Gomel, Jessica N; Zamora, Angela
Parent beliefs regarding food, health, and child feeding behaviors among Latinos have not been well-documented. A series of eight focus groups were conducted with English-speaking and Spanish-speaking low-income Latina mothers of preschoolers to investigate their beliefs regarding how food and food preparation are related to their children's health and to their own roles as mothers. Systematic content analysis using NUDIST 6 revealed seven themes discussed by the focus groups. Integration of these themes revealed three major areas of consideration: (1) a lack of connection between the domains of eating, overweight, and health outcomes; (2) the role of parent modeling of eating behaviors; and (3) the use of feeding strategies that may not be conducive to the development of healthy eating behaviors. Furthermore, the data suggest that there are important distinctions among Latinos based on language preference, and that a "one-size-fits-all" approach to modeling Latino mothers' feeding beliefs may not be appropriate.
Guitar, B; Marchinkoski, L
This study investigated the effects on children's speech rate when their mothers talked more slowly. Six mothers and their normally speaking 3-year-olds (3 girls and 3 boys) were studied using single-subject A-B-A-B designs. Conversational speech rates of mothers were reduced by approximately half in the experimental (B) conditions. Five of the six children appeared to reduce their speech rates when their mothers spoke more slowly. This was confirmed by paired t tests (p < .05) that showed significant decreases in the 5 children's speech rate over the two B conditions. These findings suggest that when mothers substantially decrease their speech rates in a controlled situation, their children also decrease their speech rates. Clinical implications are discussed.
Jiao, Yishan; Berisha, Visar; Tu, Ming; Liss, Julie
Speaking rate estimation directly from the speech waveform is a long-standing problem in speech signal processing. In this paper, we pose the speaking rate estimation problem as that of estimating a temporal density function whose integral over a given interval yields the speaking rate within that interval. In contrast to many existing methods, we avoid the more difficult task of detecting individual phonemes within the speech signal and we avoid heuristics such as thresholding the temporal envelope to estimate the number of vowels. Rather, the proposed method aims to learn an optimal weighting function that can be directly applied to time-frequency features in a speech signal to yield a temporal density function. We propose two convex cost functions for learning the weighting functions and an adaptation strategy to customize the approach to a particular speaker using minimal training. The algorithms are evaluated on the TIMIT corpus, on a dysarthric speech corpus, and on the ICSI Switchboard spontaneous speech corpus. Results show that the proposed methods outperform three competing methods on both healthy and dysarthric speech. In addition, for spontaneous speech rate estimation, the result show a high correlation between the estimated speaking rate and ground truth values. PMID:26167516
Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary
A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant-vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change.
This article discusses the usage of the Spanish language by Hispanic mothers with their children, their views on language maintenance and culture within their bilingual families and their opinions on the benefits of bilingualism in a globalised world. Drawing upon detailed case studies of 16 native Spanish-speaking mothers married to…
Kalashnikova, Marina; Goswami, Usha; Burnham, Denis
Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested in deficits in reading and spelling skills that is consistently associated with difficulties in phonological processing. Dyslexia is genetically transmitted, but its manifestation in a particular individual is thought to depend on the interaction of epigenetic and environmental factors. We adopt a novel interactional perspective on early linguistic environment and dyslexia by simultaneously studying two pre-existing factors, one maternal and one infant, that may contribute to these interactions; and two behaviours, one maternal and one infant, to index the effect of these factors. The maternal factor is whether mothers are themselves dyslexic or not (with/without dyslexia) and the infant factor is whether infants are at-/not-at family risk for dyslexia (due to their mother or father being dyslexic). The maternal behaviour is mothers' infant-directed speech (IDS), which typically involves vowel hyperarticulation, thought to benefit speech perception and language acquisition. The infant behaviour is auditory perception measured by infant sensitivity to amplitude envelope rise time, which has been found to be reduced in dyslexic children. Here, at-risk infants showed significantly poorer acoustic sensitivity than not-at-risk infants and mothers only hyperarticulated vowels to infants who were not at-risk for dyslexia. Mothers' own dyslexia status had no effect on IDS quality. Parental speech input is thus affected by infant risk status, with likely consequences for later linguistic development.
