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Sample records for mothers speaking rate

  1. Speaking rate, conversational speech acts, interruption, and linguistic complexity of 20 pre-school stuttering and non-stuttering children and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Ryan, B P

    2000-01-01

    This is the second in a series of reports concerning stuttering pre-school children enrolled in a longitudinal study; the first was Ryan (1992). Conversational samples of 20 stuttering and 20 non-stuttering pre-school children and their mothers were analysed for speaking rate, conversational speech acts, interruption, and linguistic complexity. Between-group analyses revealed few differences between either the two children or two mother groups. Within-group analyses indicated differences that involved conversational speech acts and linguistic complexity. Most stuttering occurred on statements (M = 32.3% stuttered) and questions (M = 20.9% stuttered). Stuttered and disfluent sentences had higher Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) (Lee, 1974) scores (M = 10.9, 12.9, respectively) than fluent sentences (M = 7.6). Multiple correlation analyses indicated that speaking rate of mothers (0.561) and normal disfluency of children (0.396) were major predictor variables.

  2. A Quantitative Analysis of CEDA Speaking Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Kent R.

    Over recent years critics of debate have expressed disenchantment with the rate of delivery used by intercollegiate debaters. To determine how fast Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) debaters speak compared to normal public speaking rates, and whether CEDA has met its goal of providing a forum that is consistent with the rate of public…

  3. English- and Spanish-speaking Latina mothers' beliefs about food, health, and mothering.

    PubMed

    Gomel, Jessica N; Zamora, Angela

    2007-10-01

    Parent beliefs regarding food, health, and child feeding behaviors among Latinos have not been well-documented. A series of eight focus groups were conducted with English-speaking and Spanish-speaking low-income Latina mothers of preschoolers to investigate their beliefs regarding how food and food preparation are related to their children's health and to their own roles as mothers. Systematic content analysis using NUDIST 6 revealed seven themes discussed by the focus groups. Integration of these themes revealed three major areas of consideration: (1) a lack of connection between the domains of eating, overweight, and health outcomes; (2) the role of parent modeling of eating behaviors; and (3) the use of feeding strategies that may not be conducive to the development of healthy eating behaviors. Furthermore, the data suggest that there are important distinctions among Latinos based on language preference, and that a "one-size-fits-all" approach to modeling Latino mothers' feeding beliefs may not be appropriate.

  4. Influence of mothers' slower speech on their children's speech rate.

    PubMed

    Guitar, B; Marchinkoski, L

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the effects on children's speech rate when their mothers talked more slowly. Six mothers and their normally speaking 3-year-olds (3 girls and 3 boys) were studied using single-subject A-B-A-B designs. Conversational speech rates of mothers were reduced by approximately half in the experimental (B) conditions. Five of the six children appeared to reduce their speech rates when their mothers spoke more slowly. This was confirmed by paired t tests (p < .05) that showed significant decreases in the 5 children's speech rate over the two B conditions. These findings suggest that when mothers substantially decrease their speech rates in a controlled situation, their children also decrease their speech rates. Clinical implications are discussed.

  5. Convex weighting criteria for speaking rate estimation

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yishan; Berisha, Visar; Tu, Ming; Liss, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Speaking rate estimation directly from the speech waveform is a long-standing problem in speech signal processing. In this paper, we pose the speaking rate estimation problem as that of estimating a temporal density function whose integral over a given interval yields the speaking rate within that interval. In contrast to many existing methods, we avoid the more difficult task of detecting individual phonemes within the speech signal and we avoid heuristics such as thresholding the temporal envelope to estimate the number of vowels. Rather, the proposed method aims to learn an optimal weighting function that can be directly applied to time-frequency features in a speech signal to yield a temporal density function. We propose two convex cost functions for learning the weighting functions and an adaptation strategy to customize the approach to a particular speaker using minimal training. The algorithms are evaluated on the TIMIT corpus, on a dysarthric speech corpus, and on the ICSI Switchboard spontaneous speech corpus. Results show that the proposed methods outperform three competing methods on both healthy and dysarthric speech. In addition, for spontaneous speech rate estimation, the result show a high correlation between the estimated speaking rate and ground truth values. PMID:26167516

  6. Major Survey Findings of Listening to MothersSM III: New Mothers Speak Out

    PubMed Central

    Declercq, Eugene R.; Sakala, Carol; Corry, Maureen P.; Applebaum, Sandra; Herrlich, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    To understand the experiences and views of childbearing women in the United States and trends over time, Childbirth Connection carried out the third national Listening to Mothers survey among 2,400 women who gave birth in U.S. hospitals to a single baby from mid-2011 to mid-2012 and could participate in English. A follow-up survey directed to the same participants explored postpartum experiences, in depth and well into the second year after birth; views about maternity care; and some additional pregnancy and birth items. Harris Interactive conducted the surveys using a validated methodology that includes data weighting to ensure that results closely reflect the target population. The follow-up survey was reported in Listening to Mothers III: New Mothers Speak Out. PMID:24453464

  7. Speaking rate effects on locus equation slope

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant–vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change. PMID:24535890

  8. Speaking rate effects on locus equation slope.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary

    2013-11-01

    A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant-vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change.

  9. Filial Therapy with Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Mothers: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Cook, Katrina; Rangel-Gomez, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenological study of filial therapy with monolingual, Spanish-speaking mothers living in the United States. Four mothers participated in a 5-week training in filial therapy. Data from the interviews revealed four emergent themes. These include (a) challenges in integrating play therapy skills in everyday life, (b)…

  10. Language Usage and Culture Maintenance: A Study of Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Mothers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejía, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the usage of the Spanish language by Hispanic mothers with their children, their views on language maintenance and culture within their bilingual families and their opinions on the benefits of bilingualism in a globalised world. Drawing upon detailed case studies of 16 native Spanish-speaking mothers married to…

  11. Language Usage and Culture Maintenance: A Study of Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Mothers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejía, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the usage of the Spanish language by Hispanic mothers with their children, their views on language maintenance and culture within their bilingual families and their opinions on the benefits of bilingualism in a globalised world. Drawing upon detailed case studies of 16 native Spanish-speaking mothers married to…

  12. Reduced Speaking Rate as an Early Predictor of Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allan B.; Roberts, Jenny; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated whether developmental reading disability could be predicted in children at the age of 30 months, according to 3 measures of speech production: speaking rate, articulation rate, and the proportion of speaking time allocated to pausing. Method: Speech samples of 18 children at high risk and 10 children at low risk for…

  13. Mothers speak differently to infants at-risk for dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Goswami, Usha; Burnham, Denis

    2016-10-27

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested in deficits in reading and spelling skills that is consistently associated with difficulties in phonological processing. Dyslexia is genetically transmitted, but its manifestation in a particular individual is thought to depend on the interaction of epigenetic and environmental factors. We adopt a novel interactional perspective on early linguistic environment and dyslexia by simultaneously studying two pre-existing factors, one maternal and one infant, that may contribute to these interactions; and two behaviours, one maternal and one infant, to index the effect of these factors. The maternal factor is whether mothers are themselves dyslexic or not (with/without dyslexia) and the infant factor is whether infants are at-/not-at family risk for dyslexia (due to their mother or father being dyslexic). The maternal behaviour is mothers' infant-directed speech (IDS), which typically involves vowel hyperarticulation, thought to benefit speech perception and language acquisition. The infant behaviour is auditory perception measured by infant sensitivity to amplitude envelope rise time, which has been found to be reduced in dyslexic children. Here, at-risk infants showed significantly poorer acoustic sensitivity than not-at-risk infants and mothers only hyperarticulated vowels to infants who were not at-risk for dyslexia. Mothers' own dyslexia status had no effect on IDS quality. Parental speech input is thus affected by infant risk status, with likely consequences for later linguistic development.

  14. Speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiu-Feng; Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Chi, Lin-Yang; Weismer, Gary; Wang, Yu-Tsai

    2012-04-01

    The effects of the use of cochlear implant (CI) on speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics and the relationships between speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics for children are clinically important. The purposes of this study were to report on the comparisons for speaking rate and vowel space area, and their relationship with speech intelligibility, between 24 Mandarin-speaking children with CI and 24 age-sex-education level matched normal hearing (NH) controls. Participants were audio recorded as they read a designed Mandarin intelligibility test, repeated prolongation of each of the three point vowels /i/, /a/, and /u/ five times, and repeated each of three sentences carrying one point vowel five times. Compared to the NH group, the CI group exhibited: (1) mild-to-moderate speech intelligibility impairment; (2) significantly reduced speaking rate mainly due to significantly longer inter-word pauses and larger pause proportion; and (3) significantly less vowel reduction in the horizontal dimension in sustained vowel phonation. The limitations of speech intelligibility development in children after cochlear implantation were related to atypical patterns and to a smaller degree in vowel reduction and slower speaking rate resulting from less efficient articulatory movement transition.

  15. Infants adapt to speaking rate differences in word segmentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Llanos, Fernando; Seidl, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Throughout their development, infants are exposed to varying speaking rates. Thus, it is important to determine whether they are able to adapt to speech at varying rates and recognize target words from continuous speech despite speaking rate differences. To address this question, a series of four experiments were conducted to test whether infants can recognize words in continuous speech when rate is variable. In addition, the underlying mechanisms that infants may use to cope with variations induced by different speaking rates were also examined. Specifically, using the Headturn Preference procedure [Jusczyk and Aslin (1995). Cognitive Psychol. 29, 1-23], infants were familiarized with normal-rate passages containing two trisyllabic target words (e.g., elephants and dinosaurs), and tested with familiar (elephants and dinosaurs) and unfamiliar (crocodiles and platypus) words embedded in normal-rate (experiment 1), fast-rate (experiments 2 and 3), or slow-rate passages (experiment 4). The results indicate that 14-month-olds, but not 11-month-olds, recognized target words in passages with a fast speaking rate. In addition, findings suggest that infants used context to normalize speech across different speaking rates.

  16. Characteristics of Mother-Infant Communicative Interaction: Relations to the Ratings of Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paavola, Leila; Kemppinen, Kaarina; Kunnari, Sari; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Ebeling, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    The present article reports a study of communicative behaviour among mothers and infants who were grouped according to the ratings of sensitivity and co-operation, respectively. The participants were 27 Finnish-speaking mothers and their 10-month-old first-born infants (13 boys and 14 girls). The study is descriptive by nature, and the data were…

  17. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  18. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  19. Language-independent talker-specificity in first-language and second-language speech production by bilingual talkers: L1 speaking rate predicts L2 speaking rate.

    PubMed

    Bradlow, Ann R; Kim, Midam; Blasingame, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Second-language (L2) speech is consistently slower than first-language (L1) speech, and L1 speaking rate varies within- and across-talkers depending on many individual, situational, linguistic, and sociolinguistic factors. It is asked whether speaking rate is also determined by a language-independent talker-specific trait such that, across a group of bilinguals, L1 speaking rate significantly predicts L2 speaking rate. Two measurements of speaking rate were automatically extracted from recordings of read and spontaneous speech by English monolinguals (n = 27) and bilinguals from ten L1 backgrounds (n = 86): speech rate (syllables/second), and articulation rate (syllables/second excluding silent pauses). Replicating prior work, L2 speaking rates were significantly slower than L1 speaking rates both across-groups (monolinguals' L1 English vs bilinguals' L2 English), and across L1 and L2 within bilinguals. Critically, within the bilingual group, L1 speaking rate significantly predicted L2 speaking rate, suggesting that a significant portion of inter-talker variation in L2 speech is derived from inter-talker variation in L1 speech, and that individual variability in L2 spoken language production may be best understood within the context of individual variability in L1 spoken language production.

  20. The Effect of Foreign Accent and Speaking Rate on Native Speaker Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Hsieh, Janet; Koehler, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    A study investigated the effect of foreign accent and speaking rate on native English speaker comprehension. Three native Chinese speakers and one native speaker of American English read passages at different speaking rates. Comprehension scores showed that an increase in speaking rate and heavily accented English decreased listener comprehension.…

  1. A Voice and a Vote: The Advisory Board Experiences of Spanish-Speaking Latina Mothers.

    PubMed

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Gregory, Emily; Polk, Sarah; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Giusti, Flor; Thompson, Darcy A; Sibinga, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Latino children experience disparities in health care access and quality. Family advisory groups for clinics and hospitals may be one way to address disparities. We implemented and sustained an advisory board whose parent participants were exclusively limited-English proficient Latina mothers. As part of the board evaluation, we conducted semistructured individual interviews with parent participants during initial participation and after the final board meeting of the year. Members were satisfied with their board participation in both initial and follow-up interviews. They reported that board membership was an important way to improve clinic services and a unique opportunity for Latinos in the community. Experiences of discrimination and marginalization in health care settings were a theme across interviews. Members reported board membership countered these negative experiences. An advisory board including Spanish-speaking parents is an opportunity to engage vulnerable populations, which may result in broader impact on health care disparities.

  2. The production of the /d/-/t/ distinction in French at slow speaking rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima

    2005-09-01

    This study examined how monolingual French speakers produced the /d/-/t/ distinction at normal and slow speaking rates. Target syllables were preceded by a voiceless fricative (/s/). Voicing-related differences in durations of preceding vowel, /s/, stop closure, and VOT were calculated and analyzed as a function of speaking rate (stressed syllables spoken at normal speaking rate, stressed syllables spoken at low speaking rate). Percentages of /s/ and /d/ closures with voicing were tallied in each speaking rate condition. Results from ANOVA showed that the absolute durations in sentence, preceding vowel, /s/, and closure were larger in the slow speaking rate condition than in the normal speaking rate condition. The voicing of the /s/ preceding /d/ and during the closure of /d/ occurred systematically in the normal speaking rate condition. However, in the slow speaking rate condition, most speakers failed to phonate the /s/, but partially phonated the /d/ closures. The effects of slow speaking on the /d/-/t/ distinction are compared with the effects obtained in the unstressed speaking rate condition.

  3. The effect of speaking rate on consonant vowel coarticulation.

    PubMed

    Agwuele, Augustine; Sussman, Harvey M; Lindblom, Bjorn

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 Lindblom et al. introduced a methodological tool to disentangle consonant-vowel (CV) coarticulation attributable to emphatic stress apart from the vowel expansion effects known to accompany the prosodic overlay. After empirically accounting for the altered vowel positions, they reported small but consistent increases in F2 transition onsets in emphatically produced CVs that could not be attributed to vowel context influences, and that differed across stop place. At issue is whether the findings of these authors can be replicated, but in the opposite direction, for CVs produced at fast speaking rates. A modified locus equation regression metric was similarly used to account for rate-induced vowel reduction effects in predicting frequencies of F2 transition onsets in rapid speech. Six American-English speakers produced [V1.CV2] sequences embedded in a carrier sentence, at three speaking tempos: normal, fast, and fastest. Significant differences were found between 'predicted' and 'observed' F2 onsets across stops, with alveolars and velars showing greater decreases in F2 onsets during more rapid speech than labials. The complementary findings are discussed relative to a unified view of anticipatory coarticulation in CV production across a continuum of hyperarticulated spectral expansion to hypoarticulated spectral reduction. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Equivalency for Father and Mother Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2010-01-01

    The study used multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) procedures to examine the measurement and construct equivalencies for father and mother ratings of ADHD symptoms, recoded as binary scores. Fathers (N = 387) and mothers (N = 411) rated their primary school-aged children on the…

  5. Perceived speech rate: the effects of articulation rate and speaking style in spontaneous speech.

    PubMed

    Koreman, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effect of articulation rate and speaking style on the perceived speech rate is investigated. The articulation rate is measured both in terms of the intended phones, i.e., phones present in the assumed canonical form, and as the number of actual, realized phones per second. The combination of these measures reflects the deletion of phones, which is related to speaking style. The effect of the two rate measures on the perceived speech rate is compared in two listening experiments on the basis of a set of intonation phrases with carefully balanced intended and realized phone rates, selected from a German database of spontaneous speech. Because the balance between input-oriented (effort) and output-oriented (communicative) constraints may be different at fast versus slow speech rates, the effect of articulation rate is compared both for fast and for slow phrases from the database. The effect of the listeners' own speaking habits is also investigated to evaluate if listeners' perception is based on a projection of their own behavior as a speaker. It is shown that listener judgments reflect both the intended and realized phone rates, and that their judgments are independent of the constraint balance and their own speaking habits.

  6. Validation of Empirically Derived Rating Scales for a Story Retelling Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…

  7. Validation of Empirically Derived Rating Scales for a Story Retelling Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…

  8. Characteristics of Speaking Rate in the Dysarthria Associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Greg S.; Weismer, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The ability to alter speaking rate was studied in nine adult subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and nine control subjects. Results suggest that the relationship between speaking rate, articulation rate, pause duration, and pause frequency remained largely intact for the dysarthric speakers. Data showed greater dependence on pausing by the…

  9. Characteristics of Speaking Rate in the Dysarthria Associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Greg S.; Weismer, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The ability to alter speaking rate was studied in nine adult subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and nine control subjects. Results suggest that the relationship between speaking rate, articulation rate, pause duration, and pause frequency remained largely intact for the dysarthric speakers. Data showed greater dependence on pausing by the…

  10. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    PubMed Central

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control. PMID:23331100

  11. Increases in cognitive and linguistic processing primarily account for increases in speaking rate with age.

    PubMed

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Green, Jordan R

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years, and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. WHO's Mother-Baby Package launched in French-speaking Africa.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies key features of a June 1997 seminar held among delegates from French-speaking African countries on the World Health Organization's Mother-Baby Package. This package aims to strengthen, integrate, and speed up national efforts to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries. Multidisciplinary teams met in subregions. The first group met in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; another group met a week later in Libreville, Gabon. WHO's Regional Office for Africa organized the meetings. Participants included representatives from UNDP, UNICEF, and UNFPA and representatives from Algeria, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. The meetings were conducted in French. Some participants pointed out the needs of countries that recently emerged from periods of armed conflict. It was understood that a minimum level of political stability was required in order for health systems to function effectively and to reduce maternal deaths. Countries are trying to restore health services to be able to respond to obstetric emergencies at any time or place. Information was provided on country-specific experiences with initiatives and problems, such as lack of funding and human resources. Midwife skills are particularly deficient at the local level. Some participants viewed a reproductive health emphasis as slowing safe motherhood efforts, while some viewed reproductive health as the foundation for safe motherhood and a way to strengthen support. Participants agreed on methods of mobilizing resources, identifying appropriate indicators, and collaborating intersectorally. They were committed to using World Health Day 1998 as a way to focus national celebrations on safe motherhood.

  13. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…

  14. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…

  15. Report from a multi-institutional randomized clinical trial examining computer-assisted problem-solving skills training for English- and Spanish-speaking mothers of children with newly diagnosed cancer.

    PubMed

    Askins, Martha A; Sahler, Olle Jane Z; Sherman, Sandra A; Fairclough, Diane L; Butler, Robert W; Katz, Ernest R; Dolgin, Michael J; Varni, James W; Noll, Robert B; Phipps, Sean

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA)-based supplement for maternal Problem-Solving Skills Training (PSST) and to explore Spanish-speaking mothers' experiences with it. Mothers (n = 197) of children with newly diagnosed cancer were randomized to traditional PSST or PSST + PDA 8-week programs. Participants completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Profile of Mood States, and Impact of Event Scale-Revised pre-, post-treatment, and 3 months after completion of the intervention. Mothers also rated optimism, logic, and confidence in the intervention and technology. Both groups demonstrated significant positive change over time on all psychosocial measures. No between-group differences emerged. Despite technological "glitches," mothers expressed moderately high optimism, appreciation for logic, and confidence in both interventions and rated the PDA-based program favorably. Technology appealed to all Spanish-speaking mothers, with younger mothers showing greater proficiency. Well-designed, supported technology holds promise for enhancing psychological interventions.

  16. 'There's something in their eyes' - Child Health Services nurses' experiences of identifying signs of postpartum depression in non-Swedish-speaking immigrant mothers.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Malin; Hallström, Inger; Berggren, Vanja

    2017-01-25

    Due to the current world situation, Sweden has one of the highest asylum applications within the European Union. Immigrant mothers, specifically those who have immigrated during the last ten years and do not speak the language of the new country, are found to be at particular risk of being effected by postpartum depression. In this study, we elucidate Swedish Child Health Services nurses' experiences of identifying signs of postpartum depression in non-Swedish-speaking immigrant mothers. Latent content analysis was used when analysing data material from 13 research interviews. Being able to interpret a non-Swedish-speaking immigrant mother's mood required establishing and constant deepening of a transcultural caring relationship, the use of cultural knowledge to perceive signs of postpartum depression from observations and interactions and to rely on intuition. There are both challenges and key factors for success in interpreting the mood of non-Swedish-speaking immigrant mothers. This study provides information to healthcare professionals about challenges with adapting the screening with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to immigrant mothers not speaking the language of residence. Tacit knowledge and cultural competence among healthcare personnel are invaluable assets when interpreting mental health in this vulnerable group of mothers. © 2017 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. A Voice and a Vote: The Advisory Board Experiences of Spanish-Speaking Latina Mothers

    PubMed Central

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Gregory, Emily; Polk, Sarah; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Giusti, Flor; Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Latino children experience disparities in health care access and quality. Family advisory groups for clinics and hospitals may be one way to address disparities. We implemented and sustained an advisory board whose parent participants were exclusively limited-English proficient Latina mothers. As part of the board evaluation, we conducted semistructured individual interviews with parent participants during initial participation and after the final board meeting of the year. Members were satisfied with their board participation in both initial and follow-up interviews. They reported that board membership was an important way to improve clinic services and a unique opportunity for Latinos in the community. Experiences of discrimination and marginalization in health care settings were a theme across interviews. Members reported board membership countered these negative experiences. An advisory board including Spanish-speaking parents is an opportunity to engage vulnerable populations, which may result in broader impact on health care disparities. Los niños latinos experimentan disparidad en el acceso y calidad del cuidado de salud. Grupos de familias asesoras para clínicas y hospitales pueden ser una forma de hacer frente a las disparidades. Nosotros implementamos y sostuvimos un consejo asesor cuyos participantes fueron exclusivamente madres latinas con dominio limitado del inglés. Como parte de la evaluación del consejo, condujimos entrevistas semi-estructuradas individuales con las madres participantes durante la participación inicial y después de la última reunión del año del consejo. Los miembros estaban satisfechas con su participación en el consejo en ambas entrevistas, la inicial y la de seguimiento. Ellas reportaron que ser miembros del consejo era una forma importante para mejorar los servicios de la clínica y una oportunidad única para los latinos en la comunidad. Las experiencias de discriminación y marginalización en las instalaciones de

  18. Developing a Practical Rating Rubric of Speaking Test for University Students of English in Parepare, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latifa, Ammang; Rahman, Asfah; Hamra, Arifuddin; Jabu, Baso; Nur, Rafi'ah

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a practical rating rubric of speaking ability in the classroom setting. This research study involves the English speaking lecturers at a number of higher education institutions in Parepare, Indonesia. The product is designed based on Research and Development (R&D) approach, which is adopted from Gall, Gall, and Borg…

  19. Motor control of speaking rate and oral diadochokinesis in hearing-impaired Farsi speakers.

    PubMed

    Seifpanahi, Sadegh; Dadkhah, Asghar; Dehqan, Ali; Bakhtiar, Mehdi; Salmalian, Tahmineh

    2008-01-01

    Although speech motor control has been studied intensively in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired (HI) speakers in America and Europe, essentially no research has been performed using Persian-speaking participants. A total of 46 prelingual hearing-impaired 15-18-year-old males and 15 normally hearing control participants from Iran participated in the study. Three speaking performance measures, oral diadochokinesis (DDK), speaking rate (words per minute), and intelligibility ratings, were obtained for the two groups and compared to previously published research for English-speaking participants. The DDK results in general showed that the normal-hearing group produced the fastest syllable rates, and the profoundly HI group produced the slowest. Similar results were obtained for speaking rates. Speech intelligibility was highest in the normal-hearing group and lowest in the profoundly HI group. Correlation analysis between DDK and speaking rates showed that for HI group only, a slow speaking rate corresponded to slow DDK rates. It is shown that generally there are significant differences in measures of speech motor control in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired participants. These results concord with those from other language groups.

  20. The effect of speaking rate on supersegmentals: An acoustic and perceptual analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Hsin-Huei; Watson, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Rate manipulation has been used to study change in prosodic contrasts such as emphatic stress. Timing contrasts in stressed words are reduced or eliminated when speaking rate is increased. However, reports of intonation and rate change are mixed. Some studies have reported an increase of F0 movement [M. Steppling and A. Montgomery, J. Phonetics 64, 451-461 (2002)], and other reports have found that F0 movement is decreased at faster speaking rates [C. Fougeron and S. Jun, Percept. Psychophys. 26, 45-69 (1998)]. This study examined the effect of speaking rate on F0 and duration in sentences produced with emphatic stress in different sentential position and in declarative and interrogative forms. Essentially, durational contrasts were reduced at faster speaking rates and were more pronounced at slower speaking rates. Intonation, on the other hand, was more pronounced for the fast rate and somewhat reduced for the slow rate. A perceptual component will also be reported that examines a listener's ability to recognize stressed words and mode of sentence production (declarative and interrogative) at different speaking rates.

  1. Breastfeeding rates among mothers of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wachman, Elisha M; Byun, John; Philipp, Barbara L

    2010-08-01

    Woman who struggle with drug addiction during pregnancy are perhaps the most vulnerable of new mothers. The opioid substitution medications methadone and buprenorphine are both compatible with breastfeeding. The objective of this study is to determine breastfeeding rates among opioid-dependent women giving birth in a Baby-Friendly Hospital. We performed a retrospective chart review of all infants born at Boston Medical Center (Boston, MA) between July 2003 and January 2009 with a diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Feeding information was obtained, as well as baseline medical information about the mother-infant pairs. Breastfeeding eligibility was determined by a negative urine toxicology screen on admission, no illicit drug use in the third trimester, and a negative human immunodeficiency virus status. Two hundred seventy-six mother-infant pairs were identified. Forty percent of the mothers carried one or more psychiatric diagnoses; 24% were taking two or more psychiatric medications. Sixty-eight percent of the mothers were eligible to breastfeed; of those, 24% breastfed to some extent during their infant's hospitalization. Sixty-percent of those who initiated stopped breastfeeding after an average of 5.88 days (SD 6.51). Breastfeeding rates among opioid-dependent women were low, with three-quarters of those eligible electing not to breastfeed. Of the minority of women who did choose to breastfeed, more than half stopped within 1 week.

  2. Report from a Multi-Institutional Randomized Clinical Trial Examining Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Skills Training for English- and Spanish-Speaking Mothers of Children with Newly Diagnosed Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahler, Olle Jane Z.; Sherman, Sandra A.; Fairclough, Diane L.; Butler, Robert W.; Katz, Ernest R.; Dolgin, Michael J.; Varni, James W.; Noll, Robert B.; Phipps, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA)-based supplement for maternal Problem-Solving Skills Training (PSST) and to explore Spanish-speaking mothers’ experiences with it. Methods Mothers (n = 197) of children with newly diagnosed cancer were randomized to traditional PSST or PSST + PDA 8-week programs. Participants completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Profile of Mood States, and Impact of Event Scale-Revised pre-, post-treatment, and 3 months after completion of the intervention. Mothers also rated optimism, logic, and confidence in the intervention and technology. Results Both groups demonstrated significant positive change over time on all psychosocial measures. No between-group differences emerged. Despite technological “glitches,” mothers expressed moderately high optimism, appreciation for logic, and confidence in both interventions and rated the PDA-based program favorably. Technology appealed to all Spanish-speaking mothers, with younger mothers showing greater proficiency. Conclusions Well-designed, supported technology holds promise for enhancing psychological interventions. PMID:19091804

  3. Kinematic Characteristics of Speaking Rate in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Nip, Ignatius S B

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have a slower speaking rate compared with their typically developing peers. Previous studies examining age-related changes in speaking rate in typical development suggest that (1) cognitive and linguistic processing increases account for most of these changes, and (2) changes to linguistic task demands affect the articulatory strategies used to produce the target stimuli (e.g., truncating movements for tasks with fewer linguistic demands). The purpose of this study was to determine the relations between linguistic and physiologic factors in individuals with CP to better understand how the pathophysiology of CP affects speech production in these individuals. Four participants with CP and 38 age-matched peers were asked to complete a diadochokinetic (DDK) task, a vowel-consonant-vowel syllable repetition task, and a sentence repetition task. Speaking rate for the tasks and lower lip maximum movement speed, range of movement, and duration of the closing and opening gestures common to each task were measured. In general, participants with CP have reduced speaking rates compared with their typically developing peers despite increased movement speeds. In both groups, linguistic task effects were observed; higher linguistic demands resulted in slower speaking rates and higher movement speeds. Range of movement was greater for participants with CP than their typically developing peers and may have contributed to the observed decreased speaking rates in individuals with CP.

  4. "No, Mother, I Don't Speak Japanese": Learning To Teach in an ESL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Judy

    1991-01-01

    The personal experience of an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instructor is recounted in this discussion of how to teach non- or limited-English speaking students. With only 18 hours of ESL training, the instructor began teaching her first ESL students. The immediacy of feedback was recognized as a great advantage. Characteristics of effective…

  5. Production and perception of Persian geminate stops at three speaking rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Benjamin B.

    2004-05-01

    An experiment was designed to determine whether the geminate/singleton category distinction is maintained at fast speaking rates in Persian. Three speakers of Tehrani Persian read test words containing [t,t:,d,d:] in carrier sentences at three speaking rates. The categories do not overlap within a given speaking rate, but the fastest geminates do overlap the normal-rate singletons, implying that the listener must take speaking rate into account in order to perceive the category distinction. The ratio of the consonant closure to the preceding vowel (C/V) is not a useful rate-independent parameter for describing the geminate/singleton boundary in Persian since in Persian the vowel preceding a geminate is slightly longer. However, it was found that the marginal consonant closure (above a minimum closure of about 20 ms) maintains a fixed proportion of the average syllable duration, regardless of rate. This fixed proportion is distinct for geminates and singletons, and so may be used as a single rate-independent parameter for defining the category distinction. Perception tests on natural sentences showed that the distinction is perceptible at each of the three speaking rates. The perceptual response to manipulation of the closure durations indicated that, besides duration, additional cues to the distinction are present.

  6. Using online health communication to manage chronic sorrow: mothers of children with rare diseases speak.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Adriana D

    2015-01-01

    Families affected by rare disease experience psychosocial reactions similar to families with prevalent chronic diseases. The ability to respond and manage the condition depends on psychosocial factors. This phenomenological study of 16 mothers of children with Alagille syndrome explored their lived experience in using online health communications to manage their chronic sorrow. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews analyzed using techniques described by van Manen. Analysis yielded four essential themes: connectedness, online triggers, empowerment, and seasons of online use contributed to online communication essential to a rare disease community. Findings suggest mothers need emotional support and help accessing appropriate online resources.

  7. Investigating with IRT and MDS Approaches Translation and Adaptation of Rating Scales for Spanish-Speaking Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate how features of a rating scale developed for English-speaking populations interact with Spanish-speaking respondents' response styles and functional categories of judgment. A sample of 400 Spanish-speaking students took a translated scale and a scaling task developed to measure response sets and functional…

  8. "Recuperando La Dignidad Humana" [Recovering Human Dignity]: Shuar Mothers Speak out on Intercultural Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Susan Roberta; Chumpi Nantip, Cornelia Lupe

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from interviews conducted in December 2011, with seven Shuar mothers of children in an intercultural bilingual school in the southern Amazon region of Ecuador. This study had two objectives: (1) to foreground the perspectives of Shuar parents towards intercultural bilingual education (IBE) as implemented in the Shuar…

  9. "Recuperando La Dignidad Humana" [Recovering Human Dignity]: Shuar Mothers Speak out on Intercultural Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Susan Roberta; Chumpi Nantip, Cornelia Lupe

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from interviews conducted in December 2011, with seven Shuar mothers of children in an intercultural bilingual school in the southern Amazon region of Ecuador. This study had two objectives: (1) to foreground the perspectives of Shuar parents towards intercultural bilingual education (IBE) as implemented in the Shuar…

  10. Effect of speaking rate and contrastive stress on formant dynamics and vowel perception.

    PubMed

    Pitermann, M

    2000-06-01

    Vowel formants play an important role in speech theories and applications; however, the same formant values measured for the steady-state part of a vowel can correspond to different vowel categories. Experimental evidence indicates that dynamic information can also contribute to vowel characterization. Hence, dynamically modeling formant transitions may lead to quantitatively testable predictions in vowel categorization. Because the articulatory strategy used to manage different speaking rates and contrastive stress may depend on speaker and situation, the parameter values of a dynamic formant model may vary with speaking rate and stress. In most experiments speaking rate is rarely controlled, only two or three rates are tested, and most corpora contain just a few repetitions of each item. As a consequence, the dependence of dynamic models on those factors is difficult to gauge. This article presents a study of 2300 [iai] or [i epsilon i] stimuli produced by two speakers at nine or ten speaking rates in a carrier sentence for two contrastive stress patterns. The corpus was perceptually evaluated by naive listeners. Formant frequencies were measured during the steady-state parts of the stimuli, and the formant transitions were dynamically and kinematically modeled. The results indicate that (1) the corpus was characterized by a contextual assimilation instead of a centralization effect; (2) dynamic or kinematic modeling was equivalent as far as the analysis of the model parameters was concerned; (3) the dependence of the model parameter estimates on speaking rate and stress suggests that the formant transitions were sharper for high speaking rate, but no consistent trend was found for contrastive stress; (4) the formant frequencies measured in the steady-state parts of the vowels were sufficient to explain the perceptual results while the dynamic parameters of the models were not.

  11. Mother-child interaction revisited: communication with non-speaking physically disabled children.

    PubMed

    Pennington, L; McConachie, H

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the interaction between mothers and their severely physically disabled children who have motor speech disorders. The study was designed to partially replicate previous investigations, most notably those undertaken by Light et al., to examine if the patterns of conversation previously described were observed in interaction involving children of a wide age range. Twenty children who had four-limb cerebral palsy, with no diagnosed learning difficulties or sensory impairments, and who were between 2 and 10 years of age inclusive participated in the research with their mothers. Children's speech was unintelligible to their parents out of context and most had been provided with aided communication systems. Other carers were excluded from the research due to possible differences in interaction style. Conversation between mothers and children was videotaped in a standard play situation. The toys used to stimulate interaction had been shown to elicit the full range of communication skills targeted in the present study from non-disabled children. Videotaped interaction was coded to show the structure of conversation and the functions used. The mode of communication used by the children was also recorded. In addition, communicative functions were elicited from the children in a semi-scripted conversation with a clinician developed from that used by Light et al. Structural moves and communicative functions used by mothers and children were examined using mean proportions. Sequential analysis of mother-child interaction was also undertaken at both levels to investigate the patterns that recurred in conversation. Results support those obtained in previous studies, showing restricted conversation patterns and high levels of maternal directiveness. Mothers initiated most communicative exchanges, asking many questions and issuing many requests for attention, objects or activities. Children across the age range produced more response moves

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  13. Investigating Raters' Development of Rating Ability on a Second Language Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the extent to which raters coming from diverse backgrounds exhibited different levels of rating ability while scoring speaking performances. The study also aimed to examine how raters with different backgrounds could develop their rating ability over time. For this purpose, raters' background…

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  15. Mothers speak less clearly to infants than to adults: a comprehensive test of the hyperarticulation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew; Schatz, Thomas; Versteegh, Maarten; Miyazawa, Kouki; Mazuka, Reiko; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2015-03-01

    Infants learn language at an incredible speed, and one of the first steps in this voyage is learning the basic sound units of their native languages. It is widely thought that caregivers facilitate this task by hyperarticulating when speaking to their infants. Using state-of-the-art speech technology, we addressed this key theoretical question: Are sound categories clearer in infant-directed speech than in adult-directed speech? A comprehensive examination of sound contrasts in a large corpus of recorded, spontaneous Japanese speech demonstrates that there is a small but significant tendency for contrasts in infant-directed speech to be less clear than those in adult-directed speech. This finding runs contrary to the idea that caregivers actively enhance phonetic categories in infant-directed speech. These results suggest that to be plausible, theories of infants' language acquisition must posit an ability to learn from noisy data. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Brain activity in adults who stutter: Similarities across speaking tasks and correlations with stuttering frequency and speaking rate

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.

    2012-01-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent controls (CONT, n = 12) is reported that used both oral reading and monologue tasks. After correcting for speech rate differences between the groups the task-activation differences were surprisingly small. For both analyses only some regions previously considered stutter-related were more activated in the PWS group than in the CONT group, and these were also activated during eyes-closed rest (ECR). In the PWS group, stuttering frequency was correlated with cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit activity in both speaking tasks. The neuroimaging findings for the PWS group, relative to the CONT group, appear consistent with neuroanatomic abnormalities being increasingly reported among PWS. PMID:22564749

  17. Brain activity in adults who stutter: similarities across speaking tasks and correlations with stuttering frequency and speaking rate.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Roger J; Grafton, Scott T; Bothe, Anne K; Ingham, Janis C

    2012-07-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n=18) and matched fluent controls (CONT, n=12) is reported that used both oral reading and monologue tasks. After correcting for speech rate differences between the groups the task-activation differences were surprisingly small. For both analyses only some regions previously considered stutter-related were more activated in the PWS group than in the CONT group, and these were also activated during eyes-closed rest (ECR). In the PWS group, stuttering frequency was correlated with cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit activity in both speaking tasks. The neuroimaging findings for the PWS group, relative to the CONT group, appear consistent with neuroanatomic abnormalities being increasingly reported among PWS.

  18. The effect of speaking rate on perception of syllables in second-language speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Keiichi; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko

    2005-04-01

    Past studies on second-language (L2) speech perception have suggested that L2 learners have difficulty exploiting contextual information when perceiving L2 utterances, and that they exhibit greater difficulty than native listeners when faced with variability in temporal context. The present study investigated the extent to which native Japanese listeners, who are known to have difficulties perceiving English syllables, are influenced by changes in speaking rate when asked to count syllables in spoken English words. The stimuli consisted of a set of English words and nonwords varying in syllable structure spoken at three rates by a native English speaker. The stimuli produced at the three rates were presented to native Japanese listeners in a random order. Results indicated that listeners' identification accuracy did not vary as a function of speaking rate, although it decreased significantly as the syllable structure of the stimuli became more complex. Moreover, even though speaking rate varied from trial to trial, Japanese listeners' performance did not decline compared to a condition in which the speaking rate was fixed. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings will be discussed. [Work supported by JSPS and NICT.

  19. Maintaining Distinctiveness at Increased Speaking Rates: A Comparison between Congenitally Blind and Sighted Speakers.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Côté, Dominique; Trudeau-Fisette, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The effects of increased speaking rates on vowels have been well documented in sighted adults. It has been reported that in fast speech, vowels are less widely spaced acoustically than in their citation form. Vowel space compression has also been reported in congenitally blind speakers. The objective of the study was to investigate the interaction of vision and speaking rate in adult speakers. Contrast distances between vowels were examined in conversational and fast speech produced by 10 congenitally blind and 10 sighted French-Canadian adults. Acoustic analyses were carried out. Compared with the sighted speakers, in the fast speaking condition, the blind speakers produced more vowels with contrast along the height, place of articulation, and rounding features located within the auditory target regions typical of French vowels. Blind speakers relied more heavily than sighted speakers on auditory properties of vowels to maintain perceptual distinctiveness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effects of Speaking Rate on Word Recognition in Parkinson’s Disease and Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Karen; Nygaard, Lynne; Pisoni, David B.; Siemers, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Current theories of basal ganglia function emphasize their role in the integration of sensory information into motor activities, particularly in the control of movement timing. People with basal ganglia disorders such as Parkinson’s disease exhibit poor temporal control of movements, in general and articulation in particular, as demonstrated by irregular speaking rate, reduced stress contrasts, and reduced movement durations and velocities. Previous research has implicated sensory deficits as contributory factors in limb movement control in patients with Parkinson’s disease; however, the relation between sensory deficits and speech-movement abnormalities has not been documented. In the present study, the existence of perceptual processing difficulties of speaking rate was investigated in subjects with Parkinsonian dysarthria (PD). Comparisons in perception were made between subjects with PD, neurologically normal geriatrics (GN) and neurologically normal young adults (YN) for accuracy in identification of words presented at different speaking rates. We hypothesized that word-identification scores would be lower for PD and GN subjects compared to the YN subjects, an effect that was supported by the data. We also expected that there would be differences between the GN and PD subjects in their accuracy of word identification at a faster speaking rate, an hypothesis that was not supported by the data. Rather, GN and PD subjects differed in identification scores for words spoken at a slow rate. PD subjects who had faster habitual speaking rates (HSR) had significantly lower word-identification scores in the slow compared to conversational rate conditions, a relation that was significant r = +0.64). These data suggest the need to consider perceptual deficits as an additional factor that contributes to rate variations in PD speech. PMID:21637728

  1. Perceptual normalization for speaking rate. II: Effects of signal discontinuities.

    PubMed

    Sawusch, J R; Newman, R S

    2000-02-01

    In a series of experiments, we examined how rate normalization in speech perception is influenced by segments that occur after the target. Perception of the syllable-initial target was influenced by the durations of both the adjacent vowel and the segment after the vowel, even when the identity of the talker was changed during the syllable. These results, together with earlier findings of a temporal window that follows a target phoneme within which segment duration influences perception of the target, help to resolve apparently conflicting results that have been reported previously. Overall, the results fit within a theoretical framework in which the rate at which events take place is extracted early in processing, prior to segregating voices, and the use of this information is obligatory in subsequent processing.

