Accordingly, higher recolonization rates were observed in a peatland located in a groundwater flow through

  4. Differentiation and Tropisms in Space-Grown Moss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Fred D.; Kern, Volker

    1999-01-01

    This grant supported a Space Shuttle experiment on the effects of microgravity on moss cells. Moss provides a rich system for gravitational and spaceflight research. The early phase of the moss life cycle consists of chains of cells that only grow only at their tips. In the moss Ceratodon purpureus these filaments (protonemata) grow away from gravity in the dark, in a process called gravitropism. The tipmost cells, the apical cells, contain heavy starch-filled bodies called amyloplasts that probably function in g-sensing and that sediment within the apical cell. The SPM-A (Space Moss aka SPAM) experiment flew in November - December, 1997 on STS-87 as part of the Collaborative US Ukrainian Experiment (CLTE). The experiment was accommodated in hardware purpose-built by NASA KSC and Bionetics and included Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU) and BRIC-LEDs. Together, this hardware allowed for the culture of the moss on agar in commercial petri dishes, for unilateral illumination with red light of varying intensity, and for chemical fixation in situ. The key findings of the spaceflight were quite unexpected. Neither the orientation of tip-growth nor the distribution of amyloplasts was random in microgravity.

  5. Moss-made pharmaceuticals: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Reski, Ralf; Parsons, Juliana; Decker, Eva L

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, the moss Physcomitrella patens has been developed from scratch to a model species in basic research and in biotechnology. A fully sequenced genome, outstanding possibilities for precise genome-engineering via homologous recombination (knockout moss), a certified GMP production in moss bioreactors, successful upscaling to 500 L wave reactors, excellent homogeneity of protein glycosylation, remarkable batch-to-batch stability and a safe cryopreservation for master cell banking are some of the key features of the moss system. Several human proteins are being produced in this system as potential biopharmaceuticals. Among the products are tumour-directed monoclonal antibodies with enhanced antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), complement factor H (FH), keratinocyte growth factor (FGF7/KGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), asialo-erythropoietin (asialo-EPO, AEPO), alpha-galactosidase (aGal) and beta-glucocerebrosidase (GBA). Further, an Env-derived multi-epitope HIV protein as a candidate vaccine was produced, and first steps for a metabolic engineering of P. patens have been made. Some of the recombinant biopharmaceuticals from moss bioreactors are not only similar to those produced in mammalian systems such as CHO cells, but are of superior quality (biobetters). The first moss-made pharmaceutical, aGal to treat Morbus Fabry, is in clinical trials. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Freeze avoidance: a dehydrating moss gathers no ice.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Thomas; Bryant, Gary; Hocart, Charles H; Huang, Cheng X; Ball, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    Using cryo-SEM with EDX fundamental structural and mechanical properties of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. were studied in relation to tolerance of freezing temperatures. In contrast to more complex plants, no ice accumulated within the moss during the freezing event. External ice induced desiccation with the response being a function of cell type; water-filled hydroid cells cavitated and were embolized at -4 °C while parenchyma cells of the inner cortex exhibited cytorrhysis, decreasing to ∼ 20% of their original volume at a nadir temperature of -20 °C. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed that these winter acclimated mosses displayed no evidence of damage after thawing from -20 °C while GCMS showed that sugar concentrations were not sufficient to confer this level of freezing tolerance. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry showed internal ice nucleation occurred in hydrated moss at ∼-12 °C while desiccated moss showed no evidence of freezing with lowering of nadir temperature to -20 °C. Therefore the rapid dehydration of the moss provides an elegantly simple solution to the problem of freezing; remove that which freezes.

  7. [Distribution patterns of moss species in Shanghai city].

    PubMed

    Cao, Tong; Chen, Yi; Yu, Jing; Song, Guoyuan

    2004-10-01

    The mosses on the floor of 22 sites at 20 main parks and 2 chemical plants in Shanghai city were investigated and sampled. Based on 75 recorded moss species and their coverage, Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) were used to analyze their distribution patterns. The results showed that the study sites could be identified as three groups. Group 1 included two chemical plants and two parks at the center of the city, with 23 moss species and the smallest total coverage of 21.29%; group 2 included part of the parks at the center of the city and surrounding areas, with 44 moss species and total coverage of 37.94%; and group 3 mainly included the parks at surrounding areas and suburbs of the city, with 49 moss species and total coverage of 49.66%. The results reflected a certain correlation of the distribution of moss species with different habitats and polluted and disturbed environments in the city.

  8. The Complete Moss Mitochondrial Genome in the Angiosperm Amborella Is a Chimera Derived from Two Moss Whole-Genome Transfers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Z. Nathan; Rice, Danny W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the 4-Mb mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Amborella trichopoda has shown that it contains unprecedented amounts of foreign mitochondrial DNA, including four blocks of sequences that together correspond almost perfectly to one entire moss mitochondrial genome. This implies whole-genome transfer from a single moss donor but conflicts with phylogenetic results from an earlier, PCR-based study that suggested three different moss donors to Amborella. To resolve this conflict, we conducted an expanded set of phylogenetic analyses with respect to both moss lineages and mitochondrial loci. The moss DNA in Amborella was consistently placed in either of two positions, depending on the locus analyzed, as sister to the Ptychomniales or within the Hookeriales. This agrees with two of the three previously suggested donors, whereas the third is no longer supported. These results, combined with synteny analyses and other considerations, lead us to favor a model involving two successive moss-to-Amborella whole-genome transfers, followed by recombination that produced a single intact and chimeric moss mitochondrial genome integrated in the Amborella mitochondrial genome. Eight subsequent recombination events account for the state of fragmentation, rearrangement, duplication, and deletion of this chimeric moss mitochondrial genome as it currently exists in Amborella. Five of these events are associated with short-to-intermediate sized repeats. Two of the five probably occurred by reciprocal homologous recombination, whereas the other three probably occurred in a non-reciprocal manner via microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR). These findings reinforce and extend recent evidence for an important role of MMBIR in plant mitochondrial DNA evolution. PMID:26618775

  9. The Complete Moss Mitochondrial Genome in the Angiosperm Amborella Is a Chimera Derived from Two Moss Whole-Genome Transfers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Z Nathan; Rice, Danny W; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the 4-Mb mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Amborella trichopoda has shown that it contains unprecedented amounts of foreign mitochondrial DNA, including four blocks of sequences that together correspond almost perfectly to one entire moss mitochondrial genome. This implies whole-genome transfer from a single moss donor but conflicts with phylogenetic results from an earlier, PCR-based study that suggested three different moss donors to Amborella. To resolve this conflict, we conducted an expanded set of phylogenetic analyses with respect to both moss lineages and mitochondrial loci. The moss DNA in Amborella was consistently placed in either of two positions, depending on the locus analyzed, as sister to the Ptychomniales or within the Hookeriales. This agrees with two of the three previously suggested donors, whereas the third is no longer supported. These results, combined with synteny analyses and other considerations, lead us to favor a model involving two successive moss-to-Amborella whole-genome transfers, followed by recombination that produced a single intact and chimeric moss mitochondrial genome integrated in the Amborella mitochondrial genome. Eight subsequent recombination events account for the state of fragmentation, rearrangement, duplication, and deletion of this chimeric moss mitochondrial genome as it currently exists in Amborella. Five of these events are associated with short-to-intermediate sized repeats. Two of the five probably occurred by reciprocal homologous recombination, whereas the other three probably occurred in a non-reciprocal manner via microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR). These findings reinforce and extend recent evidence for an important role of MMBIR in plant mitochondrial DNA evolution.

  10. Response acquisition by Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) with delayed visual reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A.; Metzger, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, swam through a ring in an aquarium, breaking a photocell beam and initiating an unsignaled, resetting delay interval. Following delays of 0 s, 10 s, or 25 s, a 15-s mirror presentation released an aggressive display by the fish. Swimming through the ring increased in the absence of either a period of acclimatization to the reinforcer (analogous to magazine training when appetitive reinforcers are used) or explicit training of the response by the experimenters. Response rates were a decreasing function of delay duration. Other fish exposed to a schedule of response-independent mirror presentations failed to acquire and maintain the response. The results demonstrate the robustness and generality of the phenomenon of response acquisition with delayed reinforcement. They further qualify earlier observations about behavioral mechanisms involved in the phenomenon. PMID:16812724

  11. Fighting fish (Betta splendens) bubble nests do not inhibit microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alexandria C; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2012-12-01

    Some organisms produce antimicrobial substances in nesting foam to favorably manipulate the environment to which their developing offspring are exposed. We tested if fighting fish Betta splendens foamy nest material, which is comprised of bubbles produced in the oral cavity of nesting males, has antimicrobial properties against a pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda), a nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli), or a pathogenic oomycete (Saprolegnia parasitica). We also tested if exposure to nest material increases larval survival by performing in vitro fertilizations and individually incubating eggs in bubble nest extract or tank water (control). Our results show no evidence of antimicrobial properties of bubble nests. On the contrary, bubble nests provided favorable microenvironments for the growth of Saprolegnia parasitica. Our results confirm earlier work citing the importance of male nest attendance, and suggest that the mechanism responsible for decreased survival in the absence of attending males is pathogenic microbes. 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC

  12. Behavioral effects of fluoxetine on aggression and associative learning in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Eisenreich, Benjamin R; Szalda-Petree, Allen

    2015-12-01

    Past research has implicated serotonin as an important neurotransmitter in the facilitation of aggressive behavior. In Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), the SSRI fluoxetine has been demonstrated to reduce both frequency and duration of aggressive displays across a variety of concentration exposure procedures. While this multi-method approach has provided strong evidence for fluoxetine's impact on aggression, no study has sought to examine the behavioral mechanism by which fluoxetine exerts its anti-aggressive effect. To address this question, a Go-No Go discrimination task utilizing mirror presentations as a reinforcer was designed. Consistent with previous reports, the results indicated that fluoxetine may exert a sedative effect upon aggressive behavior via decreased arousal to external stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structures in material transference and vitelline envelope formation in Betta splendens follicles.

    PubMed

    Genta, H D

    1996-01-01

    Structures were found by transmission electron microscopy, they were located within follicular cells and the oocyte, and in the interspace between them in follicles of the teleost fish Betta splendens. Some structures with features characteristic or lamellar bodies were found in small follicles. The possible role of these structures in the formation of the vitelline envelope as well as in the material transference is discussed. Vacuoles, vesticles and particles intensely stained were found in the microvilli and the cortical cytoplasm of the oocyte at the onset of vitellogenesis. These results suggest that different substances present in the cellular components of the follicle might be transferred from cell to cell through the extracellular space and through the prolongations that cross the extracellular space.

  14. Response acquisition by Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) with delayed visual reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Lattal, K A; Metzger, B

    1994-01-01

    Male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, swam through a ring in an aquarium, breaking a photocell beam and initiating an unsignaled, resetting delay interval. Following delays of 0 s, 10 s, or 25 s, a 15-s mirror presentation released an aggressive display by the fish. Swimming through the ring increased in the absence of either a period of acclimatization to the reinforcer (analogous to magazine training when appetitive reinforcers are used) or explicit training of the response by the experimenters. Response rates were a decreasing function of delay duration. Other fish exposed to a schedule of response-independent mirror presentations failed to acquire and maintain the response. The results demonstrate the robustness and generality of the phenomenon of response acquisition with delayed reinforcement. They further qualify earlier observations about behavioral mechanisms involved in the phenomenon.

  15. Social partner preferences of male and female fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Snekser, J L; McRobert, S P; Clotfelter, E D

    2006-03-01

    While the social interactions of Betta splendens have been studied in the contexts of dominance hierarchies, mate choice and communication networks, the social partner preferences of Betta have been largely overlooked. In this study, we presented male and female Betta with a single male, a single female, and a group of three females in dichotomous choice tests in order to better understand basic social interactions in this largely nonsocial species. The highly territorial Betta preferred associating with conspecifics in nearly every configuration we tested, with exceptions noted when single females were given the choice between a lone male and an empty chamber, and when males were presented with a single female and an empty chamber. Also, in most tests, the fish chose to spend more time with the larger group of females. The motivation for this preference certainly varied from reproductive to anti-predator. While such behavior might not suggest true shoaling behavior, it does demonstrate a subtle degree of sociality.

  16. Using visual reinforcement to establish stimulus control of responding of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Wirth, Oliver; Lattal, Kennon A; Hopko, Sandra

    2003-03-01

    Stimulus control of ring swimming was studied with male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) using 2-component multiple schedules in which the components were correlated with the presence or absence of air bubbles in the water. In Experiment 1, either response-independent mirror presentations or extinction was juxtaposed with immediate response-dependent mirror presentations. Rates of ring swimming generally were higher with immediate reinforcement than with either response-independent mirror presentations or extinction. In Experiment 2, different durations of response-dependent mirror presentations were juxtaposed. Generally, higher rates of ring swimming occurred with 15-s than with 0-, 1-, or 3-s durations. Results demonstrate that stimulus control of responding can be established with these fish under several conditions of differential reinforcement.

  17. Branch length mediates flower production and inflorescence architecture of Fouquieria splendens (ocotillo)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, Janice E.

    2006-01-01

    The capacity of individual branches to store water and fix carbon can have profound effects on inflorescence size and architecture, thus on floral display, pollination, and fecundity. Mixed regression was used to investigate the relation between branch length, a proxy for plant resources, and floral display of Fouquieria splendens (ocotillo), a woody, candelabraform shrub of wide distribution in arid North America. Long branches produced three times as many flowers as short branches, regardless of overall plant size. Long branches also had more complex panicles with more cymes and cyme types than short branches; thus, branch length also influenced inflorescence architecture. Within panicles, increasing the number of cymes by one unit added about two flowers, whereas increasing the number of cyme types by one unit added about 21 flowers. Because flower production is mediated by branch length, and because most plants have branches of various lengths, the floral display of individual plants necessarily encompasses a wide range of inflorescence size and structure. ?? Springer 2006.

  18. Effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2) on Betta splendens aggressive display.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Bruno de Matos; Cavalcante, Caio Neno Silva; dos Santos, Bruno Rodrigues; Gouveia Júnior, Amauri

    2012-03-01

    Mercury chloride (HgCl2) is a toxic mercury salt and a major pollutant, that can be found in soil, water and air, with influences on behavior, physiology and adaptation to the environment. In this study two experiments were designed to examine interactions and effects of HgCl2 on some behavioral patterns of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). In the first experiment we tested the effect of a progressive dose (five 0.04 mg) on aggressive display with exposure to a mirror, whereas in the second experiment we tested the effect of an acute dose (0.2 mg) on the aggressive display with exposure to a mirror. The experiments were performed on 5 consecutive sessions at intervals of 18 hours between sessions. Differences of performance were shown by subjects in the acute and progressive treatments when compared with a control treatment in the majority of behaviors evaluated, namely Floating, Slow Swimming, Wavy Swimming, Emerging, Bend, Square Move and Motor Display Components. Acute treatment was different from control only on Show Body, while the progressive group differed on Resting, Horizontal Display and Appropriate Display Components. Differences between Correlate Display Components and Total were also shown. Both the acute and progressive contamination with HgCl2 decrease the motor activity in the aggressive display, mirror-image test of Betta splendens, mainly on the progressive dose. This implies an impairment on feeding behavior, predator avoidance, reproductive behavior, mate choice and territoriality. These results suggest that in this fish species, the progressive dose has a greater effect on behavior in general and that both the acute and progressive contamination with mercury chloride affect many other aspects of behavior.

  19. Growth response and phytoextraction of copper at different levels in soils by Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, L Y; Yang, X E; He, Z L

    2004-06-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising approach for cleaning up soils contaminated with heavy metals. Information is needed to understand growth response and uptake mechanisms of heavy metals by some plant species with exceptional capability in absorbing and superaccumulating metals from soils. Greenhouse study, field trial, and old mined area survey were conducted to evaluate growth response and Cu phytoextraction of Elsholtzia splendens in contaminated soils, which has been recently identified to be tolerant to high Cu concentration and have great potential in remediating contaminated soils. The results from this study indicate that the plant exhibited high tolerance to Cu toxicity in the soils, and normal growth was attained up to 80 mg kg(-1) available soil Cu (the NH4OAc extractable Cu) or 1000 mg kg(-1) total Cu. Under the field conditions, a biomass yield of 9 ton ha(-1) was recorded at the soil available Cu level of 77 mg kg(-1), as estimated by the NH4OAc extraction method. Concentration-dependent uptake of Cu by the plant occurred mainly at the early growth stage, and at the late stage, there is no difference in shoot Cu concentrations grown at different extractable soil Cu levels. The extractability of Cu from the highly polluted soil is much greater by the roots than that by the shoots. The NH4OAc extractable Cu level in the polluted soil was reduced from 78 to 55 mg kg(-1) in the soil after phytoextraction and removal of Cu by the plant species for one growth season. The depletion of extractable Cu level in the rhizosphere was noted grown in the mined area, even at high Cu levels, the NH4OAc extractable Cu in the rhizosphere was 30% lower than that in the bulk soil. These results indicate that phytoextraction of E. splendens can effectively reduce the plant-available Cu level in the polluted soils.

  20. Global biogeographic patterns in bipolar moss species

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, J. A.; Hyvönen, J.; Koskinen, S.; Linse, K.; Griffiths, H.

    2017-01-01

    A bipolar disjunction is an extreme, yet common, biogeographic pattern in non-vascular plants, yet its underlying mechanisms (vicariance or long-distance dispersal), origin and timing remain poorly understood. Here, combining a large-scale population dataset and multiple dating analyses, we examine the biogeography of four bipolar Polytrichales mosses, common to the Holarctic (temperate and polar Northern Hemisphere regions) and the Antarctic region (Antarctic, sub-Antarctic, southern South America) and other Southern Hemisphere (SH) regions. Our data reveal contrasting patterns, for three species were of Holarctic origin, with subsequent dispersal to the SH, while one, currently a particularly common species in the Holarctic (Polytrichum juniperinum), diversified in the Antarctic region and from here colonized both the Holarctic and other SH regions. Our findings suggest long-distance dispersal as the driver of bipolar disjunctions. We find such inter-hemispheric dispersals are rare, occurring on multi-million-year timescales. High-altitude tropical populations did not act as trans-equatorial ‘stepping-stones’, but rather were derived from later dispersal events. All arrivals to the Antarctic region occurred well before the Last Glacial Maximum and previous glaciations, suggesting that, despite the harsh climate during these past glacial maxima, plants have had a much longer presence in this southern region than previously thought. PMID:28791139

  1. Global biogeographic patterns in bipolar moss species.

    PubMed

    Biersma, E M; Jackson, J A; Hyvönen, J; Koskinen, S; Linse, K; Griffiths, H; Convey, P

    2017-07-01

    A bipolar disjunction is an extreme, yet common, biogeographic pattern in non-vascular plants, yet its underlying mechanisms (vicariance or long-distance dispersal), origin and timing remain poorly understood. Here, combining a large-scale population dataset and multiple dating analyses, we examine the biogeography of four bipolar Polytrichales mosses, common to the Holarctic (temperate and polar Northern Hemisphere regions) and the Antarctic region (Antarctic, sub-Antarctic, southern South America) and other Southern Hemisphere (SH) regions. Our data reveal contrasting patterns, for three species were of Holarctic origin, with subsequent dispersal to the SH, while one, currently a particularly common species in the Holarctic (Polytrichum juniperinum), diversified in the Antarctic region and from here colonized both the Holarctic and other SH regions. Our findings suggest long-distance dispersal as the driver of bipolar disjunctions. We find such inter-hemispheric dispersals are rare, occurring on multi-million-year timescales. High-altitude tropical populations did not act as trans-equatorial 'stepping-stones', but rather were derived from later dispersal events. All arrivals to the Antarctic region occurred well before the Last Glacial Maximum and previous glaciations, suggesting that, despite the harsh climate during these past glacial maxima, plants have had a much longer presence in this southern region than previously thought.

  2. Phytoestrogens β -sitosterol and genistein have limited effects on reproductive endpoints in a female fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Brown, A C; Stevenson, L M; Leonard, H M; Nieves-Puigdoller, K; Clotfelter, E D

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are produced by plants and may cause endocrine disruption in vertebrates. The present study hypothesizes that phytoestrogen exposure of female Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) may disrupt endogenous steroid levels, change agonistic behavior expression, and potentially also disrupt oocyte development. However, only the pharmacologic dose of β-sitosterol had a significant effect on opercular flaring behavior, while we did not find significant effects of β-sitosterol or genistein on steroids or gonads. These findings are in direct contrast with previous studies on the effects of phytoestrogens in female fish. Results of the current study support previous work showing that the effects of phytoestrogen exposure may be less acute in mature female B. splendens than in other fish.

  3. Phytoestrogens β-Sitosterol and Genistein Have Limited Effects on Reproductive Endpoints in a Female Fish, Betta splendens

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. C.; Stevenson, L. M.; Leonard, H. M.; Nieves-Puigdoller, K.; Clotfelter, E. D.

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are produced by plants and may cause endocrine disruption in vertebrates. The present study hypothesizes that phytoestrogen exposure of female Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) may disrupt endogenous steroid levels, change agonistic behavior expression, and potentially also disrupt oocyte development. However, only the pharmacologic dose of β-sitosterol had a significant effect on opercular flaring behavior, while we did not find significant effects of β-sitosterol or genistein on steroids or gonads. These findings are in direct contrast with previous studies on the effects of phytoestrogens in female fish. Results of the current study support previous work showing that the effects of phytoestrogen exposure may be less acute in mature female B. splendens than in other fish. PMID:24707495

  4. Predator-mediated natural selection on the wings of the damselfly Calopteryx splendens: differences in selection among trait types.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Shawn R; Svensson, Erik I

    2014-07-01

    Traits that increase mating success in males may come at a cost, such as an increased risk of predation. However, predator-mediated selection is challenging to document in natural populations, hampering our understanding of the trade-offs between sexual selection and predation. Here we report on a study of predator-mediated natural selection on wing traits in the damselfly Calopteryx splendens, the males of which possess conspicuous wing patches. Wagtails (genus Motacilla) are important avian predators of C. splendens, capturing them in flight and removing the wings prior to consumption. Using geometric morphometric techniques, we quantified the strength and mode of selection on wing traits by comparing wings from depredated individuals with the standing variation present in the population. Our results reveal that predator-mediated selection is stronger on secondary sexual characters than on size and shape, suggesting that traits related to flight performance are closer to their adaptive peaks. This could be a consequence of the long-term evolutionary association with avian predators, whereas stronger selection on conspicuous secondary sexual traits may reflect trade-offs between sexual and natural selection. Finally, even though C. splendens possesses nearly identical fore- and hindwings, we found evidence for divergent selection between them.

  5. Biomarkers and bioindicators of the health condition of Ameca splendens and Goodea atripinnis (Pisces: Goodeaidae) in the Ameca River, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Vera, Ricardo; López-López, Eugenia; Sedeño-Díaz, Jacinto Elias

    2007-05-01

    Pollution of water bodies causes stress on organisms inhabiting them. Determination of biomarkers and bioindicators on fish populations reflects whether they are subject to stress. We assessed two populations of Ameca splendens and Goodea atripinnis in a reference site (spring "El Rincon") and De La Vega reservoir, which receives wastewater of a sugar industry, on Ameca River course. We analyzed level of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic activities of gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, acetylcholinesterase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase as biomarkers; we also studied age classes and various body indexes. Environmental factors were recorded and a water quality index was assessed. Water quality was better in the spring than in the reservoir. Organisms inhabiting the reservoir presented higher oxidative stress by the lipid peroxidation levels, and neurotoxic impacts by the acetylcholinesterase and some detoxification mechanisms were evident by the gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities. Integrated Biomarker Response demonstrate that De La Vega reservoir is a more stressing place to organisms living there, particularly for A. splendens. In both species, males were more affected than females. Condition and reproductive parameters in reservoir showed evidences of physiological changes due to xenobiotics exposure and suggest a tactic of the organisms to survive in this site. Both biomarkers and body indexes revealed that A. splendens is a more sensitive species than G. atripinnis to environmental stress.

  6. Interactive Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Copper Stress on Flowering Phenology and Reproduction of Elsholtzia splendens

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zexin; Li, Junmin; Li, Yueling

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to heavy metal contamination may depend on the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Elsholtzia splendens is an indicator species for the presence of copper (Cu) mines because both its flowering phenology and reproduction are tolerant to heavy metals. To test whether effects of Cu on the flowering phenology and reproduction of E. splendens depend on the presence of AMF, we conducted a factorial experiment with two Cu treatments (with or without Cu addition) crossed with two AMF treatments (with or without AMF inoculation). Without AMF, Cu addition significantly delayed the onset dates, ending dates and peak dates of flowering and decreased flowering duration. However, AMF inoculation reversed the effects of Cu stress, with recovered flowering onset and ending dates and increased the flowering duration. Cu addition significantly decreased inflorescence width and number, inflorescence biomass, vegetative biomass and total seed number, but significantly increased 1000-seed weight. AMF inoculation significantly increased vegetative biomass. Two-way ANOVA results showed that the interactive effects between Cu addition and AMF inoculation were significant on the inflorescence number, vegetative biomass and total seed number. These results indicate that AMF can alleviate the Cu stress on the flowering phenology and reproduction of E. splendens. PMID:26709921

  7. Interactive Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Copper Stress on Flowering Phenology and Reproduction of Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zexin; Li, Junmin; Li, Yueling

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to heavy metal contamination may depend on the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Elsholtzia splendens is an indicator species for the presence of copper (Cu) mines because both its flowering phenology and reproduction are tolerant to heavy metals. To test whether effects of Cu on the flowering phenology and reproduction of E. splendens depend on the presence of AMF, we conducted a factorial experiment with two Cu treatments (with or without Cu addition) crossed with two AMF treatments (with or without AMF inoculation). Without AMF, Cu addition significantly delayed the onset dates, ending dates and peak dates of flowering and decreased flowering duration. However, AMF inoculation reversed the effects of Cu stress, with recovered flowering onset and ending dates and increased the flowering duration. Cu addition significantly decreased inflorescence width and number, inflorescence biomass, vegetative biomass and total seed number, but significantly increased 1000-seed weight. AMF inoculation significantly increased vegetative biomass. Two-way ANOVA results showed that the interactive effects between Cu addition and AMF inoculation were significant on the inflorescence number, vegetative biomass and total seed number. These results indicate that AMF can alleviate the Cu stress on the flowering phenology and reproduction of E. splendens.

  8. Characterizing oxygen isotope variability and host water relation of modern and subfossil aquatic mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiayun; Lücke, Andreas; Wissel, Holger; Mayr, Christoph; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    A field survey in southern Patagonia has shown a highly significant linear correlation between δ18O values of cellulose extracted from modern submerged aquatic mosses and their respective host waters. The amount of aquatic moss remains preserved in lake sediments is, however, often not sufficient for cellulose extraction for oxygen isotope analysis. By comparison, the δ18O analysis of bulk organic matter of aquatic mosses requires much less material, but further pretreatment due to inorganic contamination is needed. In this study we extend the cellulose δ18O approach to aquatic moss organic matter and aquatic vascular plants in order to explore the relation between δ18O values of aquatic plants and host waters. Furthermore, we focus on a comparison between cellulose and pretreated organic matter of subfossil aquatic mosses and vascular plants with regard to their δ18O and δ13C values from Laguna Potrok Aike, a southern Patagonian maar lake. Subfossil remains of two representative submerged aquatic moss species and different moss parts (branches and leaves) are handpicked and an investigation on moss organic matter, moss cellulose and cellulose from coarse plant debris is performed in pairs within a moss-rich sediment section. Our results show that, similar to moss cellulose, a significant linear correlation exists between δ18O values of purified moss organic matter and their respective host waters. Past lake water δ18O values can thus be inferred from moss cellulose as well as from purified moss organic matter with comparable precision. Only a marginal 18O enrichment (ca. 1‰) is observed for δ18O values of cellulose from aquatic vascular plants compared to that of aquatic mosses, whereas δ13C values of aquatic vascular plant cellulose show a pronounced 13C enrichment (ca. 20‰) relative to aquatic mosses. Noticeable differences in δ18O values of organic matter from different moss species suggest a monospecific analysis for the reconstruction of lake

  9. Metal adsorption on mosses: Toward a universal adsorption model.

    PubMed

    González, A G; Pokrovsky, O S

    2014-02-01

    This study quantifies the adsorption of heavy metals on 4 typical moss species used for environmental monitoring in the moss bag technique. The adsorption of Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) onto Hypnum sp., Sphagnum sp., Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachytecium rutabulum has been investigated using a batch reactor in a wide range of pH (1.3-11.0) and metal concentrations in solution (1.6μM-3.8mM). A Linear Programming Model (LPM) was applied for the experimental data to derive equilibrium constants and the number of surface binding sites. The surface acid-base titration performed for 4 mosses at a pH range of 3-10 in 0.1M NaNO3 demonstrated that Sphagnum sp. is the most efficient adsorbent as it has the maximal number of proton-binding sites on the surface (0.65mmol g(-1)). The pKa computed for all the moss species suggested the presence of 5 major functional groups: phosphodiester, carboxyl, phosphoryl, amine and polyphenols. The results of pH-edge experiments demonstrated that B. rutabulum exhibits the highest percentage of metal adsorption and has the highest number of available sites for most of the metals studied. However, according to the results of the constant pH "Langmuirian" isotherm, Sphagnum sp. can be considered as the strongest adsorbent, although the relative difference from other mosses is within 20%. The LPM was found to satisfactorily fit the experimental data in the full range of the studied solution parameters. The results of this study demonstrate a rather similar pattern of five metal adsorptions on mosses, both as a function of pH and as a metal concentration, which is further corroborated by similar values of adsorption constants. Therefore, despite the species and geographic differences between the mosses, a universal adsorption edge and constant pH adsorption isotherm can be recommended for 4 studied mosses. The quantitative comparison of metal adsorption with other common natural organic and inorganic materials demonstrates

  10. Detoxification of Dissolved SO2 (Bisulfite) by Terricolous Mosses

    PubMed Central

    BHARALI, BHAGAWAN; BATES, JEFFREY W.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The widespread calcifuge moss Pleurozium schreberi is moderately tolerant of SO2, whereas Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus is limited to calcareous soils in regions of the UK that were strongly affected by SO2 pollution in the 20th century. The proposition that tolerance of SO2 by these terricolous mosses depends on metabolic detoxification of dissolved bisulfite was investigated. • Methods The capacities of the two mosses to accelerate loss of bisulfite from aqueous solutions of NaHSO3 were studied using DTNB [5, 5-dithio-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)] to assay bisulfite, and HPLC to assay sulfate in the incubation solutions. Incubations were performed for different durations, in the presence and absence of light, at a range of solution pH values, in the presence of metabolic inhibitors and with altered moss apoplastic Ca2+ and Fe3+ levels. • Key Results Bisulfite disappearance was markedly stimulated in the light and twice as great for R. triquetrus as for P. schreberi. DCMU, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron chain transport, significantly reduced bisufite loss. • Conclusions Bisulfite (SO2) tolerance in these terricolous mosses involves extracellular oxidation using metabolic (photo-oxidative) energy, passive oxidation by adsorbed Fe3+ (only available to the calcifuge) and probably also internal metabolic detoxification. PMID:16319108

  11. Moisture content measurements of moss (Sphagnum spp.) using commercial sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshikawa, K.; Overduin, P.P.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Sphagnum (spp.) is widely distributed in permafrost regions around the arctic and subarctic. The moisture content of the moss layer affects the thermal insulative capacity and preservation of permafrost. It also controls the growth and collapse history of palsas and other peat mounds, and is relevant, in general terms, to permafrost thaw (thermokarst). In this study, we test and calibrate seven different soil moisture sensors for measuring the moisture content of Sphagnum moss under laboratory conditions. The soil volume to which each probe is sensitive is one of the important parameters influencing moisture measurement, particularly in a heterogeneous medium such as moss. Each sensor has a unique response to changing moisture content levels, solution salinity, moss bulk density and to the orientation (structure) of the Sphagnum relative to the sensor. All of the probes examined here require unique polynomial calibration equations to obtain moisture content from probe output. We provide polynomial equations for dead and live Sphagnum moss (R2 > 0.99. Copyright ?? 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Debén, S; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surrogates for macrofungi and mosses in reservation planning.

    PubMed

    McMullan-Fisher, Sapphire J M; Kirkpatrick, Jamie B; May, Tom W; Pharo, Emma J

    2010-06-01

    Our knowledge of cryptogam taxonomy and species distributions is currently too poor to directly plan for their conservation. We used inventory data from four distinct vegetation types, near Hobart Tasmania, to address the proposition that vegetation type, vascular plant taxon composition, and environmental variables can act as surrogates for mosses and macrofungi in reservation planning. The four vegetation types proved distinct in their taxon composition for all macrofungi, mosses, and vascular plants. We tested the strength of the relationships between the composition of cryptogam taxonomic groups and vascular plant composition and between the environmental variables and canopy cover. Taxon composition of woody vascular plants and vascular plants was the best predictor of the taxon composition of mosses and macrofungi. Combinations of environmental variables and canopy cover were also strong predictors of the taxon composition of mosses and macrofungi. We used an optimization routine for vascular plant taxa and woody plant species and determined the representation of cryptogam taxa in these selections. We identified sites with approximately 10% and 30% of the greatest proportions of vascular plants and woody vascular plants and calculated representation of mosses and macrofungi at these sites. We compared the results of these site selections with random site selections and random selections stratified by vegetation type. Random selection of sites by vegetation type generally captured more cryptogams than site selection by vascular plants at the 10% level. Vascular plant and woody plant taxon composition, vegetation type, and environmental and structural characteristics, all showed promise as surrogates for capturing common cryptogams in reserve systems.

  14. The interactive effects of temperature and light on biological nitrogen fixation in boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Gundale, Michael J; Nilsson, Madeleine; Bansal, Sheel; Jäderlund, Anders

    2012-04-01

    Plant productivity is predicted to increase in northern latitudes as a result of climate warming; however, this may depend on whether biological nitrogen (N)-fixation also increases. We evaluated how the variation in temperature and light affects N-fixation by two boreal feather mosses, Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens, which are the primary source of N-fixation in most boreal environments. We measured N-fixation rates 2 and 4 wk after exposure to a factorial combination of environments of normal, intermediate and high temperature (16.3, 22.0 and 30.3°C) and light (148.0, 295.7 and 517.3 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Our results showed that P. schreberi achieved higher N-fixation rates relative to H. splendens in response to warming treatments, but that the highest warming treatment eventually caused N-fixation to decline for both species. Light strongly interacted with warming treatments, having positive effects at low or intermediate temperatures and damaging effects at high temperatures. These results suggest that climate warming may increase N-fixation in boreal forests, but that increased shading by the forest canopy or the occurrence of extreme temperature events could limit increases. They also suggest that P. schreberi may become a larger source of N in boreal forests relative to H. splendens as climate warming progresses.

  15. Survival of Betta splendens fish (Regan, 1910) in domestic water containers and its effectiveness in controlling Aedes aegypti larvae (Linnaeus, 1762) in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Lima, José Wellington; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Pontes, Ricardo José Soares; Heukelbach, Jörg

    2010-12-01

    In Northeast Brazil, large domestic containers used to store water are important breeding sites of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever. The objective of this study was to estimate the survival of Betta splendens (Perciformes: Osphronemidae) fish in domestic containers in Fortaleza (Ceará State), as well as its effectiveness in the control of premature A. aegypti stages. The use of B. splendens was compared to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) in domestic containers. In a first home visit, B. splendens or Bti were applied to water containers. Two follow-up visits were conducted after 3-4 and 5-6 months to assess the presence of viable fish in the containers and infestation by larvae. Betta splendens fish were still present in 97.6% of containers 45-60 days after application. When the fish was present, the infestation rate was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the Bti group (IR ratio= 21.60; 95% CI: 6.46-72.28). In deposits where the fish remained, efficacy was 85% better than Bti. The permanence of fish was higher in concrete tanks (48.5%) located outside the house (47.5%) and at ground level (53.3%). We conclude that B. splendens may be suitable for biological control of A. aegypti larvae in large domestic water containers, but that appropriate measures should be taken to assure prolonged survival and the presence of fish in the containers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Culturable bacteria in hydroponic cultures of moss Racomitrium japonicum and their potential as biofertilizers for moss production.

    PubMed

    Tani, Akio; Akita, Motomu; Murase, Haruhiko; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2011-07-01

    The use of Racomitrium japonicum, a drought resistant bryophyte used for roof-greening, is gradually increasing. However, its utilization is hampered by slow growth rate. Here we isolated culturable bacteria from hydroponic cultivation samples to identify isolates that could promote moss growth. Most of the isolates belonged to Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Duganella species. The isolates were biochemically characterized according to their type of interaction with plants, i.e., production of auxin, siderophores, or hydrogen cyanate, growth in the absence of an added nitrogen source, calcium phosphate solubilization, utilization of sugars, polymers, or aliphatic compounds, and antifungal activity. The isolates were applied to sterile protonemata and non-sterile adult gametophytes of R. japonicum to evaluate their effect on plant growth. Furthermore, we isolated fungi that inhibited moss growth. Our results suggest that the microbial community structure in hydroponic cultures is important to stabilize moss production and the isolates that promote moss growth have potential to be utilized as biofertilizers for moss production.

  17. The nature of moss and lower atmospheric seismology.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, B; Erdélyi, R

    2006-02-15

    The discovery of so-called solar 'moss', i.e. dynamic and bright upper transition region emission at chromospheric heights above active region plage, provides a novel diagnostic to probe the structure, dynamics, energetics and coupling of the magnetized solar chromosphere and transition region. We briefly review observations of the morphology and connectivity in the low solar atmosphere, with a particular focus on the propagation of oscillations and waves in the moss. We also present recent work that combines moss observations and numerical modelling, and which sheds light on the (quasi-periodic) formation of dynamic jets (spicules), and the propagation of normally evanescent oscillations into the corona. We also briefly explore how coronal oscillations could be exploited to determine the connectivity between photosphere and corona, i.e. perform seismology of the lower solar atmosphere.

  18. Biomonitoring of metal deposition in northern Spain by moss analysis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J A; Ederra, A; Núñez, E; Martínez-Abaigar, J; Infante, M; Heras, P; Elías, M J; Mazimpaka, V; Carballeira, A

    2002-12-02

    The results of the first survey carried out in northern Spain to determine atmospheric deposition of metals by analysis of terrestrial mosses, are described. Samples of different mosses, mainly Hypnum cupressiforme and Scleropodium purum, were collected from 134 sampling sites, between 1995 and 1996. Levels of Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, were determined by flame atomic absorption or atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. Regression analysis was used to compare the capacity of the selected moss species to accumulate the elements, and intercalibration of accumulation in these species was carried out where necessary. Distribution maps were prepared to allow the zones most affected by metal deposition to be identified and to relate this to known sources of contamination: electricity power stations and other industries (e.g. Hg and Ni), edaphic contamination (e.g. Al and Cr) and road traffic (Pb). Background levels of metals in each species were also determined for the study area.

  19. Moss and lichen biomonitoring of atmospheric mercury: A review.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Long-range transport and residence time of elemental Hg (Hg°) in air promote global dispersion and deposition in remote ecosystems. Many biotic and abiotic factors contribute to the photoreduction and phytovolatilization of Hg from terrestrial ecosystems, and the assessment of deposition and volatilization fluxes is very challenging. Mosses and lichens are widespread in nature and constitute the dominant vegetation in alpine and polar ecosystems. This review surveys the results of Hg biomonitoring with cryptogams in areas with different Hg sources and deposition processes. Lichen and moss ecophysiology, and factors affecting Hg uptake and bioaccumulation are discussed. Although some laboratory experiments indicate a linear accumulation of Hg in cryptogams exposed to Hg°, without any significant release, in nature the Hg accumulated in cryptogams is in a dynamic equilibrium with Hg in air and decreases when organisms are transplanted to clean environments. Mercury concentrations in mosses and lichens have often been used to estimate concentrations and deposition fluxes of atmospheric Hg; however, Hg° exchanges between cryptogams and air, and the time necessary for mosses and lichens to equilibrate elemental composition with changing atmospheric chemistry, preclude reliable estimates. Biological processes of Hg uptake and exchange with air cannot be reproduced by mechanical collectors, and comparisons between Hg concentrations in biomonitors and those in atmospheric deposition are scarcely reliable. However, the Hg biomonitoring with mosses and lichens is easy and cheap and allows to locate "hot spots" of natural or anthropogenic emissions and to assess spatio-temporal changes in Hg deposition patterns. Climate change is affecting the global Hg cycle through the melting of sea-ice in coastal Polar Regions, and modifying Hg sequestration in mountain ecosystems. Despite limitations, large-scale monitoring of Hg with mosses and lichens may be used as a tool to

  20. 75 FR 3219 - Richard Moss; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Richard Moss; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation January 12, 2010. On January 31, 2008, Richard Moss, licensee for the Cinnamon Ranch Hydroelectric Project..., notice is hereby given that an annual license for Project No. 6885 is issued to Richard Moss for a...

  1. Elemental atmospheric pollution assessment via moss-based measurements in Portland, Oregon

    Treesearch

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Sarah Jovan; Geoffrey Donovan; Michael Amacher; Vicente Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Mosses accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and can serve as an inexpensive screening tool for mapping air quality and guiding the placement of monitoring instruments. We measured 22 elements using 346 moss samples collected across Portland, Oregon, in December 2013. Our objectives were to develop citywide maps showing concentrations of each element in moss and...

  2. Baseline element concentrations in soils and plants, Wattenmeer National Park, North and East Frisian Islands, Federal Republic of Germany

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.; van den Boom, G.

    1992-01-01

    Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.