Smith, Allan B.; Roberts, Jenny; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane
Purpose: This study evaluated whether developmental reading disability could be predicted in children at the age of 30 months, according to 3 measures of speech production: speaking rate, articulation rate, and the proportion of speaking time allocated to pausing. Method: Speech samples of 18 children at high risk and 10 children at low risk for…
Chuang, Hsiu-Feng; Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Chi, Lin-Yang; Weismer, Gary; Wang, Yu-Tsai
The effects of the use of cochlear implant (CI) on speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics and the relationships between speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics for children are clinically important. The purposes of this study were to report on the comparisons for speaking rate and vowel space area, and their relationship with speech intelligibility, between 24 Mandarin-speaking children with CI and 24 age-sex-education level matched normal hearing (NH) controls. Participants were audio recorded as they read a designed Mandarin intelligibility test, repeated prolongation of each of the three point vowels /i/, /a/, and /u/ five times, and repeated each of three sentences carrying one point vowel five times. Compared to the NH group, the CI group exhibited: (1) mild-to-moderate speech intelligibility impairment; (2) significantly reduced speaking rate mainly due to significantly longer inter-word pauses and larger pause proportion; and (3) significantly less vowel reduction in the horizontal dimension in sustained vowel phonation. The limitations of speech intelligibility development in children after cochlear implantation were related to atypical patterns and to a smaller degree in vowel reduction and slower speaking rate resulting from less efficient articulatory movement transition.
Paavola, Leila; Kemppinen, Kaarina; Kunnari, Sari; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Ebeling, Hanna
The present article reports a study of communicative behaviour among mothers and infants who were grouped according to the ratings of sensitivity and co-operation, respectively. The participants were 27 Finnish-speaking mothers and their 10-month-old first-born infants (13 boys and 14 girls). The study is descriptive by nature, and the data were…
Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny
Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…
DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Gregory, Emily; Polk, Sarah; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Giusti, Flor; Thompson, Darcy A; Sibinga, Erica
Latino children experience disparities in health care access and quality. Family advisory groups for clinics and hospitals may be one way to address disparities. We implemented and sustained an advisory board whose parent participants were exclusively limited-English proficient Latina mothers. As part of the board evaluation, we conducted semistructured individual interviews with parent participants during initial participation and after the final board meeting of the year. Members were satisfied with their board participation in both initial and follow-up interviews. They reported that board membership was an important way to improve clinic services and a unique opportunity for Latinos in the community. Experiences of discrimination and marginalization in health care settings were a theme across interviews. Members reported board membership countered these negative experiences. An advisory board including Spanish-speaking parents is an opportunity to engage vulnerable populations, which may result in broader impact on health care disparities.
Bradlow, Ann R; Kim, Midam; Blasingame, Michael
Second-language (L2) speech is consistently slower than first-language (L1) speech, and L1 speaking rate varies within- and across-talkers depending on many individual, situational, linguistic, and sociolinguistic factors. It is asked whether speaking rate is also determined by a language-independent talker-specific trait such that, across a group of bilinguals, L1 speaking rate significantly predicts L2 speaking rate. Two measurements of speaking rate were automatically extracted from recordings of read and spontaneous speech by English monolinguals (n = 27) and bilinguals from ten L1 backgrounds (n = 86): speech rate (syllables/second), and articulation rate (syllables/second excluding silent pauses). Replicating prior work, L2 speaking rates were significantly slower than L1 speaking rates both across-groups (monolinguals' L1 English vs bilinguals' L2 English), and across L1 and L2 within bilinguals. Critically, within the bilingual group, L1 speaking rate significantly predicted L2 speaking rate, suggesting that a significant portion of inter-talker variation in L2 speech is derived from inter-talker variation in L1 speech, and that individual variability in L2 spoken language production may be best understood within the context of individual variability in L1 spoken language production.