  2. Speaking Rate Affects the Perception of Duration as a Suprasegmental Lexical-Stress Cue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment segmentally but differed in lexical stress…

  3. Articulatory-to-Acoustic Relations in Response to Speaking Rate and Loudness Manipulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje S.; Green, Jordan R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this investigation, the authors determined the strength of association between tongue kinematic and speech acoustics changes in response to speaking rate and loudness manipulations. Performance changes in the kinematic and acoustic domains were measured using two aspects of speech production presumably affecting speech clarity:…

  4. Speaking Rate from Proximal and Distal Contexts Is Used during Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    A series of eye-tracking and categorization experiments investigated the use of speaking-rate information in the segmentation of Dutch ambiguous-word sequences. Juncture phonemes with ambiguous durations (e.g., [s] in "eens (s)peer," "once (s)pear," [t] in "nooit (t)rap," "never staircase/quick") were…

  5. The Effect of Speaking Rate on Velopharyngeal Function in Healthy Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauster, Andrea; Yunusova, Yana; Zajac, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of speaking rate variation on aerodynamic and acoustic measures of velopharyngeal (VP) function. Twenty-seven healthy adult speakers (14 males, 13 females) participated in the study. The modified pressure-flow method was used to collect aerodynamic data of /m/ and /p/ segments in the word…

  6. Articulatory-to-Acoustic Relations in Response to Speaking Rate and Loudness Manipulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje S.; Green, Jordan R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this investigation, the authors determined the strength of association between tongue kinematic and speech acoustics changes in response to speaking rate and loudness manipulations. Performance changes in the kinematic and acoustic domains were measured using two aspects of speech production presumably affecting speech clarity:…

  7. The Influence of Speaking Rate on Nasality in the Speech of Hearing-Impaired Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Claire H.; Robb, Michael P.; O'Beirne, Greg A.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deliberate increases in speaking rate would serve to decrease the amount of nasality in the speech of severely hearing-impaired individuals. Method: The participants were 11 severely to profoundly hearing-impaired students, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years (M = 16 years). Each…

  8. The Effect of Speaking Rate on Velopharyngeal Function in Healthy Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauster, Andrea; Yunusova, Yana; Zajac, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of speaking rate variation on aerodynamic and acoustic measures of velopharyngeal (VP) function. Twenty-seven healthy adult speakers (14 males, 13 females) participated in the study. The modified pressure-flow method was used to collect aerodynamic data of /m/ and /p/ segments in the word…

  9. An Automatic Prolongation Detection Approach in Continuous Speech With Robustness Against Speaking Rate Variations

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili, Iman; Dabanloo, Nader Jafarnia; Vali, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, many methods have been introduced for supporting the diagnosis of stuttering for automatic detection of prolongation in the speech of people who stutter. However, less attention has been paid to treatment processes in which clients learn to speak more slowly. The aim of this study was to develop a method to help speech-language pathologists (SLPs) during diagnosis and treatment sessions. To this end, speech signals were initially parameterized to perceptual linear predictive (PLP) features. To detect the prolonged segments, the similarities between successive frames of speech signals were calculated based on correlation similarity measures. The segments were labeled as prolongation when the duration of highly similar successive frames exceeded a threshold specified by the speaking rate. The proposed method was evaluated by UCLASS and self-recorded Persian speech databases. The results were also compared with three high-performance studies in automatic prolongation detection. The best accuracies of prolongation detection were 99 and 97.1% for UCLASS and Persian databases, respectively. The proposed method also indicated promising robustness against artificial variation of speaking rate from 70 to 130% of normal speaking rate. PMID:28487827

  10. Cue integration and context effects in speech: Evidence against speaking rate normalization

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Joseph C.; McMurray, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Listeners are able to accurately recognize speech despite variation in acoustic cues across contexts, such as different speaking rates. Previous work has suggested that listeners use rate information (indicated by vowel length; VL) to modify their use of context-dependent acoustic cues, like voice-onset time (VOT), a primary cue to voicing. We present several experiments and simulations that offer an alternative explanation: listeners treat VL as an phonetic cue, rather than as an indicator of speaking rate, and rely on general cue-integration principles to combine information from VOT and VL. We demonstrate that listeners use the two cues independently, that VL is used in both naturally-produced and synthetic speech, and that effects of stimulus naturalness can be explained by a cue-integration model. Together, these results suggest that listeners do not interpret VOT relative to rate information provided by VL and that effects of speaking rate can be explained by more general cue-integration principles. PMID:22532385

  11. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a population based study of premature mortality rates in the mothers.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers' death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44-7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09-0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment.

  12. Effects of speaking rate and vowel length on formant frequency displacement in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yukari; Tsukada, Kimiko

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effects of phonemic vowel length and speaking rate, two factors that affect vowel duration, on the first and second formants of all vowels in Japanese. The aim was to delineate the aspects of formant displacement that are governed by the physiological proclivity of vowel production shared across languages, and the aspects that reveal language-specific phenomena. Acoustic analysis revealed that the phonemic long vowels occupied a more peripheral portion of the F1 x F2 vowel space than the phonemic short vowels (effect of vowel length), but effects of speaking rate were less clear. This was because of the significant interactions of the two effects: the formants of phonemic short vowels were more affected by speaking rates than the phonemic long vowels. Regression analyses between F2 and duration revealed that formant displacement occurs when vowels are less than 200 ms. Similarities and differences found for Japanese and English are discussed in terms of physiological proclivity of vowel production versus language-specific phonological encoding. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Major Survey Findings of Listening to Mothers(SM) III: New Mothers Speak Out: Report of National Surveys of Women's Childbearing ExperiencesConducted October-December 2012 and January-April 2013.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Eugene R; Sakala, Carol; Corry, Maureen P; Applebaum, Sandra; Herrlich, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    To understand the experiences and views of childbearing women in the United States and trends over time, Childbirth Connection carried out the third national Listening to Mothers survey among 2,400 women who gave birth in U.S. hospitals to a single baby from mid-2011 to mid-2012 and could participate in English. A follow-up survey directed to the same participants explored postpartum experiences, in depth and well into the second year after birth; views about maternity care; and some additional pregnancy and birth items. Harris Interactive conducted the surveys using a validated methodology that includes data weighting to ensure that results closely reflect the target population. The follow-up survey was reported in Listening to Mothers III: New Mothers Speak Out.

  14. Exposure reduces negative bias in self-rated performance in public speaking fearful participants.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Joyce; Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) under-rate their performance compared to objective observers. The present study examined whether exposure reduces the discrepancy between self and observer performance ratings and improved observer-rated performance in individuals with PSA. PSA participants gave a speech in front of a small audience and rated their performance using a questionnaire before and after completing repeated exposures to public speaking. Non-anxious control participants gave a speech and completed the questionnaire one time only. Objective observers watched videos of the speeches and rated performance using the same questionnaire. PSA participants underrated their performance to a greater degree than did controls prior to exposure, but also performed significantly more poorly than did controls when rated objectively. Bias significantly decreased and objective-rated performance significantly increased following completion of exposure in PSA participants, and on one performance measure, anxious participants no longer showed a greater discrepancy between self and observer performance ratings compared to controls. The study employed non-clinical student sample, but the results should be replicated in clinical anxiety samples. These findings indicate that exposure alone significantly reduces negative performance bias among PSA individuals, but additional exposure or additional interventions may be necessary to fully correct bias and performance deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Population Based Study of Premature Mortality Rates in the Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W.; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers’ death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44–7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09–0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment. PMID:21710184

  16. Children's and Mothers' Contribution to Joint Reminiscing in Different Sociocultural Contexts: Who Speaks and What Is Said

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Tõugu, Pirko; Keller, Heidi; Schröder, Lisa; De Geer, Boel

    2016-01-01

    The study compares mothers' conversation with their 4-year-old children about two past events in two autonomy-oriented (35 German and 42 Swedish families), one relatedness-oriented (22 Cameroonian Nso families) and one autonomy-relatedness oriented (38 Estonian families) contexts. German mothers were rather similar to Swedish mothers in talking a…

  17. Children's and Mothers' Contribution to Joint Reminiscing in Different Sociocultural Contexts: Who Speaks and What Is Said

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Tõugu, Pirko; Keller, Heidi; Schröder, Lisa; De Geer, Boel

    2016-01-01

    The study compares mothers' conversation with their 4-year-old children about two past events in two autonomy-oriented (35 German and 42 Swedish families), one relatedness-oriented (22 Cameroonian Nso families) and one autonomy-relatedness oriented (38 Estonian families) contexts. German mothers were rather similar to Swedish mothers in talking a…

  18. Acoustic properties of naturally produced clear speech at normal speaking rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Jean C.; Braida, Louis D.

    2004-01-01

    Sentences spoken ``clearly'' are significantly more intelligible than those spoken ``conversationally'' for hearing-impaired listeners in a variety of backgrounds [Picheny et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 28, 96-103 (1985); Uchanski et al., ibid. 39, 494-509 (1996); Payton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 1581-1592 (1994)]. While producing clear speech, however, talkers often reduce their speaking rate significantly [Picheny et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 29, 434-446 (1986); Uchanski et al., ibid. 39, 494-509 (1996)]. Yet speaking slowly is not solely responsible for the intelligibility benefit of clear speech (over conversational speech), since a recent study [Krause and Braida, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2165-2172 (2002)] showed that talkers can produce clear speech at normal rates with training. This finding suggests that clear speech has inherent acoustic properties, independent of rate, that contribute to improved intelligibility. Identifying these acoustic properties could lead to improved signal processing schemes for hearing aids. To gain insight into these acoustical properties, conversational and clear speech produced at normal speaking rates were analyzed at three levels of detail (global, phonological, and phonetic). Although results suggest that talkers may have employed different strategies to achieve clear speech at normal rates, two global-level properties were identified that appear likely to be linked to the improvements in intelligibility provided by clear/normal speech: increased energy in the 1000-3000-Hz range of long-term spectra and increased modulation depth of low frequency modulations of the intensity envelope. Other phonological and phonetic differences associated with clear/normal speech include changes in (1) frequency of stop burst releases, (2) VOT of word-initial voiceless stop consonants, and (3) short-term vowel spectra.

  19. Effect of skin to skin care to neonates on pulse rate, respiratory rate SPO2 and blood pressure in mothers.

    PubMed

    Nimbalkar, Archana; Patel, Dipen; Sethi, Ankur; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2014-01-01

    Physiological benefits of skin to skin care (STS) to newborns are known but there is scarcity of data on changes in physiological parameters like pulse rate, respiratory rate, SPO2 and blood pressure in mothers during STS. We hypothesize that STS is beneficial to mothers with respect to these parameters. Objective of this study was to assess the changes of these parameters in mothers while providing STS for one hour. STS was provided by 52 mothers for a total of 127 times and parameters were recorded at starting of STS, at 15 min, at 30 min, at 60 min of STS and at 5 min rest after stopping STS. There were no significant changes in pulse rate and SPO2 but blood pressure and respiratory rate reduced significantly during STS as compared to rest after stopping STS. Thus STS is physiologically beneficial to mothers.

  20. Behavioral assessment of public-speaking anxiety using a modified version of the Social Performance Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Harb, Gerlinde C; Eng, Winnie; Zaider, Talia; Heimberg, Richard G

    2003-11-01

    The current study aimed to extend the evaluation of the utility of the Social Performance Rating Scale (SPRS) [Behav. Res. Ther. 36 (1998) 995]. We examined the utility of a modified SPRS for the behavioral assessment of public-speaking anxiety among patients with social phobia (n = 49). The videotaped performance of public-speaking fearful patients in a public-speaking task was rated using four of the five SPRS ratings and was compared to global ratings by patients and observers, as well as to self-report and clinician-administered measures of social anxiety. The pattern of correlations with criterion measures of social anxiety provided evidence for the convergent and divergent validity of this modified SPRS for the behavioral assessment of public-speaking anxiety.

  1. Effects of speaking rate on the perception of phonemic length contrast in Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Tajima, Keiichi

    2004-05-01

    Segment length is distinctive in Japanese, for example, /kaite/ (buyer) versus /kaite:/ (seabed). Such length contrasts are not necessarily categorical for non-native speakers. To study this property precisely, a series of perception experiments was conducted. A professionally trained native-Japanese speaker produced the nonsense word /erete/ at slow, normal, and fast rates with or without a carrier sentence. Either the second vowel or second consonant of each word was gradually lengthened until reaching its longer counterpart, i.e., /ete:te/ or /eret:e/, in all rate and carrier conditions using STRAIGHT, a high-fidelity speech analysis, synthesis, and manipulation system [Kawahara et al., Speech Commun. 27, 187-207 (1999)], resulting in 12 stimulus continua. Seven native-Japanese listeners participated in a single-stimulus, two-alternative forced-choice identification task with the method of constant stimuli. The speaking rate of the presented stimuli within a session was either fixed or randomized trial by trial. Results suggest that native listeners' identification boundaries systematically altered due to changes in speaking rate, whereas their boundaries became unstable in the randomized-rate condition, especially for no-carrier stimuli. These results will be discussed from the viewpoint of second-language phoneme perception and acquisition through comparisons with results from non-native listeners. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  2. Effects of speaking rate on the perception of phonemic length contrast in Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Tajima, Keiichi

    2001-05-01

    Segment length is distinctive in Japanese, for example, /kaite/ (buyer) versus /kaite:/ (seabed). Such length contrasts are not necessarily categorical for non-native speakers. To study this property precisely, a series of perception experiments was conducted. A professionally trained native-Japanese speaker produced the nonsense word /erete/ at slow, normal, and fast rates with or without a carrier sentence. Either the second vowel or second consonant of each word was gradually lengthened until reaching its longer counterpart, i.e., /ete:te/ or /eret:e/, in all rate and carrier conditions using STRAIGHT, a high-fidelity speech analysis, synthesis, and manipulation system [Kawahara et al., Speech Commun. 27, 187-207 (1999)], resulting in 12 stimulus continua. Seven native-Japanese listeners participated in a single-stimulus, two-alternative forced-choice identification task with the method of constant stimuli. The speaking rate of the presented stimuli within a session was either fixed or randomized trial by trial. Results suggest that native listeners' identification boundaries systematically altered due to changes in speaking rate, whereas their boundaries became unstable in the randomized-rate condition, especially for no-carrier stimuli. These results will be discussed from the viewpoint of second-language phoneme perception and acquisition through comparisons with results from non-native listeners. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  3. Elevated rates of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hamoda, Hesham M; Luna, Laura; Rao, Sneha; McClendon, James; Rotella, Peter; Waber, Deborah; Boyer, Katherine; Faraone, Steven V; Whitney, Jane; Guild, Danielle; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives To describe the prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy (ADHD+E) and to compare ADHD symptoms in mothers with (Fam+) and without (Fam−) additional relative(s) with epilepsy. Patients & methods Mothers (n = 16) of children with ADHD+E were assessed by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children ADHD module and the ADHD Rating Scale IV. Information was collected on the presence (Fam+) or absence (Fam−) of first- or second-degree relatives with epilepsy in the sample. Results A total of 50% of mothers met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. ADHD was more prevalent in Fam+ mothers (80%) compared with Fam− mothers (36%; p = 0.14). Fam+ mothers had more current hyperactivity symptoms than Fam− mothers (p = 0.002), higher current ADHD severity (p = 0.02) and higher ADHD Rating Scale IV hyperactivity scores (p = 0.008). Conclusion The prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with ADHD+E is elevated in this pilot study, suggesting that ADHD symptoms in children with epilepsy and their mothers reflects shared familial genetic or environmental risks, potentially resulting in a higher prevalence of both disorders among family members. This is a pilot study and larger controlled studies are warranted. PMID:23397446

  4. Effects of speaking rate on second formant trajectories of selected vocalic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weismer, Gary; Berry, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    The effect of speaking rate variations on second formant (F2) trajectories was investigated for a continuum of rates. F2 trajectories for the schwa preceding a voiced bilabial stop, and one of three target vocalic nuclei following the stop, were generated for utterances of the form ``Put a bV here, where V was /eye/, /æ/ or /oh smcapi/. Discrete spectral measures at the vowel-consonant and consonant-vowel interfaces, as well as vowel target values, were examined as potential parameters of rate variation; several different whole-trajectory analyses were also explored. Results suggested that a discrete measure at the vowel consonant (schwa-consonant) interface, the F2off value, was in many cases a good index of rate variation, provided the rates were not unusually slow (vowel durations less than 200 ms). The relationship of the spectral measure at the consonant-vowel interface, F2 onset, as well as that of the ``target'' for this vowel, was less clearly related to rate variation. Whole-trajectory analyses indicated that the rate effect cannot be captured by linear compressions and expansions of some prototype trajectory. Moreover, the effect of rate manipulation on formant trajectories interacts with speaker and vocalic nucleus type, making it difficult to specify general rules for these effects. However, there is evidence that a small number of speaker strategies may emerge from a careful qualitative and quantitative analysis of whole formant trajectories. Results are discussed in terms of models of speech production and a group of speech disorders that is usually associated with anomalies of speaking rate, and hence of formant frequency trajectories.

  5. Differential relations between heart rate and skin conductance, and public speaking anxiety.

    PubMed

    Croft, Rodney J; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Gander, Joanne; Lechem, Lisa; Barry, Robert J

    2004-09-01

    The present pilot study tested whether the lack of consistent findings of relations between autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and non-clinical levels of public speaking anxiety (PSA) can be explained by methodology. An ambulatory protocol was utilised to test whether the interaction of belief structure with each of an undergraduate student speaker's heart rate and skin conductance level predicted state speech anxiety better than their linear summation. Results suggest that in a non-clinical population, the interaction of ANS activity and belief structure is an important determinant of PSA, and may account for variable findings in the literature.

  6. Heart Rate Correlates of Attachment Status in Young Mothers and Their Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelenko, Marina; Kraemer, Helena; Huffman, Lynne; Gschwendt, Miriam; Pageler, Natalie; Steiner, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore heart rate (HR) correlates of attachment behavior in young mothers and their infants to generate specific hypotheses and to provide pilot data on which studies to test those hypotheses might be based. Method: Using the strange situation procedure, patterns of attachment were assessed in 41 low-income adolescent mothers and…

  7. Heart Rate Correlates of Attachment Status in Young Mothers and Their Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelenko, Marina; Kraemer, Helena; Huffman, Lynne; Gschwendt, Miriam; Pageler, Natalie; Steiner, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore heart rate (HR) correlates of attachment behavior in young mothers and their infants to generate specific hypotheses and to provide pilot data on which studies to test those hypotheses might be based. Method: Using the strange situation procedure, patterns of attachment were assessed in 41 low-income adolescent mothers and…

  8. Comparison of Ratings by Mothers and Teachers on Preschool Children Using the Vineland Social Maturity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Harriett E.; Alatishe, Moses

    1976-01-01

    Comparison of informants' ratings of 20 preschool children on the VSMS showed no significant correlations between either the social quotients or the rankings by mothers and daycare center teachers. Of significance was that the mothers consistently reported the social quotients of the children to be higher than did the teachers. (Author)

  9. Mothers' Adult Attachment Interview ratings predict preschool children's IQ following domestic violence exposure.

    PubMed

    Busch, Amy L; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2010-11-01

    This study examined links between mothers' Adult Attachment Interview ratings (AAI; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003) and their preschool children's IQ among 70 families who had experienced domestic violence. As predicted, children displayed significantly stronger verbal and perceptual-organizational abilities when their mothers exhibited more secure, i.e. coherent, states of mind regarding attachment. Mothers' coherence of mind on the AAI explained 18% of the variance in children's Verbal IQ and 12% of the variance in children's Performance IQ, after controlling for maternal education. Mothers' attachment security also was related to children's total IQ score, but this association was accounted for by effects on children's Verbal IQ. Children whose mothers were rated as unclassifiable on the AAI and those whose mothers were unresolved/insecure had lower IQ scores. Although mothers who appeared more secure on the AAI were more sensitively responsive toward their children, mediational analyses suggested that there was a direct link between mothers' security and children's IQ that was not explained by sensitive parenting. This suggests that clinical interventions for children exposed to domestic violence should include helping their mothers achieve coherent ways of thinking about their own childhood experiences, including past trauma.

  10. Cued Speech Transliteration: Effects of Speaking Rate and Lag Time on Production Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Tessler, Morgan P.

    2016-01-01

    Many deaf and hard-of-hearing children rely on interpreters to access classroom communication. Although the exact level of access provided by interpreters in these settings is unknown, it is likely to depend heavily on interpreter accuracy (portion of message correctly produced by the interpreter) and the factors that govern interpreter accuracy. In this study, the accuracy of 12 Cued Speech (CS) transliterators with varying degrees of experience was examined at three different speaking rates (slow, normal, fast). Accuracy was measured with a high-resolution, objective metric in order to facilitate quantitative analyses of the effect of each factor on accuracy. Results showed that speaking rate had a large negative effect on accuracy, caused primarily by an increase in omitted cues, whereas the effect of lag time on accuracy, also negative, was quite small and explained just 3% of the variance. Increased experience level was generally associated with increased accuracy; however, high levels of experience did not guarantee high levels of accuracy. Finally, the overall accuracy of the 12 transliterators, 54% on average across all three factors, was low enough to raise serious concerns about the quality of CS transliteration services that (at least some) children receive in educational settings. PMID:27221370

  11. Patterns of Relating between Mothers and Preschool-Aged Children Using the Marschak Interaction Method Rating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Erin E.; Snow, Marilyn S.; Sullivan, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the relationship of patterns of relating between mothers and their preschool-aged children. Thirty-one families were used, and the mother and child participated in the Marschak Interaction Method Rating System (MIM-RS). Mothers also completed the Demographic Data Questionnaire. Correlations based upon the MIM-RS for mothers and…

  12. Construct Validation of Analytic Rating Scales in a Speaking Assessment: Reporting a Score Profile and a Composite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2007-01-01

    This is a construct validation study of a second language speaking assessment that reported a language profile based on analytic rating scales and a composite score. The study addressed three key issues: score dependability, convergent/discriminant validity of analytic rating scales and the weighting of analytic ratings in the composite score.…

  13. Construct Validation of Analytic Rating Scales in a Speaking Assessment: Reporting a Score Profile and a Composite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2007-01-01

    This is a construct validation study of a second language speaking assessment that reported a language profile based on analytic rating scales and a composite score. The study addressed three key issues: score dependability, convergent/discriminant validity of analytic rating scales and the weighting of analytic ratings in the composite score.…

  14. Khmer American Mothers' Knowledge about HPV and HBV Infection and Their Perceptions of Parenting: My English Speaking Daughter Knows More.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Tang, Shirely S; Chea, Phala; Peou, Sonith; Semino-Asaro, Semira; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore and describe Khmer mothers' understanding of HBV and HPV prevention as well as their perception of parenting on health and health education of their daughters in the US. The qualitative pilot study guided by the revised Network Episode Model and informed by ethnographic analysis and community-based purposive sampling method were used. Face-to-face audiotaped interviews with eight Khmer mothers were conducted by bilingual female middle-aged community health leaders who spoke Khmer. The findings revealed that Khmer mothers clearly lacked knowledge about HBV and HPV infection prevention and had difficulty understanding and educating their daughters about health behavior, especially on sex-related topics. The findings showed that histo-sociocultural factors are integrated with the individual factor, and these factors influenced the HBV and HPV knowledge and perspective of Khmer mothers' parenting. The study suggests that situation-specific conceptual and methodological approaches that take into account the uniqueness of the sociocultural context of CAs is a novel method for identifying factors that are significant in shaping the perception of Khmer mothers' health education related to HBV and HPV prevention among their daughters. The communication between mother and daughter about sex and the risk involved in contracting HBV and HPV has been limited, partly because it is seen as a "taboo subject" and partly because mothers think that schools educate their children regarding sexuality and health. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Articulatory-to-Acoustic Relations in Response to Speaking Rate and Loudness Manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Mefferd, Antje S.; Green, Jordan R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In this investigation, the authors determined the strength of association between tongue kinematic and speech acoustics changes in response to speaking rate and loudness manipulations. Performance changes in the kinematic and acoustic domains were measured using two aspects of speech production presumably affecting speech clarity: phonetic specification and variability. Method Tongue movements for the vowels /ia/ were recorded in 10 healthy adults during habitual, fast, slow, and loud speech using three-dimensional electromagnetic articulography. To determine articulatory-to-acoustic relations for phonetic specification, the authors correlated changes in lingual displacement with changes in acoustic vowel distance. To determine articulatory-to-acoustic relations for phonetic variability, the authors correlated changes in lingual movement variability with changes in formant movement variability. Results A significant positive linear association was found for kinematic and acoustic specification but not for kinematic and acoustic variability. Several significant speaking task effects were also observed. Conclusion Lingual displacement is a good predictor of acoustic vowel distance in healthy talkers. The weak association between kinematic and acoustic variability raises questions regarding the effects of articulatory variability on speech clarity and intelligibility, particularly in individuals with motor speech disorders. PMID:20699341

  16. Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking latina mothers influence the home food environment: Implications for future interventions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to obtain in-depth information from low income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent’s knowledge about healthful eating, the home food enviro...

  17. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on Mothers' Volubility and Responsiveness in a Monolingual Dutch-Speaking Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanormelingen, Liesbeth; Gillis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the amount of input and the quality of mother-child interactions in mothers who differ in socio-economic status (SES): mid-to-high SES (mhSES) and low SES. The amount of input was measured as the number of utterances per hour, the total duration of speech per hour and the number of turns per hour. The quality of the…

  18. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on Mothers' Volubility and Responsiveness in a Monolingual Dutch-Speaking Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanormelingen, Liesbeth; Gillis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the amount of input and the quality of mother-child interactions in mothers who differ in socio-economic status (SES): mid-to-high SES (mhSES) and low SES. The amount of input was measured as the number of utterances per hour, the total duration of speech per hour and the number of turns per hour. The quality of the…

  19. Speaking rate characteristics of elementary-school-aged children who do and do not stutter.

    PubMed

    Logan, Kenneth J; Byrd, Courtney T; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M; Gillam, Ronald B

    2011-01-01

    articulation rate; (3) explain the extent to which age, speaking task, disfluency frequency, and utterance length affect children's rate performance; (4) discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to rate measurement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of speaking rate on the vowel length distinction in Japanese nonsense words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Yukari

    2003-04-01

    This study examined how speaking rate affected the durations of phonemic short and long vowels in Japanese. Four native Japanese speakers produced five triplets of disyllabic nonsense words: CVCV, CVVCV, and CVCVV (C=/m/; V=/i/, /e/, /a/, /o/, and /u/), e.g., /máma/, /má:ma/, and /máma:/. Speakers read these words in a carrier sentence at slow, normal, and fast rates three times each. Durations of accented and unaccented short vowels in CVCV, and contrasting accented long vowels in CVVCV and unaccented long vowels in CVCVV, as well as word durations, were measured from spectrograms. There was a significant amount of overlap between the durations of short and long vowels across the three rates. Rate changes affected the duration of long vowels more than short vowels, showing asymmetry of distribution, consistent with Port et al. [Phonetica 37, 235-252 (1980)]. In contrast with the absolute durations, the ratios of long to short vowels, three-mora (CVVCV or CVCVV) to two-mora (CVCV) words, and vowel (short or long) to word durations were little affected by rate changes. These results are consistent with the view that a relational invariance exists in temporal dimensions of speech [Pickett et al., Phonetica 56, 135-157 (1999)].

  1. Voice analysis during bad news discussion in oncology: reduced pitch, decreased speaking rate, and nonverbal communication of empathy.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Monica; Parker, Patricia A; Baile, Walter F; Lenzi, Renato

    2012-05-01

    This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the speaking rate and pitch of healthcare providers when discussing bad news versus neutral topics, and to assess listeners' ability to perceive voice differences in the absence of speech content. Participants were oncology healthcare providers seeing patients with cancer of unknown primary. The encounters were audio recorded; the information communicated by the oncologist to the patient was identified as neutral or bad news. At least 30 seconds of both bad news and neutral utterances were analyzed; provider voice pitch and speaking rate were measured. The same utterances were subjected to low pass filtering that maintained pitch contours and speaking rate, but eliminated acoustic energy associated with consonants making the samples unintelligible, but with unchanged intonation. Twenty-seven listeners (graduate students in a voice disorders class) listened to the samples and rated them on three features: caring, sympathetic, and competent. All but one provider reduced speaking rate, the majority also reduced pitch in the bad news condition. Listeners perceived a significant difference between the nonverbal characteristics of the providers' voice when performing the two tasks and rated speech produced with the reduced rate and lower pitch as more caring and sympathetic. These results suggest that simultaneous assessment of verbal content and multiparameter prosodic analysis of speech is necessary for a more thorough understanding of the expression and perception of empathy. This information has the potential to contribute to the enhancement of communication training design and of oncologists' communication effectiveness.

  2. Mothers' Expressive Style and Emotional Responses to Children's Behavior Predict Children's Prosocial and Achievement-Related Self-Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Bradburn, Isabel S.; Costanzo, Philip R.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether mothers' typical expressive style and specific emotional responses to children's behaviors are linked to children's prosocial and competence self-ratings. Eight- to 12-year-old children and their mothers rated how mothers had felt when children behaved prosocially and antisocially, achieved and failed to…

  3. Are single mothers' higher smoking rates mediated by dysfunctional coping styles?

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Maina, Mercy Nyambura

    2014-10-08

    Smoking prevalence has been shown to be considerably higher among single mothers as compared to their married or cohabiting counterparts. This study examines whether this could be attributed to single mothers' different capability in dealing with stress. Based on cross-sectional data of 3129 German mothers, the study explores the associations between single motherhood, coping styles and moderate and heavy smoking pattern using a regression-based 'parallel multiple mediator model'. Single mothers showed higher rates of negative coping styles than partnered mothers, holding for 'self-blame/rumination' (p < 0.001), 'blaming others' (p = 0.048) and in particular for 'substance consumption' (p < 0.001). With respect to positive coping styles the findings were heterogeneous: while partnered mothers scored higher on 'active influence' (p < 0.001), single mothers showed higher values of 'positive self-verbalisation' (p < 0.001). Evidence for a mediating effect of coping styles on the relationship between single motherhood and moderate as well as heavy smoking was only found for 'substance consumption'. Moreover, single motherhood may moderate the effect of 'self-blame/rumination' on heavy smoking (p = 0.025). Against expectations, higher levels of 'active influence' were not associated with lower but with significant higher odds of moderate smoking (OR = 1.19). Single mothers compared to partnered mothers showed a different ability to cope with stress. However, only the coping strategy 'substance consumption' mediates the relationship between single motherhood and smoking. Exclusively in single mothers, 'self-blame/rumination' was associated with heavy smoking, indicating that they might utilize smoking as a way to come to terms with negative ruminative thoughts.

  4. Socioeconomic status, social support and self-rated health among lone mothers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Jeon, Gyeong-Suk; Jang, Soong-Nang

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association of socioeconomic status and social support with the differences in self-rated health between lone and partnered mothers in South Korea. Data came from women living with their children in the baseline survey of Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Family (N = 6,370) that yielded a very high response rate (95.8%). Compared to partnered mothers, lone mothers had a significantly higher risk of poor/fair health after adjusting for mediating factors (living natural parent, emotional support from siblings, social activities, educational attainment, equivalized household income, and subjective economic status). When all factors were individually included in the base model, each factor contributed to this difference. Subjective economic status explained 28.0% of the excess risk of poor/fair health among women in the lone compared to the partnered status. All factors combined accounted for 41.4% of the excess risk among lone mothers. The findings clearly indicate that lone mothers have poorer self-rated health than partnered mothers do, but this detrimental effect cannot be entirely explained by the socioeconomic and social support-mediating factors.

  5. Maternal ratings of child health and child obesity, variations by mother's race/ethnicity and nativity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.

  6. Effects of syllable-initial voicing and speaking rate on the temporal characteristics of monosyllabic words.

    PubMed

    Allen, J S; Miller, J L

    1999-10-01

    Two speech production experiments tested the validity of the traditional method of creating voice-onset-time (VOT) continua for perceptual studies in which the systematic increase in VOT across the continuum is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the duration of the following vowel. In experiment 1, segmental durations were measured for matched monosyllabic words beginning with either a voiced stop (e.g., big, duck, gap) or a voiceless stop (e.g., pig, tuck, cap). Results from four talkers showed that the change from voiced to voiceless stop produced not only an increase in VOT, but also a decrease in vowel duration. However, the decrease in vowel duration was consistently less than the increase in VOT. In experiment 2, results from four new talkers replicated these findings at two rates of speech, as well as highlighted the contrasting temporal effects on vowel duration of an increase in VOT due to a change in syllable-initial voicing versus a change in speaking rate. It was concluded that the traditional method of creating VOT continua for perceptual experiments, although not perfect, approximates natural speech by capturing the basic trade-off between VOT and vowel duration in syllable-initial voiced versus voiceless stop consonants.

  7. The Effects of Instructions on Mothers' Ratings of Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte; Weiss, Margaret; Murray, Candice; Miller, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether instructional materials describing how to rate child ADHD symptoms would improve the accuracy of mothers' ratings of ADHD symptoms presented in standard child behavior stimuli, and whether instructions would be equally effective across a range of maternal depressive symptoms and family incomes. A community sample of 100 mothers…

  8. Battered mothers speak out: participatory human rights documentation as a model for research and activism in the United States.

    PubMed

    Slote, Kim Y; Cuthbert, Carrie; Mesh, Cynthia J; Driggers, Monica G; Bancroft, Lundy; Silverman, Jay G

    2005-11-01

    This article describes the work of the Battered Mothers' Testimony Project, a multiyear effort that documented human rights violations against battered women and their children in the Massachusetts family court system. This article (a) presents the Battered Mothers' Testimony Project's participatory human rights methodology as an alternative model for research and activism on violence against women and children in the United States, (b) summarizes the authors' findings and human rights analysis of how the Massachusetts family courts handled custody and visitation in specified cases involving partner and child abuse, and (c) discusses U.S. obligations under international human rights law and the value of a human rights approach to violence against women and children in the United States.

  9. The Short Form of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale as a Prognostic Factor of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Mandarin-Speaking Chinese Mothers.

    PubMed

    Ip, Wan-Yim; Gao, Ling-Ling; Choi, Kai-Chow; Chau, Janita Pak-Chun; Xiao, Yang

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of maternal perceived breastfeeding self-efficacy on the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 6 months postpartum in mainland China. The aim of this study was to examine the relative effect of maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy and selected relevant factors on the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 6 months postpartum. The internal consistency and construct validity of the Chinese (Mandarin) version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) were also examined. This was a prospective cohort study conducted at a regional teaching hospital in Guangzhou, China. A total of 562 in-hospital mothers who were within 72 hours postpartum were recruited to the study and followed up by telephone for 6 months. Although all of the mothers breastfed their babies within 72 hours postpartum, only 25% of the mothers breastfed exclusively. The mean survival time of continuation of exclusive breastfeeding was 16.7 days. The proportion of mothers who breastfed exclusively after discharge was 14.8%, 2.0%, and 0.2% at 1, 4, and 6 months, respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed that the mothers who had a higher BSES-SF score at baseline, underwent cesarean section, and practiced exclusive breastfeeding within 72 hours after delivery were significantly associated with a lower hazard of discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum. The exclusive breastfeeding rate among Chinese women is far from satisfactory. The Chinese (Mandarin) version of the BSES-SF can help in identifying mothers who need more support for exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum.

  10. Mother-child agreement on behavioral ratings in Tourette syndrome: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Termine, Cristiano; Luoni, Chiara; Selvini, Claudia; Bandera, Valentina; Balottin, Umberto; Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    In Tourette syndrome, motor and phonic tics are associated with a spectrum of psychiatric disorders. As proxy report instruments are commonly used to assess children with Tourette syndrome, we investigated the relationship between child and mother ratings of behavioral problems. We enrolled 28 children with Tourette syndrome (25 males; mean age, 13.9 years) and 61 gender- and age-matched healthy controls (55 males; mean age, 14.7 years). Clinicians completed measures of tic severity, and all children completed the Youth Self-Report version of the Child Behavior Checklist, while their mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. In the clinical group, Youth Self-Report scores were significantly lower than mothers' Child Behavior Checklist scores across the majority of subscales (especially affect and somatization). In contrast, for the control group, mother and child ratings only differed for the externalizing behavior subscales. Clinicians should be aware of these differences between self and mother ratings for specific behavioral problems in Tourette syndrome.

  11. Low mother-to-child-transmission rate of Hepatitis C virus in cART treated HIV-1 infected mothers.

    PubMed

    Snijdewind, I J M; Smit, C; Schutten, M; Nellen, F J B; Kroon, F P; Reiss, P; van der Ende, M E

    2015-07-01

    Maternal transmission is the most common cause of HCV infection in children. HIV co-infection and high levels of plasma HCV-RNA have been associated with increased HCV transmission rates. We assessed the vertical HCV transmission rate in the HIV-HCV co-infected group of pregnant women on cART. We conducted a retrospective study in a Dutch cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their children. We identified co-infected mothers. Results of the HCV tests of the children were obtained. All 21 women were on cART at the time of delivery. We analyzed data of the 24 live-born children at risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HCV between 1996 and 2009. HIV-RNA was <500 copies/ml during 18/24 [75%] deliveries, the median CD4(+) cell count was 419 cells/μl (290-768). There was no transmission of HIV. The median plasma HCV-RNA in our cohort of 23 non-transmitting deliveries in 21 women was 3.5×10E5 viral eq/ml (IQR 9.6×104-1.5×106veq/mL). One of 24 live-born children was found to be infected with HCV genotype 1. At the time of delivery the maternal plasma HIV-RNA was <50 copies/ml, the CD4(+) cell count was 160 cells/μl and maternal plasma HCV-RNA was 4.6×10E6 veq/ml. This amounted to a prevalence of HCV-MTCT of 4%. In this well-defined cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected pregnant women, all treated with cART during pregnancy, a modest rate of vertical HCV transmission was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and mother-child interactions in families of children with externalizing disorders.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C; Pelham, W E

    1990-08-01

    Relationships among maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and observed mother-child interactions were examined in a sample of 40 4- to 12-year-old children with externalizing disorders. Mothers and children were observed in a task interaction and mothers provided self-reports of depressed mood, parenting self-esteem, marital satisfaction, social support, and life stress. Child behavior was rated by both mothers and teachers. Several significant correlations were found among observed mother and child behaviors and among maternal self-report measures. However, few significant relationships were found between maternal characteristics and observed mother or child behavior. Although life stress predicted increased child negativity, maternal depressed mood was related to more appropriate child behavior. Mother and teacher ratings of child behavior demonstrated few significant relationships with other measures. These results suggest that, in samples comprised primarily of children with attention deficit disorder from socially advantaged families, few relationships exist between maternal characteristics, parenting behavior, and child behavior.

  13. Major factors influencing breastfeeding rates: Mother's perception of father's attitude and milk supply.

    PubMed

    Arora, S; McJunkin, C; Wehrer, J; Kuhn, P

    2000-11-01

    To determine factors influencing feeding decisions, breastfeeding and/or bottle initiation rates, as well as breastfeeding duration. A family medicine practice of a 530-bed community-based hospital in northwestern Pennsylvania. All mothers whose infants received well-child care from birth to 1 year of age. A survey of 28 simple questions was developed and mailed to 245 mothers. The survey assessed: 1) demographics, 2) prenatal and postnatal care, 3) sources of breastfeeding information, 4) timing of decision, 5) preference, 6) type of feeding selected, 7) duration of breastfeeding, 8) factors influencing decisions to breastfeed and/or to bottle-feed, and 9) factors that would have encouraged bottle-feeding mothers to breastfeed. The breastfeeding initiation rate was 44.3%. By the time the infant was 6 months old, only 13% of these were still breastfeeding. The decision to breastfeed or to bottle-feed was most often made before pregnancy or during the first trimester. The most common reasons mothers chose breastfeeding included: 1) benefits the infant's health, 2) naturalness, and 3) emotional bonding with the infant. The most common reasons bottle-feeding was chosen included: 1) mother's perception of father's attitude, 2) uncertainty regarding the quantity of breast milk, and 3) return to work. By self-report, factors that would have encouraged bottle-feeding mothers to breastfeed included: 1) more information in prenatal class; 2) more information from TV, magazines, and books; and 3) family support. To overcome obstacles, issues surrounding perceived barriers, such as father's attitude, quantity of milk, and time constraints, need to be discussed with each parent. To achieve the goal of 75% of breastfeeding mothers, extensive education regarding the benefits must be provided for both parents and optimally the grandmother by physicians, nurses, and the media before pregnancy or within the first trimester.

  14. Native and non-native perception of phonemic length contrasts in Japanese: Effects of speaking rate and presentation context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Amanda; Kato, Hiroaki; Tajima, Keiichi

    2005-04-01

    Japanese words can be distinguished by the length of phonemes, e.g., ``chizu'' (map) versus ``chiizu'' (cheese). Perceiving these length contrasts is therefore important for learning Japanese as a second language. The present study examined native English listeners' perception of length contrasts at different speaking rates and in different contexts. Stimuli consisted of 20 Japanese word pairs that minimally contrasted in vowel length, and 10 synthesized nonwords. The nonwords were created by modifying the duration of the second vowel of the nonword ``erete'' along a continuum (from ``erete'' to ``ereete''). Stimuli were presented with or without a carrier sentence at three rates (fast, normal, slow). Rate was either fixed or randomized trial by trial. Sixteen native English and 16 native Japanese listeners participated in a single-stimulus, two-alternative forced-choice identification task. Results suggest that native Japanese listeners' identification boundaries systematically shifted due to changes in speaking rate when the stimuli were in the context of a sentence with mixed rates of presentation. In contrast, native English listeners show a shift in the opposite direction, suggesting that they did not follow the variation in speaking rate. These results will be discussed from the viewpoint of training second-language phoneme perception. [Work supported by JSPS.

  15. Estimation of the rate of mother to child transmission of HIV in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Audu, R A; Salu, O B; Musa, A Z; Onyewuche, J; Funso-Adebayo, E O; Iroha, E O; Ezeaka, V C; Adetifa, I M O; Okoeguale, B; Idigbe, E O

    2006-06-01

    Definitive diagnosis of HIV infection in infants < 18 months of age who were born to HIV-infected mothers is still posing some difficulty in Nigeria and other developing countries. Within this age definitive diagnosis can only be carried out by antigen based techniques which are indeed not available in these developing countries. This has resulted in the absence of authoritative data on the rate of mother-to-child transmission in these countries. Nigeria inclusive. The present pilot study was therefore carried out to generate some information on the rate of mother to child transmission in Nigeria using the PCR technique. Plasma samples were obtained from 68 children of both sexes less than 18 months of age and who were born to HIV infected mothers. The samples were collected from two pediatric departments. in Lagos and in Benin. The presence of HIV 1 RNA in each of the samples. was determined using the Amplicor Monitor V 1.5 technique (Roche Diagnostics). Data showed that HIV-1 RNA was detected in 15 of the 68 samples tested. This gave an HIV-1 RNA detection rate of 22%. Among women who had some intervention, the rate of transmission of infection was 11% while the rate among those without intervention was 30%. The 22% transmission rate recorded in this study is close to the range of 25 to 35% that has been reported in several developed and a few developing countries. A multicenter nationwide study will still be needed to determine the national mother to child transmission rate in Nigeria.

  16. Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking Latina mothers influence the home food environment: implications for future interventions.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Jennings, Rose; Dave, Jayna; Scoblick, Kathryn; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Loyo, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four Latino parents (33 women; 27 born in Mexico; 21 food-insecure) of preschool-aged children participated in four focus group discussions conducted in Spanish by a trained moderator. The focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded by independent raters. Results suggest that in general, parents were very knowledgeable about healthful eating and cited both parents and school as significant factors influencing children's eating habits; at home, most families had more traditional Mexican foods available than American foods; cost and familiarity with foods were the most influential factors affecting food purchasing; many parents had rules regarding sugar intake; and parents cited role modeling, reinforcement, and creative food preparation as ways to encourage children's healthful eating habits. Finally, parents generated ideas on how to best assist Latino families through interventions. Parents indicated that future interventions should be community based and teach skills to purchase and prepare meals that include low-cost and traditional Mexican ingredients, using hands-on activities. In addition, interventions could encourage and reinforce healthy food-related practices that Latino families bring from their native countries.