  3. Epiphytic Moss as a Biomonitor for Nitrogen Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, T.; Deakova, T.; Shortlidge, E.; Rao, M.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Rice, A. L.; George, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tracking nitrogen (N) deposition patterns is important for understanding how anthropogenic sources of nitrogen affect natural habitats, human health, and for evaluating computer models of future N deposition. It can also aid in tracking and modeling anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. This pilot study investigated the use of Orthotrichum lyellii, a common urban epiphytic moss, as a possible bioindicator for N deposition through the analysis of total moss N content and N isotopic fractionation ( δ15N) for evaluating N sources. In the spring/summer of 2013 we collected 168 O. lyellii samples from the trunks of deciduous trees in 53 locations in the Portland metropolitan area. In the winter of 2013-14, we resampled the same locations to investigate the effect of seasonality. The averaged summer moss N content were plotted against a land use regression model (LUR) developed by taking NOx samples from 144 sites in the Portland area within the Urban Growth Boundary. The correlation between moss N and modeled NO2 was found to be significant at p < 0.001, r=0.625. Summer moss samples N content ranged between 0.71% and 3.36% (mean of 1.87%), the δ15N ranged -8.97‰ and 11.78‰ (mean of -0.91‰). Moss winter N content ranged between .77% and 3.12% (mean of 1.71%), and the δ15N ranged -10.40‰ and 10.27‰ (mean of -3.73‰). The average values for %N and δ15N fall within the range of previous studies in other moss samples, however the maximum values are higher than what other studies have typically found for both %N and δ15N. A significant correlation between δ15N and %N was found (r = 0.67). The moss samples showed a similar pattern of higher N content and δ15N near the urban center decreasing with distance from major roadways and other significant sources of fossil fuel derived NOx. These results indicated the sensitivity of O.lyellii to N and the potential for its use as a biomonitor. With sufficient sampling density, using O. lyellii as an inexpensive

  4. Unmanned aerial optical systems for spatial monitoring of Antarctic mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Harwin, Stephen; Wallace, Luke; Kelcey, Josh; Robinson, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The Antarctic continent has experienced major changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone levels during the last 50 years. In a manner similar to tree rings, old growth shoots of Antarctic mosses, the only plants on the continent, also preserve a climate record of their surrounding environment. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Spatially extensive ground sampling of mosses is laborious and time limited due to the short Antarctic growing season. Obviously, there is a need for an efficient method to monitor spatially climate change induced stress of the Antarctic moss flora. Cloudy weather and high spatial fragmentation of the moss turfs makes satellite imagery unsuitable for this task. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS), flying at low altitudes and collecting image data even under a full overcast, can, however, overcome the insufficiency of satellite remote sensing. We, therefore, developed scientific UAS, consisting of a remote-controlled micro-copter carrying on-board different remote sensing optical sensors, tailored to perform fast and cost-effective mapping of Antarctic flora at ultra-high spatial resolution (1-10 cm depending on flight altitude). A single lens reflex (SLR) camera carried by UAS acquires multi-view aerial photography, which processed by the Structure from Motion computer vision algorithm provides an accurate three-dimensional digital surface model (DSM) at ultra-high spatial resolution. DSM is the key input parameter for modelling a local seasonal snowmelt run-off, which provides mosses with the vital water supply. A lightweight multispectral camera on-board of UVS is collecting images of six selected spectral wavebands with the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The spectral bands can be used to compute various vegetation optical indices, e.g. Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), assessing the actual physiological state of polar vegetation. Recently

  5. Atmospheric particulate matter intercepted by moss-bags: Relations to moss trace element uptake and land use.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, Anna; Capozzi, Fiore; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Giordano, Simonetta; Adamo, Paola

    2017-06-01

    Particulate matter has to be constantly monitored because it is an important atmospheric transport form of potentially harmful contaminants. The cost-effective method of the moss-bags can be employed to evaluate both loads and chemical composition of PM. PM entrapped by the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum exposed in bags in 9 European sites was characterized for number, size and chemical composition by SEM/EDX. Moreover, moss elemental uptake of 53 elements including rare earth elements was estimated by ICP-MS analysis. All above was aimed to find possible relations between PM profile and moss uptake and to find out eventual element markers of the different land use (i.e. agricultural, urban, industrial) of the selected sites. After exposure, about 12,000 particles, mostly within the inhalable fraction, were counted on P. purum leaves; their number generally increased from the agricultural sites to the urban and industrial ones. ICP analysis indicated that twenty-three elements were significantly accumulated by mosses with different element profile according to the various land uses. The PM from agricultural sites were mainly made of natural/crustal elements or derived from rural activities. Industrial-related PM covered a wider range of sources, from those linked to specific industrial activities, to those related to manufacturing processes or use of heavy-duty vehicles. This study indicates a close association between PM amount and moss element-uptake, which increases in parallel with PM amount. Precious metals and REEs may constitute novel markers of air pollution in urban and agricultural sites, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, Max; Devito, Kevin; Kettridge, Nicholas; Petrone, Richard; Waddington, James

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, however, little is known about the spatiotemporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table (WT) positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce capillary flow from the WT and lead to a dry surface after fire, steep WT declines can also limit post-fire moss water availability. As such, post-fire moss water availability is also a function of large-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability by measuring peatland WTs, soil tension (Ψ) and surface volumetric moisture content (θ) in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings for three years following wildfire. The effect of burn severity on post-fire moss water availability did not vary with hydrogeological setting, however, the spatial coverage of high and low burn severity did vary between peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings due to its influence on pre-fire fuel loads and species cover. Locations covered by S. fuscum prior to fire exhibited decreasing post-fire water availability with increasing burn severity. In contrast, the lowest water availability (Ψ > 400 cm, θ < 0.02) was observed in feather mosses that underwent low burn severity (residual branches identifiable). Where depth of burn was > 0.05 m (high burn severity) and pre-fire species were not identifiable, water availability was highest (Ψ < 90 cm). Where burn severity did not limit water availability through a reduction of capillary flow, depth to WT (and therefore hydrogeological setting) played a large role in affecting post

  7. Herbivore impacts to the moss layer determine tundra ecosystem response to grazing and warming.

    PubMed

    Gornall, Jemma L; Woodin, Sarah J; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Van der Wal, Rene

    2009-10-01

    Herbivory and climate are key environmental drivers, shaping ecosystems at high latitudes. Here, we focus on how these two drivers act in concert, influencing the high arctic tundra. We aim to investigate mechanisms through which herbivory by geese influences vegetation and soil processes in tundra ecosystems under ambient and warmed conditions. To achieve this, two grazing treatments, clipping plus faecal additions and moss removal, were implemented in conjunction with passive warming. Our key finding was that, in many cases, the tundra ecosystem response was determined by treatment impacts on the moss layer. Moss removal reduced the remaining moss layer depth by 30% and increased peak grass biomass by 27%. These impacts were probably due to observed higher soil temperatures and decomposition rates associated with moss removal. The positive impact of moss removal on grass biomass was even greater with warming, further supporting this conclusion. In contrast, moss removal reduced dwarf shrub biomass possibly resulting from increased exposure to desiccating winds. An intact moss layer buffered the soil to increased air temperature and as a result there was no response of vascular plant productivity to warming over the course of this study. In fact, moss removal impacts on soil temperature were nearly double those of warming, suggesting that the moss layer is a key component in controlling soil conditions. The moss layer also absorbed nutrients from faeces, promoting moss growth. We conclude that both herbivory and warming influence this high arctic ecosystem but that herbivory is the stronger driver of the two. Disturbance to the moss layer resulted in a shift towards a more grass-dominated system with less abundant mosses and shrubs, a trend that was further enhanced by warming. Thus herbivore impacts to the moss layer are key to understanding arctic ecosystem response to grazing and warming.

  8. Active Moss Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Trace Element Deposition in Belgrade Urban Area using ENAA and AAS

    SciTech Connect

    Anicic, M.; Tasic, M.; Tomasevic, M.; Rajsic, S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Strelkova, L. P.; Steinnes, E.

    2007-11-26

    Active biomonitoring of air quality in Belgrade, Serbia, was performed using the moss Sphagnum girgensohnii. Moss bags were exposed in parallel with and without irrigation respectively for four consecutive 3-month periods at three urban sites. Twenty-nine elements were determined in the exposed moss samples by ENAA and three (Cu, Cd, and Pb) by AAS. The relative accumulation factor (RAF) was greater than 1 for the majority of elements. Elements such as Cl, K, Rb and Cs, however, leached from the moss tissue during the exposure time. For all exposure periods, higher uptake in the irrigated moss bags was evident for Al, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Pb, and Cd.

  9. Detection, isolation, and characterization of acidophilic methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

    PubMed

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; van Donselaar, Elly G; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S M; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2011-08-15

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs was found. With Sphagnum mosses as the inoculum, alpha- and gammaproteobacterial acidophilic methanotrophs were isolated using established and newly designed media. The 16S rRNA, pmoA, pxmA, and mmoX gene sequences showed that the alphaproteobacterial isolates belonged to the Methylocystis and Methylosinus genera. The Methylosinus species isolated are the first acid-tolerant members of this genus. Of the acidophilic gammaproteobacterial strains isolated, strain M5 was affiliated with the Methylomonas genus, and the other strain, M200, may represent a novel genus, most closely related to the genera Methylosoma and Methylovulum. So far, no acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs in the Gammaproteobacteria class are known. All strains showed the typical features of either type I or II methanotrophs and are, to the best of our knowledge, the first isolated (acidophilic or acid-tolerant) methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

  10. Chemical and structural characterization of copper adsorbed on mosses (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    González, Aridane G; Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix; Beike, Anna K; Reski, Ralf; Adamo, Paola; Pokrovsky, Oleg S

    2016-05-05

    The adsorption of copper on passive biomonitors (devitalized mosses Hypnum sp., Sphagnum denticulatum, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachythecium rutabulum) was studied under different experimental conditions such as a function of pH and Cu concentration in solution. Cu assimilation by living Physcomitrella patents was also investigated. Molecular structure of surface adsorbed and incorporated Cu was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Devitalized mosses exhibited the universal adsorption pattern of Cu as a function of pH, with a total binding sites number 0.05-0.06 mmolg(dry)(-1) and a maximal adsorption capacity of 0.93-1.25 mmolg(dry)(-1) for these devitalized species. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fit of the first neighbor demonstrated that for all studied mosses there are ∼4.5 O/N atoms around Cu at ∼1.95 Å likely in a pseudo-square geometry. The X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis demonstrated that Cu(II)-cellulose (representing carboxylate groups) and Cu(II)-phosphate are the main moss surface binding moieties, and the percentage of these sites varies as a function of solution pH. P. patens exposed during one month to Cu(2+) yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu-S(CN) complexes, suggesting metabolically-controlled reduction of adsorbed and assimilated Cu(2+).

  11. Airborne radionuclides in mosses collected at different latitudes.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Wattanavatee, K; Radnović, D; Slivka, J; Bhongsuwan, T; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S

    2013-03-01

    Terrestrial mosses are a promising medium for investigation and monitoring of airborne radionuclide depositions due to their widespread occurrence, ease of sampling, and the possibility of high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements without preparatory chemical treatment of samples. The overall objective of the present study was to compare (7)Be, (210)Pb and (137)Cs activity concentrations (in Bq/kg) in moss samples collected at two different climate zones: the south of Thailand (7 °N) and in Serbia (∼45 °N) in order to examine deposition of airborne radionuclide in these distant areas. Significant difference of the (210)Pb content (almost a factor of 2) in mosses was observed. The mean value of (7)Be activity in samples from Serbia was almost 40% higher than activity of those collected in Thailand. Level of (137)Cs in Thailand mosses was below the detection limit. It was shown that air transport of water droplets in the area of waterfalls and strong turbulence can deposit U and Th daughter nuclei. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reversible Photoinhibition in Antarctic Moss during Freezing and Thawing.

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, C. E.; Jackson, A. E.; Melick, D. R.; Seppelt, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Tolerance of antarctic moss to freezing and thawing stress was investigated using chlorophyll a fluorescence. Freezing in darkness caused reductions in Fv/Fm (ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence) and Fo (initial fluorescence) that were reversible upon thawing. Reductions in Fv/Fm and Fo during freezing in darkness indicate a reduction in the potential efficiency of photosystem II that may be due to conformational changes in pigment-protein complexes due to desiccation associated with freezing. The absorption of light during freezing further reduced Fv/Fm and Fo but was also reversible. Using dithiothreitol (DTT), which inhibits the formation of the carotenoid zeaxanthin, we found reduced flurorescence quenching during freezing and reduced concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin after freezing in DTT-treated moss. Reduced concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin in DTT-treated moss were partially associated with reductions in nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching. The reversible photoinhibition observed in antarctic moss during freezing indicates the existence of processes that protect from photoinhibitory damage in environments where freezing temperatures occur in conjunction with high solar radiation levels. These processes may limit the need for repair cycles that require temperatures favorable for enzyme activity. PMID:12228644

  13. Nitrogen accumulation in forests. Exposure monitoring by mosses.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Schmidt, Gunther

    2007-03-21

    At present, there is still little information on nitrogen (N) accumulation in forests contrasting with the crucial importance of N in forest ecosystems. This work analyzes the N bioaccumulation in mosses from forested areas from Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia (two of 16 federal states of Germany), the Weser Ems Region (part of Lower Saxony), and the Euro Region Nissa (covering the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland). The studies involved samples collected from 190 sites between 1998 and 2005. Different spatial scales and regional differences in land use were chosen to assess the factors affecting N bioaccumulation in forested areas. A continuous reduction of N bioaccumulation was found from Lower Saxony (a region where agriculture is most predominant) to North Rhine-Westphalia (mostly urban). The Weser Ems Region (an agricultural region) showed a higher N concentration in mosses than the Euroregion Nissa (a former industrial region). Statistical analyses performed at the different spatial scales revealed that the areas showing greater agricultural and livestock spatial densities favor N bioaccumulation in mosses. N concentration in mosses was moderately correlated with the N concentration in the leaves and needles of the surrounding trees. No significant relationships were found regarding the crown density of forest trees or N deposition estimations from a combination of atmospheric models and deposition measurements.

  14. Are Alcohol Expectancies Associations? Comment on Moss and Albery (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers, Reinout W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2010-01-01

    Moss and Albery (2009) presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that…

  15. Multiple innovations underpinned branching form diversification in mosses.

    PubMed

    Coudert, Yoan; Bell, Neil E; Edelin, Claude; Harrison, C Jill

    2017-07-01

    Broad-scale evolutionary comparisons have shown that branching forms arose by convergence in vascular plants and bryophytes, but the trajectory of branching form diversification in bryophytes is unclear. Mosses are the most species-rich bryophyte lineage and two sub-groups are circumscribed by alternative reproductive organ placements. In one, reproductive organs form apically, terminating growth of the primary shoot (gametophore) axis. In the other, reproductive organs develop on very short lateral branches. A switch from apical to lateral reproductive organ development is proposed to have primed branching form diversification. Moss gametophores have modular development and each module develops from a single apical cell. Here we define the architectures of 175 mosses by the number of module classes, branching patterns and the pattern in which similar modules repeat. Using ancestral character state reconstruction we identify two stages of architectural diversification. During a first stage there were sequential changes in the module repetition pattern, reproductive organ position, branching pattern and the number of module classes. During a second stage, vegetative changes occurred independently of reproductive fate. The results pinpoint the nature of developmental change priming branching form diversification in mosses and provide a framework for mechanistic studies of architectural diversification. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Cesium-137 monitoring using mosses from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsikritzis, Lazaros; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos

    2009-06-01

    (137)Cs activities in mosses and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece were measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous studies was also used for comparison and diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in the epilithic mosses in comparison to the epiphytic ones. The (137)Cs content in the bark of the two broad-leaved species (oak and fagus) was higher than that of the conifer (pinus). Bark specimens of about 50 cm height were in general more contaminated than those of 200 cm. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in moss thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in mosses 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of radionuclide fallout pattern.

  17. Metal accumulation capacity of five species of Sphagnum moss

    SciTech Connect

    Aulio, K.

    1985-10-01

    The present paper describes the first experimental evidence of the species-specific differences in the cation accumulation properties in Sphagnum mosses. Manganese was chosen for the object of the experiments because this element appears to show the greatest variability under natural conditions.

  18. Are Alcohol Expectancies Associations? Comment on Moss and Albery (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers, Reinout W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2010-01-01

    Moss and Albery (2009) presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that…

  19. Entropic interpretation of the Hawking-Moss bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshita, Naritaka; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2016-05-01

    We revisit the derivation of the Hawking-Moss transition rate. Using the static coordinates, we show that the Euclidean action is entirely determined by the contribution of the entropy of de Sitter space that is proportional to the surface area of the horizon. This holographic feature is common to any static spacetime with a horizon on which the shift vector vanishes.

  20. Parameters of rewards on choice behavior in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Martin S; Jensen, Ashley L

    2009-09-01

    Five experiments were conducted with Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) to investigate how choices in a T-maze were affected by parameters of a social reward (aggression display to another male): presence or absence, amount, delay and distance traveled. Bettas showed a preference for the side associated with the presence of another male rather than the side associated with nothing (Exp 1), a greater length of time of the reward (Exp 2) and shorter delay (Exp 3). The animals were indifferent when one side offered a longer delay to a longer reward time compared with a shorter delay to a shorter reward time (Exp 4). What was most surprising, however, was that fish preferred to choose the side that was associated with swimming a greater distance to reach an opponent male (Exp 5). These experiments demonstrate that, while some parameters of a visual reward affect behavior in predictable ways (greater amount, shorter delay), the complex motivations underlying inter-male aggression can produce what appear to be paradoxical results.

  1. Decreased aggressive and locomotor behaviors in Betta splendens after exposure to fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Kohlert, Jess G; Mangan, Brian P; Kodra, Christine; Drako, Linsay; Long, Emily; Simpson, Holly

    2012-02-01

    The failure of sewage treatment plants to remove pharmaceuticals such as fluoxetine from waste water has become a concern given that these products are being detected in the surface waters of many countries of the world. The effects of fluoxetine in sub-lethal doses on the neural systems and behaviors of aquatic life are worthy of investigation. This study investigated the effects of sub-lethal amounts fluoxetine dissolved in water on the aggressive and locomotor behaviors of 44 male Betta splendens. Fish treated with 705 microg/l of fluoxetine and 350 microg/l of fluoxetine generally demonstrated significant decreases in locomotion and number of aggressive attacks compared to 0 microg/l of fluoxetine (controls) on Days 11 and 19 of drug exposure and persisted for at least 13 days after removal of fluoxetine. Consistent with decreases in the number of aggressive attacks, there was a significant increase in aggression-response time to a perceived intruder for treated males on Days 11 and 19 and persisted for 6 days following removal of fluoxetine. However, the differences in aggressive and locomotor behaviors seen in the fluoxetine-treated groups were indistinguishable from controls three weeks following drug removal.

  2. Sex reversal in Betta splendens Regan with emphasis on the problem of sex determination.

    PubMed

    Lowe, T P; Larkin, J R

    1975-01-01

    To gain insight into the sex-determining mechanism of the Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, sex-reversed individuals were bred and the ratios of the spawnings were examined. Sex-reversal of 245 females was undertaken by ovariectomizing them; of these, 104 became sex-reversed. Twenty-three of these latter fish were mated to normal females and eleven spawnings were raised to maturity. These spawnings resulted in all female broods or mixed broods. Were the male fish heterogametic, a view currently held by some authors, no males would be produced in these spawnings. Thus, male heterogamety was not substaintiated in this study. Contrary to other studies, the experimental sex reversal of females is not a rare event since nearly two-thirds of the fish that survived the surgery became sex-reversed. Gross dissection and histological observation of sex-reversed fish revealed a regenerated, unpaired duct which remained after the ovaries had been removed. The tissue of the regenerate was testicular and contained active spermatogenesis. Some alterative methods of sex determination which may apply to the Betta are examined. These include the possibility of two different sex-determining races, the effects of exogenous factors, and a polygenic system of sex determination.

  3. Effects of ethanol and naltrexone on aggressive display in the siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Galizio, M; Woodard, R L; Keith, J

    1985-01-01

    The present study used the aggressive display of Betta splendens in response to a mirror as an index of the effects of ethanol and the opiate antagonist, naltrexone. Naltrexone produces an opiate receptor blockade and thus provided a test of the hypothesis that ethanol effects on aggression are mediated by the opioid system. Eighty fish were randomly assigned to one of eight groups in a 4 X 2 factorial design with Ethanol (0, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 g%) and Naltrexone (0 and 5 mg/l) as the main factors. The 0.75 g% dose of ethanol reliably suppressed aggressive display as measured by number of gill show responses, but lower doses had no effect or tended to increase aggressive display. At the same time, all doses of ethanol increased arousal in the fish as measured by airgulping. Naltrexone alone did not have effects on aggression or arousal, and did not interact with ethanol on either measure. Thus the results did not support the ethanol-opioid common-link hypothesis.

  4. Evaluation of temporal, seasonal and geographic stability of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens latex.

    PubMed

    Schall, V T; de Vasconcellos, M C; Villaça-Coelho, A L; Ferreira-Lopes, F E; da Silva, I P

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory tests with aqueous solutions of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex have demonstrated seasonal stability of the molluscacidal principle, with LD90 values of 1.14 ppm (spring), 1.02 ppm (fall), 1.09 ppm (winter), and 1.07 ppm (summer) that have been determined against Biomphalaria tenagophila in the field. Assays on latex collected in Belo Horizonte and Recife yielded LD90 values similar to those obtained with the reference substance collected in Rio de Janeiro (Ilha do Governador), demonstrating geographic stability of the molluscacidal effect. The molluscacidal action of aqueous dilutions of the latex in natura, centrifuged (precipitate) and lyophilized, was stable for up to 124 days at room temperature (in natura) and for up to 736 days in a common refrigerator at 10 to 12 degrees C (lyophilized product). A 5.0 ppm solution is 100% lethal for snails up to 13 days after preparation, the effect being gradually lost to almost total inactivity by the 30th day. This observation indicated that the active principle is instable. These properties together with the wide distribution of the plant, its resistance and adaptation to the tropical climate, its easy cultivation and the easy obtention of latex and preparation of the molluscicidal solution, make this a promising material for large-scale use in the control of schistosomiasis.

  5. Survey of campylobacter, salmonella and mycoplasmas in house crows (Corvus splendens) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, K; Saleha, A A; Jaganathan, M; Tan, C G; Chong, C T; Tang, S C; Ideris, A; Dare, C M; Bradbury, J M

    2007-05-05

    House crows (Corvus splendens) in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the presence of Campylobacter species, Salmonella species, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae by serology, culture and pcr. For the detection of Campylobacter and Salmonella species swabs were taken either from the intestine or cloaca. For the detection of mycoplasmas, swabs were taken either from the choanal cleft or trachea for culture and pcr and serum samples were tested by the rapid serum agglutination (rsa) and monoclonal antibody-blocking elisa (mbelisa) for antibodies to M gallisepticum and M synoviae. For campylobacter, 25.3 per cent of the crows were positive by culture, and the species identified were Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. No Salmonella species were isolated. Four of 24 swabs were positive for M gallisepticum dna but none gave positive results for M synoviae dna. No M gallisepticum or M synoviae antibodies were detected by rsa but 60 per cent of the sera gave positive reactions for M gallisepticum and 13 per cent gave positive reactions for M synoviae by mbelisa.

  6. Effect of various discriminative stimuli on choice behavior in male siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Craft, B B; Szalda-Petree, A D; Brinegar, J L; Haddad, N F

    2007-04-01

    The current experiment was an exploratory study empirically comparing three discrimination methodologies proposed for use in choice preparations with food rewards. Subjects were thirty-five, healthy, adult male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three discrimination groups: a Direction group (using left or right as discriminative stimuli), a Color group (using red or green as discriminative stimuli), and a Bubble group (using the presence or absence of air bubbles as discriminative stimuli). For all three discrimination groups, subjects chose between one or three food pellets in a submerged T-maze. The results from the experiment indicated a statistically significant preference for the three pellets of food over one pellet of food only for the Bubble group. Of particular note is the effect size and observed power obtained for the Bubble group, which was the only group which supported a reasonably powerful test for discrimination, given a sample size of 12 subjects and 0.94 effect size.

  7. The Cyanobacterial Role in the Resistance of Feather Mosses to Decomposition—Toward a New Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Rousk, Kathrin; DeLuca, Thomas H.; Rousk, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria-plant symbioses play an important role in many ecosystems due to the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) by the cyanobacterial symbiont. The ubiquitous feather moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. is colonized by cyanobacteria in boreal systems with low N deposition. Here, cyanobacteria fix substantial amounts of N2 and represent a potential N source. The feather moss appears to be resistant to decomposition, which could be partly a result of toxins produced by cyanobacteria. To assess how cyanobacteria modulated the toxicity of moss, we measured inhibition of bacterial growth. Moss with varying numbers of cyanobacteria was added to soil bacteria to test the inhibition of their growth using the thymidine incorporation technique. Moss could universally inhibit bacterial growth, but moss toxicity did not increase with N2 fixation rates (numbers of cyanobacteria). Instead, we see evidence for a negative relationship between moss toxicity to bacteria and N2 fixation, which could be related to the ecological mechanisms that govern the cyanobacteria – moss relationship. We conclude that cyanobacteria associated with moss do not contribute to the resistance to decomposition of moss, and from our results emerges the question as to what type of relationship the moss and cyanobacteria share. PMID:23614013

  8. Limited accumulation of copper in heavy metal adapted mosses.

    PubMed

    Antreich, Sebastian; Sassmann, Stefan; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient but has toxic effects at high concentrations. Bryophytes are remarkably tolerant to elevated levels of copper but we wondered if this tolerance might be species dependent. Therefore, in three moss species, Physcomitrella patens, Mielichhoferia elongata and Pohlia drummondii, the accumulation of copper was compared with semiquantitative SEM-EDX analyses after six weeks of cultivation on copper containing media. We investigated the role of the copper-linked anion and applied copper as CuCl2, CuSO4 and CuEDTA, respectively. Line scans along the growth axis of moss gametophores allowed for a detailed analysis of copper detection from the base towards the tip. Mosses originating from metal-containing habitats (i.e. M. elongata and P. drummondii) revealed a lower accumulation of copper when compared to the non-adapted P. patens. CuEDTA had a shielding effect in all three species and copper levels differed greatly from CuCl2 or CuSO4. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 and O2(-), was further used to indicate stress levels in the gametophore stems. ROS staining was increased along the whole stem and the tip in the non-adapted species P. patens whereas the tolerant species M. elongata and P. drummondii generally showed less staining located mainly at the base of the stem. We discuss the relation between metal accumulation and ROS production using indicator dyes in the three moss species. As moss gametophores are very delicate structures, ROS staining provide an excellent alternative to spectrophotometric analyses to estimate stress levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Fungal biomass associated with the phyllosphere of bryophytes and vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Davey, M L; Nybakken, L; Kauserud, H; Ohlson, M

    2009-11-01

    Little is known about the amount of fungal biomass in the phyllosphere of bryophytes compared to higher plants. In this study, fungal biomass associated with the phyllosphere of three bryophytes (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum commune) and three vascular plants (Avenella flexuosa, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Vaccinium myrtillus) was investigated using ergosterol content as a proxy for fungal biomass. Phyllosphere fungi accounted for 0.2-4.0 % of the dry mass of moss gametophytes, representing the first estimation of fungal biomass associated with bryophytes. Significantly more fungal biomass was associated with the phyllosphere of bryophytes than co-occurring vascular plants. The ergosterol present in moss gametophytic tissues differed significantly between species, while the ergosterol present in vascular plant leaf tissues did not. The photosynthetic tissues of mosses had less associated fungal biomass than their senescent tissues, and the magnitude of this difference varied in a species-specific manner. The fungal biomass associated with the vascular plants studied varied significantly between localities, while that of mosses did not. The observed differences in phyllosphere community biomass suggest their size could be affected by host anatomical and physiological attributes, including micro-niche availability and chemical host defenses, in addition to abiotic factors like moisture and nutrient availability.

  10. Atmospheric deposition and critical loads for nitrogen and metals in Arctic Alaska: Review and current status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linder, Greg L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Neitlich, Peter; Little, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To protect important resources under their bureau’s purview, the United States National Park Service’s (NPS) Arctic Network (ARCN) has developed a series of “vital signs” that are to be periodically monitored. One of these vital signs focuses on wet and dry deposition of atmospheric chemicals and further, the establishment of critical load (CL) values (thresholds for ecological effects based on cumulative depositional loadings) for nitrogen (N), sulfur, and metals. As part of the ARCN terrestrial monitoring programs, samples of the feather moss Hylocomium splendens are being col- lected and analyzed as a cost-effective means to monitor atmospheric pollutant deposition in this region. Ultimately, moss data combined with refined CL values might be used to help guide future regulation of atmospheric contaminant sources potentially impacting Arctic Alaska. But first, additional long-term studies are needed to determine patterns of contaminant deposition as measured by moss biomonitors and to quantify ecosystem responses at particular loadings/ ranges of contaminants within Arctic Alaska. Herein we briefly summarize 1) current regulatory guidance related to CL values 2) derivation of CL models for N and metals, 3) use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition and loadings, 4) preliminary analysis of vulnerabilities and risks associated with CL estimates for N, 5) preliminary analysis of existing data for characterization of CL values for N for interior Alaska and 6) implications for managers and future research needs.

  11. Male 11-ketotestosterone levels change as a result of being watched in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L; Eklund, Amy C; Rowland, William J

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of nesting status and the presence of an audience on 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels in male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Prior studies have demonstrated that both nesting status, an indicator of territory-holding power and reproductive state, and the sex of a conspecific audience lead to differences in male behavior during aggressive encounters. Since behavioral changes have already been demonstrated, we chose to investigate whether 11KT levels were also influenced by nesting status and audience presence as 11KT both stimulates, and is stimulated by, reproductive and aggressive behaviors in male teleosts. Male 11KT levels were measured from water samples taken from containers holding fish both before and after interaction. Males interacted under three treatment conditions: no audience, female audience, and male audience. Within these treatments were two nest paradigms: both males had nests or neither male had a nest. 11KT levels varied depending on nesting status and audience type. In general, 11KT levels were lower in interacting males when a female audience was present or when males had nests. Overall, 11KT showed increases or decreases as aggression increased or decreased, as shown by already established behavioral findings [see Dzieweczynski T.L., Green T.M., Earley R.L., Rowland W.J., 2005. Audience effect is context dependent in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Behav. Ecol. 16, 1025-1030; Doutrelant, C., McGregor, P.K., Oliveira, R.F., 2001. Effect of an audience on intrasexual communication in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Behav. Ecol. 12, 283-286.]. Our results suggest that 11KT levels are influenced by reproductive status, as indicated by nest ownership, and audience presence and are most likely modulated by territorial behavior and social environment.

  12. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Active moss biomonitoring for extensive screening of urban air pollution: Magnetic and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Goryainova, Zoya; Pergal, Miodrag; Škrivanj, Sandra; Samson, Roeland; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-07-15

    In this study, active magnetic biomonitoring of moss for particulate air pollution and an assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the entire metropolitan area of Belgrade. Two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring moss genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (a common moss in the study area), were used. During the summer of 2013, moss bags were exposed at 153 sampling sites, forming a dense network of sites. A type II regression model was applied to test the interchangeable use of the two moss species. Significantly higher levels of all measured pollutants were recorded by S. girgensohnii in comparison with H. cupressiforme. Based on the results, the mosses could not be interchangeably used in urban areas, except for the biomonitoring of Cu. Nevertheless, according to the relative accumulation factors obtained for both moss species, similar city zones related to high, moderate and low levels of air pollution were distinguished. Moreover, new pollution hotspots, omitted by regulatory monitoring, were identified. The results demonstrate that moss magnetic analysis represents an effective first step for obtaining an overview of particulate air pollution before more expensive chemical analyses. Active moss biomonitoring could be applied as a pragmatic approach for optimizing the representativeness of regulatory monitoring networks.

  14. Active biomonitoring with the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum: Comparison between different types of transplants and bulk deposition.

    PubMed

    Ares, A; Varela, Z; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A

    2015-10-01

    Active biomonitoring with terrestrial mosses can be used to complement traditional air pollution monitoring techniques. Several studies have been carried out to compare the uptake capacity of different types of moss transplants. However, until now the relationship between the uptake of elements in devitalized moss bags and in irrigated transplants has not been explored. In this study, the final concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn were determined in irrigated and devitalized moss transplants in the surroundings of a steelworks. The concentrations were also compared with those of the same elements in the bulk deposition to determine which type of moss transplant yields the closest correlations. Devitalized moss retained higher concentrations of all of the elements (except Hg) than the irrigated moss. Both irrigated and devitalized moss transplants appear to detect the same type of contamination (i.e. particulate matter and dissolved metals rather than gaseous forms) as significant correlations were found for Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn, whereas, neither type of the moss transplant was sensitive enough to detect changes in the soluble fraction load of bulk deposition. Further studies will be needed to a better understanding of the correlation between the concentrations of elements in moss transplants with the particulate fraction of the bulk deposition. This will enable the establishment of a more robust and accurate biomonitoring tool.

  15. Effect of heavy-metal-resistant bacteria on enhanced metal uptake and translocation of the Cu-tolerant plant, Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Chen, Xincai; Duan, Dechao; Peng, Cheng; Le, Thu; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-04-01

    A hydroponics trial was employed to study the effects of Pseudomonas putida CZ1 (CZ1), a heavy-metal-resistant bacterial strain isolated from the rhizosphere of Elsholtzia splendens (E. splendens), on the uptake and translocation of copper (Cu) in E. splendens. Significant promotion of plant growth coupled with the obvious plant-growth-promoting (PGP) characters of the bacteria suggested that CZ1 would be a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) to E. splendens under Cu stress condition. The results of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) showed that CZ1 increased the concentration of Cu in the shoots (up to 211.6% compared to non-inoculation treatment) and translocation factor (TF) (from 0.56 to 1.83%) of those exposed to Cu. The distribution of Cu in root cross section measured by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SRXRF) indicated that CZ1 promoted the transport of Cu from cortex to xylem in roots, which contributed to the accumulation of Cu in shoots. Furthermore, CZ1 improved the uptake of nutrient elements by plants to oppose to the toxicity of Cu. In summary, P. putida CZ1 acted as a PGPR in resistance to Cu and promoted the accumulation and translocation of Cu from root to shoot by element redistribution in plant root; hence, CZ1 is a promising assistance to phytoremediation.

  16. UV-filter benzophenone-3 inhibits agonistic behavior in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Chen, Te-Hao; Wu, Yea-Ting; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is a widely used organic UV-filter compound. Despite the frequent occurrence of BP-3 in aquatic environments, little is known about its effect on fish behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of BP-3 in male fighting fish (Betta splendens) with a focus on agonistic behavior. Male fighting fish were exposed to 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L BP-3, as well as a solvent control (0.1% ethanol) and a positive control (100 ng/L 17α-ethynylestradiol, EE2), for 28 days. At the beginning and the end of exposure, standard length and body mass of the fish were measured for calculating the condition factor (CF). In addition, spontaneous swimming activity (total distance moved) and agonistic behavior (maximum velocity and duration of opercular display in front of a mirror) were also quantified. At the end of exposure, the fish gonads were sampled for gonadosomatic index (GSI) measurement and histology. After the exposure, CF was significantly decreased in the 1000 μg/L BP-3 groups. Spontaneous swimming activity was not affected. However, maximum velocity was significantly reduced in the EE2 and 1000 μg/L BP-3 treatments; duration of opercular display was significantly decreased in the EE2 and 10 and 1000 μg/L BP-3 treatments. GSI was not significantly different between groups. There was a slight but statistically significant decrease of relative proportion of mature spermatozoa in testicular tissue in the 100 μg/L BP-3 treatment. Collectively, our results demonstrate that BP-3 can disrupt agonistic behavior of male fighting fish, indicating the endocrine disrupting activity of this compound.

  17. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  18. Effect on growth and reproduction of hormone immersed and masculinized fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Kirankumar, Santhakumar; Pandian, Thavamani Jegajothivel

    2002-11-01

    To produce all-male progenies in the fighting fish, Betta splendens, six groups of fry were subjected to discrete immersion treatment at different 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) doses (viz. 100, 200, 500, 700, 900, and 1,000 microg/l) for a constant duration (3 hr/day) and frequency (second, fifth, and eighth day after hatching). The treatment at 900 microg/l led to 98% masculinization and 71% survival at sexual maturity. Treated groups, which showed significant deviation from the 1:1 sex ratio, were classified into two different series: S1 and S2. The groups that showed nearly cent-percent masculinization were classified as S1, and the other groups were classified as S2. The S1 males showed remarkably slower growth and attained 3.5 cm total length compared to 6.0 cm attained by a normal male. The S2 males attained 5.4 cm total length. Apart from these morphological defects, both S1 and S2 males suffered functional (decreased sperm count and sperm motility) and behavioral defects (incomplete embracing during mating) in their reproductive ability, leading to approximately 50% and 30% reduction in fecundity per mating, respectively. The cumulative fecundity loss suffered by the S1 male during its active reproductive phase is discussed. When normal and sex-reversed males were presented, a female preferred the former. Progeny testing of the sex-reversed males showed the occurrence of 12.75% males, indicating the possible role of autosomal genes in the sex determination mechanism of this species. Discrete immersion treatment at optimal/super-optimal doses ensured not only a higher percentage of masculinization, but also a higher frequency of homogametic males (XX). Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Effect of commercial grade endosulfan on growth and reproduction of the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, A; Pandian, T J

    2014-09-01

    To study the effects of endosulfan on survival, growth and reproduction of the obligate air-breathing male heterogametic fighting fish Betta splendens, posthatchlings of the fighting fish were discretely immersed for 3 h/day during the labile period on the 2nd, 5th, and 8th day posthatching (dph) at selected concentrations of commercial grade endosulfan ranging from 175 to 1400 ng/L. The immersions at 1,400 ng/L led to 21% mortality, among the 79% of surviving fry, 80% developed into females. The endosulfan reduced the air-breathing frequency of 5- and 8-day old hatchlings, and the reduction in the frequency persisted even after a depuration period of 172 days. In the ovary of the treated females, reduced number of vitellogenic oocytes with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. In the testis of the treated males, the reduced number of spermatogonia with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. The treated male induced the female to spawn a fewer eggs, which were subsequently incubated in his smaller bubble nest. The control females attained puberty on the 138th dph and spawned 120 eggs once in every 15 days, the females, which were previously treated at 1400 ng/L, postponed puberty to the 179th dph and spawned 70 eggs once in every 32 days. During the 240-day experiment, endosulfan is found to reduce significantly the cumulative progeny production from 760 to 144, reducing significantly to 19% of the control. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  20. Spatial variability of bacteria in the rhizosphere of Elsholtzia splendens under Cu contamination.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaofeng; Luan, Jing; Shi, Jiyan

    2014-01-01

    Elsholtzia splendens is a well-known Cu-tolerant plant; yet, the impact of Cu-contaminated soil on bacterial community in its rhizosphere is not known. We studied the spatial variability of bacteria in the rhizosphere using Cu-contaminated soil with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time PCR. In the uncontaminated soil, the content of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and bacterial diversity gradually increased in the rhizosphere soil along the root growth direction (from the interface zone to the meristematic zone), while for the Cu-contaminated soil, the highest DOC content and the strongest potential bioavailability of Cu were found in the interface zone, which also had the lowest bacteria diversity. Bacteria diversity was positively correlated with DOC in the uncontaminated soil (p < 0.01) but not in the contaminated soil. Compared with uncontaminated soil, some species such as Firmicutes only existed in the rhizosphere of contaminated soil, while the very small amount (if any) of some species exists such as Deinococcus-Thermus, indicating that the contaminated environment altered the bacterial composition. Moreover, spatial variation of the bacterial community was found among different soil zones. Real-time PCR confirmed the spatial variation via the gene expression of flagellin (fliC) and chemotaxis gene (cheA). The spatial characteristics of cheA expression were consistent with that of DOC and bacterial diversity. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the spatial variation of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere was present, independent of Cu contamination. DOC and Cu toxicity may affect specific gene expressions such as fliC and cheA, resulting in bacterial spatial variation.

  1. Caulonemal gravitropism and amyloplast sedimentation in the moss Funaria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J. M.; Kim, D.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    Caulonemata of the moss Funaria were examined to determine whether they are gravitropic. Funaria and Physcomitrella were also evaluated to compare amyloplast sedimentation with that of Ceratodon. Protonemata were either chemically fixed in place or examined alive using infrared timelapse videomicroscopy. Funaria caulonemata were found to be negatively gravitropic, i.e., they grew upwards in the dark. Upward curvature reversed temporarily before cytokinesis in Funaria, a phenomenon already known for Ceratodon and Physcomitrella. Most horizontal and upward-curving Funaria tip cells contained a broad subapical zone where plastid sedimentation occurred. In dark-grown Physcomitrella caulonemata, sedimentation was detected by the presence of a thin, amyloplast-free strip of cytoplasm at the top of the cell. These results suggest that gravitropism and subapical amyloplast sedimentation may be relatively common in moss caulonemata.

  2. Do mosses exist outside of Europe? A biomonitoring reflection.

    PubMed

    Boquete, M T; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A

    2017-09-01

    The passive moss biomonitoring technique has been proved a useful environmental tool for the study of the air quality. However, after more than 40years of its discovery, it has not been used yet in decision making when dealing with atmospheric pollution. Scientific efforts and funding are wasted when these sort of findings do not have a meaningful impact on society. Thus, the aim of this review is to showcase the reasons preventing the worldwide application of the moss technique. The results showed that the possible reasons underlying this problem are the lack of standardization of the technique, transmission of a false idea of robustness, and the lack of a theoretical background. Knowing and accepting these problems is the first step to encourage scientists and funding bodies to invest their efforts in really improving the technique for its application in environmental policies and not only in scientific circles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The sorption of Zectran on bottom sediments and peat moss

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, E.W.; Faust, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    A modified analytical method employed to determine the insecticide Zectran in natural waters frequently has resulted in erroneous data. The errors have been attributed to interferences from particulate matter in these waters. In order to evaluate analytical interferences due to sorption of Zectran on particulates, a series of experiments was performed using bottom sediments and a peat moss in contact with aqueous solutions of zectran at a pH values of 6.0 and 20 degrees C. Isotherm studies confirmed that Zectran sorption occurs in a direct relation to the amount of chemically oxidizable carbon present in the bottom sediments or peat moss. However, the extent of sorption was limited, which suggested that particulates may not be the primary interference in the modified analytical method.

  4. BOREAS HYD-6 Moss/Humus Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Carroll, Thomas; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-6 team collected several data sets related to the moisture content of soil and overlying humus layers. This data set contains water content measurements of the moss/humus layer, where it existed. These data were collected along various flight lines in the Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA) during 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-06 moss/humus moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  5. The Moss Flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Canli, Kerem; Çetin, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey) was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér.) W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab.) M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp.), Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey. PMID:25587573

  6. Hawking-Moss tunneling in non-commutative eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Yifu; Wang Yi E-mail: wangyi@itp.ac.cn

    2008-01-15

    The quantum behavior of non-commutative eternal inflation is quite different from the usual scenario. Unlike the usual eternal inflation, non-commutative eternal inflation has quantum fluctuation suppressed by the Hubble parameter. Because of this, we need to reconsider many conceptions of eternal inflation. In this paper we study the Hawking-Moss tunneling in non-commutative eternal inflation using the stochastic approach. We obtain a brand new form of tunneling probability for this process and find that the Hawking-Moss tunneling is more unlikely to take place in the non-commutative case than in the usual one. We also conclude that the lifetime of a metastable de Sitter vacuum in the non-commutative spacetime is longer than that in the commutative case.

  7. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W

    1997-04-01

    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation.

  8. Estrogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and relation to cytochrome P4501A activity in the endangered goodeid fish Ameca splendens.

    PubMed

    Vega-López, Armando; Jiménez-Orozco, F Alejandro; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; García-Latorre, Ethel; Domínguez-López, M Lilia

    2008-04-01

    The present study examines the relationships between cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity and vitellogenin (VTG) induction in Ameca splendens elicited by a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, mRNA levels of VTG, and VTG induction were evaluated in male and female fish exposed for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 d to a commercial PCB mixture. Polychlorinated biphenyls induced higher EROD in both sexes and this induction was higher in females than in males. Maximum EROD and VTG induction occurred on day 1 in females, while in males these maxima occurred on days 8 and 16. A correlation between EROD and VTG induction was found only in males (p<0.001), and VTG induction was also higher in males than in females (p<0.01). Exposure to PCBs elicited increases in VTG expression and induction over time in males, while in females these decreased at the end of the exposure period. Deficiencies in the feedback mechanisms of male A. splendens exposed in the wild to xenoestrogens such as PCBs have probably contributed to alter the sex ratio of wild populations of this species.

  9. Gravi- and photostimuli in moss protonema growth movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkiv, O. T.; Kordyum, E. L.; Khorkavtsiv, Ya D.; Kardash, O. R.; Chaban, Ch. I.

    Moss protonemal growth direction is controlled by at least three factors, photo-, gravi- and autotropism. It is possible to experimentally separate these factors and to control selectively their morphological appearance. In darkness protonema grow negatively gravitropically, and unilateral illumination initiated positive phototropism. Red light suppressed auto- and gravitropism, blue light suppressed only gravitropism. Green light allowed both gravi- and autotropism. The effect of light on gravitropism might involve changes in starch synthesis.

  10. Two sisters resembling Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aravena, Teresa; Passalacqua, Cristóbal; Pizarro, Oscar; Aracena, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    The Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome (GCMS), was describe initially by Gorlin et al. [Gorlin et al. (1960)] in two sisters with craniosynostosis, hypertrichosis, hypoplastic labia majora, dental defects, eye anomalies, patent ductus arteriosus, and normal intelligence. Two other sporadic instances have been documented. Here, we report on two sisters with a condition with some similarities to GCMS as well as some differences, which could represent either previously unreported variability in GCMS, or it may represent a novel disorder.

  11. [Heavy metal concentrations in mosses from Qiyi Glacier region].

    PubMed

    Ma, Juan-Juan; Li, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Heavy metal (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) concentrations were measured in 17 moss samples which were collected at Qiyi Glacier Region in July, August and September, 2009 in a preliminary investigation of heavy metal pollution situation in this area. The results indicated that heavy metal concentrations in mosses were relatively high and concentrations of Fe were at the highest level (varied between 15 160.00 and 34 960.00 microg x g(-1)), followed by Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, As, with average concentrations of 169.56, 134.81, 34.52, 26.16, 9.15 microg x g(-1). Enrichment factor analysis and correlation analysis indicated that Fe and Cr in mosses mainly stemmed from crustal dust, and concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd were influenced by human activities; As was moderately enriched which means As in mosses was mainly originated from anthropogenic pollution. According to the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) meteorological data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of 2009 and the simulation of the HYSPLIT v4.9 Model on 3-dimension back trajectories of air mass at Qiyi glacier district, several trajectories reflecting the main characteristics of air flow were obtained based on the classification of cluster analysis on the hundreds of back trajectories. The back trajectories revealed that atmospheric transport characteristics in the study area changed obviously by season. Compared to Spring and Autumn, atmospheric transmission sources were relatively more in Winter and Summer. The main sources of atmospheric pollutants in Qiyi Glacier region were transported from Jiuquan and Jiayuguan regions.

  12. Multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communications

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communication. A method includes individually spread-spectrum modulating at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers, wherein the resulting individually spread-spectrum modulated at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers are substantially mutually orthogonal with respect to both frequency division multiplexing and spread-spectrum modulation.

  13. Gravitropism in caulonemata of the moss Pottia intermedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, C. I.; Kern, V. D.; Ripetskyj, R. T.; Demkiv, O. T.; Sack, F. D.