Anderson-Hsieh, Janet; Koehler, Kenneth
A study investigated the effect of foreign accent and speaking rate on native English speaker comprehension. Three native Chinese speakers and one native speaker of American English read passages at different speaking rates. Comprehension scores showed that an increase in speaking rate and heavily accented English decreased listener comprehension.…
In this study, the effect of articulation rate and speaking style on the perceived speech rate is investigated. The articulation rate is measured both in terms of the intended phones, i.e., phones present in the assumed canonical form, and as the number of actual, realized phones per second. The combination of these measures reflects the deletion of phones, which is related to speaking style. The effect of the two rate measures on the perceived speech rate is compared in two listening experiments on the basis of a set of intonation phrases with carefully balanced intended and realized phone rates, selected from a German database of spontaneous speech. Because the balance between input-oriented (effort) and output-oriented (communicative) constraints may be different at fast versus slow speech rates, the effect of articulation rate is compared both for fast and for slow phrases from the database. The effect of the listeners' own speaking habits is also investigated to evaluate if listeners' perception is based on a projection of their own behavior as a speaker. It is shown that listener judgments reflect both the intended and realized phone rates, and that their judgments are independent of the constraint balance and their own speaking habits.
This article identifies key features of a June 1997 seminar held among delegates from French-speaking African countries on the World Health Organization's Mother-Baby Package. This package aims to strengthen, integrate, and speed up national efforts to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries. Multidisciplinary teams met in subregions. The first group met in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; another group met a week later in Libreville, Gabon. WHO's Regional Office for Africa organized the meetings. Participants included representatives from UNDP, UNICEF, and UNFPA and representatives from Algeria, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. The meetings were conducted in French. Some participants pointed out the needs of countries that recently emerged from periods of armed conflict. It was understood that a minimum level of political stability was required in order for health systems to function effectively and to reduce maternal deaths. Countries are trying to restore health services to be able to respond to obstetric emergencies at any time or place. Information was provided on country-specific experiences with initiatives and problems, such as lack of funding and human resources. Midwife skills are particularly deficient at the local level. Some participants viewed a reproductive health emphasis as slowing safe motherhood efforts, while some viewed reproductive health as the foundation for safe motherhood and a way to strengthen support. Participants agreed on methods of mobilizing resources, identifying appropriate indicators, and collaborating intersectorally. They were committed to using World Health Day 1998 as a way to focus national celebrations on safe motherhood.
Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie
In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…
Turner, Greg S.; Weismer, Gary
The ability to alter speaking rate was studied in nine adult subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and nine control subjects. Results suggest that the relationship between speaking rate, articulation rate, pause duration, and pause frequency remained largely intact for the dysarthric speakers. Data showed greater dependence on pausing by the…
Nip, Ignatius S B; Green, Jordan R
Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years, and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control.
Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.
Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…
DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Gregory, Emily; Polk, Sarah; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Giusti, Flor; Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica
Latino children experience disparities in health care access and quality. Family advisory groups for clinics and hospitals may be one way to address disparities. We implemented and sustained an advisory board whose parent participants were exclusively limited-English proficient Latina mothers. As part of the board evaluation, we conducted semistructured individual interviews with parent participants during initial participation and after the final board meeting of the year. Members were satisfied with their board participation in both initial and follow-up interviews. They reported that board membership was an important way to improve clinic services and a unique opportunity for Latinos in the community. Experiences of discrimination and marginalization in health care settings were a theme across interviews. Members reported board membership countered these negative experiences. An advisory board including Spanish-speaking parents is an opportunity to engage vulnerable populations, which may result in broader impact on health care disparities. Los niños latinos experimentan disparidad en el acceso y calidad del cuidado de salud. Grupos de familias asesoras para clínicas y hospitales pueden ser una forma de hacer frente a las disparidades. Nosotros implementamos y sostuvimos un consejo asesor cuyos participantes fueron exclusivamente madres latinas con dominio limitado del inglés. Como parte de la evaluación del consejo, condujimos entrevistas semi-estructuradas individuales con las madres participantes durante la participación inicial y después de la última reunión del año del consejo. Los miembros estaban satisfechas con su participación en el consejo en ambas entrevistas, la inicial y la de seguimiento. Ellas reportaron que ser miembros del consejo era una forma importante para mejorar los servicios de la clínica y una oportunidad única para los latinos en la comunidad. Las experiencias de discriminación y marginalización en las instalaciones de