  17. Meaningful Words and Non-Words Repetitive Articulatory Rate (Oral Diadochokinesis) in Persian Speaking Children.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Peyman; Rezai, Hossein; Garmatani, Neda Tahmasebi

    2017-08-01

    Repetitive articulatory rate or Oral Diadochokinesis (oral-DDK) shows a guideline for appraisal and diagnosis of subjects with oral-motor disorder. Traditionally, meaningless words repetition has been utilized in this task and preschool children have challenges with them. Therefore, we aimed to determine some meaningful words in order to test oral-DDK in Persian speaking preschool children. Participants were 142 normally developing children, (age range 4-6 years), who were asked to produce /motæka, golabi/ as two meaningful Persian words and /pa-ta-ka/ as non-word in conventional oral-DDK task. We compared the time taken for 10-times fast repetitions of two meaningful Persian words and the tri-syllabic nonsense word /pa-ta-ka/. Praat software was used to calculate the average time that subjects took to produce the target items. In 4-5 year old children, [Formula: see text] of time taken for 10-times repetitions of /pa-ta-ka, motæka, golabi/ were [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] seconds respectively, and in 5-6 year old children were [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] seconds respectively. Findings showed that the main effect of type of words on oral diadochokinesis was significant ([Formula: see text]). Children repeated meaningful words /motæka, golabi/ faster than the non-word /pa-ta-ka/. Sex and age factors had no effect on time taken for repetition of oral-DDK test. It is suggested that Speech Therapists can use meaningful words to facilitate oral-DDK test for children.

  18. Effect of Speaking Rate on Recognition of Synthetic and Natural Speech by Normal-Hearing and Cochlear Implant Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Caili; Galvin, John J.; Xu, Anting; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective Most studies have evaluated cochlear implant (CI) performance using “clear” speech materials, which are highly intelligible and well-articulated. CI users may encounter much greater variability in speech patterns in the “real-world,” including synthetic speech. In this study, we measured normal-hearing (NH) and CI listeners’ sentence recognition with multiple talkers and speaking rates, and with naturally produced and synthetic speech. Design NH and CI subjects were asked to recognize naturally produced or synthetic sentences, presented at a slow, normal, or fast speaking rate. Natural speech was produced by one male and one female talker; synthetic speech was generated to simulate a male and female talker. For natural speech, the speaking rate was time-scaled while preserving voice pitch and formant frequency information. For synthetic speech, the speaking rate was adjusted within the speech synthesis engine. NH subjects were tested while listening to unprocessed speech or to an 8-channel acoustic CI simulation. CI subjects were tested while listening with their clinical processors and the recommended microphone sensitivity and volume settings. Results The NH group performed significantly better than the CI simulation group, and the CI simulation group performed significantly better than the CI group. For all subject groups, sentence recognition was significantly better with natural than with synthetic speech. The performance deficit with synthetic speech was relatively small for NH subjects listening to unprocessed speech. However, the performance deficit with synthetic speech was much greater for CI subjects and for CI simulation subjects. There was significant effect of talker gender, with slightly better performance with the female talker for CI subjects and slightly better performance with the male talker for the CI simulations. For all subject groups, sentence recognition was significantly poorer only at the fast rate. CI performance was

  19. Predicting US Infants' and Toddlers' TV/Video Viewing Rates: Mothers' Cognitions and Structural Life Circumstances

    PubMed Central

    Vaala, Sarah E.; Hornik, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been rising international concern over media use with children under two. As little is known about the factors associated with more or less viewing among very young children, this study examines maternal factors predictive of TV/video viewing rates among American infants and toddlers. Guided by the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this survey study examines relationships between children's rates of TV/video viewing and their mothers' structural life circumstances (e.g., number of children in the home; mother's screen use), and cognitions (e.g., attitudes; norms). Results suggest that mothers' structural circumstances and cognitions respectively contribute independent explanatory power to the prediction of children's TV/video viewing. Influence of structural circumstances is partially mediated through cognitions. Mothers' attitudes as well as their own TV/video viewing behavior were particularly predictive of children's viewing. Implications of these findings for international efforts to understand and reduce infant/toddler TV/video exposure are discussed. PMID:25489335

  20. Correction of distortions in distressed mothers' ratings of their preschool children's psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jörg M; Furniss, Tilman

    2013-11-30

    The often-reported low informant agreement about child psychopathology between multiple informants has lead to various suggestions about how to address discrepant ratings. Among the factors that may lower agreement that have been discussed is informant credibility, reliability, or psychopathology, which is of interest in this paper. We tested three different models, namely, the accuracy, the distortion, and an integrated so-called combined model, that conceptualize parental ratings to assess child psychopathology. The data comprise ratings of child psychopathology from multiple informants (mother, therapist and kindergarten teacher) and ratings of maternal psychopathology. The children were patients in a preschool psychiatry unit (N=247). The results from structural equation modeling show that maternal ratings of child psychopathology were biased by maternal psychopathology (distortion model). Based on this statistical background, we suggest a method to adjust biased maternal ratings. We illustrate the maternal bias by comparing the ratings of mother to expert ratings (combined kindergarten teacher and therapist ratings) and show that the correction equation increases the agreement between maternal and expert ratings. We conclude that this approach may help to reduce misclassification of preschool children as 'clinical' on the basis of biased maternal ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In the Eye of the Beholder: Subjective and Observer Ratings of Middle-Class African American Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Smetana, Judith G.

    2004-01-01

    Middle-class African American mothers and adolescents (n=81) participated in a dyadic interaction task in early adolescence (M=13.06 years, SD=1.27) and then again 2 years later (M=15.01 years, SD=1.27). Following the task, mothers and adolescents rated their own and their partner's support and involvement in the task; observers rated videotaped…

  2. The Role of Access to Head Start and Quality Ratings for Spanish-Speaking Dual Language Learners’ (DLLs) Participation in Early Childhood Education

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 4,442) were used to test for differences between Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLLs) and monolingual English-speaking children in: (1) Head Start attendance rates when randomly assigned admission; and (2) quality ratings of other early childhood education (ECE) programs attended when not randomly assigned admission to Head Start. Logistic regressions showed that Spanish-speaking DLL children randomly assigned a spot in Head Start were more likely than monolingual-English learners to attend. Further, Spanish-speaking DLLs not randomly assigned a spot in Head Start were more likely to attend higher-quality ECE centers than non-DLL children. Policy implications are discussed, suggesting that, if given access, Spanish-speaking DLL families will take advantage of quality ECE programs. PMID:25018585

  3. The Role of Access to Head Start and Quality Ratings for Spanish-Speaking Dual Language Learners' (DLLs) Participation in Early Childhood Education.

    PubMed

    Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Miller, Elizabeth B

    Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 4,442) were used to test for differences between Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLLs) and monolingual English-speaking children in: (1) Head Start attendance rates when randomly assigned admission; and (2) quality ratings of other early childhood education (ECE) programs attended when not randomly assigned admission to Head Start. Logistic regressions showed that Spanish-speaking DLL children randomly assigned a spot in Head Start were more likely than monolingual-English learners to attend. Further, Spanish-speaking DLLs not randomly assigned a spot in Head Start were more likely to attend higher-quality ECE centers than non-DLL children. Policy implications are discussed, suggesting that, if given access, Spanish-speaking DLL families will take advantage of quality ECE programs.

  4. Facets of Speaking Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…

  5. Facets of Speaking Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…

  6. Educational attainment and self-rated health status among single mothers in rural Alabama.

    PubMed

    Zekeri, Andrew A

    2013-08-01

    Using previous data from a random sample of 300 single mothers from rural Alabama, multiple regression analysis indicated that food insecurity and employment status had a modest effect on self-rated health status, while educational attainment and income had the greatest effect. These variables explained 29% of the variance in health status. Social and economic policies that affect educational attainment and income distribution may have important consequences for health status in these rural areas.

  7. Fathers' ratings in the assessment of their child's anxiety symptoms: a comparison to mothers' ratings and their associations with paternal symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jacqueline; Silverman, Wendy K; Saavedra, Lissette M; Phares, Vicky

    2008-12-01

    We examined the comparability between mothers' and fathers' ratings in the assessment of their child's anxiety symptoms. The sample consisted of 78 youth (6 to 17 years) and their mothers and fathers who presented to a childhood anxiety disorders specialty research clinic. Using intraclass correlation coefficients, mother?father agreement of their child's anxiety symptoms was found to be moderate. Mean differences between mothers' and fathers' ratings of their child's anxiety were not significantly different. Both maternal and paternal self-ratings of psychopathology predicted respective ratings of their child's anxiety. Although either mothers or fathers can provide useful information, use of multiple informants is encouraged, especially when parental psychopathology is present. Additional implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Understanding Trait and Sources Effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Rating Scales: Mothers', Fathers', and Teachers' Ratings of Children from the Balearic Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Burns, G. Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to model a multitrait (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]-inattention, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity, oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]) by multisource (mothers, fathers, and teachers) matrix to determine the convergent and discriminant validity of ratings by mothers, fathers, and teachers.…

  9. Increased heart rate variability correlation between mother and child immediately pre-operation.

    PubMed

    Arai, Y-C P; Ueda, W; Ushida, T; Kandatsu, N; Ito, H; Komatsu, T

    2009-05-01

    Maternal distress would correlate with the children's mental status, thereby influencing the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the children and mothers. We hypothesized that pre-anesthetic maternal ANS activity, when approaching close to their children's operation time, would correlate with children's ANS activity, and that the values of heart rate variability (HRV) would correlate. We calculated maternal and children's HRVs and analyzed the relationship between the two. A total of 24 pairs of mother and child were analyzed. Maternal and children's HRVs were recorded from the night before the child's surgery to the arrival to the operation room. The ratios of low-frequency components (LF) to high-frequency components (HF) (LF/HF ratio) of children's and maternal HRVs obtained during the immediate pre-operative period (06:00-08:00 hours) showed a significantly, positive correlation, but no correlation was found for the LF/HF ratios obtained during the pre-operative night. The LF/HF ratios of HRV immediately before surgery in children and mothers showed a significant positive correlation.

  10. Breastfeeding rates: Is the Ross mother's survey underestimating breastfeeding rates of Hispanic women?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Among Hispanics in the United States, breastfeeding initiation and duration decrease with acculturation. Therefore, in communities with significant Hispanic immigrant populations, surveys of breastfeeding rates conducted in English will provide a biased picture of feeding behaviors. Three major su...

  11. Low mother-to-child HIV transmission rate but high loss-to-follow-up among mothers and babies in Mandalay, Myanmar; a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Phyo, Khaing Hnin; Aung, Thet Ko; Mya, Theingi; Aung, Nilar; Oo, Htun Nyunt

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) throughout the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) cascade remains one of the major threats to the success of PMTCT programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the mother-to-child transmission rate in a programmatic setting and to determine factors associated with LTFU among enrolled mothers and unfavorable outcomes among HIV-exposed babies which includes being HIV positive, death and LTFU. Methods A retrospective cohort study reviewing routinely collected data in an Integrated HIV care program, Mandalay, Myanmar in June 2016.LTFU means mother/infant missing appointed visit for more than three months. Results Of 678 pregnant women enrolled in PMTCT program between March 2011 and June 2014, one stillbirth and 607 live births were recorded in this cohort. Of 457 HIV-exposed babies with HIV-test recorded at the end of the intervention, nine (2%) were HIV-positive. Pregnant women’s and exposed-babies’ LTFU rate was 7 per 1000 person-years, and 10 per 1000 person-years respectively. PMTCT option B protocol was found to be significantly associate with maternal LTFU [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) 95% CI: 3.52 (1.38–8.96)] when compare to mothers receiving option B+/lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Weight <2.5 Kg at enrolment, receiving mixed-feeding, vaginal delivery and option B PMTCT protocol were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes among exposed babies [aHR(95% CI): 5.40 (1.66–17.53), 5.91(1.68–20.84), 2.27 (1.22–4.22) and 2.33 (1.16–4.69) respectively]. Conclusion Mother-to-child HIV transmission rate in this public hospital-based program was lower than the 5% national target, which indicates a successful PMTCT intervention. However, a high proportion of HIV-infected mothers and exposed babies LTFU was recorded. Lifelong ART provision to HIV-positive pregnant women was shown to reduce exposed babies’ LTFU, death and transmission rate (unfavorable outcomes) in this setting

  12. Low mother-to-child HIV transmission rate but high loss-to-follow-up among mothers and babies in Mandalay, Myanmar; a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; Oo, Myo Minn; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Phyo, Khaing Hnin; Aung, Thet Ko; Mya, Theingi; Aung, Nilar; Oo, Htun Nyunt; Isaakidis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) throughout the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) cascade remains one of the major threats to the success of PMTCT programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the mother-to-child transmission rate in a programmatic setting and to determine factors associated with LTFU among enrolled mothers and unfavorable outcomes among HIV-exposed babies which includes being HIV positive, death and LTFU. A retrospective cohort study reviewing routinely collected data in an Integrated HIV care program, Mandalay, Myanmar in June 2016.LTFU means mother/infant missing appointed visit for more than three months. Of 678 pregnant women enrolled in PMTCT program between March 2011 and June 2014, one stillbirth and 607 live births were recorded in this cohort. Of 457 HIV-exposed babies with HIV-test recorded at the end of the intervention, nine (2%) were HIV-positive. Pregnant women's and exposed-babies' LTFU rate was 7 per 1000 person-years, and 10 per 1000 person-years respectively. PMTCT option B protocol was found to be significantly associate with maternal LTFU [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) 95% CI: 3.52 (1.38-8.96)] when compare to mothers receiving option B+/lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Weight <2.5 Kg at enrolment, receiving mixed-feeding, vaginal delivery and option B PMTCT protocol were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes among exposed babies [aHR(95% CI): 5.40 (1.66-17.53), 5.91(1.68-20.84), 2.27 (1.22-4.22) and 2.33 (1.16-4.69) respectively]. Mother-to-child HIV transmission rate in this public hospital-based program was lower than the 5% national target, which indicates a successful PMTCT intervention. However, a high proportion of HIV-infected mothers and exposed babies LTFU was recorded. Lifelong ART provision to HIV-positive pregnant women was shown to reduce exposed babies' LTFU, death and transmission rate (unfavorable outcomes) in this setting. Lessons learned from this program could be used to inform

  13. Increased rates of depressed mood in mothers of children with ASD associated with the presence of the broader autism phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Meyer, Katherine; Becker, Mark W

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between the broader autism phenotype (BAP) and depressed mood in mothers of children with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD). One hundred and sixty-five mothers (71 with an ASD child and 94 with a non-ASD child) completed a survey of child autism severity (ASD mothers only), parenting stress, BAP, and depression. Mothers of children with ASD reported greater depressed mood, higher parenting stress, and more characteristics associated with the BAP than mothers of children without ASD. For mothers of children with ASD, the BAP uniquely predicted number of depressive symptoms after controlling for child autism severity and parenting stress. In the full sample, the relationship between group status and depressed mood was no longer significant after controlling for parenting stress and maternal BAP. These findings suggest that the higher rate of depression found in mothers of children with ASD may be attributed both to the increased stress of raising a child with ASD, as well as a greater number of autistic features in the mothers that may place them at higher risk for developing depression.

  14. Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway.

    PubMed

    Norum, Jan; Svee, Tove E; Heyd, Anca; Nieder, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD) rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group) were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age) were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999-2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR) of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15-44 years) were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami) and 23% (controls), respectively. Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded) ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94) or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82). Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate.

  15. [Productive social activities in mothers of intellectually disabled children moderate the relationship between caregiver burden and self-rated health].

    PubMed

    Yatsugi, Sawa; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Izumi, Sinichi

    2013-07-01

    Recently, the length of time for which intellectually disabled children receive homecare has increased; hence, the mothers caring for these intellectually disabled children at home are being exposed to increasingly heavy caregiver burden. Previous studies have reported that negative psychological states, including caregiver burden, influence self-rated health status; however, when elderly people engaged in productive social activities, they experienced heightened positive psychological states. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether mothers' participation in productive social activities influenced the relationship between caregiver burden and self-rated health status. We performed a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire that included items on self-rated health, the modified Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, productive social activities, and various confounding variables. We sent the questionnaires to 270 mothers belonging to patient and family advocacy groups. We then compared the self-rated health and caregiver burden between a group of mothers involved in productive social activities and a group not involved in such activities. The relationships between self-rated health, caregiver burden, and productive social activities were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc testing. We obtained 120 valid responses. Mothers with greater burden had worse self-rated health than the other group (r=-0.305). According to the ANOVA results, the self-rated health of mothers involved in productive social activities did not significantly differ between caregiver burden groups (mild burden group: 3.4 vs. severe burden group: 3.12; F=1.3, P=.253), whereas the self-rated health of mothers without productive social activities showed a significant difference between caregiver burden groups (mild burden group: 3.4 vs. severe burden group: 2.7; F=5.6, P=.017). Mothers with greater burden had worse self-rated health

  16. Speaking of Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmer, John; Mergendoller, John R.

    2013-01-01

    From the early elementary grades through high school, the Common Core State Standards ask students to organize and explain their ideas in oral presentations, use visual aids, and speak appropriately for various contexts and tasks. Although teachers could give assignments that teach some of these skills in isolation, the authors have found that…

  17. Speaking of Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmer, John; Mergendoller, John R.

    2013-01-01

    From the early elementary grades through high school, the Common Core State Standards ask students to organize and explain their ideas in oral presentations, use visual aids, and speak appropriately for various contexts and tasks. Although teachers could give assignments that teach some of these skills in isolation, the authors have found that…

  18. Speaking Rate Characteristics of Elementary-School-Aged Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…

  19. Speaking Rate Characteristics of Elementary-School-Aged Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…

  20. Keeping it in the family: the self-rated health of lone mothers in different European welfare regimes.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Sarah; Bambra, Clare; Van der Bracht, Koen; Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Bracke, Piet

    2014-11-01

    This study examines whether health inequalities exist between lone and cohabiting mothers across Europe, and how these may differ by welfare regime. Data from the European Social Survey were used to compare self-rated general health, limiting long-standing illness and depressive feelings by means of a multi-level logistic regression. The 27 countries included in the analyses are classified into six welfare regimes (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Nordic, Central East Europe (CEE) (new EU) and CEE (non-EU). Lone motherhood is defined as mothers not cohabiting with a partner, regardless of their legal marital status. The results indicate that lone mothers are more at risk of poor health than cohabiting mothers. This is most pronounced in the Anglo-Saxon regime for self-rated general health and limiting long-standing illness, while for depressive feelings it is most pronounced in the Bismarckian welfare regime. While the risk difference is smallest in the CEE regimes, both lone and cohabiting mothers also reported the highest levels of poor health compared with the other regimes. The results also show that a vulnerable socioeconomic position is associated with ill-health in lone mothers and that welfare regimes differ in the degree to which they moderate this association. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Can mindful parenting be observed? Relations between observational ratings of mother-youth interactions and mothers' self-report of mindful parenting.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Larissa G; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Gayles, Jochebed G; Geier, Mary H; Greenberg, Mark T

    2015-04-01

    Research on mindful parenting, an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships, has been limited by its reliance on self-report assessment. The current study is the first to examine whether observational indices of parent-youth interactions differentiate between high and low levels of self-reported mindful parenting. The Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS) were used to code interactions between mothers and their 7th grade youth. Mothers drawn from the top and bottom quartiles (n = 375) of a larger distribution of self-reported interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (N = 804) represented clearly defined high- and low-mindful parenting groups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze how well 6 composite IFIRS observational rating variables (e.g., parental warmth, consistent discipline) discriminated between high and low self-reports of mindful parenting. DFA results were cross-validated, with statistically significant canonical correlations found for both subsamples (p < .05). Subsequent independent samples t tests revealed that group means were significantly different on all 6 IFIRS composite ratings. Confirmation of the relations between self-report mindful parenting and the observational ratings was also provided through hierarchical regression analyses conducted with a continuous predictor of mindful parenting using the full sample. Thus, the present study provides preliminary evidence for a link between self-reported mindful parenting and observed interactions between parents and youth.

  2. Public speaking in social phobia: a pilot study of self-ratings and observers' ratings of social skills.

    PubMed

    Levitan, Michelle Nigri; Falcone, Eliane Mary; Placido, Monique; Krieger, Stephanie; Pinheiro, Layse; Crippa, Jose Alexandre; Bruno, Leandro Marchetti; Pastore, Daniele; Hallak, Jaime; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) differ from controls in the quality of skill-related behaviors displayed during a speech and in overall behavioral adequacy as perceived by observers and by the patients themselves. A total of 18 SAD patients and 18 controls were screened by a diagnostic interview and took part in a 3-minute speech of their own choosing. For each videotaped speech, observers rated the adequacy of the skill-related behaviors and overall performance adequacy. After the experiment, participants were asked to rate their own overall performance adequacy. The results showed that SAD patients exhibited significantly worse voice intonation and fluency of the speech, however no differences were found in global self-ratings. Moreover, the performance evaluations of the SAD group were consistent with the observers, while the controls evaluated their performance lower than the observers. The results are inconsistent with the cognitive model, because patients with SAD did not underestimate their performance. Compared with spontaneous interactions, the clear rules established for such social situations as speeches may result in less cognitive distortion for SAD patients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Employment hardships and single mothers' self-rated health: evidence from the panel study of income dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Fang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2014-01-01

    Using a national sample of single mothers from the 2007 and 2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined the effects of multiple employment statuses on the selfrated health of single mothers during the recent economic recession. Unlike other studies, the current study minimized selection bias by controlling for prior self-rated health, in addition to other predisposing factors, enabling factors, and need factors. We found that underemployment, but not unemployment, is associated with lower levels of self-rated health of single mothers. Results further indicate that the 25-39 age range (compared to the 18-24 age range), lower family income, prior lower self-rated health, more chronic diseases, and binge drinking place single mothers at an increased risk of lower levels of self-rated health. In contrast, strength-building physical activity is significantly associated with higher levels of self-rated health. Implications for health care policy and social work practice are drawn from the results.

  4. Linguistic Adaptation of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale for a Spanish-Speaking Population

    PubMed Central

    Oquendo-Jiménez, Ilia; Mena, Rafaela; Antoun, Mikhail D.; Wojna, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. In Hispanic populations there are few validated tests for the accurate identification and diagnosis of AD. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale is an internationally recognized questionnaire used to stage dementia. This study's objective was to develop a linguistic adaptation of the CDR for the Puerto Rican population. Methods The linguistic adaptation consisted of the evaluation of each CDR question (item) and the questionnaire's instructions, for similarities in meaning (semantic equivalence), relevance of content (content equivalence), and appropriateness of the questionnaire's format and measuring technique (technical equivalence). A focus group methodology was used to assess cultural relevance, clarity, and suitability of the measuring technique in the Argentinean version of the CDR for use in a Puerto Rican population. Results A total of 27 semantic equivalence changes were recommended in four categories: higher than 6th grade level of reading, meaning, common use, and word preference. Four content equivalence changes were identified, all focused on improving the applicability of the test questions to the general population's concept of street addresses and common dietary choices. There were no recommendations for changes in the assessment of technical equivalence. Conclusions We developed a linguistically adapted CDR instrument for the Puerto Rican population, preserving the semantic, content, and technical equivalences of the original version. Further studies are needed to validate the CDR instrument with the staging of Alzheimer's disease in the Puerto Rican population. PMID:20496524

  5. Differences between Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Functioning with the Family Assessment Device: The Validity of Combined Parent Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Dawson; Marais, Ida; Cavanagh, Robert; Kendall, Garth; Priddis, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device were examined using the Rasch Model (N = 237 couples). Mothers' and fathers' ratings of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device are recommended, provided these are analyzed separately. More than a quarter of…

  6. Differences between Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Functioning with the Family Assessment Device: The Validity of Combined Parent Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Dawson; Marais, Ida; Cavanagh, Robert; Kendall, Garth; Priddis, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device were examined using the Rasch Model (N = 237 couples). Mothers' and fathers' ratings of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device are recommended, provided these are analyzed separately. More than a quarter of…

  7. Correction of distortion in distressed mothers' ratings of their preschool-aged children's Internalizing and Externalizing scale score.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jörg Michael; Romer, Georg; Achtergarde, Sandra

    2014-01-30

    Increased maternal psychopathology may bias mothers' ratings about child psychopathology. In this study we examined whether internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in young children were biased through maternal psychopathology. The clinical sample comprised 247 preschool-age patients who attended the Family Day Hospital in Münster, Germany. Internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed by the CBCL/1.5-5, and maternal psychopathology was assessed by the SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI). Three theoretical perspectives were tested by comparing the model fit of three structural equation models, namely the accuracy, distortion, and combinatory model. All of the models aimed to integrate multi-informant ratings from mother, therapists, and kindergarten teachers, but differed in the question which paths had to be significant. The distortion model fit the data best and supported the notion that there was a psychopathology-related bias in mothers' ratings. On the basis of this finding, we developed correction formulas comparable to Müller and Furniss (2013), in order to statistically control for this distortion. We discussed post-hoc explanations about why mothers with increased psychopathology gave higher ratings on the CBCL/1.5-5, including a better recall of internalizing symptoms, less flexible and effective parenting, and more perceived distress by child externalizing behavior. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Call rates of mothers change with maternal experience and with infant characteristics in free-ranging gray-cheeked mangabeys.

    PubMed

    Arlet, Małgorzata E; Veromann, Linda-Liisa; Mänd, Raivo; Lemasson, Alban

    2016-09-01

    Studies have shown that becoming a mother triggers important social changes within females, according to both social experience and infant characteristics, showing different maternal concerns. But how this impacts call usage has been far less studied. Based on 6 months of observations of five free-ranging groups of gray-cheeked mangabeys, we investigated variations in the production of three call types (contact, excitement, and alarm calls) in 29 females of different ages, dominance ranks, and infant rearing experiences: 15 females with infants of different ages and sexes, and 14 females without infants. We found that in females with infants-both maternal and infant characteristics influenced call production in a call type-dependent way. Females produced contact calls at a higher rate during the first month of infant age and after weaning when infants start to move away. Mothers of daughters produced more contact calls than mothers of sons. More excitement calls were recorded for first-time and young mothers and for females with young infants, while alarm call rates were not influenced by any of these factors. Increased mother-infant spatial separation enhanced only contact and excitement call rates. Finally, we found that females with infants vocalized much more than females without infants. Our results contribute to the current debate about the social factors responsible for the flexibility of call usage in nonhuman primates and open new lines for research on mothering behavior in forest-dwelling species. Am. J. Primatol. 78:983-991, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A cross-cultural comparison of tonal synchrony and pitch imitation in the vocal dialogs of Belgian Flemish-speaking and Mexican Spanish-speaking mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Loots, Gerrit; Gillisjans, Lobcke; Pattyn, Nathalie; Quintana, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural comparison of the vocal pitch patterns of 15 Mexican Spanish-speaking and 15 Belgian Flemish-speaking dyads, recorded during 5min of free-play in a laboratory setting. Both cultures have a tradition of dyadic face-to-face interaction but differ in language origins (i.e., Romanic versus Germanic). In total, 374 Mexican and 558 Flemish vocal exchanges were identified, analyzed and compared for their incidence of tonal synchrony (harmonic/pentatonic series), non-tonal synchrony (with/without imitations) and pitch and/or interval imitations. The main findings revealed that dyads in both cultures rely on tonal synchrony using similar pitch ratios and timing patterns. However, there were significant differences in the infants' vocal pitch imitation behavior. Additional video-analyzes on the contingency patterns involved in pitch imitation showed a cross-cultural difference in the maternal selective reinforcement of pitch imitation. The results are interpreted with regard to linguistic, developmental and cultural aspects and the 'musilanguage' model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A longitudinal study of the acquisition of language by two German-speaking children with cochlear implants and of their mothers' speech.

    PubMed

    Szagun, G

    1997-10-18

    The development of language in two children with cochlear implants was analyzed using longitudinal data of videorecorded mother-child interactions. Recordings were made over a period of 14 months for child A and over a period of 3 years for child B. At the beginning of data collection the children were 2;11 and 3;7 respectively. Results reveal substantial differences between the two children and their mothers. Child B was slow in acquiring grammar, with vocalizations and non-linguistic communicative behavior persisting. The child also used language in a labeling function. Child B's MLU (mean length of utterance) never exceeded 2.7 morphemes and his syntax remained rudimentary. Child A had a highly imitative style at the beginning, but then progressed to the spontaneous use of multi-word utterances very quickly, reaching an MLU of 5.6 morphemes in less than 2 years. Child A progressed to correct morphology and a fairly complex syntax. The children's mothers differed with respect to their use of exaggerated intonation patterns, repetitions and expansions, the use of labeling, questions, and directives. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of children's information processing styles and mothers' speech input.

  11. The effect of speaking rate on serial-order sound-level errors in normal healthy controls and persons with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Fossett, Tepanta R. D.; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Pratt, Sheila R.; Tompkins, Connie A.; Shuster, Linda I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many speech errors can be generated at either a linguistic or motoric level of production, phonetically well-formed sound-level serial-order errors are generally assumed to result from disruption of phonologic encoding (PE) processes. An influential model of PE (Dell, 1986; Dell, Burger & Svec, 1997) predicts that speaking rate should affect the relative proportion of these serial-order sound errors (anticipations, perseverations, exchanges). These predictions have been extended to, and have special relevance for persons with aphasia (PWA) because of the increased frequency with which speech errors occur and because their localization within the functional linguistic architecture may help in diagnosis and treatment. Supporting evidence regarding the effect of speaking rate on phonological encoding has been provided by studies using young normal language (NL) speakers and computer simulations. Limited data exist for older NL users and no group data exist for PWA. Aims This study tested the phonologic encoding properties of Dell's model of speech production (Dell, 1986; Dell,et al., 1997), which predicts that increasing speaking rate affects the relative proportion of serial-order sound errors (i.e., anticipations, perseverations, and exchanges). Methods & Procedures The effects of speech rate on the error ratios of anticipation/exchange (AE), anticipation/perseveration (AP) and vocal reaction time (VRT) were examined in 16 normal healthy controls (NHC) and 16 PWA without concomitant motor speech disorders. The participants were recorded performing a phonologically challenging (tongue twister) speech production task at their typical and two faster speaking rates. Outcomes & Results A significant effect of increased rate was obtained for the AP but not the AE ratio. Significant effects of group and rate were obtained for VRT. Conclusion Although the significant effect of rate for the AP ratio provided evidence that changes in speaking rate did

  12. The effect of speaking rate on serial-order sound-level errors in normal healthy controls and persons with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fossett, Tepanta R D; McNeil, Malcolm R; Pratt, Sheila R; Tompkins, Connie A; Shuster, Linda I

    Although many speech errors can be generated at either a linguistic or motoric level of production, phonetically well-formed sound-level serial-order errors are generally assumed to result from disruption of phonologic encoding (PE) processes. An influential model of PE (Dell, 1986; Dell, Burger & Svec, 1997) predicts that speaking rate should affect the relative proportion of these serial-order sound errors (anticipations, perseverations, exchanges). These predictions have been extended to, and have special relevance for persons with aphasia (PWA) because of the increased frequency with which speech errors occur and because their localization within the functional linguistic architecture may help in diagnosis and treatment. Supporting evidence regarding the effect of speaking rate on phonological encoding has been provided by studies using young normal language (NL) speakers and computer simulations. Limited data exist for older NL users and no group data exist for PWA. This study tested the phonologic encoding properties of Dell's model of speech production (Dell, 1986; Dell,et al., 1997), which predicts that increasing speaking rate affects the relative proportion of serial-order sound errors (i.e., anticipations, perseverations, and exchanges). The effects of speech rate on the error ratios of anticipation/exchange (AE), anticipation/perseveration (AP) and vocal reaction time (VRT) were examined in 16 normal healthy controls (NHC) and 16 PWA without concomitant motor speech disorders. The participants were recorded performing a phonologically challenging (tongue twister) speech production task at their typical and two faster speaking rates. A significant effect of increased rate was obtained for the AP but not the AE ratio. Significant effects of group and rate were obtained for VRT. Although the significant effect of rate for the AP ratio provided evidence that changes in speaking rate did affect PE, the results failed to support the model derived predictions

  13. Using a Teacher Rating Scale of Language and Literacy Skills with Preschool Children of English-Speaking, Spanish-Speaking, and Bilingual Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Guiberson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a teacher report measure, the Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL; Dickinson et al. in "Teacher rating of oral language and literacy (TROLL): a research-based tool." Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,…

  14. Teaching Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleistein, T.; Smith, M. K.; Lewis, M.

    2013-01-01

    To meet the needs of students, teachers of oral English have three main tasks: find out all they can about how speaking works, look for ways to introduce their classes to the language of conversation, and provide students with opportunities to practice speaking English. This book covers these three tasks in an easy-to-follow guide that language…

  15. Teaching Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleistein, T.; Smith, M. K.; Lewis, M.

    2013-01-01

    To meet the needs of students, teachers of oral English have three main tasks: find out all they can about how speaking works, look for ways to introduce their classes to the language of conversation, and provide students with opportunities to practice speaking English. This book covers these three tasks in an easy-to-follow guide that language…

  16. Persuasive Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidel, Thomas M.

    This book, for either college or secondary-school speech or rhetoric courses, defines persuasive speaking as essentially a process or activity and discusses the elements which facilitate analyzing that process. Sections deal with (1) the nature and history of persuasive speaking, especially classical and modern canons of rhetoric, (2) the…

  17. Persuasive Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidel, Thomas M.

    This book, for either college or secondary-school speech or rhetoric courses, defines persuasive speaking as essentially a process or activity and discusses the elements which facilitate analyzing that process. Sections deal with (1) the nature and history of persuasive speaking, especially classical and modern canons of rhetoric, (2) the…

  18. Onset and Maturation of Fetal Heart Rate Response to the Mother's Voice over Late Gestation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisilevsky, Barbara S.; Hains, Sylvia M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Term fetuses discriminate their mother's voice from a female stranger's, suggesting recognition/learning of some property of her voice. Identification of the onset and maturation of the response would increase our understanding of the influence of environmental sounds on the development of sensory abilities and identify the period when…

  19. Onset and Maturation of Fetal Heart Rate Response to the Mother's Voice over Late Gestation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisilevsky, Barbara S.; Hains, Sylvia M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Term fetuses discriminate their mother's voice from a female stranger's, suggesting recognition/learning of some property of her voice. Identification of the onset and maturation of the response would increase our understanding of the influence of environmental sounds on the development of sensory abilities and identify the period when…

  20. Verbal Operants in Mothers' Speech to Nonretarded and Down's Syndrome Children Matched for Linguistic Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutmann, Arlyne J.; Rondal, Jean A.

    1979-01-01

    Verbal response classes produced by mothers speaking to 21 nonretarded children were compared with those of mothers speaking to 21 Down's syndrome children (38 to 144 months) matched with them on mean length of utterance. (Author/SBH)

  1. Teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    Marino, Jennifer L; Lewis, Lucy N; Bateson, Deborah; Hickey, Martha; Skinner, S Rachel

    2016-10-01

    Australia's teenage birth rate has fallen to historic lows, but teenage motherhood still occurs and can be challenging for mother and baby. The aim of this article is to review current evidence on the epidemiology and clinical care of teenage pregnancy and parenting, and provide recommendations around management of these young people in Australia. Teenage mothers may have experienced family, sexual, and partner violence, family disruption, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Outcomes on a range of peripartum measures are worse for teenage mothers and their babies. Longer term risks for the mother include depression and rapid repeat pregnancy; for the child, intergenerational teenage parenthood; and for both, socioeconomic disadvantage. Teenage motherhood occurs more often within communities where poverty, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status and rural/remote location intersect. General practitioners play a critical role in identification of at-risk teens, preventing unintended teenage pregnancy, clinical care of pregnant teens, and promoting the health and wellbeing of teenage mothers and their children.

  2. Transfer rates and pattern of PCB isomers and congeners and p,p'-DDE from mother to egg in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, S.; Surbramanian, A.; Hidaka, H.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1986-03-01

    Mother to egg transfer of PCB isomers and congeners and p,p'-DDE was examined in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from Antarctica. Transfer rate to a clutch of two eggs was estimated to be small, accounting to about 4.0% for both PCBs and p,p-DDE to the burden in mother. No significant difference was found in the concentration ratios of individual PCB isomers and congeners between mother and egg, which apparently differed from those between mother and fetus of striped dolphin previously reported.

  3. Autism Speaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Terms of Service What is Autism? Around the World links Autism Speaks Canada Global Autism Public Health Initiative Non-English Resources Shafallah World Autism Awareness Day Connect with Us Facebook Google + ...

  4. Reducing pediatric HIV infection: estimating mother-to-child transmission rates in a program setting in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Torpey, Kwasi; Kasonde, Prisca; Kabaso, Mushota; Weaver, Mark A; Bryan, Gail; Mukonka, Victor; Bweupe, Maximillian; Zimba, Chilunje; Mwale, Felicitas; Colebunders, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Vertical transmission of HIV remains the main source of pediatric HIV infection in Africa with transmission rates as high as 25%-45% without intervention. Even though effective interventions to reduce vertical transmission of HIV are now available and remarkable progress has been made in scaling up prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, the effectiveness of PMTCT interventions is unknown in Zambia. In this study, we estimate HIV vertical transmission rates at different age bands among perinatally exposed children. The study analyzed program data of DNA polymerase chain reaction results and selected client information on dried blood spot samples from perinatally exposed children aged 0-12 months sent to the polymerase chain reaction laboratory from 5 provinces between September 2007 and January 2009. Samples of 8237 babies between 0 and 12 months were analyzed, with 84% of the mothers having ever breastfed their children. The observed transmission rate was 6.5% (5.1%, 7.8%) among infants aged 0-6 weeks when both mother and infant received interventions compared with 20.9% (12.3%, 29.5%) where no intervention was given to either mother or baby. Observed HIV transmission with single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) was 8.5% (5.9%, 11.0%) among infants aged 0-6 weeks, whereas zidovudine with sdNVP (zidovudine + NVP) and highly active antiretroviral therapy were associated with observed transmission rates of 6.8% (4.5%, 9.1%) and 5.0% (3.0%, 7.0%), respectively; whereas these estimates were not significantly different from one another, they were all significantly lower than no intervention for which the estimated rate was 20.9%. Regardless of the intervention, the observed transmission rates were higher among infants aged 6-12 months. PMTCT interventions, including sdNVP, are working in program settings. However, postnatal transmission especially after 6 months through suboptimal feeding practises remains an important challenge to further reduce pediatric

  5. Prenatal alcohol exposure, blood alcohol concentrations and alcohol elimination rates for the mother, fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Burd, L; Blair, J; Dropps, K

    2012-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a common cause of intellectual impairment and birth defects. More recently, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been found to be a risk factor for fetal mortality, stillbirth and infant and child mortality. This has led to increased concern about detection and management of PAE. One to 2 h after maternal ingestion, fetal blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) reach levels nearly equivalent to maternal levels. Ethanol elimination by the fetus is impaired because of reduced metabolic capacity. Fetal exposure time is prolonged owing to the reuptake of amniotic-fluid containing ethanol by the fetus. Alcohol elimination from the fetus relies on the mother's metabolic capacity. Metabolic capacity among pregnant women varies eightfold (from 0.0025 to 0.02 g dl(-1)  h(-1)), which may help explain how similar amounts of ethanol consumption during pregnancy results in widely varying phenotypic presentations of FASD. At birth physiological changes alter the neonate's metabolic capacity and it rapidly rises to a mean value of 83.5% of the mother's capacity. FASDs are highly recurrent and younger siblings have increased risk. Detection of prenatal alcohol use offers an important opportunity for office-based interventions to decrease exposure for the remainder of pregnancy and identification of women who need substance abuse treatment. Mothers of children with FAS have been found to drink faster, get drunk quicker and to have higher BACs. A modest increase in the prevalence of a polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase, which increases susceptibility to adverse outcomes from PAE has been reported. Lastly, detection of alcohol use and appropriate management would decrease risk from PAE for subsequent pregnancies.

  6. Pregnant Mothers with Resolved Anxiety Disorders and Their Offspring Have Reduced Heart Rate Variability: Implications for the Health of Children

    PubMed Central

    Braeken, Marijke A. K. A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Outhred, Tim; Otte, Renée A.; Monsieur, Geert J. Y. J.; Jones, Alexander; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Active anxiety disorders have lasting detrimental effects on pregnant mothers and their offspring but it is unknown if historical, non-active, maternal anxiety disorders have similar effects. Anxiety-related conditions, such as reduced autonomic cardiac control, indicated by reduced heart rate variability (HRV) could persist despite disorder resolution, with long-term health implications for mothers and children. The objective in this study is to test the hypotheses that pregnant mothers with a history of, but not current anxiety and their children have low HRV, predicting anxiety-like offspring temperaments. Methods The participants in this case-control study consist of 56 women during their first trimester and their offspring (15 male, 29 female). Women had a history of an anxiety disorder (n=22) or no psychopathology (n=34) determined using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The main outcome measures were indices of autonomic cardiac control including root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and high frequency (HF) variability. Children’s fearfulness was also assessed using the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB)-Locomotor Version. Results HRV was lower in women and children in the past anxiety group compared to controls. HRV measures for mothers and children were positively correlated in the anxiety group only. In all children, low HRV measures at 2-4 months were associated with a higher chance of fearful behavior at 9-10 months. Conclusions Pregnant women with previous but not current anxiety and their children have low HRV. Children with low HRV tend to show more fearfulness. These findings have implications for identifying children at risk of anxiety disorders and point to possible underlying mechanisms of child psychopathology. PMID:24340091

  7. Predictors of discrepancies between fathers and mothers in rating behaviors of preschool children with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Nauta, Maaike H; Timmerman, Marieke E; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2017-03-01

    To examine child factors and parental characteristics as predictors of discrepancies between parents' ratings of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in a sample of preschool children with ADHD and behavior problems and in a nonclinical sample. We investigated correspondence and discrepancies between parents' ratings on the externalizing and internalizing behavior problems broadband scales of the Child Behavior Checklist version for preschool children (CBCL/1.5-5). Parents of 152 preschool children, with ADHD and behavior problems (n = 72) and nonclinical children (n = 80), aged between 28 and 72 months (M = 47.26, SD = 12.7), completed the CBCL/1.5-5. Candidate predictors of discrepancy included the child's age and sex, and parents' levels of parenting stress, depressive mood, attention-deficit and disruptive behavior. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Correspondence between parents, both for ratings on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, was high (r = .63-.77). In the clinical sample, mothers rated the severity of externalizing behavior problems significantly higher than did fathers (p = < .001). Discrepancy between fathers and mothers on externalizing behavior problems was not predicted by child factors or interparental differences in psychopathology, but it was predicted by interparental differences in parenting stress (R (2) = .25, p < .001). This effect was significantly larger in the nonclinical sample (ΔR (2) = .06, p < .001). When parents disagree on the severity level of preschool children's externalizing behavior problems, the clinician should take into consideration that differences in parenting stress might be involved.

  8. Speaking Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Laurie Halse

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the author uses her nightmares to get ideas for her writing. Describes "Speak," one particular young adult novel inspired by a nightmare that she guesses was provoked by memories of her older sister coming of age. Discusses the exploration and impact of cliques or clans among adolescents. (SC)

  9. Testing Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji

    Speaking a second language is probably the most difficult skill to test in that it involves a combination of skills that may have no correlation with each other, and which do not lend themselves to objective testing. In addition, what can be understood is a function of the listener's background and ability as well as those of the speaker. Another…

  10. Reliability and validity of nasality ratings between a monolingual and bilingual listener for speech samples from English-Spanish-Speaking children.