    1998-01-01

    The gravitropism of caulonemata of Pottia intermedia is described and compared with that of other mosses. Spore germination produces primary protonemata including caulonemata which give rise to buds that form the leafy moss plant, the gametophore. Primary caulonemata are negatively gravitropic but their growth and the number of filaments are limited in the dark. Axenic culture of gametophores results in the production of secondary caulonemata that usually arise near the leaf base. Secondary protonemata that form in the light are agravitropic. Secondary caulonemata that form when gametophores are placed in the dark for several days show strong negative gravitropism and grow well in the dark. When upright caulonemata are reorientated to the horizontal or are inverted, upward bending can be detected after 1 h and caulonemata reach the vertical within 1-2 d. Clear amyloplast sedimentation occurs 10-15 minutes after horizontal placement and before the start of upward curvature. This sedimentation takes place in a sub-apical zone. Amyloplast sedimentation also takes place along the length of upright and inverted Pottia protonemata. These results support the hypothesis that amyloplast sedimentation functions in gravitropic sensing since sedimentation occurs before gravitropism in Pottia and since the location and presence of a unique sedimentation zone is conserved in all four mosses known to gravitropic protonomata.

  14. BOREAS HYD-8 1994 Gravimetric Moss Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xuewen; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-8 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes that were collected at the Northern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (NSA-OBS) Tower Flux site in 1994 and at Joey Lake, Manitoba, to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. The data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gravimetric moss moisture measurements from June to September 1994. A nested spatial sampling plan was implemented to support research into spatial variations of the measured hydrological processes and ultimately the impact of these variations on modeled carbon and water budgets. These data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-08 1994 gravimetric moss moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  15. Active Region Moss: Doppler Shifts from Hinode/EIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode on 12-Dec- 2007 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low density cut-off as derived by Tripathi et al. (2010). We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described in Young, O Dwyer and Mason (2012). For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km/s with an estimated error of 4 km/s. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blue shift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries towards blue-shift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. Further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  16. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    PubMed

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  17. Strong environmental tolerance of moss Venturiella under very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, F.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Nishihira, N.; Shindo, A.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Yamashita, M.

    2010-03-01

    It was shown by the present authors group that tardigrade can survive under high pressure of 7.5 GPa. In the case of land plants, however, no result of such experiment has been reported. We have extended our experiments to moss searching for lives under very high pressure. Spore placentas of moss Venturiella were sealed in a small Teflon capsule together with a liquid pressure medium. The capsule was put in the center of a pyrophillite cube, and the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa was applied using a two-stage cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant at the maximum pressure for12, 24, 72 and 144 hours. After the pressure was released, the spores were seeded on a ager medium, and incubated for one week and more longer at 25°C with white light of 2000 lux. It was proved that 70-90% of the spores were alive and germinated after exposed to the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa for up to 72 hours. However, after exposed to 7.5 GPa for 6 days, only 4 individuals in a hundred were germinated. The pressure tolerance of moss Venturiella is found to be stronger than a small animal, tardigrade.

  18. Exposure to Asulox Inhibits the Growth of Mosses

    PubMed Central

    ROWNTREE, J. K.; LAWTON, K. F.; RUMSEY, F. J.; SHEFFIELD, E.

    2003-01-01

    Asulox is a herbicide used to control bracken. Its effects on mosses were investigated to ascertain whether exposure proved as detrimental as found in parallel studies on pteridophytes. Mature gametophytes of 18 mosses were exposed to a range of concentrations of Asulox under standard conditions and the effects on growth monitored. Plants were cut to a standard length, exposed to Asulox solution for 24 h, grown for 3 weeks and total elongation (main stem and branches) measured. EC50 values were calculated and species ranked according to sensitivity. The effects of exposure on total elongation were compared with those on main stem elongation alone. Under the conditions tested, the total elongation of all species was inhibited after exposure to Asulox. The amount of elongation observed after exposure was different for different species and inhibition of elongation occurred at different exposure concentrations. A single regression equation was not adequate to describe the dose response curves of all species tested. An ability to produce secondary branches may confer increased tolerance to Asulox exposure. It is concluded that mosses suffer detrimental effects after exposure to Asulox at concentrations similar to those that affect fern gametophytes such as bracken. PMID:12933364

  19. Identification of pollution sources by means of moss bags.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A

    2004-09-01

    Moss bags containing Scleropodium purum were exposed for 30 days in an industrial area in which a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) and a concrete factory (CF) are located close to one another (121 m). Following the exposure, the transplanted mosses were analyzed to determine levels of Hg, Zn, Ni, and Cr. The enrichment factors (EFs) of the metals (final concentration/initial concentration) were calculated; the mean values obtained were 26.4 for Hg, 6.6 for Zn, 1.07 for Ni, and 1.0 for Cr. Dispersion of Cr and Ni was closely related, probably because they were dispersed together on the same particle. The spatial structure of the data was examined, and significant fits to the semivariograms were found for Hg, Zn, and Cr, using kriging to interpolate the data. Using this technique, it was possible to estimate where the maximum concentrations of elements occurred, allowing us to distinguish from which focal point they were emitted: Hg from the CAP, and Zn and Cr from the CF. The combined use of moss bags and geostatistical techniques allowed characterization of the emissions and identification of focal points of contamination in the study area. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Biomonitoring heavy metal contaminations by moss visible parameters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Yang, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Song, Chun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Han-Mei; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2015-10-15

    Traditional sampling for heavy metal monitoring is a time-consuming and inconvenient method, which also does not indicate contaminants non-invasively and instantaneously. Moss is sensitive to heavy metals and is therefore considered a pollution indicator. However, it is unknown what kind physiological parameters can indicate metal contaminations quickly and non-invasively. Here, we systematically examined the effects of six heavy metals on physiological parameters and photosynthetic activities of two moss species grown in aquatic media or moist soil surface. We suggest that a phenotype with anthocyanin accumulation pattern and chlorosis pattern and two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with their images can roughly reflect metal species groups, concentrations and differences between the two moss species. In other words, metal contaminations could be roughly estimated visually using the naked eye. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative abilities and photosynthetic protein contents of Eurhynchium eustegium were higher than those of Taxiphyllum taxirameum, indicating their differential metal tolerance. Neither anti-oxidative abilities nor photosynthetic proteins were found to be ideal indicators. This study provides new ideas to monitor heavy metals rapidly and non-invasively in water or on wetland and moist soil surface.

  1. Biosynthesis of C9-aldehydes in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Stumpe, Michael; Bode, Julia; Göbel, Cornelia; Wichard, Thomas; Schaaf, Andreas; Frank, Wolfgang; Frank, Markus; Reski, Ralf; Pohnert, Georg; Feussner, Ivo

    2006-03-01

    After wounding, the moss Physcomitrella patens emits fatty acid derived volatiles like octenal, octenols and (2E)-nonenal. Flowering plants produce nonenal from C18-fatty acids via lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase reactions, but the moss exploits the C20 precursor arachidonic acid for the formation of these oxylipins. We describe the isolation of the first cDNA (PpHPL) encoding a hydroperoxide lyase from a lower eukaryotic organism. The physiological pathway allocation and characterization of a downstream enal-isomerase gives a new picture for the formation of fatty acid derived volatiles from lower plants. Expression of a fusion protein with a yellow fluorescent protein in moss protoplasts showed that PpHPL was found in clusters in membranes of plastids. PpHPL can be classified as an unspecific hydroperoxide lyase having a substrate preference for 9-hydroperoxides of C18-fatty acids but also the predominant substrate 12-hydroperoxy arachidonic acid is accepted. Feeding experiments using arachidonic acid show an increase in the 12-hydroperoxide being metabolized to C8-aldehydes/alcohols and (3Z)-nonenal, which is rapidly isomerized to (2E)-nonenal. PpHPL knock out lines failed to emit (2E)-nonenal while formation of C8-volatiles was not affected indicating that in contrast to flowering plants, PpHPL is only involved in formation of a specific subset of volatiles.

  2. Glyco-engineering for biopharmaceutical production in moss bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Eva L.; Parsons, Juliana; Reski, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals (pharmaceutical proteins) is a strongly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. While most products to date are produced in mammalian cell cultures, namely Chinese hamster ovary cells, plant-based production systems gained increasing acceptance over the last years. Different plant systems have been established which are suitable for standardization and precise control of cultivation conditions, thus meeting the criteria for pharmaceutical production. The majority of biopharmaceuticals comprise glycoproteins. Therefore, differences in protein glycosylation between humans and plants have to be taken into account and plant-specific glycosylation has to be eliminated to avoid adverse effects on quality, safety, and efficacy of the products. The basal land plant Physcomitrella patens (moss) has been employed for the recombinant production of high-value therapeutic target proteins (e.g., Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Complement Factor H, monoclonal antibodies, Erythropoietin). Being genetically excellently characterized and exceptionally amenable for precise gene targeting via homologous recombination, essential steps for the optimization of moss as a bioreactor for the production of recombinant proteins have been undertaken. Here, we discuss the glyco-engineering approaches to avoid non-human N- and O-glycosylation on target proteins produced in moss bioreactors. PMID:25071817

  3. Development of Miniaturized Optimized Smart Sensors (MOSS) for space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of space plasma sensors is high for several reasons: (1) Most are one-of-a-kind and state-of-the-art, (2) the cost of launch to orbit is high, (3) ruggedness and reliability requirements lead to costly development and test programs, and (4) overhead is added by overly elaborate or generalized spacecraft interface requirements. Possible approaches to reducing costs include development of small 'sensors' (defined as including all necessary optics, detectors, and related electronics) that will ultimately lead to cheaper missions by reducing (2), improving (3), and, through work with spacecraft designers, reducing (4). Despite this logical approach, there is no guarantee that smaller sensors are necessarily either better or cheaper. We have previously advocated applying analytical 'quality factors' to plasma sensors (and spacecraft) and have begun to develop miniaturized particle optical systems by applying quantitative optimization criteria. We are currently designing a Miniaturized Optimized Smart Sensor (MOSS) in which miniaturized electronics (e.g., employing new power supply topology and extensive us of gate arrays and hybrid circuits) are fully integrated with newly developed particle optics to give significant savings in volume and mass. The goal of the SwRI MOSS program is development of a fully self-contained and functional plasma sensor weighing 1 lb and requiring 1 W. MOSS will require only a typical spacecraft DC power source (e.g., 30 V) and command/data interfaces in order to be fully functional, and will provide measurement capabilities comparable in most ways to current sensors.

  4. Development of Miniaturized Optimized Smart Sensors (MOSS) for space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of space plasma sensors is high for several reasons: (1) Most are one-of-a-kind and state-of-the-art, (2) the cost of launch to orbit is high, (3) ruggedness and reliability requirements lead to costly development and test programs, and (4) overhead is added by overly elaborate or generalized spacecraft interface requirements. Possible approaches to reducing costs include development of small 'sensors' (defined as including all necessary optics, detectors, and related electronics) that will ultimately lead to cheaper missions by reducing (2), improving (3), and, through work with spacecraft designers, reducing (4). Despite this logical approach, there is no guarantee that smaller sensors are necessarily either better or cheaper. We have previously advocated applying analytical 'quality factors' to plasma sensors (and spacecraft) and have begun to develop miniaturized particle optical systems by applying quantitative optimization criteria. We are currently designing a Miniaturized Optimized Smart Sensor (MOSS) in which miniaturized electronics (e.g., employing new power supply topology and extensive us of gate arrays and hybrid circuits) are fully integrated with newly developed particle optics to give significant savings in volume and mass. The goal of the SwRI MOSS program is development of a fully self-contained and functional plasma sensor weighing 1 lb and requiring 1 W. MOSS will require only a typical spacecraft DC power source (e.g., 30 V) and command/data interfaces in order to be fully functional, and will provide measurement capabilities comparable in most ways to current sensors.

  5. BOREAS HYD-8 1996 Gravimetric Moss Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-8 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes that were collected at the southern study area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site in 1996 to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gravimetric moss moisture measurements from July to August 1996. To collect these data, a nested spatial sampling plan was implemented to support research into spatial variations of the measured hydrological processes and ultimately the impact of these variations on modeled carbon and water budgets. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 1996 gravimetric moss moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  6. Metal accumulation in mosses across national boundaries: uncovering and ranking causes of spatial variation.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland; Englert, Cordula; Harmens, Harry; Suchara, Ivan; Zechmeister, Harald G; Thöni, Lotti; Mankovská, Blanka; Jeran, Zvonka; Grodzinska, Krystyna; Alber, Renate

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at cross-border mapping metal loads in mosses in eight European countries in 1990, 1995, and 2000 and at investigating confounding factors. Geostatistics was used for mapping, indicating high local variances but clear spatial autocorrelations. Inference statistics identified differences of metal concentrations in mosses on both sides of the national borders. However, geostatistical analyses did not ascertain discontinuities of metal concentrations in mosses at national borders due to sample analysis in different laboratories applying a range of analytical techniques. Applying Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to the German moss data as an example, the local variation in metal concentrations in mosses were proved to depend mostly on different moss species, potential local emission sources, canopy drip and precipitation.

  7. Cutaneous sporotrichosis in forestry workers. Epidemic due to contaminated Sphagnum moss.

    PubMed

    Powell, K E; Taylor, A; Phillips, B J; Blakey, D L; Campbell, G D; Kaufman, L; Kaplan, W

    1978-07-21

    In December 1975 and January and February 1976, an epidemic of cutaneous sporotrichosis occurred in Mississippi among forestry workers and other persons exposed to sphagnum moss used in packing pine seedlings. Seventeen cases were identified, 15 of which were from patients who had been exposed to sphagnum moss from a single source. Attack rates were significantly higher among workers exposed to this moss than among those not exposed. Sporothrix schenckii was cultured from the implicated batch of sphagnum moss but not from other batches. The source of contamination of the sphagnum moss that caused this epidemic and sphagnum moss associated with similar epidemics is unknown. One worker without cutaneous sporotrichosis may have had asymptomatic pulmonary sporotrichosis.

  8. Passive warming reduces stress and shifts reproductive effort in the Antarctic moss, Polytrichastrum alpinum.

    PubMed

    Shortlidge, Erin E; Eppley, Sarah M; Kohler, Hans; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Zúñiga, Gustavo E; Casanova-Katny, Angélica

    2017-01-01

    The Western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and many biotic communities inhabiting this dynamic region are responding to these well-documented climatic shifts. Yet some of the most prevalent organisms of terrestrial Antarctica, the mosses, and their responses to warming have been relatively overlooked and understudied. In this research, the impacts of 6 years of passive warming were investigated using open top chambers (OTCs), on moss communities of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. The effects of experimental passive warming on the morphology, sexual reproductive effort and stress physiology of a common dioicous Antarctic moss, Polytrichastrum alpinum ,: were tested, gaining the first species-specific mechanistic insight into moss responses to warming in the Antarctic. Additionally community analyses were conducted examining the impact of warming on overall moss percentage cover and sporophyte production in intact Antarctic moss communities. Our results show a generally greater percentage moss cover under warming conditions as well as increased gametangia production in P. alpinum Distinct morphological and physiological shifts in P. alpinum were found under passive warming compared with those without warming: warmed mosses reduced investment in cellular stress defences, but invested more towards primary productivity and gametangia development. Taken together, results from this study of mosses under passive warming imply that in ice-free moss-dominated regions, continued climate warming will probably have profound impacts on moss biology and colonization along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Such findings highlight the fundamental role that mosses will play in influencing the terrestrialization of a warming Antarctica. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Balancing positive and negative plant interactions: how mosses structure vascular plant communities.

    PubMed

    Gornall, Jemma L; Woodin, Sarah J; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjorg S; van der Wal, René

    2011-07-01

    Our understanding of positive and negative plant interactions is primarily based on vascular plants, as is the prediction that facilitative effects dominate in harsh environments. It remains unclear whether this understanding is also applicable to moss-vascular plant interactions, which are likely to be influential in low-temperature environments with extensive moss ground cover such as boreal forest and arctic tundra. In a field experiment in high-arctic tundra, we investigated positive and negative impacts of the moss layer on vascular plants. Ramets of the shrub Salix polaris, herb Bistorta vivipara, grass Alopecurus borealis and rush Luzula confusa were transplanted into plots manipulated to contain bare soil, shallow moss (3 cm) and deep moss (6 cm) and harvested after three growing seasons. The moss layer had both positive and negative impacts upon vascular plant growth, the relative extent of which varied among vascular plant species. Deep moss cover reduced soil temperature and nitrogen availability, and this was reflected in reduced graminoid productivity. Shrub and herb biomass were greatest in shallow moss, where soil moisture also appeared to be highest. The relative importance of the mechanisms by which moss may influence vascular plants, through effects on soil temperature, moisture and nitrogen availability, was investigated in a phytotron growth experiment. Soil temperature, and not nutrient availability, determined Alopecurus growth, whereas Salix only responded to increased temperature if soil nitrogen was also increased. We propose a conceptual model showing the relative importance of positive and negative influences of the moss mat on vascular plants along a gradient of moss depth and illustrate species-specific outcomes. Our findings suggest that, through their strong influence on the soil environment, mat-forming mosses structure the composition of vascular plant communities. Thus, for plant interaction theory to be widely applicable to

  10. Pitfalls and new mechanisms in moss isotope biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Koba, Keisuke; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yoh, Muneoki

    2012-11-20

    Moss N isotope (δ(15)N(bulk)) has been used to monitor N deposition, but it remains questionable whether inhibition of nitrate reductase activity (NRA) by reduced dissolved N (RDN) engenders overestimation of RDN in deposition when using moss δ(15)N(bulk). We tested this question by investigation of δ(15)N(bulk) and δ(15)NO(3)(-) in mosses under the dominance of RDN in N depositions of Guiyang, SW China. The δ(15)N(bulk) of mosses on bare rock (-7.9‰) was unable to integrate total dissolved N (TDN) (δ(15)N = -6.3‰), but it reflected δ(15)N-RDN (-7.5‰) exactly. Moreover, δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) in mosses (-1.7‰) resembled that of wet deposition (-1.9‰). These isotopic approximations, together with low isotopic enrichment with moss [NO(3)(-)] variations, suggest the inhibition of moss NRA by RDN. Moreover, isotopic mixing modeling indicated a negligible contribution from NO(3)(-) to moss δ(15)N(bulk) when the RDN/NO(3)(-) reaches 3.8, at which maximum overestimation (21%) of RDN in N deposition can be generated using moss δ(15)N(bulk) as δ(15)N-TDN. Moss δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) can indicate atmospheric NO(3)(-) under distinctly high RDN/NO(3)(-) in deposition, although moss δ(15)N(bulk) can reflect only the RDN therein. These results reveal pitfalls and new mechanisms associated with moss isotope monitoring of N deposition and underscore the importance of biotic N dynamics in biomonitoring studies.

  11. Bioindication of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Southeastern US using the moss Thuidium delicatulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Jonathan S.; Lehman, Mary E.

    Ectohydric mosses are known accumulators of atmospheric heavy metals. Reliable bioindication of atmospheric heavy metals in the Southern Appalachians using moss has been limited by poor species distribution in moss used in analogous studies. In this study, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni concentrations were quantified in the tissue of fern moss Thuidium delicatulum in the central Blue Ridge of Virginia. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the suitability of fern moss for moss-monitoring studies in the Southern Appalachians, to compare local terrestrial metal concentrations, and to test the effects of several geographical and environmental variables on deposition. Fern moss was sampled over four mountains in Virginia following the standard protocol of the German moss-monitoring method. Sampling was standardized for monitoring in deciduous forests, and analysis was performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Overall concentrations of two metals were significantly different depending on the presence of Pinus spp. in the canopy. Positive and negative correlations of heavy metal concentrations with elevation were also observed, suggesting a need for comprehensive sampling at high and low elevations in mountainous areas. A role for similar moss-monitoring is suggested as a complement to current precipitation analysis techniques and as a compendium for landscape-scale metal monitoring projects. The applications of heavy metal bioindication with this particular species throughout the physiographic province of the Blue Ridge and the Appalachians in future heavy metal deposition studies are discussed.

  12. Sphagnum mosses as methane traps in two northern mires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmola, Tuula; Koponen, Hannu; Riutta, Terhi; Fritze, Hannu; Goodrich, Jordan; Varner, Ruth; Bubier, Jill; Juutinen, Sari; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2010-05-01

    Sphagnum cuspidatum Hoffm. was recently shown to have methane (CH4) oxidation capacity due to inhabiting methanotrophic bacteria (Raghoebarsing et al. 2005). This is an significant finding as peatlands are a major natural source of CH4, an important greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. Emissions from Sphagnum-dominated mires are generally lower than those from Carex-dominated ones. One reason for this may be the CH4 oxidation associated with these mosses. According to this postulate the carbon released in decomposition would be efficiently refixed in moss photosynthesis and the moss layer would mitigate the release of CH4 and carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. To study the importance of Sphagnum as a habitat for CH4 oxidizers, we addressed the following questions.1. Is the variation in CH4 oxidation in Sphagnum mainly regulated by the abiotic environment or by the hosting moss species? 2. What is the contribution of CH4 oxidation in Sphagnum to net CH4 flux from an entire mire to the atmosphere? The study was carried out at Siikaneva fen in Finland and at Sallie's Fen in New Hampshire, USA. These sites have several Sphagnum species in common but provide contrasting CH4 flux environments, as the flux is twofold at the latter site. To answer question 1, we collected the dominant coexisting Sphagnum species from hummock, lawn and flark habitats and determined the potential in mosses to oxidize CH4 using flask incubations and gas chromatography. To answer question 2, we removed Sphagnum from selected plots, measured CH4 flux using chamber technique and used stable carbon isotopes to determine associated processes. Water level was the key environmental control of methanotrophy in Sphagnum. Both sites showed similar response to water level, which was more important than species differences: the potential rate to oxidize CH4 in the top 10 cm of the moss layer was 0.01 to 0.5 mmol m-2 h-1 in different habitats along the moisture gradient, which is up to 95 % the net CH4 flux

  13. Immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Clerodendrum splendens: Beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracts of leaves from Clerodendrum have been used for centuries to treat a variety of medicinal problems in tropical Africa. However, little is known about the high-molecular weight active components conferring therapeutic properties to these extracts. Methods Polysaccharides from the leaves of Clerodendrum splendens were extracted and fractionated by ion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Molecular weight determination, sugar analysis, degree of methyl esterification, and other chemical characterization of the fractions were performed. Immunomodulatory activity of the fractions was evaluated by determining their ability to induce monocyte/macrophage nitric oxide (NO), cytokine production, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice, and severity of EAE was monitored in mice treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the most active polysaccharide fraction. Lymph nodes (LN) and spleen were harvested, and levels of cytokines in supernatants from LN cells and splenocytes challenged with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide were determined. Results Fractions containing type II arabinogalactan had potent immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, the high-molecular weight sub-fraction CSP-AU1 (average of 38.5 kDa) induced NO and cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1α, -1β, -6, -10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF; designated previously as TNF-α), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)] production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte/macrophages. CSP-AU1-induced secretion of TNF was prevented by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist LPS-RS, indicating a role for TLR4 signaling. Treatment with CSP-AU1 also induced phosphorylation of a number of MAPKs in human PBMC and activated AP-1/NF-κB. In vivo treatment of mice with CSP-AU1 and CSP-NU1 resulted in increased serum IL-6, IL-10, TNF, monocyte

  14. Cardiorespiratory physiological phenotypic plasticity in developing air-breathing anabantid fishes (Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus).

    PubMed

    Mendez-Sanchez, Jose F; Burggren, Warren W

    2017-08-01

    Developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology in response to chronic hypoxia is poorly understood in larval fishes, especially larval air-breathing fishes, which eventually in their development can at least partially "escape" hypoxia through air breathing. Whether the development air breathing makes these larval fishes less or more developmentally plastic than strictly water breathing larval fishes remains unknown. Consequently, developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology was determined in two air-breathing anabantid fishes (Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus). Larvae of both species experienced an hypoxic exposure that mimicked their natural environmental conditions, namely chronic nocturnal hypoxia (12 h at 17 kPa or 14 kPa), with a daily return to diurnal normoxia. Chronic hypoxic exposures were made from hatching through 35 days postfertilization, and opercular and heart rates measured as development progressed. Opercular and heart rates in normoxia were not affected by chronic nocturnal hypoxic. However, routine oxygen consumption M˙O2 (~4 μmol·O2/g per hour in normoxia in larval Betta) was significantly elevated by chronic nocturnal hypoxia at 17 kPa but not by more severe (14 kPa) nocturnal hypoxia. Routine M˙O2 in Trichopodus (6-7 μmol·O2/g per hour), significantly higher than in Betta, was unaffected by either level of chronic hypoxia. PCrit, the PO2 at which M˙O2 decreases as ambient PO2 falls, was measured at 35 dpf, and decreased with increasing chronic hypoxia in Betta, indicating a large, relatively plastic hypoxic tolerance. However, in contrast, PCrit in Trichopodus increased as rearing conditions grew more hypoxic, suggesting that hypoxic acclimation led to lowered hypoxic resistance. Species-specific differences in larval physiological developmental plasticity thus emerge between the relatively closely related Betta and Trichopodus Hypoxic rearing increased hypoxic tolerance in Betta, which inhabits

  15. Mosses in Ohio wetlands respond to indices of disturbance and vascular plant integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationships between an index of wetland habitat quality and disturbance (ORAM score) and an index of vascular plant integrity (VIBI-FQ score) with moss species richness and a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) in 45 wetlands in three vegetation types in Ohio, USA. Species richness of mosses and MQAI were positively associated with ORAM and VIBI-FQ scores. VIBI-FQ score was a better predictor of both moss species richness and MQAI than was either ORAM score or vegetation type. This result was consistent with the strict microhabitat requirements for many moss species, which may be better assessed by VIBI-FQ than ORAM. Probability curves as a function of VIBI-FQ score were then generated for presence of groups of moss species having the same degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities relative to other species in the moss flora (coefficients of conservatism, CCs). Species having an intermediate- or high degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities (i.e., species with CC ≥ 5) had a 50% probability of presence (P50) and 90% probability of presence (P90) in wetlands with intermediate- and high VIBI-FQ scores, respectively. Although moss species richness, probability of presence of species based on CC, and MQAI may reflect wetland habitat quality, the 95% confidence intervals around P50 and P90 values may be too wide for regulatory use. Moss species richness, MQAI, and presence of groups of mosses may be more useful for evaluating moss habitat quality in wetlands than a set of “indicator species.”

  16. Filling the interspace—restoring arid land mosses: source populations, organic matter, and overwintering govern success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condon, Lea; Pyke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological soil crusts contribute to ecosystem functions and occupy space that could be available to invasive annual grasses. Given disturbances in the semiarid shrub steppe communities, we embarked on a set of studies to investigate restoration potential of mosses in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. We examined establishment and growth of two moss species common to the Great Basin, USA: Bryum argenteum and Syntrichia ruralis from two environmental settings (warm dry vs. cool moist). Moss fragments were inoculated into a third warm dry setting, on bare soil in spring and fall, both with and without a jute net and with and without spring irrigation. Moss cover was monitored in spring seasons of three consecutive years. Both moss species increased in cover over the winter. When Bryum received spring irrigation that was out of sync with natural precipitation patterns, moss cover increased and then crashed, taking two seasons to recover. Syntrichia did not respond to the irrigation treatment. The addition of jute net increased moss cover under all conditions, except Syntrichia following fall inoculation, which required a second winter to increase in cover. The warm dry population of Bryum combined with jute achieved on average 60% cover compared to the cool moist population that achieved only 28% cover by the end of the study. Differences were less pronounced for Syntrichia where moss from the warm dry population with jute achieved on average 51% cover compared to the cool moist population that achieved 43% cover by the end of the study. Restoration of arid land mosses may quickly protect soils from erosion while occupying sites before invasive plants. We show that higher moss cover will be achieved quickly with the addition of organic matter and when moss fragments originate from sites with a climate that is similar to that of the restoration site.

  17. Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hasselbach, L; Ver Hoef, J M.; Ford, Jesse; Neitlich, P; Crecelius, Eric A.; Berryman, Shanti D.; Wolk, B; Boehle, T

    2005-04-26

    Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to affect the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Tissue concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n = 226) were used to determine the extent and pattern of airborne heavy metal deposition on Monument lands. A stratified grid-based sample design was used with more intensive sampling near mining-related activities. Spatial predictions using geostatistical models were employed to produce maps of depositional patterns, and to estimate the geographic area affected above various thresholds. Spatial regression analyses indicated that heavy metal deposition decreased with the log of distance from the DMTS haul road and the DMTS port site. Analysis of subsurface soil demonstrated that observed patterns of heavy metal deposition reflected in moss tissue concentrations were not attributable to local subsurface lithology. Based on comparisons with regional background data from arctic Alaska, deposition of airborne heavy metals related to mining activities appears to affect the northern half of the Monument. The affected area extends northward (beyond Monument boundaries) through the Kisimilot/Iyikrok hills (north of the Wulik River), and possibly beyond. South of the DMTS haul road, airborne deposition appears to be constrained by the Tahinichok Mountains. Moss tissue concentrations were highest immediately adjacent to the DMTS haul road (Cd > 24 mg/kg dw; Pb > 900 mg/kg dw). The influence of the mine site was not studied.

  18. Determining baselines and variability of elements in plants and soils near the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent investigations on the Kenai Peninsula had two major objectives: (1) to establish elemental baseline concentrations ranges for native vegetation and soils; and, (2) to determine the sampling density required for preparing stable regional geochemical maps for various elements in native plants and soils. These objectives were accomplished using an unbalanced, nested analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) barbell sampling design. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) BSG (feather moss, whole plant), Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce, twigs and needles), and soil horizons (02 and C) were collected and analyzed for major and trace total element concentrations. Using geometric means and geometric deviations, expected baseline ranges for elements were calculated. Results of the ANOVA show that intensive soil or plant sampling is needed to reliably map the geochemistry of the area, due to large local variability. For example, producing reliable element maps of feather moss using a 50 km cell (at 95% probability) would require sampling densities of from 4 samples per cell for Al, Co, Fe, La, Li, and V, to more than 15 samples per cell for Cu, Pb, Se, and Zn.Recent investigations on the Kenai Peninsula had two major objectives: (1) to establish elemental baseline concentrations ranges for native vegetation and soils; and, (2) to determine the sampling density required for preparing stable regional geochemical maps for various elements in native plants and soils. These objectives were accomplished using an unbalanced, nested analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) barbell sampling design. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) BSG (feather moss, whole plant), Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce, twigs and needles), and soil horizons (02 and C) were collected and analyzed for major and trace total element concentrations. Using geometric means and geometric deviations, expected baseline ranges for elements were calculated. Results of the ANOVA show that intensive soil or plant sampling is needed to

  19. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens.

  20. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens. PMID:28360923

  1. Cytokinin stimulates dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium uptake in moss protoplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Schumaker, K S; Gizinski, M J

    1993-01-01

    Ca2+ influx through dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive Ca2+ channels is thought to be an early event in cytokinin-induced bud formation in moss protonema because DHP antagonists inhibit bud formation in the presence of cytokinin and DHP agonists stimulate bud formation in the absence of cytokinin [Conrad, P. A. & Helper, P. K. (1988) Plant Physiol. 86, 684-687]. In the present study, we established the presence of a DHP-sensitive Ca2+ transport system by measuring 45Ca2+ influx into moss protoplasts. Ca2+ influx was stimulated by external KCl (up to 5 mM), indicating that transport is voltage-dependent. K(+)-induced Ca2+ influx was DHP-sensitive with > 50% inhibition at 500 nM nifedipine. Ca2+ influx was stimulated by increasing concentrations of the DHP Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K8644 with half-maximal effects at 25 nM; this stimulation was seen only in the absence of K+, suggesting that the agonist works preferentially on polarized membranes. Ca2+ influx was also inhibited by phenylalkylamines (verapamil) and benzothiazepines (diltiazem). The phytohormone 6-benzylaminopurine consistently stimulated Ca2+ influx with a Km value of 1 nM, whereas adenine, indoleacetic acid, and gibberellic acid had no effect on Ca2+ transport. The cytokinins kinetin and trans-zeatin caused a greater stimulation of Ca2+ influx and induced more bud formation than did 6-benzylaminopurine. These results indicate that Ca2+ is taken up into moss protoplasts through voltage-dependent DHP-sensitive Ca2+ channels on the plasma membrane and that one of the cytokinin effects in the induction of bud formation is regulation of this plasma membrane Ca2+ channel. PMID:7504288

  2. Accumulation of heavy metals in mosses: a biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Miranda, G; Avila-Pérez, P; Gil-Vargas, P; Zarazúa, G; Sánchez-Meza, J C; Zepeda-Gómez, C; Tejeda, S

    2016-01-01

    The metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) extends over an area of 1208.55 km(2) and has 1,361,500 inhabitants making it the fifth highest populated area in the country and the second highest in the state. The MATV has several environmental problems, with regards to the air quality. Particles PM10 and PM2.5 are considered to be the main pollutant due to these particles frequently exceeding the limit laid down in the standards of the air quality in the country. For this reason, samples of the mosses Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata were collected at different sites in MATV, Mexico in order to establish the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by means of the analysis of the mosses tissues. Results show the average metal concentrations in the mosses in the order of: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cd. The concentration capacities of heavy metals were higher in Fabriona ciliaris than Leskea angustata. Enrichment factors for Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd were obtained using the soils from the same sampling area. Enrichment factors results show that Cr is conservative in both sampling seasons with a terrigenous origin; Zn is moderately enriched in both sampling seasons and mainly associated to pedological-soil or substrate contribution and anthropogenic activities and Cd is highly enriched in the rainy season and Pb is highly enriched in both sampling seasons, with a predominantly anthropogenic origin. This study provides information to be considered in the strategies for similar environmental problems in the world.

  3. ESTIMATING THE CHROMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION OF TRANSITION REGION MOSS EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo H.; McIntosh, Scott W.; Patsourakos, Spiros

    2009-09-10

    Many models for coronal loops have difficulty explaining the observed EUV brightness of the transition region, which is often significantly less than theoretical models predict. This discrepancy has been addressed by a variety of approaches including filling factors and time-dependent heating, with varying degrees of success. Here, we focus on an effect that has been ignored so far: the absorption of EUV light with wavelengths below 912 A by the resonance continua of neutral hydrogen and helium. Such absorption is expected to occur in the low-lying transition region of hot, active region loops that is colocated with cool chromospheric features and called 'moss' as a result of the reticulated appearance resulting from the absorption. We use cotemporal and cospatial spectroheliograms obtained with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/SUMER and Hinode/EIS of Fe XII 1242 A, 195 A, and 186.88 A, and compare the density determination from the 186/195 A line ratio to that resulting from the 195/1242 A line ratio. We find that while coronal loops have compatible density values from these two line pairs, upper transition region moss has conflicting density determinations. This discrepancy can be resolved by taking into account significant absorption of 195 A emission caused by the chromospheric inclusions in the moss. We find that the amount of absorption is generally of the order of a factor of 2. We compare to numerical models and show that the observed effect is well reproduced by three-dimensional radiative MHD models of the transition region and corona. We use STEREO A/B data of the same active region and find that increased angles between line of sight and local vertical cause additional absorption. Our determination of the amount of chromospheric absorption of TR emission can be used to better constrain coronal heating models.

  4. Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of genistein during activation does not affect sperm motility in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; Gendelman, Hannah K

    2014-01-01

    Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 μ M) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 μ M) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm.

  5. Effects of trophic poisoning with methylmercury on the appetitive elements of the agonistic sequence in fighting-fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Amauri; de Oliveira, Caio Maximino; Romão, Cynthia Ferreira; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2007-11-01

    The aggressive display in Betta splendens is particularly prominent, and vital to its adaptation to the environment. Methylmercury is an organic variation of Hg that presents particularly pronounced neuro-behavioral effects. The present experiments aim to test the effect of acute and chronic poisoning with methylmercury on the display in Bettas. The animals were poisoned by trophic means in both experiments (16 ug/kg in acute poisoning; 16 ug/kg/day for chronic poisoning), and tested in agonistic pairs. The total frequency of the display was recorded, analyzing the topography of the agonistic response. The methylmercury seems to present a dose- and detoxification-dependent effect on these responses, with a more pronounced effect on motivity in acute poisoning and on emotionality in the chronic poisoning. It is possible that this effect could be mediated by alteration in the mono-amino-oxidase systems.

  6. Discrete telencephalic lesions accelerate the habituation rate of behavioral arousal responses in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Marino-Neto, J; Sabbatini, R M

    1983-10-01

    Stereotaxic electrolytic lesions were made in the dorsomedial telencephalic area, laterally to the dorsal commissure, in male Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta splendens). The startle and orienting responses to regularly delivered taps on the side of the aquarium were recorded for lesioned, sham-operated and unoperated groups. Lesioned fish showed increased reactivity to environmental modifications, including tonic immobility and changes in body color. Although no changes in the arousal responses were detected, the lesioned fish showed an increased frequency of startle responses and habituated to the orienting responses faster than sham-operated and unoperated animals. The long-term inter-session retention of habituation was also decreased. The effects observed are the opposite of those obtained after complete or unilateral telencephalic ablation in teleosts and suggest the existence of antagonic telencephalic systems playing a modulatory role in arousal control.

  7. Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Genistein during Activation Does Not Affect Sperm Motility in the Fighting Fish Betta splendens

    PubMed Central

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Gendelman, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 μM) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 μM) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. PMID:24516856

  8. In vitro bioconversion of [14C]androstenedione by testes of the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens Regan (Anabantoidei, Belontiidae).

    PubMed

    Leitz, T; Reinboth, R

    1985-06-01

    Minced testes of the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens were incubated with [14C]androstenedione at 27 degrees C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The metabolic products were characterized by paper and thin-layer chromatography, derivative formation, and eventually by crystallization to constant specific activity. After 2 hr of incubation 80.5% of total radioactivity was converted to 11-oxygenated androgens. 11-Ketotestosterone was the main metabolite (56.2%). Our data suggest the existence of two biosynthetic pathways for the formation of 11-ketotestosterone from androstenedione. The sequence androstenedione----testosterone----11 beta-hydroxytestosterone----11-ketotestosterone predominates. To a lesser extent 11 beta-hydroxylation takes place as the first step--followed by formation of 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone and its subsequent oxidation to 11-ketotestosterone.

  9. Hawking-Moss Bounces and Vacuum Decay Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Erick J.

    2007-06-22

    The conventional interpretation of the Hawking-Moss (HM) solution implies a transition rate between vacua that depends only on the values of the potential in the initial vacuum and at the top of a potential barrier, leading to the implausible conclusion that transitions to distant vacua can be as likely as those to a nearby one. I analyze this issue using a nongravitational example with analogous properties. I show that such HM bounces do not give reliable rate calculations, but are instead related to the probability of finding a quasistable configuration at a local potential maximum.

  10. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    Among various abiotic factors the sensor system of plants constantly perceives light and gravitation impulses and reacts on their action by photo- and gravitropisms. Tropisms play fundamental part in ontogenesis and determination of plant forms. Essentially important question is how light initiating phototropic bending modulates gravitropism. In contrast to flower plants, red light is phototropically active for mosses, and phytochromic system controls initiation of apical growth, branching and photomorphogenesis of mosses. The aim of this investigation was to analyse cell branching of protonemata Tortula modica Zander depending on the direction of light and gravitation vector. The influence of light and gravitation on the form of protonemal turf T. modica, branching and the angle of lateral branches relative to axis of mother cell growth has been investigated. As moss protonemata is not branched in the darkness, light is necessary for branching activation. Minimally low intensity of the red light (0.2 mmol (.) m (-2) ({) .}sec (-1) ) induced branching without visual display of phototropic growth. It has been established that unidirectional action of light and gravitation intensifies branching, and, on the contrary, perpendicularly oriented vectors of factors weaken branches formation. Besides, parallel oriented vectors initiated branching from both cell sides, but oppositely directed vectors initiated branching only from one side. Clinostate rotation the change of the vector gravity and causes uniform cell branching, hence, light and gravitation mutually influence the branching system form of the protonemata cell. It has been shown that the angle of lateral branches in darkness does not depend on the direction of light and gravitation action. After lighting the local growth of the cell wall took place mainly under the angle 90 (o) to the axes of mother cell growth. Then the angle gradually decreased and in 3-4 cell divisions the lateral branch grew under the angle

  11. The EV-1 airborne microwave observatory of subcanopy and subsurface (AirMOSS) investigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    AirMOSS is one of the five Earth Venture-1 investigations selected in May 2010, with the goal of improving the estimates of the North American net ecosystem exchange (NEE) through high-resolution observations of root zone soil moisture (RZSM). The 5-year AirMOSS investigation is deigned to overlap w...

  12. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China: estimation based on native moss analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, G Geoff; Fang, Yan-Ming

    2016-06-01

    We studied atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China, using moss (Haplocladium microphyllum and H. angustifolium) as a biomonitoring agent. Moss samples were collected from 49 sites determined by a systematic sampling method. The top layer of soil on each site was also sampled. No significant correlation (P < 0.05) was observed between the moss and soil concentrations for any of the six heavy metal elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), indicating that the soil substrate had little effect on the heavy metal concentrations in the moss materials. The metal enrichment capacity of the moss material, characterized by the concentration ratio between the moss and soil samples for each heavy metal, was topped by Cd and then followed by Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations were found among the six elements in mosses, suggesting potential anthropogenic inputs of these heavy metal pollutants. Based on concentrations of the heavy metals in mosses and the calculated contamination factors, we evaluated the contamination level of each heavy metal on the 49 sampling sites. Spatial distribution maps of heavy metal deposition for each element were interpolated using ArcGIS 9.0. A total pollution coefficient was calculated for each sampling site to identify the seriously polluted areas in the region.

  13. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turetsky, M.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Talbot, J. J.; Frolking, S.; McGuire, A.D.; Tuittila, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories. Simulations from two process-based models suggest that northern ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. But simulations with two other models suggest that loss of moss will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. It seems clear that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species. We highlight several issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, and parameter vs conceptual uncertainty in models. Mosses play an important role in several ecosystem processes that play out over centuries – permafrost formation and thaw, peat accumulation, development of microtopography – and there is a need for studies that increase our understanding of slow, long-term dynamical processes.

  14. Sex-specific volatile compounds influence microarthropod-mediated fertilization of moss.

    PubMed

    Rosenstiel, Todd N; Shortlidge, Erin E; Melnychenko, Andrea N; Pankow, James F; Eppley, Sarah M

    2012-09-20

    Sexual reproduction in non-vascular plants requires unicellular free-motile sperm to travel from male to female reproductive structures across the terrestrial landscape. Recent data suggest that microarthropods can disperse sperm in mosses. However, little is known about the chemical communication, if any, that is involved in this interaction or the relative importance of microarthropod dispersal compared to abiotic dispersal agents in mosses. Here we show that tissues of the cosmopolitan moss Ceratodon purpureus emit complex volatile scents, similar in chemical diversity to those described in pollination mutualisms between flowering plants and insects, that the chemical composition of C. purpureus volatiles are sex-specific, and that moss-dwelling microarthropods are differentially attracted to these sex-specific moss volatile cues. Furthermore, using experimental microcosms, we show that microarthropods significantly increase moss fertilization rates, even in the presence of water spray, highlighting the important role of microarthropod dispersal in contributing to moss mating success. Taken together, our results indicate the presence of a scent-based 'plant-pollinator-like' relationship that has evolved between two of Earth's most ancient terrestrial lineages, mosses and microarthropods.

  15. Subirrigation reduces water use, nitrogen loss, and moss growth in a container nursery

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeremy R. Pinto; Douglass F. Jacobs; Anthony S. Davis; Baron Horiuchi

    2006-01-01

    With about half the amount of water, subirrigated Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud. (Myrtaceae) grown 9 mo in a greenhouse were similar to those irrigated with an existing fixed overhead irrigation system; moss growth was about 3X greater in the fixed overhead system after 3 mo. Moss growth was affected by the rate of preplant controlled release fertilizer added (more...

  16. Antarctic moss stress assessment based on chlorophyll content and leaf density retrieved from imaging spectroscopy data.