Latifa, Ammang; Rahman, Asfah; Hamra, Arifuddin; Jabu, Baso; Nur, Rafi'ah
This study aims to develop a practical rating rubric of speaking ability in the classroom setting. This research study involves the English speaking lecturers at a number of higher education institutions in Parepare, Indonesia. The product is designed based on Research and Development (R&D) approach, which is adopted from Gall, Gall, and Borg…
Seifpanahi, Sadegh; Dadkhah, Asghar; Dehqan, Ali; Bakhtiar, Mehdi; Salmalian, Tahmineh
Although speech motor control has been studied intensively in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired (HI) speakers in America and Europe, essentially no research has been performed using Persian-speaking participants. A total of 46 prelingual hearing-impaired 15-18-year-old males and 15 normally hearing control participants from Iran participated in the study. Three speaking performance measures, oral diadochokinesis (DDK), speaking rate (words per minute), and intelligibility ratings, were obtained for the two groups and compared to previously published research for English-speaking participants. The DDK results in general showed that the normal-hearing group produced the fastest syllable rates, and the profoundly HI group produced the slowest. Similar results were obtained for speaking rates. Speech intelligibility was highest in the normal-hearing group and lowest in the profoundly HI group. Correlation analysis between DDK and speaking rates showed that for HI group only, a slow speaking rate corresponded to slow DDK rates. It is shown that generally there are significant differences in measures of speech motor control in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired participants. These results concord with those from other language groups.
Chiou, Hsin-Huei; Watson, Peter
Rate manipulation has been used to study change in prosodic contrasts such as emphatic stress. Timing contrasts in stressed words are reduced or eliminated when speaking rate is increased. However, reports of intonation and rate change are mixed. Some studies have reported an increase of F0 movement [M. Steppling and A. Montgomery, J. Phonetics 64, 451-461 (2002)], and other reports have found that F0 movement is decreased at faster speaking rates [C. Fougeron and S. Jun, Percept. Psychophys. 26, 45-69 (1998)]. This study examined the effect of speaking rate on F0 and duration in sentences produced with emphatic stress in different sentential position and in declarative and interrogative forms. Essentially, durational contrasts were reduced at faster speaking rates and were more pronounced at slower speaking rates. Intonation, on the other hand, was more pronounced for the fast rate and somewhat reduced for the slow rate. A perceptual component will also be reported that examines a listener's ability to recognize stressed words and mode of sentence production (declarative and interrogative) at different speaking rates.
Nip, Ignatius S B
Many individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have a slower speaking rate compared with their typically developing peers. Previous studies examining age-related changes in speaking rate in typical development suggest that (1) cognitive and linguistic processing increases account for most of these changes, and (2) changes to linguistic task demands affect the articulatory strategies used to produce the target stimuli (e.g., truncating movements for tasks with fewer linguistic demands). The purpose of this study was to determine the relations between linguistic and physiologic factors in individuals with CP to better understand how the pathophysiology of CP affects speech production in these individuals. Four participants with CP and 38 age-matched peers were asked to complete a diadochokinetic (DDK) task, a vowel-consonant-vowel syllable repetition task, and a sentence repetition task. Speaking rate for the tasks and lower lip maximum movement speed, range of movement, and duration of the closing and opening gestures common to each task were measured. In general, participants with CP have reduced speaking rates compared with their typically developing peers despite increased movement speeds. In both groups, linguistic task effects were observed; higher linguistic demands resulted in slower speaking rates and higher movement speeds. Range of movement was greater for participants with CP than their typically developing peers and may have contributed to the observed decreased speaking rates in individuals with CP.
Glenn, Adriana D
Families affected by rare disease experience psychosocial reactions similar to families with prevalent chronic diseases. The ability to respond and manage the condition depends on psychosocial factors. This phenomenological study of 16 mothers of children with Alagille syndrome explored their lived experience in using online health communications to manage their chronic sorrow. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews analyzed using techniques described by van Manen. Analysis yielded four essential themes: connectedness, online triggers, empowerment, and seasons of online use contributed to online communication essential to a rare disease community. Findings suggest mothers need emotional support and help accessing appropriate online resources.
Hansen, Benjamin B.