    PubMed

    Watterson, Thomas; Lewis, Kerry E; Murdock, Tanna; Cordero, Kelly Nett

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine if a monolingual English listener could rate nasality in English and in Spanish with the same proficiency as a bilingual English-Spanish listener, and to compare nasalance scores with nasality ratings. Speakers for this study were 26 bilingual English-Spanish-speaking children. Speech samples and nasalance scores were obtained simultaneously as each speaker recited one English sentence and one Spanish sentence. A monolingual listener and a bilingual listener rated nasality. For the English sentences, the intrajudge correlation coefficient was r = 0.89 for the monolingual listener and r = 0.89 for the bilingual listener. For the Spanish sentences, the intrajudge correlation coefficient was r = 0.91 for the monolingual listener and r = 0.92 for the bilingual listener. Interjudge agreement was r = 0.86 for rating English sentences and r = 0.78 for rating Spanish sentences. All correlation coefficients were significant (p < 0.001). The correlation coefficients between nasality ratings and nasalance scores were essentially the same for both listeners and both languages. A monolingual and a bilingual judge had high agreement on ratings of nasality for English and Spanish speech. The relationship between nasalance and nasality was not different across languages. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Prepartum and intrapartum caesarean section rates at Mater Mothers' Hospital Brisbane 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Sarah; Wallace, Karen L; Chang, Allan M Z

    2008-12-01

    To document the rise in prepartum and intrapartum caesarean section and the demographic and medical factors contributing to the rise. Data from 52,423 deliveries between January 1997 to May 2005 were analysed for yearly change in caesarean section rates and multiple demographic and medical factors. The prepartum caesarean section rate increased by 1.6% per year and the intrapartum caesarean section rate by 0.8% per year. There was no increase in the overall prevalence of obesity, short stature, advanced maternal age, medical complications or previous caesarean section. There were significant increases in nulliparity, private care, induction of labour and the use of electronic monitoring, but these were insufficient to explain the magnitude of the rise. The increase in prepartum and intrapartum caesarean section displayed was not fully explained by medical and demographic changes in the population.

  12. Reduced school dropout rates among adolescent mothers receiving school-based prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Barnet, Beth; Arroyo, Carmen; Devoe, Margo; Duggan, Anne K

    2004-03-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is associated with increased school dropout rates. Dropping out amplifies the probability of persistent social and economic disadvantage. Whether school-based health centers might help reduce school absenteeism and dropout rates in this group has not been well studied. To examine the association of school-based prenatal services on school attendance and dropout rates. In this retrospective cohort study, using school rosters from an alternative school, we identified adolescents aged 18 years or younger who delivered a baby between July 1, 1995, and August 30, 1997, in Baltimore, Md. We linked school records spanning 3 years with medical records and birth certificates. School variables such as attendance and dropout rates were examined in relation to the teen's year of pregnancy and prenatal care setting (school-based vs non-school-based). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to examine effects of school-based prenatal care on dropout and promotion or graduation rates, with adjustment for baseline group differences. We identified 431 predominantly African American, low-income adolescents who attended the alternative school in their pregnancy school year. In the year prior to pregnancy, most performed poorly in school and had significant absenteeism. During their pregnancy school year, teens receiving school-based prenatal care were absent 12 fewer days, as compared with those receiving non-school-based care (P =.001), and their dropout rate was half that of those receiving non-school-based care (6% vs 15%; P =.02). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses, with adjustment for baseline prepregnancy differences, demonstrated that teens receiving school-based prenatal care were less likely to drop out of school during the pregnancy year (adjusted odds ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.99; P =.048). Absenteeism and dropout rates were reduced for pregnant adolescents receiving prenatal care at a school-based health center in an urban

  13. Hemisphere-Specific Effects of Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation on Speaking Rate and Articulatory Accuracy of Syllable Repetitions in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Emily Q; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Bakay, Roy A E; Arzbaecher, Jean; Bernard, Bryan; Corcos, Daniel M

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that left versus right deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) would have differential effects on speech. Twenty right-handed individuals with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) underwent unilateral STN DBS. Ten were operated on the right and 10 on the left hemisphere as indicated by severity of nonspeech motor function. Speech was evaluated before surgery and 3 to 6 months after surgery with stimulator-off and with stimulator-on, with all participants off anti-parkinsonian medication for 12 hours before evaluation. Evaluators and patient speakers were blinded to the stimulator status at the postsurgery evaluations. Motor performance was assessed with UPDRS-III. Each participant produced three samples of diadochokinetic syllables. Syllable rate, syllable and vowel duration, VOT, and F0 were obtained. The diadochokinetic syllables were rated for articulatory accuracy and speaking rate. Twenty graduate clinicians served as judges. The samples were randomly presented via headphones. A mixed ANOVA with repeated measures was used to assess the significance of the changes in UPRS-III scores and speech measures. The results indicated that unilateral STN DBS produced improvement in nonspeech motor function regardless of the side of stimulation. In contrast, the changes in articulatory accuracy and syllable rate associated with the STN DBS were hemisphere specific.

  14. Higher acceptance rates for abstracts written in English at a national research student meeting in a non-English speaking country.

    PubMed

    Khani, Afshin; Zarghami, Amin; Izadpanah, Fatemeh; Mahdizadeh, Hamid; Golestanifar, Leila

    2015-01-01

    The rate of English-written submissions is increasing in local meetings of non-English speaking countries. However, it seems that the quality of research and methodology of the studies has not progressed. This study aimed to evaluate the association of English writing and the acceptance for presentation following the peer-review process in the 13th Annual Research Congress of Iran's Medical Sciences Students (ARCIMSS). All 1817 complete abstracts submitted to the meeting were included in this cross-sectional study. Each was evaluated for the language of the text (English or Persian), final decision after peer review (accepted vs. rejected), presentation type (oral, poster discussion and poster) and the scores of reviewing process. There were 395 (21.7%) abstracts written in English and 1422 (78.3%) in Persian. The acceptance rate for English abstracts was 33.7% and for Persian 24.6% (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.22-1.98). The rate of abstracts' acceptance for presentation in oral panels was significantly higher for English abstracts than for those in Persian (25.6% versus 15.7%, OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.14-2.99). By contrast, Persian abstracts were more likely to be accepted as poster panels than were English abstracts (74.9% versus 63.9%, OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.10-2.58). English-written abstracts have higher chance of acceptation in a non-English speaker country like Iran.

  15. Child Vocabulary, Maternal Behavior, and Inhibitory Control Development Among Spanish-Speaking Children.

    PubMed

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children's inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother-child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal behavior was rated independently from the interactions. Inhibitory control was measured with a battery of tasks at ages 2½ and 3½. Greater maternal sensitivity was correlated with higher vocabulary at 2½. Greater vocabulary predicted positive growth in child inhibitory control skills from ages 2½ to 3½ in multivariable regression models that controlled for maternal education, family income, the home environment, and mothering quality. These findings suggest that supporting vocabulary development in low-income Spanish-speaking children is important for the development of inhibitory control skills, an important foundation for school readiness and academic success.

  16. Self-rated health and mental health of lone fathers compared with lone mothers and partnered fathers: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Maria; Rahman, Farah; Kurdyak, Paul; Cairney, John; Jembere, Nathaniel; Vigod, Simone

    2017-05-01

    Lone parenthood is associated with poorer health; however, the vast majority of previous studies have examined lone mothers and only a few have focused on lone fathers. We aimed to examine the self-rated health and mental health status among a large population-based cross-sectional sample of Canadian lone fathers compared with both partnered fathers and lone mothers. We investigated differences in self-rated health and mental health among 1058 lone fathers compared with 20 692 partnered fathers and 5725 lone mothers using the Ontario component of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001-2013). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the odds of poor/fair self-rated health and mental health between the study groups while adjusting for a comprehensive list of sociodemographic factors, stressors and lifestyle factors. Lone fathers and lone mothers showed similar prevalence of poor/fair self-rated health (11.6% and 12.5%, respectively) and mental health (6.2% and 8.4%, respectively); the odds were similar even after multivariable adjustment. Lone fathers showed higher odds of poor/fair self-rated health (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.17) and mental health (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.46) than partnered fathers after adjustment for sociodemographic factors; however, these differences were no longer significant after accounting for stressors, including low income and unemployment. In this large population-based study, lone fathers had worse self-rated health and mental health than partnered fathers and similarly poor self-rated health and mental health as lone mothers. Interventions, supports and social policies designed for single parents should also recognise the needs of lone fathers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Oral-diadochokinetic rates for Hebrew-speaking healthy ageing population: non-word versus real-word repetition.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Icht, Michal

    2017-05-01

    Oral-diadochokinesis (oral-DDK) tasks are extensively used in the evaluation of motor speech abilities. Currently, validated normative data for older adults (aged 65 years and older) are missing in Hebrew. The effect of task stimuli (non-word versus real-word repetition) is also non-clear in the population of older adult Hebrew speakers. (1) To establish a norm for oral-DDK rate for older adult (aged 65 years and older) Hebrew speakers, and to investigate the possible effect of age and gender on performance rate; and (2) to examine the effects of stimuli (non-word versus real word) on oral-DDK rates. In experiment 1, 88 healthy older Hebrew speakers (60-95 years, 48 females and 40 males) were audio-recorded while performing an oral-DDK task (repetition of /pataka/), and repetition rates (syllables/s) were coded. In experiment 2, the effect of real-word repetition was evaluated. Sixty-eight older Hebrew speakers (aged 66-95 years, 43 females and 25 males) were asked to repeat 'pataka' (non-word) and 'bodeket' (Hebrew real word). Experiment 1: Oral-DDK performance for older adult Hebrew speakers was 5.07 syllables/s (SD = 1.16 syllables/s), across age groups and gender. Comparison of this data with Hebrew norms for younger adults (and equivalent data in English) shows the following gradient of oral-DDK rates: ages 15-45 > 65-74 > 75-86 years. Gender was not a significant factor in our data. Experiment 2: Repetition of real words was faster than that of non-words, by 13.5%. The paper provides normative values for oral-DDK rates for older Hebrew speakers. The data show the large impact of ageing on oro-motor functions. The analysis further indicates that speech and language pathologists should consider separate norms for clients of 65-74 years and those of 75-86 years. Hebrew rates were found to be different from English norms for the oldest group, shedding light on the impact of language on these norms. Finally, the data support using a dual-protocol (real- and non

  18. Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Relationship Quality: Associations with Preadolescent and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, Alexander H.; Stewart, Lindsay M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The…

  19. Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Relationship Quality: Associations with Preadolescent and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, Alexander H.; Stewart, Lindsay M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The…

  20. Depressed mood and speech in Chilean mothers of 5½-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Katy M.; Su, Jing; Kaciroti, Niko; Castillo, Marcela; Millan, Rebeca; Rule, Heather; Lozoff, Besty

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on maternal speech and depression has focused almost exclusively on how depressed mothers talk to their infants and toddlers in the U.S. and U.K., two English-speaking countries. This study considered how depressed Spanish-speaking mothers from a Latin American country talk about their preschool-age children. Five-minute speech samples were provided by 178 Chilean mothers who were asked to talk about their 5½-year-old children to a project psychologist. Maternal depressive symptomatology was measured by the Spanish-language version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), higher maternal depressed mood showed statistically significant associations with the following maternal speech characteristics: more criticisms, less laughter, fewer medium pauses, less positive satisfaction with the child’s behavior or characteristics, a rating of a negative overall relationship with the child, and more crying (suggestive trend). A structural equation model confirmed these findings and found an indirect effect between laughter and criticisms: mothers with higher depressed mood who laughed less criticized their children less. The findings illustrate that depressed mood adversely affects how a group of Chilean mothers speak about their children. PMID:21785514

  1. Developing Analytic Rating Guides for "TOEFL iBT"® Integrated Speaking Tasks. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report, TOEFL iBT-20. ETS Research Report. RR-13-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan; Poonpon, Kornwipa

    2013-01-01

    Research and development of a new type of scoring rubric for the integrated speaking tasks of "TOEFL iBT"® are described. These "analytic rating guides" could be helpful if tasks modeled after those in TOEFL iBT were used for formative assessment, a purpose which is different from TOEFL iBT's primary use for admission…

  2. Maternal Stress and Efficacy for Latina Mothers with Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denney, Maria K.; Okamoto, Yukari; Singer, George H. S.; Brenner, Mary E.; Barkley, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the levels of maternal stress and efficacy for Spanish- and English-speaking Latina mothers whose infants were in neonatal intensive care. Thirty-two Latina mothers participated in the study. Significant group differences were found between Spanish-and English-speaking Latina mothers. More stress was experienced by Spanish-…

  3. Maternal Stress and Efficacy for Latina Mothers with Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denney, Maria K.; Okamoto, Yukari; Singer, George H. S.; Brenner, Mary E.; Barkley, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the levels of maternal stress and efficacy for Spanish- and English-speaking Latina mothers whose infants were in neonatal intensive care. Thirty-two Latina mothers participated in the study. Significant group differences were found between Spanish-and English-speaking Latina mothers. More stress was experienced by Spanish-…

  4. A Sociolinguistic Profile of 100 Mothers from Middle to Upper-Middle Socio-Economic Backgrounds in Penang-Chinese Community: What Languages Do They Speak at Home with Their Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Hui Min; Nicholas, Howard; Wales, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a survey of 100 mothers of Chinese children aged between 6 and 36 months from middle to upper-middle socio-economic backgrounds in Penang, Malaysia. The findings include the language backgrounds of these mothers, their contextual uses of multiple languages and their language choices with their children. Through…

  5. A Sociolinguistic Profile of 100 Mothers from Middle to Upper-Middle Socio-Economic Backgrounds in Penang-Chinese Community: What Languages Do They Speak at Home with Their Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Hui Min; Nicholas, Howard; Wales, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a survey of 100 mothers of Chinese children aged between 6 and 36 months from middle to upper-middle socio-economic backgrounds in Penang, Malaysia. The findings include the language backgrounds of these mothers, their contextual uses of multiple languages and their language choices with their children. Through…

  6. Life as a Mother-Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Lucille

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the difficulties she faced as she tried to reach a balance between her career as a scientist and her role as a mother. She speaks of how she often found problems in putting her children into day care centers. She also relates that the confidence mothers have in their academic careers is correlated to the quality…

  7. The performance of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in English speaking and non-English speaking populations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Small, Rhonda; Lumley, Judith; Yelland, Jane; Brown, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has been widely used to assess maternal depression following childbirth in a range of English speaking countries, and increasingly also in translation in non-English speaking ones. It has performed satisfactorily in most validation studies, has proved easy to administer, is acceptable to women, and rates of depression in the range of 10-20% have been consistently found. The performance of the EPDS was compared across different population samples in Australia: (i) Women born in Australia or in another English speaking country who completed the EPDS in English as part of the 1994 postal Survey of Recent Mothers (SRM) 6-7 months after birth (n = 1166); (ii) Women born in non-English speaking countries who also completed the EPDS in English in the same survey (n = 142); and (iii) Women born in Vietnam (n = 103), Turkey (n = 104) and the Philippines (n = 106) who completed the EPDS 6-9 months after birth in translation in the Mothers in a New Country Study (MINC) study (total n = 313). The pattern of item responses on the EPDS was assessed in various ways across the samples and internal reliability coefficients were calculated. Exploratory factor analyses were also conducted to assess the similarity in the factor solutions across the samples. The EPDS had good construct validity and item endorsement by women was similar across the samples. Internal reliability of the scale was also very satisfactory with Cronbach's alpha for each sample being > or = 8. Between 39 and 46% of the variance in each of the three main samples was accounted for by one principal factor 'depression' (6-7 items loading), with two supplementary factors 'loss of enjoyment' (2 items loading) and 'despair/self-harm' (2-3 items loading) accounting for a further 20-25% of the variance. Alternative one and two factor solutions also showed a great deal of consistency between the samples. The good item consistency of the EPDS and the relative stability of

  8. Construct-related validity of the TOCS measures: comparison of intelligibility and speaking rate scores in children with and without speech disorders.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Megan M; Gotzke, Carrie L

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated construct-related validity of the Test of Children's Speech (TOCS). Intelligibility scores obtained using open-set word identification tasks (orthographic transcription) for the TOCS word and sentence tests and rate scores for the TOCS sentence test (words per minute or WPM and intelligible words per minute or IWPM) were compared for a group of 15 adults (18-30 years of age) with normal speech production and three groups of children: 48 3-6 year-olds with typical speech development and neurological histories (TDS), 48 3-6 year-olds with a speech sound disorder of unknown origin and no identified neurological impairment (SSD-UNK), and 22 3-10 year-olds with dysarthria and cerebral palsy (DYS). As expected, mean intelligibility scores and rates increased with age in the TDS group. However, word test intelligibility, WPM and IWPM scores for the 6 year-olds in the TDS group were significantly lower than those for the adults. The DYS group had significantly lower word and sentence test intelligibility and WPM and IWPM scores than the TDS and SSD-UNK groups. Compared to the TDS group, the SSD-UNK group also had significantly lower intelligibility scores for the word and sentence tests, and significantly lower IWPM, but not WPM scores on the sentence test. The results support the construct-related validity of TOCS as a tool for obtaining intelligibility and rate scores that are sensitive to group differences in 3-6 year-old children, with and without speech sound disorders, and to 3+ year-old children with speech disorders, with and without dysarthria. Readers will describe the word and sentence intelligibility and speaking rate performance of children with typically developing speech at age levels of 3, 4, 5 and 6 years, as measured by the Test of Children's Speech, and how these compare with adult speakers and two groups of children with speech disorders. They will also recognize what measures on this test differentiate children with speech sound

  9. Helping Mothers Discuss Sexuality and AIDS with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2000-01-01

    Examined impact of experimentally altering mothers' style when discussing sexuality and AIDS with adolescent children. Found that intervention group mothers reduced their amount of speaking, asked more open-ended questions, acted less judgmental, and discussed dating and sexuality more than did control group mothers. Intervention group adolescents…

  10. Multirater Congruence on the Social Skills Assessment of Children with Asperger Syndrome: Self, Mother, Father, and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyva, Efrosini

    2010-01-01

    Children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) who attend mainstream settings face social skills deficits that have not been adequately explored. This study aims to examine social skills through self-reports of children with AS (N = 21) and a matched group of typically developing peers, as well as reports from their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Results…

  11. Brief Report: Fathers' and Mothers' Ratings of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Hastings, Richard P.; Petalas, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Debate is ongoing about whether typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at greater risk of behavioral or emotional problems than siblings of children without ASD. Most data on behavior is provided by mothers, and we do not know whether fathers' reports differ. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire…

  12. Brief Report: Fathers' and Mothers' Ratings of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Hastings, Richard P.; Petalas, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Debate is ongoing about whether typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at greater risk of behavioral or emotional problems than siblings of children without ASD. Most data on behavior is provided by mothers, and we do not know whether fathers' reports differ. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire…

  13. Multirater Congruence on the Social Skills Assessment of Children with Asperger Syndrome: Self, Mother, Father, and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyva, Efrosini

    2010-01-01

    Children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) who attend mainstream settings face social skills deficits that have not been adequately explored. This study aims to examine social skills through self-reports of children with AS (N = 21) and a matched group of typically developing peers, as well as reports from their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Results…

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire on lateral elbow tendinopathy for French-speaking patients.

    PubMed

    Kaux, Jean-François; Delvaux, François; Schaus, Jean; Demoulin, Christophe; Locquet, Médéa; Buckinx, Fanny; Beaudart, Charlotte; Dardenne, Nadia; Van Beveren, Julien; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Bruyère, Olivier

    Translation and validation of algo-functional questionnaire. The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire was specifically designed to measure pain and functional limitations in patients with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). First developed in English, this questionnaire has since been translated into several languages. The aims of the study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into French and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this translated version of the questionnaire (PRTEE-F). The PRTEE was translated and cross-culturally adapted into French according to international guidelines. To assess the reliability and validity of the PRTEE-F, 115 participants were asked twice to fill in the PRTEE-F, and once the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha), test-retest reliability (using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change), and convergent and divergent validity (using the Spearman's correlation coefficients respectively with the DASH and with some subscales of the SF-36) were assessed. The PRTEE was translated into French without any problems. PRTEE-F showed a good test-retest reliability for the overall score (ICC 0.86) and for each item (ICC 0.8-0.96) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98). The correlation analyses revealed high correlation coefficients between PRTEE-F and DASH (convergent validity) and, as expected, a low or moderate correlation with the divergent subscales of the SF-36 (discriminant validity). There was no floor or ceiling effect. The PRTEE questionnaire was successfully cross-culturally adapted into French. The PRTEE-F is reliable and valid for evaluating French-speaking patients with lateral elbow

  15. Breastfeeding Progression in Preterm Infants Is Influenced by Factors in Infants, Mothers and Clinical Practice: The Results of a National Cohort Study with High Breastfeeding Initiation Rates

    PubMed Central

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Hallum, Karin; Frandsen, Annemi; Kyhnaeb, Anne; Svarer, Inge; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants based on questionnaires and structured telephone interviews, including 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with GA of 24–36 weeks. Results Of the preterm infants, 99% initiated breastfeeding and 68% were discharged exclusively breastfed. Breastfeeding milestones were generally reached at different PMAs for different GA groups, but preterm infants were able to initiate breastfeeding at early times, with some delay in infants less than GA 32 weeks. Very preterm infants had lowest mean PMA (35.5 weeks) at first complete breastfeed, and moderate preterm infants had lowest mean PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding (36.4 weeks). Admitting mothers to the NICU together with the infant and minimising the use of a pacifier during breastfeeding transition were associated with 1.6 (95% CI 0.4–2.8) and 1.2 days (95% CI 0.1–2.3) earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding respectively. Infants that were small for gestational age were associated with 5.6 days (95% CI 4.1–7.0) later establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion Breastfeeding competence is not developed at a fixed PMA, but is influenced by multiple factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice. Admitting mothers together with their infants to the NICU and minimising the use of pacifiers may contribute to earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:25251690

  16. An Experimental Analog of Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droppleman, Leo F.; McNair, Douglas M.

    1971-01-01

    Using finger sweat prints and arousal ratings two different types of stress were measured: anticipation of, and stress during, simulated public speaking. The results indicated that the stress producing properties of public speaking can be reproduced in the laboratory, thus the model has acceptable stimulus properties and can be used in…

  17. Comparison of Native and Non-Native English Language Teachers' Evaluation of EFL Learners' Speaking Skills: Conflicting or Identical Rating Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekmekçi, Emrah

    2016-01-01

    Assessing speaking skills is regarded as a complex and hard process compared with the other language skills. Considering the idiosyncratic characteristics of EFL learners, oral proficiency assessment issue becomes even more important. Keeping this situation in mind, judgements and reliability of raters need to be consistent with each other. This…

  18. Developmental Differences in Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) Reading Aloud Growth Rates between English-Speaking Students and English Language Learners in Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Seungsoo; Park, Sohee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental difference in curriculum-based measurement (CBM) reading aloud performance between Grade 8 English-speaking students and English language learners (ELLs) using two theories of reading development: compensatory model and cumulative model. Fifty non-ELLs and 133 ELLs were administered the…

  19. Developmental Differences in Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) Reading Aloud Growth Rates between English-Speaking Students and English Language Learners in Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Seungsoo; Park, Sohee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental difference in curriculum-based measurement (CBM) reading aloud performance between Grade 8 English-speaking students and English language learners (ELLs) using two theories of reading development: compensatory model and cumulative model. Fifty non-ELLs and 133 ELLs were administered the…

  20. Mother-Child Communication Quality during Language Brokering: Validation of Four Measures of Brokering Interaction Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntzviller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    One hundred dyads of low-income, Spanish-speaking mothers and their bilingual children (age = 12-18; M = 14.12, SD = 1.89) who have language brokered for the mother (i.e., culturally or linguistically mediated between the mother and English speakers) were surveyed. Multiple goals theory posits that mothers and children who do not recognize and…

  1. Mother-Child Communication Quality during Language Brokering: Validation of Four Measures of Brokering Interaction Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntzviller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    One hundred dyads of low-income, Spanish-speaking mothers and their bilingual children (age = 12-18; M = 14.12, SD = 1.89) who have language brokered for the mother (i.e., culturally or linguistically mediated between the mother and English speakers) were surveyed. Multiple goals theory posits that mothers and children who do not recognize and…

  2. Can Mindful Parenting Be Observed? Relations between Observational Ratings of Mother-Youth Interactions and Mothers’ Self-Report Mindful Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Geier, Mary H.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Research on mindful parenting, an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships, has been limited by its reliance on self-report assessment. The current study is the first to examine whether observational indices of parent-youth interactions differentiate between high and low levels of self-reported mindful parenting. The Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS) were used to code interactions between mothers and their 7th grade youth. Mothers drawn from the top and bottom quartiles (n = 375) of a larger distribution of self-reported interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (N = 804) represented clearly defined high and low mindful parenting groups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze how well six composite IFIRS observational rating variables (e.g., parental warmth, consistent discipline) discriminated between high and low self-reports of mindful parenting. DFA results were cross-validated, with statistically significant canonical correlations found for both subsamples (p < .05). Subsequent independent samples t-tests revealed that group means were significantly different on all six IFIRS composite ratings. Confirmation of the relations between self-report mindful parenting and the observational ratings was also provided through hierarchical regression analyses conducted with a continuous predictor of mindful parenting using the full sample. Thus, the present study provides preliminary evidence for a link between self-reported mindful parenting and observed interactions between parents and youth. PMID:25844494

  3. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Côté, Sylvana M.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Dubois, Lise; Falissard, Bruno; Forhan, Anne; Doyle, Orla; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Heude, Barbara; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Kaminski, Monique; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts. Methods Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation. Results Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having ‘some university’ was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France. Conclusions and Implications for Practice While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors. PMID:27902741

  4. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada.

    PubMed

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Côté, Sylvana M; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Dubois, Lise; Falissard, Bruno; Forhan, Anne; Doyle, Orla; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Heude, Barbara; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Kaminski, Monique; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts. Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation. Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having 'some university' was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France. While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors.

  5. Multirater congruence on the social skills assessment of children with asperger syndrome: self, mother, father, and teacher ratings.

    PubMed

    Kalyva, Efrosini

    2010-10-01

    Children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) who attend mainstream settings face social skills deficits that have not been adequately explored. This study aims to examine social skills through self-reports of children with AS (N = 21) and a matched group of typically developing peers, as well as reports from their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Results showed that children with AS had more social skills deficits according to all raters and that they reported more aggressiveness/antisocial behavior, more conceit/haughtiness, more loneliness/social anxiety, and less assertiveness than controls. The level of agreement between raters varied significantly, suggesting that social skills are best studied with multiple informants.

  6. Speaking Anxiety in English Conversation Classrooms among Thai Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkakoson, Songyut

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on a part of a larger research project concerning the conceptualisation of English language speaking-in-class anxiety, attitudes to speaking English in class and self-ratings of English-speaking ability, and perceived sources of this situation-specific anxiety. Methodology: The participants in this study were 282 Thai…

  7. Communication Apprehension and Implicit Memories of Public Speaking State Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    1997-01-01

    Shows that recollections of state speaking anxiety decreased over time, and that the rate of attenuation was associated with the speaker's level of trait speaking anxiety. Finds also that recollections of state speaking anxiety (implicit memory) were attenuated over time, and that the magnitude of this decline was predicted by the speaker's level…

  8. Child Vocabulary, Maternal Behavior, and Inhibitory Control Development Among Spanish-Speaking Children

    PubMed Central

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children’s inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother–child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal behavior was rated independently from the interactions. Inhibitory control was measured with a battery of tasks at ages 2½ and 3½. Greater maternal sensitivity was correlated with higher vocabulary at 2½. Greater vocabulary predicted positive growth in child inhibitory control skills from ages 2½ to 3½ in multivariable regression models that controlled for maternal education, family income, the home environment, and mothering quality. Practice or Policy These findings suggest that supporting vocabulary development in low-income Spanish-speaking children is important for the development of inhibitory control skills, an important foundation for school readiness and academic success. PMID:26306074

  9. Mothers' Speech to Hearing-Impaired Infants and Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Tonya R.; Miller, Rachel J.; McCune, Kasi

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age, hearing loss, and cochlear implantation on mothers' speech to infants and children. We recorded normal-hearing (NH) mothers speaking to their children as they typically would do at home and speaking to an adult experimenter. Nine infants (10-37 months) were hearing-impaired and had used a cochlear…

  10. Rate of Chiari I malformation in children of mothers with depression with and without prenatal SSRI exposure.

    PubMed

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M; Smith, J Keith; Lury, Kenneth; Gilmore, John H

    2014-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently prescribed to pregnant women. Therefore, research on in utero exposure to SSRIs can be helpful in informing patients and clinicians. The aim of this retrospective two-cohort study was to determine whether there is a statistically significant increase in Chiari I malformations (CIM) in children exposed to SSRIs during pregnancy. A total of 33 children whose mothers received a diagnosis of depression and took SSRIs during pregnancy (SSRI-exposed cohort) were matched to 66 children with no history of maternal depression and no SSRI exposure. In addition, 30 children whose mothers received a diagnosis of depression, but did not receive antidepressants during pregnancy (history of maternal depression cohort), were matched to 60 children with no history of maternal depression and no SSRI exposure. Main outcome was presence/absence of CIM on MRI scans at 1 and/or 2 years of age. Scans were reviewed by two independent neuroradiologists who were blind to exposure status. The SSRI-exposed children were significantly more likely to be classified as CIM than comparison children with no history of maternal depression and no SSRI exposure (18% vs 2%, p=0.003, OR estimate 10.32, 95% Wald confidence limits 2.04-102.46). Duration of SSRI exposure, SSRI exposure at conception, and family history of depression increased the risk. The history of maternal depression cohort did not differ from comparison children with no history of maternal depression and no SSRI exposure in occurrence of CIM (7% vs 5%, p=0.75, OR estimate 1.44, 95% Wald confidence limits 0.23-7.85). Replication is needed, as is additional research to clarify whether SSRIs directly impact risk for CIM or whether this relationship is mediated by severity of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. We would discourage clinicians from altering their prescribing practices until such research is available.

  11. Mother Tongue Teaching at School Comparison of French and Turkish Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2017-01-01

    Like speaking, two other important aspects of language are reading and writing. Speaking is acquired unconsciously in public while other two skills are learned at school and contribute to life-long speaking skills. The present research is to analyze mother tongue teaching at school and compare two different models, one in France, a developed…

  12. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  13. Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2014-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

  14. Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2014-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

  15. Prenatal minocycline treatment alters synaptic protein expression, and rescues reduced mother call rate in oxytocin receptor-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Shinji; Hiraoka, Yuichi; Hidema, Shizu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication, difficulty in companionship, repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Recent studies have shown amelioration of ASD symptoms by intranasal administration of oxytocin and demonstrated the association of polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) gene with ASD patients. Deficient pruning of synapses by microglial cells in the brain has been proposed as potential mechanism of ASD. Other researchers have shown specific activation of microglial cells in brain regions related to sociality in patients with ASD. Although the roles of Oxtr and microglia in ASD are in the spotlight, the relationship between them remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found abnormal activation of microglial cells and a reduction of postsynaptic density protein PSD95 expression in the Oxtr-deficient brain. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of microglia during development can alter the expression of PSD95 and ameliorate abnormal mother-infant communication in Oxtr-deficient mice. Our results suggest that microglial abnormality is a potential mechanism of the development of Oxt/Oxtr mediated ASD-like phenotypes.

  16. Mothers' comfort with screening questions about sensitive issues, including domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Zink, Therese; Levin, Linda; Wollan, Peter; Putnam, Frank

    2006-01-01

    To assess patient ratings of comfort alone and in front of children with 5 domestic violence (DV) screening questions designed with less graphic language compared with questions about other sensitive issues. A sample of mothers (n = 200), including a small sample of Spanish-speaking women, were recruited from community locations. Mothers rated their perceptions of comfort for answering 13 sensitive issue screening questions (including sexual risk, substance abuse, depression, and DV questions). Logistic regression was performed to analyze participants' characteristics with respect to summary comfort scores. In addition, 40 mothers were asked to talk about their comfort in answering the DV questions. These interviews were audiotaped and analyzed. Mothers preferred to answer all questions alone. Comfort with answering the DV screening questions in front of their children was higher than comfort with sexual risk or depression questions and was similar to comfort with substance abuse questions. Latina mothers had more discomfort with the DV questions than other ethnicities. Although mothers were more comfortable with answering sensitive questions alone than in the presence of children, this may not be feasible in busy offices. General DV questions may be appropriate to ask in front of children as an initial screen.

  17. Assessing Childrearing Behaviors with the Parent Behavior Form (PBF): A Comparison of Ratings by Mother, Father, Child, and Sibling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, J. Conrad; Mearns, Jack

    This study examined (1) the psychometric qualities of a modified version of the Parent Behavior Form (PBF) designed to obtain ratings of parental behavior toward a child from four different family members, and (2) the effects of aggregating across raters on the reliability and generalizability of ratings of parental behavior. Subjects were 744…

  18. Tag Team Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigance, Linda Czuba

    2004-01-01

    Designing and presenting a speech is a solitary task. By definition, public speaking involves one person speaking to a group, which sets it apart from other types of communication situations, such as interpersonal and small group communication. Due to the inherently individualistic nature of assignments in the basic course, students rarely profit…

  19. Speaking with Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gousie, Gene

    This paper offers a summary of two aspects of effective speaking in public, whether it be with co-workers, supervisors, friends, or a group of little-known or unknown others. One aspect of public speaking is the level of sincerity, and the other is the level and variety of skills used. The paper first considers sincerity and then, it discusses the…

  20. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  1. Tag Team Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigance, Linda Czuba

    2004-01-01

    Designing and presenting a speech is a solitary task. By definition, public speaking involves one person speaking to a group, which sets it apart from other types of communication situations, such as interpersonal and small group communication. Due to the inherently individualistic nature of assignments in the basic course, students rarely profit…

  2. Advocacy Update: Autism Speaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursitti, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Autism Speaks, the world's largest autism non-profit organization, is addressing a struggle to obtain evidence-based treatment on autism. The mission of Autism Speaks is to change the future for all who struggle with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Part of their focus is to change state insurance laws to require private health insurance policies…

  3. Heritage Language Acquisition and Maintenance: Home Literacy Practices of Japanese-Speaking Families in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomura, Takako; Caidi, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we examine the case of Japanese-speaking families in Canada and their experiences with teaching a heritage language at home, along with the uses and perceived usefulness of public library resources, collections, and services in the process. Methods: We interviewed fourteen mothers who speak Japanese to their children.…

  4. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for mothers to improve breast feeding in areas with low breastfeeding rates: the NOSH study protocol.

    PubMed

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Sue, Easton; Walters, Stephen

    2016-04-11

    Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The 'Nourishing Start for Health' (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10,833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0-6 months. Participating organisations Research and Governance

  5. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for mothers to improve breast feeding in areas with low breastfeeding rates: the NOSH study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Sue, Easton; Walters, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Methods and analysis Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The ‘Nourishing Start for Health’ (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6–8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10 833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0–6 months. Ethics and

  6. Renaming the World: Freeman's Revolt of Mother.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiwengo, Ngwarsungu

    2003-01-01

    Presents an analysis of Mary Wilkins Freeman's "The Revolt of 'Mother,'" focusing on the gendered nature of language. Asserts that the author's empowering discourse and speaking voice, within the male dominated literary arena, is an act of language appropriation, and that students who participate in the analysis of discourse can also be empowered.…

  7. Effects of speaking style on speech intelligibility for Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Zhang, Guoping; Kang, Hou-yong; Liu, Sha; Han, Deming; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-06-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users' speech understanding may be influenced by different speaking styles. In this study, speech recognition was measured in Mandarin-speaking CI and normal-hearing (NH) subjects for sentences produced according to four styles: slow, normal, fast, and whispered. CI subjects were tested using their clinical processors; NH subjects were tested while listening to a four-channel CI simulation. Performance gradually worsened with increasing speaking rate and was much poorer with whispered speech. CI performance was generally similar to NH performance with the four-channel simulation. Results suggest that some speaking styles, especially whispering, may negatively affect Mandarin-speaking CI users' speech understanding. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  8. Working Mothers

    MedlinePlus

    ... moving into the workforce not only for career satisfaction but also because they and their families need ... A mother who successfully manages both an outside job and parenthood provides a role model for her ...

  9. Cantonese-Speaking Children Do Not Acquire Tone Perception before Tone Production-A Perceptual and Acoustic Study of Three-Year-Olds' Monosyllabic Tones.

    PubMed

    Wong, Puisan; Fu, Wing M; Cheung, Eunice Y L

    2017-01-01

    Models of phonological development assume that speech perception precedes speech production and that children acquire suprasegmental features earlier than segmental features. Studies of Chinese-speaking children challenge these assumptions. For example, Chinese-speaking children can produce tones before two-and-a-half years but are not able to discriminate the same tones until after 6 years of age. This study compared the perception and production of monosyllabic Cantonese tones directly in 3 -year-old children. Twenty children and their mothers identified Cantonese tones in a picture identification test and produced monosyllabic tones in a picture labeling task. To control for lexical biases on tone ratings, the mother- and child-productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information and were presented to five judges for tone classification. Detailed acoustic analysis was performed. Contrary to the view that children master lexical tones earlier than segmental phonemes, results showed that 3-year-old children could not perceive or produce any Cantonese tone with adult-like proficiency and incorrect tone productions were acoustically different from criterion. In contrast to previous findings that Cantonese-speaking children mastered tone production before tone perception, we observed more accuracy during speech perception than production. Findings from Cantonese-speaking children challenge some of the established tenets in theories of phonological development that have been tested mostly with native English speakers.

  10. Cantonese-Speaking Children Do Not Acquire Tone Perception before Tone Production—A Perceptual and Acoustic Study of Three-Year-Olds' Monosyllabic Tones

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Puisan; Fu, Wing M.; Cheung, Eunice Y. L.

    2017-01-01

    Models of phonological development assume that speech perception precedes speech production and that children acquire suprasegmental features earlier than segmental features. Studies of Chinese-speaking children challenge these assumptions. For example, Chinese-speaking children can produce tones before two-and-a-half years but are not able to discriminate the same tones until after 6 years of age. This study compared the perception and production of monosyllabic Cantonese tones directly in 3 -year-old children. Twenty children and their mothers identified Cantonese tones in a picture identification test and produced monosyllabic tones in a picture labeling task. To control for lexical biases on tone ratings, the mother- and child-productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information and were presented to five judges for tone classification. Detailed acoustic analysis was performed. Contrary to the view that children master lexical tones earlier than segmental phonemes, results showed that 3-year-old children could not perceive or produce any Cantonese tone with adult-like proficiency and incorrect tone productions were acoustically different from criterion. In contrast to previous findings that Cantonese-speaking children mastered tone production before tone perception, we observed more accuracy during speech perception than production. Findings from Cantonese-speaking children challenge some of the established tenets in theories of phonological development that have been tested mostly with native English speakers. PMID:28900404

  11. Maternal depression and anxiety and infant development: a comparison of foreign-born and native-born mothers.

    PubMed

    Foss, Gwendolyn F; Chantal, Andjukenda W; Hendrickson, Simone

    2004-01-01

    Studies that investigate infant and/or child development in families of depressed or anxious mothers do not include samples of foreign-born non-English-speaking mothers. This article describes a pilot study investigating infant development, maternal depression, and anxiety in comparison samples of native-born and foreign-born mothers and children from Vietnam, Laos (Hmong), and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Maternal depression and anxiety were measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, and the developmental status of children 0-25 months of age was measured with the Denver II. Foreign-born mothers were more anxious than native-born mothers. Non-English-speaking foreign-born mothers were clinically depressed (1.83) and moderately anxious (1.62). Infants of native-born mothers and English-speaking foreign-born mothers performed better on the Denver II than children of foreign-born non-English-speaking mothers. Infants and toddlers of non-English-speaking mothers appear to be at high risk for delays during their first 25 months of life. Public health nurses need to advocate for appropriate interpreter services and mental health resources for non-English-speaking mothers of young children. Developmental screening should reflect cultural variations in parental expectations of how and when children meet developmental milestones. Replication studies and investigation about the long-term development of this high-risk group of children are needed.

  12. Vocal Loading in Speaking a Foreign Language.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the subjective notions of vocal fatigue, and whether acoustic measurements reveal a higher vocal loading. The speech samples of 20 native Finnish-speaking and 23 native English-speaking subjects were recorded in Finnish and in English. From the speech samples, fundamental frequency, equivalent sound level, total duration of voiced speech, speech rate, alpha ratio and L1-L0 level difference were analyzed. Vocal doses were calculated. According to subjective notions, the voice gets tired more quickly when speaking a foreign language. The mean fundamental frequency increased but the speech rate and total duration of voiced speech decreased significantly when speaking a foreign language. Thus, the vocal doses decreased. The subjective sensations of increased vocal fatigue may be due to increased mental stress rather than to higher vocal loading. However, a trend that speaking a foreign language may involve more loading was found in L1-L0 level difference and in the doses normalized to time dose. Longer speech samples should be studied. Voice quality-based indicators of vocal loading are worth testing in addition to the measures based on the amount of voicing in speech. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Sharing Books and Learning Language: What do Latina Mothers and Their Young Children Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Lisa K.; Cook, Gina A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Innocenti, Mark S.; Jump, Vonda K.; Akers, James F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined low-income, Spanish-speaking, immigrant Latina mothers' book sharing behaviors in relation to their children's vocabulary. Participants were 47 3-year-old children and their mothers. We addressed two research questions: (a) What interactive behaviors are evident when low-income immigrant Latina mothers and their 3-year-old…

  14. Mexican American Mothers' Perceptions and Beliefs about Language Acquisition in Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez Perez, Anita

    2000-01-01

    A study examined beliefs about language acquisition among seven Spanish-speaking Mexican American mothers with young children (24-37 months) receiving early intervention services for language disabilities. Emerging themes included mothers'"alternative" explanations for children's communication difficulties, mothers' efforts to help…

  15. Evaluative Language Used by Mandarin-Chinese-Speaking Dyads in Personal Narratives: Age and Socioeconomic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the evaluative language performance of Mandarin-Chinese-speaking young children and their mothers. The participants were 65 mother-child dyads recruited in Taiwan. Thirty-four of these dyads were from middle-class families and 31 were from…

  16. Evaluative Language Used by Mandarin-Chinese-Speaking Dyads in Personal Narratives: Age and Socioeconomic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the evaluative language performance of Mandarin-Chinese-speaking young children and their mothers. The participants were 65 mother-child dyads recruited in Taiwan. Thirty-four of these dyads were from middle-class families and 31 were from…

  17. Suicidal mothers

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe the repercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical profile of women at high risk of suicide during pregnancy. Methods: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Search terms were: "pregnancy", (antenatal) "depression", "suicide". Searches were last updated on 28 September 2010. Forty-six articles assessing the suicidal risk during pregnancy and obstetrical outcome of pregnancies complicated by suicide attempts were analyzed, without methodological limitations. Results: Worldwide, frequency of suicidal attempts and the rate of death by suicidal acts are low. Although this clinical event is rare, the consequences of a suicidal attempt are medically and psychologically devastating for the mother-infant pair. We also found that common behaviors exist in women at high risk for suicide during pregnancy. Review data indeed suggest that a characteristic profile can prenatally identify those at highest risk for gestational suicide attempts. Conclusions: Social and health organizations should make all possible efforts to identify women at high suicidal risk, in order to establish specific programs to prevent this tragic event. The available data informs health policy makers with a typical profile to screen women at high risk of suicide during pregnancy. Those women who have a current or past history of psychiatric disorders, are young, unmarried, unemployed, have incurred an unplanned pregnancy (eventually terminated with an induced

  18. The effects of different concentrations of cocoa in the chocolate intaken by the mother on fetal heart rate.

    PubMed

    Buscicchio, Giorgia; Lorenzi, Sara; Tranquilli, Andrea Luigi

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the effects of different concentrations (30% and 80%) of cocoa on fetal heart rate (FHR). One hundred pregnant women with uncomplicated gestation, matched for age and parity, underwent computerized FHR recording before and after the consumption of 30 g of 30% and 80% cocoa chocolate. After 1 week, those who had received 30% were shifted to 80% and vice versa to have a crossover. Computerized cardiotocography parameters (contractions, fetal movements, baseline FHR, accelerations greater than 15 bpm for 15 s, number of decelerations, minutes of high variability, short term variability in ms) were recorded and expressed as mean and SD. The differences were tested for statistical significance using the paired t test, with the significance at p < 0.05. The percent change after chocolate intake for accelerations and short-term FHR variation was calculated. The number of fetal movements, accelerations, the duration of episodes of high variation and the short-term FHR variation were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) after 80% cocoa intake. After 30% cocoa chocolate intake, only the number of accelerations was significantly increased. The percent change of the number of accelerations and the short-term FHR variation were significantly higher after 80% cocoa chocolate maternal intake. Maternal intake of dark chocolate has a stimulating action on fetal reactivity. The effect is more marked with high concentrations (80%) of cocoa. This finding is likely due to the pharmacological action of theobromine, a methilxanthine present in cocoa.