    PubMed

    Malenovský, Zbyněk; Turnbull, Johanna D; Lucieer, Arko; Robinson, Sharon A

    2015-10-01

    The health of several East Antarctic moss-beds is declining as liquid water availability is reduced due to recent environmental changes. Consequently, a noninvasive and spatially explicit method is needed to assess the vigour of mosses spread throughout rocky Antarctic landscapes. Here, we explore the possibility of using near-distance imaging spectroscopy for spatial assessment of moss-bed health. Turf chlorophyll a and b, water content and leaf density were selected as quantitative stress indicators. Reflectance of three dominant Antarctic mosses Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Ceratodon purpureus and Schistidium antarctici was measured during a drought-stress and recovery laboratory experiment and also with an imaging spectrometer outdoors on water-deficient (stressed) and well-watered (unstressed) moss test sites. The stress-indicating moss traits were derived from visible and near infrared turf reflectance using a nonlinear support vector regression. Laboratory estimates of chlorophyll content and leaf density were achieved with the lowest systematic/unsystematic root mean square errors of 38.0/235.2 nmol g(-1) DW and 0.8/1.6 leaves mm(-1) , respectively. Subsequent combination of these indicators retrieved from field hyperspectral images produced small-scale maps indicating relative moss vigour. Once applied and validated on remotely sensed airborne spectral images, this methodology could provide quantitative maps suitable for long-term monitoring of Antarctic moss-bed health.

  17. 76 FR 53426 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on August 17, 2011, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC submitted a revised Statement of Operating Conditions, that governs...

  18. Reaction to Moss's "Clues about Skills and Characteristics that Distinguish High-Performing Vocational Administrators."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    The author reacts to Moss's study that investigated leadership qualities of vocational administrators. He questions the limited size and the homogeneity of the respondent base and comments that Moss assigns an unlikely outcome to the traditional occupational analysis procedure. The author also discusses one occupational analysis procedure, DACUM.…

  19. 75 FR 33799 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing June 8, 2010. Take notice that on June 1, 2010, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC submitted a baseline filing of its Statement of General...

  20. Exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol decreases motility and ATP in sperm of male fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tracy M; Brown, Alexandria C; Gendelman, Hannah K; Ota, Mizuho; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2014-03-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical released into aquatic environments from sewage treatment facilities. We tested the effects of two environmentally relevant concentrations of waterborne EE2, 10 and 100 ng L(-1) , on reproductive endpoints in the teleost fish Betta splendens. In the first experiment, testes were removed from males and sperm were exposed to EE2 directly through the activation water. Direct exposure to EE2 had no effect on any measure of sperm swimming performance. In the second experiment, we exposed sexually mature male B. splendens to EE2 using a semi-static exposure protocol for 4 weeks. There were no significant treatment effects in the 10 ng L(-1) treatment group, but at the 100 ng L(-1) dose we found that fish had smaller gonads and reduced sperm swimming velocity. When allowed to interact freely with female conspecifics, males exposed to 100 ng L(-1) EE2 built smaller nests and showed a nonsignificant decrease in fertilization success. To investigate further the potential mechanism underlying the decrease in sperm quality, we repeated the chronic exposure experiment and analyzed the ATP content of sperm from fish in each treatment group. We found that males exposed to 100 ng L(-1) of EE2 had fewer moles of ATP per sperm than did fish in the other two treatment groups, suggesting that a decrease in intracellular ATP caused a reduction in sperm swimming velocity. The current study adds to the growing body of literature that indicates the risks to aquatic organisms of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of EE2. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sex-Related Effects in the Superhydrophobic Properties of Damselfly Wings in Young and Old Calopteryx splendens

    PubMed Central

    Kuitunen, Katja; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous sex-related morphological adaptations are connected to reproductive behavior in animals. For example, females of some insect species can submerge during oviposition, which may lead to sex-related adaptations in the hydrophobicity (water-repellency) due to specialization of certain morphological structures. On the other hand, ageing can cause changes in hydrophobicity of the surface, because the morphological structures can wear with age. Here, we investigated sex-and age-related differences in wing hydrophobicity and in morphology (spine density, wax cover characteristics, size of females' pseudopterostigma) potentially related to hydrophobicity of Calopteryx splendens damselflies. Hydrophobicity was measured with two methods, by measuring the contact angle (CA) between a wing and water droplet, and by dipping a wing into water and measuring forces needed to submerge, withdraw, and pull-out a wing from water. We found that C. splendens wings are superhydrophobic, having mean CAs of 161°. The only sex and age related difference in the hydrophobicity measurements was that young females had stronger amplitude of force fluctuations during withdrawal of wings from water than young males. This suggests that young females may form less uniform air pockets on their wings while submerged. From the morphological structures measured here, the only sex related finding was that old females had denser spine cover than young females in their wing veins. The difference may be explained by better survival of females with denser spine cover. The most important morphological character that predicted superhydrophobicity was the prevalence of long wax rods on wing veins. In addition, female pseudopterostigma area (a trait present only in females) was negatively related to pull-out force, suggesting that large pseudopterostigmas might help females to emerge from water following oviposition. The subtle sex-related differences in hydrophobicity could be explained by the fact

  2. Sex-related effects in the superhydrophobic properties of damselfly wings in young and old Calopteryx splendens.

    PubMed

    Kuitunen, Katja; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-01-01

    Numerous sex-related morphological adaptations are connected to reproductive behavior in animals. For example, females of some insect species can submerge during oviposition, which may lead to sex-related adaptations in the hydrophobicity (water-repellency) due to specialization of certain morphological structures. On the other hand, ageing can cause changes in hydrophobicity of the surface, because the morphological structures can wear with age. Here, we investigated sex-and age-related differences in wing hydrophobicity and in morphology (spine density, wax cover characteristics, size of females' pseudopterostigma) potentially related to hydrophobicity of Calopteryx splendens damselflies. Hydrophobicity was measured with two methods, by measuring the contact angle (CA) between a wing and water droplet, and by dipping a wing into water and measuring forces needed to submerge, withdraw, and pull-out a wing from water. We found that C. splendens wings are superhydrophobic, having mean CAs of 161°. The only sex and age related difference in the hydrophobicity measurements was that young females had stronger amplitude of force fluctuations during withdrawal of wings from water than young males. This suggests that young females may form less uniform air pockets on their wings while submerged. From the morphological structures measured here, the only sex related finding was that old females had denser spine cover than young females in their wing veins. The difference may be explained by better survival of females with denser spine cover. The most important morphological character that predicted superhydrophobicity was the prevalence of long wax rods on wing veins. In addition, female pseudopterostigma area (a trait present only in females) was negatively related to pull-out force, suggesting that large pseudopterostigmas might help females to emerge from water following oviposition. The subtle sex-related differences in hydrophobicity could be explained by the fact

  3. Climatic controls of moss-associated nitrogen fixation in the Subarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation performed by moss-associated cyanobacteria is one of the main sources of new N input in pristine, high latitude ecosystems like boreal forests and subarctic tundra. However, N2 fixation in mosses is strongly influenced by climatic conditions, in particular, moisture and temperature. Previous attempts to temporally scaling up N2 fixation in mosses from low frequency in situ measurements to several weeks, months or even the entire growing season without taking into account changes in abiotic conditions could not capture the variation in moss-associated N2 fixation. We therefore aimed to estimate moss-associated N2 fixation throughout the snow-free period in subarctic tundra in field experiments simulating climate change: willow (Salix myrsinifolia) and birch (Betula pubescens spp. tortuosa) litter addition, and warming. The litter additions were sought to simulate shrub expansion in high latitude ecosystems. We established relationships between measured in situ N2 fixation rates and soil moisture and soil temperature and used high-resolution measurements of soil moisture and soil temperature (hourly from May - October) to model N2 fixation. The modelled N2 fixation rates were highest in the warmed (2.8 ±0.3 kg N ha-1) and birch litter addition plots (2.8 ±0.2 kg N ha-1), and lowest in the plots receiving willow litter (1.6 ±0.2 kg N ha-1). The control plots had intermediate rates (2.2 ±0.2 kg N ha-1). Our findings suggest that a longer snow-free period and increased temperatures in a future climate will likely lead to higher N2 fixation rates in mosses. Yet, the consequences of increased litter fall on moss-associated N2 fixation due to shrub expansion in the Arctic will depend on the shrub species' litter traits. To follow up on the strong dependence of moss-associated N2 fixation on moisture and temperature, we collected mosses along a precipitation gradient in subarctic tundra, Northern Sweden and exposed the mosses to different

  4. 78 FR 9866 - Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... regulation for a portion of Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake, Moss Point, MS. This action is necessary for the...

  5. 78 FR 23843 - Special Local Regulations; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... portion of Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake, Moss Point, MS. This action is necessary for the safeguard...

  6. Influence of the physicochemical characteristics of pollutants on their uptake in moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Z.; Fernández, J. A.; Real, C.; Carballeira, A.; Aboal, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    Bryophytes are commonly used as biomonitors to estimate the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the tissue concentrations of these elements in moss do not always accurately reflect atmospheric levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether element uptake in moss is affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the elements. Factor analysis was used to identify any patterns of covariance in the accumulation of elements in samples of the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum collected from the surroundings of different factories and from control sites. The variation in the concentrations of elements was similar in moss from both types of sites and was related to the binding properties of the elements. This suggests that the physicochemical characteristics of the elements determine the uptake of metals and metalloids from the atmosphere. Therefore, in studies that use multiple correlations among elements as indicators of a common origin of contaminants, erroneous conclusions may be reached by overlooking the adsorption properties of the moss.

  7. Usage tests of oak moss absolutes containing high and low levels of atranol and chloroatranol.

    PubMed

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-07-01

    Atranol and chloroatranol are strong contact allergens in oak moss absolute, a lichen extract used in perfumery. Fifteen subjects with contact allergy to oak moss absolute underwent a repeated open application test (ROAT) using solutions of an untreated oak moss absolute (sample A) and an oak moss absolute with reduced content of atranol and chloroatranol (sample B). All subjects were in addition patch-tested with serial dilutions of samples A and B. Statistically significantly more subjects reacted to sample A than to sample B in the patch tests. No corresponding difference was observed in the ROAT, though there was a significant difference in the time required to elicit a positive reaction. Still, the ROAT indicates that the use of a cosmetic product containing oak moss absolute with reduced levels of atranol and chloroatranol is capable of eliciting an allergic reaction in previously sensitised individuals.

  8. Proposal of a procedure for the analysis of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses.

    PubMed

    Concha-Graña, Estefanía; Piñeiro-Iglesias, María; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2015-03-01

    A useful analytical procedure for the analysis of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in moss samples using microwave assisted extraction and programmed temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PTV-GC-MS/MS) determination is proposed. The state of art in PAHs analysis in mosses was reviewed. All the steps of the analysis were optimized regarding not only to the analytical parameters, but also the cost, the total time of analysis and the labour. The method was validated for one moss species used as moss monitor in ambient air, obtaining high recoveries (between 83-108%), low quantitation limits (lower than 2 ng g(-1)), good intermediate precision (relative standard deviation lower than 10%), uncertainties lower than 20%. Finally, the method was checked for other species, demonstrating its suitability for the analysis of different moss species. For this reason the proposed method can be helpful in air biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral reflectance in Sphagnum moss at varying water contents.

    PubMed

    Van Gaalen, K Eric; Flanagan, Lawrence B; Peddle, Derek R

    2007-08-01

    Moss samples from the Fluxnet-Canada western peatland flux station in the Boreal Region of Alberta were measured in the laboratory to obtain the net photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll fluorescence of the moss under controlled environmental conditions, including the regulation of moss water content, simultaneously with measurements of moss spectral reflectance. One objective was to test whether the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) detected changes in moss photosynthetic light-use efficiency that were consistent with short-term (minutes to hours) changes in xanthophyll cycle pigments and associated changes in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), as recorded by chlorophyll fluorescence. The rate of net photosynthesis was strongly inhibited by water content at values exceeding approximately 9 (fresh weight/dry weight) and declined as the water content fell below values of approximately 8. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of maximum photosystem II efficiency generally remained high until the water content was reduced from the maximum of about 20 to values of approximately 10-11, and then declined with further reductions in moss water content. A significant linear decline in NPQ was observed as moss water content was reduced from maximum to low water content values. There was a strong negative correlation between changes in NPQ and PRI. These data suggest that PRI measurements are a good proxy for short-term shifts in photosynthetic activity in Sphagnum moss. A second objective was to test how accurately the water band index (WBI, ratio of reflectance at 900 and 970 nm) recorded changes in moss water content during controlled laboratory studies. Strong linear relationships occurred between changes in moss water content and the WBI, although the slopes of the linear relationships were significantly different among sample replicates. Therefore, WBI appeared to be a useful tool to determine sample-specific water content without destructive measurements.

  10. The Representation of Arctic Soils in the Land Surface Model: The Importance of Mosses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beringer, Jason; Lynch, Amanda H.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Mack, Michelle; Bonan, Gordon B.

    2001-08-01

    Mosses dominate the surface cover in high northern latitudes and have the potential to play a key role in modifying the thermal and hydrologic regime of Arctic soils. These modifications in turn feed back to influence surface energy exchanges and hence may affect regional climate. However, mosses are poorly represented in models of the land surface. In this study the NCAR Land Surface Model (LSM) was modified in two ways. First, additional soil texture types including mosses and lichens were added to more realistically represent northern soils. Second, the LSM was also modified so that a different soil texture type could be specified for each layer. Several experiments were performed using climate data from an Arctic tundra site in 1995. The model was run for a homogeneous loam soil column and then also for columns that included moss, lichen, peat, and sand. The addition of a surface layer of moss underlain by peat and loam had a substantial impact on modeled surface processes. First, moss acted as an insulative layer producing cooler summer temperatures (6.9°C lower at 0.5 m) and warmer winter temperatures (2.3°C higher at 0.5 m) when compared with a homogenous loam soil column. Second, a soil column with a moss surface had a greater surface infiltration, leading to greater storage of soil moisture in lower layers when compared with a homogeneous loam column. Last, moss modulated the surface energy exchanges by decreasing soil heat flux (57% in July) and increasing turbulent fluxes of heat (67% in July) and moisture (15% in July). Mosses were also more effective contributors to total latent heating than was a bare loam surface. These results suggest that the addition of moss and the ability to prescribe different soil textures for different soil layers result in a more plausible distribution of heat and water within the column and that these modifications should be incorporated into regional and global climate models.

  11. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Turetsky, Merritt; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Euskirchen, Eugenie S.; Talbot, Julie; Frolking, Steve; McGuire, A. David; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2012-08-24

    Mosses in boreal and arctic ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, represent an important component of plant diversity, and strongly influence the cycling of water, nutrients, energy and carbon. Here we use a literature review and synthesis as well as model simulations to explore the role of moss in ecological stability and resilience. Our literature review of moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories in boreal and arctic regions. Our modeling simulations suggest that loss of moss within northern plant communities will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. While two models (HPM and STM-TEM) showed a significant effect of moss removal, results from the Biome-BGC and DVM-TEM models suggest that northern, moss-rich ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. We highlight a number of issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, phenotypical plasticity in traits, and whether the effects of moss on ecosystem processes scale with local abundance. We also suggest that as more models explore issues related to ecological resilience, issues related to both parameter and conceptual uncertainty should be addressed: are the models more limited by uncertainty in the parameterization of the processes included or by what is not represented in the model at all? It seems clear from our review that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species.

  12. Cellulose and Lignin Carbon Isotope Signatures in Sphagnum Moss Reveal Complementary Environmental Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, J.; Nichols, J. E.; Kaiser, K.; Beilman, D. W.; Yu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of Sphagnum moss is increasingly used as a proxy for past surface wetness in peatlands. However, conflicting interpretations of these carbon isotope records have recently been published. While the water film hypothesis suggests that the presence of a thick (thin) water film around hollow (hummock) mosses leads to less (more) negative δ13C values, the carbon source hypothesis poses that a significant (insignificant) amount of CH4 assimilation by hollow (hummock) mosses leads to more (less) negative δ13C values. To evaluate these competing mechanisms and their impact on moss δ13C, we gathered 30 moss samples from 6 peatlands in southern Patagonia. Samples were collected along a strong hydrological gradient, from very dry hummocks (80 cm above water table depth) to submerged hollows (5 cm below water surface). These peat bogs have the advantage of being colonized by a single cosmopolitan moss species, Sphagnum magellanicum, limiting potential biases introduced by species-specific carbon discrimination. We measured δ13C from stem cellulose and leaf waxes on the same samples to quantify compound-specific carbon signatures. We found that stem cellulose and leaf-wax lipids were both strongly negatively correlated with moss water content, suggesting a primary role of water film thickness on carbon assimilation. In addition, isotopic fractionation during wax synthesis was greater than for cellulose. This offset decreases as conditions get drier, due to (i) a more effective carbon assimilation, or (ii) CH4 uptake through symbiosis with methanotrophic bacteria within the leaves of wet mosses. Biochemical analysis (carbohydrates, amino acids, hydrophenols, cutin acids) of surface moss are currently being conducted to characterize moss carbon allocation under different hydrological conditions. Overall, this modern calibration work should be of use for interpreting carbon isotope records from peatlands.

  13. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberian Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Gil, Susan M.; Ford, Jesse; Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Monetti, Matthew; Vlasova, Tamara; Landers, Dixon H.

    2003-01-01

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula. We analyzed heavy metal concentrations in lichen (Cetraria cucullata), moss (Hylocomium splendens), soils, lake sediment, freshwater fish (Salvelinus alpinus, Lota lota, and Coregonus spp.) and collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) from 13 sites between 30 and 300 km from Norilsk. Element concentrations were low in both C. cucullata and H. splendens, although concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, and Pb were significantly higher than those in Arctic Alaska, probably due to natural differences in the geochemical environments. Inorganic surface soils had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Mg than inorganic soils at depth, although a lake sediment core from the eastern Taimyr Peninsula indicated no recent enrichment by atmospherically transported elements. Tissue concentrations of heavy metals in fish and lemming were not elevated relative to other Arctic sites. Our results show that the impact of the Norilsk smelting complex is primarily localized rather than regional, and does not extend northward beyond 100 km.

  14. Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures as markers for methanotrophic bacteria in peat moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Winden, Julia F.; Talbot, Helen M.; Kip, Nardy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Pol, Arjan; McNamara, Niall P.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community in peat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum mosses and of an extreme acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph. A type I Methylovulum-like strain (M200) contains a remarkable combination of BHPs, including a complete suite of mono-unsaturated aminobacteriohopanepentol, -tetrol and -triol. The Methylomonas-like strain (M5) mainly produces aminobacteriohopanepentol, characteristic for type I methanotrophs, and the Methylosinus-like strain (29) contains both aminobacteriohopanetetrol and aminobacteriohopanetriol, typical for a type II methanotroph. The type II methanotroph Methylocella palustris and the verrucomicrobial Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum strain SolV primarily produce aminotriol, which is also produced by many other bacteria. In Sphagnum mosses and underlying peat from a peat bog from Moorhouse, UK, the only detectable BHPs indicative of methanotrophs are aminobacteriohopanepentol (aminopentol) and aminobacteriohopanetetrol (aminotetrol), although both are relatively low in abundance compared to other BHPs. Aminopentol serves as a marker for type I methanotrophs, while aminotetrol may reflect the presence of both type I and type II methanotrophs. The similar quantities of aminotetrol and aminopentol indicate that the methanotrophic community in Sphagnum peat probably consist of a combination of both type I and type II methanotrophs, which is in line with previously published pmoA-based micro-array results.

  15. Are alcohol expectancies associations? Comment on Moss and Albery (2009).

    PubMed

    Wiers, Reinout W; Stacy, Alan W

    2010-01-01

    Moss and Albery presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that alcohol selectively reduces propositional reasoning. As a result, behavior comes under the control of associative processes after alcohol consumption. We agree with the second but not with the first assumption, based on theoretical and empirical arguments. Although in some cases expectancies may involve a simple association, they are propositional in nature. We demonstrate that this assertion is supported by existing literature cited in Moss and Albery. Moreover, 6 recent studies consistently demonstrated that under circumstances in which executive control is impaired (either as a stable individual difference or under the acute influence of alcohol), associative processes, over and above expectancies, predict alcohol-related behavior. Taken together, the evidence strongly suggests a fundamental distinction between expectancies and associations in memory: Effects of propositional expectancies and executive functions are impaired under the acute influence of alcohol, but memory associations are not. This difference in perspective not only has theoretical implications but also leads to different predictions regarding acute alcohol effects in society.

  16. Filial mistletoes: the functional morphology of moss sporophytes

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2013-01-01

    Background A moss sporophyte inherits a haploid set of genes from the maternal gametophyte to which it is attached and another haploid set of genes from a paternal gametophyte. Evolutionary conflict is expected between genes of maternal and paternal origin that will be expressed as adaptations of sporophytes to extract additional resources from maternal gametophytes and adaptations of maternal gametophytes to restrain sporophytic demands. Interpretation The seta and stomata of peristomate mosses are interpreted as sporophytic devices for increasing nutrient transfer. The seta connects the foot, where nutrients are absorbed, to the developing capsule, where nutrients are needed for sporogenesis. Its elongation lifts stomata of the apophysis above the boundary layer, into the zone of turbulent air, thereby increasing the transpirational pull that draws nutrients across the haustorial foot. The calyptra is interpreted as a gametophytic device to reduce sporophytic demands. The calyptra fits tightly over the intercalary meristem of the sporophytic apex and prevents lateral expansion of the meristem. While intact, the calyptra delays the onset of transpiration. Predictions Nutrient transfer across the foot, stomatal number and stomatal aperture are predicted to be particular arenas of conflict between sporophytes and maternal gametophytes, and between maternal and paternal genomes of sporophytes. PMID:23277472

  17. An Innate Immunity Pathway in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Bressendorff, Simon; Azevedo, Raquel; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Ponce de León, Inés; Olsen, Jakob V; Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Erbs, Gitte; Newman, Mari-Anne; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2016-06-01

    MAP kinase (MPK) cascades in Arabidopsis thaliana and other vascular plants are activated by developmental cues, abiotic stress, and pathogen infection. Much less is known of MPK functions in nonvascular land plants such as the moss Physcomitrella patens Here, we provide evidence for a signaling pathway in P. patens required for immunity triggered by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This pathway induces rapid growth inhibition, a novel fluorescence burst, cell wall depositions, and accumulation of defense-related transcripts. Two P. patens MPKs (MPK4a and MPK4b) are phosphorylated and activated in response to PAMPs. This activation in response to the fungal PAMP chitin requires a chitin receptor and one or more MAP kinase kinase kinases and MAP kinase kinases. Knockout lines of MPK4a appear wild type but have increased susceptibility to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassisicola Both PAMPs and osmotic stress activate some of the same MPKs in Arabidopsis. In contrast, abscisic acid treatment or osmotic stress of P. patens does not activate MPK4a or any other MPK, but activates at least one SnRK2 kinase. Signaling via MPK4a may therefore be specific to immunity, and the moss relies on other pathways to respond to osmotic stress. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of mosses along Sarp-Samsun highway in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koz, B; Cevik, U; Ozdemir, T; Duran, C; Kaya, S; Gundogdu, A; Celik, N

    2008-05-01

    The elemental analysis of mosses along Sarp-Samsun highway in Turkey was determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis using the method of multiple standard additions is applied for the elemental analysis of mosses. An annular 50 mCi (241)Am radioactive source and annular 50 mCi (55)Fe radioactive source were used for excitation of characteristic K X-rays. An Si(Li) detector which has a 147 eV full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV photons was used for intensity measurements. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that the samples contained phosphates, potassium, calcium, titanium, iron, strontium, tin and barium. Since this study is the elemental analysis along the highway, one can expect to detect Pb. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, elements were analyzed with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for Pb. Evaluation of these elements with their potential hazards for ecology and human is briefly discussed.

  19. Potential antioxidant activity of the moss Bryum moravicum.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Bogdanovic-Pristov, Jelena; Pejin, Ivana; Sabovljevic, Marko

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of mosses has ever been studied regarding antioxidant activity among which only a few are European species. As a part of our ongoing screening of new promising bryophyte resources of natural antioxidants, a relevant biological activity investigation was conducted on the moss Bryum moravicum Podp. (Bryaceae) collected in Germany. The antioxidant activity of an aqueous extract of the species was evaluated in vitro by analysing its ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] cation scavenging activity and total phenolic content. The study led to the detection of a moderate antioxidant activity: 1 mg of the extract was equivalent to 84.56 ± 7.93 µg of ascorbic acid. The total phenolic content in 1 mg of the extract was equivalent to 356.44 ± 9.56 µg of ferulic acid used as a standard. These results have indicated for the first time potential importance of B. moravicum in searching for novel antioxidant agents.

  20. Physiological changes in Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Pulmonata: Planorbidae) caused by sub-lethal concentrations of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Mello-Silva, Clélia Christina; Vasconcellos, Maurício Carvalho de; Pinheiro, Jairo; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de Azevedo

    2006-02-01

    Molluscides have been used as one of the strategies to control schistosomiasis. Many plant extracts with molluscidal effects have been tested, but the action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii is considered the most promising because it meets the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective of this study was to determine the lethal dose and identify the effects of the different doses of latex of E. splendens var. hislopii on the physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to treatment for 24 h. The concentrations of glucose, uric acid and total proteins in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopodal mass were determined. The LD50 value was 1 mg/l. The highest escape index was found to be at a concentration of 0.6 mg/l. The results showed that the latex of E. splendens var. hislopii caused a sharp reduction in the reserves of glycogen in the digestive gland and elevation of the protein content in the hemolymph of B. glabrata.

  1. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations in boreal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousk, Kathrin

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) limits the productivity in boreal forests. A major source of 'new' N for these forests is the fixation of atmospheric N2 preformed by cyanobacteria living in association with mosses and lichens. Mosses are a dominant feature in boreal forests, accounting for 60-90% of the groundcover in pristine boreal forests and have been found to be colonized by several N2-fixing cyanobacteria. Given the ubiquitous nature of mosses in these forests, their association with N2-fixing cyanobacteria could characterize the N cycle in these ecosystems. For instance, the feather moss Pleurozium schreberi with its associated cyanobacteria fixes 1-2 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which equals the amount that enters northern boreal forests via atmospheric N deposition. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is affected by numerous abiotic factors that could modulate the N input to the system via the moss-cyanobacteria pathway. For instance, high N availability and dry conditions inhibit N2 fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations while phosphorus availability and moist conditions promote N2 fixation. Further, N2fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is resilient, and can recover from increased N inputs (12 - 15 kg N ha-1 yr-1) as well as from drought stress (moss < 9% field moisture) upon removal of these stressors. Nevertheless, the question as to how important the N2 fixing capability of moss-cyanobacteria associations is as a source of 'new' N for the N cycle in boreal forests remains. For instance, mosses can retain acquired N over long periods of time (> 1 year) and the transfer of N from moss to soil in the short-term has so far only been shown to occur after disturbances (e.g. drying rewetting events, fires). I will present results from laboratory as well as field experiments aimed to elucidate the role moss-cyanobacteria associations play for the N cycle in boreal forests and how abiotic factors control the fixation of atmospheric N2.

  2. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand; Brault, Christophe; Bruze, Magnus; Eudes, Hervé; Gadras, Catherine; Signoret, Anne-Cécile J; Mose, Kristian F; Müller, Boris P; Toulemonde, Bernard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-02-01

    Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Microphotometry of underwater shadowing by a moss from a Niagara Escarpment waterfall.

    PubMed

    Swatland, Howard J

    2011-02-01

    Microscope and fiber-optic spectrophotometry of transmittance and backscattering both showed moss leaves to be capable of casting strong shadows, with a single leaf blocking approximately 90% of incident light from a point source. In leaves with only one layer of cells, the transmittance through the cytoplasm of single cells was similar to that for whole leaves. Analysis of cell wall birefringence by polarized-light interferometry indicated that cell walls might normally scatter rather than transmit light. Spectra transmitted through, or backscattered from, the upper green layers of moss were dominated by selective absorbance from chlorophyll, but there was also evidence of wavelength-dependent scattering, as detected in the lower layers of brown, dead moss. Specular reflectance from moss leaves was detected by polarimetry and may have contributed to the relatively high macroscopic transmittance of stationary moss in water. Shadowing by moss leaves was confirmed by dynamic measurements of mosses in turbulent water without bubbles. Flicker patterns from leaves were superimposed on the underwater flicker pattern created at the air-water interface, thus flecks of light were reduced in intensity, increased in frequency, and decreased in duration. This was detected with both point source and diffuse illumination of samples.

  4. Strigolactones inhibit caulonema elongation and cell division in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Beate; Proust, Hélène; Belcram, Katia; Labrune, Cécile; Boyer, François-Didier; Rameau, Catherine; Bonhomme, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In vascular plants, strigolactones (SLs) are known for their hormonal role and for their role as signal molecules in the rhizosphere. SLs are also produced by the moss Physcomitrella patens, in which they act as signaling factors for controlling filament extension and possibly interaction with neighboring individuals. To gain a better understanding of SL action at the cellular level, we investigated the effect of exogenously added molecules (SLs or analogs) in moss growth media. We used the previously characterized Ppccd8 mutant that is deficient in SL synthesis and showed that SLs affect moss protonema extension by reducing caulonema cell elongation and mainly cell division rate, both in light and dark conditions. Based on this effect, we set up bioassays to examine chemical structure requirements for SL activity in moss. The results suggest that compounds GR24, GR5, and 5-deoxystrigol are active in moss (as in pea), while other analogs that are highly active in the control of pea branching show little activity in moss. Interestingly, the karrikinolide KAR1, which shares molecular features with SLs, did not have any effect on filament growth, even though the moss genome contains several genes homologous to KAI2 (encoding the KAR1 receptor) and no canonical homologue to D14 (encoding the SL receptor). Further studies should investigate whether SL signaling pathways have been conserved during land plant evolution.

  5. Life at the boundary: photosynthesis at the soil-fluid interface. A synthesis focusing on mosses.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-03-01

    Mosses are among the earliest branching embryophytes and probably originated not later than the early Ordovician when atmospheric CO2 was higher and O2 was lower than today. The C3 biochemistry and physiology of their photosynthesis suggests, by analogy with tracheophytes, that growth of extant bryophytes in high CO2 approximating Ordovician values would increase the growth rate. This occurs for many mosses, including Physcomitrella patens in suspension culture, although recently published transcriptomic data on this species at high CO2 and present-day CO2 show down-regulation of the transcription of several genes related to photosynthesis. It would be useful if transcriptomic (and proteomic) data comparing growth conditions are linked to measurements of growth and physiology on the same, or parallel, cultures. Mosses (like later-originating embryophytes) have been subject to changes in bulk atmospheric CO2 and O2 throughout their existence, with evidence, albeit limited, for positive selection of moss Rubisco. Extant mosses are subject to a large range of CO2 and O2 concentrations in their immediate environments, especially aquatic mosses, and mosses are particularly influenced by CO2 generated by, and O2 consumed by, soil chemoorganotrophy from organic C produced by tracheophytes (if present) and bryophytes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Response of stable carbon isotope in epilithic mosses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, You-Yi; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yan-Li

    2010-06-01

    Epilithic mosses are characterized by insulation from substratum N and hence meet their N demand only by deposited N. This study investigated tissue C, total Chl and delta13C of epilithic mosses along 2 transects across Guiyang urban (SW China), aiming at testing their responses to N deposition. Tissue C and total Chl decreased from the urban to rural, but delta13C(moss) became less negative. With measurements of atmospheric CO2 and delta13CO2, elevated N deposition was inferred as a primary factor for changes in moss C and isotopic signatures. Correlations between total Chl, tissue C and N signals indicated a nutritional effect on C fixation of epilithic mosses, but the response of delta13C(moss) to N deposition could not be clearly differentiated from effects of other factors. Collective evidences suggest that C signals of epilithic mosses are useful proxies for N deposition but further works on physiological mechanisms are still needed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. On the retention of uranyl and thorium ions from radioactive solution on peat moss.

    PubMed

    Humelnicu, Doina; Bulgariu, Laura; Macoveanu, Matei

    2010-02-15

    The efficiency of the radioactive uranyl and thorium ions on the peat moss from aqueous solutions has been investigated under different experimental conditions. The sorption and desorption of uranyl and thorium ions on three types (unmodified peat moss, peat moss treated with HNO(3) and peat moss treated with NaOH) of peat moss were studied by the static method. Peat moss was selected as it is available in nature, in any amount, as a cheap and accessible sorbent. Study on desorption of such ions led to the conclusion that the most favourable desorptive reagent for the uranyl ions is Na(2)CO(3) 1M while, for the thorium ions is HCl 1M. The results obtained show that the parameters here under investigation exercise a significant effect on the sorption process of the two ions. Also, the investigations performed recommend the peat moss treated with a base as a potential sorbent for the uranyl and thorium ions from a radioactive aqueous solution.

  8. [Impact of moss soil crust on vegetation indexes interpretation].

    PubMed

    Fang, Shi-bo; Zhang, Xin-shi

    2011-03-01

    Vegetation indexes were the most common and the most important parameters to characterizing large-scale terrestrial ecosystems. It is vital to get precise vegetation indexes for running land surface process models and computation of NPP change, moisture and heat fluxes over surface. Biological soil crusts (BSC) are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid, polar and sub-polar regions. The spectral characteristics of dry and wet BSCs were quite different, which could produce much higher vegetation indexes value for the wet BSC than for the dry BSC as reported. But no research was reported about whether the BSC would impact on regional vegetation indexes and how much dry and wet BSC had impact on regional vegetation indexes. In the present paper, the most common vegetation index NDVI were used to analyze how the moss soil crusts (MSC) dry and wet changes affect regional NDVI values. It was showed that 100% coverage of the wet MSC have a much higher NDVI value (0.657) than the dry MSC NDVI value (0.320), with increased 0.337. Dry and wet MSC NDVI value reached significant difference between the levels of 0.000. In the study area, MSC, which had the average coverage of 12.25%, would have a great contribution to the composition of vegetation index. Linear mixed model was employed to analyze how the NDVI would change in regional scale as wet MSC become dry MSC inversion. The impact of wet moss crust than the dry moss crust in the study area can make the regional NDVI increasing by 0.04 (14.3%). Due to the MSC existence and rainfall variation in arid and semi-arid zones, it was bound to result in NDVI change instability in a short time in the region. For the wet MSC's spectral reflectance curve is similar to those of the higher plants, misinterpretation of the vegetation dynamics could be more severe due to the "maximum value composite" (MVC) technique used to compose the global vegetation maps in the study of vegetation dynamics. The researches would be useful for

  9. Cellular Differentiation in Moss Protonemata: A Morphological and Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Pressel, Silvia; Ligrone, Roberto; Duckett, Jeffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies of protonemal morphogenesis in mosses have focused on the cytoskeletal basis of tip growth and the production of asexual propagules. This study provides the first comprehensive description of the differentiation of caulonemata and rhizoids, which share the same cytology, and the roles of the cytoskeleton in organelle shaping and spatial arrangement. Methods Light and electron microscope observations were carried out on in vitro cultured and wild protonemata from over 200 moss species. Oryzalin and cytochalasin D were used to investigate the role of the cytoskeleton in the cytological organization of fully differentiated protonemal cells; time-lapse photography was employed to monitor organelle positions. Key Results The onset of differentiation in initially highly vacuolate subapical cells is marked by the appearance of tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles with crystalline inclusions, closely followed by an increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The tonoplast disintegrates and the original vacuole is replaced by a population of vesicles and small vacuoles originating de novo from RER. The cytoplasm then becomes distributed throughout the cell lumen, an event closely followed by the appearance of endoplasmic microtubules (MTs) in association with sheets of ER, stacks of vesicles that subsequently disperse, elongate mitochondria and chloroplasts and long tubular extensions at both poles of the nucleus. The production of large vesicles by previously inactive dictysomes coincides with the deposition of additional cell wall layers. At maturity, the numbers of endoplasmic microtubules decline, dictyosomes become inactive and the ER is predominantly smooth. Fully developed cells remain largely unaffected by cytochalasin; oryzalin elicits profound cytological changes. Both inhibitors elicit the formation of giant plastids. The plastids and other organelles in fully developed cells are largely stationary. Conclusions

  10. Cellular differentiation in moss protonemata: a morphological and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Pressel, Silvia; Ligrone, Roberto; Duckett, Jeffrey G

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies of protonemal morphogenesis in mosses have focused on the cytoskeletal basis of tip growth and the production of asexual propagules. This study provides the first comprehensive description of the differentiation of caulonemata and rhizoids, which share the same cytology, and the roles of the cytoskeleton in organelle shaping and spatial arrangement. Light and electron microscope observations were carried out on in vitro cultured and wild protonemata from over 200 moss species. Oryzalin and cytochalasin D were used to investigate the role of the cytoskeleton in the cytological organization of fully differentiated protonemal cells; time-lapse photography was employed to monitor organelle positions. The onset of differentiation in initially highly vacuolate subapical cells is marked by the appearance of tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles with crystalline inclusions, closely followed by an increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The tonoplast disintegrates and the original vacuole is replaced by a population of vesicles and small vacuoles originating de novo from RER. The cytoplasm then becomes distributed throughout the cell lumen, an event closely followed by the appearance of endoplasmic microtubules (MTs) in association with sheets of ER, stacks of vesicles that subsequently disperse, elongate mitochondria and chloroplasts and long tubular extensions at both poles of the nucleus. The production of large vesicles by previously inactive dictysomes coincides with the deposition of additional cell wall layers. At maturity, the numbers of endoplasmic microtubules decline, dictyosomes become inactive and the ER is predominantly smooth. Fully developed cells remain largely unaffected by cytochalasin; oryzalin elicits profound cytological changes. Both inhibitors elicit the formation of giant plastids. The plastids and other organelles in fully developed cells are largely stationary. Differentiation of caulonemata and rhizoids involves a

  11. The AirMOSS Level 4 Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, W. T.; Milak, S.; Moghaddam, M.

    2015-12-01

    A critical aspect of the AirMOSS mission is the temporal interpolation of (temporally-discrete) AirMOSS Level 2/3 root-zone soil moisture retrievals into a continuous, hourly root-zone soil moisture product. This is achieved via the assimilation of AirMOSS Level 2/3 root-zone soil moisture retrievals into continuous three-dimensional hydrologic modeling of AirMOSS study sites using the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic (PIHM) model. In this presentation, we will describe the results of a comparison analysis between: 1) hourly PIHM profile soil moisture predictions, 2) AirMOSS Level 2/3 root-zone soil moisture retrievals, and 3) and profile soil moisture observations obtained via ground-based instrumentation at multiple AirMOSS study sites. Since any reasonably-sophisticated integration of remotely-sensed and modeled root-zone soil moisture estimates requires information regarding the objective accuracy of each, the results of this analysis will be used to parameterize a data assimilation approach for integrating discrete AirMOSS Level 2/3 products into a continuous integration of the PIHM model. Based on this integration approach, preliminary AirMOSS Level 4 root-zone soil moisture products will be presented and evaluated. Results will highlight the relative limitations of both the AirMOSS Level 2/3 retrievals and PIHM-based estimates and therefore justify the integrated use of both soil moisture products to create an optimized Level 4 root-zone soil moisture analysis.

  12. Moss-cyanobacteria associations as biogenic sources of nitrogen in boreal forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey L.; DeLuca, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) is a major pathway for available N entering ecosystems. In N-limited boreal forests, a significant amount of N2 is fixed by cyanobacteria living in association with mosses, contributing up to 50% to the total N input. In this review, we synthesize reports on the drivers of N2 fixation in feather moss-cyanobacteria associations to gain a deeper understanding of their role for ecosystem-N-cycling. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is inhibited by N inputs and therefore, significant fixation occurs only in low N-deposition areas. While it has been shown that artificial N additions in the laboratory as well as in the field inhibit N2 fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations, the type, as well as the amounts of N that enters the system, affect N2 fixation differently. Another major driver of N2 fixation is the moisture status of the cyanobacteria-hosting moss, wherein moist conditions promote N2 fixation. Mosses experience large fluctuations in their hydrological status, undergoing significant natural drying and rewetting cycles over the course of only a few hours, especially in summer, which likely compromises the N input to the system via N2 fixation. Perhaps the most central question, however, that remains unanswered is the fate of the fixed N2 in mosses. The cyanobacteria are likely to leak N, but whether this N is transferred to the soil and if so, at which rates and timescales, is unknown. Despite our increasing understanding of the drivers of N2 fixation, the role moss-cyanobacteria associations play in ecosystem-N-cycling remains unresolved. Further, the relationship mosses and cyanobacteria share is unknown to date and warrants further investigation. PMID:23785359

  13. Sensitivity of the xerophytic moss Syntrichia caninervis to chronic simulated nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanming

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts, complex of cyanobacteira, fungi, lichens and mosses, are common in dryland area and act as important elements of these ecosystems. Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant species in moss crusts in many desert ecosystems. Increasing N deposition has lead to great changes in community structure and function in the desert ecosystem worldwide. However, it is unclear how moss crusts respond to increased atmospheric N deposition, especially in term of growth and physiological parameters. The population and individual growth, and physiological responses of S. caninervis to six different doses of simulated N deposition (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 g N m-2 a-1) over three years were studied. Simulated N deposition in the Gurbantunggut Desert affected growth and physiological indices of the xerophytic moss S.caninervis. Low N addition increased individual plant length and leaf size. High N addition was detrimental to almost all growth characteristics monitored, although moss abundance was increased. The photosynthesis-related indices were moderately increased at low N addition rates and significantly decreased by high N addition. Changes in osmotic adjustment substance concentrations and activities of antioxidant enzymes facilitated protection of leaf cells from oxidative damage under N addition. Low rates of N additiondid not significantly affect, and may even stimulate growth and physiological activity of moss crusts. However, high rates of N addition decreased moss vitality and might affect the function of moss crusts. Moss crusts are sensitive to N addition and greater attention should be paid to protection of such kinds of biological complexes in desert ecosystems under increasing N deposition. Key words: antioxidant enzyme, chlorophyll, fluorescence, nitrogen deposition, osmotic substance, Syntrichia caninervis

  14. Production of greenhouse-grown biocrust mosses and associated cyanobacteria to rehabilitate dryland soil function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Doherty, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Mosses are an often-overlooked component of dryland ecosystems, yet they are common members of biological soil crust communities (biocrusts) and provide key ecosystem services, including soil stabilization, water retention, carbon fixation, and housing of N2 fixing cyanobacteria. Mosses are able to survive long dry periods, respond rapidly to precipitation, and reproduce vegetatively. With these qualities, dryland mosses have the potential to be an excellent dryland restoration material. Unfortunately, dryland mosses are often slow growing in nature, and ex situ cultivation methods are needed to enhance their utility. Our goal was to determine how to rapidly produce, vegetatively, Syntrichia caninervis and S. ruralis, common and abundant moss species in drylands of North America and elsewhere, in a greenhouse. We manipulated the length of hydration on a weekly schedule (5, 4, 3, or 2 days continuous hydration per week), crossed with fertilization (once at the beginning, monthly, biweekly, or not at all). Moss biomass increased sixfold for both species in 4 months, an increase that would require years under dryland field conditions. Both moss species preferred short hydration and monthly fertilizer. Remarkably, we also unintentionally cultured a variety of other important biocrust organisms, including cyanobacteria and lichens. In only 6 months, we produced functionally mature biocrusts, as evidenced by high productivity and ecosystem-relevant levels of N2 fixation. Our results suggest that biocrust mosses might be the ideal candidate for biocrust cultivation for restoration purposes. With optimization, these methods are the first step in developing a moss-based biocrust rehabilitation technology.

  15. Moss-cyanobacteria associations as biogenic sources of nitrogen in boreal forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey L; Deluca, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    The biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) is a major pathway for available N entering ecosystems. In N-limited boreal forests, a significant amount of N2 is fixed by cyanobacteria living in association with mosses, contributing up to 50% to the total N input. In this review, we synthesize reports on the drivers of N2 fixation in feather moss-cyanobacteria associations to gain a deeper understanding of their role for ecosystem-N-cycling. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is inhibited by N inputs and therefore, significant fixation occurs only in low N-deposition areas. While it has been shown that artificial N additions in the laboratory as well as in the field inhibit N2 fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations, the type, as well as the amounts of N that enters the system, affect N2 fixation differently. Another major driver of N2 fixation is the moisture status of the cyanobacteria-hosting moss, wherein moist conditions promote N2 fixation. Mosses experience large fluctuations in their hydrological status, undergoing significant natural drying and rewetting cycles over the course of only a few hours, especially in summer, which likely compromises the N input to the system via N2 fixation. Perhaps the most central question, however, that remains unanswered is the fate of the fixed N2 in mosses. The cyanobacteria are likely to leak N, but whether this N is transferred to the soil and if so, at which rates and timescales, is unknown. Despite our increasing understanding of the drivers of N2 fixation, the role moss-cyanobacteria associations play in ecosystem-N-cycling remains unresolved. Further, the relationship mosses and cyanobacteria share is unknown to date and warrants further investigation.