An experiment was designed to determine whether the geminate/singleton category distinction is maintained at fast speaking rates in Persian. Three speakers of Tehrani Persian read test words containing [t,t:,d,d:] in carrier sentences at three speaking rates. The categories do not overlap within a given speaking rate, but the fastest geminates do overlap the normal-rate singletons, implying that the listener must take speaking rate into account in order to perceive the category distinction. The ratio of the consonant closure to the preceding vowel (C/V) is not a useful rate-independent parameter for describing the geminate/singleton boundary in Persian since in Persian the vowel preceding a geminate is slightly longer. However, it was found that the marginal consonant closure (above a minimum closure of about 20 ms) maintains a fixed proportion of the average syllable duration, regardless of rate. This fixed proportion is distinct for geminates and singletons, and so may be used as a single rate-independent parameter for defining the category distinction. Perception tests on natural sentences showed that the distinction is perceptible at each of the three speaking rates. The perceptual response to manipulation of the closure durations indicated that, besides duration, additional cues to the distinction are present.
Katz, Susan Roberta; Chumpi Nantip, Cornelia Lupe
This paper presents findings from interviews conducted in December 2011, with seven Shuar mothers of children in an intercultural bilingual school in the southern Amazon region of Ecuador. This study had two objectives: (1) to foreground the perspectives of Shuar parents towards intercultural bilingual education (IBE) as implemented in the Shuar…
Pennington, L; McConachie, H
This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the interaction between mothers and their severely physically disabled children who have motor speech disorders. The study was designed to partially replicate previous investigations, most notably those undertaken by Light et al., to examine if the patterns of conversation previously described were observed in interaction involving children of a wide age range. Twenty children who had four-limb cerebral palsy, with no diagnosed learning difficulties or sensory impairments, and who were between 2 and 10 years of age inclusive participated in the research with their mothers. Children's speech was unintelligible to their parents out of context and most had been provided with aided communication systems. Other carers were excluded from the research due to possible differences in interaction style. Conversation between mothers and children was videotaped in a standard play situation. The toys used to stimulate interaction had been shown to elicit the full range of communication skills targeted in the present study from non-disabled children. Videotaped interaction was coded to show the structure of conversation and the functions used. The mode of communication used by the children was also recorded. In addition, communicative functions were elicited from the children in a semi-scripted conversation with a clinician developed from that used by Light et al. Structural moves and communicative functions used by mothers and children were examined using mean proportions. Sequential analysis of mother-child interaction was also undertaken at both levels to investigate the patterns that recurred in conversation. Results support those obtained in previous studies, showing restricted conversation patterns and high levels of maternal directiveness. Mothers initiated most communicative exchanges, asking many questions and issuing many requests for attention, objects or activities. Children across the age range produced more response moves
Martin, Andrew; Schatz, Thomas; Versteegh, Maarten; Miyazawa, Kouki; Mazuka, Reiko; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Cristia, Alejandrina
Infants learn language at an incredible speed, and one of the first steps in this voyage is learning the basic sound units of their native languages. It is widely thought that caregivers facilitate this task by hyperarticulating when speaking to their infants. Using state-of-the-art speech technology, we addressed this key theoretical question: Are sound categories clearer in infant-directed speech than in adult-directed speech? A comprehensive examination of sound contrasts in a large corpus of recorded, spontaneous Japanese speech demonstrates that there is a small but significant tendency for contrasts in infant-directed speech to be less clear than those in adult-directed speech. This finding runs contrary to the idea that caregivers actively enhance phonetic categories in infant-directed speech. These results suggest that to be plausible, theories of infants' language acquisition must posit an ability to learn from noisy data.