  19. Invariance and Convergent and Discriminant Validity between Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Oppositional Defiant Disorder toward Adults, ADHD-HI, ADHD-IN, and Academic Competence Factors within Brazilian, Thai, and American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; de Moura, Marcela Alves; Walsh, James A.; Desmul, Chris; Silpakit, Chatchawan; Sommers-Flanagan, John

    2008-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the invariance of an oppositional defiant disorder toward adults, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-hyperactivity/impulsivity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-inattention, and an Academic Competence factor model between mothers' and fathers' ratings within Brazilian (n = 894), Thai (n =…

  20. The impact of child and family stressors on the self-rated health of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder: Associations with depressed mood over a 12-year period.

    PubMed

    Benson, Paul R

    2017-06-01

    Employing a cohort sequential design and multilevel modeling, the effects of child and family stressors and maternal depressed mood on the self-rated health of 110 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder were assessed over a 12-year period when children in the study were 7-19 years old. Findings indicate a significant decline in self-rated health over time. In addition, child and family stressors, as well as maternal depressed mood, exerted significant between-persons effects on self-rated health such that mothers who reported more stressors and depressed mood across the study period were less likely to rate themselves in better health across that period. In addition, a significant within-person relationship between maternal depressed mood and self-rated health was found, indicating that at times when mothers reported higher levels of depressed mood than usual (their personal average across the study), they were significantly less likely to report better self-rated health. Finally, maternal depressed mood partially mediated the between-persons effects of child and family stressors on self-rated health such that increased stressors led to increased maternal depressed mood which, in turn, led to poorer maternal self-rated health. Findings suggest that chronic stressors erode maternal health over time and that depression may be an important mechanism linking stressors to decreased maternal health.

  1. Lesbian Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, G. Dorsey

    Clinical interest in lesbian mothers has begun to emerge from the closet in recent years. Culture has dictated the milieu in which lesbian parents live and has prevented most therapists from being able to respond to lesbian parenting as a healthy option. In a heterosexist world, virtually all public displays of sexuality or family life are…

  2. Lesbian Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, G. Dorsey

    Clinical interest in lesbian mothers has begun to emerge from the closet in recent years. Culture has dictated the milieu in which lesbian parents live and has prevented most therapists from being able to respond to lesbian parenting as a healthy option. In a heterosexist world, virtually all public displays of sexuality or family life are…

  3. The breadth and titer of maternal HIV-1-specific heterologous neutralizing antibodies are not associated with a lower rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Chaillon, Antoine; Wack, Thierry; Braibant, Martine; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Blanche, Stéphane; Warszawski, Josiane; Barin, Francis

    2012-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) should have broad specificity to be effective in protection against diverse HIV-1 variants. The mother-to-child transmission model of HIV-1 provides the opportunity to examine whether the breadth of maternal NAbs is associated with protection of infants from infection. Samples were obtained at delivery from 57 transmitting mothers (T) matched with 57 nontransmitting mothers (NT) enrolled in the multicenter French perinatal cohort (ANRS EPF CO1) between 1990 and 1996. Sixty-eight (59.6%) and 46 (40.4%) women were infected by B and non-B viruses, respectively. Neutralization assays were carried out with TZM-bl cells, using a panel of 10 primary isolates of 6 clades (A, B, C, F, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG), selected for their moderate or low sensitivity to neutralization. Neutralization breadths were not statistically different between T and NT mothers. However, a few statistically significant differences were observed, with higher frequencies or titers of NAbs toward several individual strains for NT mothers when the clade B-infected or non-clade B-infected mothers were analyzed separately. Our study confirms that the breadth of maternal NAbs is not associated with protection of infants from infection.

  4. The Breadth and Titer of Maternal HIV-1-Specific Heterologous Neutralizing Antibodies Are Not Associated with a Lower Rate of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Chaillon, Antoine; Wack, Thierry; Braibant, Martine; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Blanche, Stéphane; Warszawski, Josiane

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) should have broad specificity to be effective in protection against diverse HIV-1 variants. The mother-to-child transmission model of HIV-1 provides the opportunity to examine whether the breadth of maternal NAbs is associated with protection of infants from infection. Samples were obtained at delivery from 57 transmitting mothers (T) matched with 57 nontransmitting mothers (NT) enrolled in the multicenter French perinatal cohort (ANRS EPF CO1) between 1990 and 1996. Sixty-eight (59.6%) and 46 (40.4%) women were infected by B and non-B viruses, respectively. Neutralization assays were carried out with TZM-bl cells, using a panel of 10 primary isolates of 6 clades (A, B, C, F, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG), selected for their moderate or low sensitivity to neutralization. Neutralization breadths were not statistically different between T and NT mothers. However, a few statistically significant differences were observed, with higher frequencies or titers of NAbs toward several individual strains for NT mothers when the clade B-infected or non-clade B-infected mothers were analyzed separately. Our study confirms that the breadth of maternal NAbs is not associated with protection of infants from infection. PMID:22811522

  5. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…

  6. Speaking and Speaking Education as Physical Process in Turkish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurudayioglu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Speaking is sending the message which is desired to be transferred to another one with vocal organs and produced by complicated operations in the brain. Speaking, which is a complicated process, is the most common and important means of communication among people. Speaking, which has essential place both individually and socially, affects success…

  7. Speaking and Speaking Education as Physical Process in Turkish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurudayioglu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Speaking is sending the message which is desired to be transferred to another one with vocal organs and produced by complicated operations in the brain. Speaking, which is a complicated process, is the most common and important means of communication among people. Speaking, which has essential place both individually and socially, affects success…

  8. Speaking and the Pupil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Speaking activities should be stressed along with reading experiences in teaching-learning situations. It is important for learners to develop needed skills in reporting to others in a group setting. The teacher and the pupils in the classroom should support each other so that satisfying experiences in oral communication are an end result.…

  9. Speaking for Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Rhetoric is a discipline with a long and storied past with its roots in the seminal moments of democracy. In the incipient democratic societies of ancient Greece, rhetoric grew out of the new need to persuade large groups of people to come to a consensus. Public speaking, though featured prominently in many states' standards, is rarely a required…

  10. Speak for Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutheran Brotherhood, Minneapolis, MN.

    The "Speak for Yourself" curriculum is one element of the Lutheran Brotherhood's "Respecteen" national youth initiative. Designed for seventh and eighth grade students, this program encourages students to develop an awareness of contemporary social issues, inspire communication about those issues among students and their…

  11. Learning to Speak Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a bilingual educator is proving pivotal to the success of technology initiatives aimed at developing Spanish-speaking students' grasp of both the concepts and the language of mathematics. This article features Ginny Badger, a teaching assistant at Glenwood Springs High School in Glenwood Springs, Colorado, who sacrificed her…

  12. Speaking: Pupil Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Beatrice J.; And Others

    To ensure that all of the subskills undergirding pupils' speaking are identified, taught, and reinforced, the School District of Philadelphia prepared hierarchical listings of skills as exemplified in specific student behaviors. The structured sequence of oral language behaviors are stated operationally and are identified at 14 levels in terms of…

  13. Speak Out for Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holthouse, David

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a documentary film created by students with learning disabilities to share their wisdom. "Speak Out for Understanding" is a new film on learning disabilities created by a group of students at a Vermont high school. Made on a shoestring, the award-winning 32-minute documentary overturns a number of popular…

  14. Singapore's Speak Mandarin Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, John

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the "Speak Mandarin Campaign," that is intended to persuade the Singaporean ethnic Chinese to use Mandarin in place of Chinese dialects. The purported educational, cultural, and practical advantages are discussed, and the support of higher education and the media is evaluated. (Author/CB)

  15. Speak Out for Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holthouse, David

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a documentary film created by students with learning disabilities to share their wisdom. "Speak Out for Understanding" is a new film on learning disabilities created by a group of students at a Vermont high school. Made on a shoestring, the award-winning 32-minute documentary overturns a number of popular…

  16. Speaking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Too much speaking and indiscipline in class is an on-going problem for any teacher, it is at its least disruptive and at most it destroys a good positive classroom atmosphere. This article recognizes this and continues this debate and suggests key clues to support teachers in their efforts to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere and discipline…

  17. Spanish-Speaking Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axford, Roger W.

    Given in this book are 23 brief biographies of outstanding Spanish speaking athletes, businessmen, government employees, educators, politicians, a labor leader, singer, actor, and musician. Their struggles, sacrifices, courage, educational background, and accomplishments are described. Among those discussed are Cesar Chavez; Senator Joseph M.…

  18. Speaking "over" Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie

    2010-01-01

    In a time where standards and accountability override trust in teachers and principals, mandated versions of pedagogy have recently appeared in the Australian landscape. This article critiques one pedagogical reform initiative and suggests that in performative times, it may be preferable for principals and teachers to speak "over" reform…

  19. Effects of natural childbirth preparation versus standard antenatal education on epidural rates, experience of childbirth and parental stress in mothers and fathers: a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, M; Kieler, H; Waldenström, U

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of antenatal education focussing on natural childbirth preparation with psychoprophylactic training versus standard antenatal education on the use of epidural analgesia, experience of childbirth and parental stress in first-time mothers and fathers. Design Randomised controlled multicentre trial. Setting Fifteen antenatal clinics in Sweden between January 2006 and May 2007. Sample A total of 1087 nulliparous women and 1064 of their partners. Methods Natural group: Antenatal education focussing on natural childbirth preparation with training in breathing and relaxation techniques (psychoprophylaxis). Standard care group: Standard antenatal education focussing on both childbirth and parenthood, without psychoprophylactic training. Both groups: Four 2-hour sessions in groups of 12 participants during third trimester of pregnancy and one follow-up after delivery. Main outcome measures Epidural analgesia during labour, experience of childbirth as measured by the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire (B), and parental stress measured by the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire. Results The epidural rate was 52% in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the experience of childbirth or parental stress between the randomised groups, either in women or men. Seventy percent of the women in the Natural group reported having used psychoprophylaxis during labour. A minority in the Standard care group (37%) had also used this method, but subgroup analysis where these women were excluded did not change the principal findings. Conclusion Natural childbirth preparation including training in breathing and relaxation did not decrease the use of epidural analgesia during labour, nor did it improve the birth experience or affect parental stress in early parenthood in nulliparous women and men, compared with a standard form of antenatal education. PMID:19538406

  20. The German Speaking Test: Utility and Caveats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the utility of the German Speaking Test (GST) as a general test of German foreign-language proficiency, examining whether it can be used effectively in classroom and institutional foreign-language settings and how proficiency ratings based on the GST relate to examinees' real-world German communicative abilities. Caveats regarding the…

  1. My Hesitation to Speak English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oda, Naruha

    2015-01-01

    Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…

  2. The Neuronal Infrastructure of Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menenti, Laura; Segaert, Katrien; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Models of speaking distinguish producing meaning, words and syntax as three different linguistic components of speaking. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain's integrated neuronal infrastructure for speech production. We investigated semantic, lexical and syntactic aspects of speaking using fMRI. In a picture description task, we…

  3. My Hesitation to Speak English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oda, Naruha

    2015-01-01

    Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…

  4. A Perspective on "Speaking Personally."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, Michael P.

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on decision of "Journal of Counseling and Development" to discontinue "Personally Speaking" section of the journal. Author discusses his own personal/professional history and explains importance of being able to speak personally and honestly about ourselves, supporting others' ability to speak personally and honestly about themselves, and…

  5. Using Geographical Information Systems to Explore Disparities in Preterm Birth Rates Among Foreign-born and U.S.-born Black Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Joan Rosen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine spatial patterns of neighborhood contextual factors of stress with preterm birth (PTB) and nativity (foreign-born and U.S.-born) among Black mothers. Design Descriptive geographic-spatial research. Setting & Participants Births to Philadelphia residents during 2003–2005 in the context of Philadelphia residential neighborhoods (N = 350) were studied. Methods All data were aggregated to neighborhood levels (census tracts). Maps were created to assess geographic-spatial patterns. A geographic information system (GIS) database was created that imported geo-coded data on births, crime (assaults with guns and domestic abuse), poverty, race, and nativity (foreign-born vs. U.S.-born). Results Clear visual patterns of “bad” neighborhoods emerged and were significantly associated with higher prevalence of PTB for foreign-born Black and U.S.-born Black mothers (p < .0001). Conclusions This study demonstrated how GIS visually clarified important spatial patterns of adverse living conditions and PTB prevalence. Nurses can use GIS to better understand living environments of mothers and their families and to target interventions in geographical areas with the greatest service needs. Further research on individual and contextual factors is warranted to address the observed health disparities among the heterogeneous groups of foreign-born Black mothers. Despite limitations of aggregate data, it is clear that where mothers live matters. This has important implications for nursing practice and policy. PMID:22273411

  6. Using geographical information systems to explore disparities in preterm birth rates among foreign-born and U.S.-born Black mothers.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Joan Rosen

    2011-01-01

    To examine spatial patterns of neighborhood contextual factors of stress with preterm birth (PTB) and nativity (foreign-born and U.S.-born) among Black mothers. Descriptive geographic-spatial research. Births to Philadelphia residents during 2003-2005 in the context of Philadelphia residential neighborhoods (N = 350) were studied. All data were aggregated to neighborhood levels (census tracts). Maps were created to assess geographic-spatial patterns. A geographic information system (GIS) database was created that imported geo-coded data on births, crime (assaults with guns and domestic abuse), poverty, race, and nativity (foreign-born vs. U.S.-born). Clear visual patterns of "bad" neighborhoods emerged and were significantly associated with higher prevalence of PTB for foreign-born Black and U.S.-born Black mothers (p < .0001). This study demonstrated how GIS visually clarified important spatial patterns of adverse living conditions and PTB prevalence. Nurses can use GIS to better understand living environments of mothers and their families and to target interventions in geographical areas with the greatest service needs. Further research on individual and contextual factors is warranted to address the observed health disparities among the heterogeneous groups of foreign-born Black mothers. Despite limitations of aggregate data, it is clear that where mothers live matters. This has important implications for nursing practice and policy. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  7. Barriers of Pediatric Residents to Speaking Up About Patient Safety.

    PubMed

    Landgren, Rachel; Alawadi, Zeinab; Douma, Caryn; Thomas, Eric J; Etchegaray, Jason

    2016-12-01

    Medical errors are a leading cause of death in the United States. Effective communication and speaking up are crucial factors in patient safety initiatives. We examined the reasons reported by pediatric residents for not speaking up about safety events when they are observed in practice. We also tested a priori hypotheses of associations between categories of barriers to speaking up with perceptions of safety and teamwork culture. Pediatric residents completed an anonymous electronic survey measuring safety and teamwork culture along with an open-ended question asking them to list the top 3 barriers to speaking up about patient safety concerns. Researchers independently coded the open-ended responses to identify themes, which were then categorized into a published framework. Data were collected in 2013 (response rate = 46%) and 2014 (response rate = 62%). The most common reported barriers to speaking up were as follows: perceived personal safety of speaking up (consequences, intimidation, and hierarchy concerns), individual barriers (communication skills and confidence), perceived efficacy of speaking up (feeling powerless), and contextual factors (high workload). Residents who reported barriers relating to efficacy of speaking up reported lower safety culture scores in 2013 and 2014. Residents who reported barriers related to safety reported lower teamwork culture scores in 2013. Pediatric residents reported individual barriers, personal safety concerns, lack of efficacy, and contextual factors as reasons to not speak up about patient safety. Concerns about the safety of speaking up and the efficacy of speaking up were correlated with teamwork and safety culture, respectively. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. The nature and extent of child protection involvement among heroin-using mothers in treatment: high rates of reports, removals at birth and children in care.

    PubMed

    Taplin, Stephanie; Mattick, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of women in treatment for substance use problems are mothers of dependent children, but only a small number of studies have explored the nature and extent of their child protection involvement with substance-using mothers themselves. A large sample of mothers on the opioid treatment program (OTP) in Sydney, Australia, were interviewed. This paper describes their characteristics, the extent and nature of their involvement with the child protection system, the parenting-related interventions provided and their views of their own parenting. The 171 mothers were disadvantaged and marginalised and had 302 children under the age of 16 years, 99 of whom were in out-of-home care. Nearly half the children in care (n = 42) had been removed at the time of their birth, and half (n = 49) had been removed from a mother who was on an OTP at the time. Among the younger children (age 1-2 years), higher proportions had been removed at birth than among the older children. None of the 32 mothers who had a child removed at birth and then gave birth subsequently retained care of their new baby. Women often chose to enter treatment (63.6%) for child-related reasons (35%) and attempted to shield their children from their substance use. Few health services were provided to them outside the availability of OTP. Entering treatment presents an opportunity for improving outcomes for these women and their children and to reduce future involvement with the child protection system. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Afraid to be there? Evaluating the relation between presence, self-reported anxiety, and heart rate in a virtual public speaking task.

    PubMed

    Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D; Hetterle, Thomas; Beutl, Leon; Hlavacs, Helmut; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse

    2014-05-01

    The link between anxiety and presence in a virtual environment (VE) is still a subject of an unresolved debate, with little empirical research to support theoretical claims. Thus, the current study analyzed presence, self-reported anxiety, and a physiological parameter (heart rate [HR]) in a sample of 30 high anxious and 35 low anxious participants. Both groups delivered a 5 minute speech in a virtual lecture hall. Results indicate no mediating influences of presence on group differences in self-reported state anxiety during the speech, but point toward negative correlations between state anxiety and the iGroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ) scales "sense of being there" and "realism." Furthermore, HR was found to be unrelated to self-reported presence. Only the IPQ scale "spatial presence" showed a marginally significant influence on group differences in state anxiety. The present results support the assumption that presence and anxiety are logically distinct, meaning that presence does not directly influence the intensity of an emotion felt in a VE. Rather, it constitutes a precondition for an emotion to be at all elicited by a VE. Also, HR has proven to be no adequate substitute measure for presence, since it only assesses anxiety not presence. It may, however, mediate the interplay between trait anxiety and state anxiety. Possible implications of the current findings are discussed alongside the problem of using presence questionnaires that seem to be prone to subjective bias (i.e., participants confusing presence and emotion).

  10. Gender and Sexuality Diversity and Schooling: Progressive Mothers Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania; Ullman, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Although social acceptance of gender and sexuality diversity is growing in Australian society, in schools, visibility and inclusion of knowledge pertaining to those who are gender- and/or sexuality-diverse, such as lesbians, gay men and transgender people, remain marginalised. This may be due, in part, to a belief that parents are opposed to such…

  11. Human experimental anxiety: actual public speaking induces more intense physiological responses than simulated public speaking.

    PubMed

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Gorayeb, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    a) To perform a systematic and meta-analytic review to verify whether the Simulated Public Speaking Task (SPST) leads to a greater increase in self-rated anxiety than in physiological correlates of anxiety; and b) to compare the results obtained with the SPST with an actual public speaking task involving healthy volunteers. a) The PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched for studies involving the SPST prior to 2012. Eleven publications were eligible and provided data from 143 healthy volunteers for meta-analysis; b) 48 university students without somatic or psychiatric disorders were divided into three experimental groups of 16 subjects to undergo one of the following: SPST, real-world public speaking task (real-world), and control situation (control). The meta-analysis showed that the SPST induced a significant increase in the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) anxiety factor, but no significant increases in systolic blood pressure or heart rate. The empirical study showed that the real-world public speaking task increased heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure significantly more than the control and SPST conditions. These results suggest that real public speaking might be better than SPST in inducing experimental anxiety.

  12. What Will It Take to Eliminate Pediatric HIV? Reaching WHO Target Rates of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in Zimbabwe: A Model-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea L.; Perez, Freddy; Keatinge, Jo; Park, Ji-Eun; Engelsmann, Barbara; Maruva, Matthews; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Dabis, Francois; Chu, Jennifer; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Mushavi, Angela; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the “virtual elimination” of pediatric HIV: a mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk of less than 5%. We investigated uptake of prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) services, infant feeding recommendations, and specific drug regimens necessary to achieve this goal in Zimbabwe. Methods and Findings We used a computer model to simulate a cohort of HIV-infected, pregnant/breastfeeding women (mean age, 24 y; mean CD4, 451/µl; breastfeeding duration, 12 mo). Three PMTCT regimens were evaluated: (1) single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP), (2) WHO 2010 guidelines' “Option A” (zidovudine in pregnancy, infant nevirapine throughout breastfeeding for women without advanced disease, lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy for women with advanced disease), and (3) WHO “Option B” (pregnancy/breastfeeding-limited combination antiretroviral drug regimens without advanced disease; lifelong antiretroviral therapy with advanced disease). We examined four levels of PMTCT uptake (proportion of pregnant women accessing and adhering to PMTCT services): reported rates in 2008 and 2009 (36% and 56%, respectively) and target goals in 2008 and 2009 (80% and 95%, respectively). The primary model outcome was MTCT risk at weaning. The 2008 sdNVP-based National PMTCT Program led to a projected 12-mo MTCT risk of 20.3%. Improved uptake in 2009 reduced projected risk to 18.0%. If sdNVP were replaced by more effective regimens, with 2009 (56%) uptake, estimated MTCT risk would be 14.4% (Option A) or 13.4% (Option B). Even with 95% uptake of Option A or B, projected transmission risks (6.1%–7.7%) would exceed the WHO goal of less than 5%. Only if the lowest published transmission risks were used for each drug regimen, or breastfeeding duration were shortened, would MTCT risks at 95% uptake fall below 5%. Conclusions Implementation of the WHO PMTCT guidelines must be accompanied by efforts to improve access to PMTCT services, retain

  13. What will it take to eliminate pediatric HIV? Reaching WHO target rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Zimbabwe: a model-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciaranello, Andrea L; Perez, Freddy; Keatinge, Jo; Park, Ji-Eun; Engelsmann, Barbara; Maruva, Matthews; Walensky, Rochelle P; Dabis, Francois; Chu, Jennifer; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Mushavi, Angela; Freedberg, Kenneth A

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the "virtual elimination" of pediatric HIV: a mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk of less than 5%. We investigated uptake of prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) services, infant feeding recommendations, and specific drug regimens necessary to achieve this goal in Zimbabwe. We used a computer model to simulate a cohort of HIV-infected, pregnant/breastfeeding women (mean age, 24 y; mean CD4, 451/µl; breastfeeding duration, 12 mo). Three PMTCT regimens were evaluated: (1) single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP), (2) WHO 2010 guidelines' "Option A" (zidovudine in pregnancy, infant nevirapine throughout breastfeeding for women without advanced disease, lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy for women with advanced disease), and (3) WHO "Option B" (pregnancy/breastfeeding-limited combination antiretroviral drug regimens without advanced disease; lifelong antiretroviral therapy with advanced disease). We examined four levels of PMTCT uptake (proportion of pregnant women accessing and adhering to PMTCT services): reported rates in 2008 and 2009 (36% and 56%, respectively) and target goals in 2008 and 2009 (80% and 95%, respectively). The primary model outcome was MTCT risk at weaning. The 2008 sdNVP-based National PMTCT Program led to a projected 12-mo MTCT risk of 20.3%. Improved uptake in 2009 reduced projected risk to 18.0%. If sdNVP were replaced by more effective regimens, with 2009 (56%) uptake, estimated MTCT risk would be 14.4% (Option A) or 13.4% (Option B). Even with 95% uptake of Option A or B, projected transmission risks (6.1%-7.7%) would exceed the WHO goal of less than 5%. Only if the lowest published transmission risks were used for each drug regimen, or breastfeeding duration were shortened, would MTCT risks at 95% uptake fall below 5%. Implementation of the WHO PMTCT guidelines must be accompanied by efforts to improve access to PMTCT services, retain women in care, and support medication adherence

  14. Parent involvement in school: English speaking versus Spanish speaking families.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Min; Thorn, Antoinette; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras; Ha, Jung Hee; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Jayoung

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationships between three predictor variables (attitude toward school, parent-child communication, and school commitment action) and the criterion variable (parent involvement) in a representative sample and to examine if these relationships were consistent across three groups (English speaking Caucasian family, English speaking Latino family, and Spanish speaking Latino families). Using a national database (N = 9.841), multi-group SEM analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between three predictor variables and the criterion variable in three family groups. While all three predictor variables significantly predicted parent involvement in English speaking Caucasian and Latino families, only two variables (parent-child communication and school commitment actions), significantly predicted parent involvement in Spanish speaking Latino families. The results of this study suggest that when administrators, teachers and counselors in school strive to share specific school-related information with Latino families, Spanish speaking families are more likely to become involved with schools.

  15. Family Life Education in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Epps, R P; Corona, E; Kodagoda, N; Simonen, M

    1986-01-01

    Unique experience has accumulated in the English-speaking Caribbean in the field of family life education for youth. Although birth rates are relatively low, the increase in adolescent pregnancy and births is becoming more visible. Mother-centered homes are frequent, and support from the father is often lacking. A series of family life education (FLE) programs funded by the United National Fund for Population Activities is aimed at providing help to the various groups in the Caribbean in an acceptable and non-threatening manner. These out-of-school FLE techniques include several approaches: integration of the proposed program into an already established place (a factory, youth center, or community center); education in human growth, food and nutrition, environmental health, mental health, safety and first-aid, dental health and human relations, including human sexuality, rights and responsibilities, and decision making; and the use of specially trained personnel who understand the conditions of the particular community. In some countries adolescent pregnancy is viewed as a problem. In others it may not be so considered. It is vital for the staff and community leaders to review proposals for the FLE program and bring into the centers all subjects that are free of controversy. Family planning, contraceptive delivery and even human sexuality may be acceptable subjects in some quarters, and not in others. Efforts must be continued to find innovative approaches to assure that the benefits of these learning activities continue to be provided, and expanded in response to growing acceptance.

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Two Auditory Methods by Mother and Fetus on the Results of Non-Stress Test (Baseline Fetal Heart Rate and Number of Accelerations) in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khoshkholgh, Roghaie; Keshavarz, Tahereh; Moshfeghy, Zeinab; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Asadi, Nasrin; Zare, Najaf

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of two auditory methods by mother and fetus on the results of NST in 2011-2012. Materials and methods: In this single-blind clinical trial, 213 pregnant women with gestational age of 37-41 weeks who had no pregnancy complications were randomly divided into 3 groups (auditory intervention for mother, auditory intervention for fetus, and control) each containing 71 subjects. In the intervention groups, music was played through the second 10 minutes of NST. The three groups were compared regarding baseline fetal heart rate and number of accelerations in the first and second 10 minutes of NST. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and paired T-test. Results: The results showed no significant difference among the three groups regarding baseline fetal heart rate in the first (p = 0.945) and second (p = 0.763) 10 minutes. However, a significant difference was found among the three groups concerning the number of accelerations in the second 10 minutes. Also, a significant difference was observed in the number of accelerations in the auditory intervention for mother (p = 0.013) and auditory intervention for fetus groups (p < 0.001). The difference between the number of accelerations in the first and second 10 minutes was also statistically significant (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Music intervention was effective in the number of accelerations which is the indicator of fetal health. Yet, further studies are required to be conducted on the issue. PMID:27385971

  17. Recombination elevates the effective evolutionary rate and facilitates the establishment of HIV-1 infection in infants after mother-to-child transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, Keri B.; Somasundaran, Mohan; Luzuriaga, Katherine; Leitner, Thomas K.

    2015-11-16

    Some previous studies have demonstrated that single HIV-1 genotypes are commonly transmitted from mother to child, but such analyses primarily used single samples from mother and child. It is possible that in a single sample, obtained early after infection, only the most replication competent virus is detected even when other forms may have been transmitted. Such forms may have advantages later in infection, and may thus be detected in follow-up samples. Furthermore, because HIV-1 frequently recombines, phylogenetic analyses that ignore recombination may miss transmission of multiple forms if they recombine after transmission. Moreover, recombination may facilitate adaptation, thus providing an advantage in establishing infection. The effect of recombination on viral evolution in HIV-1 infected children has not been well defined.

  18. Recombination elevates the effective evolutionary rate and facilitates the establishment of HIV-1 infection in infants after mother-to-child transmission

    DOE PAGES

    Sanborn, Keri B.; Somasundaran, Mohan; Luzuriaga, Katherine; ...

    2015-11-16

    Some previous studies have demonstrated that single HIV-1 genotypes are commonly transmitted from mother to child, but such analyses primarily used single samples from mother and child. It is possible that in a single sample, obtained early after infection, only the most replication competent virus is detected even when other forms may have been transmitted. Such forms may have advantages later in infection, and may thus be detected in follow-up samples. Furthermore, because HIV-1 frequently recombines, phylogenetic analyses that ignore recombination may miss transmission of multiple forms if they recombine after transmission. Moreover, recombination may facilitate adaptation, thus providing anmore » advantage in establishing infection. The effect of recombination on viral evolution in HIV-1 infected children has not been well defined.« less

  19. Verbal and Physical Abuse toward Mothers: The Role of Family Configuration, Environment, and Coping Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Linda; Larocque, Denis; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    Studied factors that can increase the risk of abusive behaviors toward mothers. Findings for 6,397 French-speaking Canadian adolescents show that parental divorce is associated with a greater risk of physical aggression directed toward mothers, but family environment and parental coping strategies partially mediated that relationship. (SLD)

  20. Verbal and Physical Abuse toward Mothers: The Role of Family Configuration, Environment, and Coping Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Linda; Larocque, Denis; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    Studied factors that can increase the risk of abusive behaviors toward mothers. Findings for 6,397 French-speaking Canadian adolescents show that parental divorce is associated with a greater risk of physical aggression directed toward mothers, but family environment and parental coping strategies partially mediated that relationship. (SLD)

  1. Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…

  2. PoetryRama: Exploring Drama through Mother Goose Nursery Rhymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeyghan, Glasceta

    2000-01-01

    Drama through Mother Goose nursery rhymes can be integrated in the pre-K-3 curriculum. Activities can range from spontaneous gestures and facial expression, to guided performance where a teacher might have specific objectives in mind and rehearse a rhyme for formal performance. Activities include unison or choral speaking; "line-a-child"…

  3. Warning Labels: Stigma and the Popularizing of Teen Mothers' Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Deirdre M.

    Those interested in critical, feminist, and anti-racist pedagogy are on a search for means to counter dominant ways of speaking about stigmatized groups. Some see promise in popular theater, which starts from the experience of those on the margins. This ethnographic study followed 12 teen mothers, a highly stereotyped group, as they wrote and…

  4. Fathers' and Mothers' Participation in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the participation rates of fathers, as compared to mothers, in research related to parent and older adolescent psychological symptoms, drinking behavior, and perceived competence. Fathers and mothers did not differ in their rates of participation in the research. Additionally, few differences were found between participating and…

  5. Underage mothers in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Erdal; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Yildirim, Ali; Enginyurt, Ozgur; Din, Hasan; Evcuman, Durmus

    2014-01-01

    Background All individuals under the age of 18 are considered as children by the Convention on the Rights of Children. Underage mothers are a pediatric-age group of children that become pregnant and give birth. It may be unfamiliar in Western countries, but in Middle-Eastern countries ruled by religious laws and old-fashioned traditions, it is common for an older man to marry a girl. The aim of this study was to describe the status of underage mothers within the framework of children’s rights and to draw attention to this issue. We presented this study to increase awareness and sensitivity, and to scrutinize and discuss these topics. Material/Methods We retrospectively investigated cases of underaged pregnant girls who applied to Forensic Science Department outpatient clinics and Obstetrics and Gynecology Department outpatient clinics of Gaziosmanpasa University Faculty of Medicine between 2003 and 2013. Results We accessed records of 163 underage mothers (≤18 age). Mean age was 16.9±0.83 (14–18 years). Gravida and parity rates increased proportionately with increasing age. Most of our cases were 16 and 17 years of age (n: 117, 71.8%). Conclusions Underage motherhood is not only a medical issue; it is a multi-dimensional problem with social, economic, traditional, religious, and legal aspects. PMID:24714663

  6. Underage mothers in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Erdal; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Yildirim, Ali; Enginyurt, Ozgur; Din, Hasan; Evcuman, Durmus

    2014-04-09

    All individuals under the age of 18 are considered as children by the Convention on the Rights of Children. Underage mothers are a pediatric-age group of children that become pregnant and give birth. It may be unfamiliar in Western countries, but in Middle-Eastern countries ruled by religious laws and old-fashioned traditions, it is common for an older man to marry a girl. The aim of this study was to describe the status of underage mothers within the framework of children's rights and to draw attention to this issue. We presented this study to increase awareness and sensitivity, and to scrutinize and discuss these topics. We retrospectively investigated cases of underaged pregnant girls who applied to Forensic Science Department outpatient clinics and Obstetrics and Gynecology Department outpatient clinics of Gaziosmanpasa University Faculty of Medicine between 2003 and 2013. Results We accessed records of 163 underage mothers (≤ 18 age). Mean age was 16.9 ± 0.83 (14-18 years). Gravida and parity rates increased proportionately with increasing age. Most of our cases were 16 and 17 years of age (n: 117, 71.8%). Underage motherhood is not only a medical issue; it is a multi-dimensional problem with social, economic, traditional, religious, and legal aspects.

  7. Instruments speak global language

    SciTech Connect

    Nudo, L.

    1993-07-01

    If all goes as planned, companies that use instruments for measurement and control will get more complete, reliable and repeatable information about their processes with advanced digital devices that speak a global language. That language, in technical terms, is known as international fieldbus. But it's not much different from English's role as the international language of business. Companies that use a remote measurement device for environmental applications, such as pH control and fugitive emissions control, are candidates for fieldbus devices, which are much faster and measure more process variables than their counterpart analog devices. With the advent of a global fieldbus, users will see digital valves, solenoids and multivariable transmitters. Fieldbus technology redefines the roles of the control system and field devices. The control system still serves as a central clearinghouse, but field devices will handle more control and reporting functions and generate data that can be used for trending and preventive maintenance.

  8. Letting the poor speak.

    PubMed

    2000-09-29

    This paper comments on two documents prepared by the Washington-based World Bank: the "World Development Report" and the three-volume study "Voices of the Poor." The author provides a brief overview of these documents then examines their potential impact on the delegates to the annual meetings of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in Prague on September 19-28, 2000. The author further examines the implication of the new strategies embraced by the global lenders--"opportunity, empowerment, security." Apart from these strategies, the World Bank sets out other strategies like spreading the benefits of technology, as it calls for the elimination of absolute poverty by 2015. However, the most crucial tack is the one illustrated by the way the reports were made: letting the poor speak and responding to their cries.

  9. Child Vocabulary, Maternal Behavior, and Inhibitory Control Development among Spanish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children's inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother-child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal…

  10. Book Reading Mediation, SES, Home Literacy Environment, and Children's Literacy: Evidence from Arabic-Speaking Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Arafat, Safieh H.; Aram, Dorit; Klein, Pnina

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the contribution of maternal mediation in storybook reading, socioeconomic status (SES), and home literacy environment (HLE) to children's literacy level in kindergarten and first grade in Israeli Arabic-speaking families. A total of 109 kindergarten children and their mothers participated. Children's literacy level was…

  11. Talking Shop: The Communicative Teaching of English in Non-English-Speaking Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Keith; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Excerpts from a discussion session involving six panelists and 150 teachers of English in non-English-speaking countries range from the revolution in the communicative approach to the extent to which the mother tongue is taken into account, translation, grammatical correctness, teaching large classes, and textbook development. (MSE)

  12. Child Vocabulary, Maternal Behavior, and Inhibitory Control Development among Spanish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children's inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother-child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal…

  13. English-Speaking Foreign Domestic Helpers and Students' English Reading Attainment in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Shek Kam; Lam, Raymond Y. H.; Loh, Elizabeth K. Y.; Ip, Olivia K. M.; Lam, Joseph W. I.; Chan, Yiu Man

    2009-01-01

    The English reading comprehension ability of 4,352 Grade 4 Hong Kong students was tested. The students' parents completed questionnaires about home factors, including monthly income, language habitually spoken at home, whether the mother was employed, and whether an English-speaking domestic helper resided there. Analyses revealed statistically…

  14. Book Reading Mediation, SES, Home Literacy Environment, and Children's Literacy: Evidence from Arabic-Speaking Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Arafat, Safieh H.; Aram, Dorit; Klein, Pnina

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the contribution of maternal mediation in storybook reading, socioeconomic status (SES), and home literacy environment (HLE) to children's literacy level in kindergarten and first grade in Israeli Arabic-speaking families. A total of 109 kindergarten children and their mothers participated. Children's literacy level was…

  15. [When silence is dangerous: "Speaking-up" about safety concerns].

    PubMed

    Schwappach, David L B

    2016-01-01

    Open and direct communication ("speaking-up") about errors, bypassed safety rules and risky behaviours among hospital staff is required to avoid patient harm, and it is an essential characteristic of an established safety culture. In German-speaking countries, little is known about speaking-up behaviour among health care professionals (HCPs) in hospitals. Safety concerns and speaking-up behaviours among HCPs of nine oncological units of eight hospitals were assessed using a self-administered survey. A vignette was embedded to assess hypothetical speaking-up and its predictors. The association of hierarchical position and speaking-up was investigated. 1,013 physicians and nurses completed the survey (65 % response rate). 53 % of the HCPs reported having concerns about patient safety at their unit, "sometimes", "frequently", or "very frequently". Colleagues bypassing important safety rules at least "sometimes" were reported by 30 %. A considerable fraction of responders reported episodes of withholding of voice. Nearly 20 % said they did not communicate safety problems at their unit at least sometimes. 73 % of higher-ranking staff and 60 % among those at lower ranks said they had never withheld information which could have reduced threats to patients (OR=1.8, p≤0.001). Many responders felt that speaking-up is often difficult and challenging. 32 % responded that they would not speak-up about a missed hand disinfection towards a colleague assessing the wound of a recently operated oncological patient. HCPs in hospital frequently experience safety concerns and often withhold them. An important resource for better patient safety is lost. The development of interventions to improve speaking-up culture is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Factors associated with mother to child transmission of HIV despite overall low transmission rates in HIV-exposed infants in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okoko, Nicollate A; Owuor, Kevin O; Kulzer, Jayne L; Owino, George O; Ogolla, Irene A; Wandera, Ronald W; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Abuogi, Lisa L

    2017-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and improved access to preventive services in many developing countries, vertical HIV transmission persists. A matched case-control study of HIV-exposed infants between January and June 2012 was conducted at 20 clinics in Kenya. Cases were HIV-infected infants and controls were exposed, uninfected infants. Conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine characteristics associated with HIV infection. Forty-five cases and 45 controls were compared. Characteristics associated with HIV-infection included poor PMTCT service uptake such as late infant enrollment (odds ratio [OR]: 7.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6-16.7) and poor adherence to infant prophylaxis (OR: 8.3, 95%CI: 3.2-21.4). Maternal characteristics associated with MTCT included lack of awareness of HIV status (OR: 5.6, 95%CI: 2.2-14.5), failure to access antiretroviral prophylaxis (OR: 22.2, 95%CI: 5.8-84.6), and poor adherence (OR: 8.1, 95%CI: 3.7-17.8). Lack of clinic-based HIV education (OR: 7.7, 95%CI: 2.0-25.0) and counseling (OR: 8.3, 95%CI: 2.2-33.3) were reported by mothers of cases. Poor uptake of PMTCT services and a reported absence of HIV education and counseling at the clinic were associated with MTCT. More emphasis on high-quality, comprehensive PMTCT service provision are urgently needed to minimize HIV transmission to children.

  17. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  18. The Jerusalem psychiatric mother-baby unit.

    PubMed

    Maizel, S; Kandel Katzenelson, S; Fainstein, V

    2005-09-01

    The Jerusalem mother and baby unit (MBU) is influenced by the psychoanalytical orientation of the staff, and the historical and cultural conditions surrounding the unit. Forty-three patients with 44 babies (one set of twins) were admitted in 13 years, a rate of admission far from the theoretical demand. Schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and mood disorders have been the major diagnoses in more than 50% of the patients. Mothers with schizophrenia were significantly more likely to be admitted sooner after the birth than mothers without schizophrenia (p = 0.025). One infant was separated from the mother on discharge and four recommendations for adoption were given.

  19. Well Spoken: Teaching Speaking to All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    All teachers at all grade levels in all subjects have speaking assignments for students, but many teachers believe they don't know how to teach speaking, and many even fear public speaking themselves. In his new book, "Well Spoken", veteran teacher and education consultant Erik Palmer shares the art of teaching speaking in any classroom. Teachers…

  20. Well Spoken: Teaching Speaking to All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    All teachers at all grade levels in all subjects have speaking assignments for students, but many teachers believe they don't know how to teach speaking, and many even fear public speaking themselves. In his new book, "Well Spoken", veteran teacher and education consultant Erik Palmer shares the art of teaching speaking in any classroom. Teachers…

  1. Mothers and Mothers-in-Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Lucy Rose

    1983-01-01

    Indicated how a shift in the structure of kinship networks created changes in both the content and balance of kinship relationships. Compared the mother-daughter and the mother-in-law/daughter-in-law relationships. The shift in their kin network consisted of the birth of the daughter(in-law)'s child. (Author/RC)

  2. High Rates of Same-Sex Attraction/Gender Nonconformity in the Offspring of Mothers with Thyroid Dysfunction During Pregnancy: Proposal of Prenatal Thyroid Model.

    PubMed

    Sabuncuoglu, Osman

    2015-09-30

    Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65%) males and 270 (35%) females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8%) were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2%) had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher's exact test). The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher's exact test). There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring.