  16. Use of native and transplanted mosses as complementary techniques for biomonitoring mercury around an industrial facility.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A

    2000-07-10

    Terrestrial mosses were used simultaneously in passive (native species, Scleropodium purum and Hypnum cupressiforme) and active (S. purum transplants in moss bags) biomonitoring techniques in a study that aimed to demonstrate the compatibility of the two methods by detailed investigation of the spatial distribution of mercury in the surroundings of a chlor-alkali plant. Native mosses were sampled and transplants exposed (for periods of 30 days) at two different times of the year in order to take into account different environmental conditions (precipitation, temperature, prevailing winds, etc.). The concentrations of Hg in the native mosses ranged between 0.04 and 11.78 microg g(-1) in February and 0.26 and 12.7 microg g(-1) in September; in the transplants the concentrations ranged between 0.39 and 1.9 microg g(-1) in June and 0.036 and 2.75 microg g(-1) in November. These values are all within the ranges reported in the literature. The total concentrations were transformed into either contamination factors (CF) (by taking into account the background levels of Hg in the native mosses) or enrichment factors (EF) (by taking into account the initial concentrations in the transplants). In both cases, there was a clear relationship with the distance from the source of emission, irrespective of the time of year. Within the range of distances for which data were available for natives and transplants, the CF and EF were highly correlated. This implies that transplants sited in the area immediately surrounding the plant, where the density of native mosses was very low, can be used to determine the degree of contamination in this area. The study also illustrated that the native moss appeared to adapt to the surrounding environment because at an equal distance (> 500 m) from the source of emission the value of the CF for native mosses fell to 1, but the EF for transplanted mosses remained still high (5.2).

  17. Is it possible to estimate atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by analysis of terrestrial mosses?

    PubMed

    Aboal, J R; Fernández, J A; Boquete, T; Carballeira, A

    2010-11-15

    Here we present a critical review of diverse research studies involving estimation of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals from the concentrations of the contaminants in terrestrial moss. The findings can be summarized as follows: i) significant correlations between the concentrations of contaminants in moss and bulk deposition were observed in only 40.1% of the cases in which the relationship was studied and in only 14.1% of the cases, the coefficient of correlation was >0.7; ii) some method-related problems were identified (i.e. small sample sizes, elimination of some data from the regression analyses, large distances between the moss sampling sites and the bulk precipitation collectors, differences in times of exposure of the moss samples and collection times for the bulk precipitation), so that the results of the studies may not be completely valid, and iii) evidence was found in the relevant literature that moss does not actually integrate the atmospheric deposition received. We also discuss the reason why, in accordance with the published data, bulk deposition cannot be correctly estimated by determination of the final concentrations of contaminants in the organism, such as the existence of different sources of contamination, the physicochemical characteristics of the sources of deposition, physicochemical processes to which the organism is subjected and the biological processes that take place in the moss. Taking into account the above findings, it was concluded that, except for certain elements and specific cases (i.e. Pb and Cd), atmospheric deposition of elements cannot be accurately estimated from the concentrations of metals and metalloids in moss tissues. However, the analysis of moss does provide information about the presence of contaminants in the atmosphere, their spatial and temporal patterns of distribution and how they are taken up by live organisms. Use of mosses is therefore recommended as a complementary (rather than an alternative

  18. Mosses influence phosphorus cycling in rich fens by driving redox conditions in shallow soils.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Katherine F; Bedford, Barbara L

    2011-09-01

    Mosses play an integral role in the hydrologic regimes of ecosystems where they cover the soil surface, and thus affect biogeochemical cycling of elements influenced by soil oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, including the plant growth-limiting nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus (P). In rich fens where P often limits plant growth, we hypothesized that feedbacks between mosses and redox conditions would determine P availability to shallow-rooted forb species that constitute much of these wetlands' unusually high plant species diversity. In a moss removal experiment in three fens, forb tissue P and microbial P were greater while anion exchange membrane (AEM) resin P was lower where mosses occurred than where they were removed, suggesting both higher availability and greater demand for P in moss-covered soils. Coupled physicochemical and biological mechanisms drove moss effects on P cycling, ultimately through effects on soil oxygenation or reduction: higher redox potential underlying mosses corresponded to greater microbial activity, phosphatase enzyme activity, and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), all of which can promote greater P availability to plants. These more oxidized soils stimulated: (1) greater microbial activity and root vigor; (2) correspondingly greater P demand via microbial uptake, forb uptake, and iron (Fe)-P reactions; and (3) greater P supply through soil and root phosphatase activity and AMF colonization. This work demonstrates that mosses improve vascular plant P acquisition by alleviating stresses caused by reducing conditions that would otherwise prevail in shallow underlying soils, thus providing a mechanism by which mosses facilitate plant species diversity in rich fens.

  19. Lichens and mosses as polonium and uranium biomonitors on Sobieszewo Island.

    PubMed

    Boryło, Alicja; Romańczyk, Grzegorz; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    In the study the activities of polonium (210)Po and uranium (234)U, (238)U radionuclides in moss and lichen samples were determined using the alpha spectrometry. Different lichens and mosses were collected around the Sobieszewo Island (northern Poland) and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for (210)Po and (238)U deposition. Mosses and lichens have a high efficiency in capturing (210)Po and (238)U from atmospheric fallout. The obtained results showed that (210)Po, (238)U concentrations are changing in analyzed thallophytes samples depending on the type of thallus.

  20. Momilactone A and B as allelochemicals from moss Hypnum plumaeforme: first occurrence in bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nishimura, Naoki; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Akihiko; Takaoka, Daisuke

    2007-12-01

    Momilactones A (1) and B (2), which have been identified as phytoalexins in rice, were isolated from extracts of the moss Hypnum plumaeforme. This is the first isolation and identification of momilactones as allelochemicals from a bryophyte. H. plumaeforme produces considerable amounts of momilactones (isolated yield: 8.4 mg/Kg plant for 1; 4.2 mg/Kg for 2). EtOAc extracts from H. plumaeforme and 2 showed growth inhibitory activity against angiosperms, moss, and liverwort plants. On the other hand, the growth of H. plumaeforme was insensitive to its extract and 2. Our finding suggests that momilactones play an important role as allelochemicals in this moss.

  1. Epiphytic algae on mosses in the Altindere Valley National Park (Maçka-Trabzon/Turkey).

    PubMed

    Sahin, B; Ozdemir, T

    2008-09-15

    Species composition and abundance of epiphytic algae on mosses growing in the Altindere Valley National Park were investigated in March 2008. The epiphytic algae identified in these samples were 27 species in total, 15 of the Bacillariophyta, 7 of the Cyanophyta, 4 of the Chlorophyta and a single of the Euglenophyta species. The members of the Bacillariophyta were more frequently found among these epiphytic algae on mosses. Netrium digitus (Ehrenb.) Itzigs and Rothe var. curtum (Borge) Willi Krieg. was recorded for the first time in the desmids flora of Turkey. The epiphytic algal flora on mosses at the submerged habitat was the richest of the three habitats.

  2. Effects of sulphuric compounds on the ATP content of the peat moss Sphagnum fuscum

    SciTech Connect

    Aulio, K.

    1984-01-01

    Luminometric determination of ATP in the photosynthetic tissues of the peat moss Sphagnum fuscum proved to be a suitable technique in studying the effects of bisulphite and sulphate on the metabolism of the mosses. The method has the advantage that it is rapid and easy to perform, and that the results are reliable and equal with those obtained by using other techniques. Bisulphite (HSO/sub 3//sup -/) caused marked reductions in the ATP contents at the 1 mM level, and the 5 mM level was clearly detrimental to the energy metabolism of the mosses. In contrast, sulphate (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) increased the ATP contents markedly.

  3. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Liang; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow growth rate of gametophores. We also found that red and far-red light can induce phototropism, with blue light being less effective. These results suggest that plants used a broad range of light wavelengths as phototropic signals during the early evolution of land plants. PMID:25848889

  4. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Bao, Liang; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow growth rate of gametophores. We also found that red and far-red light can induce phototropism, with blue light being less effective. These results suggest that plants used a broad range of light wavelengths as phototropic signals during the early evolution of land plants.

  5. Studies on Cytokinin-Controlled Bud Formation in Moss Protonemata

    PubMed Central

    Brandes, H.; Kende, H.

    1968-01-01

    Application of cytokinins to moss protonemata of the proper physiological age causes bud formation on specific cells (caulonema). During the early stages of their development, buds revert to protonemal filaments if the cytokinin has been removed by washing the protonemata. This indicates that the hormone is not acting as a “trigger” but has to be present during a critical period of time until differentiation is stabilized. Autoradiographs of protonemata treated with a labeled cytokinin, benzyladenine-benzyl-7-14C, show a striking accumulation of the radioactivity in caulonema cells which are in the stage of bud formation, and in the buds themselves. Cells which did not react to the hormone contained very little radioactivity. The accumulation of benzyladenine in the “target cells” may be due to the presence of binding sites which, in turn, may distinguish responding cells from non-responding ones. Images PMID:16656847

  6. Stereological analysis of gravitropism in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1997-01-01

    Apical cells of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Cerotodon purpureus are negatively gravitropic. Previous light microscopy has shown that reorientation to the horizontal induces amyloplast sedimentation and redistribution of microtubules. To determine whether other components become redistributed laterally or axially, the apical 35 micrometers of both vertical and horizontal apical cells were compared stereologically using transmission electron microscopy. Reorientation to the horizontal changed the longitudinal distributions of tubular ER, Golgi stacks, and vesicles but not cisternal ER, mitochondria, and plastids. Only plastids showed a statistically significant lateral redistribution after horizontal placement. Qualitative examination of the sedimentation zone showed plastids sedimented close to peripherally located ER with vacuoles displaced above plastids. These results argue against a model where differential tip growth results from a redistribution of Golgi stacks or exocytic vesicles.

  7. Stereological analysis of gravitropism in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1997-01-01

    Apical cells of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Cerotodon purpureus are negatively gravitropic. Previous light microscopy has shown that reorientation to the horizontal induces amyloplast sedimentation and redistribution of microtubules. To determine whether other components become redistributed laterally or axially, the apical 35 micrometers of both vertical and horizontal apical cells were compared stereologically using transmission electron microscopy. Reorientation to the horizontal changed the longitudinal distributions of tubular ER, Golgi stacks, and vesicles but not cisternal ER, mitochondria, and plastids. Only plastids showed a statistically significant lateral redistribution after horizontal placement. Qualitative examination of the sedimentation zone showed plastids sedimented close to peripherally located ER with vacuoles displaced above plastids. These results argue against a model where differential tip growth results from a redistribution of Golgi stacks or exocytic vesicles.

  8. Phylogenetic evidence of a rapid radiation of pleurocarpous mosses (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Shaw, A J; Cox, C J; Goffinet, B; Buck, W R; Boles, S B

    2003-10-01

    Pleurocarpous mosses, characterized by lateral female gametangia and highly branched, interwoven stems, comprise three orders and some 5000 species, or almost half of all moss diversity. Recent phylogenetic analyses resolve the Ptychomniales as sister to the Hypnales plus Hookeriales. Species richness is highly asymmetric with approximately 100 Ptychomniales, 750 Hookeriales, and 4400 Hypnales. Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences were obtained to compare partitioning of molecular diversity among the orders with estimates of species richness, and to test the hypothesis that either the Hookeriales or Hypnales underwent a period (or periods) of exceptionally rapid diversification. Levels of biodiversity were quantified using explicitly historical "phylogenetic diversity" and non-historical estimates of standing sequence diversity. Diversification rates were visualized using lineage-through-time (LTT) plots, and statistical tests of alternative diversification models were performed using the methods of Paradis (1997). The effects of incomplete sampling on the shape of LTT plots and performance of statistical tests were investigated using simulated phylogenies with incomplete sampling. Despite a much larger number of accepted species, the Hypnales contain lower levels of (cpDNA) biodiversity than their sister group, the Hookeriales, based on all molecular measures. Simulations confirm previous results that incomplete sampling yields diversification patterns that appear to reflect a decreasing rate through time, even when the true phylogenies were simulated with constant rates. Comparisons between simulated results and empirical data indicate that a constant rate of diversification cannot be rejected for the Hookeriales. The Hypnales, however, appear to have undergone a period of exceptionally rapid diversification for the earliest 20% of their history.

  9. Accumulation of airborne trace elements in mosses, lichens and synthetic materials exposed at urban monitoring stations: towards a harmonisation of the moss-bag technique.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S; Adamo, P; Spagnuolo, V; Tretiach, M; Bargagli, R

    2013-01-01

    Mosses, lichens and cellulose filters were exposed for 17 weeks at four urban monitoring stations in Naples (S Italy) to assess the accumulation of airborne Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn. In each site, the element accumulation was significantly higher in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme than in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Acid washed mosses accumulated the highest amount of trace elements, but the differences in element concentrations among the moss samples exposed after water washing and different devitalisation treatments (acid washing, oven drying and water boiling) and between the lichen samples exposed with and without the nylon bag were not statistically significant. The cellulose filters showed the lowest accumulation capability. The reciprocal ordination of sites and exposed materials showed an increasing contamination gradient (especially for Pb, Cu and Zn) from the background site to the trafficked city streets; this pattern was undetectable from PM(10) data recorded by the automatic monitoring devices operating in the four exposure sites. The element profile in exposed materials did not change substantially throughout the urban area and particles of polluted urban soils seem the main source of airborne metals in Naples. Through a comprehensive evaluation of the results from this and previous studies, a protocol is suggested for the moss-bag monitoring of trace element deposition in urban environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Three PRORP Proteins in the Moss Physcomitrella patens: Nuclear PRORP Protein Is Not Essential for Moss Viability

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Korechika; Kometani, Kazuki; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    RNase P is a ubiquitous endonuclease that removes the 5′ leader sequence from pre-tRNAs in all organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RNA-free proteinaceous RNase Ps (PRORPs) seem to be enzyme(s) for pre-tRNA 5′-end processing in organelles and the nucleus and are thought to have replaced the ribonucleoprotein RNase P variant. However, the evolution and function of plant PRORPs are not fully understood. Here, we identified and characterized three PRORP-like proteins, PpPPR_63, 67, and 104, in the basal land plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. PpPPR_63 localizes to the nucleus, while PpPPR_67 and PpPPR_104 are found in both the mitochondria and chloroplasts. The three proteins displayed pre-tRNA 5′-end processing activity in vitro. Mutants with knockout (KO) of the PpPPR_63 gene displayed growth retardation of protonemal colonies, indicating that, unlike Arabidopsis nuclear RPORPs, the moss nuclear PpPPR_63 is not essential for viability. In the KO mutant, nuclear-encoded tRNAAsp (GUC) levels were slightly decreased, whereas most nuclear-encoded tRNA levels were not altered. This indicated that most of the cytosolic mature tRNAs were produced normally without proteinaceous RNase P-like PpPPR_63. Single PpPPR_67 or 104 gene KO mutants displayed different phenotypes of protonemal growth and chloroplast tRNAArg (ACG) accumulation. However, the levels of all other tRNAs were not altered in the KO mutants. In addition, in vitro RNase P assays showed that PpPPR_67 and PpPPR_104 efficiently cleaved chloroplast pre-tRNAArg (CCG) and pre-tRNAArg (UCU) but they cleaved pre-tRNAArg (ACG) with different efficiency. This suggests that the two proteins have overlapping function but their substrate specificity is not identical. PMID:25272157

  11. Molecular characterization of three PRORP proteins in the moss Physcomitrella patens: nuclear PRORP protein is not essential for moss viability.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Chieko; Komura, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Korechika; Kometani, Kazuki; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    RNase P is a ubiquitous endonuclease that removes the 5' leader sequence from pre-tRNAs in all organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RNA-free proteinaceous RNase Ps (PRORPs) seem to be enzyme(s) for pre-tRNA 5'-end processing in organelles and the nucleus and are thought to have replaced the ribonucleoprotein RNase P variant. However, the evolution and function of plant PRORPs are not fully understood. Here, we identified and characterized three PRORP-like proteins, PpPPR_63, 67, and 104, in the basal land plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. PpPPR_63 localizes to the nucleus, while PpPPR_67 and PpPPR_104 are found in both the mitochondria and chloroplasts. The three proteins displayed pre-tRNA 5'-end processing activity in vitro. Mutants with knockout (KO) of the PpPPR_63 gene displayed growth retardation of protonemal colonies, indicating that, unlike Arabidopsis nuclear RPORPs, the moss nuclear PpPPR_63 is not essential for viability. In the KO mutant, nuclear-encoded tRNAAsp (GUC) levels were slightly decreased, whereas most nuclear-encoded tRNA levels were not altered. This indicated that most of the cytosolic mature tRNAs were produced normally without proteinaceous RNase P-like PpPPR_63. Single PpPPR_67 or 104 gene KO mutants displayed different phenotypes of protonemal growth and chloroplast tRNA(Arg) (ACG) accumulation. However, the levels of all other tRNAs were not altered in the KO mutants. In addition, in vitro RNase P assays showed that PpPPR_67 and PpPPR_104 efficiently cleaved chloroplast pre-tRNA(Arg) (CCG) and pre-tRNA(Arg) (UCU) but they cleaved pre-tRNA(Arg) (ACG) with different efficiency. This suggests that the two proteins have overlapping function but their substrate specificity is not identical.

  12. The potential value of the seaweed Ceylon moss (Gelidium amansii) as an alternative bioenergy resource.

    PubMed

    Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Hyun Joo; Mahadevan, Shobana Arumugam; Yang, Duck-Joo; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2009-12-01

    Sea weed (Ceylon moss) possesses comparable bioenergy production potential to that of land plants. Ceylon moss has high content of carbohydrates, typically galactose (23%) and glucose (20%). We have explored the possibility of sodium chlorite in Ceylon moss pretreatment that can ultimately increase the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification. In an acidic medium, chlorite generates ClO(2) molecules that transform lignin into soluble compounds without any significant loss of carbohydrate content and this procedure is widely used as an analytical method for holocellulose determination. Sodium chlorite-pretreated samples resulted in glucose yield up to 70% with contrast of only 5% was obtained from non-pretreated samples. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis is significantly improved by sodium chlorite pretreatment, and thus sodium chlorite pretreatment is potentially a very useful tool in the utilisation of Ceylon moss biomass for ethanol production or bioenergy purposes.

  13. Heavy metal contents of epiphytic acrocarpous mosses within inhabited sites in southwest Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Onianwa, P.C.; Ajayi, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    The levels of the metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Fe accumulated in acrocarpous mosses within inhabited parts of villages and towns in the southwest region of Nigeria were determined, and then used for a classification of the area into relative pollution zones. Ibadan City was found to be the most polluted in the study area. Other zones of low and medium polluted villages and towns were identified. The zonations based on metal levels in these mosses were to some extent similar to that already obtained in a separate study of the same area with epiphytic forest mosses. The enrichment factors show that the gradients between zones of different pollution levels were higher in mosses within the inhabited sites.

  14. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples.

  15. Correlated evolution of sexual system and life-history traits in mosses.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Monique; Jesson, Linley K; Garnock-Jones, Phil J

    2009-05-01

    In mosses, separate and combined sexes are evolutionarily labile, yet factors selecting for this variation are unknown. In this study, we investigate phylogenetic correlations between sexual system and five life-history traits (asexual reproduction, chromosome number, gametophore length, spore size, and seta length). We assigned states to species on a large-scale phylogeny of mosses and used maximum likelihood analyses to test for the correlations and investigate the sequence of trait acquisition. Mosses in lineages with separate sexes were significantly more likely to be large, whereas those in lineages with combined sexes had higher chromosome numbers. Moreover, evolutionary transitions to separate sexes were more likely to occur in lineages with small spores. There was no support for a correlation between asexual reproduction and separate sexes. These results suggest that sexual system evolution is influenced by traits affecting mate availability and the dispersal of gametes and spores, and provides evidence for the existence of syndromes of life-history traits in mosses.

  16. Development of eight mitochondrial markers for Funariaceae (Musci) and their amplification success in other mosses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Moskwa, Nicholas L; Goffinet, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    In comparison to the wide use of chloroplast markers, few mitochondrial markers are available for phylogenetic studies in bryophytes. We investigated the phylogenetic suitability of several mtDNA markers within the Funariaceae and across mosses. By comparing mitochondrial genomes of two mosses, eight regions with higher substitution rates were identified and sequenced for three species in the Funariaceae and one outgroup taxon. Variations in the substitution rate of these new loci were compared to previously used markers. Thirty-four samples representing all major moss lineages were targeted to assess the universality of the newly designed primers. The new markers provided similar or more sequence variations in Funariaceae compared to previously developed mtDNA markers. Five out of eight loci were amplified in 70% of other taxa, indicating that these markers may be suitable for phylogenetic studies in other moss lineages.

  17. Sorption of cadmium and zinc in selected species of epigeic mosses.

    PubMed

    Kłos, Andrzej; Gordzielik, Ewelina; Jóźwiak, Małgorzata Anna; Rajfur, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    The sorption abilities of seven moss species growing on the area of Bory Stobrawskie forest (southern Poland) were tested in laboratory. Sorption was carried out in solutions of Zn and Cd chlorides. It has been shown that the sorption properties depend on the moss species and increases in the series as follows: Polytrichum commune < Leucobryum glaucum < Eurhynchium praelongum < Thuidium tamtariscifolium ≤ Dicranum scoparium ≤ Pleurozium schreberi < Sphagnum sp. With help of microscope images, it was also demonstrated that one of the factors affecting the sorption properties of mosses was the level of their surface development. The determined sorption capacity of Zn varies according to species of mosses from 0.0491 to 0.1287 mmol g(-1), and in relation to Cd from 0.0319 to 0.1335 mmol g(-1). The described results may be important in the process of biomonitoring research design and in the test results interpretation.

  18. Ammonium first: natural mosses prefer atmospheric ammonium but vary utilization of dissolved organic nitrogen depending on habitat and nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yoh, Muneoki; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2013-07-01

    Mosses, among all types of terrestrial vegetation, are excellent scavengers of anthropogenic nitrogen (N), but their utilization of dissolved organic N (DON) and their reliance on atmospheric N remain uncharacterized in natural environments, which obscures their roles in N cycles. Natural (15) N abundance of N sources (nitrate (NO(3)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and DON in deposition and soil) for epilithic and terricolous mosses was analyzed at sites with different N depositions at Guiyang, China. Moss NO(3)(-) assimilation was inhibited substantially by the high supply of NH(4)(+) and DON. Therefore, contributions of NH(4)(+) and DON to moss N were partitioned using isotopic mass-balance methods. The N contributions averaged 56% and 46% from atmospheric NH(4)(+), and 44% and 17% from atmospheric DON in epilithic and terricolous mosses, respectively. In terricolous mosses, soil NH(4)(+) and soil DON accounted for 16% and 21% of bulk N, which are higher than current estimations obtained using (15) N-labeling methods. Moreover, anthropogenic NH(4)(+) deposition suppressed utilization of DON and soil N because of the preference of moss for NH(4)(+) under elevated NH(4)(+) deposition. These results underscore the dominance of, and preference for, atmospheric NH(4)(+) in moss N utilization, and highlight the importance of considering DON and soil N sources when estimating moss N sequestration and the impacts of N deposition on mosses.

  19. Inter-species and intra-annual variations of moss nitrogen utilization: Implications for nitrogen deposition assessment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xue-Yan; Sun, Xin-Chao; Song, Wei; Zheng, Xu-Dong; Li, Rui; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2017-07-07

    Moss nitrogen (N) concentrations and natural (15)N abundance (δ(15)N values) have been widely employed to evaluate annual levels and major sources of atmospheric N deposition. However, different moss species and one-off sampling were often used among extant studies, it remains unclear whether moss N parameters differ with species and different samplings, which prevented more accurate assessment of N deposition via moss survey. Here concentrations, isotopic ratios of bulk carbon (C) and bulk N in natural epilithic mosses (Bryum argenteum, Eurohypnum leptothallum, Haplocladium microphyllum and Hypnum plumaeforme) were measured monthly from August 2006 to August 2007 at Guiyang, SW China. The H. plumaeforme had significantly (P < 0.05) lower bulk N concentrations and higher δ(13)C values than other species. Moss N concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in warmer months than in cooler months, while moss δ(13)C values exhibited an opposite pattern. The variance component analyses showed that different species contributed more variations of moss N concentrations and δ(13)C values than different samplings. Differently, δ(15)N values did not differ significantly between moss species, and its variance mainly reflected variations of assimilated N sources, with ammonium as the dominant contributor. These results unambiguously reveal the influence of inter-species and intra-annual variations of moss N utilization on N deposition assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring of Antarctic moss ecosystems using a high spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malenovsky, Zbynek; Lucieer, Arko; Robinson, Sharon; Harwin, Stephen; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony

    2013-04-01

    The most abundant photosynthetically active plants growing along the rocky Antarctic shore are mosses of three species: Schistidium antarctici, Ceratodon purpureus, and Bryum pseudotriquetrum. Even though mosses are well adapted to the extreme climate conditions, their existence in Antarctica depends strongly on availability of liquid water from snowmelt during the short summer season. Recent changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone are stimulating faster evaporation, which in turn influences moss growing rate, health state and abundance. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Very short growing season, lasting only about three months, requires a time efficient, easily deployable and spatially resolved method for monitoring the Antarctic moss beds. Ground and/or low-altitude airborne imaging spectroscopy (called also hyperspectral remote sensing) offers a fast and spatially explicit approach to investigate an actual spatial extent and physiological state of moss turfs. A dataset of ground-based spectral images was acquired with a mini-Hyperspec imaging spectrometer (Headwall Inc., the USA) during the Antarctic summer 2012 in the surroundings of the Australian Antarctic station Casey (Windmill Islands). The collection of high spatial resolution spectral images, with pixels about 2 cm in size containing from 162 up to 324 narrow spectral bands of wavelengths between 399 and 998 nm, was accompanied with point moss reflectance measurements recorded with the ASD HandHeld-2 spectroradiometer (Analytical Spectral Devices Inc., the USA). The first spectral analysis indicates significant differences in red-edge and near-infrared reflectance of differently watered moss patches. Contrary to high plants, where the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) represents an estimate of green biomass, NDVI of mosses indicates mainly the actual water content. Similarly to high plants, reflectance of visible wavelengths is

  1. Effect of 30 years of road traffic abandonment on epiphytic moss diversity.

    PubMed

    Plášek, Vítězslav; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Nobis, Marcin; Kusza, Grzegorz; Kochanowska, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    Road traffic emits a cocktail of pollutants that can influence the vegetation and plant diversity in neighboring areas. However, the recovery potential of bryophytes after traffic abandonment is still little explored. In addition, the effects of the main pollutants of road verges, such as metals and salinity, on moss flora need to be investigated. In our study, we compared the moss richness and diversity in two closely related veteran tree allees of high conservation importance. The allees in Gryżów and Lubrza, Poland, were chosen because of their similarity in age, geographical location, type of surrounding areas, and tree species. The only difference was that the trees in Gryżów had not been exposed to direct road pollution for almost 30 years. The moss richness and diversity differed significantly between the sites. Altogether, 20 moss species were recorded on 229 trees, 17 species in Gryżów (abandoned road), and 13 in Lubrza (busy road). We found considerable differences between moss cover on the road-facing and opposite sides of tree trunks. In Lubrza, mosses on the road-facing side were very scarce. The moss cover in Gryżów was highly balanced between trunk sides as well as among trunk heights. Typical epiphytic species such as Bryum moravicum, Dicranoweisia cirrata, Leskea polycarpa, and Orthodicranum tauricum preferred the Gryżów tree stands, where they were present in numbers almost twice as high as that at Lubrza. The study shows that constructing a bypass road could be an effective conservation measure for veteran tree protection with their epiphytic moss flora.

  2. Convergent evolution of shoots in land plants: lack of auxin polar transport in moss shoots.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tomomichi; Sakaguchi, Hisako; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Wagstaff, Steven J; Ito, Motomi; Deguchi, Hironori; Sato, Toshiyuki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2008-01-01

    The shoot is a repeated structure made up of stems and leaves and is the basic body plan in land plants. Vascular plants form a shoot in the diploid generation, whereas nonvascular plants such as mosses form a shoot in the haploid generation. It is not clear whether all land plants use similar molecular mechanisms in shoot development or how the genetic networks for shoot development evolved. The control of auxin distribution, especially by polar auxin transport, is essential for shoot development in flowering plants. We did not detect polar auxin transport in the gametophytic shoots of several mosses, but did detect it in the sporophytes of mosses without shoot structure. Treatment with auxin transport inhibitors resulted in abnormal embryo development, as in flowering plants, but did not cause any morphological changes in the haploid shoots. We fused the soybean auxin-inducible promoter GH3 with a GUS reporter gene and used it to indirectly detect auxin distribution in the moss Physcomitrella patens. An auxin transport inhibitor NPA did not cause any changes in the putative distribution of auxin in the haploid shoot. These results indicate that polar auxin transport is not involved in haploid shoot development in mosses and that shoots in vascular plants and mosses are most likely regulated differently during development.

  3. Airborne pollutants along a roadside: assessment using snow analyses and moss bags.

    PubMed

    Viskari, E L; Rekilä, R; Roy, S; Lehto, O; Ruuskanen, J; Kärenlampi, L

    1997-01-01

    Vertical snow sampling and moss bag transplants were used to estimate the local inorganic and organic pollutant load deposited from traffic along a major highway in Finland. The pH and concentrations of Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Ca(2+), Na(+) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined from snow samples collected in winter at different sites along the highway. In summer, moss bags containing 20 g of fresh red-stemmed feather moss (Pleurozium schreberi) were transplanted at the same sites. The moss bag transplants remained exposed to roadside traffic for a period of one month following which the samples were collected and the PAH profiles and concentrations were analysed. The deposition of inorganic and organic pollutants from road traffic was observed up to 60 m from the road. The prevailing winds had a significant effect on the dispersion of pollutants. Snow appears to be a good collector of inorganic pollutants from the atmosphere and can be used to monitor local airborne pollution from road traffic. Snow packs can also be used as passive collectors of organic pollutant loads from road traffic on a local scale. To monitor organic PAH deposition from the road traffic, moss bags appeared to be better indicators compared to snow sampling. The efficiency of moss bags in accumulating PAH compounds indicate that vegetation may be an important sink for traffic pollution.

  4. Is a low content in atranol/chloroatranol safe in oak moss-sensitized individuals?

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Andrea; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Bernard, Guillaume; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Goossens, An

    2009-02-01

    Chloroatranol and atranol are degradation products of chloroatranorin and atranorin, respectively, and have been identified as important contact allergens in oak moss absolute (Evernia prunastri). To investigate whether chemically modified extracts of oak moss produce positive patch test reactions in previously sensitized subjects. A sample of oak moss was treated by a polymer-based method to reduce the content of the two main allergens, namely atranol and chloroatranol, from 3.4% to less than 75 p.p.m. and from 1.8% to less than 25 p.p.m., respectively. Fourteen subjects with positive reactions to oak moss from Trolab and/or Chemotechnique were patch tested to this sample, diluted 1% in petrolatum. The chemically modified sample reacted negatively in six but gave still positive reactions in eight subjects, with the same intensity as the commercially available oak moss patch test materials. Polymer-based treatment of oak moss extract reduces the allergenic elicitation potential in previously sensitized individuals only to a minor extent. The residual concentrations of atranol and chloroatranol being less than 75 p.p.m. and 25 p.p.m., respectively, are unsafe for the consumer.

  5. The Contribution of Moss to Plot-Based Spectral Signals in Moist Acidic Low Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J. L.; Beamish, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    To determine the contribution of moss to peak season normalized difference index (NDVI) field measurement of intact vegetation communities were compared to communities with individual species and litter successively removed until only the moss layer remained. Spectral measurements (n=3) were collected using a field radiometer in five upland and five lowland plots in a moist acidic tundra ecosystem at the Imnaviat Creek Watershed, North Slope Alaska. After spectral measurements were taken individual species were removed in the same order in each plot by clipping them at the moss layer. As individual species were removed NDVI values decreased. Decreases were greatest when dwarf shrub species Salix richardsonii sb. pulchra and Betula nana were removed. Notable increases in NDVI were observed once standing litter was removed. The NDVI values of the moss layer were comparable to intact vegetation communities depending on the bryophyte species composition. This suggests that the NDVI signal of moss is largely masked by vascular species but represents a significant factor missing from overall, large-scale NDVI signals. The results of this study corroborate recent data that points to the mismatch between ground based NDVI and aerial and satellite derived NDVI. This preliminary case study provides a strong basis for better characterization of the contribution of moss to NDVI for improved correction of air and space borne imagery.

  6. New methods reveal oldest known fossil epiphyllous moss: Bryiidites utahensis gen. et sp. nov. (Bryidae).

    PubMed

    Barclay, Richard S; McElwain, Jennifer C; Duckett, Jeffrey G; van Es, Maarten H; Mostaert, Anika S; Pressel, Silvia; Sageman, Bradley B

    2013-12-01

    Epiphyllous bryophytes are a highly characteristic feature of many humid tropical forest ecosystems. In contrast to the extensive fossil record for the leaves of their host plants, the record is virtually nonexistent for the epiphylls themselves, despite a fossil record for mosses that begins in the Middle Carboniferous Period, 330 million years ago. Epifluorescence optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to investigate an intimate association between a newly discovered epiphyllous moss and a Lauraceae plant host from the middle Cretaceous. We describe the oldest fossil specimen of an epiphyllous moss, Bryiidites utahensis gen. et sp. nov., identified from an individual specimen only 450 µm long, situated on an approximately one millimeter square fossil leaf fragment. The moss epiphyll is exquisitely preserved as germinating spores and short-celled protonemata with transverse and oblique cross-walls closely matching those of extant epiphyllous mosses on the surface of the plant-leaf hosts. The extension of the epiphyll record back to the middle Cretaceous provides fossil evidence for the appearance of epiphyllous mosses during the diversification of flowering plants, at least 95 million years ago. It also provides substantive evidence for a tropical maritime climate in central North America during the middle Cretaceous.

  7. Spatial variation, mapping, and classification of moss families in semi-arid landscapes in NW Turkey.

    PubMed

    Abay, Gökhan; Gül, Ebru; Günlü, Alkan; Erşahin, Sabit; Ursavaş, Serhat

    2015-03-01

    Geostatistics and remote sensing techniques are frequently used in analyzing the spatial variability of terrestrial ecosystems. We analyzed spatial variation of moss families by geostatistics and Landsat imagery in a typical semi-arid landscape in North Central Anatolia, Turkey. We sampled 49 sites, chosen based on elevation, slope steepness, and slope aspect. Moss families were determined in a 10-m(2) representative area at each sampling site. The samples were transported to a laboratory and identified for moss families. In total, 10 families were found. Semivariogram analysis was performed to analyze the spatial structure of these families. The semivariogram analysis showed that the moss families were spatially dependent within 117 m in the study area. Thirteen thematic classes were categorized by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image in the study area. The classification resulted in an overall kappa statistic of 0.8535, producer accuracy of 74.29, and user accuracy of 86.67. The family with the lowest classification accuracy was Orthotrichaceae (kappa of 0.6379, producer accuracy of 64.52, and user accuracy of 66.67). The moss families and the other classes were identified with a 0.78 kappa statistic value and an 80.74 % accuracy level by using the Landsat TM. The classification showed that Brachytheciaceae, Pottiaceae, Bryaceae, and Grimmiaceae were the most abundant moss families in this semi-arid environment.

  8. Dehydration protection provided by a maternal cuticle improves offspring fitness in the moss Funaria hygrometrica

    PubMed Central

    Budke, Jessica M.; Goffinet, Bernard; Jones, Cynthia S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In bryophytes the sporophyte offspring are in contact with, nourished from, and partially surrounded by the maternal gametophyte throughout their lifespan. During early development, the moss sporophyte is covered by the calyptra, a cap of maternal gametophyte tissue that has a multilayered cuticle. In this study the effects on sporophyte offspring fitness of removing the maternal calyptra cuticle, in combination with dehydration stress, is experimentally determined. Methods Using the moss Funaria hygrometrica, calyptra cuticle waxes were removed by chemical extraction and individuals were exposed to a short-term dehydration event. Sporophytes were returned to high humidity to complete development and then aspects of sporophyte survival, development, functional morphology, and reproductive output were measured. Key Results It was found that removal of calyptra cuticle under low humidity results in significant negative impacts to moss sporophyte fitness, resulting in decreased survival, increased tissue damage, incomplete sporophyte development, more peristome malformations, and decreased reproductive output. Conclusions This study represents the strongest evidence to date that the structure of the calyptra cuticle functions in dehydration protection of the immature moss sporophyte. The investment in a maternal calyptra with a multilayered cuticle increases offspring fitness and provides a functional explanation for calyptra retention across mosses. The moss calyptra may represent the earliest occurance of maternal protection via structural provisioning of a cuticle in green plants. PMID:23471009

  9. 350 my of mitochondrial genome stasis in mosses, an early land plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Medina, Rafael; Goffinet, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Among land plants, angiosperms have the structurally most labile mitochondrial (mt) genomes. In contrast, the so-called early land plants (e.g., mosses) seem to have completely static mt chromosomes. We assembled the complete mt genomes from 12 mosses spanning the moss tree of life, to assess 1) the phylogenetic depth of the conserved mt gene content and order and 2) the correlation between scattered sequence repeats and gene order lability in land plants. The mt genome of most mosses is approximately 100 kb in size, and thereby the smallest among land plants. Based on divergence time estimates, moss mt genome structure has remained virtually frozen for 350 My, with only two independent gene losses and a single gene relocation detected across the macroevolutionary tree. This is the longest period of mt genome stasis demonstrated to date in a plant lineage. The complete lack of intergenic repeat sequences, considered to be essential for intragenomic recombinations, likely accounts for the evolutionary stability of moss mt genomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The role of mosses in carbon uptake and partitioning in arctic vegetation.

    PubMed

    Street, Lorna E; Subke, Jens-Arne; Sommerkorn, Martin; Sloan, Victoria; Ducrotoy, Helene; Phoenix, Gareth K; Williams, Mathew

    2013-07-01

    The Arctic is already experiencing changes in plant community composition, so understanding the contribution of different vegetation components to carbon (C) cycling is essential in order to accurately quantify ecosystem C balance. Mosses contribute substantially to biomass, but their impact on carbon use efficiency (CUE) - the proportion of gross primary productivity (GPP) incorporated into growth - and aboveground versus belowground C partitioning is poorly known. We used (13) C pulse-labelling to trace assimilated C in mosses (Sphagnum sect. Acutifolia and Pleurozium schreberi) and in dwarf shrub-P. schreberi vegetation in sub-Arctic Finland. Based on (13) C pools and fluxes, we quantified the contribution of mosses to GPP, CUE and partitioning. Mosses incorporated 20 ± 9% of total ecosystem GPP into biomass. CUE of Sphagnum was 68-71%, that of P. schreberi was 62-81% and that of dwarf shrub-P. schreberi vegetation was 58-74%. Incorporation of C belowground was 10 ± 2% of GPP, while vascular plants alone incorporated 15 ± 4% of their fixed C belowground. We have demonstrated that mosses strongly influence C uptake and retention in Arctic dwarf shrub vegetation. They increase CUE, and the fraction of GPP partitioned aboveground. Arctic C models must include mosses to accurately represent ecosystem C dynamics. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Norris, D A; Cooper, D M; Mills, G; Steinnes, E; Kubin, E; Thöni, L; Aboal, J R; Alber, R; Carballeira, A; Coşkun, M; De Temmerman, L; Frolova, M; González-Miqueo, L; Jeran, Z; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Maňkovská, B; Pesch, R; Poikolainen, J; Rühling, A; Santamaria, J M; Simonèiè, P; Schröder, W; Suchara, I; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2011-10-01

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses (<0.8%) were observed in northern Finland and northern UK. The highest concentrations (≥ 1.6%) were found in parts of Belgium, France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria. The asymptotic relationship between the nitrogen concentrations in mosses and EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition (averaged per 50 km × 50 km grid) across Europe showed less scatter when there were at least five moss sampling sites per grid. Factors potentially contributing to the scatter are discussed. In Switzerland, a strong (r(2) = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fish on Prozac: a simple, noninvasive physiology laboratory investigating the mechanisms of aggressive behavior in Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Sharon E; Egar, Joseph M; Walker, Brian G; Sperry, Todd S; Ramenofsky, Marilyn

    2007-12-01

    The neuromodulator serotonin is an important regulator of aggressive behavior in vertebrates. Experimentally increasing synaptic levels of serotonin with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to reliably decrease the expression of aggressive behavior. Here, we describe a method by which fluoxetine can be noninvasively administered to male Betta splendens (an attractive model for the study of aggressive behavior) and describe a simple laboratory exercise that allows students to experimentally investigate the physiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that relatively short-term exposure (3 h) of male bettas to as little as 3 microg/ml of fluoxetine-treated aquarium water is sufficient to reduce the expression of specific aggressive behaviors. We emphasize the physiological concepts that can be addressed with this exercise, including the role of the serotonergic system in regulating aggression, and the interplay of environmental contaminants and physiology in regulating the expression of behavior. We also highlight important aspects of experimental design. This exercise can be flexibly altered to accommodate one or several laboratory periods. It is also low cost, is low impact to the animals, and requires minimal preparation time for instructors.

  13. Effect of telencephalon ablation on the reinforcing and eliciting properties of species-specific events in Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Hollis, K L; Overmier, J B

    1982-08-01

    In male Betta splendens, aggressive behavior is drastically attenuated following telencephalon ablation. Because instrumental training and Pavlovian conditioning experiments with intact fish have suggested that associative factors may play an important role in the performance of agonistic behaviors, the effect of ablation on instrumental learning and Pavlovian conditioning was studied. In Experiment 1, ablation had no effect on the learning of the instrumental tunnel-swimming response reinforced by mirror presentation (i.e., viewing a conspecific), although the mirror presentations in yoked-control groups elicited fewer responses in ablates than in normal and sham-operated control fish. Yoked controls further established that instrumental responding was maintained by the reinforcement contingency and was not merely the result of increased motor activity. Experiment 2 studied Pavlovian conditioning of the components of the agonistic display. Unconditioned fin erection, gill erection, and tail beating (i.e., unconditioned responses, URs) to the mirror US all were less frequent in ablates than in normals or shams. Of these, only gill cover erection showed evidence of true conditioning (i.e., conditioned responses; CRs) in which responses to the conditioned stimulus (CS) are due to the pairings of CS and US (unconditioned stimulus). However, ablates suffered no impairment of conditioned gill erections. Ablates performed fewer fin erections to the CS; however, fin erection responses were not due to CS-US pairings but were attributable to pseudoconditioning. These results are related to hypotheses postulating the involvement of learning mechanisms in ablation-produced deficits and normal aggressive behavior.

  14. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests.

  15. Counting with Colours? Effect of Colours on the Numerical Abilities of House Crows (Corvus splendens) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nor Amira Abdul; Ali, Zalila; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik

    2016-08-01

    Kami menjalankan beberapa eksperimen aviari untuk mengenal pasti kesan warna ke atas pemilihan kuantiti oleh dua jenis burung, burung gagak (Corvus splendens) dan burung tiung (Acridotheres tristis). Cacing dalam kuantiti berbeza (tujuh pembahagian berlainan) diberikan kepada burung dalam turutan rawak menggunakan cacing dicat dengan warna merah bagi eksperimen 1 dan menggunakan cacing dicat warna hijau bagi eksperimen 2. Kedua-dua warna cacing merah dan hijau tidak memberi kesan kepada pemilihan kuantiti gagak (merah: ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.748, p = 0.144; dan hijau: ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.085, p = 0.394). Namun demikian, burung tiung menunjukkan kesan pengaruh kuat bagi warna merah ke atas pemilihan kuantiti (ANOVA: F6,30 = 2.922, p = 0.023), dengan burung berjaya memilih jumlah makanan yang lebih besar antara dua cawan, tetapi tidak apabila cacing berwarna hijau ditawarkan (ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.183, p = 0.342). Dalam eksperimen seterusnya, hipotesis kami ialah kedua-dua burung gagak dan burung tiung akan memilih makanan berwarna merah berbanding warna hijau apabila faktor jumlah makanan adalah sama. Kami memilih untuk menguji warna merah dan warna hijau kerana kedua-dua warna memainkan peranan penting dalam pemilihan makanan burung. Keputusan menunjukkan tiada perbezaan signifikan bagi pemilihan cacing merah dan hijau bagi kedua-dua burung gagak (ANOVA: F6,30 = 2.310, p = 0.06) dan burung tiung (ANOVA: F6,30 = 0.823, p = 0.561).