Vowel formants play an important role in speech theories and applications; however, the same formant values measured for the steady-state part of a vowel can correspond to different vowel categories. Experimental evidence indicates that dynamic information can also contribute to vowel characterization. Hence, dynamically modeling formant transitions may lead to quantitatively testable predictions in vowel categorization. Because the articulatory strategy used to manage different speaking rates and contrastive stress may depend on speaker and situation, the parameter values of a dynamic formant model may vary with speaking rate and stress. In most experiments speaking rate is rarely controlled, only two or three rates are tested, and most corpora contain just a few repetitions of each item. As a consequence, the dependence of dynamic models on those factors is difficult to gauge. This article presents a study of 2300 [iai] or [i epsilon i] stimuli produced by two speakers at nine or ten speaking rates in a carrier sentence for two contrastive stress patterns. The corpus was perceptually evaluated by naive listeners. Formant frequencies were measured during the steady-state parts of the stimuli, and the formant transitions were dynamically and kinematically modeled. The results indicate that (1) the corpus was characterized by a contextual assimilation instead of a centralization effect; (2) dynamic or kinematic modeling was equivalent as far as the analysis of the model parameters was concerned; (3) the dependence of the model parameter estimates on speaking rate and stress suggests that the formant transitions were sharper for high speaking rate, but no consistent trend was found for contrastive stress; (4) the formant frequencies measured in the steady-state parts of the vowels were sufficient to explain the perceptual results while the dynamic parameters of the models were not.
Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy
The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…
Ingham, Roger J; Grafton, Scott T; Bothe, Anne K; Ingham, Janis C
Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n=18) and matched fluent controls (CONT, n=12) is reported that used both oral reading and monologue tasks. After correcting for speech rate differences between the groups the task-activation differences were surprisingly small. For both analyses only some regions previously considered stutter-related were more activated in the PWS group than in the CONT group, and these were also activated during eyes-closed rest (ECR). In the PWS group, stuttering frequency was correlated with cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit activity in both speaking tasks. The neuroimaging findings for the PWS group, relative to the CONT group, appear consistent with neuroanatomic abnormalities being increasingly reported among PWS.
Tajima, Keiichi; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko
Past studies on second-language (L2) speech perception have suggested that L2 learners have difficulty exploiting contextual information when perceiving L2 utterances, and that they exhibit greater difficulty than native listeners when faced with variability in temporal context. The present study investigated the extent to which native Japanese listeners, who are known to have difficulties perceiving English syllables, are influenced by changes in speaking rate when asked to count syllables in spoken English words. The stimuli consisted of a set of English words and nonwords varying in syllable structure spoken at three rates by a native English speaker. The stimuli produced at the three rates were presented to native Japanese listeners in a random order. Results indicated that listeners' identification accuracy did not vary as a function of speaking rate, although it decreased significantly as the syllable structure of the stimuli became more complex. Moreover, even though speaking rate varied from trial to trial, Japanese listeners' performance did not decline compared to a condition in which the speaking rate was fixed. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings will be discussed. [Work supported by JSPS and NICT.
Mefferd, Antje S.; Green, Jordan R.
Purpose: In this investigation, the authors determined the strength of association between tongue kinematic and speech acoustics changes in response to speaking rate and loudness manipulations. Performance changes in the kinematic and acoustic domains were measured using two aspects of speech production presumably affecting speech clarity:…
Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.
Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment segmentally but differed in lexical stress…
Dwyer, Claire H.; Robb, Michael P.; O'Beirne, Greg A.; Gilbert, Harvey R.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deliberate increases in speaking rate would serve to decrease the amount of nasality in the speech of severely hearing-impaired individuals. Method: The participants were 11 severely to profoundly hearing-impaired students, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years (M = 16 years). Each…
Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.
A series of eye-tracking and categorization experiments investigated the use of speaking-rate information in the segmentation of Dutch ambiguous-word sequences. Juncture phonemes with ambiguous durations (e.g., [s] in "eens (s)peer," "once (s)pear," [t] in "nooit (t)rap," "never staircase/quick") were…
Gauster, Andrea; Yunusova, Yana; Zajac, David
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of speaking rate variation on aerodynamic and acoustic measures of velopharyngeal (VP) function. Twenty-seven healthy adult speakers (14 males, 13 females) participated in the study. The modified pressure-flow method was used to collect aerodynamic data of /m/ and /p/ segments in the word…
Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers' death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44-7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09-0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment.