  3. High Rates of Same-Sex Attraction/Gender Nonconformity in the Offspring of Mothers with Thyroid Dysfunction During Pregnancy: Proposal of Prenatal Thyroid Model

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncuoglu, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65%) males and 270 (35%) females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8%) were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2%) had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test). The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test). There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring. PMID:26605033

  4. Kangaroo mother care.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Sarah

    2012-05-01

    Kangaroo mother care is a safe, simple method to care for low birth weight infants. This article looks at its origins, what is involved in kangaroo mother care and reviews the evidence for improved outcomes resulting from its implementation.

  5. Gender bias in mothers' expectations about infant crawling.

    PubMed

    Mondschein, E R; Adolph, K E; Tamis-LeMonda, C S

    2000-12-01

    Although boys outshine girls in a range of motor skills, there are no reported gender differences in motor performance during infancy. This study examined gender bias in mothers' expectations about their infants' motor development. Mothers of 11-month-old infants estimated their babies' crawling ability, crawling attempts, and motor decisions in a novel locomotor task-crawling down steep and shallow slopes. Mothers of girls underestimated their performance and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Mothers' gender bias had no basis in fact. When we tested the infants in the same slope task moments after mothers' provided their ratings, girls and boys showed identical levels of motor performance.

  6. "What Do These Words Mean?": A Qualitative Approach to Explore Oral Health Literacy in Vietnamese Immigrant Mothers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Amit; Nguyen, Deon; Do, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Bao; Hilton, Glen; Do, Loc Giang; Bhole, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study, nested within a large cohort study, sought to explore how well Vietnamese mothers with pre-school children understood the dental health education material commonly available in New South Wales, Australia. Design: Qualitative research. Setting: Home-based interviews. Method: Vietnamese-speaking mothers ("n" = 24)…

  7. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Scott C

    2004-01-01

    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.

  8. Spanish diminutives in mother-child conversations.

    PubMed

    Melzi, Gigliana; King, Kendall A

    2003-05-01

    The present study examined gender and age patterns of diminutive use in conversations between 32 Spanish-speaking Peruvian mothers and their three- and five-year-old children. Results confirm previous findings concerning both parents' greater use of diminutives with younger children and children's early acquisition of this complex aspect of morphology. However, findings do not support previous studies on gender differences in parental use of diminutives with young children. Results also revealed that mothers' and children's imitations of their interlocutors' diminutized words promoted their interlocutors' overall diminutive use. This finding highlights the acute sensitivity of both speakers to each others' language and the potential role of imitation in older children's language development.

  9. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  10. Amygdala Response to Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tottenham, Nim; Shapiro, Mor; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.

    2012-01-01

    In altricial species, like the human, the caregiver, very often the mother, is one of the most potent stimuli during development. The distinction between mothers and other adults is learned early in life and results in numerous behaviors in the child, most notably mother-approach and stranger wariness. The current study examined the influence of…

  11. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  12. Security Blanket or Mother: Which Benefits Linus during Pediatric Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybarra, Gabriel; Passman, Richard H.; Eisenberg, Carl S. L.

    This study compared the degree to which young children were placated during a standard medical evaluation by the presence of their mother, blanket, mother plus blanket, or no supportive agent. Participating were 64 three-year-olds who underwent 4 routine medical procedures. Children were rated by their mothers as attached or nonattached to…

  13. Eliminating language barriers for non-English-speaking patients.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, J C; Gibson, C D; Wood, W; Dequeldre, C; Corso, I; Palla, B; Bloch, D A

    1996-08-01

    More than 31 million persons living in the United States do not speak English, therefore language discordance between the clinician and patient may hinder delivery of cost-effective medical care. A new language service was developed in which interpreters are trained in the skills of simultaneous interpretation commonly used at international conferences. The interpreters are linked from a remote site to headsets worn by the clinician and patient through standard communication wires. The service is called "remote-simultaneous interpretation," to contrast it with a traditional method of an interpreter being physically present at the interview and interpreting consecutively "proximate-consecutive interpretation." The aim of this study is to assess in a randomized protocol the quality of communication, interpretation, and level of patient, interpreter, and physician satisfaction with these two language services. The first postpartum visit with each of 49 mothers and their new born babies was assigned randomly to proximate-consecutive interpretation (control) or to remote-simultaneous interpretation (experimental). Main outcome measures included (1) the number of physician and mother utterances in the visit, (2) the quality of the interpretation, and (3) physician, interpreter, and mother preferences between the two services. The remote-simultaneous interpreter service averaged 8.3 (10%) more physician utterances (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.3, 12.4) and 9.1 (28%) more mother utterances (95% CI 6.1, 12.1). On average, there were 2.8 (12%) fewer inaccuracies of physician utterances in experimental visits compared with control visits (95% CI -5.9, 0.4) and 3.0 (13%) fewer inaccuracies of mother utterances in experimental visits compared with control visits (95% CI -5.4, -0.6). Mothers and physicians significantly preferred the remote-simultaneous service to proximate-consecutive interpretation service. Interpreters stated that they thought mothers and physicians better

  14. Mutual Trust between Kindergarten Teachers and Mothers and Its Associations with Family Characteristics in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Kontoniemi, Marita; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Mutual trust between mothers and kindergarten teachers along with its relation to mother's educational level and child's gender was studied in two neighboring countries--Estonia and Finland. From Estonia 543 ratings of mothers and 232 ratings of teachers were collected, and, from Finland, 712 ratings of mothers and 712 ratings of teachers. Trust…

  15. Mutual Trust between Kindergarten Teachers and Mothers and Its Associations with Family Characteristics in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Kontoniemi, Marita; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Mutual trust between mothers and kindergarten teachers along with its relation to mother's educational level and child's gender was studied in two neighboring countries--Estonia and Finland. From Estonia 543 ratings of mothers and 232 ratings of teachers were collected, and, from Finland, 712 ratings of mothers and 712 ratings of teachers. Trust…

  16. Toward a phenomenology of inner speaking.

    PubMed

    Hurlburt, Russell T; Heavey, Christopher L; Kelsey, Jason M

    2013-12-01

    Inner speaking is a common and widely discussed phenomenon of inner experience. Based on our studies of inner experience using Descriptive Experience Sampling (a qualitative method designed to produce high fidelity descriptions of randomly selected pristine inner experience), we advance an initial phenomenology of inner speaking. Inner speaking does occur in many, though certainly not all, moments of pristine inner experience. Most commonly it is experienced by the person as speaking in his or her own naturally inflected voice but with no sound being produced. In addition to prototypical instances of inner speaking, there are wide-ranging variations that fit the broad category of inner speaking and large individual differences in the frequency with which individuals experience inner speaking. Our observations are discrepant from what many have said about inner speaking, which we attribute to the characteristics of the methods different researchers have used to examine inner speaking.

  17. Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Arabic-Speaking Countries

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of diabetes has not spared the Arabic-speaking countries, which have some of the highest prevalence of type II diabetes. This is particularly true of the Arab Gulf, a conglomerate of high income, oil-producing countries where prevalence rates are the highest. The prevalence rates among adults of the Arabic speaking countries as a whole range between 4%–21%, with the lowest being in Somalia and the highest in Kuwait. As economic growth has accelerated, so has the movement of the populations to urban centers where people are more likely to adopt lifestyles that embrace increased high-calorie food consumption and sedentary lifestyles. These factors likely contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Arabic speaking countries. PMID:22851968

  18. Effect of language context on ratings of shy and unsociable behaviors in English language learner children.

    PubMed

    Ash, Andrea C; Rice, Mabel L; Redmond, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to explore the effect of language context on the socially withdrawn behaviors of school-age-children who are English language learners (ELLs) from middle- to high-socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. This is one of the 1st studies to address the frequently confused concepts of shyness and unsociability as independent constructs within the ELL population. The authors of this study also investigated the feasibility of an experimental parent and child questionnaire that examines shyness and unsociability across native-language and English-speaking contexts. Children and mothers (34 of whom were ELLs and 37 of whom were native English speakers) were administered an experimental questionnaire examining the children's shy and unsociable behavior in native-language and English-speaking contexts. Children and mothers in the ELL group reported significantly higher ratings of shy behavior in English-speaking versus native-language contexts, whereas unsociable ratings did not differ across language contexts. Shyness and unsociability are distinguishable behaviors in ELL children, and researchers should consider these constructs when examining withdrawal. In addition, examining ELL children's behavior across language contexts provides a valuable method for investigating language-influenced behavioral problems. This study demonstrates the need for service providers to evaluate behavior across subtype and language context before pathologizing withdrawal in ELL children.

  19. Has Roe v. Wade Reduced U.S. Crime Rates?: Examining the Link between Mothers' Pregnancy Intentions and Children's Later Involvement in Law-Violating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Carter; Evans, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Rates of serious crime in the United States dropped greatly throughout the 1990s for virtually all offenses. John Donohue and Steven Levitt have argued that this reduction relates strongly to the 1973 "Roe v. Wade" decision that legalized the abortion of unwanted pregnancies. If such pregnancies result in children with higher lifetime risks of…

  20. Has Roe v. Wade Reduced U.S. Crime Rates?: Examining the Link between Mothers' Pregnancy Intentions and Children's Later Involvement in Law-Violating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Carter; Evans, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Rates of serious crime in the United States dropped greatly throughout the 1990s for virtually all offenses. John Donohue and Steven Levitt have argued that this reduction relates strongly to the 1973 "Roe v. Wade" decision that legalized the abortion of unwanted pregnancies. If such pregnancies result in children with higher lifetime risks of…

  1. Current status of knowledge on public-speaking anxiety.

    PubMed

    Pull, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.

  2. Satisfaction with provider communication among Spanish-speaking Medicaid enrollees.

    PubMed

    Mosen, David M; Carlson, Matthew J; Morales, Leo S; Hanes, Pamela P

    2004-01-01

    To determine if differences between English- and Spanish-speaking parents in ratings of their children's health care can be explained by need for interpretive services. Using the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey-Child-Survey (CAHPS), reports about provider communication were compared among 3 groups of parents enrolled in a Medicaid managed care health plan: 1) English speakers, 2) Spanish speakers with no self-reported need for interpretive services, and 3) Spanish speakers with self-reported need for interpretive services. Parents were asked to report how well their providers 1) listened carefully to what was being said, 2) explained things in a way that could be understood, 3) respected their comments and concerns, and 4) spent enough time during medical encounters. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare the ratings of each of the 3 groups while controlling for child's gender, parent's gender, parent's educational attainment, child's health status, and survey year. Spanish-speaking parents in need of interpretive services were less likely to report that providers spent enough time with their children (odds ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.68) compared to English-speaking parents. There was no statistically significant difference found between Spanish-speaking parents with no need of interpretive services and English-speaking parents. Among Spanish- versus English-speaking parents, differences in ratings of whether providers spent enough time with children during medical encounters appear to be explained, in part, by need for interpretive services. No other differences in ratings of provider communication were found.

  3. Using grounded theory methodology to conceptualize the mother-infant communication dynamic: potential application to compliance with infant feeding recommendations.

    PubMed

    Waller, Jennifer; Bower, Katherine M; Spence, Marsha; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2015-10-01

    Excessive, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been linked to risk of later overweight and obesity. Inappropriate infant feeding practices associated with this rapid weight gain are currently of great interest. Understanding the origin of these practices may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Low-income populations in the Southeastern United States are at increased risk for development of inappropriate infant feeding practices, secondary to the relatively low rates of breastfeeding reported from this region. The objective was to use grounded theory methodology (GTM) to explore interactions between mothers and infants that may influence development of feeding practices, and to do so among low-income, primiparous, Southeastern United States mothers. Analysis of 15 in-depth phone interviews resulted in development of a theoretical model in which Mother-Infant Communication Dynamic emerged as the central concept. The central concept suggests a communication pattern developed over the first year of life, based on a positive feedback loop, which is harmonious and results in the maternal perception of mother and infant now speaking the same language. Importantly, though harmonious, this dynamic may result from inaccurate maternal interpretation of infant cues and behaviours, subsequently leading to inappropriate infant feeding practices. Future research should test this theoretical model using direct observation of mother-infant communication, to increase the understanding of maternal interpretation of infant cues. Subsequently, interventions targeting accurate maternal interpretation of and response to infant cues, and impact on rate of infant weight gain could be tested. If effective, health care providers could potentially use these concepts to attenuate excess rapid infant weight gain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Butterflies in Formation: Predicting How Speech Order in College Public Speaking Affects Student Communication Apprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmond, Erica R.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed pedagogical practices in the public speaking classroom in an attempt to help control communication apprehension (CA) levels and improve retention rates among college students in the basic public speaking course. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of Berger and Calabrese's uncertainty reduction theory and Weiner's attribution…

  5. A Comparison of Two Phonological Assessment Tools for Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hase, Maria; Ingram, David; Bunta, Ferenc

    2010-01-01

    This study compared two phonological assessment tools for use with young Spanish-speaking children in the American Southwest, FON and STAR. Each was administered to 27 1-, 2- and 3-year-old monolingual Spanish-speaking children in the greater Phoenix area. Analyses compared the children's rate of response, complexity of the children's productions,…

  6. Designing an Automated Assessment of Public Speaking Skills Using Multimodal Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lei; Feng, Gary; Leong, Chee Wee; Joe, Jilliam; Kitchen, Christopher; Lee, Chong Min

    2016-01-01

    Traditional assessments of public speaking skills rely on human scoring. We report an initial study on the development of an automated scoring model for public speaking performances using multimodal technologies. Task design, rubric development, and human rating were conducted according to standards in educational assessment. An initial corpus of…

  7. A Comparison of Two Phonological Assessment Tools for Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hase, Maria; Ingram, David; Bunta, Ferenc

    2010-01-01

    This study compared two phonological assessment tools for use with young Spanish-speaking children in the American Southwest, FON and STAR. Each was administered to 27 1-, 2- and 3-year-old monolingual Spanish-speaking children in the greater Phoenix area. Analyses compared the children's rate of response, complexity of the children's productions,…

  8. Butterflies in Formation: Predicting How Speech Order in College Public Speaking Affects Student Communication Apprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmond, Erica R.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed pedagogical practices in the public speaking classroom in an attempt to help control communication apprehension (CA) levels and improve retention rates among college students in the basic public speaking course. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of Berger and Calabrese's uncertainty reduction theory and Weiner's attribution…

  9. Perspectives on the Assessment of Speaking and Listening Skills for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Education Lab., Portland, OR. Clearinghouse for Applied Performance Testing.

    The four papers in this collection were drawn from a symposium convened to review the state of the art in speaking and listening assessment at all educational levels and to suggest strategies for addressing the technical issues, particularly those relating to test bias and the use of rating scales, that speaking and listening assessors often face.…

  10. Women's lives, mothers' health.

    PubMed

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M

    1985-01-01

    This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as

  11. Time Well Spent: Preparation for Impromptu Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kevin W.

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that impromptu speaking should be viewed as an event which develops students' organizational ability, creative thinking, audience analysis, and delivery skills. Presents various techniques to aid students and coaches in pre-tournament preparation for impromptu speaking. (MM)

  12. Improvement of Speaking Ability through Interrelated Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    How to improve students' ability of speaking English? That is the key point we are concerned about. This paper discusses the possibility and necessity of improving students' ability by combining the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing.

  13. Student Teachers Speak Out!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, Gina G.; Goebel, Vella

    2013-01-01

    The high teacher attrition and early-career exodus of beginning teachers suggest that traditional methods fall short of providing the support needed by beginning teachers. This qualitative study examined the challenges encountered by student teachers during their practicum experience. Findings suggest that the attrition rate may be at least…

  14. Student Teachers Speak Out!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, Gina G.; Goebel, Vella

    2013-01-01

    The high teacher attrition and early-career exodus of beginning teachers suggest that traditional methods fall short of providing the support needed by beginning teachers. This qualitative study examined the challenges encountered by student teachers during their practicum experience. Findings suggest that the attrition rate may be at least…

  15. Speaking up for Better Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers have a lot of frustrating things to deal with in school--obdurate administrators, inane work rules, and ham-fisted policies, to name a few. Instead of speaking up for change, many teachers have just come to accept all the dysfunction and take refuge in their classrooms. But teachers have it in their power to bust out of that classroom…

  16. You Are What You Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motluk, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Does the language one speaks influence the way he thinks? Does it help define his world view? Anyone who has tried to master a foreign tongue has at least considered the possibility. Little linguistic peculiarities, though amusing, don't change the objective world people are describing. So how can they alter the way they think? Scientists and…

  17. You Are What You Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motluk, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Does the language one speaks influence the way he thinks? Does it help define his world view? Anyone who has tried to master a foreign tongue has at least considered the possibility. Little linguistic peculiarities, though amusing, don't change the objective world people are describing. So how can they alter the way they think? Scientists and…

  18. Speaking Aids Through the Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ruth Kearney

    This book contains a selection of activities, techniques, and sources to be used by those who are concerned with oral communication experiences of children and youth. Chapter topics are as follows: (1) multi-sensory awareness: speaking and acting for kindergarten through third grade; (2) kinesics and drama for primary children; (3) imaginative…

  19. Assessment of English Speaking Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the detailed components of Japanese students' English speaking ability in terms of communicative competence by using an oral proficiency test based on Bachman's Communicative Language Ability model (included in an appendix). Eighty college students were tested on four tasks--speech making, visual material…

  20. Speaking up for Better Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers have a lot of frustrating things to deal with in school--obdurate administrators, inane work rules, and ham-fisted policies, to name a few. Instead of speaking up for change, many teachers have just come to accept all the dysfunction and take refuge in their classrooms. But teachers have it in their power to bust out of that classroom…

  1. Communication. Listen, Speak, Write, Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls. School of Business.

    This instructional unit is intended for use in helping secondary and postsecondary business students develop their communications skills. The course is designed to be taught in six weeks in conjunction with the sixth edition of "Business English and Communication," a textbook published by McGraw-Hill. Chapters addressing listening, speaking,…

  2. Educating English-Speaking Hispanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Leonard A., Ed.; And Others

    In both diagnostic procedures and in program prescriptions, this book attempts to deal with the problem of the Hispanic child who speaks no Spanish and who, in fact, may be discouraged from learning Spanish by parents who mistakenly feel they are helping the child make a quicker transition to the dominant culture. The first three chapters present…

  3. Structural Level Differences in the Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Rate in South Africa: A Multilevel Assessment of Individual-, Health Facility-, and Provincial-Level Predictors of Infant HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Debra J.; Lombard, CJ; Dinh, Thu-Ha; Ramokolo, Vundli; Doherty, Tanya; Sherman, Gayle G.; Pillay, Yogan; Goga, Ameena E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In 2010, South Africa reported an early mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate of 3.5% at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Provincial early MTCT rates ranged from 1.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1 to 3.4] to 5.9% (95% CI: 3.8 to 8.0). We sought to determine reasons for these geographic differences in MTCT rates. Methods: This study used multilevel modeling using 2010 South African prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) evaluation (SAPMTCTE) data from 530 facilities. Interview data and blood samples of infants were collected from 3085 mother–infant pairs at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Facility-level data on human resources, referral systems, linkages to care, and record keeping were collected through facility staff interviews. Provincial level data were gathered from publicly available data (eg, health professionals per 10,000 population) or aggregated at province-level from the SAPMTCTE (PMTCT maternal-infant antiretroviral (ARV) coverage). Variance partition coefficients and odds ratios (for provincial facility- and individual-level factors influencing MTCT) from multilevel modeling are reported. Results: The provincial- (5.0%) and facility-level (1.4%) variance partition coefficients showed no substantive geographic variation in early MTCT. In multivariable analysis accounting for the multilevel nature of the data, the following were associated with early MTCT: individual-level—low maternal–infant ARV uptake [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.7 to 3.5], mixed breastfeeding (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.9) and maternal age <20 years (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.0); facility-level–insufficient (≤2) health care-personnel for HIV-testing services (AOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.0); provincial-level PMTCT ARV (maternal–infant) coverage lower than 80% (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.9), and number of health professionals per 10,000 population (AOR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98 to 0.99). Conclusions: There was no substantial province

  4. Assessed Levels of Second Language Speaking Proficiency: How Distinct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwashita, Noriko; Brown, Annie; McNamara, Tim; O'Hagan, Sally

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this paper is an investigation of the nature of speaking proficiency in English as a second language in the context of a larger project to develop a rating scale for a new international test of English for Academic Purposes, TOEFL iBT (Brown et al. 2005). We report on a large-scale study of the relationship between detailed…

  5. Investigating Prompt Difficulty in an Automatically Scored Speaking Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Troy L.

    2013-01-01

    Speaking assessments for second language learners have traditionally been expensive to administer because of the cost of rating the speech samples. To reduce the cost, many researchers are investigating the potential of using automatic speech recognition (ASR) as a means to score examinee responses to open-ended prompts. This study examined the…

  6. Investigating Prompt Difficulty in an Automatically Scored Speaking Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Troy L.

    2013-01-01

    Speaking assessments for second language learners have traditionally been expensive to administer because of the cost of rating the speech samples. To reduce the cost, many researchers are investigating the potential of using automatic speech recognition (ASR) as a means to score examinee responses to open-ended prompts. This study examined the…

  7. From Writing to Speaking: Enhancing Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Nancy; Matson, Don

    2000-01-01

    Proposes an instructional progression that goes from writing to speaking in learning English as a Second Language. Specific focus is on writing to improve speaking, games for writing to speaking, free writes from personal experiences, creating a scene, autobiographies, and argumentation. (Author/VWL)

  8. Does Retelling Technique Improve Speaking Fluency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachmawaty, Noor; Hermagustiana, Istanti

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on a study on speaking fluency performed by six low level students using retelling technique. The aim of the study is to find out the effect of retelling on the students' speaking fluency and to know the strategies used by those students while retelling a story. The data were the speaking transcripts which were analyzed to see…

  9. An Assessment of IELTS Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, Shahzad; Haq, Naushaba

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused on assessing the speaking test of IELTS. The assessment discussed both positive aspects and weaknesses in IELTS speaking module. The researchers had also suggested some possible measures for the improvement in IELTS speaking test and increasing its validity and reliability. The researchers had analysed and assessed IELTS…

  10. Voice Blogging and L2 Speaking Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigated the effect of extensive speaking practice on the development of L2 speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency in voice blogging. The participants were 30 college EFL (English as a foreign language) learners in Taiwan. As a supplement to the insufficient speaking practice in class, each…

  11. Voice Blogging and L2 Speaking Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigated the effect of extensive speaking practice on the development of L2 speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency in voice blogging. The participants were 30 college EFL (English as a foreign language) learners in Taiwan. As a supplement to the insufficient speaking practice in class, each…

  12. English Language Teaching Profile: Belgium (Dutch Speaking).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form discusses the English language teaching situation in the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking areas of Belgium. The situation in the Dutch-speaking region, which includes Flanders and Brussels (the latter having both Dutch and French as official languages), is described in terms of the extent of English instruction…

  13. Brief virtual reality therapy for public speaking anxiety.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sandra R; Kemmerling, Robert L; North, Max M

    2002-12-01

    The primary goal of this research program was to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality therapy (VRT) in reducing public speaking anxiety of university students. The prevalence and impact of public speaking anxiety as a type of Social Phobia are discussed. Studies of VRT as an emerging treatment for psychological problems are reviewed. In the present study, eight students completed VRT individual treatment and post-testing, and six students in a Wait-List control group completed post-testing. Assessment measures included four self-report inventories, self-report of Subjective Units of Discomfort during exposure to VRT and physiological measurements of heart rate during speaking tasks. Four weekly individual exposure treatment sessions of approximately 15 min each were conducted by the author serving as therapist. Results on self-report and physiological measures appear to indicate that four virtual reality treatment sessions were effective in reducing public speaking anxiety in university students, corroborating earlier studies of VRT's effectiveness as a psychotherapeutic modality. Future research directions are discussed, primarily the need for research on younger populations, to assess the effectiveness of VRT for earlier intervention with public speaking anxiety.

  14. Success of Taiwanese mothers in guiding adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beckert, Troy; Strom, Robert; Strom, Paris; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Shen, Yuh-Ling

    2005-01-01

    Education for parents was recently mandated in Taiwan and presents a challenge to the schools. The purpose of this study was to determine how two generations perceive parenting strengths and learning needs. Taiwanese mothers of 10- to 14-year-olds (n=209) and their adolescent children (n=201) completed the Parent Success Indicator. Generational reports were compared, and effects of independent variables were examined. The amount of time mothers spent talking to and doing things with their adolescents had the greatest influence on how both groups rated mother success. Unfavorable ratings expressed by mothers and adolescents identified topics that would be appropriate for parent education. The findings will be used by educators and researchers to support parent development in Taiwan.

  15. Puerto Rican kindergartners' self-worth as coded from the Attachment Story Completion Task: correlated with other self-evaluation measures and ratings of child behavior toward mothers and peers.

    PubMed

    Gullón-Rivera, Ángel L

    2013-01-01

    This multi-method multi-informant study assessed 105 Puerto Rican kindergartners' sense of self-worth in family relationships as coded from their responses to the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT). The ASCT scores were compared with responses to two other age-appropriate self-evaluation measures (the Cassidy Puppet Interview and the Pictorial Scales of Social Acceptance). Correlations of children's scores on the three self-measures with maternal ratings of the mother-child relationship and teacher ratings of the child's prosocial behavior with peers were then compared. ASCT self-worth and Puppet Interview scores were strongly correlated with each other and both were modestly related to the pictorial social acceptance scales. All three measures were significantly associated with maternal and teacher reports of child behavior, but the strongest correlations were obtained with the ASCT. Coding the ASCT in terms of self-worth appears to be a promising approach for evaluating young children's (vicariously expressed) self-worth in family relationships.

  16. Mothers' Emotions and Behavioral Support during Interactions with Toddlers: The Role of Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Amy E.; Dix, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    This article examines mothers' support for children's interests and, specifically, emotional processes in mothers that may explain why they display different levels of support with children of different temperaments. We observed 114 mothers and their 14-27 month-old children during a laboratory interaction. Mothers rated children on three…

  17. Mothers' Emotions and Behavioral Support during Interactions with Toddlers: The Role of Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Amy E.; Dix, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    This article examines mothers' support for children's interests and, specifically, emotional processes in mothers that may explain why they display different levels of support with children of different temperaments. We observed 114 mothers and their 14-27 month-old children during a laboratory interaction. Mothers rated children on three…

  18. Six Years in the Life of a Mother Bear - The Longest Continuous Heart Rate Recordings from a Free-Ranging Mammal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, Timothy G.; Iaizzo, Paul A.; Garshelis, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Physiological monitoring of free-ranging wild animals is providing new insights into their adaptations to a changing environment. American black bears (Ursus americanus) are highly adaptable mammals, spending up to half the year hibernating, and the remainder of the year attempting to gain weight on a landscape with foods that vary seasonally and year to year. We recorded heart rate (HR) and corresponding activity of an adult female black bear over the course of six years, using an implanted monitor. Despite yearly differences in food, and an every-other year reproductive cycle, this bear exhibited remarkable consistency in HR and activity. HR increased for 12 weeks in spring, from minimal hibernation levels (mean 20–25 beats/minute [bpm]; min 10 bpm) to summer active levels (July daytime: mean 95 bpm). Timing was delayed following one cold winter. In August the bear switched from primarily diurnal to nocturnal, coincident with the availability of baits set by legal hunters. Activity in autumn was higher when the bear was with cubs. Birthing of cubs in January was identified by a transient increase in HR and activity. Long-term physiological and behavioral monitoring is valuable for understanding adaptations of free-ranging animals to climate change, food availability, and human-related stressors.

  19. Six Years in the Life of a Mother Bear - The Longest Continuous Heart Rate Recordings from a Free-Ranging Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Laske, Timothy G.; Iaizzo, Paul A.; Garshelis, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Physiological monitoring of free-ranging wild animals is providing new insights into their adaptations to a changing environment. American black bears (Ursus americanus) are highly adaptable mammals, spending up to half the year hibernating, and the remainder of the year attempting to gain weight on a landscape with foods that vary seasonally and year to year. We recorded heart rate (HR) and corresponding activity of an adult female black bear over the course of six years, using an implanted monitor. Despite yearly differences in food, and an every-other year reproductive cycle, this bear exhibited remarkable consistency in HR and activity. HR increased for 12 weeks in spring, from minimal hibernation levels (mean 20–25 beats/minute [bpm]; min 10 bpm) to summer active levels (July daytime: mean 95 bpm). Timing was delayed following one cold winter. In August the bear switched from primarily diurnal to nocturnal, coincident with the availability of baits set by legal hunters. Activity in autumn was higher when the bear was with cubs. Birthing of cubs in January was identified by a transient increase in HR and activity. Long-term physiological and behavioral monitoring is valuable for understanding adaptations of free-ranging animals to climate change, food availability, and human-related stressors. PMID:28094804

  20. Six Years in the Life of a Mother Bear - The Longest Continuous Heart Rate Recordings from a Free-Ranging Mammal.

    PubMed

    Laske, Timothy G; Iaizzo, Paul A; Garshelis, David L

    2017-01-17

    Physiological monitoring of free-ranging wild animals is providing new insights into their adaptations to a changing environment. American black bears (Ursus americanus) are highly adaptable mammals, spending up to half the year hibernating, and the remainder of the year attempting to gain weight on a landscape with foods that vary seasonally and year to year. We recorded heart rate (HR) and corresponding activity of an adult female black bear over the course of six years, using an implanted monitor. Despite yearly differences in food, and an every-other year reproductive cycle, this bear exhibited remarkable consistency in HR and activity. HR increased for 12 weeks in spring, from minimal hibernation levels (mean 20-25 beats/minute [bpm]; min 10 bpm) to summer active levels (July daytime: mean 95 bpm). Timing was delayed following one cold winter. In August the bear switched from primarily diurnal to nocturnal, coincident with the availability of baits set by legal hunters. Activity in autumn was higher when the bear was with cubs. Birthing of cubs in January was identified by a transient increase in HR and activity. Long-term physiological and behavioral monitoring is valuable for understanding adaptations of free-ranging animals to climate change, food availability, and human-related stressors.

  1. Single Mothers "Do" Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Margaret K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how single mothers both incorporate others into family life (e.g., when they ask others to care for their children) and simultaneously "do families" in a manner that holds out a vision of a "traditional" family structure. Drawing on research with White, rural single mothers, the author explores the manner in which these women…

  2. Single Mother's Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferando, Annette; Newbert, David

    Funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act, the Assertiveness Training Program for Single Mothers was offered to mothers with children enrolled in the Omaha Head Start and Parent-Child Center Programs. The 16-week long program, providing a total of 40 hours of training, covered a wide range of topics in addition to the initial workshops on…

  3. Comparison outcomes of sick babies born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers.

    PubMed

    Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Sawasdiworn, Siraporn

    2011-08-01

    , the teenage group had more males and a higher blood pressure than those in the adult group. There were significantly more preterm infants and higher cesarean section in the adult group too. Gastroschisis cases were found only in the teenage group. In follow-up cases, more than seventy percent in both groups were assessed for developmental outcome until two years of age. Divorce was found in teen mothers more than in adult mothers (17.54 vs. 3%) and more cases in teenage infants received care in rural areas by grandparents (36.6 vs. 12.6%). Delayed speech was found in more cases in the teen group than in the adult group (12.28 vs. 6%). The number of antenatal care in teenage mothers was less than in standard pregnancy care. Cesarean section rate was lower in teenage mothers than in the adult mothers. Preterm infants were found in more cases in the adult group but gastroschisis was found only in the teenage group. More cases of infants in the teenage group received care in rural areas by grandparents and divorce occurred more in teen mothers than adult mothers.

  4. Wellbeing of new mothers.

    PubMed

    McConachie, Helen; Hammal, Donna; Welsh, Brenda; Keane, Brigid; Waterston, Tony; Parker, Louise; Cook, Margaret

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports indicators of wellbeing and early parenting stress in a representative sample of first-time mothers in north-east England. A total of 185 mothers were recruited in the antenatal period to a controlled trial of an early parenting intervention. They were interviewed at home when the baby was aged around one month, and completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and the Parenting Daily Hassles Scale. Almost half of mothers reported psychological distress above the accepted GHQ12 cut-off point. However, distress was not related to variables such as low socio-economic status, as had been predicted. Early parenting stress was greater in relatively more educated and older mothers. New motherhood is likely to be stressful, even where mothers do not have postpartum depression, and so a range of supports is required.

  5. Melancholic Mothering: Mothers, Daughters and Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah

    2008-01-01

    Through selected theories of melancholia, this paper seeks to shed some fresh interpretive light on the reproduction and disruption of gender, violence and family turmoil across generations of mothers and daughters. The originality of the paper lies in its exploratory deployment of theories of melancholia to consider issues of women, violence and…

  6. Melancholic Mothering: Mothers, Daughters and Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah

    2008-01-01

    Through selected theories of melancholia, this paper seeks to shed some fresh interpretive light on the reproduction and disruption of gender, violence and family turmoil across generations of mothers and daughters. The originality of the paper lies in its exploratory deployment of theories of melancholia to consider issues of women, violence and…

  7. Using Problem-Solving Skills Training to Reduce Negative Affectivity in Mothers of Children With Newly Diagnosed Cancer: Report of a Multisite Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahler, Olle Jane Z.; Fairclough, Diane L.; Phipps, Sean; Mulhern, Raymond K.; Dolgin, Michael J.; Noll, Robert B.; Katz, Ernest R.; Varni, James W.; Copeland, Donna R.

    2005-01-01

    Mothers of children with cancer experience significant distress associated with their children's diagnosis and treatment. The efficacy of problem-solving skills training (PSST), a cognitive-behavioral intervention based on problem-solving therapy, was assessed among 430 English- and Spanish-speaking mothers of recently diagnosed patients.…

  8. Using Problem-Solving Skills Training to Reduce Negative Affectivity in Mothers of Children With Newly Diagnosed Cancer: Report of a Multisite Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahler, Olle Jane Z.; Fairclough, Diane L.; Phipps, Sean; Mulhern, Raymond K.; Dolgin, Michael J.; Noll, Robert B.; Katz, Ernest R.; Varni, James W.; Copeland, Donna R.

    2005-01-01

    Mothers of children with cancer experience significant distress associated with their children's diagnosis and treatment. The efficacy of problem-solving skills training (PSST), a cognitive-behavioral intervention based on problem-solving therapy, was assessed among 430 English- and Spanish-speaking mothers of recently diagnosed patients.…

  9. Kangaroo Mother Care: A review of mothers׳'experiences at Bwaila hospital and Zomba Central hospital (Malawi).

    PubMed

    Chisenga, Jayne Z; Chalanda, Marcia; Ngwale, Mathews

    2015-02-01

    Kangaroo Mother Care is an intervention that can help reduce neonatal mortality rate in Malawi but it has not been rolled out to all health facilities. Understanding the mothers׳ experience would help strategise when scaling-up this intervention. to review experiences of mothers Kangaroo Mother Care at two hospitals of Bwaila and Zomba. quantitative, descriptive using open interviews. two central hospitals in Malawi. 113 mothers that were in the Kangaroo Mother Care unit and those that had come for follow-up two weeks after discharge before the study took place. mothers had high level of knowledge about the significant benefits of Kangaroo Mother Care but 84% were not aware of the services prior to their hospitalisation. 18.6% (n=19) were not counselled prior to KMC practice. Mothers preferred KMC to incubator care. There were factors affecting compliance and continuation of KMC, which were lack of support, culture, lack of assistance with skin-to-skin contact, multiple roles of the mother and stigma. mothers had a positive attitude towards KMC once fully aware of its benefits. there is need for awareness campaigns on KMC services, provision of counselling, support and assistance which can help motivate mothers and their families to comply with the guidelines of KMC services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Back to basics: speak up.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Being able to identify problems and bring them to the attention of OR team colleagues is crucial for the safety of both patients and perioperative team members; however, being able to do this means being comfortable with speaking up under circumstances that may be difficult. Disruptive or intimidating coworker behavior also makes speaking up difficult, but it is important to address in the interest of providing safe, effective care to patients. To remedy this, health care workers should create awareness of the problem and motivate others to take action; establish a culture of respect; set expectations to help eliminate disrespectful behavior; and create a learning environment that eliminates hierarchical structures, fosters professionalism, demonstrates respect, and enforces a zero tolerance policy.

  11. Public Speaking in a Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, A. L.; Evans, V.; Kanra, A. M. Lami; Jones, O. S. L.

    2004-01-01

    In this day, people all over academia feel that our democracy is eroding and that there is no need for rhetoric. Yet, if some effort is not made to help young people understand democracy and the role of public speaking in this form of government, all will truly be lost. The battle is always ongoing as long as on person stands to tell the story.…

  12. Public Speaking in a Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, A. L.; Evans, V.; Kanra, A. M. Lami; Jones, O. S. L.

    2004-01-01

    In this day, people all over academia feel that our democracy is eroding and that there is no need for rhetoric. Yet, if some effort is not made to help young people understand democracy and the role of public speaking in this form of government, all will truly be lost. The battle is always ongoing as long as on person stands to tell the story.…

  13. How to assess and compare inter-rater reliability, agreement and correlation of ratings: an exemplary analysis of mother-father and parent-teacher expressive vocabulary rating pairs

    PubMed Central

    Stolarova, Margarita; Wolf, Corinna; Rinker, Tanja; Brielmann, Aenne

    2014-01-01

    This report has two main purposes. First, we combine well-known analytical approaches to conduct a comprehensive assessment of agreement and correlation of rating-pairs and to dis-entangle these often confused concepts, providing a best-practice example on concrete data and a tutorial for future reference. Second, we explore whether a screening questionnaire developed for use with parents can be reliably employed with daycare teachers when assessing early expressive vocabulary. A total of 53 vocabulary rating pairs (34 parent–teacher and 19 mother–father pairs) collected for two-year-old children (12 bilingual) are evaluated. First, inter-rater reliability both within and across subgroups is assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Next, based on this analysis of reliability and on the test-retest reliability of the employed tool, inter-rater agreement is analyzed, magnitude and direction of rating differences are considered. Finally, Pearson correlation coefficients of standardized vocabulary scores are calculated and compared across subgroups. The results underline the necessity to distinguish between reliability measures, agreement and correlation. They also demonstrate the impact of the employed reliability on agreement evaluations. This study provides evidence that parent–teacher ratings of children's early vocabulary can achieve agreement and correlation comparable to those of mother–father ratings on the assessed vocabulary scale. Bilingualism of the evaluated child decreased the likelihood of raters' agreement. We conclude that future reports of agreement, correlation and reliability of ratings will benefit from better definition of terms and stricter methodological approaches. The methodological tutorial provided here holds the potential to increase comparability across empirical reports and can help improve research practices and knowledge transfer to educational and therapeutic settings. PMID:24994985

  14. Silence that can be dangerous: a vignette study to assess healthcare professionals' likelihood of speaking up about safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Schwappach, David L B; Gehring, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the likelihood of speaking up about patient safety in oncology and to clarify the effect of clinical and situational context factors on the likelihood of voicing concerns. 1013 nurses and doctors in oncology rated four clinical vignettes describing coworkers' errors and rule violations in a self-administered factorial survey (65% response rate). Multiple regression analysis was used to model the likelihood of speaking up as outcome of vignette attributes, responder's evaluations of the situation and personal characteristics. Respondents reported a high likelihood of speaking up about patient safety but the variation between and within types of errors and rule violations was substantial. Staff without managerial function provided significantly higher levels of decision difficulty and discomfort to speak up. Based on the information presented in the vignettes, 74%-96% would speak up towards a supervisor failing to check a prescription, 45%-81% would point a coworker to a missed hand disinfection, 82%-94% would speak up towards nurses who violate a safety rule in medication preparation, and 59%-92% would question a doctor violating a safety rule in lumbar puncture. Several vignette attributes predicted the likelihood of speaking up. Perceived potential harm, anticipated discomfort, and decision difficulty were significant predictors of the likelihood of speaking up. Clinicians' willingness to speak up about patient safety is considerably affected by contextual factors. Physicians and nurses without managerial function report substantial discomfort with speaking up. Oncology departments should provide staff with clear guidance and trainings on when and how to voice safety concerns.

  15. Considerations Influencing Hispanic-American Mothers' Intergenerational Language Practices with Their Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Gloria Y.

    2013-01-01

    Using basic qualitative research methodology, the purpose for this dissertation study was to explore the language, social and learning considerations and subsequent actions taken by eight, bilingual, Hispanic-American mothers of children with autism between the ages of four and eight-years-old regarding speaking Spanish, English or both languages…

  16. Latina Mothers' Views of a Parent-to-Parent Support Group in the Special Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Tracy Gershwin; Milian, Madeline; Islas Lopez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Parent-professional partnership literature continues to emphasize the importance of including the parent voice. Spanish-speaking families are often excluded from such studies because of the language barrier. This article presents a qualitative interview study of eight Latina mothers of children with severe disabilities. All participants were…

  17. Leopards Are Kitty-Cats: Object Labeling by Mothers for Their Thirteen-Month-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Mervis, Cynthia A.

    1982-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that mothers would label objects with adult-basic level terms when talking to other adults, but would label the same objects with child-basic terms when speaking to their young children who were just starting to talk, even though these labels may be very much "incorrect" by adult standards. (Author/RH)

  18. Hidden Bilingualism: Ideological Influences on the Language Practices of Multilingual Migrant Mothers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Janice

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the challenges of minority language transmission in exogamous families in a society where linguistic and cultural homogeneity still prevails. Specifically, it investigates the macro and micro ideological influences that lead multilingual migrant mothers in Japan to speak Japanese to their children. Interview data with six Thai…

  19. Considerations Influencing Hispanic-American Mothers' Intergenerational Language Practices with Their Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Gloria Y.

    2013-01-01

    Using basic qualitative research methodology, the purpose for this dissertation study was to explore the language, social and learning considerations and subsequent actions taken by eight, bilingual, Hispanic-American mothers of children with autism between the ages of four and eight-years-old regarding speaking Spanish, English or both languages…

  20. Asian American Immigrant Parents Supporting Children with Autism: Perceptions of Fathers and Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hui-Ting; West, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Asian American immigrant parents supporting children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been understudied. The purpose of this qualitative study was to probe the perceptions of Mandarin-speaking immigrant mothers and fathers raising children with ASD in the United States. Ten participating parents were first-generation native…

  1. Hidden Bilingualism: Ideological Influences on the Language Practices of Multilingual Migrant Mothers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Janice

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the challenges of minority language transmission in exogamous families in a society where linguistic and cultural homogeneity still prevails. Specifically, it investigates the macro and micro ideological influences that lead multilingual migrant mothers in Japan to speak Japanese to their children. Interview data with six Thai…

  2. The mental health of Korean transnational mothers: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaemin; Agic, Branka; McKenzie, Kwame

    2014-12-01

    A recent migration trend from Korea is transnational family arrangement where mothers migrate with children to English-speaking countries, while the fathers stay in the home country. Mothers in these families may experience more challenges than other family members because they have to adjust to a new country, new parenting role and family separation. But little is known about their mental health. This article scopes the evidences in the literature on impact of transnational family arrangement and migration on the mental health of Korean transnational mothers. A comprehensive search was undertaken in 16 databases and 17 studies were identified. The evidence on the mental health of Korean transnational mothers was analyzed into two themes: (1) challenges and life difficulties, (2) psychological and emotional states. In relation to the life difficulties such as role changes, adaptation in the host country and lack of social support, the mothers reported anxiety, depression, increased psychological distress and feeling of isolation. Positive perceptions such as sense of empowerment and increased self-confidence were also reported. The evidence suggests that there may be a potential for vulnerability to mental health problems in Korean transnational mothers. More research is needed to assess their mental health and to identify the risk factors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Public speaking attitudes: does curriculum make a difference?