  16. Influence of [S, S]-EDDS on phytoextraction of copper and zinc by Elsholtzia splendens from metal-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, L H; Sun, X F; Luo, Y M; Xing, X R; Christie, P

    2007-01-01

    Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the time course effects of the (S, S)-N, N'-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) addition to contaminated soil on the uptake of Cu and Zn by the Cu accumulator Elsholtzia splendens and on plant Cu and Zn concentrations at different growth stages. EDDS increased the amounts of Cu and Zn soluble in the soil, taken up by plants, concentrated in the xylem sap, and translocated from roots to stems and leaves. The increase in soil-soluble metals, especially Cu, resulted in a corresponding increase in metal concentrations in the xylem sap and leaves. The addition of EDDS to the soil increased plant Cu and Zn concentrations, especially in the leaves, and changed the proportions of Cu and Zn taken up by different plant parts. The proportions of Cu and Zn taken up by the roots were higher than by the leaves of control plants, but EDDS-treated plants showed the opposite trend. EDDS exerted greater effects at the end of the vegetative growth stage than at the start of the flowering or reproductive stages.

  17. Absence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci among highly ESBL-positive crows (Corvus splendens) foraging on hospital waste in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Badrul; Järhult, Josef D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as a growing problem in hospitals; however, domesticated animals, poultry, and wild birds are acting as potential reservoirs. There is a knowledge gap in the Epidemiology of VRE from Bangladesh. Methods To study the prevalence of VRE and the mechanisms of resistance implicated among wild birds, 238 fecal samples were collected in 2010 from house crows (Corvus splendens) foraging on hospital waste in Bangladesh. Fecal samples were screened by analyzing color change in broth and screening for vanA and vanB resistant genes by PCR. Results Neither vanA nor vanB genes were detected from the fecal samples. The house crow does not seem to constitute a reservoir for VRE. Conclusion The zero prevalence is an indication that foraging on hospital waste does not constitute a major risk of VRE carriage in house crows and this is the first study to focus on the prevalence of VRE from wild birds in Bangladesh. PMID:26679560

  18. Bryophyte responses to microclimatic edge effects across riparian buffers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Katherine J; Mallik, Azim U

    2006-08-01

    Although riparian buffers are an important aspect of forest management in the boreal forest of Canada, little is known about the habitat conditions within buffers, due in part to complex edge effects in response to both the upland clearcut and the stream. We investigated microclimatic conditions and bryophyte growth and vitality in seven locations between the stream edge and 60 m into the upland undisturbed conifer forests and at the clearcut sites with riparian buffer 30 km northwest of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that the growth and vitality of a pleurocarpous moss, Hylocomium splendens, and an acrocarpous moss, Polytrichum commune, would be directly related to the microclimatic gradients detected. We further hypothesized that sensitivity of the bryophytes to environmental factors will vary depending on their life form type, i.e., pleurocarpous moss will respond differently than the acrocarpous moss. Both bryophyte species were transplanted in pots and placed at 10-m intervals along 60-m transects perpendicular to the stream across the buffer and undisturbed sites. Bryophyte growth, cover, and vitality, as well as microclimatic parameters and plant cover, were measured over the summer in 2003. The riparian buffers were simultaneously affected by microclimatic gradients extending from both the clearcut edge and the riparian-upland ecotonal edge. Both bryophyte species responded to changes in the microclimatic conditions. However, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was the most important factor influencing the growth of H. splendens, whereas for P. commune growth soil moisture was most important. Our study confirms earlier findings that interior forest bryophytes such as H. splendens can be used as indicators to monitor edge effects and biodiversity recovery following forest harvesting. We demonstrate that growth and vitality of these bryophytes reflect the prevailing near-ground microclimatic conditions at the forest edges. Abundance estimates of such

  19. Assessing spatial patterns of metal bioaccumulation in French mosses by means of an exposure index.

    PubMed

    Holy, Marcel; Leblond, Sébastien; Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried

    2009-07-01

    The European Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys (UNECE-ICP Vegetation) is a programme performed every 5 years since 1990 in at least 21 European countries. The moss surveys aim at uncovering the spatiotemporal patterns of metal and nitrogen bioaccumulation in mosses. In France, the moss survey was conducted for the third time in 2006. Five hundred thirty-six monitoring sites were sampled across the whole French territory. The aim of the presented study is to give an integrative picture of the metal bioaccumulation for the entire French territory without geographical gaps. Furthermore, confounding factors of the metal bioaccumulation in mosses should be investigated. Element loads of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) measured in the French campaign 2006 were aggregated to a multi-metal index (MMI). This index was first introduced in the German moss surveys and represents the mean rank of each monitoring site or estimated raster cell regarding all elements referred to. Hence, the spatial variability of the metal bioaccumulation in France could be assessed as a whole. A comparison of the MMI map with the spatial patterns of the Cu loads in mosses was then drawn, as Cu originates to a large extent from urban sources. Applying CHAID, the MMI and the Cu loads in the mosses were further investigated with regard to confounding factors. The said results were discussed on the basis of recent scientific publications. The MMI surface map shows high values in strongly industrialized and urbanized regions as well as at sites of high altitude, lying, for example in the Massif Central and the French Alps. Accordingly, the CHAID decision tree consequently shows the altitude to be the statistically most significant influencing factor of the MMI followed by the sampled moss species. As for the MMI map, the surface map for Cu mirrors urban agglomerations, as high values can be

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the moss Oxystegus tenuirostris (Hook. & Taylor) A.J.E. Sm. (Pottiaceae, Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Alonso, Marta; Medina, Rafael; Cano, María Jesús; Jiménez, Juan Antonio; Goffinet, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome of mosses is characterized by a highly conserved structure and genic content. This is confirmed here through the assembly and annotation of the mt genome of the moss Oxystegus tenuirostris, family Pottiaceae, for which it is assembled. A phylogenetic tree is inferred from the whole genome of 16 species of mosses to validate the sequence of O. tenuirostris by confirming its shared ancestry with Syntrichia. The genome is 105 001 bp long, with a GC content of 39.2%, comprising 40 protein coding, 24 tRNA, and 3 rRNA genes. All introns reported from the mt genome of all but one peristomate moss are present, whereas no region of 50 bp or more is repeated within the genome. The genic content and order is identical to that of most mosses, highlighting that the mt genome is static not only across the phylogenetic depth but also breadth of the moss tree of life.

  1. Bringing back the rare - biogeochemical constraints of peat moss establishment in restored cut-over bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Peter; Blodau, Christian; Hölzel, Norbert; Kleinebecker, Till; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    In rewetted cut-over bogs in north-western Germany and elsewhere almost no spontaneous recolonization of hummock peat mosses, such as Sphagnum magellanicum, S. papillosum or S. rubellum can be observed. However, to reach goals of climate protection every restoration of formerly mined peatlands should aim to enable the re-establishment of these rare but functionally important plant species. Besides aspects of biodiversity, peatlands dominated by mosses can be expected to emit less methane compared to sites dominated by graminoids. To assess the hydrological and biogeochemical factors constraining the successful establishment of hummock Sphagnum mosses we conducted a field experiment by actively transferring hummock species into six existing restoration sites in the Vechtaer Moor, a large peatland complex with active peat harvesting and parallel restoration efforts. The mosses were transferred as intact sods in triplicate at the beginning of June 2016. Six weeks (mid-July) and 18 weeks later (beginning of October) pore water was sampled in two depths (5 and 20 cm) directly beneath the inoculated Sphagnum sods as well as in untreated control plots and analysed for phosphate, ferrous iron, ammonia, nitrate and total organic carbon (TOC). On the same occasions and additionally in December, the vitality of mosses was estimated. Furthermore, the increment of moss height between July and December was measured by using cranked wires and peat cores were taken for lab analyses of nutrients and major element inventories at the depths of pore water sampling. Preliminary results indicate that vitality of mosses during the period of summer water level draw down was strongly negatively related to plant available phosphate in deeper layers of the residual peat. Furthermore, increment of moss height was strongly negatively related to TOC in the upper pore waters sampled in October. Concentration of ferrous iron in deeper pore waters was in general significantly higher beneath

  2. Heavy - metal biomonitoring by using moss bags in Florence urban area, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2013-04-01

    In the last century, pollution has become one of the most important risks for environment. In particular, heavy metal presence in air, water and soil induces toxic effects on ecosystems and human health. Monitoring airborne trace element over large areas is a task not easy to reach since the concentrations of pollutants are variable in space and time. Data from automatic devices are site-specific and very limited in number to describe spatial-temporal trends of pollutants. In addition, especially in Italy, trace elements concentrations are not often recorded by most of the automated monitoring stations. In the last decades, development of alternative and complementary methods as bio-monitoring techniques, allowed to map deposition patterns not only near single pollution sources, but also over relatively large areas at municipal or even regional scale. Bio-monitoring includes a wide array of methodologies finalised to study relationships between pollution and living organisms. Mosses and lichens have been widely used as bio-accumulators for assessing the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in natural ecosystems and urban areas. In this study bio-monitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as bio-indicator for estimating atmospheric traces metal deposition in the urban area of Florence. Moss carpets were collected in a forested area of central Sardinia (municipality of Bolotana - Nuoro), which is characterised by absence of air pollution. Moss bags were located in the urban area of Florence close to three monitoring air quality stations managed by ARPAT (Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente Toscana). Two stations were located in high-traffic roads whereas the other one was located in a road with less traffic density. In each site moss bags were exposed during three campaigns of measurement conducted during the periods March-April, May-July, and August-October 2010. Two moss bags, used as control

  3. Ecophysiological analysis of moss-dominated biological soil crusts and their separate components from the Succulent Karoo, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bettina; Graf, Tobias; Bass, Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Biological soil crusts, formed by an association of soil particles with cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, fungi and bacteria in varying proportions, live in or directly on top of the uppermost soil layer. To evaluate their role in the global carbon cycle, gas exchange measurements were conducted under controlled conditions. Moss-dominated soil crusts were first analyzed as moss tufts on soil, then the mosses were removed and the soil was analyzed separately to obtain the physiological response of both soil and individual moss stems. Net photosynthetic response of moss stems and complete crusts was decreased by insufficient and excess amounts of water, resulting in optimum curves with similar ranges of optimum water content. Light saturation of both sample types occurred at high irradiance, but moss stems reached light compensation and saturation points at lower values. Optimum temperatures of moss stems ranged between 22 and 27°C, whereas complete crusts reached similar net photosynthesis between 7 and 27°C. Under optimum conditions, moss stems reached higher net photosynthesis (4.0 vs. 2.8 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) and lower dark respiration rates (-0.9 vs. -2.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Respiration rates of soil without moss stems were high (up to -2.0 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) causing by far lower absolute values of NP/DR ratios of soil crusts as compared to moss stems. In carbon balances, it therefore has to be clearly distinguished between measurements of soil crust components versus complete crusts. High rates of soil respiration may be caused by leaching of mosses, creating high-nutrient microsites that favor microorganism growth.

  4. Shifts in patterns of microhabitat occupation by six closely related species of mosses along a complex altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Watson, Maxine A

    1980-01-01

    Changes in patterns of microhabitat occupation were examined for six closely related moss species (family Polytrichaceae) found growing together along a complex altitudinal gradient on the northeast face of Mount Washington, New Hampshire. Little evidence could be found to support the hypothesis that the relative distributions of these six moss species were determined by competitive interactions occurring among them. Instead, the data support the hypothesis that changing patterns in the relative distributions of these six moss species result from differences in microhabitat availability among sites. The moss species appear to behave in an opportunistic manner, occupying a wide array of microhabitats as these microhabitats become available to them.

  5. [Phenotypic and epigenetic adaptation of the moss clone to mercury].

    PubMed

    Khorkavtsiv, Ia D; Ripets'kyĭ, R T; Baïk, O L

    2009-01-01

    On agar-Knop medium containing 0.5 microM HgCl2 about one third of microregenerants of the clone from the individual gametophyte cell of the moss Pottia intermedia survived and gave rise to protonemal mats. The high survival percentage testifies to epigenetic nature of adaptation. The latter proved to be correlated to the increase of leaf cell number and of peroxidase activity as well as to intensification of activity zone of peroxidase isoform with MM in limits of 66 kD and to appearance of two isoforms of the enzyme on electrophoregrams. The increase of peroxidase activity, though considerably weaker expressed, has been stated at 0.2 microM HgCl2 when practically all regenerants survived and on the mercury-free medium epigenetically adapted regenerants differed from physiologically adapted ones only in intensification of activity zone of peroxidase isoform with 66 kD. This gives reason to regard the adaptation of the regenerants to 0.5 microM HgCl2 as intensified epigenocopy of modification and indicates the generality of mechanisms of both types of adaptation.

  6. Microbispora bryophytorum sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from moss (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang; Zhang, Yuejing; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Haiyan; Zhao, Junwei; Li, Lianjie; Zhang, Zhongwen; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-04-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-TX2-2(T), was isolated from moss and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The isolate was found to have morphological characteristics typical of the genus Microbispora . The isolate formed longitudinally paired spores on the tips of short sporophores that branched from aerial hyphae. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence supported the assignment of the novel strain to the genus Microbispora , and strain NEAU-TX2-2(T) exhibited 99.08 and 98.62% gene sequence similarities to Microbispora amethystogenes JCM 3021(T) and Microbispora rosea subsp. rosea JCM 3006(T), respectively. However two tree-making algorithms supported the position that strain NEAU-TX2-2(T) formed a distinct clade with M. rosea subsp. rosea JCM 3006(T). A low level of DNA-DNA relatedness allowed the isolate to be differentiated from M. amethystogenes JCM 3021(T) and M. rosea subsp. rosea JCM 3006(T). Moreover, strain NEAU-TX2-2(T) could also be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives by morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-TX2-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Microbispora for which the name Microbispora bryophytorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-TX2-2(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7138(T) = DSM 46710(T)).

  7. Microfilament distribution in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    Microfilaments were visualized in dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon to assess their possible role in tip growth and gravitropism. The relative effectiveness of rhodamine phalloidin (with or without m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (MBS)) and of immunofluorescence (using the C4 antibody) was evaluated for actin localization in the same cell type. Using immunofluorescence, microfilaments were primarily in an axial orientation within the apical cell. However, a more complex network of microfilaments was observed using rhodamine phalloidin after MBS pretreatment, especially when viewed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. This method revealed a rich three dimensional network of fine microfilaments throughout the apical cell, including the extreme apex. Although there were numerous internal microfilaments, peripheral microfilaments were more abundant. No major redistribution of microfilaments was detected after gravistimulation. The combination of MBS, rhodamine phalloidin, and confocal laser scanning microscopy preserves and reveals microfilaments remarkably well and documents perhaps the most extensive F-actin network visualized to date in any tip-growing cell.

  8. Red light-induced suppression of gravitropism in moss protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, V. D.; Sack, F. D.

    1999-01-01

    Moss protonemata are among the few cell types known that both sense and respond to gravity and light. Apical cells of Ceratodon protonemata grow by oriented tip growth which is negatively gravitropic in the dark or positively phototropic in unilateral red light. Phototropism is phytochrome-mediated. To determine whether any gravitropism persists during irradiation, cultures were turned at various angles with respect to gravity and illuminated so that the light and gravity vectors acted either in the same or in different directions. Red light for 24h (≥140nmol m-2s-1) caused the protonemata to be oriented directly towards the light. Similarly, protonemata grew directly towards the light regardless of light position with respect to gravity indicating that all growth is oriented strictly by phototropism, not gravitropism. At light intensities ≤100nmol m-2s-1, no phototropism occurs and the mean protonemal tip angle remains above the horizontal, which is the criterion for negative gravitropism. But those protonemata are not as uniformly upright as they would be in the dark indicating that low intensity red light permits gravitropism but also modulates the response. Protonemata of the aphototropic mutant ptr1 that lacks a functional Pfr chromophore, exhibit gravitropism regardless of red light intensity. This indicates that red light acts via Pfr to modulate gravitropism at low intensities and to suppress gravitropism at intensities ≥140nmol m-2s-1.

  9. Influence of gravity of the photomorphism of secondary moss protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripetskyj, R. T.; Kit, N. A.; Chaban, Ch. I.

    1999-01-01

    In dark-grown plantlets of the moss, Pottia intermedia, negatively gravitropic secondary protonemata differentiate from the superficial cells of leafy shoots. When transferred to the light, distal parts of the protonemata nearest to the apical cells begin to ramify and the apical cells of the side branches as well as of the main protonemal filaments often differentiate as buds. Dark-grown protonemata were oriented horizontally and illuminated from below with white light of different intensities. Only light with an intensity of 4.5 μmol.m-2.s-1 was sufficient to induce: (a) phototropism in the apical cells, (b) light-directed initiation of branch primordia, and (c) directed growth of side branches and bud differentiation. Apical cells illuminated with light of lower (0.03-0.37 μmol.-2.s-1) intensity grew upwards (i.e., away from the light). It was shown that this upward growth was determined by the action of gravity. Although initiation of branch primordia was only slightly affected, their growth was strongly stimulated on the upper side of the protonemata.

  10. Microtubule distribution in gravitropic protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.; Hartmann, E.

    1990-01-01

    Tip cells of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are negatively gravitropic (grow upward). They possess a unique longitudinal zonation: (1) a tip group of amylochloroplasts in the apical dome, (2) a plastid-free zone, (3) a zone of significant plastid sedimentation, and (4) a zone of mostly non-sedimenting plastids. Immunofluorescence of vertical cells showed microtubules distributed throughout the cytoplasm in a mostly axial orientation extending through all zones. Optical sectioning revealed a close spatial association between microtubules and plastids. A majority (two thirds) of protonemata gravistimulated for > 20 min had a higher density of microtubules near the lower flank compared to the upper flank in the plastid-free zone. This apparent enrichment of microtubules occurred just proximal to sedimented plastids and near the part of the tip that presumably elongates more to produce curvature. Fewer than 5% of gravistimulated protonemata had an enrichment in microtubules near the upper flank, whereas 14% of vertical protonemata were enriched near one of the side walls. Oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM) disrupted microtubules, gravitropism, and normal tip growth and zonation, but did not prevent plastid sedimentation. We hypothesize that a microtubule redistribution plays a role in gravitropism in this protonema. This appears to be the first report of an effect of gravity on microtubule distribution in plants.

  11. Bioindicating potential of strontium contamination with Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guiling; Pemberton, Robert; Li, Peng

    2016-02-01

    Tillandsia species have been recognized as efficient biomonitors of air pollution, but rarely exploited in bioindicating of strontium, an important nuclide. We exposed Tillandsia usneoides, colloquially known as Spanish moss due to its filamentous morphology but is an atypical angiosperm in the family Bromeliaceae, to the solutions with different Sr concentrations (0.1-100 mmol/L). The results showed that plants were able to endure Sr stress for a relatively long period, which suggests that T. usneoides is able to resist this toxic element. T. usneoides had the highest uptake ratio of Sr (82.21 ± 0.12%) when the plants were exposed to 0.1 mmol/L Sr solutions. Sr contents in T. usneoides increased significantly with the increase in applied metal solution concentrations. Low Sr stimulated the formation of chlorophyll, but high Sr decreased the contents of chlorophyll, and no significant effect on the total biomass was found in T. usneoides. In contrast, the permeability of plasma membrane based on the relative electronic conductivity in T. usneoides increased significantly under Sr stress, indicating that Sr probably caused oxidative stress. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that the leaf relative conductivity was significantly positively correlated with Sr contents in the plants after Sr treatments. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Sr polluted environments through measuring Sr contents in the plant directly or exploiting the leaf relative conductivity as an indirect biomarker.

  12. Microtubules restrict plastid sedimentation in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.

    1994-01-01

    Apical cells of protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are unusual among plant cells with sedimentation in that only some amyloplasts sediment and these do not fall completely to the bottom of vertical cells. To determine whether the cytoskeleton restricts plastid sedimentation, the effects of amiprophos-methyl (APM) and cytochalasin D (CD) on plastid position were quantified. APM treatments of 30-60 min increased the plastid sedimentation that is normally seen along the length of untreated or control cells. Longer APM treatments often resulted in more dramatic plastid sedimentation, and in some cases almost all plastids sedimented to the lowermost point in the cell. In contrast, the microfilament inhibitor CD did not affect longitudinal plastid sedimentation compared to untreated cells, although it did disturb or eliminate plastid zonation in the tip. These data suggest that microtubules restrict the sedimentation of plastids along the length of the cell and that microtubules are load-bearing for all the plastids in the apical cell. This demonstrates the importance of the cytoskeleton in maintaining organelle position and cell organization against the force of gravity.

  13. The backward jump of a box moss mite

    PubMed Central

    Wauthy, G.; Leponce, M.; Bana, N.; Sylin, G.; Lions, J.-C.

    1998-01-01

    Indotritia cf. heterotrichia, a box moss mite 800 μm in length, combines the abilities to curl up and to jump. Despite the lack of specialized legs and of extensor muscles in its knee joints, the backward leap is characterized by a short take-off time (ca. 0.5 ms). This is apparently facilitated by a catch mechanism made up of a small hook on each forefemur that hitches on the rim of the anterior shield of the body and maintains the forelegs in a flexed position during a prejump phase. While the animal is propelled backwards, its body simultaneously spins in a forward direction: it is supposed that, at take-off, the hindlegs initiate a forward rolling of the body, which is powered by internal hydraulic pressure, before the hook disengages from the shield rim and triggers a sudden backward impulse. The non-parabolic trajectory of the flight can be described with a model where the air resistance due to the spin (Magnus effect) and to the translatory motion is taken into account.

  14. Discovery of Polyesterases from Moss-Associated Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christina Andrea; Perz, Veronika; Provasnek, Christoph; Quartinello, Felice; Guebitz, Georg M; Berg, Gabriele

    2017-02-15

    The growing pollution of the environment with plastic debris is a global threat which urgently requires biotechnological solutions. Enzymatic recycling not only prevents pollution but also would allow recovery of valuable building blocks. Therefore, we explored the existence of microbial polyesterases in microbial communities associated with the Sphagnum magellanicum moss, a key species within unexploited bog ecosystems. This resulted in the identification of six novel esterases, which were isolated, cloned, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli The esterases were found to hydrolyze the copolyester poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) (PBAT) and the oligomeric model substrate bis[4-(benzoyloxy)butyl] terephthalate (BaBTaBBa). Two promising polyesterase candidates, EstB3 and EstC7, which clustered in family VIII of bacterial lipolytic enzymes, were purified and characterized using the soluble esterase substrate p-nitrophenyl butyrate (Km values of 46.5 and 3.4 μM, temperature optima of 48°C and 50°C, and pH optima of 7.0 and 8.5, respectively). In particular, EstC7 showed outstanding activity and a strong preference for hydrolysis of the aromatic ester bond in PBAT. Our study highlights the potential of plant-associated microbiomes from extreme natural ecosystems as a source for novel hydrolytic enzymes hydrolyzing polymeric compounds.

  15. Moss (Physcomitrella patens) GH3 proteins act in auxin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Jülke, Sabine; Bierfreund, Nicole M; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Auxins are hormones involved in many cellular, physiological and developmental processes in seed plants and in mosses such as Physcomitrella patens. Control of auxin levels is achieved in higher plants via synthesis of auxin conjugates by members of the GH3 family. The role of the two GH3-like proteins from P. patens for growth and auxin homeostasis was therefore analysed. The in vivo-function of the two P. patens GH3 genes was investigated using single and double knockout mutants. The two P. patens GH3 proteins were also heterologously expressed to determine their enzymatic activity. Both P. patens GH3 enzymes accepted the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) as substrate, but with different preferences for the amino acid to which it is attached. Cytoplasmic localization was shown for PpGH3-1 tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Targeted knock-out of either gene exhibited an increased sensitivity to auxin, resulting in growth inhibition. On plain mineral media mutants had higher levels of free IAA and less conjugated IAA than the wild type, and this effect was enhanced when auxin was supplied. The DeltaPpGH3-1/DeltaPpGH3-2 double knockout had almost no IAA amide conjugates but still synthesized ester conjugates. Taken together, these data suggest a developmentally controlled involvement of P. patens GH3 proteins in auxin homeostasis by conjugating excess of physiologically active free auxin to inactive IAA-amide conjugates.

  16. Microfilament distribution in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    Microfilaments were visualized in dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon to assess their possible role in tip growth and gravitropism. The relative effectiveness of rhodamine phalloidin (with or without m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (MBS)) and of immunofluorescence (using the C4 antibody) was evaluated for actin localization in the same cell type. Using immunofluorescence, microfilaments were primarily in an axial orientation within the apical cell. However, a more complex network of microfilaments was observed using rhodamine phalloidin after MBS pretreatment, especially when viewed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. This method revealed a rich three dimensional network of fine microfilaments throughout the apical cell, including the extreme apex. Although there were numerous internal microfilaments, peripheral microfilaments were more abundant. No major redistribution of microfilaments was detected after gravistimulation. The combination of MBS, rhodamine phalloidin, and confocal laser scanning microscopy preserves and reveals microfilaments remarkably well and documents perhaps the most extensive F-actin network visualized to date in any tip-growing cell.

  17. Hawking-Moss instanton in nonlinear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying-li; Saito, Ryo; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: rsaito@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-02-01

    As a first step toward understanding a lanscape of vacua in a theory of non-linear massive gravity, we consider a landscape of a single scalar field and study tunneling between a pair of adjacent vacua. We study the Hawking-Moss (HM) instanton that sits at a local maximum of the potential, and evaluate the dependence of the tunneling rate on the parameters of the theory. It is found that provided with the same physical HM Hubble parameter H{sub HM}, depending on the values of parameters α{sub 3} and α{sub 4} in the action (2.2), the corresponding tunneling rate can be either enhanced or suppressed when compared to the one in the context of General Relativity (GR). Furthermore, we find the constraint on the ratio of the physical Hubble parameter to the fiducial one, which constrains the form of potential. This result is in sharp contrast to GR where there is no bound on the minimum value of the potential.

  18. Microtubules restrict plastid sedimentation in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.

    1994-01-01

    Apical cells of protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are unusual among plant cells with sedimentation in that only some amyloplasts sediment and these do not fall completely to the bottom of vertical cells. To determine whether the cytoskeleton restricts plastid sedimentation, the effects of amiprophos-methyl (APM) and cytochalasin D (CD) on plastid position were quantified. APM treatments of 30-60 min increased the plastid sedimentation that is normally seen along the length of untreated or control cells. Longer APM treatments often resulted in more dramatic plastid sedimentation, and in some cases almost all plastids sedimented to the lowermost point in the cell. In contrast, the microfilament inhibitor CD did not affect longitudinal plastid sedimentation compared to untreated cells, although it did disturb or eliminate plastid zonation in the tip. These data suggest that microtubules restrict the sedimentation of plastids along the length of the cell and that microtubules are load-bearing for all the plastids in the apical cell. This demonstrates the importance of the cytoskeleton in maintaining organelle position and cell organization against the force of gravity.

  19. Moss-associated methylobacteria as phytosymbionts: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornschuh, M.; Grotha, R.; Kutschera, U.

    2006-10-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria inhabit the surface of plant organs, but the interaction between these microbes and their host cells is largely unknown. Protonemata (gametophytes) of the moss Funaria hygrometrica were cultivated in vitro under axenic conditions and the growth of the protonemal filaments recorded. In the presence of methylobacteria (different strains of Methylobacterium), average cell length and the number of cells per filament were both enhanced. We tested the hypothesis that auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), secreted by the epiphytic bacteria and taken up by the plant cells, may in part be responsible for this promotion of protonema development. The antiauxin parachlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB) was used as a tool to analyze the role of IAA and methylobacteria in the regulation of cell growth. In the presence of PCIB, cell elongation and protonema differentiation were both inhibited. This effect was compensated for by the addition of different Methylobacterium strains to the culture medium. Biosynthesis and secretion of IAA by methylobacteria maintained in liquid culture was documented via a colorimetric assay and thin layer chromatography. Our results support the hypothesis that the development of Funaria protonemata is promoted by beneficial phytohormone-producing methylobacteria, which can be classified as phytosymbionts.

  20. Microtubule distribution in gravitropic protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.; Hartmann, E.

    1990-01-01

    Tip cells of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are negatively gravitropic (grow upward). They possess a unique longitudinal zonation: (1) a tip group of amylochloroplasts in the apical dome, (2) a plastid-free zone, (3) a zone of significant plastid sedimentation, and (4) a zone of mostly non-sedimenting plastids. Immunofluorescence of vertical cells showed microtubules distributed throughout the cytoplasm in a mostly axial orientation extending through all zones. Optical sectioning revealed a close spatial association between microtubules and plastids. A majority (two thirds) of protonemata gravistimulated for > 20 min had a higher density of microtubules near the lower flank compared to the upper flank in the plastid-free zone. This apparent enrichment of microtubules occurred just proximal to sedimented plastids and near the part of the tip that presumably elongates more to produce curvature. Fewer than 5% of gravistimulated protonemata had an enrichment in microtubules near the upper flank, whereas 14% of vertical protonemata were enriched near one of the side walls. Oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM) disrupted microtubules, gravitropism, and normal tip growth and zonation, but did not prevent plastid sedimentation. We hypothesize that a microtubule redistribution plays a role in gravitropism in this protonema. This appears to be the first report of an effect of gravity on microtubule distribution in plants.

  1. Development of Waste Reduction System of Wastewater Treatment Process Using a Moss: Production of Useful Materials from Remainder of a Moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumihisa, Kobayashi

    Landfill leachate pollution presents a serious environmental problem. It would be valuable to develop a sustainable method, one that is inexpensive and requires little energy, to eliminate the pollution and dispose of the waste. In a previous study, we reported the results of a leachate treatment for landfills in which we relied on the moss, Scopelophia cataractae, to support a sustainable method of waste reduction. In this study, for the development of a waste reduction system of landfill leachate treatment, we attempted to produce zinc as useful metal and ethanol as fuel from the remainder of moss after wastewater treatment. Steam explosions, which were used as physicochemical pretreatments to expose the raw material to saturated steam under high pressure and temperature, were used to pretreat the moss. By electrolysis, zinc recovered, and the maximum zinc recovery after wastewater treatment was 0.504 at 2.0 MPa steam pressure (211 °C) and 5 min steaming time. After that time, by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using a Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 0.42 g dm-3 of the maximum ethanol concentration was produced from 10 g dm-3 of exploded moss at 2.5 MPa steam pressure (223 °C) and 1 min steaming time.

  2. Moss and soil contributions to the annual net carbon flux of a maturing boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; O'Neill, K. P.; Trumbore, S.E.; Veldhuis, H.; Stocks, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    We used input and decomposition data from 14C studies of soils to determine rates of vertical accumulation of moss combined with carbon storage inventories on a sequence of burns to model how carbon accumulates in soils and moss after a stand-killing fire. We used soil drainage - moss associations and soil drainage maps of the old black spruce (OBS) site at the BOREAS northern study area (NSA) to areally weight the contributions of each moderately well drained, feathermoss areas; poorly drained sphagnum - feathermoss areas; and very poorly drained brown moss areas to the carbon storage and flux at the OBS NSA site. On this very old (117 years) complex of black spruce, sphagnum bog veneer, and fen systems we conclude that these systems are likely sequestering 0.01-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-' at OBS-NSA today. Soil drainage in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba, controls carbon storage and flux by controlling moss input and decomposition rates and by controlling through fire the amount and quality of carbon left after burning. On poorly drained soils rich in sphagnum moss, net accumulation and long-term storage of carbon is higher than on better drained soils colonized by feathermosses. The carbon flux of these contrasting ecosystems is best characterized by soil drainage class and stand age, where stands recently burned are net sources of CO2, and maturing stands become increasingly stronger sinks of atmospheric CO2. This approach to measuring carbon storage and flux presents a method of scaling to larger areas using soil drainage, moss cover, and stand age information.

  3. Moss harvest truncates the successional development of epiphytic bryophytes in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Peck, Jerilynn E; Frelich, Lee E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of commercial moss harvest on the development of an understory epiphyte community in the Pacific Northwest by characterizing natural development stages using data from both a long-term regrowth study and demographic sampling. First, experimentally stripped 1 m long cylindrats on 46 shrub stems in the Oregon Coast Range were monitored for species composition and abundance annually during the first five years of recovery and again in year 10. Second, a pathway of community development was inferred by examining the relative species composition and abundance of epiphytic species present in moss mats in a four-stage chronosequence. We (1) characterized the change in richness and composition from year 1 through 10 of regrowth following experimental disturbance, (2) quantified the proportion of approximately 1-, 10-, 25-, and 50-year-old moss mats of commercially harvestable species that were monodominant, diverse, and late successional, and (3) contrasted these proportions with estimates from a compositional transition matrix derived from long-term monitoring. Roughly half of the observed moss mats demonstrated neutral dynamics and were composed of a mixture of readily dispersed acrocarps and pleurocarps. The remaining half exhibited positive dynamics and were dominated by aggressively growing pleurocarpous species such as Isothecium myosuroides. Following structural developmental pathways well established for vascular plants, moss mats shift with time from high diversity and evenness in the initial colonization and extended establishment phases to increasing Isothecium dominance during a presumed competitive-exclusion phase. Old mats exist in alternate states of either Isothecium dominance or mixed composition, either of which may have late-successional species. Patchy historic commercial moss harvest likely facilitated high diversity by increasing the simultaneous occurrence of all moss mat age classes, while modern strip harvesting methods are

  4. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with heavy metals in the vicinity of a ferronickel smelter plant.

    PubMed

    Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the atmospheric deposition of various elements in the Kavadarci region, Republic of Macedonia (known for its ferronickel mining and metallurgical activities) using moss biomonitoring, and to determine whether the deposition is anthropogenic or from geogenic influences. The sampling network includes 31 moss samples evenly distributed over a territory of about 600 km(2). A total of 46 elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hg, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn, Zr) were determined by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS). Based on a distribution pattern of elements determined in moss, two anthropogenic geochemical associations (Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mg-Ni and As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Zn), were detected. The distribution of these elements shows an increased content (especially Ni, Co and Cr) in the moss samples from the surroundings of the smelter plant compared to the rest of the samples. Thus, the median value of Ni in moss samples from the whole region (40 mg kg(-1)) is much higher than the median for Macedonia (5.82 mg kg(-1)). Moreover, the median content of Ni in the moss samples from the polluted area (around the smelter) is 178 mg kg(-1) with an enrichment ratio in the moss samples of almost 5.5 times higher than the unpolluted areas (32 mg kg(-1)). This fact confirms the influence of the dust from the ferronickel plant to the air pollution in this region.

  5. Does the core circadian clock in the moss Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta) comprise a single loop?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The endogenous circadian clock allows the organism to synchronize processes both to daily and seasonal changes. In plants, many metabolic processes such as photosynthesis, as well as photoperiodic responses, are under the control of a circadian clock. Comparative studies with the moss Physcomitrella patens provide the opportunity to study many aspects of land plant evolution. Here we present a comparative overview of clock-associated components and the circadian network in the moss P. patens. Results The moss P. patens has a set of conserved circadian core components that share genetic relationship and gene expression patterns with clock genes of vascular plants. These genes include Myb-like transcription factors PpCCA1a and PpCCA1b, pseudo-response regulators PpPRR1-4, and regulatory elements PpELF3, PpLUX and possibly PpELF4. However, the moss lacks homologs of AtTOC1, AtGI and the AtZTL-family of genes, which can be found in all vascular plants studied here. These three genes constitute essential components of two of the three integrated feed-back loops in the current model of the Arabidopsis circadian clock mechanism. Consequently, our results suggest instead a single loop circadian clock in the moss. Possibly as a result of this, temperature compensation of core clock gene expression appears to be decreased in P. patens. Conclusions This study is the first comparative overview of the circadian clock mechanism in a basal land plant, the moss P. patens. Our results indicate that the moss clock mechanism may represent an ancestral state in contrast to the more complex and partly duplicated structure of subsequent land plants. These findings may provide insights into the understanding of the evolution of circadian network topology. PMID:20550695

  6. Does the core circadian clock in the moss Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta) comprise a single loop?

    PubMed

    Holm, Karl; Källman, Thomas; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Hedman, Harald; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2010-06-15

    The endogenous circadian clock allows the organism to synchronize processes both to daily and seasonal changes. In plants, many metabolic processes such as photosynthesis, as well as photoperiodic responses, are under the control of a circadian clock. Comparative studies with the moss Physcomitrella patens provide the opportunity to study many aspects of land plant evolution. Here we present a comparative overview of clock-associated components and the circadian network in the moss P. patens. The moss P. patens has a set of conserved circadian core components that share genetic relationship and gene expression patterns with clock genes of vascular plants. These genes include Myb-like transcription factors PpCCA1a and PpCCA1b, pseudo-response regulators PpPRR1-4, and regulatory elements PpELF3, PpLUX and possibly PpELF4. However, the moss lacks homologs of AtTOC1, AtGI and the AtZTL-family of genes, which can be found in all vascular plants studied here. These three genes constitute essential components of two of the three integrated feed-back loops in the current model of the Arabidopsis circadian clock mechanism. Consequently, our results suggest instead a single loop circadian clock in the moss. Possibly as a result of this, temperature compensation of core clock gene expression appears to be decreased in P. patens. This study is the first comparative overview of the circadian clock mechanism in a basal land plant, the moss P. patens. Our results indicate that the moss clock mechanism may represent an ancestral state in contrast to the more complex and partly duplicated structure of subsequent land plants. These findings may provide insights into the understanding of the evolution of circadian network topology.

  7. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxant actions and mechanisms induced by total flavonoids of Elsholtzia splendens in rat aortas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Guo-Lin; Li, Xu-Yun; Peng, Hong-Yun; Lu, Yuan; Zhao, Liang; Ye, Zhi-Guo; Bruce, Iain C; Xia, Qiang; Qian, Ling-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Elsholtzia splendens (ES) is, rich in flavonoids, used to repair copper contaminated soil in China, which has been reported to benefit cardiovascular systems as folk medicine. However, few direct evidences have been found to clarify the vasorelaxation effect of total flavonoids of ES (TFES). The vasoactive effect of TFES and its underlying mechanisms in rat thoracic aortas were investigated using the organ bath system. TFES (5-200mg/L) caused a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in endothelium-intact rings, which was not abolished but significantly reduced by the removal of endothelium. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (100μM) and the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,2-α]quinoxalin-1-one (30μM) significantly blocked the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of TFES. Meanwhile, NOS activity in endothelium-intact aortas was concentration-dependently elevated by TFES. However, indomethacin (10μM) did not affect TFES-induced vasorelaxation. Endothelium-independent vasorelaxation of TFES was significantly attenuated by KATP channel blocker glibenclamide. The accumulative Ca(2+)-induced contraction in endothelium-denuded aortic rings primed with KCl or phenylephrine was markedly weakened by TFES. These results revealed that the NOS/NO/cGMP pathway is likely involved in the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by TFES, while activating KATP channel, inhibiting intracellular Ca(2+) release, blocking Ca(2+) channels and decreasing Ca(2+) influx into vascular smooth muscle cells might contribute to the endothelium-independent vasorelaxation conferred by TFES.

  8. Neural pathway for aggressive display in Betta splendens: midbrain and hindbrain control of gill-cover erection behavior.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1990-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to identify parts of the presumptive neural pathway for gill cover erection, a behavioral display pattern performed by Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) during aggressive interactions. Motor, motor integration and sensory areas were identified in the medulla and mesencephalon. Motor neurons of the dilator operculi muscle, the effector muscle for gill cover erection, are located in the lateral and medial parts of the caudal trigeminal motor nucleus. Iontophoretic injections of HRP into the lateral trigeminal motor nucleus resulted in labeled cell bodies in two motor areas (medial part of the trigeminal motor nucleus, anterior part of the motor nucleus of cranial nerve IX-X), two parts of the reticular formation (medial and inferior reticular areas), and two nuclei of the octavolateralis system (nucleus medialis, magnocellular octaval nucleus). The HRP injections in the medial part of the caudal trigeminal motor nucleus resulted in labeled cells in the lateral part of the nucleus and in the medial reticular nucleus. Discrete injections of HRP into nucleus medialis revealed a strong axonal projection that terminated in the torus semicircularis. The medial reticular area and both of the octavolateralis nuclei received projections from their contralateral counterparts. Connections between motor areas, and between parts of the reticular formation, may coordinate the performance of gill cover erection with other behavioral patterns used during aggressive display. Connections with the octavolateralis system may provide information on the strength of an opponent's tail beats via the lateral-line system, as well as vestibular information about the fish's own orientation during aggressive display. The organization of inputs to the trigeminal motor nucleus in Betta, a perciform fish, was found to differ from that reported in the common carp, a cypriniform fish. These differences may underlie the different behavioral capabilities of

  9. Acute exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol disrupts audience effect on male-female interactions in Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Forette, Lindsay M; Mannion, Krystal L; Dzieweczynski, Teresa L

    2015-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can negatively impact the morphology and behavior of organisms inhabiting polluted waters. Male-typical behaviors are often reduced after exposure, suggesting that exposure may have population-level effects. One way in which exposure may exert population-level effects is by interfering with communication within a network of individuals. Acute exposure to the estrogen mimic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) disrupts the ability of male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, to modify their behavior during male-male interactions when an audience is present. However, it is unknown whether audience effects during male-female interactions may be similarly altered. To examine this, male-female pairs that were given an acute exposure to EE2 or remained unexposed interacted in the presence of a female, male, or no audience. Sex differences were found between unexposed males and females. More interactant-directed gill flaring was displayed by control males when a male audience was present while control females performed this behavior more in the presence of an audience, regardless of sex. Both males and females in the control group performed more interactant-directed tail beats in the presence of a female audience. EE2 exposure made all audience effects disappear as treated males and females did not differ in their responses between audience types. These results demonstrate that acute exposure to EE2 may disrupt behavioral adjustments to audience type within a social network. This disruption may, in turn, influence population dynamics in this species as both males and females use information obtained from observing interactions in later encounters with the observed individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lateral bias of agonistic responses to mirror images and morphological asymmetry in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Myint, Omar; Kohda, Masanori

    2010-03-17

    Behavioural laterality (e.g., during social interactions) is often observed at the individual level in lower vertebrates such as fish, whereas population-level laterality is observed in many higher vertebrates. Population-level laterality can be explained mainly by internal factors (e.g., cerebral lateralization), whereas little is known about the behavioural mechanisms underlying individual-level laterality. Recently, it was revealed that many fish have asymmetrical body morphology, but the relationship between asymmetric morphology and social behaviours has been rarely examined. Here we report the relationship between lateralized eye use during aggressive displays (e.g., body posture) of male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, toward their own mirror image and morphological asymmetry. Of 25 males, five exhibited significantly more leftward eye use during left displays, and eight males exhibited predominantly rightward eye use during right displays. Morphological measurement results for the craniovertebral angle and opercular area showed that the craniovertebral angle and opercular area displayed antisymmetry and fluctuating asymmetry, respectively. We found that lateralized eye use during agonistic responses by each fish was associated with the craniovertebral angle, but not with operculum size; lefties (left-curved body) showed mainly left eye use (during left-side displays), and righties (right-curved body) demonstrated the opposite. We suggest that antisymmetric morphologies, such as head incline, are potentially useful for studying the association between cerebral lateralization and individual laterality of behavioural responses. Further, we propose that in fish, morphological asymmetry is related to laterality in various behaviours. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aerobic and anaerobic enzymatic activity of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) and alfonsino (Beryx splendens) from the Juan Fernandez seamounts area.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, L M; Quiñones, R A; Gonzalez-Saldía, R R; Niklitschek, E J

    2016-06-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic enzymatic activity of two important commercial bathypelagic species living in the Juan Fernández seamounts was analyzed: alfonsino (Beryx splendens) and orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus). These seamounts are influenced by the presence of an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) located between 160 and 250 m depth. Both species have vertical segregation; alfonsino is able to stay in the OMZ, while orange roughy remains at greater depths. In this study, we compare the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of these species, measuring the activity of key metabolic enzymes in different body tissues (muscle, heart, brain and liver). Alfonsino has higher anaerobic potential in its white muscle due to greater lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (190.2 μmol NADH min(-1) g ww(-1)), which is related to its smaller body size, but it is also a feature shared with species that migrate through OMZs. This potential and the higher muscle citrate synthase and electron transport system activities indicate that alfonsino has greater swimming activity level than orange roughy. This species has also a high MDH/LDH ratio in its heart, brain and liver, revealing a potential capacity to conduct aerobic metabolism in these organs under prolonged periods of environmental low oxygen conditions, preventing lactic acid accumulation. With these metabolic characteristics, alfonsino may have increased swimming activity to migrate and also could stay for a period of time in the OMZ. The observed differences between alfonsino and orange roughy with respect to their aerobic and anaerobic enzymatic activity are consistent with their characteristic vertical distributions and feeding behaviors.

  12. Cloning and functional characterization of a gene for capsanthin-capsorubin synthase from tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium Thunb. 'Splendens').