Tulviste, Tiia; Tõugu, Pirko; Keller, Heidi; Schröder, Lisa; De Geer, Boel
The study compares mothers' conversation with their 4-year-old children about two past events in two autonomy-oriented (35 German and 42 Swedish families), one relatedness-oriented (22 Cameroonian Nso families) and one autonomy-relatedness oriented (38 Estonian families) contexts. German mothers were rather similar to Swedish mothers in talking a…
Nimbalkar, Archana; Patel, Dipen; Sethi, Ankur; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar
Physiological benefits of skin to skin care (STS) to newborns are known but there is scarcity of data on changes in physiological parameters like pulse rate, respiratory rate, SPO2 and blood pressure in mothers during STS. We hypothesize that STS is beneficial to mothers with respect to these parameters. Objective of this study was to assess the changes of these parameters in mothers while providing STS for one hour. STS was provided by 52 mothers for a total of 127 times and parameters were recorded at starting of STS, at 15 min, at 30 min, at 60 min of STS and at 5 min rest after stopping STS. There were no significant changes in pulse rate and SPO2 but blood pressure and respiratory rate reduced significantly during STS as compared to rest after stopping STS. Thus STS is physiologically beneficial to mothers.
Krause, Jean C.; Braida, Louis D.
Sentences spoken ``clearly'' are significantly more intelligible than those spoken ``conversationally'' for hearing-impaired listeners in a variety of backgrounds [Picheny et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 28, 96-103 (1985); Uchanski et al., ibid. 39, 494-509 (1996); Payton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 1581-1592 (1994)]. While producing clear speech, however, talkers often reduce their speaking rate significantly [Picheny et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 29, 434-446 (1986); Uchanski et al., ibid. 39, 494-509 (1996)]. Yet speaking slowly is not solely responsible for the intelligibility benefit of clear speech (over conversational speech), since a recent study [Krause and Braida, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2165-2172 (2002)] showed that talkers can produce clear speech at normal rates with training. This finding suggests that clear speech has inherent acoustic properties, independent of rate, that contribute to improved intelligibility. Identifying these acoustic properties could lead to improved signal processing schemes for hearing aids. To gain insight into these acoustical properties, conversational and clear speech produced at normal speaking rates were analyzed at three levels of detail (global, phonological, and phonetic). Although results suggest that talkers may have employed different strategies to achieve clear speech at normal rates, two global-level properties were identified that appear likely to be linked to the improvements in intelligibility provided by clear/normal speech: increased energy in the 1000-3000-Hz range of long-term spectra and increased modulation depth of low frequency modulations of the intensity envelope. Other phonological and phonetic differences associated with clear/normal speech include changes in (1) frequency of stop burst releases, (2) VOT of word-initial voiceless stop consonants, and (3) short-term vowel spectra.
Harb, Gerlinde C; Eng, Winnie; Zaider, Talia; Heimberg, Richard G
The current study aimed to extend the evaluation of the utility of the Social Performance Rating Scale (SPRS) [Behav. Res. Ther. 36 (1998) 995]. We examined the utility of a modified SPRS for the behavioral assessment of public-speaking anxiety among patients with social phobia (n = 49). The videotaped performance of public-speaking fearful patients in a public-speaking task was rated using four of the five SPRS ratings and was compared to global ratings by patients and observers, as well as to self-report and clinician-administered measures of social anxiety. The pattern of correlations with criterion measures of social anxiety provided evidence for the convergent and divergent validity of this modified SPRS for the behavioral assessment of public-speaking anxiety.
Kato, Hiroaki; Tajima, Keiichi
Segment length is distinctive in Japanese, for example, /kaite/ (buyer) versus /kaite:/ (seabed). Such length contrasts are not necessarily categorical for non-native speakers. To study this property precisely, a series of perception experiments was conducted. A professionally trained native-Japanese speaker produced the nonsense word /erete/ at slow, normal, and fast rates with or without a carrier sentence. Either the second vowel or second consonant of each word was gradually lengthened until reaching its longer counterpart, i.e., /ete:te/ or /eret:e/, in all rate and carrier conditions using STRAIGHT, a high-fidelity speech analysis, synthesis, and manipulation system [Kawahara et al., Speech Commun. 27, 187-207 (1999)], resulting in 12 stimulus continua. Seven native-Japanese listeners participated in a single-stimulus, two-alternative forced-choice identification task with the method of constant stimuli. The speaking rate of the presented stimuli within a session was either fixed or randomized trial by trial. Results suggest that native listeners' identification boundaries systematically altered due to changes in speaking rate, whereas their boundaries became unstable in the randomized-rate condition, especially for no-carrier stimuli. These results will be discussed from the viewpoint of second-language phoneme perception and acquisition through comparisons with results from non-native listeners. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.