    PubMed

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Stone, Matthew D; Brundage, Shelley B; Zeigler, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    In light of infamous levels of fear associated with public speaking, businesses are training staff in communication effectiveness and universities are requiring courses in public speaking. A variety of approaches to individual training are available, but few studies have assessed effectiveness of group instruction, as in academic curricula. The specific purpose of this study was to compare changes in scores on measures of self-perceived confidence, competence, and apprehension associated with public speaking after two types of courses: one focused on knowledge of the vocal mechanism and mastering vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate, quality), and one addressing general communication theory and public speaking. Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in "Voice and Diction" at George Washington University (GWU) and 68 enrolled in "Fundamental Speech" at Florida State University completed questionnaires before and after the courses. Scores on Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale, Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker, and Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24, were compared within subjects (ie, prepost course) and between courses. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found on all measures: students reported less apprehension and more confidence and competence after the courses. No differences were found between the two courses when comparing the mean changes from pre- to postscore. Traditional public speaking curriculum of how to design and deliver a speech and curriculum tailored to the voice and speech mechanism succeeded in reducing public speaking apprehension and increasing feelings of confidence and competency for these undergraduate students. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Teenagers and the mothering experience.

    PubMed

    vonWindeguth, B J; Urbano, R C

    1989-01-01

    To determine the relationship between maternal age, perceived social support, and home environment to mother-child interaction. Thirty-three adolescent mother-child pairs and 33 older mother-child pairs were randomly selected from a pool of 63 adolescent mothers and 111 older mothers. The Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS), the Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ), and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were completed during a scheduled home visit. One way ANOVA and Multiple Correlation were used to analyze the data. Mother's sensitivity to cues and social-emotional growth-fostering from the NCAFS favored older mothers. Avoidance of restriction and punishment from the HOME favored older mothers. There was a significant relationship between perceived social support and mother-child interaction for both groups. Maternal behavior was related to mother's age. A mother's perception of the adequacy of her social support resources may be a critical factor in how she interacts with her child.

  5. Factors affecting enrollment in literacy studies for English- and Spanish-speaking cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongyan; Valenzuela, Veronica; Diaz, Patricia; Cella, David; Hahn, Elizabeth A

    2008-09-10

    Study participation bias can affect inferences regarding outcomes. The objective is to compare characteristics of participants and non-participants of two literacy studies. Two studies of literacy and health-related quality of life were conducted in English- and Spanish-speaking cancer patients. Patients had a range of literacy skills, and each enrolled patient received $20. Nine hundred and twenty-two English-speaking patients were approached. Among the 651 who met eligibility criteria, 420 were enrolled (64.5 per cent). Four hundred and eighty-seven Spanish-speaking patients were approached. Among the 455 who met eligibility criteria, 414 were enrolled (91.0 per cent) (p<0.001). Multiple imputations were performed to impute missing data. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that recruiting site was the only factor predictive of enrollment in Spanish-speaking patients. Age, education, and recruiting site were important predictors in English-speaking patients. Sensitivity analysis using patients with complete data generated similar results. Spanish-speaking patients enrolled at a much higher rate than English-speaking patients, which is encouraging for future research in this underserved population. One important literacy-related factor (education) did not affect enrollment in Spanish-speaking patients, suggesting that there was no selection bias in this study. Recruiting sites with more indigent patients and long clinic waiting times had higher enrollment, suggesting that monetary compensation and time availability may be important considerations in study participation.

  6. Parenting practices and expectations among Mexican mothers with young children.

    PubMed

    Solis-Camarar, P; Fox, R A

    1996-12-01

    Parenting practices and developmental expectations were examined in a sample of 221 Mexican mothers with very young children living in Guadalajara, Jalisco. They completed a Spanish version of the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC), a 100-item rating scale that measures parents' developmental expectations, discipline, and nurturing practices. The psychometric properties of the PBC for Mexican mothers, including test-retest reliabilities, were very similar to those found for mothers of young children in the United States. Younger Mexican mothers used more frequent discipline and less nurturing with their young children than older mothers did. Married mothers nurtured their children more than unmarried mothers; young, unmarried mothers nurtured their children the least. Lower nurturing scores were associated with lower education levels, and higher nurturing scores were associated with higher education levels. Mothers from higher socioeconomic levels held higher developmental expectations for their children, and they used less frequent discipline and more frequent nurturing practices than mothers from lower socioeconomic levels. These findings are consistent with those for mothers of young children in the United States.

  7. NOT Your Mother's PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Bruno V.

    2012-01-01

    The organization that claims to represent the voice and interests of K-12 students and their parents is the Parent Teacher Association, widely known as the PTA. The organization aims to provide "parents and families with a powerful voice to speak on behalf of every child while providing the best tools for parents to help their children be…

  8. Suzuki's Mother Tongue Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John

    1986-01-01

    Suzuki believed that all human beings are endowed with remarkable musical ability and can learn to play musical instruments in the same way they learn to speak. The Suzuki method of teaching music and its evolution in the United States are discussed. (RM)

  9. NOT Your Mother's PTA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Bruno V.

    2012-01-01

    The organization that claims to represent the voice and interests of K-12 students and their parents is the Parent Teacher Association, widely known as the PTA. The organization aims to provide "parents and families with a powerful voice to speak on behalf of every child while providing the best tools for parents to help their children be…

  10. Becoming lesbian mothers.

    PubMed

    Hequembourg, Amy L

    2007-01-01

    Lesbian mothering strategies are commonly theorized as instances of assimilationism or resistance. This essay critiques those approaches and presents a promising alternative using the conceptual framework of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Their concepts of "becoming" and "rhizoming" are utilized as mechanisms for understanding the inconsistencies and contradictions that constitute the subjectivities of two lesbian co-mothers. The essay concludes with the political implications of these analyses.

  11. Mothers' alexithymia, depression and anxiety levels and their association with the quality of mother-infant relationship: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yürümez, Esra; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Uğur, Çağatay; Uslu, Runa Idil; Kılıç, Birim Günay

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between mothers and their developmentally normal infants in terms of maternal alexithymia, depression and anxiety, and marital satisfaction. Fifty children between 18 and 48 months of age, and their mothers, were referred consecutively to the Infant Mental Health Unit of Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The sociodemographic features of the families and the depressive symptoms, anxiety, marital satisfaction and alexithymia levels of the mothers were assessed. The relationships between children in normal developmental stages and their mothers were evaluated and rated using a structured clinical procedure. There was a negative correlation between the mothers' alexithymia scores and the quality of the mother-infant relationship (p < 0.05). Mothers with high alexithymia showed higher depression and lower relationship qualities than mothers with low alexithymia, according to the correlation analysis. When depression and anxiety were controlled, high alexithymia levels were predictive of a low, impaired mother-infant relationship. Since alexithymia is a trait-like variable which has a negative correlation with impairment in a mother-infant relationship, it must be investigated in the assessment of mothers' interactions with their babies.

  12. Speak Up Speak Out Coalition Survey Results | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Comprehensive planning is a visionary planning process that integrates community values and land use policy. The Mayor of Duluth, Minnesota, directed the inclusion of two new values into the City’s comprehensive planning process to direct the community’s future, process: health and fairness. In order to understand the meanings of health and fairness that residents of the city hold, the Community Planning Department included questions in a city-wide survey of planning priorities. As a community organization reviewed the survey results that would inform the new directives, they realized that overburdened communities were underrepresented in the survey responses. To address this deficiency, the community organization asked the City of Duluth if they could conduct a survey of the underrepresented voices to ensure their input was included in the process. The Health in All Policies Coalition contacted the USEPA Office of Research and Development in Duluth, MN at the advice of the Planning Department. The support USEPA provided ensured that the Coalition could make recommendations to the City of Duluth based on systematically collected and analyzed data. This presentation will share the results of the survey. This presentation of the Speak Up Speak Out survey data represents support for local decision-making, technical assistance and data analysis. The data were collected and analyzed through advice and consultation with USEPA Office of Research and Development, an

  13. A comparison between adolescent mothers and adult mothers in terms of maternal and infant outcomes at follow-ups.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Aysun Kara; Orhon, Filiz Simsek; Baskan, Sevgi; Ulukol, Betul

    2013-03-01

    To determine the risk factors of adolescent pregnancies and to ascertain the effects of this condition on the maternal and infant outcomes. The study was carried out on 100 adolescent mothers less than 20 years of age and on a same number of adult mothers between 22 and 32 years of age and their infants. A socio-demographic attributes questionnaire form, a pregnancy follow-up and birth history form, and a mother and infant follow-up form were used. The mean age of the adolescent mothers was 17.8 ± 0.7 years and that of the adult mothers was 26 ± 0.3 years. Income level of 83% of the families of adolescent mothers and 69% of the families of adult mothers was below the poverty line (p < 0.05). Dropout rate (i.e. rate of those not attending any school) was 36% in the adolescent group and 21% in the adult group. Rate of exclusively breastfeeding during the first 2 months was 40% in adolescents and 62% in adults (p < 0.01). Higher rates of adolescent mothers felt themselves inadequate infant care and with 7% of them experiencing problems in accessing a healthcare institution. Properly following up adolescent pregnancies during prenatal and postnatal periods may be helpful for preventing the negative impacts on mother and infant health.

  14. The pitch of maternal voice: a comparison of mothers suffering from depressed mood and non-depressed mothers reading books to their infants.

    PubMed

    Reissland, Nadja; Shepherd, John; Herrera, Eisquel

    2003-02-01

    Research suggests that storybook reading promotes language development and that there is a relationship between maternal affective responses in relation to infant affect and language development. The purpose of this study is to relate maternal paralinguistic and verbal behaviour during storybook reading to maternal mood state. Mothers (n = 32) reporting depressed mood (as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were matched on age of baby (mean age = 6 months, mean age = 10 months), sex of baby, educational status of mother and parity with 32 non-depressed mothers. They were video- and audio-taped in their homes while reading a picture-book to their infants. Maternal textual and extra-textual utterances were transcribed and analysed in terms of mean length utterance (MLU), fundamental frequency and pitch modulation. There was an interaction between psychological well being and age group with regard to MLU for text read. Non-depressed mothers had a smaller MLU for younger babies in comparison with older babies, while depressed mothers showed no difference in their MLU. There was a main effect of psychological well being with depressed mothers speaking with a higher mean pitch and more modulations in their pitch, in comparison with non-depressed mothers. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction of the psychological well being of the mother and the mean fundamental frequency used when reading the text and when speaking to their child during the picture-book session. These differences in maternal speech indicate that mothers who are depressed are less attuned to their infants which might force the infant into self-regulatory patterns that eventually compromise the child's development.

  15. Students Speak with the ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-15

    Leland Melvin, NASA Associate Administrator for Education and two-time space shuttle astronaut, speaks to students from D.C.'s Stuart-Hobson Middle School at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Thursday, Nov. 15, 2012 in Washington. The students, participants from the Student Spaceflight Experiments Program (SSEP) conducted a live conversation with astronauts aboard the International Space Station. The downlink is an annual event held in honor of International Education Week, and was co-hosted with the Department of Education and the National Center for Earth and Space Science Education (NCESSE). Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Acculturation influences on AAPI adolescent-mother interactions and adolescents' sexual initiation.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis of data is to examine relationships among Asian American Pacific Islanders (AAPI) adolescents' level of acculturation, maternal influences, and age of sexual initiation. Selected predictive variables are based on the theoretical frameworks and literature review. The results indicate that for these adolescents speaking English at home was positively associated with maternal sexual discussion, mothers' perceptions of connectedness with their adolescents, adolescents' perceived maternal sexual expectations, and later sexual initiation at Wave 1. Adolescents' years of U.S. residency are positively associated with adolescents' level of perceived connectedness with their mothers and later sexual initiation at Wave 2. Adolescents' level of acculturation influence how they interacted with their mothers, perceived their mothers' sexual expectations, and when they decided to initiate sexual intercourse. Interventions to delay AAPI adolescents' sexual debut should consider factors related to AAPI adolescents' and their mothers' levels of acculturation.

  17. Retention in mental health care of Portuguese-speaking patients

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Marta; Cook, Benjamin; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Alegría, Margarita; Kinrys, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    We compared service outcomes of dedicated language and cultural competency services in adequacy of care, ER, and inpatient care among Portuguese-speaking patients in ethnic- and non-ethnic-specific behavioral health clinics. We assessed adequacy of mental health care, and use of inpatient emergency department among Portuguese-speaking patients, comparing individuals receiving care from a culturally and linguistically competent mental health care setting (the Portuguese Mental Health Program [PMHP]) with usual mental health care in a community health care system in the USA. Propensity score matching was used to balance patients in treatment and control groups on gender, marital status, age, diagnosis of mental disorder, and insurance status. We used de-identified, longitudinal, administrative data of 854 Portuguese-speaking patients receiving care from the PMHP and 541 Portuguese-speaking patients receiving usual care from 2005–2008. Adequate treatment was defined as receipt of at least eight outpatient psychotherapy visits, or at least four outpatient visits of which one was a psychopharmacological visit. PMHP patients were more likely to receive adequate care. No differences were found in rates of ER use or inpatient mental health care. The present study suggests increased quality of care for patients that have contact with a clinic that dedicates resources specifically to a minority/immigrant group. Advantages of this setting include greater linguistic and cultural concordance among providers and patients. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which culturally appropriate mental health care settings benefit minority/immigrant patients. PMID:23427258

  18. Retention in mental health care of Portuguese-speaking patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marta; Cook, Benjamin; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Alegría, Margarita; Kinrys, Gustavo

    2013-02-01

    We compared service outcomes of dedicated language and cultural competency services in adequacy of care, ER, and inpatient care among Portuguese-speaking patients in ethnic- and non-ethnic-specific behavioral health clinics. We assessed adequacy of mental health care, and use of inpatient emergency department among Portuguese-speaking patients, comparing individuals receiving care from a culturally and linguistically competent mental health care setting (the Portuguese Mental Health Program [PMHP]) with usual mental health care in a community health care system in the USA. Propensity score matching was used to balance patients in treatment and control groups on gender, marital status, age, diagnosis of mental disorder, and insurance status. We used de-identified, longitudinal, administrative data of 854 Portuguese-speaking patients receiving care from the PMHP and 541 Portuguese-speaking patients receiving usual care from 2005-2008. Adequate treatment was defined as receipt of at least eight outpatient psychotherapy visits, or at least four outpatient visits of which one was a psychopharmacological visit. PMHP patients were more likely to receive adequate care. No differences were found in rates of ER use or inpatient mental health care. The present study suggests increased quality of care for patients that have contact with a clinic that dedicates resources specifically to a minority/immigrant group. Advantages of this setting include greater linguistic and cultural concordance among providers and patients. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which culturally appropriate mental health care settings benefit minority/immigrant patients.

  19. Parents' Perspectives on Navigating the Work of Speaking Up in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Lyndon, Audrey; Wisner, Kirsten; Holschuh, Carrie; Fagan, Kelly M; Franck, Linda S

    2017-08-01

    To describe parents' perspectives and likelihood of speaking up about safety concerns in the NICU and identify barriers and facilitators to parents speaking up. Exploratory, qualitatively driven, mixed-methods design using questionnaires, interviews, and observations with parents of newborns in the NICU. The qualitative investigation was based on constructivist grounded theory. Quantitative measures included ratings and free-text responses about the likelihood of speaking up in response to a hypothetical scenario about lack of clinician hand hygiene. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were integrated in the final interpretation. A 50-bed U.S. academic medical center, open-bay NICU. Forty-six parents completed questionnaires, 14 of whom were also interviewed. Most parents (75%) rated themselves likely or very likely to speak up in response to lack of hand hygiene; 25% of parents rated themselves unlikely to speak up in the same situation. Parents engaged in a complex process of Navigating the work of speaking up in the NICU that entailed learning the NICU, being deliberate about decisions to speak up, and at times choosing silence as a safety strategy. Decisions about how and when to speak up were influenced by multiple factors including knowing the newborn, knowing the team, having a defined pathway to voice concerns, clinician approachability, clinician availability and friendliness, and clinician responsiveness. To engage parents as full partners in safety, clinicians need to recognize the complex social and personal dimensions of the NICU experience that influence parents' willingness to speak up about their safety concerns. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Robot mother ship design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2000-07-01

    Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

  1. Pediatric-based intervention to motivate mothers to seek follow-up for depression screens: Motivating Our Mothers (MOM) trial

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Erik Fernandez y; Joseph, Jill; Wilson, Machelle D.; Hinton, Ladson; Simon, Gregory; Ludman, Evette; Scott, Fiona; Kravitz, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the initial effectiveness of a novel, pediatric office-based intervention in motivating mothers to seek further assessment of positive depression screens. METHODS In this pilot randomized controlled trial, English-speaking mothers (n=104) with positive 2-question depression screens and presenting with children 0–12 years old for well-child care to a general pediatric training clinic received interventions from a trained research assistant. The Motivating Our Mothers (MOM) intervention included office-based written and verbal targeted depression education and motivational messages encouraging further depression assessment and a semi-structured telephone “booster” delivered 2 days later. The control intervention included non-targeted written and verbal messages and 2 days later, an attention control telephone survey. Both groups received a list of depression care resources. The primary outcome was the proportion of mothers in each group who reported trying to contact any of 6 types of resources to discuss the positive screen at 2 weeks post-intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01453790). RESULTS Despite 6 contact attempts, 10 MOM and 9 control mothers were lost to follow-up. More mothers in the MOM intervention tried to contact a resource compared to control (73.8% vs. 53.5%, difference 20.3%, 95% CI for difference −0.1% to 38.5%, P = 0.052). CONCLUSIONS Mothers receiving the MOM intervention made more attempts to contact a resource for follow-up of positive depression screens. If found effective in larger studies, MOM may prove a promising approach for motivating depression screen-positive mothers identified in general pediatric settings within and beyond the postpartum period, to seek further depression assessment and support. PMID:25906700

  2. SpeakApps 2: Speaking Practice in a Foreign Language through ICT Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Christine; Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Jager, Sake; Prizel-Kania, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    SpeakApps 2 is a project with support of the Lifelong Learning Programme, Accompanying Measures. It follows up on the work and results reached during the KA2 project "SpeakApps: Oral production and interaction in a foreign language through ICT tools". The overarching aim of SpeakApps 2 is to further enhance Europeans' language learning…

  3. Student Satisfaction with EFL Speaking Classes: Relating Speaking Self-Efficacy and Skills Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asakereh, Ahmad; Dehghannezhad, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between student satisfaction with speaking classes, speaking skills self-efficacy beliefs, and speaking skills achievement. To this end, one hundred Iranian EFL undergraduate students filled out two questionnaires; a research-made and pilot-tested questionnaire for student satisfaction with speaking…

  4. Student Satisfaction with EFL Speaking Classes: Relating Speaking Self-Efficacy and Skills Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asakereh, Ahmad; Dehghannezhad, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between student satisfaction with speaking classes, speaking skills self-efficacy beliefs, and speaking skills achievement. To this end, one hundred Iranian EFL undergraduate students filled out two questionnaires; a research-made and pilot-tested questionnaire for student satisfaction with speaking…

  5. Promoting Speaking Accuracy and Fluency in Foreign Language Classroom: A Closer Look at English Speaking Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinçer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas; Göksu, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the literature about teaching and learning English speaking in depth and draw main guidelines about how to increase speaking accuracy and fluency in language classrooms for both English language learners and teachers. The first section of the paper is about the general features of speaking skills. The second section…

  6. An Exploration of Kenyan Public Speaking Patterns with Implications for the American Introductory Public Speaking Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ann Neville

    2002-01-01

    Examines the public speaking patterns of Kenya, and compares those findings to the content of American introductory public speaking courses. Finds that most frequently mentioned areas of difference between American and Kenyan public speaking were establishment of speaker credibility, structure of the speech, selection of supporting materials,…

  7. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    PubMed

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction.

  9. Working Mothers, Breastfeeding, and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace barriers contribute to low rates of breastfeeding. Research shows that supportive state laws correlate with higher rates, yet by 2009, only 23 states had adopted any laws to encourage breastfeeding in the workplace. Federal law provided virtually no protection to working mothers until the 2010 enactment of the “reasonable break time” provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This provision nonetheless leaves many working mothers uncovered, requires break time only to pump for (not feed) children younger than 1 year, and exempts small employers that demonstrate hardship. Public health professionals should explore ways to improve legal support for all working mothers wishing to breastfeed. Researchers should identify the laws that are most effective and assist policymakers in translating them into policy. PMID:21164100

  10. Working mothers, breastfeeding, and the law.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Lindsey; Moulton, Anthony D

    2011-02-01

    Workplace barriers contribute to low rates of breastfeeding. Research shows that supportive state laws correlate with higher rates, yet by 2009, only 23 states had adopted any laws to encourage breastfeeding in the workplace. Federal law provided virtually no protection to working mothers until the 2010 enactment of the "reasonable break time" provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This provision nonetheless leaves many working mothers uncovered, requires break time only to pump for (not feed) children younger than 1 year, and exempts small employers that demonstrate hardship. Public health professionals should explore ways to improve legal support for all working mothers wishing to breastfeed. Researchers should identify the laws that are most effective and assist policymakers in translating them into policy.

  11. A cross-sectional analysis of perinatal depressive symptoms among Punjabi-speaking women: are they at risk?

    PubMed

    Sanghera, Raman; Wong, Sabrina T; Brown, Helen

    2015-07-22

    Depression is the leading cause of disability for childbearing women. We examined three specific research questions among Punjabi-speaking women residing in the Fraser Health Authority: 1) What are the prevalence rates of prenatal depressive symptoms? 2) Do Punjabi-speaking women have a higher likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms compared to English-speaking women after controlling for age, level of education and financial worries, and 3) Given the same level of exposure to level of education and financial worries, do Punjabi-speaking women have the same likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms? Data originated from the Fraser Health Authority prenatal registration database consisting of pregnant women (n = 9684) who completed a prenatal registration form between June 2009 and August 2010; 9.1 % indicated speaking Punjabi. The Whooley Depression Screen measured depressive symptoms. Chi-square tests and logistic multiple regression were used to examine the rates of reporting depressive symptoms among Punjabi-speaking women compared to English-speaking women. Punjabi-speaking women are at a higher risk for perinatal depressive symptoms. Women needing an interpreter were more likely to report prenatal depressive symptoms compared to English-speaking women. All registrants who reported financial worries had four and a half times the odds of reporting depressive symptoms. The impact of financial worries was significantly greater in the English-speaking women compared to the Punjabi-speaking women needing an interpreter. Using an established screening device, Punjabi-speaking women were found to be at higher risk for prenatal depressive symptoms.

  12. Attachment classifications among 18-month-old children of adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, Lynne; Flanagan, Patricia; Seifer, Ronald; Brunner, Susan; Lester, Barry

    2002-01-01

    To determine (1) patterns of secure vs insecure attachment relationships in infants of adolescent and nonadolescent mothers and (2) if these patterns are mediated by parenting characteristics, including depression, self-esteem, parenting stress, child abuse potential, psychological distress, rating of infant temperament, and the caregiving environment. Fifty-one adolescent mothers and their 18-month-old infants were compared with 76 nonadolescent mothers and their 18-month-old infants. Infant attachment classifications were assessed via the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Maternal and infant characteristics were obtained through self-report measures. There were no differences in attachment classification between infants of adolescent mothers and nonadolescent mothers. Secure attachment classification was found in 67% of the infants of adolescent mothers and 62% of the infants of nonadolescent mothers. There were significant differences in the self-reported maternal characteristics. Adolescent mothers reported lower self-esteem (P<.05), more parenting stress (P<.05), more child abuse potential (P<.05), and provided a lower quality of home environment (P<.05) than nonadolescent mothers. Adolescent mothers also rated their infants as having a higher activity level (P<.05) than infants born to nonadolescent mothers. In multivariate analysis, none of these variables or social classes were found to affect attachment classification. Infants of adolescent and nonadolescent mothers show similar patterns of attachment. Adolescent and nonadolescent mothers show substantial differences in parenting characteristics and in how they rate their infants' temperaments. However, these differences do not seem to impair the infant-mother attachment relationship.

  13. Anticipatory guidance preferences of Latina migrant farmworker mothers.

    PubMed

    Kilanowski, Jill F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to learn preferences of Latina migrant farmworker mothers regarding the presentation of health education materials by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of numerous mixed-media samples. This community-based participatory study was qualitative and descriptive in design. Focus groups were conducted in Spanish in four Midwest migrant camps with a convenience sample of mothers (N = 31). Adult learning and cultural care theories guided the study. Various modes of educational materials on various topics were presented. Mothers preferred comic book-style handouts, games, food replicas, text in English/Spanish, and digital video discs or digital versatile discs, but almost none of them had media-playing equipment. They did not like black-and-white photos or cartoon-like illustrations. Identified themes of importance were colored illustrations, sizes mothers could easily carry in purses, and limited verbiage on a page. The knowledge gained in this study will be used to customize health promotion interventions that are sensitive to migrant farmworker-preferred learning styles. The findings from this study can inform other interventions with Latino populations and serve as a prototype for other populations of immigrant non-English-speaking mothers. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Satisfaction With Communication in Primary Care for Spanish-Speaking and English-Speaking Parents.

    PubMed

    Flower, Kori B; Skinner, Asheley C; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan; Perrin, Eliana M

    Effective communication with primary care physicians is important yet incompletely understood for Spanish-speaking parents. We predicted lower satisfaction among Spanish-speaking compared to English-speaking Latino and non-Latino parents. Cross-sectional analysis at 2-month well visits within the Greenlight study at 4 pediatric resident clinics. Parents reported satisfaction with 14 physician communication items using the validated Communication Assessment Tool (CAT). High satisfaction was defined as "excellent" on each CAT item. Mean estimations compared satisfaction for communication items among Spanish- and English-speaking Latinos and non-Latinos. We used generalized linear regression modeling, adjusted for parent age, education, income, and clinic site. Among Spanish-speaking parents, we compared visits conducted in Spanish with and without an interpreter, and in English. Compared to English-speaking Latino (n = 127) and non-Latino parents (n = 432), fewer Spanish-speaking parents (n = 303) reported satisfaction with 14 communication items. No significant differences were found between English-speaking Latinos and non-Latinos. Greatest differences were found in the use of a greeting that made the parent comfortable (59.4% of Spanish-speaking Latinos endorsing "excellent" vs 77.5% English-speaking Latinos, P < .01) and discussing follow-up (62.5% of Spanish-speaking Latinos vs 79.8% English-speaking Latinos, P < .01). After adjusting for parent age, education, income, and study site, Spanish-speaking Latinos were still less likely to report high satisfaction with these communication items. Satisfaction was not different among Spanish-speaking parents when the physician spoke Spanish versus used an interpreter. Satisfaction with physician communication was associated with language but not ethnicity. Spanish-speaking parents less frequently report satisfaction with communication, and innovative solutions to enhance communication quality are needed

  15. Effects of sugar ingestion expectancies on mother-child interactions.

    PubMed

    Hoover, D W; Milich, R

    1994-08-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that commonly reported negative effects of sugar on children's behavior may be due to parental expectancies. A challenge study design was employed, in which thirty-five 5- to 7-year-old boys reported by their mothers to be behaviorally "sugar sensitive," and their mothers, were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, mothers were told their children had received a large dose of sugar, whereas in the control condition mothers were told their sons received a placebo; all children actually received the placebo (aspartame). Mothers and sons were videotaped while interacting together and each mother was then questioned about the interaction. Mothers in the sugar expectancy condition rated their children as significantly more hyperactive. Behavioral observations revealed these mothers exercised more control by maintaining physical closeness, as well as showing trends to criticize, look at, and talk to their sons more than did control mothers. For several variables, the expectancy effect was stronger for cognitively rigid mothers.

  16. Bioactive components of mother vinegar.

    PubMed

    Aykın, Elif; Budak, Nilgün H; Güzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

    2015-01-01

    Mother vinegar is extracellular cellulose and is a thick, hard layer formed by the acetic acid bacteria on the surface of vinegar. The aim of the study was to determine the bioactive components of mother vinegar produced from various vinegars. Mothers of vinegar were produced during vinegar productions using surface culture method from apple and pomegranate juices. Titration acidity, pH, total dry matter, ash, mineral substances, total carbohydrate, total phenolic substance, phenolic components, and total antioxidant activity were determined in samples. It was found that mother of pomegranate vinegar had higher antioxidant capacity and total phenolic substance compared to samples of mother of apple vinegar. According to standards, gallic acid and chlorogenic acid were dominant phenolic compounds in mother of apple vinegar, whereas gallic acid was the major phenolic compounds in mother of pomegranate vinegar. The mother vinegars had high Fe contents. It was concluded that mother of vinegar produced by natural acetic acid bacteria contains significant bioactive substances.

  17. Teaching Public Speaking Using Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Candida

    Rather than relegating Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to history of rhetoric courses, where it is regarded with only an antiquarian interest, it can be used as a practical text for introductory public speaking courses. The advantages would be threefold: (1) its emphasis is essentially on rhetoric as a speaking art rather than an art of…

  18. A Public Speaking Course for EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    The outline of a 2-hour-per-week public speaking course developed over the past 3 years for sophomore English language majors at National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, is described. The course is built around rhetorical modes, with informative speaking (e.g., process and comparison/contrast), the focus of the first semester and persuasive speaking…

  19. Pragmatic Activities for the Speaking Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Being able to speak naturally and appropriately with others in a variety of situations is an important goal for many English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. Because the skill of speaking invariably involves interaction with people and using language to reach objectives (e.g., ordering food, making friends, asking for favors), it is crucial…

  20. Reading to Speak: Integrating Oral Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yun

    2009-01-01

    According to Ur (1996, 120), "of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important." Indeed, whether for business or pleasure, a primary motivation to learn a second language is to be able to converse with speakers of that language. However, in addition to being an important…

  1. Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineman, Carol A.; Ross, Amparo

    The project titled "Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped" was established to research existing evaluation instruments in language other than English, validate the tests as well as additional translations where needed, and develop a procedural manual for distribution to utilize in evaluating non-English speaking handicapped students. The…

  2. Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineman, Carol A.; Ross, Amparo

    The project titled "Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped" was established to research existing evaluation instruments in language other than English, validate the tests as well as additional translations where needed, and develop a procedural manual for distribution to utilize in evaluating non-English speaking handicapped students. The…

  3. Teaching Public Speaking Using Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Candida

    Rather than relegating Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to history of rhetoric courses, where it is regarded with only an antiquarian interest, it can be used as a practical text for introductory public speaking courses. The advantages would be threefold: (1) its emphasis is essentially on rhetoric as a speaking art rather than an art of…

  4. Phonological Development in Urdu Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Farhat

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study that examined phonological features of a group of 10 Urdu speaking children (20 to 30 months) to determine if a general theory of language learning can be deduced on the basis of Jakobson's theory of language universals. Addresses the question of how far such a theory is applicable to Urdu speaking children acquiring their native…

  5. Chicago's Spanish-Speaking Population: Selected Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Dept. of Development and Planning, IL.

    Based on selected data from the 1970 census, this report provides a general description of Chicago's Spanish-speaking population's: (1) general population characteristics; (2) age and family characteristics; (3) income; (4) labor force characteristics; (5) education; and (6) housing. Using the Census Bureau's definition of Spanish speaking (all…

  6. Integrating Speaking Skills into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Susan Monroe, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Stressing the importance of incorporating speech skills throughout the curriculum, the articles in this journal provide ideas for developing speaking skills in all subjects and at all levels. The titles of the articles and their authors include the following: (1) "Speaking Skills: A Few Tips from an Old Timer" (Geoffrey R. Butler); (2)…

  7. Language Anxiety: Differentiating Writing and Speaking Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yuh-show; Horwitz, Elaine K.; Schallert, Diane L.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the links between second-language classroom anxiety and second-language writing anxiety, as well a their associations with second-language speaking and writing achievement. Findings suggest that second-language classroom anxiety is a more general type of anxiety about learning a second language with a strong speaking-anxiety element,…

  8. Mental health outcomes of widowed and married mothers after war.

    PubMed

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2012-02-01

    We assessed prevalence rates of mental disorders in 206 mothers who had experienced the Kosovo war 10 years previously: 100 lone mothers widowed by the war, 71 non-bereaved married mothers, and 35 married mothers bereaved since the war (loss of family other than husband). A total of 96% of widowed lone mothers reported a major depressive episode, an anxiety disorder or a substance use disorder as compared with 54.9% and 60% in the married groups. Furthermore, 45% of widowed lone mothers reported current suicide risk as compared with 16.9% and 22.9% in the married samples. War-related widowhood combined with lone motherhood constitutes a significant factor for elevated psychopathology.

  9. Out in the country: rural sexual minority mothers.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Julia A; Horne, Sharon G; Levitt, Heidi M; Reeves, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Rural and urban sexual minority mothers' parenting experiences related to sexual orientation were compared. Participants were 414 mothers in same-sex relationships with at least one child under the age of 18 years living in their home who was planned with their current partner. Rural mothers were more likely to be biological parents and not adoptive parents. Rural mothers reported higher rates of discrimination from strangers and people in service or helping professions. Although outness for rural and urban mothers did not differ, for children, classmates' parents and neighbors were less likely to know the family's status in rural areas. Rural and urban mothers did not differ on internalized homophobia, social support, or stigma consciousness. Clinical and policy implications are discussed.

  10. Literal and Metaphorical Advocacy: Differentiating the Limited Preparation Speaking Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, C. Thomas, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that a substantive differentiation of extemporaneous and impromptu forensic speaking events is possible and appropriate. Offers suggestions to distinguish the literal argumentative skills inherent to extemporaneous speaking from the metaphorical advocacy ideally inherent in impromptu speaking. (PRA)

  11. Factors associated with breastfeeding initiation in adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis-Kyrus, Katherine; Valentine, Christina; DeFranco, Emily

    2013-11-01

    To identify the most influential factors on breastfeeding initiation in adolescent mothers in order to identify the highest risk population to focus education and support services. Retrospective population-based cohort study of all non-anomalous live births in Ohio (2006-2007). Breastfeeding initiation rates were compared between adolescent mothers age ≤ 19 years and a reference group age >19 years. A multivariate logistic regression model assessed the association between breastfeeding initiation in adolescent mothers while adjusting for important concomitant risk factors including race, socioeconomic, demographic, prenatal, and delivery factors. Of 308,380 births during the study period, following exclusions there were 30,402 mothers ≤ 19 years of age (10.5% of study population) and 257,840 mothers age >19 years. Of adolescent mothers, 44% initiated breastfeeding compared with 65% of older mothers, P < .001. Adolescents were 33% less likely to breastfeed after adjusting for important coexisting factors, adjusted relative risk 0.77 (95% CI 0.75-0.80). Socioeconomic factors had the most significant influence on breastfeeding initiation in adolescent mothers. Adolescent mothers who have the least social support and are socioeconomically disadvantaged are the least likely to breastfeed their newborn infants. In addition, maternal perception, societal barriers, and a lack of prenatal intervention contribute unique barriers to breastfeeding in adolescence. Opportunities exist for school programs, baby-friendly hospitals, and postpartum education to improve breastfeeding rates in this population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Contrast between Mothers' Assessments of Child Malnutrition and Physical Anthropometry in Rural Mexico: A Mixed Methods Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Bernardo; Martinez-Andrade, Gloria; Huerfano, Nazly; Ryan, Gery W.; Martinez, Homero

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare mothers' assessments of nutritional status with anthropometric measures and gain further insights into mothers' reasons for their judgment. Design: Each mother was asked to assess the nutritional status of her child and 2 other children and to compare all 3. Rates for "hits" and "misses" between mothers'…

  13. A Contrast between Mothers' Assessments of Child Malnutrition and Physical Anthropometry in Rural Mexico: A Mixed Methods Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Bernardo; Martinez-Andrade, Gloria; Huerfano, Nazly; Ryan, Gery W.; Martinez, Homero

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare mothers' assessments of nutritional status with anthropometric measures and gain further insights into mothers' reasons for their judgment. Design: Each mother was asked to assess the nutritional status of her child and 2 other children and to compare all 3. Rates for "hits" and "misses" between mothers'…

  14. MY MOTHER, MY STORY.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Joanne

    2017-03-01

    This piece returns to the writer's memoir essays about her mother's chronic lung disease to examine the relationship between the act of caregiving and the act of writing. In arguing for important differences between the clinical, healing imperatives of narrative medicine and the primacy for the writer of self-reflection, personal need and career, the essay demonstrates how writing remains in many ways at odds with the obligations and the hopes of caregiving. At the same time, the essay argues that writing her mother's stories of illness holds the potential for both honor and mutuality-and can, in fact, constitute a form of caregiving.

  15. Mother, may I ...?

    PubMed

    Bourn, S

    1994-01-01

    If you've been working in EMS for much more than a week, the title of this column probably evoked some sort of visceral response from you--and not a positive one. The phrase "Mother, may I...?" has long been attached to EMS systems that require EMTs and paramedics to call their base hospitals prior to performing most interventions or delivering medications. Where the rub comes in is that most field people I know would prefer a little more leeway, something like a "Mother, I'm going out now" type of system.

  16. Aspiration of a speaking valve

    PubMed Central

    Schembri, John; Cortis, Kelvin; Mallia Azzopardi, Charles; Montefort, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a relatively common and serious condition that can result in a spectrum of presentations ranging from incidental to acutely life-threatening. Described here is a case of aspiration of a tracheo-oesophageal speaking valve through a permanent tracheostomy that went unnoticed for a number of years, and an overview of the technique used for its removal. A 70-year-old ex-heavy smoker with a permanent tracheo-oesophageal fistula presented with a relatively recent history of increasing shortness of breath, sputum purulence and haemoptysis. Further investigation with a CT scan and bronchoscopy revealed the presence of a foreign body within his right lower lobe bronchus which was later removed by advancing a flexible bronchoscope over a rigid one. PMID:23861275

  17. To speak and be heard.

    PubMed

    Marty, M E; Guinn, D E; Greenfield, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is excerpted from the Park Ridge Center for the Study of Health, Faith, and Ethics 28-page handbook entitled "Religion and Public Discourse: Principles and Guidelines for Religious Participants." These principles are the product of a three-year research project conducted by the Center. The project "To Speak and Be Heard" is based upon a wide range of resources from within the participants' religious traditions, including practices, rituals, and tenets of faith. While this project grew out of the specific controversies around the Cairo Conference, the principles of civil discourse spelled out in this document are general in application and may be used to facilitate constructive public dialogue. This article also discusses the nature of civil discourse in the public square, covenants of conversation, engaging the other, living with conflict during and after conversation and argument, and the hope of civil discourse.

  18. Speaking C++ as a native

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroustrup, Bjarne

    2001-08-01

    C++ supports several styles ("multiple paradigms") of programming. This allows great flexibility, notational convenience, maintainability, and close-to-optimal performance. Programmers who don't know the basic native C++ styles and techniques "speak" C++ with a thick accent, limiting themselves to relatively restrictive pidgin dialects. Here, I present language features such as classes, class hierarchies, abstract classes, and templates, together with the fundamental programming styles they support. In particular, I show how to provide generic algorithms, function objects, access objects, and delayed evaluation as needed to build and use flexible and efficient libraries. The aim is to give an idea of what's possible to provide, and some understanding of the fundamental techniques of modern C++ libraries.

  19. Effect of women’s groups and volunteer peer counselling on rates of mortality, morbidity, and health behaviours in mothers and children in rural Malawi (MaiMwana): a factorial, cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewycka, Sonia; Mwansambo, Charles; Rosato, Mikey; Kazembe, Peter; Phiri, Tambosi; Mganga, Andrew; Chapota, Hilda; Malamba, Florida; Kainja, Esther; Newell, Marie-Louise; Greco, Giulia; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Vergnano, Stefania; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Women’s groups and health education by peer counsellors can improve the health of mothers and children. We assessed their effects on mortality and breastfeeding rates in rural Malawi. Methods We did a 2×2 factorial, cluster-randomised trial in 185 888 people in Mchinji district. 48 equal-sized clusters were randomly allocated to four groups with a computer-generated number sequence. 24 facilitators guided groups through a community action cycle to tackle maternal and child health problems. 72 trained volunteer peer counsellors made home visits at five timepoints during pregnancy and after birth to support breastfeeding and infant care. Primary outcomes for the women’s group intervention were maternal, perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates (MMR, PMR, NMR, and IMR, respectively); and for the peer counselling were IMR and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered as ISRCTN06477126. Findings We monitored outcomes of 26 262 births between 2005 and 2009. In a factorial model adjusted only for clustering and the volunteer peer counselling intervention, in women’s group areas, for years 2 and 3, we noted non-significant decreases in NMR (odds ratio 0·93, 0·64–1·35) and MMR (0·54, 0·28–1·04). After adjustment for parity, socioeconomic quintile, and baseline measures, effects were larger for NMR (0·85, 0·59–1·22) and MMR (0·48, 0·26–0·91). Because of the interaction between the two interventions, a stratified analysis was done. For women’s groups, in adjusted analyses, MMR fell by 74% (0·26, 0·10–0·70), and NMR by 41% (0·59, 0·40–0·86) in areas with no peer counsellors, but there was no effect in areas with counsellors (1·09, 0·40–2·98, and 1·38, 0·75–2·54). Factorial analysis for the peer counselling intervention for years 1–3 showed a fall in IMR of 18% (0·82, 0·67–1·00) and an improvement in EBF rates (2·42, 1·48–3·96). The

  20. Effect of women's groups and volunteer peer counselling on rates of mortality, morbidity, and health behaviours in mothers and children in rural Malawi (MaiMwana): a factorial, cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lewycka, Sonia; Mwansambo, Charles; Rosato, Mikey; Kazembe, Peter; Phiri, Tambosi; Mganga, Andrew; Chapota, Hilda; Malamba, Florida; Kainja, Esther; Newell, Marie-Louise; Greco, Giulia; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Vergnano, Stefania; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

    2013-05-18

    Women's groups and health education by peer counsellors can improve the health of mothers and children. We assessed their effects on mortality and breastfeeding rates in rural Malawi. We did a 2×2 factorial, cluster-randomised trial in 185,888 people in Mchinji district. 48 equal-sized clusters were randomly allocated to four groups with a computer-generated number sequence. 24 facilitators guided groups through a community action cycle to tackle maternal and child health problems. 72 trained volunteer peer counsellors made home visits at five timepoints during pregnancy and after birth to support breastfeeding and infant care. Primary outcomes for the women's group intervention were maternal, perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates (MMR, PMR, NMR, and IMR, respectively); and for the peer counselling were IMR and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered as ISRCTN06477126. We monitored outcomes of 26,262 births between 2005 and 2009. In a factorial model adjusted only for clustering and the volunteer peer counselling intervention, in women's group areas, for years 2 and 3, we noted non-significant decreases in NMR (odds ratio 0.93, 0.64-1.35) and MMR (0.54, 0.28-1.04). After adjustment for parity, socioeconomic quintile, and baseline measures, effects were larger for NMR (0.85, 0.59-1.22) and MMR (0.48, 0.26-0.91). Because of the interaction between the two interventions, a stratified analysis was done. For women's groups, in adjusted analyses, MMR fell by 74% (0.26, 0.10-0.70), and NMR by 41% (0.59, 0.40-0.86) in areas with no peer counsellors, but there was no effect in areas with counsellors (1.09, 0.40-2.98, and 1.38, 0.75-2.54). Factorial analysis for the peer counselling intervention for years 1-3 showed a fall in IMR of 18% (0.82, 0.67-1.00) and an improvement in EBF rates (2.42, 1.48-3.96). The results of the stratified, adjusted analysis showed a 36% reduction in IMR (0.64, 0.48-0.85) but no

  1. Stroke morbidity in Swedish- and Finnish-speaking populations of Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    Lammintausta, Aino; Lehtonen, Aapo; Immonen-Raiha, Pirjo; Kaarisalo, Minna; Torppa, Jorma; Airaksinen, K E Juhani; Salomaa, Veikko

    2009-04-01

    To examine differences in the morbidity and mortality of stroke between the Finnish- and Swedish-speaking populations in Turku, taking into account the socioeconomic differences between these groups. The population-based FINMONICA and FINSTROKE stroke registers recorded 5,135 stroke events among persons aged 25-99 years in Turku during 1988-1998. Events in persons aged > or =75 years were not registered in 1993-1995. Information on these persons' native language and socioeconomic status (SES) (measured by taxable income, profession and years of education) were obtained by record linkage with the files of Statistics Finland. Swedish-speaking men had a lower attack rate of ischaemic stroke than Finnish-speaking men (270, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 214-326 versus 370, 95% CI 352-389, per 100,000 inhabitants per year) and the difference remained significant after adjustment for SES. Among women, the attack rates of ischaemic stroke were similar in both language groups. The attack rate of ischaemic stroke was lower among Swedish-speaking than among Finnish-speaking men. This difference was not totally explained by the higher SES of the Swedish-speaking population.