    PubMed

    Jeknić, Zoran; Morré, Jeffrey T; Jeknić, Stevan; Jevremović, Sladana; Subotić, Angelina; Chen, Tony H H

    2012-11-01

    The orange color of tiger lily (Lolium lancifolium 'Splendens') flowers is due, primarily, to the accumulation of two κ-xanthophylls, capsanthin and capsorubin. An enzyme, known as capsanthin-capsorubin synthase (CCS), catalyzes the conversion of antheraxanthin and violaxanthin into capsanthin and capsorubin, respectively. We cloned the gene for capsanthin-capsorubin synthase (Llccs) from flower tepals of L. lancifolium by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) with a heterologous non-degenerate primer that was based on the sequence of a gene for lycopene β-cyclase (lcyB). The full-length cDNA of Llccs was 1,785 bp long and contained an open reading frame of 1,425 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 474 amino acids with a predicted N-terminal plastid-targeting sequence. Analysis by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed that expression of Llccs was spatially and temporally regulated, with expression in flower buds and flowers of L. lancifolium but not in vegetative tissues. Stable overexpression of the Llccs gene in callus tissue of Iris germanica, which accumulates several xanthophylls including violaxanthin, the precursor of capsorubin, resulted in transgenic callus whose color had changed from its normal yellow to red-orange. This novel red-orange coloration was due to the accumulation of two non-native κ-xanthophylls, capsanthin and capsorubin, as confirmed by HPLC and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis with authentic standards. Cloning of the Llccs gene should advance our understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms of the biosynthesis of κ-carotenoids in general and in the genus Lilium in particular, and will facilitate transgenic alterations of the colors of flowers and fruits of many plant species.

  13. Female-specific specialization of a posterior end region of the midgut symbiotic organ in Plautia splendens and allied stinkbugs.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshinari; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Meng, Xian-Ying; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema

    2015-04-01

    Many stinkbugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) are associated with bacterial symbionts in a posterior region of the midgut. In these stinkbugs, adult females excrete symbiont-containing materials from the anus for transmission of the beneficial symbionts to their offspring. For ensuring the vertical symbiont transmission, a variety of female-specific elaborate traits at the cellular, morphological, developmental, and behavioral levels have been reported from diverse stinkbugs of the families Plataspidae, Urostylididae, Parastrachiidae, etc. Meanwhile, such elaborate female-specific traits for vertical symbiont transmission have been poorly characterized for the largest and economically important stinkbug family Pentatomidae. Here, we investigated the midgut symbiotic system of a pentatomid stinkbug, Plautia splendens. A specific gammaproteobacterial symbiont was consistently present extracellularly in the cavity of numerous crypts arranged in four rows on the midgut fourth section. The symbiont was smeared on the egg surface upon oviposition by adult females, orally acquired by newborn nymphs, and thereby transmitted vertically to the next generation and important for growth and survival of the host insects. We found that, specifically in adult females, several rows of crypts at the posterior end region of the symbiotic midgut were morphologically differentiated and conspicuously enlarged, often discharging the symbiotic bacteria from the crypt cavity to the main tract of the symbiotic midgut. The female-specific enlarged end crypts were also found in other pentatomid stinkbugs Plautia stali and Carbula crassiventris. These results suggest that the enlarged end crypts represent a female-specific specialized morphological trait for vertical symbiont transmission commonly found among stinkbugs of the family Pentatomidae.

  14. Female-Specific Specialization of a Posterior End Region of the Midgut Symbiotic Organ in Plautia splendens and Allied Stinkbugs

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Toshinari; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Meng, Xian-Ying; Koga, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    Many stinkbugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) are associated with bacterial symbionts in a posterior region of the midgut. In these stinkbugs, adult females excrete symbiont-containing materials from the anus for transmission of the beneficial symbionts to their offspring. For ensuring the vertical symbiont transmission, a variety of female-specific elaborate traits at the cellular, morphological, developmental, and behavioral levels have been reported from diverse stinkbugs of the families Plataspidae, Urostylididae, Parastrachiidae, etc. Meanwhile, such elaborate female-specific traits for vertical symbiont transmission have been poorly characterized for the largest and economically important stinkbug family Pentatomidae. Here, we investigated the midgut symbiotic system of a pentatomid stinkbug, Plautia splendens. A specific gammaproteobacterial symbiont was consistently present extracellularly in the cavity of numerous crypts arranged in four rows on the midgut fourth section. The symbiont was smeared on the egg surface upon oviposition by adult females, orally acquired by newborn nymphs, and thereby transmitted vertically to the next generation and important for growth and survival of the host insects. We found that, specifically in adult females, several rows of crypts at the posterior end region of the symbiotic midgut were morphologically differentiated and conspicuously enlarged, often discharging the symbiotic bacteria from the crypt cavity to the main tract of the symbiotic midgut. The female-specific enlarged end crypts were also found in other pentatomid stinkbugs Plautia stali and Carbula crassiventris. These results suggest that the enlarged end crypts represent a female-specific specialized morphological trait for vertical symbiont transmission commonly found among stinkbugs of the family Pentatomidae. PMID:25636847

  15. Counting with Colours? Effect of Colours on the Numerical Abilities of House Crows (Corvus splendens) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nor Amira Abdul; Ali, Zalila; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik

    2016-01-01

    We conducted several aviary experiments to investigate the influence of colours in quantity judgments of two species of birds; house crow (Corvus splendens) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Different quantity (in seven different food proportions) of mealworms were presented nonsequentially to all birds using artificially coloured red mealworms, for experiment 1, and using artificially coloured green mealworms, for experiment 2. Both red and green coloured mealworms have no significant effect on house crow’s quantity judgments (red: ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.748, p = 0.144; and green: ANOVA: F6,30= 1.085, p = 0.394). Common myna, however, showed a strong influence of red colour in their quantity judgment (ANOVA: F6,30 = 2.922, p = 0.023) as they succeeded in choosing the largest amount of food between two cups, but not when offered food using green coloured mealworms (ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.183, p = 0.342). In the next experiment, we hypothesised that both house crow and common myna will prefer red coloured food items over green coloured food items, when factors such as the amount of food is equal. We chose to test red and green colours because both colours play an important role in most avian food selections. Results showed that there were no significant differences in the selection of red or green coloured mealworms for both house crows (ANOVA: F6,30 = 2.310, p = 0.06) and common myna (ANOVA: F6,30 = 0.823, p = 0.561). PMID:27688847

  16. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapalee, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.

    2001-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important; particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Chemical and histochemical analysis of 'Quatre Saisons Blanc Mousseux', a Moss Rose of the Rosa x damascena group.

    PubMed

    Caissard, Jean-Claude; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Martin, Magali; Mauriat, Mélanie; Baudino, Sylvie

    2006-02-01

    Moss roses are old garden roses covered with a mossy growth on flower pedicel and calyx. This moss releases a pine-scented oleoresin that is very sticky and odoriferous. Rosa x centifolia 'muscosa' was the first moss rose to be obtained by bud-mutation but, interestingly, R. x damascena 'Quatre Saisons Blanc Mousseux' was the first repeat-blooming cultivar, thus interesting breeders. In the present study, the anatomy of these sports (i.e. bud-mutations) is characterized and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the moss versus the petals are identified. They are compared between the two lines and their respective parents. Anatomy of the moss is studied by environmental scanning electron microscopy and histochemical light microscopy. Sudan Red IV and Fluorol Yellow 088 are used to detect lipids, and 1-naphthol reaction with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine to detect terpenes (Nadi reaction). Head-space or solid/liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are used to identify VOCs in moss, trichomes and petals. Moss of the two cultivars has the same structure with trichomes on other trichomes but not exactly the same VOCs. These VOCs are specific to the moss, with lots of terpenes. An identical VOC composition is found in leaves but not in petals. They are nearly the same in the moss mutants and in the respective wild types. Sepals of moss roses and their parents have a specific VOC pattern, different from that of the petals. The moss corresponds to a heterochronic mutation with trichomes developing on other trichomes. Such a mutation has probably appeared twice and independently in the two lines.

  18. Chemical and Histochemical Analysis of ‘Quatre Saisons Blanc Mousseux’, a Moss Rose of the Rosa × damascena Group

    PubMed Central

    CAISSARD, JEAN-CLAUDE; BERGOUGNOUX, VÉRONIQUE; MARTIN, MAGALI; MAURIAT, MÉLANIE; BAUDINO, SYLVIE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Moss roses are old garden roses covered with a mossy growth on flower pedicel and calyx. This moss releases a pine-scented oleoresin that is very sticky and odoriferous. Rosa × centifolia ‘muscosa’ was the first moss rose to be obtained by bud-mutation but, interestingly, R. × damascena ‘Quatre Saisons Blanc Mousseux’ was the first repeat-blooming cultivar, thus interesting breeders. In the present study, the anatomy of these sports (i.e. bud-mutations) is characterized and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the moss versus the petals are identified. They are compared between the two lines and their respective parents. • Methods Anatomy of the moss is studied by environmental scanning electron microscopy and histochemical light microscopy. Sudan Red IV and Fluorol Yellow 088 are used to detect lipids, and 1-naphthol reaction with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine to detect terpenes (Nadi reaction). Head-space or solid/liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are used to identify VOCs in moss, trichomes and petals. • Key Results Moss of the two cultivars has the same structure with trichomes on other trichomes but not exactly the same VOCs. These VOCs are specific to the moss, with lots of terpenes. An identical VOC composition is found in leaves but not in petals. They are nearly the same in the moss mutants and in the respective wild types. • Conclusions Sepals of moss roses and their parents have a specific VOC pattern, different from that of the petals. The moss corresponds to a heterochronic mutation with trichomes developing on other trichomes. Such a mutation has probably appeared twice and independently in the two lines. PMID:16344264

  19. Trade-Offs in Resource Allocation Among Moss Species Control Decomposition in Boreal Peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Turetsky, M. R.; Crow, S. E.; Evans, R. J.; Vitt, D. H.; Wieder, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    We separated the effects of plant species controls on decomposition rates from environmental controls in northern peatlands using a full factorial, reciprocal transplant experiment of eight dominant bryophytes in four distinct peatland types in boreal Alberta, Canada. Standard fractionation techniques as well as compound-specific pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry were used to identify a biochemical mechanism underlying any interspecific differences in decomposition rates. We found that over a 3-year field incubation, individual moss species and not micro-environmental conditions controlled early stages of decomposition. Across species, Sphagnum mosses exhibited a trade-off in resource partitioning into metabolic and structural carbohydrates, a pattern that served as a strong predictor of litter decomposition. Decomposition rates showed a negative co-variation between species and their microtopographic position, as species that live in hummocks decomposed slowly but hummock microhabitats themselves corresponded to rapid decomposition rates. By forming litter that degrades slowly, hummock mosses appear to promote the maintenance of macropore structure in surface peat hummocks that aid in water retention. Many northern regions are experiencing rapid climate warming that is expected to accelerate the decomposition of large soil carbon pools stored within peatlands. However, our results suggest that some common peatland moss species form tissue that resists decomposition across a range of peatland environments, suggesting that moss resource allocation could stabilize peatland carbon losses under a changing climate.

  20. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in lichens and mosses from King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yogui, G T; Sericano, J L

    2008-11-01

    Lichens and mosses are considered good indicators of atmospheric pollution as they absorb contaminants directly from the air. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are man-made chemicals used as flame retardants in materials such as plastics, textiles, electronic circuitry and furnishing foam. Few studies have investigated PBDEs in the southern hemisphere including Antarctica. This paper presents the first evaluation of PBDEs in lichens (Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra) and mosses (Sanionia uncinata) collected at King George Island, maritime Antarctica. PBDEs were detected at low levels in all lichen and moss samples. On average, the levels of PBDEs in mosses (818 pg g(-1) dry weight; 101 ng g(-1) lipid) were significantly higher than in lichens (168 pg g(-1) dry weight; 9.11 ng g(-1) lipid). This difference is most likely due to the differing mechanisms of PBDEs uptake from the atmosphere which are controlled by a number of chemical, environmental and plant variables. Contaminant concentrations were not statistically different at sites close to and distant from human facilities. Long-range atmospheric transport is believed to be the primary source of PBDEs to King George Island. The pattern of congeners in plants resembles those found in commercial mixtures of Penta-BDE. In addition, the presence of BDE-183 in lichens and mosses suggests that other technical formulations (e.g., Octa-BDE and Deca-BDE) have reached Antarctica. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Antarctic vegetation as a sink for anthropogenic organic pollutants.

  2. Historical and current use of spanish moss as a monitor of atmospheric trace metals

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, M.L.; Mossler, M.A.; Kosalwat, P.; Newman, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usnesoides) is an epiphytic member of the pineapple family, Historically, tissue levels in this plant have illustrated the elevated concentration of lead near well traveled roads, as well as nickel and tin in the vicinity of battery fabrication or smelting facilities, respectively. From a survey of Spanish moss plants growing throughout the Southeast, mercury at or slightly above the limit of detection was present in eight of 128 samples. Five of these samples were collected in Florida. As part of a biomonitoring project, Spanish moss was collected from 1991 to 1993 around a waste-to-energy facility in Lake County, Florida, After three years, the percentage of Spanish moss samples which contained detectable levels of arsenic and cadmium decreased over time. Lead was detected in all samples collected throughout the monitoring period, but the mean concentration decreased from 3.7 mg/kg on a dry weight basis (1991) to 1.4 mg/kg (1993). This trend in lead levels may indicate clearance that is occurring due to the discontinuation of leaded gasoline. The percentage of moss samples containing mercury above the limit of detection increased from 67% (1991) to 97% (1993); however, mean concentrations do not support a trend in increasing concentration of this element (0.30 mg/kg on a fresh weight basis in 1991 vs. 0.19 mg/kg in 1993). Apparently, atmospheric metal concentrations are not increasing in the vicinity of the facility at this time.

  3. Mosses Indicating Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition and Sources in the Yangtze River Drainage Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2010-07-01

    Characterizing the level and sources of atmospheric N deposition in a large-scale area is not easy when using physical monitoring. In this study, we attempted to use epilithic mosses (Haplocladium microphyllum (Hedw.)) as a bioindicator. A gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 13.8 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 47.7 kg N ha-1 yr-1 was estimated on the basis of moss tissue N concentrations and the linear equation between them. The estimated results are reliable because the highest atmospheric N deposition occurred in the middle parts of the Yangtze River, where the highest TN concentrations were also observed. Moss δ15N values in cities and forests were found in distinctly different ranges of approximately -10‰ to -6‰ and approximately -2‰ to 2‰, respectively, indicating that the main N sources in most of these cities were excretory wastes and those in forests were soil emissions. A negative correlation between moss δ15N values and the ratios of NH4-N/NO3-N in deposition (y = -1.53 x + 1.78) has been established when the ratio increased from 1.6 to 6.5. On the basis of the source information, the negative moss δ15N values in this study strongly indicate that NHy-N is the dominant N form in N deposition in the whole drainage basin. These findings are supported by the existing data of chemical composition of local N deposition.

  4. Biocrust-forming mosses mitigate the negative impacts of increasing aridity on ecosystem multifunctionality in drylands.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T; Eldridge, David J; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; Berdugo, Miguel; Val, James; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-03-01

    The increase in aridity predicted with climate change will have a negative impact on the multiple functions and services (multifunctionality) provided by dryland ecosystems worldwide. In these ecosystems, soil communities dominated by mosses, lichens and cyanobacteria (biocrusts) play a key role in supporting multifunctionality. However, whether biocrusts can buffer the negative impacts of aridity on important biogeochemical processes controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) pools and fluxes remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted an empirical study, using samples from three continents (North America, Europe and Australia), to evaluate how the increase in aridity predicted by climate change will alter the capacity of biocrust-forming mosses to modulate multiple ecosystem processes related to C, N and P cycles. Compared with soil surfaces lacking biocrusts, biocrust-forming mosses enhanced multiple functions related to C, N and P cycling and storage in semiarid and arid, but not in humid and dry-subhumid, environments. Most importantly, we found that the relative positive effects of biocrust-forming mosses on multifunctionality compared with bare soil increased with increasing aridity. These results were mediated by plant cover and the positive effects exerted by biocrust-forming mosses on the abundance of soil bacteria and fungi. Our findings provide strong evidence that the maintenance of biocrusts is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change on multifunctionality in global drylands.

  5. Moss and vascular plant indices in Ohio wetlands have similar environmental predictors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Adams, Jean V.; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Mosses and vascular plants have been shown to be reliable indicators of wetland habitat delineation and environmental quality. Knowledge of the best ecological predictors of the quality of wetland moss and vascular plant communities may determine if similar management practices would simultaneously enhance both populations. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to identify models predicting a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) and a vascular plant index of biological integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) from 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. The set of predictors included the six metrics from a wetlands disturbance index (ORAM) and two landscape development intensity indices (LDIs). The best single predictor of MQAI and one of the predictors of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration and disturbance within the wetland, such as mowing, grazing, and agricultural practices. However, the best single predictor of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assessed wetland vascular plant communities, interspersion, and microtopography. LDIs better predicted MQAI than VIBI-FQ, suggesting that mosses may either respond more rapidly to, or recover more slowly from, anthropogenic disturbance in the surrounding landscape than vascular plants. These results supported previous predictive studies on amphibian indices and metrics and a separate vegetation index, indicating that similar wetland management practices may result in qualitatively the same ecological response for three vastly different wetland biological communities (amphibians, vascular plants, and mosses).

  6. Changes to dryland rainfall result in rapid moss mortality and altered soil fertility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Sasha C.; Coe, Kirsten K.; Sparks, Jed P.; Housman, David C.; Zelikova, Tamara J.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems cover ~40% of Earth’s terrestrial surface, but we know little about how climate change will affect these widespread landscapes. Like many drylands, the Colorado Plateau in southwestern United States is predicted to experience elevated temperatures and alterations to the timing and amount of annual precipitation. We used a factorial warming and supplemental rainfall experiment on the Colorado Plateau to show that altered precipitation resulted in pronounced mortality of the widespread moss Syntrichia caninervis. Increased frequency of 1.2 mm summer rainfall events reduced moss cover from ~25% of total surface cover to <2% after only one growing season, whereas increased temperature had no effect. Laboratory measurements identified a physiological mechanism behind the mortality: small precipitation events caused a negative moss carbon balance, whereas larger events maintained net carbon uptake. Multiple metrics of nitrogen cycling were notably different with moss mortality and had significant implications for soil fertility. Mosses are important members in many dryland ecosystems and the community changes observed here reveal how subtle modifications to climate can affect ecosystem structure and function on unexpectedly short timescales. Moreover, mortality resulted from increased precipitation through smaller, more frequent events, underscoring the importance of precipitation event size and timing, and highlighting our inadequate understanding of relationships between climate and ecosystem function in drylands.

  7. Molybdenum and phosphorus limitation of moss-associated nitrogen fixation in boreal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Kathrin; Degboe, Jefferson; Michelsen, Anders; Bradley, Robert; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) performed by moss-associated cyanobacteria is one of the main sources of new nitrogen (N) input in pristine, high-latitude ecosystems. Yet, the nutrients that limit BNF remain elusive. Here, we tested whether this important ecosystem function is limited by the availability of molybdenum (Mo), phosphorus (P), or both. BNF in dominant mosses was measured with the acetylene reduction assay (ARA) at different time intervals following Mo and P additions, in both laboratory microcosms with mosses from a boreal spruce forest and field plots in subarctic tundra. We further used a (15) N2 tracer technique to assess the ARA to N2 fixation conversion ratios at our subarctic site. BNF was up to four-fold higher shortly after the addition of Mo, in both the laboratory and field experiments. A similar positive response to Mo was found in moss colonizing cyanobacterial biomass. As the growing season progressed, nitrogenase activity became progressively more P limited. The ARA : (15) N2 ratios increased with increasing Mo additions. These findings show that N2 fixation activity as well as cyanobacterial biomass in dominant feather mosses from boreal forests and subarctic tundra are limited by Mo availability.

  8. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements.

    PubMed

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Hammer, Kathrine Jul

    2012-10-01

    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species richness, and evaluated duration of plant activity during desiccation as a function of ground area, for a large collection of moss cushions. We found that lower evaporation and higher water storage contributed equally to extending the desiccation period with increasing cushion size. Evaporation rates declined by the -0.36 power of cushion diameter, and were not significantly different from -0.50 for the square root function previously predicted for the increasing thickness of the boundary layer, with greater linear dimensions for smooth flat objects at low wind velocities. Size dependence vanished under stagnant conditions. One moss species was added to the species pool for every nine-fold increase in cushion area. Vascular plants were absent from the smallest cushions, whereas one or two species, on average, appeared in 375- and 8,500-cm(2) cushions with water available for 6 and 10 days during desiccation. Phosphorus concentrations increased stepwise and four-fold from detritus to surface mosses and to vascular plants, and all three pools increased with cushion size. We conclude that cushion mosses and cushion size play a critical role in this resource-limited limestone environment by offering an oasis of improved water and nutrient supply to colonization and growth of plants.

  9. Vertical distribution of a deep-water moss and associated epiphytes in Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntire, C.D.; Phinney, H.K.; Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    A one-person submersible was used to examine the vertical distribution of the deep-water moss Drepanocladus aduncus (Hedw.) Warnst in Crater Lake (Oregon). Living specimens were found attached to sediment and rocks at depths between 25 m and 140 m. Dense beds of the moss were observed at depths between 30 m and 80 m, a region that corresponded roughly to the zone of maximum primary production by phytoplankton. The moss population supported a diverse assemblage of epiphytic algae, of which the most abundant genera included Cladophora,Oedogonium, Rhizoclonium, Tribonema, Vaucheria, and the diatoms Cocconeis, Cymbella, Epithemia, Fragilaria, Gomphonema, Melosira, Navicula, and Synedra. Chemical and physical data supported the hypothesis that the lower limit of distribution of the moss is determined by light limitation, whereas the upper limit is related to the availability of nutrients, particularly nitrate-nitrogen and trace elements. Deep-water videotapes of the moss population indicated that D. aduncus with its epiphytic algae was abundant enough in regions associated with the metalimnion and upper hypolimnion to have a potential influence on the nutrient dynamics of the Crater Lake ecosystem. Although the maximum depth at which living bryophytes occur in Crater Lake is similar to that found for Lake Tahoe, conditions in Lake Tahoe allow the growth and survival of a much more diverse assemblage of bryophytes and charophytes than is present in Crater Lake.

  10. Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: spatial patterns and temporal trends in Europe.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Norris, D A; Steinnes, E; Kubin, E; Piispanen, J; Alber, R; Aleksiayenak, Y; Blum, O; Coşkun, M; Dam, M; De Temmerman, L; Fernández, J A; Frolova, M; Frontasyeva, M; González-Miqueo, L; Grodzińska, K; Jeran, Z; Korzekwa, S; Krmar, M; Kvietkus, K; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Magnússon, S H; Mankovská, B; Pesch, R; Rühling, A; Santamaria, J M; Schröder, W; Spiric, Z; Suchara, I; Thöni, L; Urumov, V; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2010-10-01

    In recent decades, mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. Although spatial patterns were metal-specific, in 2005 the lowest concentrations of metals in mosses were generally found in Scandinavia, the Baltic States and northern parts of the UK; the highest concentrations were generally found in Belgium and south-eastern Europe. The recent decline in emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals across Europe has resulted in a decrease in the heavy metal concentration in mosses for the majority of metals. Since 1990, the concentration in mosses has declined the most for arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead and vanadium (52-72%), followed by copper, nickel and zinc (20-30%), with no significant reduction being observed for mercury (12% since 1995) and chromium (2%). However, temporal trends were country-specific with sometimes increases being found. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of the GPI-anchored lipid transfer proteins in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Edstam, Monika M; Laurila, Maiju; Höglund, Andrey; Raman, Amitha; Dahlström, Käthe M; Salminen, Tiina A; Edqvist, Johan; Blomqvist, Kristina

    2014-02-01

    The non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are characterized by a compact structure with a central hydrophobic cavity very suitable for binding hydrophobic ligands, such as lipids. The nsLTPs are encoded by large gene families in all land plant lineages, but seem to be absent from green algae. The nsLTPs are classified to different types based on molecular weight, sequence similarity, intron position or spacing between the cysteine residues. The Type G nsLTPs (LTPGs) have a GPI-anchor in the C-terminal region which may attach the protein to the exterior side of the plasma membrane. Here, we present the first characterization of nsLTPs from an early diverged plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. Moss LTPGs were heterologously produced and purified from Pichia pastoris. The purified moss LTPGs were found to be extremely heat stable and showed a binding preference for unsaturated fatty acids. Structural modeling implied that high alanine content could be important for the heat stability. Lipid profiling revealed that cutin monomers, such as C16 and C18 mono- and di-hydroxylated fatty acids, could be identified in P. patens. Expression of a moss LTPG-YFP fusion revealed localization to the plasma membrane. The expressions of many of the moss LTPGs were found to be upregulated during drought and cold treatments.

  12. Microtopographic properties of sparse moss vegetation in the Antarctic polar desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Masaki; Imura, Satoshi; Tanemura, Masaharu

    2011-12-01

    The effect of topography on moss vegetation is examined to clarify the processes that affect the colonization of polar deserts on continental Antarctica. Data on the presence of the mosses Bryum pseudotriquetrum and Pottia heimii, and relative altitude were recorded. The altitude measurements were used to infer the underlying topographical attributes of the substrate in the study plots. Specifically, the local distribution of moss plants was clarified using the topographical attributes to construct generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). The models suggested that steep slopes and convex microhabitats within areas of concave general relief (at the plot scale 4 × 4 m) promoted the establishment of moss. This correspondence to general relief was more apparent for B. pseudotriquetrum than for P. heimii. Among the study plots, general relief was found to be an important determinant of the precise spatial distribution of B. pseudotriquetrum. The standard surface estimated using the robust methods presented in this study is shown to be more accurate for describing moss distribution than the prevailing least-squares method.

  13. [Spatial distribution patterns of soil organic carbon under Elacagnus angustifolia--Achnatherum splendens community in an arid area of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Chi, Ting; Xu, Chi; Liu, Mao-Song; Zhang, Ming-Juan; Yang, Xue-Jiao

    2013-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the relationships of soil organic carbon (SOC) content with root biomass and soil moisture content as well as the accumulation mechanisms of SOC under the Elacagnus angustifolia-Achnatherum splenden community in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of Northwest China. The results showed that the SOC content decreased gradually with increasing soil depth, and changed gently in both horizontal and vertical directions. The correlations of the SOC content and its affecting factors varied with soil depth. In 0-30 cm layer, the SOC content was significantly negatively correlated with soil moisture content; in 60-150 cm layer, the SOC content was significantly positively correlated with soil moisture content and root biomass. Partial regression analysis indicated that the root biomass density in 0-30 cm soil layer contributed significantly to the variance of SOC content. In 60-150 cm layer, the SOC content was mainly affected by root system and soil moisture content; in 30-60 cm layer, no significant correlations were observed between the SOC content and the root biomass and soil moisture content. There was an obvious difference in the accumulation mechanism of SOC in different soil layers and at different locations of E. angustifolia--A. splendens community.

  14. Allelopathy and allelopathic substance in the moss Rhynchostegium pallidifolium.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Seki, Takahiro; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2010-04-15

    An aqueous methanol extract of the moss Rhynchostegium pallidifolium, which often forms large pure colonies on soils and rocks, inhibited the growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), alfalfa (Medicaga sativa), lettuce (Lepidium sativum), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Phleum pratense) and Digitaria sanguinalis seedlings. Increasing the extract concentration increased the inhibition. These results suggest that R. pallidifolium may show allelopathic activity. The extract was purified and a putative compound causing this growth inhibitory effect was isolated. The chemical structure of the growth inhibitor was determined by MS, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data as 3-hydroxy-beta-ionone. 3-Hydroxy-beta-ionone inhibited the shoot and root growth of cress seedlings at concentrations greater than 1 and 3 micromol/L, respectively. The doses required for 50% growth inhibition on the shoot and roots of cress seedlings were 16.3 and 14.9 micromol/L, respectively. The endogenous concentration of 3-hydroxy-beta-ionone in R. pallidifolium was 28.2 microg/g and the concentration of 3-hydroxy-beta-ionone in the growth medium of R. pallidifolium was 6.7 microg/g. These results suggest that 3-hydroxy-beta-ionone was likely secreted into the medium during the incubation of R. pallidifolium. In addition, 3-hydroxy-beta-ionone was found in the soil under the pure colonies of R. pallidifolium. Therefore, 3-hydroxy-beta-ionone may play an important role in the allelopathic activity of R. pallidifolium and may help competition with neighboring plants, resulting in the formation of pure colonies.

  15. Is the sword moss (Bryoxiphium) a preglacial Tertiary relict?

    PubMed

    Patiño, Jairo; Goffinet, Bernard; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The disjunction of floras between East Asia, Southeast North America, West North America, and Southwest Eurasia has been interpreted in terms of the fragmentation of a once continuous mixed mesophytic forest that occurred throughout the Northern Hemisphere due to the climatic and geological changes during the late Tertiary. The sword moss, Bryoxiphium, exhibits a distribution that strikingly resembles that of the mesophytic forest elements such as Liriodendron and is considered as the only living member of an early Tertiary flora in Iceland. These hypotheses are tested here using molecular dating analyses and ancestral area estimations. The results suggest that the extant range of Bryoxiphium results from the fragmentation of a formerly wider range encompassing North America and Southeast Asia about 10 million years ago. The split of continental ancestral populations is too recent to match with a continental drift scenario but is spatially and temporally remarkably congruent with that observed in Tertiary angiosperm relict species. The timing of the colonization of Iceland from Macaronesian ancestors, about two million years ago, is, however, incompatible with the hypothesis that Bryoxiphium is the only living member of an early Tertiary flora of the island. Alaska was recurrently colonized from East Asia. The ability of Bryoxiphium to overcome large oceanic barriers is further evidenced by its occurrence on remote oceanic archipelagos. In particular, Madeira was colonized twice independently from American and East Asian ancestors, respectively. The striking range disjunction of Bryoxiphium is interpreted in terms of its mating system, as the taxon exhibits a very singular pattern of spatial segregation of the sexes.

  16. Temporaly germinating rhythms of moss Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundiak, O.; Demkiv, O.

    The process of an organism development is regular and gradual. These characteristics of the development are especially evident in archegonial plants. It was shown that spores of moss Funar ia hygrometrica Hedw. in Knop's nutrient medium with 0,2% glucose in the dark in vertical orientation of Petry dishes, germinated polarly depending on gravity direction. At the begining, the primary rhyziod developed being usually directed downwards and then after 24 hours primary chloronema developed growing usually upwards. The amyloplasts sedimentation was shown before the rhyzoid and chloronema formation. It determines not only the time, but spatial orientation of the primary rhyzoid and chloronema (Pundjak at al., 2001). EGTA in concentration of 510- 5 M inhibited the initiation of the primary rhyzoid. The primary chloronema developed as usual in 48 h after the spores sowing. Temporary cooling caused analogical effect. Basing on these results we drew the conclusion that the primary rhyzoid and chloronema differently react on the action of EGTA and the cooling. The primary chloronema was more tolerant then the rhyzoid and maintained its usual gravisensitivy. Thus, we can think that EGTA and the cooling stop the development of primary rhyzoid, but it does not disturb physiological rhythm which underlais in the base of the function of the biological clock. The stability of biological rhythms and their indeterminism in respect of described above external and internal factors is real thanks to dissipation, which makes considerable interval of uncertainties of distributions of distances between segments of biopolymers and thus, of their fermentative activities (Pundjak,2001). Therefore the rise of biological clocks of each organism is in certain sense transcendental.

  17. Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Gerdol, Renato; Marchesini, Roberta; Iacumin, Paola; Brancaleoni, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring air quality by using living organisms as biomonitors has received increasing attention in recent years. However, rather few studies were based on the concomitant use of passive biomonitoring (based on the different sensitivity of living organisms to air pollution) and active biomonitoring (based on their capacity to accumulate pollutants in the tissues). We carried out a repeated survey of an urban area in Northern Italy, with the objective of comparing temporal trends of different kinds of air pollutants with bioindication (passive biomonitoring) and bioaccumulation (active biomonitoring) techniques. During a five-year interval, temporal patterns of moss metal concentrations underwent significant changes probably due to intercurring variations in the importance of different pollution sources. Nitrogen (N) concentration in moss tissues also decreased and was paralleled by increasing diversity of epiphytic lichens. Increasing δ(15)N in moss tissues suggested a higher contribution of oxidized N species compared with reduced N species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Current achievements in the production of complex biopharmaceuticals with moss bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Transgenic plants are promising alternatives for the low-cost and safe pathogen-free production of complex recombinant pharmaceutical proteins (molecular farming). Plants as higher eukaryotes perform posttranslational modifications similar to those of mammalian cells. However, plant-specific protein N-glycosylation was shown to be immunogenic, a fact that represents a drawback for many plant systems in biopharmaceutical production. The moss Physcomitrella patens offers unique properties as a contained system for protein production. It is grown in the predominant haploid gametophytic stage as tissue suspension cultures in photobioreactors. Efficient secretory signals and a transient transfection system allow the secretion of freshly synthesized proteins to the surrounding medium. The key advantage of Physcomitrella compared to other plant systems is the feasibility of targeted gene replacements. By this means, moss strains with non-immunogenic humanized glycan patterns were created. Here we present an overview of the relevant aspects for establishing moss as a production system for recombinant biopharmaceuticals.

  19. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-06-26

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  20. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Black, T. Andrew; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Michael; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A.; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  1. Persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses after fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Cipro, Caio Vinícius Zecchin; da Silva, Josilene; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2015-04-15

    A fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station on February 25th, 2012 led to the burning of material that produced organic pollutants. To evaluate the impact in the surrounding area, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analyzed in moss samples collected in the vicinities of the station before and after the incident and compared to findings from previous studies in the same region. PCBs were on the same magnitude as that reported in previous studies, which could be associated to the global dispersion of these compounds and may not be related to the local fire. In contrast, concentrations of HCB and PAHs were higher than those reported in previous studies. No PBDEs were found above the method detection limit. Organic contaminant concentrations in mosses decreased a few months after the fire, which is an important characteristic when considering the use of mosses for monitoring recent exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Distributions and impact factors of antimony in topsoils and moss in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Sun, Liguang; He, Xin; You, Kehua; Zhou, Xin; Long, Nanye

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of antimony (Sb) in topsoil and moss (Dicranum angustum) in disturbed and undisturbed areas, as well as coal and gangue, in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic was examined. Results show that the weathering of coal bed could not contribute to the increase of Sb concentrations in topsoil and moss in the study area. The distribution of Sb is partially associated with traffic and historical mining activities. The occurrence of the maximum Sb concentration is due to the contribution of human activities. In addition, the decrease of Sb content in topsoil near the coastline may be caused by the washing of seawater. Compared with topsoils, moss could be a useful tool for monitoring Sb in both highly and lightly polluted areas.

  3. Upgrading of biomass materials as energy sources: Liquefaction of mosses from Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Oezdemir, T.; Sahin, B.; Guellue, D.; Akdeniz, F.; Caglar, A.

    2000-06-01

    Air-dried and ground moss samples were subjected to supercritical and catalytic fluid extractions by using water, acetone, glycerol, or benzene as solvent at different temperatures in noncatalytic runs. Ground moss samples were suspended in water containing sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate catalysts at 575 K in a 0.1-liter autoclave. Yields of 71.7--79.8% were obtained by catalytic liquefaction of the samples. The proximate analysis data and the higher heating values (HHV) of the samples were determined. The HHV as MJ/kg of the moss samples as a function of fixed carbon (FC) were calculated from the following equation: HHV = 0.322(FC%) + 10.742. The correlation coefficient was 0.999. The calorific values calculated from the above equation showed a mean difference of {minus}0.78%.

  4. Representativity of mosses as biomonitor organisms for the accumulation of environmental chemicals in plants and soils

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.

    1986-06-01

    The suitability of mosses for air pollution monitoring of benzohexachloride isomers and polyaromatic hydrocarbons is shown by residue data of different samples from Europe. The interpretation of the results makes it obvious that next to regional pattern analysis, hypotheses for atmospheric transport and deposition processes of different environmental chemicals can also be formed. An evaluation of these kinds of bioindicator methods is presented by a quantitative comparison of air pollution data and accumulated residues in plants. The results indicate a high retention efficiency of mosses for pollutants dominantly adsorbed to particulate matter in the air, like polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The comparison of residue data of trace pollutants in mosses and other plants underlines the indicator functions of lower plants for air monitoring patterns with the exception of chlorinated hydrocarbons. They are more effective enriched by coniferous plants which contain ingredients able to absorb and transport these groups of environmental pollutants in the organism.

  5. Biomonitoring of heavy metals contamination by mosses and lichens around Slovinky tailing pond (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Demková, Lenka; Bobul'ská, Lenka; Árvay, Július; Jezný, Tomáš; Ducsay, Ladislav

    2017-01-02

    Three moss (Pleurozium spp., Polytrichum spp., and Rhytidiadelphus spp.) and two lichen (Hypogymnia physodes and Pseudevernia furfuracea) taxons covered in the bags were used to monitor air quality. Bags were exposed at the different distances from the tailing pond because of insufficient security and source of heavy metal pollution. Moss/lichen bags were exposed for six weeks at 0-, 50-, 100-, 150- and 200-m distances from Slovinky tailing pond, in the main wind direction (down the valley). Accumulation ability of heavy metals expressed by relative accumulation factor (RAF) increases in the order of Polytrichum spp.Moss/lichen species showed different accumulation capacity for individual heavy metals. Rhytidiadelphus spp. was found to possess the significantly highest (P < 0.01) ability to accumulate Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn and Fe. The highest RAF values of Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe were determined in samples exposed at 200-m distance from pollution source.

  6. Using NLDAS-2 for initializing integrated watershed models: Model spin-up for the AirMOSS Campaign

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) investigation has been developed for high-resolution in time and space root-zone soil moisture and carbon estimation. AirMOSS will build an ultra-high frequency (UHF) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has the capability to penetr...

  7. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-11-04

    Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower.

  8. Moss inhabiting flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) with description of a new genus from Cangshan, China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diversity of moss cushion inhabiting and moss feeding flea beetles is documented and discussed. A new genus (Cangshanaltica) with a single new species (C. nigra) from Yunnan Province in China is described and illustrated. It is similar to Benedictus Scherer, Ivalia Jacoby, Minota Weise, Paraminota S...

  9. FLOWS AND MOTIONS IN MOSS IN THE CORE OF A FLARING ACTIVE REGION: EVIDENCE FOR STEADY HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P.

    2009-09-20

    We present new measurements of the time variability of intensity, Doppler, and nonthermal velocities in moss in an active region core observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode in 2007 June. The measurements are derived from spectral profiles of the Fe XII 195 A line. Using the 2'' slit, we repeatedly scanned 150'' by 150'' in a few minutes. This is the first time it has been possible to make such velocity measurements in the moss, and the data presented are the highest cadence spatially resolved maps of moss Doppler and nonthermal velocities ever obtained in the corona. The observed region produced numerous C- and M-class flares with several occurring in the core close to the moss. The magnetic field was therefore clearly changing in the active region core, so we ought to be able to detect dynamic signatures in the moss if they exist. Our measurements of moss intensities agree with previous studies in that a less than 15% variability is seen over a period of 16 hr. Our new measurements of Doppler and nonthermal velocities reveal no strong flows or motions in the moss, nor any significant variability in these quantities. The results confirm that moss at the bases of high temperature coronal loops is heated quasi-steadily. They also show that quasi-steady heating can contribute significantly even in the core of a flare productive active region. Such heating may be impulsive at high frequency, but if so it does not give rise to large flows or motions.

  10. Moss bag biomonitoring of airborne toxic element decrease on a small scale: A street study in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Škrivanj, Sandra; Milićević, Tijana; Dimitrijević, Dragoljub; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2016-01-15

    A database of potentially hazardous substances, necessary for estimating the exposure of humans to air pollutants, may be deficient because of a limited number of regulatory monitoring stations. This study was inspired by undeniably harmful effects of human long-term exposure to intense traffic emissions in urban area. Moss bag biomonitors were used to characterize spatial variation of airborne toxic elements near crossroads and two- and one-lane streets. The Sphagnum girgensohnii and Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were exposed for 10 weeks to 48 sampling sites across Belgrade (Serbia) during the summer of 2014. In addition, oven-drying pretreatment of the moss bags was tested. During the experimental period, traffic flows were estimated at each site by counting the number of vehicles during the rush hours. The concentrations of 39 elements were determined in the moss samples. There was no significant difference between the results obtained for nontreated and oven-dried moss bags. For the majority of elements, the moss bags identified a common pattern of decrease in the concentration from crossroads to two- and one-lane streets. The exposed moss bags were enriched with Sb, Cu and Cr. The correlation coefficients (r=0.65-0.70) between the moss concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe and Sb and the site-counted traffic flows also confirmed a dependence of the airborne element content on traffic emissions. A strong correlation with traffic flows makes Sb, Cu and Cr reliable traffic tracers.

  11. Key Factors Influencing Rapid Development of Potentially Dune-Stabilizing Moss-Dominated Crusts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Chongfeng; Zhang, Kankan; Zhang, Chunyun; Wu, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a widespread photosynthetic ground cover in arid and semiarid areas. They have many positive ecological functions, such as increasing soil stability, and reducing water and wind erosion. Using artificial technology to achieve the rapid development of BSCs is expected to become a low-cost and highly beneficial ecological restoration measure. In the present study, typical moss-dominated crusts in a region characterized by mobile dunes (Mu Us Sandland, China) were collected, and a 40-day cultivation experiment was performed to investigate key factors, including watering frequency, light intensity and a nutrient addition, which affect the rapid development of moss crusts and their optimal combination. The results demonstrated that watering frequency and illumination had a significant positive effect (P=0.049, three-factor ANOVA) and a highly significant, complicated effect (P=0.000, three-factor ANOVA), respectively, on the plant density of bryophytes, and a highly significant positive effect on the chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharide contents (P=0.000, P=0.000; P=0.000, P=0.000; one-way ANOVA). Knop nutrient solution did not have a significant positive but rather negative effect on the promotion of moss-dominated crust development (P=0.270, three-factor ANOVA). Moss-dominated crusts treated with the combination of moderate-intensity light (6,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) - Knop had the highest moss plant densities, while the treatment with high-intensity light (12,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) + Knop nutrient solution had higher chlorophyll a contents than that under other treatments. It is entirely feasible to achieve the rapid development of moss crusts under laboratory conditions by regulating key factors and creating the right environment. Future applications may seek to use cultured bryophytes to control erosion in vulnerable areas with urgent needs.

  12. Invited review: climate change impacts in polar regions: lessons from Antarctic moss bank archives.

    PubMed

    Royles, Jessica; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Mosses are the dominant plants in polar and boreal regions, areas which are experiencing rapid impacts of regional warming. Long-term monitoring programmes provide some records of the rate of recent climate change, but moss peat banks contain an unrivalled temporal record of past climate change on terrestrial plant Antarctic systems. We summarise the current understanding of climatic proxies and determinants of moss growth for contrasting continental and maritime Antarctic regions, as informed by 13C and 18O signals in organic material. Rates of moss accumulation are more than three times higher in the maritime Antarctic than continental Antarctica with growing season length being a critical determinant of growth rate, and high carbon isotope discrimination values reflecting optimal hydration conditions. Correlation plots of 13C and 18O values show that species (Chorisodontium aciphyllum / Polytrichum strictum) and growth form (hummock / bank) are the major determinants of measured isotope ratios. The interplay between moss growth form, photosynthetic physiology, water status and isotope composition are compared with developments of secondary proxies, such as chlorophyll fluorescence. These approaches provide a framework to consider the potential impact of climate change on terrestrial Antarctic habitats as well as having implications for future studies of temperate, boreal and Arctic peatlands. There are many urgent ecological and environmental problems in the Arctic related to mosses in a changing climate, but the geographical ranges of species and life-forms are difficult to track individually. Our goal was to translate what we have learned from the more simple systems in Antarctica, for application to Arctic habitats. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Identifying the change in atmospheric sulfur sources in China using isotopic ratios in mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2009-08-01

    A considerable number of studies on rainwater sulfur isotopic ratios (δ34Srain) have been conducted to trace sulfur sources at a large number of sites in the past. If longitudinal studies on the isotope composition of precipitation sulfate were conducted, it is possible to relate that to changes in sulfur emissions. But direct measurement needs considerable labor and time. So, in this study, sulfur isotopic ratios in rainwater and mosses were analyzed at Guiyang and Nanchang to evaluate the possibility of using mosses as a substitute for rainwater. We found that present moss sulfur isotopic ratios were comparable to those of present rainwater. Additionally, we investigated the changes of atmospheric sulfur sources and sulfur concentrations using an isotopic graphic analysis at five industrial cities, two forested areas, and two remote areas in China. Mosses in industrial cities show a wide range of δ34S values, with the highest occurring at Chongqing (+3.9‰) and the lowest at Guiyang (-3.1‰). But as compared to those in forested and remote areas, δ34S values of mosses in all the five industrial cities are lower. On the basis of isotopic comparisons between past rainwater (reported in the literature) and present mosses, in the plot of δ34Smoss versus δ34Srain, six zones indicating different atmospheric sulfur change are separated by the 1:1 line and δ34S values of potential sulfur sources. Our results indicate that atmospheric sulfur pollution in most of the industrial cities decreased, while at the two forested areas, no significant changes were observed, and a new anxiousness coming from new energy sources (e.g., oil) appeared in some cities. Studies on the change of ambient SO2 concentrations support these results.

  14. [Seasonal dynamics of soil net nitrogen mineralization under moss crust in Shapotou region, northern China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Xin-ping; Pan, Yan-xia; Zhang, Ya-feng; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Ning

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal variations of soil inorganic nitrogen (N) pool and net N transformation rate in moss-covered soil and in the bare soil were comparatively observed by incubating intact soil columns with parafilm capping in the field in a natural vegetation area of Shapotou, southeastern fringe of the Tengger Desert. We found pronounced seasonal variations in soil available N content and net N transformation rate in both moss-covered soil and bare soil, with significant differences among different months. In non-growing season, soil available N content and net N transformation rate were significantly higher in March and October than in other months. Furthermore, immobilization was the dominant form of N mineralization, and no significant difference in net soil N mineralization rate was found between the two sampling soils. In growing season, soil available N content and net N transformation rate markedly increased and reached their peak values during June to August (17.18 mg x kg(-1) and 0.11 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively). Both soil net nitrification and N mineralization rates in moss-covered soil were significantly higher than in bare soil. Soil ammonium and nitrate N content in April and May were higher in moss-covered soil (2.66 and 3.16 mg x kg(-1), respectively) than in bare soil (1.02 and 2.37 mg x kg(-1), respectively); while the tendency was the converse in June and September, with 7.01 mg x kg(-1) for soil ammonium content and 7.40 mg x kg(-1) for nitrate N content in bare soil, and they were 6.39 and 6.36 mg x kg(-1) in moss-covered soil, respectively. Therefore, the existence and succession of moss crusts could be considered as one of the important biological factors affecting soil N cycling through regulating soil available N content and promoting soil N mineralization process.

  15. Key Factors Influencing Rapid Development of Potentially Dune-Stabilizing Moss-Dominated Crusts

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Chongfeng; Zhang, Kankan; Zhang, Chunyun; Wu, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a widespread photosynthetic ground cover in arid and semiarid areas. They have many positive ecological functions, such as increasing soil stability, and reducing water and wind erosion. Using artificial technology to achieve the rapid development of BSCs is expected to become a low-cost and highly beneficial ecological restoration measure. In the present study, typical moss-dominated crusts in a region characterized by mobile dunes (Mu Us Sandland, China) were collected, and a 40-day cultivation experiment was performed to investigate key factors, including watering frequency, light intensity and a nutrient addition, which affect the rapid development of moss crusts and their optimal combination. The results demonstrated that watering frequency and illumination had a significant positive effect (P=0.049, three-factor ANOVA) and a highly significant, complicated effect (P=0.000, three-factor ANOVA), respectively, on the plant density of bryophytes, and a highly significant positive effect on the chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharide contents (P=0.000, P=0.000; P=0.000, P=0.000; one-way ANOVA). Knop nutrient solution did not have a significant positive but rather negative effect on the promotion of moss-dominated crust development (P=0.270, three-factor ANOVA). Moss-dominated crusts treated with the combination of moderate-intensity light (6,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) - Knop had the highest moss plant densities, while the treatment with high-intensity light (12,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) + Knop nutrient solution had higher chlorophyll a contents than that under other treatments. It is entirely feasible to achieve the rapid development of moss crusts under laboratory conditions by regulating key factors and creating the right environment. Future applications may seek to use cultured bryophytes to control erosion in vulnerable areas with urgent needs. PMID:26230324

  16. A new species of Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al., a moss-inhabiting flea beetle from Thailand (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini).

    PubMed

    Damaška, Albert; Konstantinov, Alexander

    2016-04-29

    Moss cushions represent an interesting, but poorly understood habitat, which hosts many species of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). However, the diversity of moss-inhabiting flea beetles is not well studied, and collecting in tropical and subtropical locations that were not sampled in the past led to the discovery of many new species (Konstantinov et al. 2013). Here, a new species of a moss-inhabiting flea beetle from the genus Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al. 2013 is described and illustrated. This genus is one of the recently described moss-inhabiting flea beetle genera and before this study, only one species was known (Konstantinov et al., 2013). This publication raises the number of flea beetle species that are known to occur in moss cushions around the world to 30, distributed among 15 genera.

  17. Simultaneous isolation of pure and intact chloroplasts and mitochondria from moss as the basis for sub-cellular proteomics.

    PubMed

    Lang, Erika G E; Mueller, Stefanie J; Hoernstein, Sebastian N W; Porankiewicz-Asplund, Joanna; Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco; Reski, Ralf

    2011-02-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is increasingly being used as a model for plant systems biology studies. While genomic and transcriptomic resources are in place, tools and experimental conditions for proteomic studies need to be developed. In the present study we describe a rapid and efficient protocol for the simultaneous isolation of chloroplasts and mitochondria from moss protonema. Routinely, 60-100 μg mitochondrial and 3-5 mg chloroplast proteins, respectively, were obtained from 20 g fresh weight of green moss tissue. Using 14 plant compartment marker antibodies derived from seed plant and algal protein sequences, respectively, the evolutionary conservation of the compartment marker proteins in the moss was demonstrated and purity and intactness of the extracted organelles confirmed. This isolation protocol and these validated compartment markers may serve as basis for sub-cellular proteomics in P. patens and other mosses.

  18. Active Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow Moss Biomonitoring of an Industrial Site in Romania: Temporal Variation in the Elemental Content.

    PubMed

    Culicov, Otilia A; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Duliu, O G

    2016-05-01

    The moss-bag transplant technique was used to investigate the kinetics of the accumulation of 38 elements in Sphagnum girgensohni moss samples in the highly polluted municipality of Baia Mare, Romania. The moss samples collected from the unpolluted Vitosha Mountain Natural Reserve, Bulgaria, were analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of exposure, respectively. The ANOVA method was used to assay the statistical significance of the observed changes in elemental content, as determined by neutron activation analysis. The content of Zn, Se, As, Ag, Cd, and Sb increased steadily, while that of physiologically active K and Cl, as well as Rb and Cs, decreased exponentially. The study showed that an adequate application of the moss transplant technique in an urban environment should consider the exposure time as a critical parameter, since particular elements are depleted in the moss at sites with high atmospheric loading of metals.

  19. Country-specific correlations across Europe between modelled atmospheric cadmium and lead deposition and concentrations in mosses.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Ilyin, I; Mills, G; Aboal, J R; Alber, R; Blum, O; Coşkun, M; De Temmerman, L; Fernández, J Á; Figueira, R; Frontasyeva, M; Godzik, B; Goltsova, N; Jeran, Z; Korzekwa, S; Kubin, E; Kvietkus, K; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Magnússon, S H; Maňkovská, B; Nikodemus, O; Pesch, R; Poikolainen, J; Radnović, D; Rühling, A; Santamaria, J M; Schröder, W; Spiric, Z; Stafilov, T; Steinnes, E; Suchara, I; Tabors, G; Thöni, L; Turcsányi, G; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2012-07-01

    Previous analyses at the European scale have shown that cadmium and lead concentrations in mosses are primarily determined by the total deposition of these metals. Further analyses in the current study show that Spearman rank correlations between the concentration in mosses and the deposition modelled by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) are country and metal-specific. Significant positive correlations were found for about two thirds or more of the participating countries in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 (except for Cd in 1990). Correlations were often not significant and sometimes negative in countries where mosses were only sampled in a relatively small number of EMEP grids. Correlations frequently improved when only data for EMEP grids with at least three moss sampling sites per grid were included. It was concluded that spatial patterns and temporal trends agree reasonably well between lead and cadmium concentrations in mosses and modelled atmospheric deposition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal trends (1990-2000) in the concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury in mosses across Europe.

    PubMed

    Harmens, Harry; Norris, David A; Koerber, Georgia R; Buse, Alan; Steinnes, Eiliv; Rühling, Ake

    2008-01-01

    The European heavy metals in mosses survey provides data on the concentration of 10 heavy metals in naturally growing mosses. The survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals and in this paper we report on the temporal trends in the concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury between 1990 and 2000. Metal- and country-specific temporal trends were observed. In general, the concentration of lead and cadmium in mosses decreased between 1990 and 2000; the decline was higher for lead than cadmium. For mercury not enough data were available to establish temporal trends between 1990 and 1995, but between 1995 and 2000 the mercury concentration in mosses did not change across Europe. The observed temporal trends for the concentrations in mosses were similar to the trends reported for the modelled total deposition of cadmium, lead and mercury in Europe.

  1. Phototolerance of lichens, mosses and higher plants in an alpine environment: analysis of photoreactions.

    PubMed

    Heber, U; Bilger, W; Bligny, R; Lange, O L

    2000-11-01

    Adaptation to excessive light is one of the requirements of survival in an alpine environment particularly for poikilohydric organisms which in contrast to the leaves of higher plants tolerate full dehydration. Changes in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and 820-nm absorption were investigated in the lichens Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC, in the moss Grimmia alpestris Limpr. and the higher plants Geum montanum L., Gentiana lutea L. and Pisum sativum L., all collected at altitudes higher than 2000 m above sea level. In the dehydrated state, chlorophyll fluorescence was very low in the lichens and the moss, but high in the higher plants. It increased on rehydration in the lichens and the moss, but decreased in the higher plants. Light-induced charge separation in photosystem II was indicated by pulse-induced fluorescence increases only in dried leaves, not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Strong illumination caused photodamage in the dried leaves, but not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Light-dependent increases in 820-nm absorption revealed formation of potential quenchers of chlorophyll fluorescence in all dehydrated plants, but energy transfer to quenchers decreased chlorophyll fluorescence only in the moss and the lichens, not in the higher plants. In hydrated systems, coupled cyclic electron transport is suggested to occur concurrently with linear electron transport under strong actinic illumination particularly in the lichens because far more electrons became available after actinic illumination for the reduction of photo-oxidized P700 than were available in the pool of electron carriers between photosystems II and I. In the moss Grimmia, but not in the lichens or in leaves, light-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was extensive even under nitrogen, indicating anaerobic thylakoid acidification by persistent cyclic electron transport. In the absence of actinic illumination, acidification by ca. 8% CO2 in

  2. Developmental Effects of Zeatin, Ribosyl-Zeatin, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens B6 on Certain Mosses

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Luretta D.

    1976-01-01

    Eight species of mosses studied were divided into two groups on the basis of their developmental responses to ribosyl-trans-zeatin and Agro-bacterium tumefaciens B6. All eight produced either gametophores or callus on the protonema in response to 6-(γ,γ-dimethylallylamino) purine and trans-zeatin. Three which produced normal gametophores with A. tumefaciens yielded callus or abnormal gametophores with ribosyl-trans-zeatin. Ribosyl-trans-zeatin and A. tumefaciens were relatively ineffective on five other mosses. Characteristics of protonemal growth common to each of these two groups are described. PMID:16659608

  3. Lichens and mosses on shrub-steppe soils in Southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Steven O.; Ryan, Bruce D.; Downs, Janelle L. ); Cadwell, Larry L. ); Soll, Jonathan A.; Hawke, Mary Ann; Ponzetti, Jeanne

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the lichens and mosses found on soils of the shrub-steppe at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Thirteen sites primarily at low elevation were intensively sampled. Twenty nine lichens and six moss species were identified. Three lichens were considered undescribed species. Based on comparison with other studies and herbarium records, we conclude the soil lichen flora of the Hanford Site is substantially different than that of the Great Basin or of the shrub-steppe in Idaho.

  4. Precipitation-driven carbon balance controls survivorship of desert biocrust mosses.

    PubMed

    Coe, Kirsten K; Belnap, Jayne; Sparks, Jed P

    2012-07-01

    Precipitation patterns including the magnitude, timing, and seasonality of rainfall are predicted to undergo substantial alterations in arid regions in the future, and desert organisms may be more responsive to such changes than to shifts in only mean annual rainfall. Soil biocrust communities (consisting of cyanobacteria, lichen, and mosses) are ubiquitous to desert ecosystems, play an array of ecological roles, and display a strong sensitivity to environmental changes. Crust mosses are particularly responsive to changes in precipitation and exhibit rapid declines in biomass and mortality following the addition of small rainfall events. Further, loss of the moss component in biocrusts leads to declines in crust structure and function. In this study, we sought to understand the physiological responses of the widespread and often dominant biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis to alterations in rainfall. Moss samples were collected during all four seasons and exposed to two rainfall event sizes and three desiccation period (DP) lengths. A carbon balance approach based on single precipitation events was used to define the carbon gain or loss during a particular hydration period. Rainfall event size was the strongest predictor of carbon balance, and the largest carbon gains were associated with the largest precipitation events. In contrast, small precipitation events resulted in carbon deficits for S. caninervis. Increasing the length of the DP prior to an event resulted in reductions in carbon balance, probably because of the increased energetic cost of hydration following more intense bouts of desiccation. The season of collection (i.e., physiological status of the moss) modulated these responses, and the effects of DP and rainfall on carbon balance were different in magnitude (and often in sign) for different seasons. In particular, S. caninervis displayed higher carbon balances in the winter than in the summer, even for events of identical size. Overall, our results

  5. Acclimation of photosynthetic characteristics of the moss Pleurozium schreberi to among-habitat and within-canopy light gradients.

    PubMed

    Tobias, M; Niinemets, U

    2010-09-01

    Light availability varies strongly among moss habitats and within the moss canopy, and vertical variation in light within the canopy further interacts with the age gradient. The interacting controls by habitat and canopy light gradient and senescence have not been studied extensively. We measured light profiles, chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoid (Car) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, and photosynthetic electron transport capacity (J(max)) along habitat and canopy light gradients in the widespread, temperate moss Pleurozium schreberi to separate sources of variation in moss chemical and physiological traits. We hypothesised that this species, like typical feather mosses with both apical and lateral growth, exhibits greater plasticity in the canopy than between habitats due to deeper within-canopy light gradients. For the among-habitat light gradient, Chl, Chl/N and Chl/Car ratio increased with decreasing light availability, indicating enhanced light harvesting in lower light and higher capacity for photoprotection in higher light. N and J(max) were independent of habitat light availability. Within the upper canopy, until 50-60% above-canopy light, changes in moss chemistry and photosynthetic characteristics were analogous to patterns observed for the between-habitat light gradient. In contrast, deeper canopy layers reflected senescence of moss shoots, with pigment and nitrogen concentrations and photosynthetic capacity decreasing with light availability. Thus, variation in chemical and physiological traits within the moss canopy is a balance between acclimation and senescence. This study demonstrates extensive light-dependent variation in moss photosynthetic traits, but also that between-habitat and within-canopy light gradient affects moss physiology and chemistry differently.

  6. Evaluation of the use of moss transplants (Pseudoscleropodium purum) for biomonitoring different forms of air pollutant nitrogen compounds.

    PubMed

    Varela, Z; García-Seoane, R; Arróniz-Crespo, M; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R

    2016-06-01

    We investigated whether three different types of moss transplants (devitalized moss bags with and without cover and auto-irrigated moss transplants) are suitable for use as biomonitors of the deposition of oxidised and/or reduced forms of N. For this purpose, we determined whether the concentration of atmospheric NO2 was related to the % N, δ(15)N and the activity of the enzyme biomarkers phosphomonoesterase (PME) and nitrate reductase (NR) in the tissues of moss transplants. We exposed the transplants in 5 different environments of Galicia (NW Spain) and Cataluña (NE Spain): industrial environments, urban and periurban environments, the surroundings of a cattle farm and in a monitoring site included in the sampling network of the European Monitoring Programme. The results showed that the moss in the auto-irrigated transplants was able of incorporating the N in its tissues because it was metabolically active, whereas in devitalized moss bags transplants, moss simply intercepts physically the N compounds that reached it in particulate or gaseous form. In addition, this devitalization could limit the capacity of moss to capture gaseous compounds (i.e. reduced N) and to reduce the oxidised compounds that reach the specimens. These findings indicate that devitalized moss transplants cannot be used to monitor either oxidised or reduced N compounds, whereas transplants of metabolically active moss can be used for this purpose. Finally, the NR and PME biomarkers should be used with caution because of the high variability in their activities and the limits of quantification should be evaluated in each case.

  7. Gravi-photomorphogenesis of the moss Pottia intermedia protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkiv, O. T.; Kyjak, N. Y.; Khorkavtsiv, Y. D.; Kit, N. A.

    The protonemata development proceeds in the process of gradual differentiation of growing apical cells and intercalar cells the shortened lateral branches of the latters being transformed into three-dimensional gametophore buds (Demkiv et al., 1991). Normal course of plant development needs favourable external conditions. Sometimes, however, external environment agents can accelerate the development of organism. So, apical protonema cells of darkgrown gravitropic P. intermedia differentiate gametophore-buds in light of low intensity (Ripetskyj, 1999). We investigate the influence of gravistimulation on bud formation in haploid and diploid P. intermedia protonema. Diploid protonema was found to react on light weaker than haploid one. Under the influence of light the darkgrown apical cells and lateral branches of haploid protonema were directly transformed into buds, while in diploid protonema at first the formation of bundles of rhizoid type filaments takes place on the tips of caulonema and buds appeared in center of such bundles. The participation of gravity in gametophore bud formation was assessed by clinorotating protonema in darkness. Being illuminated such protonema also developed buds quickly the latters being formed along all stolon. It can be suggested that at 1g the growth zone of apical cells actively attract inductors of bud formation. During clinorotation the inductors probably are transferred much more slower than under stationary state and that is why the buds arised not only at the tips of stolons but along all their length. It is known that gametophore bud formation can be stimulated by exogenous phytohormones. As M. Bopp (1980) has shown, that kinetin selectively promotes bud formation on moss protonema. Our observations have shown 0,5 -- 50 μ M of kinetin stimulate the bud formation on diploid aposporic protonema much more effectively that on haploid one. It can be concluded that the amount of endogenous cytokinins in haploid protonemal cells is

  8. Light-dependent reversion gravitropism of the moss Pohlia nutans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorkavtsiv, O.

    Plants have evolved highly sensitive mechanisms adapting their growth to the environmental conditions. Light and gravity are critical importance factors, which exerts an essential and specific influence on the determination of the growth direction and regulation of the early stages of plants ontogeny, sometimes effects of these factors being independent. The negative gravitropic resp onse of moss protonemata causes their spatial orientation towards light, which in its turn is the source of photosynthetic efficiency and phototropism. The gravitropism system does not function independently of other sensory response systems in plants. The competence of protonemata to gravity might be altered and the gravitropic response be reversed from negative to positive by light. It has been shown that response of apical cells to light depend on wavelenght: red light (max = 660 nm) represses the gravitropism and blue ( = 450 nm) inverts the protonemal gravitropism. Light, has also been shown for seed plants to modulate gravitropism of roots and stems through the action of phy B in red/far-red reversible way and by phy A in a non-reversible, very - low-fluence response (Hangarter, 1997). In P. nutans blue light reversed the gravitropism protonemal filaments. The mean angle after 24 h blue irradiation was 83 0, like that of negative gravitropic protonemata in darkness. We compared the effect of blue light on gravitropism of chloronemal filaments of Funaria hygrometrica having very low sensitivity to gravity. After action of blue light, however, the positive gravitropism of F. hygrometrica chloronemata was fairly high - 370 . Among blue light spectrum the highest reversion effectiveness in P. nutans had the UV light ( = 350 nm) initiated bends in 90% of protonemata. If a far-red pulse (5 min per h) was added to the blue/UV the gravitropic growth of protonemata resembled that in the dark control. Phytochrome has maxima of absorption in blue and red spectrum region and in our

  9. A novel alpha-glucosidase from the moss Scopelophila cataractae.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Susumu; Konno, Haruyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Scopelophila cataractae is a rare moss that grows on copper-containing soils. S. cataractae protonema was grown on basal MS medium containing copper. A starch-degrading activity was detected in homogenates of the protonema, after successive extraction with phosphate buffer and buffer containing 3 M LiCl. Buffer-soluble extract (BS) and LiCl-soluble extract (LS) readily hydrolyzed amylopectin to liberate only glucose, which shows that alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) in BS and LS hydrolyzed amylopectin. The K(m) value of BS for maltose was 0.427. The K(m) value of BS for malto-oligosaccharide decreased with an increase in the molecular mass of the substrate. The value for maltohexaose was 0.106, which is about four-fold lower than that for maltose. BS was divided into two fractions of alpha-glucosidase (BS-1 and BS-2) by isoelectric focusing. The isoelectric points of these two enzymes were determined to be 4.36 (BS-1) and 5.25 (BS-2) by analytical gel electrofocusing. The two enzymes readily hydrolyzed malto-oligosaccharides. The two enzymes also hydrolyzed amylose, amylopectin and soluble starch at a rate similar to that with maltose. The two enzymes readily hydrolyzed panose to liberate glucose and maltose (1 : 1), and the K(m) value of BS for panose was similar to that for maltotriose, whereas the enzymes hydrolyzed isomaltose only weakly. With regard to substrate specificity, the two enzymes in BS are novel alpha-glucosidases. The two enzymes also hydrolyzed beta-limit dextrin, which has many alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages near the non-reducing ends, more strongly than maltose, which shows that they do not need a debranching enzyme for starch digestion. The starch-degrading activity of BS was not inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid or alpha-amylase inhibitor. When amylopectin was treated with BS and LS in phosphate buffer, pH 6.0, glucose, but not glucose-1-phosphate, was detected, showing that the extracts did not contain phosphorylase but did contain an

  10. Development of a HS-SPME-GC/MS protocol assisted by chemometric tools to study herbivore-induced volatiles in Myrcia splendens.

    PubMed

    Souza Silva, Érica A; Saboia, Giovanni; Jorge, Nina C; Hoffmann, Camila; Dos Santos Isaias, Rosy Mary; Soares, Geraldo L G; Zini, Claudia A

    2017-12-01

    A headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed and optimized for extraction and analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) of leaves and galls of Myrcia splendens. Through a process of optimization of main factors affecting HS-SPME efficiency, the coating divivnilbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/Car/PDMS) was chosen as the optimum extraction phase, not only in terms of extraction efficiency, but also for its broader analyte coverage. Optimum extraction temperature was 30°C, while an extraction time of 15min provided the best compromise between extraction efficiencies of lower and higher molecular weight compounds. The optimized protocol was demonstrated to be capable of sampling plant material with high reproducibility, considering that most classes of analytes met the 20% RSD FDA criterion. The optimized method was employed for the analysis of three classes of M. splendens samples, generating a final list of 65 tentatively identified VOC, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, phenol derivatives, as well as mono and sesquiterpenes. Significant differences were evident amongst the volatile profiles obtained from non-galled leaves (NGL) and leaf-folding galls (LFG) of M. splendens. Several differences pertaining to amounts of alcohols and aldehydes were detected between samples, particularly regarding quantities of green leaf volatiles (GLV). Alcohols represented about 14% of compounds detected in gall samples, whereas in non-galled samples, alcohol content was below 5%. Phenolic derived compounds were virtually absent in reference samples, while in non-galled leaves and galls their content ranged around 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Likewise, methyl salicylate, a well-known signal of plant distress, amounted for 1.2% of the sample content of galls, whereas it was only present in trace levels in reference samples. Chemometric analysis based on Heatmap associated

  11. Effect of substituting live feed with formulated feed on the reproductive performance and fry survival of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens (Regan, 1910).

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sagar C; Kohli, Mahinder P S; Das, Pronob; Singh, Soibam K; Munilkumar, Sukham; Sarma, Kamal; Baruah, Kartik

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the effect of partial or complete replacement of live feed (LF) (Tubifex) with formulated feed (FF) on the reproductive performance of Betta splendens. Three hundred B. splendens fry (average weight 0.19 ± 0.01 g) were equally distributed into five different groups, each with three replicates. They were fed for 105 days with following different diets: control (C)-100% LF; T1-75% LF, 25% FF; T2-50% LF, 50% FF; T3-25% LF, 75% FF, and T4-100% FF. Results showed that the average number of hatched larvae (654 ± 101) and fry survival after 2 weeks of rearing (428 ± 70), after completion of three spawning, were recorded highest in the control group, which was, however, not significantly different from the T1, T2, and T3 groups. At the end of the feeding trial, the highest hatching percentage (90.3%) was registered in the T2 group, which was not significantly different from the control and T1 groups. The T2 group also recorded highest fry survival (65.54%) after completion of three spawning, which was not significantly (P < 0.05) different from the T1 and T3 groups. Control diet contained higher saturated fatty acid (63.23%) than formulated diet (29.80%). In the whole-body tissue, highest level of EPA (0.42%) and DHA (3.13%) were found in the T4 group followed by T3 group. The DHA/EPA ration was recorded highest in the T2 group (10.96%), which did not differ significantly from the T1 and T3 groups. Significant positive correlation was observed between saturated fatty acid levels in fish whole-body tissue and number of hatched larvae (Y = 30.81 × -825.3, R(2) = 0.968) and fry survival after 2 weeks of rearing (Y = 21.38 × -580.9, R(2) = 0.967). Considering all these factors, it can be concluded that the live feed Tubifex can be replaced up to 50% without any adverse effect on the reproductive performance and fry survival of B. splendens.

  12. Gravitropism and phototropism in protonemata of the moss Pohlia nutans (HEDW.) lindb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkiv, O. T.; Kordyum, E. L.; Kardash, O. R.; Khorkavtsiv, O. Ya.

    1999-01-01

    The gravitropism of protonemata of Pohlia nutans is described and compared with that of other mosses. In darkness, protonemata showed negative gravitropism. Under uniform illumination they grew radially over the substrate surface, whereas unilateral illumination induced positive phototropic growth. Gravitropism was coupled with starch synthesis and amyloplast formation. Protonematal gravitropic growth is more variable than the strict negative gravitropism of Ceratodon chloronema.

  13. Putting Physcomitrella Patens on the Tree of Life: The Evolution and Ecology of Mosses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physcomitrella patens is an important model system for studies of genetics and physiology, and with its newly-sequenced genome, is perfectly placed phylogenetically to serve as a point of comparison for angiosperms. This chapter addresses three main questions. (1) How typical of a moss is P. patens...

  14. 78 FR 72817 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Near Moss Lake, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... hydraulic unit housing platform. These repairs are essential for the continued safe operation of the bridge... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Near Moss... the docket, call Barbara Hairston, Program Manager, Docket Operations, telephone 202-366-9826...

  15. Detection, Isolation, and Characterization of Acidophilic Methanotrophs from Sphagnum Mosses ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; van Donselaar, Elly G.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs was found. With Sphagnum mosses as the inoculum, alpha- and gammaproteobacterial acidophilic methanotrophs were isolated using established and newly designed media. The 16S rRNA, pmoA, pxmA, and mmoX gene sequences showed that the alphaproteobacterial isolates belonged to the Methylocystis and Methylosinus genera. The Methylosinus species isolated are the first acid-tolerant members of this genus. Of the acidophilic gammaproteobacterial strains isolated, strain M5 was affiliated with the Methylomonas genus, and the other strain, M200, may represent a novel genus, most closely related to the genera Methylosoma and Methylovulum. So far, no acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs in the Gammaproteobacteria class are known. All strains showed the typical features of either type I or II methanotrophs and are, to the best of our knowledge, the first isolated (acidophilic or acid-tolerant) methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses. PMID:21724892

  16. Contact sensitization to tree moss (Evernia furfuracea extract, INCI) is heterogeneous.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Erich; Lessmann, Holger; Schnuch, Axel

    2012-07-01

    Evernia prunastri (oak moss) and Evernia furfuracea (tree moss) are lichens from which natural extracts are obtained. To identify possible subgroups of E. furfuracea-sensitized patients according to whether these are allergic to lichen components or to contaminants. A retrospective analysis was performed of surveillance data collected by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (www.ivkd.org) in 2003-2010 with oak moss absolute (1% pet.), tree moss absolute (1% pet.), and colophonium (colophony, 20% pet.). In total, 3030 patients had been tested with all three allergens. Positive reactions to E. furfuracea were observed in 6.37%, to E. prunastri in 5.71%, and to colophonium in 4.82%. Concordance between positive reactions to E. prunastri and E. furfuracea was good only in patients not co-sensitized to colophonium (Cohen's κ = 0.681, 95% confidence interval 0.615-0.746). Moreover, E. furfuracea-sensitized patients showed (strong or extreme) concomitant reactions to colophonium significantly more often if not co-sensitized to E. prunastri. Two subgroups of E. furfuracea-sensitized patients are identifiable: (i) those with sensitization to (oxidized) resin acids, as indicated by positive patch test reactions also to colophonium, and (ii) those non-sensitized to resin acids, but sensitized to common constituents of E. prunastri and E. furfuracea. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere with mosses: performance and application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qimei; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have aroused environmentalists and public concerns due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. However, monitoring atmospheric POPs using conventional instrumental methods is difficult and expensive, and POP levels in air samples represent an instantaneous value at a sampling time. Biomonitoring methods can overcome this limitation, because biomonitors can accumulate POPs, serve as long-term integrators of POPs and provide reliable information to assess the impact of pollutants on the biota and various ecosystems. Recently, mosses are increasingly employed to monitor atmospheric POPs. Mosses have been applied to indicate POP pollution levels in the remote continent of Antarctica, trace distribution of POPs in the vicinity of pollution sources, describe the spatial patterns at the regional scale, and monitor the changes in the pollution intensity along time. In the future, many aspects need to be improved and strengthened: (i) the relationship between the concentrations of POPs in mosses and in the atmosphere (different size particulates and vapor phases); and (ii) the application of biomonitoring with mosses in human health studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. First survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Kosovo using moss biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Maxhuni, Albert; Lazo, Pranvera; Kane, Sonila; Qarri, Flora; Marku, Elda; Harmens, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. The atmospheric deposition of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Kosovo was investigated by using carpet-forming moss species (Pseudocleropodium purum and Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicators. This research is part of the European moss survey coordinated by the ICP Vegetation, an International Cooperative Programme reporting on the effects of air pollution on vegetation to the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Sampling was performed during the summer of 2011 at 25 sampling sites homogenously distributed over Kosovo. Unwashed, dried samples were digested by using wet digestion in Teflon tubes. The concentrations of metal elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and/or furnace systems. The heavy metal concentration in mosses reflected local emission sources. The data obtained in this study were compared with those of similar studies in neighboring countries and Europe (2010-2014 survey). The geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn were higher than the respective median values of Europe, suggesting that the zones with heavy vehicular traffic and industry emission input are important emitters of these elements. Selected zones are highly polluted particularly by Cd, Pb, Hg, and Ni. The statistical analyses revealed that a strong correlation exists between the Pb and Cd content in mosses, and the degree of pollution in the studied sites was assessed.

  19. Direct and Indirect Drivers of Moss Community Structure, Function, and Associated Microfauna Across a Successional Gradient

    Treesearch

    Micael Jonsson; Paul Kardol; Michael J. Gundale; Sheel Bansal; Marie-Charlotte Nilsson; Daniel B. Metcalfe; David A. Wardle

    2015-01-01

    Relative to vascular plants, little is known about what factors control bryophyte communities or how they respond to successional and environmental changes. Bryophytes are abundant in boreal forests, thus changes in moss community composition and functional traits (for example, moisture and nutrient content; rates of photosynthesis and respiration) may have important...

  20. Gravitropism and phototropism in protonemata of the moss Pohlia nutans (Hedw.) Lindb.

    PubMed

    Demkiv, O T; Kordyum, E L; Kardash, O R; Khorkavtsiv, O Y

    1999-01-01

    The gravitropism of protonemata of Pohlia nutans is described and compared with that of other mosses. In darkness, protonemata showed negative gravitropism. Under uniform illumination they grew radially over the substrate surface, whereas unilateral illumination induced positive phototropic growth. Gravitropism was coupled with starch synthesis and amyloplast formation. Protonematal gravitropic growth is more variable than the strict negative gravitropism of Ceratodon chloronema.

  1. Population genetic structure of the tropical moss Acanthorrhynchium papillatum as measured with microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Leonardía, A A P; Tan, B C; Kumar, P P

    2013-03-01

    Mosses and other bryophytes are vital components of forests, because they sustain a tremendous diversity of invertebrates and influence significant ecological functions. There have been few studies on moss population diversity in Southeast Asia, despite the escalating deforestation in this region of rich biodiversity. The genetic diversity of the tropical moss Acanthorrhynchium papillatum (Harv.) Fleisch., collected from forested areas in Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia, was elucidated using eight microsatellite markers developed for this species. Significant levels of allelic and haplotypic diversity were observed among clumps of the moss. Differences in allelic richness and genotypic diversity among the populations were higher in less disturbed forests compared to the more disturbed areas, suggesting that genetic diversity is affected by habitat quality. Genetic diversity levels within the clumps studied were low, indicating that vegetative reproduction was more important within clumps than sexual reproduction. However, multilocus genotypes of samples within the clumps studied were not all alike, providing evidence of microsatellite mutation or of occasional sexuality. Despite the isolation of populations, A. papillatum can introduce genetic variability by mutation among vegetatively propagated individuals. This study provides baseline information on the genetic diversity of A. papillatum tropical rain forests.

  2. The first survey of airborne trace elements at airport using moss bag technique.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Škrivanj, Sandra; Vergel, Konstantin; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-06-01

    Air traffic represents an important way of social mobility in the world, and many ongoing discussions are related to the impacts that air transportation has on local air quality. In this study, moss Sphagnum girgensohnii was used for the first time in the assessment of trace element content at the international airport. The moss bags were exposed during the summer of 2013 at four sampling sites at the airport 'Nikola Tesla' (Belgrade, Serbia): runway (two), auxiliary runway and parking lot. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and the limit of quantification of the moss bag technique (LOQT), the most abundant elements in the samples were Zn, Na, Cr, V, Cu and Fe. A comparison between the element concentrations at the airport and the corresponding values in different land use classes (urban central, suburban, industrial and green zones) across the city of Belgrade did not point out that the air traffic and associated activities significantly contribute to the trace element air pollution. This study emphasised an easy operational and robust (bio)monitoring, using moss bags as a suitable method for assessment of air quality within various microenvironments with restriction in positioning referent instrumental devices.

  3. Cell-specific transcriptomic analyses of three-dimensional shoot development in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Frank, Margaret H; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Haploid moss gametophytes harbor distinct stem cell types, including tip cells that divide in single planes to generate filamentous protonemata, and bud cells that divide in three planes to yield axial gametophore shoots. This transition from filamentous to triplanar growth occurs progressively during the moss life cycle, and is thought to mirror evolution of the first terrestrial plants from Charophycean green algal ancestors. The innovation of morphologically complex plant body plans facilitated colonization of the vertical landscape, and enabled development of complex vegetative and reproductive plant morphologies. Despite its profound evolutionary significance, the molecular programs involved in this transition from filamentous to triplanar meristematic plant growth are poorly understood. In this study, we used single-cell type transcriptomics to identify more than 4000 differentially expressed genes that distinguish uniplanar protonematal tip cells from multiplanar gametophore bud cells in the moss Physcomitrella patens. While the transcriptomes of both tip and bud cells show molecular signatures of proliferative cells, the bud cell transcriptome exhibits a wider variety of genes with significantly increased transcript abundances. Our data suggest that combined expression of genes involved in shoot patterning and asymmetric cell division accompanies the transition from uniplanar to triplanar meristematic growth in moss.

  4. Moss Mediates the Influence of Shrub Species on Soil Properties and Processes in Alpine Tundra

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Scott N.; Barrio, Isabel C.; Helgadóttir, Ágústa; HiK, David S.

    2016-01-01

    In tundra ecosystems, bryophytes influence soil processes directly and indirectly through interactions with overstory shrub species. We experimentally manipulated moss cover and measured seasonal soil properties and processes under two species of deciduous shrubs with contrasting canopy structures, Salix planifolia pulchra and Betula glandulosa-nana complex. Soil properties (seasonal temperature, moisture and C:N ratios) and processes (seasonal litter decomposition and soil respiration) were measured over twelve months. Shrub species identity had the largest influence on summer soil temperatures and soil respiration rates, which were higher under Salix canopies. Mosses were associated with lower soil moisture irrespective of shrub identity, but modulated the effects of shrubs on winter soil temperatures and soil C:N ratios so that moss cover reduced differences in soil winter temperatures between shrub species and reduced C:N ratios under Betula but not under Salix canopies. Our results suggest a central role of mosses in mediating soil properties and processes, with their influence depending on shrub species identity. Such species-dependent effects need to be accounted for when forecasting vegetation dynamics under ongoing environmental changes. PMID:27760156

  5. [Effects of moss crust on soil seed bank at southeast edge of Tengger Desert].

    PubMed

    Su, Yan-gui; Li, Xin-Rong; Jia, Rong-Liang; Pan, Yan-Xie

    2007-03-01

    An investigation was made on the soil seed bank at southeast edge of Tengger Desert with moss crust under natural and artificial vegetations. The results showed that the density of soil seed bank increased with the development of moss crust, which was 3.4 times higher under natural vegetation than under 24 years old artificial vegetation. In the seed bank, a total of 12 species belonging to 6 families were identified, among which, annuals occupied more than 70%. No perennial seeds were found under artificial vegetation, but under natural vegetation, 20% of the seeds were of perennials. As for semi-shrub seeds, they occupied 20% and 10% under artificial and natural, vegetation, respectively. Under artificial vegetation, the species richness index of soil seed bank was relatively lower, being about a half of that under natural vegetation. The species diversity index of the seed bank had a slight decrease with the development of moss crust under artificial vegetation, but increased to the maximum (0. 693) under natural vegetation. The species similarity index was 1 among the seed banks under artificial vegetations, and 0.4 between those under artificial and natural vegetation. The development of moss crust increased the roughness of surface soil and improved soil environment significantly, which could have positive effects on seed entrapment and plant establishment.

  6. Evaluating carbon stores at the earth-atmosphere interface: moss and lichen mats of subarctic Alaska

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Smith; Sarah Jovan; Bruce. McCune

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental goal of the forest inventory in interior Alaska is to accurately estimate carbon pools in a way that sheds light on the feedbacks between forests and climate. In boreal forests, moss and lichen mats often serve as the interface between soils and the atmosphere, therefore characterizing the biomass and composition of mats is essential for understanding how...

  7. Gravitropic moss cells default to spiral growth on the clinostat and in microgravity during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Volker D.; Schwuchow, Jochen M.; Reed, David W.; Nadeau, Jeanette A.; Lucas, Jessica; Skripnikov, Alexander; Sack, Fred D.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to shoots and roots, the gravity (g)-vector orients the growth of specialized cells such as the apical cell of dark-grown moss protonemata. Each apical cell of the moss Ceratodon purpureus senses the g-vector and adjusts polar growth accordingly producing entire cultures of upright protonemata (negative gravitropism). The effect of withdrawing a constant gravity stimulus on moss growth was studied on two NASA Space Shuttle (STS) missions as well as during clinostat rotation on earth. Cultures grown in microgravity (spaceflight) on the STS-87 mission exhibited two successive phases of non-random growth and patterning, a radial outgrowth followed by the formation of net clockwise spiral growth. Also, cultures pre-aligned by unilateral light developed clockwise hooks during the subsequent dark period. The second spaceflight experiment flew on STS-107 which disintegrated during its descent on 1 February 2003. However, most of the moss experimental hardware was recovered on the ground, and most cultures, which had been chemically fixed during spaceflight, were retrieved. Almost all intact STS-107 cultures displayed strong spiral growth. Non-random culture growth including clockwise spiral growth was also observed after clinostat rotation. Together these data demonstrate the existence of default non-random growth patterns that develop at a population level in microgravity, a response that must normally be overridden and masked by a constant g-vector on earth.

  8. Cadmium Tolerance in a Metal-contaminated Population of the Grassland Moss Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J. M.; Brown, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    Two populations of Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus, from metal-contaminated and uncontaminated habitats, differed in their intra- and extracellular Cd contents but had similar cellular levels of Cu. Moss shoots were supplied with a pulse of toxic metal by incubating in Cu or Cd nitrate solutions and effects on respiration, photosynthesis and intracellular K loss were monitored with time after initial exposure. Increasing intracellular Cu levels correlated most closely with a concurrent decline in intracellular K. Photosynthesis also declined in proportion to intracellular Cu; significant Cu-induced stimulation of respiration was observed. The most significant effect of Cd treatment was a decline in photosynthesis in proportion to the intracellular concentration of Cd. Apical segments from both populations showed similar sensitivity to Cu, whereas the metal-contaminated population showed increased resistance to Cd. Sensitivity to Cd increased in the more basal portions of moss gametophores, indicating that apparent resistance of Cd might reflect shoot vitality and age effects. After laboratory growth to eliminate differences in the physiological status of apical segments, it was confirmed that the metal-contaminated population of the moss was photosynthetically more tolerant to Cd at intracellular Cd concentrations found to cause considerable photosynthetic inhibition in the uncontaminated population. The metal-contaminated population of the moss that was tolerant to Cd was not co-tolerant to Cu. PMID:21247909

  9. Lead isotope systematics in Polytrichum formosum: An example from a biomonitoring field study with mosses

    SciTech Connect

    Kunert, M.; Friese, K.; Weckert, V.; Markert, B.

    1999-10-15

    With the aid of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratios were determined in 34 moss samples (Polytrichum formosum) taken from the Hoerner Bruch area near Osnabrueck (FRG) in the years 1987--1996. The goal was to distinguish different sources of atmospheric lead pollution by the investigation of lead isotope ratios. Reproducibility tests were carried out to ensure the reliability of analyzing Pb isotope ratios in moss samples by means of quadrupole ICP-MS. The reproducibility of the isotope ratios for one digested sample and the day-to-day reproducibility were determined. In all the moss samples analyzed, relative standard deviations of < 0.26% for five replicate measurements of one digested sample were achieved for the {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratios. On the basis of the {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratio, it was possible to establish that the sources of man-made atmospheric inputs of lead have changed over the 10-year period investigated. In the moss samples analyzed, the {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratio was found to have risen significantly from 1.131 in 1987 to 1.154 in 1996. This increase in the {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratio can be attributed to a reduction of atmospheric inputs of lead from petrol.

  10. Does Spore Ultrastructure Mirror Different Dispersal Strategies in Mosses? A Study of Seven Iberian Orthotrichum Species

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Nagore G.; Estébanez, Belén

    2014-01-01

    Most mosses have xerochastic dispersal (i.e., they open their capsules when conditions are dry), which is thought to favor long-distance dispersal. However, there are several species that use a hygrochastic strategy: spores are dispersed when conditions are wet. The significance of this strategy in the Mediterranean region is unknown. In this study, we explored whether ultrastructural features related to differences in spore resistance may explain these different strategies of spore dispersal. To this end, we examined the ultrastructural features of the spores of seven closely related species in the moss genus Orthotrichum. These species all grow as epiphytes in sub-Mediterranean forests, and the group includes both xerochastic and hygrochastic members. First, we found that the spore wall layers exhibit several features previously undescribed in mosses. Second, we discovered that there are only subtle differences in spore ultrastructure with regards to spore wall thickness, the degree of plastid development, or the storage substances used. We suggest that the hygrochastic dispersal in mosses from Mediterranean environments might be related to a safe-site strategy, rather than to drought avoidance, and we underscore the necessity of conducting spore ultrastructural studies on a greater number of bryophyte species. PMID:25412450

  11. Gravitropic moss cells default to spiral growth on the clinostat and in microgravity during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Kern, Volker D; Schwuchow, Jochen M; Reed, David W; Nadeau, Jeanette A; Lucas, Jessica; Skripnikov, Alexander; Sack, Fred D

    2005-04-01

    In addition to shoots and roots, the gravity (g)-vector orients the growth of specialized cells such as the apical cell of dark-grown moss protonemata. Each apical cell of the moss Ceratodon purpureus senses the g-vector and adjusts polar growth accordingly producing entire cultures of upright protonemata (negative gravitropism). The effect of withdrawing a constant gravity stimulus on moss growth was studied on two NASA Space Shuttle (STS) missions as well as during clinostat rotation on earth. Cultures grown in microgravity (spaceflight) on the STS-87 mission exhibited two successive phases of non-random growth and patterning, a radial outgrowth followed by the formation of net clockwise spiral growth. Also, cultures pre-aligned by unilateral light developed clockwise hooks during the subsequent dark period. The second spaceflight experiment flew on STS-107 which disintegrated during its descent on 1 February 2003. However, most of the moss experimental hardware was recovered on the g