  2. Intellectually Limited Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Ruth K.; Cohen, Herbert J.

    The paper examines whether a relationship exists between intellectual limitation on the mother's part and unfavorable outcomes for her children. The scope of the problem is examined and the difficulties inherent in estimating prevalence are noted. The issue of child neglect, rather than abuse is shown to be a major problem among institutionalized…

  3. A Mother's Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Patricia H.

    2001-01-01

    A mother writes of her early years with her son as a single parent and the difficult years with twin younger siblings when she was trying to find a diagnosis and help for her son. Her son is 9 years old now, and she reflects on her experiences. (Author/CR)

  4. Mothers and Daughters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Sylvia

    1997-01-01

    Sylvia Barnard, a classics professor at State University of New York at Albany, discusses growing up on a dairy farm in western Massachusetts; the influence of her mother's college education at Mount Holyoke; her own educational experiences, including those at Yale University where she obtained her doctorate; and her relationship with her…

  5. The Superstrong Black Mother

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sinikka; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Baltimore mother Toya Graham became a viral video sensation after being filmed yelling at and hitting her teen son. Graham, who is Black, was trying to stop her son from joining the protests following Freddie Gray’s death in police custody in Baltimore in April 2015. Dubbed “mother of the year,” news outlets applauded Graham for her fierce determination to keep her son out of harm’s way by any means necessary. The media and ensuing public response to the video are illuminating for what they say about cultural notions of Black motherhood: the good Black mom should be superstrong to protect her children, but she is also responsible for controlling her children and preventing them from getting into trouble. In celebrating Graham, the media was implicitly condemning all the other mothers whose children participated in the protests—that is, the mothers who did not prevent their children from “senseless” rioting against institutional racism in policing. PMID:27134576

  6. Mothers in Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…

  7. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  8. Contemporary Single Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiduson, Bernice T.

    Fifty Caucasian, never-married single mothers aged 18-30, who had opted to keep their babies, were studied longitudinally from the last trimester of pregnancy through the first three years of their children's lives in order to learn the extent to which they had reinterpreted traditional roles and responsibilities and had restructured their lives.…

  9. Contemporary Single Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiduson, Bernice T.

    Fifty Caucasian, never-married single mothers aged 18-30, who had opted to keep their babies, were studied longitudinally from the last trimester of pregnancy through the first three years of their children's lives in order to learn the extent to which they had reinterpreted traditional roles and responsibilities and had restructured their lives.…

  10. The Mother's Almanac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Marguerite; Parsons, Elia

    This book is a compilation of practical suggestions for mothers on caring for children from birth through age 6. Everyday problems are discussed in an easy-to-read anecdotal style. The first section of the book deals with family life, including discussions of birth, breast feeding, basic child care (e.g., how to diaper a squirming baby),…

  11. MotherToBaby

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy and breastfeeding. ¡Hablamos Español! MotherToBaby Launches New Zika Virus Educational Tools Read the Press Release Call Us ... Length of Cycles * News Pregnancy Health Experts Unveil Zika Virus Educational Tools Ahead of World Birth Defects Day ...

  12. Trees for Mother Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sandy

    1993-01-01

    Describes Trees for Mother Earth, a program in which secondary students raise funds to buy fruit trees to plant during visits to the Navajo Reservation. Benefits include developing feelings of self-worth among participants, promoting cultural exchange and understanding, and encouraging self-sufficiency among the Navajo. (LP)

  13. The Mother's Almanac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Marguerite; Parsons, Elia

    This book is a compilation of practical suggestions for mothers on caring for children from birth through age 6. Everyday problems are discussed in an easy-to-read anecdotal style. The first section of the book deals with family life, including discussions of birth, breast feeding, basic child care (e.g., how to diaper a squirming baby),…

  14. Mothering against the Odds: Diverse Voices of Contemporary Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Ed.; Surrey, Janet L., Ed.; Weingarten, Kathy, Ed.

    Based on the view that increasing numbers of mothers who do not fit a narrow traditional image are often maligned, misunderstood, or ignored, this book presents the stories of a diverse group of mothers whose life circumstances place them outside the mainstream. Chapters explore the lives of mothers of exceptional children and biracial children;…

  15. Mothering against the Odds: Diverse Voices of Contemporary Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Ed.; Surrey, Janet L., Ed.; Weingarten, Kathy, Ed.

    Based on the view that increasing numbers of mothers who do not fit a narrow traditional image are often maligned, misunderstood, or ignored, this book presents the stories of a diverse group of mothers whose life circumstances place them outside the mainstream. Chapters explore the lives of mothers of exceptional children and biracial children;…

  16. The offspring of epileptic mother.

    PubMed

    Tamer, S K; Misra, S; Jaiswal, S

    1996-01-01

    The offspring of an epileptic mother is an issue-currently getting attention because of its several implications. A complex interaction between epilepsy during pregnancy and its adverse impact on foetus, labor, neonate, congenital malformation, psychosocial and medico-social concern and treatment challenges of such cases is increasingly being realised. Some of the significant observations has been reviewed extensively in this article. Maternal epilepsy is likely to adversely affect the off-spring at its various stages of development amounting to increased morbidity and mortality. Increased seizure frequency during pregnancy with resultant increased risk is well documented but its mechanism is poorly understood. Low apgar score, increased still birth rates (1.3 to 14%) in offspring of epileptic mother (OEM) is reported. So also, the neonatal and perinatal deaths are twice more common in OEMS than normal control. Small for dates, and prematurity in OEM is reported to be 7 to 10% and 4-11% respectively. Adverse impact on labor and delivery like preclampsia, abruptio placentae, polyhydramnios, assisted delivery, cesarean section and IUGR poses particular challenges to the obstetrician. Pediatrician's alertness is needed to anticipate and deal with the bleeding manifestation due to deficiency of Vit-K dependent clotting factors and various anticonvulsant drug (AED) withdrawal symptoms. Significant risk of developing congenital malformation is the result of epilepsy perse and the AED used during pregnancy. AED exposure leads to other distinct clinical syndromes, the orofacial clefts and cardiac anomalies being the commonest manifestation. Epilepsy in mother but not in father has significant adverse impact. Management strategies in the context of available observation has been discussed.

  17. Educating fathers to improve breastfeeding rates and paternal-infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Ozlüses, Emine; Celebioglu, Ayda

    2014-08-01

    To determine the effect of breastfeeding education provided to fathers on breastfeeding rates and paternal-infant attachment. 117 couples with their infants with the inclusion criteria: knowledge of reading, writing and speaking Turkish; living in the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus until their infants were six months old; and infants having no health problems preventing the early initiation of breastfeeding. Participants were divided into 3 groups (2 experimental and 1 control). Breastfeeding education was provided to the mothers (20 min/d) in the first group (n=38) and to the mothers and fathers in the second group (n=39) (20 min/d/parent) until they were discharged from the hospital. This education was supplemented by a training booklet. The parents and their infants were followed until the infants were six months old. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and Paternal-Infant Attachment Scale scores at six months were main outcome measures. Exclusive breastfeeding rates (56.4%, 33.3% and 12.8%; P<0.001) and mean (SD) Paternal-Infant Attachment Scale scores [89.51(7.05), 82.37 (12.80) and 73.38 (18.67); P<0.001] were highest in the group where education was provided to both mother and father. Providing breastfeeding education to fathers increases exclusive breastfeeding rates and strengthens paternal attachment.

  18. [Differences between German and Turkish-speaking participants in a chronic heart failure management program].

    PubMed

    Ernstmann, N; Karbach, U

    2017-02-01

    German and Turkish-speaking patients were recruited for a chronic heart failure management program. So far little is known about the special needs and characteristics of Turkish-speaking patients with chronic heart failure; therefore, the aim of this study was to examine sociodemographic and illness-related differences between German and Turkish-speaking patients with chronic heart failure. German and Turkish-speaking patients suffering from chronic heart failure and insured with the AOK Rheinland/Hamburg or the BARMER GEK health insurance companies and living in Cologne, Germany, were enrolled. Recruitment took place in hospitals, private practices and at information events. Components of the program were coordination of a guideline-oriented medical care, telemonitoring (e.g., blood pressure, electrocardiogram, and weight), a 24-h information hotline, attendance by German and Turkish-speaking nurses and a patient education program. Data were collected by standardized interviews in German or Turkish language. Data were analyzed with descriptive measures and tested for significance differences using Pearson's χ(2)-test and the t‑test. A total of 465 patients (average age 71 years, 55 % male and 33 % Turkish-speaking) were enrolled in the care program during the study period. Significant differences between German and Turkish-speaking patients were found for age, education, employment status, comorbidities, risk perception, knowledge on heart failure and fear of loss of independence. The response rate could be achieved with the help of specific measures for patient enrollment by Turkish-speaking integration nurses. The differences between German and Turkish-speaking patients should in future be taken into account in the care of people with chronic heart failure.

  19. Mother-child planning and child compliance.

    PubMed

    Gauvain, Mary; Perez, Susan M

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated child compliance and maternal instruction during planning. Based on the Child Behavior Checklist and free-play observations, 40 mothers and their 4- to 5-year-old children were assigned to a group with children who behaved within the normal range of compliance (n = 20) or a group with children with high rates of noncompliance for this age (n = 20). Mothers in the noncompliant group provided more low-level, directive, and negative instruction; requested more compliance; and shared less task responsibility with children. Mothers in both groups responded to child compliance by increasing or maintaining the level of instruction. Results are discussed in relation to the role of child compliance in regulating opportunities for cognitive development in social context.

  20. Tackling speaking mode varieties in EMG-based speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Wand, Michael; Janke, Matthias; Schultz, Tanja

    2014-10-01

    An electromyographic (EMG) silent speech recognizer is a system that recognizes speech by capturing the electric potentials of the human articulatory muscles, thus enabling the user to communicate silently. After having established a baseline EMG-based continuous speech recognizer, in this paper, we investigate speaking mode variations, i.e., discrepancies between audible and silent speech that deteriorate recognition accuracy. We introduce multimode systems that allow seamless switching between audible and silent speech, investigate different measures which quantify speaking mode differences, and present the spectral mapping algorithm, which improves the word error rate (WER) on silent speech by up to 14.3% relative. Our best average silent speech WER is 34.7%, and our best WER on audibly spoken speech is 16.8%.

  1. Post-adoption depression among adoptive mothers.

    PubMed

    Senecky, Yehuda; Agassi, Hanoch; Inbar, Dov; Horesh, Netta; Diamond, Gary; Bergman, Yoav S; Apter, Alan

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the rate of depressive symptomatology and possible underlying factors in adoptive mothers during the transition to motherhood. Cohort survey. General Community. Thirty-nine adoptive mothers of reproductive age registered with international adoption agencies. All women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) before and 6 weeks after the adoption. Responses were compared between the study group and published findings for biological mothers in the general population, and within the study group, before and after adoption. Symptoms of depression were found in 15.4% of the study group. This rate was similar to that for postpartum depression in the general population, and lower than the rate recorded in the study group before adoption (25.6%). All women with symptoms of depression after the adoption had also shown evidence of depressive features before the adoption. Similar findings were noted for other psychopathologies as well. Adopting a child does not cause new-onset, reactive depression among adoptive mothers. It may even lead to a decrease in depressive features, perhaps in response to relief from other adjustment difficulties.

  2. WHO ARE THE WORKING MOTHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    INFORMATION ON THE STATUS OF WORKING MOTHERS AND ON THE FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE THEM TO SEEK PAID EMPLOYMENT IS PROVIDED THROUGH 20 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. AMONG THE NEARLY 27 MILLION WOMEN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES IN MARCH 1966 WERE 9.9 MILLION MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE. THESE WORKING MOTHERS CONSTITUTED 36 PERCENT OF ALL…

  3. Early Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agostino, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…

  4. Early Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agostino, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…

  5. Issues in Bilingualism and Heritage Language Maintenance: Perspectives of Minority-Language Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The author investigated the language practices of 10 bilingual, Chinese/English-speaking, immigrant mothers with their children with autism spectrum disorders. The aim was to understand (a) the nature of the language practices, (b) their constraints, and (c) their impact. Method: The author employed in-depth phenomenological interviews…

  6. Spanish-speaking patients perceive high quality care in resident continuity practices: a CORNET study.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Scott D; Parra-Roide, Lilia; Hobson, Wendy L; Garfunkel, Lynn C; Serwint, Janet R

    2009-04-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that limited English proficiency in Hispanic patients is associated with adverse health outcomes. The authors sought to compare the perception of primary care in resident practices between Spanish-speaking and English-speaking parents using a previously validated tool, the Parents' Perception of Primary Care. Using survey results from 19 CORNET sites nationwide, they compared mean scores for each primary care domain and the full scale between the groups using Student's t test. Multiple linear regression models compared outcomes controlling for demographic variables. Of the 2122 analyzable surveys, 490 (23%) were completed in Spanish and 1632 (77%) in English. The mean scores for each domain and the total scale were not statistically different between the 2 groups. After adjustment, Spanish-speaking parents rated communication significantly higher. Resident clinics may use systems to provide high quality care to Spanish-speaking patients, which may help other sites improve care.

  7. The effect of psychosocial stress on single mothers' smoking.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Maina, Mercy Nyambura; Noeres, Dorothee

    2013-12-05

    Evidence suggests an increased risk of smoking among single mothers as compared to their cohabitating counterparts. This article examines the role of psychosocial stress in mediating the relationship between single motherhood and smoking. Data were derived from a cross-sectional population based sample of German women (n = 3129) with underage children (0-18 years of age). Perceived stress was measured with 13 items covering socioeconomic as well as family- and parenting-related stressors. According to Baron and Kenny (1986) a series of logistic regression models was applied to investigate the role of psychosocial stress as a mediator on the relationship between single motherhood and smoking. About 44.0% of single mothers smoked daily, whereas only 26.2% of cohabitating mothers did. Single mothers reported more stress related to their economic situation, occupation and family than partnered mothers. Out of the original 13 stressors only 'conflicts with the partner or ex-partner' and 'financial worries' remained significant in explaining single mothers' higher risk of smoking. Against expectation, stress due to household requirements and family demands was associated with lower odds of single mothers' smoking. After controlling for psychosocial stress, the odds ratio of single mothers' moderate smoking (< 20 cig./day) decreased slightly from 1.75 to 1.66 (explained fraction XF = 12.0%) and with respect to heavy smoking (≥ 20 cig./day) more pronounced from 2.56 to 2.01 (XF = 35.3%). It can be stated that single mothers' heavy more than moderate smoking appeared to be mediated by perceived psychosocial stress. Out of all stressors considered, financial worries were of paramount significance in explaining single mothers' heavy smoking while some family-related stressors rather appeared to keep single mothers from smoking. Overall, a higher stress exposure explains partly but not sufficiently single mothers' increased smoking rates.

  8. Health Seeking Behavior among Mothers of Sick Children.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, P D

    2015-01-01

    Infant and under-five mortality rate in Nepal are 46 and 54 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively. These mortality indicates, one in every 22 Nepalese children dies before reaching age 1, and one in every 19 does not survive to his or her fifth birthday. Delay in seeking appropriate care and not seeking any care contributes to the large number of child deaths. Existing interventions could prevent many deaths among children if they are presented at health facility and timely care. A descriptive research was carried out in Lele VDC, ward no.7, Lalitpur. The objective of this study was to find out health seeking behavior among mothers of sick children. Non probability, purposive sampling method was used. Sample size was 102 mothers who had sick children from 0 to 59 months. A set of semi structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The mean age of the respondent was 25.8 years and child was 29 months. Respondents' children who suffered with pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition were 64(62.7%),29(28%), 9(8.8%) respectively. Majority 84(81.4%) mothers had sought treatment and among them 58(69%) sought treatment from health facility whereas 26(31%) sought treatment from traditional healer. There was significant relationship between education of the mother(p=0.05), sex of the child (p=0.004), type of sickness of children (p=0.001) of the mother and health seeking behaviour of mothers. However occupation of the mothers for seeking treatment (p=0.66) and treatment seeking at first (p=0.82) were not significant. So there was no relationship between occupation of the mothers and health seeking behaviour. Majority of the mothers sought treatment from health facility, yet around one fourth went at traditional healers. Education of the mother, sex of the child, sickness of child and mother's awareness are the factors affecting health seeking behavior of the mothers.

  9. Mothers' Perceptions of Young Children, Parenting, and Young Children's Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Historically, research demonstrates that mothers' attitudes and characteristics of their parenting are intertwined. More recently, mothers' perceptions of their children are becoming a new focus of interest. To further understand the relationships among mothers' perceptions of their young children, their parenting behaviors, and their ratings of…

  10. Mothers' and Fathers' Differential Expectancies and Behaviors: Parent X Child Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Michelle; Hoffman, Charles D.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 studies using 6 subscales, the authors investigated (a) others' parenting expectancies for mothers and fathers and (b) parents' reports of the frequency of their parenting behaviors with their 3- to 6-year-old sons and daughters. Mothers rated higher for physical care and emotional support than did fathers, and mothers reported engaging in…

  11. Mother-Toddler Affect Exchanges and Children's Mastery Behaviours during Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jun; Morgan, George A.; Biringen, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relations of mother-child affect exchanges at 18?months with children's mastery motivation at 39?months. Observation and questionnaire data were collected from mother-child dyads when children were 18?months; 43 mothers again rated their children's mastery motivation at 39?months. Results suggested…

  12. Quality of Care Attributions to Employed Versus Stay-at-Home Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shpancer, Noam; Melick, Katherine M.; Sayre, Pamela S.; Spivey, Aria T.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to find whether evaluations of maternal competence are linked to mothers' employment status and the quality of maternal care. Participants rated videotaped vignettes, depicting either high-quality or low-quality mother-infant interactions, on various dimensions of care quality. The videotaped mothers were described…

  13. Mother-Toddler Affect Exchanges and Children's Mastery Behaviours during Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jun; Morgan, George A.; Biringen, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relations of mother-child affect exchanges at 18?months with children's mastery motivation at 39?months. Observation and questionnaire data were collected from mother-child dyads when children were 18?months; 43 mothers again rated their children's mastery motivation at 39?months. Results suggested…

  14. [Parenting capacity of mothers with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, A; Spyropoulou, A; Zervas, I

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the pregnancy rates of mothers with schizophrenia do not differ significantly from those of the general population. Mothers' severe mental illness, combined with poor social support and comorbidity, may significantly affect her parenting capacity. However, the poor quality of parenting by psychotic mothers should not be taken for granted, in advance. Some of them may become excellent parents while other may abuse their children and finally lose custody because of this. The parenting capacity is significantly influenced by the existing insight of patient-parent's disease. Assessing the parenting capacity comprises the measurement of insight and of the risk of child abuse as well. Factors associated with increased risk for child abuse are: (a) active psychiatric symptomatology, (b) history of violent behavior in the past, (c) maternal history of abuse during childhood, (d) dangerous domestic environment, (e) stressful events and poor social support to the mother and (f) unrealistic parental expectations. These factors should be assessed both clinically and by using the appropriate psychometric tools. Tools which have been widely used for this purpose are: (a) "Schedule for Assessment of Insight-SAI", (b) "Childhood Trauma Interview", (c) "Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment Inventory-HOME" and "Home Screening Questionnaire -HSQ", (d) "Parental Stress Inventory-PSI", "Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire-SPSQ", "Arizona Social Support Inventory" (e) "Parent Opinion Questionnaire-POQ". Interventions to ensure a more adequate parenting capacity should be focused on family planning: mothers with severe mental illness have poor knowledge about reproductive and contraception issues. Their pregnancies are mostly not planned. It is important for the family planning to be tailored according to the specific needs of schizophrenic mothers and to take into account the following issues: (a) the severity and the duration

  15. The safety of tracheostomy speaking valve use during sleep in children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Giselle Y; Fernandez, Claudia; Halaby, Claudia; Ambrosio, Sara; Simpser, Edwin F; Pirzada, Melodi B

    2014-01-01

    One of the disadvantages of having a tracheostomy tube is not being able to vocalize. A speaking valve connected to a tracheostomy tube allows patients to vocalize. Some studies have shown that tracheostomy-speaking valve can improve swallowing, respiratory secretion management, and expedite decannulation. There is scant research about speaking valve use during sleep. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety of tracheostomy-speaking valve overnight, during sleep. Children, ages 1-18 years, with tracheostomy tubes who were using a tracheostomy-speaking valve during daytime/awake periods, were included in this study. The subjects had baseline monitoring of their heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and end tidal carbon dioxide measurement the night prior to the intervention, throughout the night at scheduled intervals. The tracheostomy-speaking valve was placed the following night and the same parameters were monitored and recorded throughout the study night. A total of 9 patients were recruited. In all subjects, the mean values of the overnight parameters showed no significant clinical variations between the baseline night and the study night. Repeated measure ANOVA analysis revealed no significant changes in the parameters over the 8 hours of recorded time. No major adverse events were recorded during the study night. This pilot study reveals that use of a tracheostomy-speaking valve during sleep, was not associated with adverse cardiopulmonary events. This is the first study to show that a tracheostomy-speaking valve might be safely used during sleep, in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Parenting beliefs and behaviors in northern and southern groups of Italian mothers of young infants.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, M H; Cote, L R; Venuti, P

    2001-12-01

    Similarities and differences in northern and southern Italian mothers' social and didactic parenting beliefs and behaviors, and relations between their beliefs and behaviors, are reported. Both groups of mothers reported that they engaged more in social than didactic interactions with their infants, whereas in actuality both groups engaged in didactic behaviors with their infants for longer periods of time than they engaged in social behaviors. In addition, northern mothers engaged in more social interactions with their infants than did southern mothers. No correlations between beliefs and behaviors emerged in either group. These data speak to issues of intracultural variation and cross-cultural similarities in family psychology and parenting, belief-behavior relations in parenting, and the importance of methodology (parental report or observation) in the study of parenting and family functioning.

  17. Like Her Own: Ideals and Experiences of the Mother-in-law/Daughter-in-law Relationship.

    PubMed

    Allendorf, Keera

    2006-12-01

    This article explores ideals and experiences of the mother-in-law/daughter-in-law relationship using semi-structured interviews with 46 members of 22 families living in one Indian village. Ideally, the relationship is characterized by love and understanding, where one's mother-in-law or daughter-in-law is like one's own daughter or mother. In practice, the relationship varies in quality. Some women experienced affectionate, high quality relationships, while others' relationships were characterized by hurtful exchanges and not speaking. Previous literature portrays the relationship as negative, but these results point to the relevance of positive aspects as well. I also suggest that these ideals and experiences are shaped by the joint family system. The joint family system contributes to the strongly positive ideal, while the tensions that women experience arise from the contradictory family locations that they occupy within that system. Daughters-in-law and mothers-in-law are simultaneously strangers and close family members.

  18. Infant-mother attachment among the Dogon of Mali.

    PubMed

    True, M M; Pisani, L; Oumar, F

    2001-01-01

    This study of mothers and infants from the Dogon ethnic group of Mali, West Africa examined three attachment hypotheses: (1) that infant attachment security is linked to the quality of mother-infant communication, (2) that mothers of secure infants respond more sensitively to their infants than do mothers of insecure infants, and (3) that infant disorganization is linked to maternal frightened or frightening behaviors. Participants were 27 mother-infant pairs from a rural town and 15 mother-infant pairs from two agrarian villages; infants ranged in age from 10 to 12.5 months at the first assessment. The distribution of the Strange Situation classifications was 67% secure, 0% avoidant, 8% resistant, and 25% disorganized. Infant attachment security was significantly related to the quality of mother-infant communication as observed in a well-infant exam. The correlation between infant attachment security ratings and maternal sensitivity (assessed in the home) was modest and approached significance. Mothers of disorganized infants had significantly higher ratings of frightened or frightening behaviors. Maternal sensitivity predicted little of the variance in infant security; however, the addition of the frightened/frightening variable in the regression equation tripled the explained variance. The findings are discussed in light of Dogon childrearing practices and key tenets of attachment theory.

  19. Parenting attitudes of addict mothers.

    PubMed

    Wellisch, D K; Steinberg, M R

    1980-08-01

    Parenting attitudes of female heroin addicts were investigated in a single factor design which compared addict mothers, addict non-mothers, nonaddict mothers, and nonaddict nonmothers. A principal components factor analysis was performed on the PARI and used as the dependent measure. A factor labeled "authoritarian overinvolvement" emerged which significantly differentiated between groups. Further, the effects of mothering and addiction proved to be additive such that addict mothers were extremely high on this scale. This result was discussed in terms of the parental home environment of addict women.

  20. Joe Acaba Speaks with WISH Students

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineer Joe Acaba speaks with high school students participating in a summer program called Women in STEM High School Aerospace Scholars, or WISH, using the station’s ham ra...

  1. The Spanish-Speaking Elderly: A Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Maria; Finley, Gordon E.

    1978-01-01

    The present bibliography contains selected professional, research, and scholarly references regarding the Spanish-speaking elderly from Latin America, Spain, and the United States for the years 1960 to 1977. (Author)

  2. Anticipatory guidance preferences of Latina migrant farmworker mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kilanowski, Jill F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the study was to learn preferences of Latina migrant farmworker (MFW) mothers’ in the presentation of health education materials by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of numerous mixed-media samples. Method This community-based participatory study was qualitative and descriptive in design. Focus groups were conducted in Spanish in four Midwest migrant camps with a convenience sample of mothers (n=31). Adult learning and cultural care theories guided the study. Various modes of educational materials on various topics were presented. Results Mothers preferred comic book-style handouts, games, food replicas, text in English/Spanish, and DVDs, but almost all did not have media-playing equipment. They did not like black-and-white photos, or cartoon-like illustrations. Identified themes of importance were colored illustrations, sizes mothers could easily carry in purses, and limited verbiage on a page. Discussion Learned knowledge will be used to customize health promotion interventions that are sensitive to MFW preferred learning styles. The findings from this study can inform other interventions with Latino populations and serve as a prototype for other populations of immigrant non-English speaking mothers. PMID:23611456

  3. Speaking Activities for the Advanced College-Bound Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Don

    Three activities for developing speaking skills of advanced English as second language students are presented. Impromptu speaking, extemporaneous speaking, and debate activities are designed to train students to organize concepts, develop spontaneous oral skills, and enhance confidence and clarity of thought. Impromptu speaking develops…

  4. Effects of Rater Characteristics and Scoring Methods on Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsugu, Sawako

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the sources of variance in speaking assessment is important in Japan where society's high demand for English speaking skills is growing. Three challenges threaten fair assessment of speaking. First, in Japanese university speaking courses, teachers are typically the only raters, but teachers' knowledge of their students may unfairly…

  5. Effects of Rater Characteristics and Scoring Methods on Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsugu, Sawako

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the sources of variance in speaking assessment is important in Japan where society's high demand for English speaking skills is growing. Three challenges threaten fair assessment of speaking. First, in Japanese university speaking courses, teachers are typically the only raters, but teachers' knowledge of their students may unfairly…

  6. Thirty Days and Thirty Ways towards Better Public Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Marquez, Michelle

    The ability to speak in various public speaking situations is imperative for success in school, business, and industry. Aspects which improve public speaking skills include preparation, organization, paying attention to the "nuts and bolts" of the speaking situation, identifying the topic, using invigorating language, watching other…

  7. Keywords to recruit Spanish- and English-speaking participants: evidence from an online postpartum depression randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Alinne Z; Kelman, Alex R; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2014-01-09

    One of the advantages of Internet-based research is the ability to efficiently recruit large, diverse samples of international participants. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the behind-the-scenes process to setting up successful online recruitment tools. The objective of the study was to examine the comparative impact of Spanish- and English-language keywords for a Google AdWords campaign to recruit pregnant women to an Internet intervention and to describe the characteristics of those who enrolled in the trial. Spanish- and English-language Google AdWords campaigns were created to advertise and recruit pregnant women to a Web-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of postpartum depression, the Mothers and Babies/Mamás y Bebés Internet Project. Search engine users who clicked on the ads in response to keyword queries (eg, pregnancy, depression and pregnancy) were directed to the fully automated study website. Data on the performance of keywords associated with each Google ad reflect Web user queries from February 2009 to June 2012. Demographic information, self-reported depression symptom scores, major depressive episode status, and Internet use data were collected from enrolled participants before randomization in the intervention study. The Google ads received high exposure (12,983,196 impressions) and interest (176,295 clicks) from a global sample of Web users; 6745 pregnant women consented to participate and 2575 completed enrollment in the intervention study. Keywords that were descriptive of pregnancy and distress or pregnancy and health resulted in higher consent and enrollment rates (i.e., high-performing ads). In both languages, broad keywords (eg, pregnancy) had the highest exposure, more consented participants, and greatest cost per consent (up to US $25.77 per consent). The online ads recruited a predominantly Spanish-speaking sample from Latin America of Mestizo racial identity. The English-speaking sample was also diverse

  8. Text-speak processing impairs tactile location.

    PubMed

    Head, James; Helton, William; Russell, Paul; Neumann, Ewald

    2012-09-01

    Dual task experiments have highlighted that driving while having a conversation on a cell phone can have negative impacts on driving (Strayer & Drews, 2007). It has also been noted that this negative impact is greater when reading a text-message (Lee, 2007). Commonly used in text-messaging are shortening devices collectively known as text-speak (e.g.,Ys I wll ttyl 2nite, Yes I will talk to you later tonight). To the authors' knowledge, there has been no investigation into the potential negative impacts of reading text-speak on concurrent performance on other tasks. Forty participants read a correctly spelled story and a story presented in text-speak while concurrently monitoring for a vibration around their waist. Slower reaction times and fewer correct vibration detections occurred while reading text-speak than while reading a correctly spelled story. The results suggest that reading text-speak imposes greater cognitive load than reading correctly spelled text. These findings suggest that the negative impact of text messaging on driving may be compounded by the messages being in text-speak, instead of orthographically correct text. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Articulation Rate in Preschool Children: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jean F.; Archibald, Lisa M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Speaking rate has implications for both clinical practice and an understanding of normal and disordered communication processes. Fundamental information on speaking rate is required by the clinician for the appropriate management of those disorders with disturbances of rate or those in which rate modification strategies are applied.…

  10. Articulation Rate in Preschool Children: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jean F.; Archibald, Lisa M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Speaking rate has implications for both clinical practice and an understanding of normal and disordered communication processes. Fundamental information on speaking rate is required by the clinician for the appropriate management of those disorders with disturbances of rate or those in which rate modification strategies are applied.…

  11. Children's empathy responses and their understanding of mother's emotions.

    PubMed

    Tully, Erin C; Donohue, Meghan Rose; Garcia, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated children's empathic responses to their mother's distress to provide insight about child factors that contribute to parental socialisation of emotions. Four- to six-year-old children (N = 82) observed their mother's sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children's facial negative affect was rated and their heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded during the conversation, and their emotion understanding of the conversation was measured through their use of negative emotion words and perspective-taking themes (i.e., discussing the causes or resolution of mother's emotions) in narrative accounts of the conversation. There were positive quadratic relationships between HRV and ratings of facial affect, narrative references to mother's negative emotions and perspective-taking themes. High and low HRV was associated with high facial negative affect, suggesting well-regulated sympathy and poorly regulated personal distress empathic responses, respectively. Moderate HRV was associated with low facial negative affect, suggesting minimal empathic engagement. High and low HRV were associated with the highest probabilities of both emotion understanding indicators, suggesting both sympathy and personal distress responses to mother's distress facilitate understanding of mother's emotions. Personal distress may motivate attempts to understand mother's emotions as a self-soothing strategy, whereas sympathy-related attempts to understand may be motivated by altruism.

  12. Reducing anxiety among children born preterm and their young mothers.

    PubMed

    Oswalt, Krista L; McClain, Darya Bonds; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of COPE on maternal and child anxiety associated with younger mothers of premature infants. The COPE program provides instruction and practice in parenting behaviors specific to the NICU, in combination with information that reduces ambiguity about their infant's appearance and behaviors. Secondary data analysis was conducted on data obtained from a larger randomized controlled trial with 253 mothers of low birthweight premature infants to examine the efficacy of the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (COPE) program, an educational-behavioral parent intervention in the NICU, on maternal and child anxiety based on maternal age. For these analyses, child and maternal anxiety were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 2 to 3 and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory collected at 24 months and 2 to 4 days postintervention, respectively. To test study hypotheses, we conducted multiple regression models using the structural equation modeling approach to path analysis. Multiple regression results for the full model indicated that there was a significant COPE × mothers' age interaction effect on both mothers' anxiety and child anxiety. Participation in the COPE program significantly predicted lower levels of mothers' anxiety at postintervention as well as lower levels of child anxiety at 24 months for younger mothers (18-21 years old), but not for mothers over 21 years old. Participating in COPE was associated with more favorable mental health outcomes for younger mothers and their children than mothers over 21 years old. Participation in the COPE program may help close the health disparities gap by improving behaviors in infants of younger mothers to rates similar to those of children of mothers over 21 years old.

  13. A Comparative Study of Adolescents' Perceptions of Normal-Speaking and Dysarthric Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study compared the ratings of 19 adolescents when listening to recordings of the speech of eight children with cerebral palsy and eight normal-speaking children. For all 22 adjective pairs, the normal speakers were rated significantly more positively. (Author/DB)

  14. Myocardial infarction events and cardiovascular risk factor levels in Finnish- and Swedish-speaking populations of Finland.

    PubMed

    Lammintausta, Aino; Immonen-Räihä, Pirjo; Lehtonen, Aapo; Räihä, Ismo; Harald, Kennet; Torppa, Jorma; Airaksinen, Juhani K E; Salomaa, Veikko

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND. The Swedish-speaking minority of Finland is unique, because it has a higher socioeconomic status (SES) and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. We hypothesized that this minority may have a lower attack rate of coronary events and analysed whether this could be explained by their higher SES. METHODS. The population-based myocardial infarction (MI) registers recorded 4,845 MI events in Turku during 1988-1998. Individual-level indicators of SES were obtained from Statistics Finland. The population-based FINRISK surveys recorded cardiovascular risk factors and native languages of 10,432 people in 1987, 1997, and 2002. RESULTS. The age-standardized attack rate of MI was lower among the 35-64-year-old Swedish-speaking men than among Finnish-speaking men (rate ratio 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.85) and the difference remained significant after adjustment for SES. The Swedish-speaking inhabitants had higher age-, sex-, and SES-adjusted high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower triglycerides, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The Swedish-speaking inhabitants of Turku had lower MI morbidity and coronary mortality than the Finnish-speaking inhabitants. After controlling for SES, these differences remained significant among men, suggesting that other factors, such as differences in the risk factor profiles may also play a role.

  15. Silence That Can Be Dangerous: A Vignette Study to Assess Healthcare Professionals’ Likelihood of Speaking up about Safety Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Schwappach, David L. B.; Gehring, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the likelihood of speaking up about patient safety in oncology and to clarify the effect of clinical and situational context factors on the likelihood of voicing concerns. Patients and Methods 1013 nurses and doctors in oncology rated four clinical vignettes describing coworkers’ errors and rule violations in a self-administered factorial survey (65% response rate). Multiple regression analysis was used to model the likelihood of speaking up as outcome of vignette attributes, responder’s evaluations of the situation and personal characteristics. Results Respondents reported a high likelihood of speaking up about patient safety but the variation between and within types of errors and rule violations was substantial. Staff without managerial function provided significantly higher levels of decision difficulty and discomfort to speak up. Based on the information presented in the vignettes, 74%−96% would speak up towards a supervisor failing to check a prescription, 45%−81% would point a coworker to a missed hand disinfection, 82%−94% would speak up towards nurses who violate a safety rule in medication preparation, and 59%−92% would question a doctor violating a safety rule in lumbar puncture. Several vignette attributes predicted the likelihood of speaking up. Perceived potential harm, anticipated discomfort, and decision difficulty were significant predictors of the likelihood of speaking up. Conclusions Clinicians’ willingness to speak up about patient safety is considerably affected by contextual factors. Physicians and nurses without managerial function report substantial discomfort with speaking up. Oncology departments should provide staff with clear guidance and trainings on when and how to voice safety concerns. PMID:25116338

  16. Diabetes in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Hennis, Anselm; Fraser, Henry S

    2004-02-01

    Rates of diabetes mellitus in the English-speaking Caribbean have been rising in recent years, and they are projected to continue climbing in the new millennium. Prevalence rates across countries of the African diaspora mirror levels of Western acculturation, and available data emphasize the importance of obesity as a modifiable risk factor. The population-based Barbados Eye Studies have provided new information about the burden of ocular complications of diabetes such as retinopathy and lens opacities. Diabetes was shown to increase the risk of lens opacities, and 14% of prevalent cataract was attributed to diabetes. Persons with type 1 diabetes were particularly at increased risk of retinopathy, as a result of longer durations of illness and poor glycemic control. Other Caribbean studies have suggested that glycemic control in patients evaluated in various clinical settings is suboptimal, which raises important concerns about quality of care. Diabetics are at increased risk of mortality compared with nondiabetics, and that mortality risk increases with higher baseline levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, even among nondiabetics. These data highlight the need for urgent attention to public health and clinical strategies to prevent diabetes in unaffected persons as well as to prevent or reduce the burden of complications among those who are affected. Among the measures that should be adopted to stem the flood of diabetes in the Caribbean region are lifestyle interventions to promote better nutrition and to increase exercise; patient education, particularly about the central role of diabetes self-management; and the multidisciplinary team approach in the provision of care.

  17. Mobility limitations and fear of falling in non-English speaking older Mexican-Americans.

    PubMed

    James, Eric G; Conatser, Phillip; Karabulut, Murat; Leveille, Suzanne G; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Cote, Sarah; Tucker, Katherine L; Barton, Bruce; Bean, Jonathan F; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether older Mexican-Americans who cannot speak and/or understand spoken English have higher rates of mobility limitations or fear of falling than their English-speaking counterparts. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1169 community-dwelling Mexican-Americans aged 72-96 years from the 2000-2001 wave of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. Mobility limitations were defined as having a Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9, and fear of falling by participant report of being somewhat, fairly, or very afraid of falling. We determined the rates and odds ratios, for having mobility limitations and fear of falling as a function of English ability in those who were 72-96, <80, and ≥80 years of age. Among participants who were unable to speak and/or understand spoken English 85.7% had mobility limitations and 61.6% were afraid of falling, compared to 77.6% and 57.5%, respectively, of English speakers. Before adjusting for covariates, participants who did not speak and/or understand spoken English were more likely to have mobility limitations (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4) but not fear of falling, compared to English speakers. Among those aged ≥80 years, but not those <80 years, who did not speak or understand English were more likely to have mobility limitations (odds ratio: 4.8; 95% CI:2.0-11.5) and fear of falling (odds ratio: 2.0; 95% CI:1.3-3.1). Older Mexican-Americans who do not speak or understand spoken English have a higher rate of mobility limitations and fear of falling than their English-speaking counterparts.

  18. Effect of situation on mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Maas, A Janneke B M; Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2013-02-01

    Research has shown that the early parent-infant relationship is of critical importance for children's developmental outcomes. While the effect of different settings on mother-infant interactive behavior is well studied, only few researchers systematically examined the effect of situational variables on mother-infant interaction. In the present study the effect of situational variables within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interaction at 6 months was examined as well as the consistency in the quality of behaviors of mother and infant across these situations. During a home visit 292 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in three different situations (i.e., free play, face-to-face play, and diaper change). Interactive behaviors of mother and infant were assessed with the NICHD global ratings scales. Results showed substantial effects of situation on the interactive behavior of the mother-infant dyad. Despite the observed situational effects maternal sensitivity to non-distress, intrusiveness, stimulation of development, and positive regard and all five infant behavioral scales remained stable across the different situations. Insight into situational effects within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interactive behavior may assist researchers to make well-informed decisions about measuring the parent-infant interaction in one or more specific situations.

  19. Midlife mothers favor `being with' children over work and careers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Patricia Ann; Merrell, Joy A; Rentschler, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The majority of American women juggle careers and the demands of mothering. The experiences of midlife mothers on the issues of work and motherhood are important to explore because birth rates for older women continue to rise in the United States and in other countries including the U.K. and Canada. To present a unique viewpoint on work and mothering from the perspectives and experiences of older first-time mothers. A purposive sample of thirteen women aged 45-56 years old participated in two in-depth interviews. Findings emerged in the context of a larger hermeneutic phenomenological study that aimed to understand older first-time mothers' perceptions of health and mothering during the transition to menopause. A paradox emerged in which the realities of motherhood did not meet the women's expectations. They were surprised by the centrality of commitment they felt towards the child and voiced strong ideals about how to do mothering right that included making changes to work schedules to be more available to their children. Health care professionals should be aware of specific issues that exist for older first-time mothers including adjustments to work. This knowledge will inform the support, education and care provided for these women.

  20. Predicting Mother's Use of Physical Punishment during Mother-Child Conflicts in Sweden and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrant, Joan E.; Broberg, Anders G.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Used maternal beliefs, emotions, and experiences of Canadian and Swedish mothers to predict hypothetical physical punishment of preschoolers. Found that Canadians were more likely than Swedes to suggest physical punishment and demonstrate stronger support for spanking. Support for physical punishment and rating target misbehaviors as stable…