Zelenko, Marina; Kraemer, Helena; Huffman, Lynne; Gschwendt, Miriam; Pageler, Natalie; Steiner, Hans
Objective: To explore heart rate (HR) correlates of attachment behavior in young mothers and their infants to generate specific hypotheses and to provide pilot data on which studies to test those hypotheses might be based. Method: Using the strange situation procedure, patterns of attachment were assessed in 41 low-income adolescent mothers and…
Busch, Amy L; Lieberman, Alicia F
This study examined links between mothers' Adult Attachment Interview ratings (AAI; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003) and their preschool children's IQ among 70 families who had experienced domestic violence. As predicted, children displayed significantly stronger verbal and perceptual-organizational abilities when their mothers exhibited more secure, i.e. coherent, states of mind regarding attachment. Mothers' coherence of mind on the AAI explained 18% of the variance in children's Verbal IQ and 12% of the variance in children's Performance IQ, after controlling for maternal education. Mothers' attachment security also was related to children's total IQ score, but this association was accounted for by effects on children's Verbal IQ. Children whose mothers were rated as unclassifiable on the AAI and those whose mothers were unresolved/insecure had lower IQ scores. Although mothers who appeared more secure on the AAI were more sensitively responsive toward their children, mediational analyses suggested that there was a direct link between mothers' security and children's IQ that was not explained by sensitive parenting. This suggests that clinical interventions for children exposed to domestic violence should include helping their mothers achieve coherent ways of thinking about their own childhood experiences, including past trauma.
Croft, Rodney J; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Gander, Joanne; Lechem, Lisa; Barry, Robert J
The present pilot study tested whether the lack of consistent findings of relations between autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and non-clinical levels of public speaking anxiety (PSA) can be explained by methodology. An ambulatory protocol was utilised to test whether the interaction of belief structure with each of an undergraduate student speaker's heart rate and skin conductance level predicted state speech anxiety better than their linear summation. Results suggest that in a non-clinical population, the interaction of ANS activity and belief structure is an important determinant of PSA, and may account for variable findings in the literature.
Vanormelingen, Liesbeth; Gillis, Steven
This article investigates the amount of input and the quality of mother-child interactions in mothers who differ in socio-economic status (SES): mid-to-high SES (mhSES) and low SES. The amount of input was measured as the number of utterances per hour, the total duration of speech per hour and the number of turns per hour. The quality of the…
The goal of this study was to obtain in-depth information from low income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent’s knowledge about healthful eating, the home food enviro...
This is a construct validation study of a second language speaking assessment that reported a language profile based on analytic rating scales and a composite score. The study addressed three key issues: score dependability, convergent/discriminant validity of analytic rating scales and the weighting of analytic ratings in the composite score.…
Dunsmore, Julie C.; Bradburn, Isabel S.; Costanzo, Philip R.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.
In this study we investigated whether mothers' typical expressive style and specific emotional responses to children's behaviors are linked to children's prosocial and competence self-ratings. Eight- to 12-year-old children and their mothers rated how mothers had felt when children behaved prosocially and antisocially, achieved and failed to…
Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E
We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.
Slote, Kim Y; Cuthbert, Carrie; Mesh, Cynthia J; Driggers, Monica G; Bancroft, Lundy; Silverman, Jay G
This article describes the work of the Battered Mothers' Testimony Project, a multiyear effort that documented human rights violations against battered women and their children in the Massachusetts family court system. This article (a) presents the Battered Mothers' Testimony Project's participatory human rights methodology as an alternative model for research and activism on violence against women and children in the United States, (b) summarizes the authors' findings and human rights analysis of how the Massachusetts family courts handled custody and visitation in specified cases involving partner and child abuse, and (c) discusses U.S. obligations under international human rights law and the value of a human rights approach to violence against women and children in the United States.
Johnston, Charlotte; Weiss, Margaret; Murray, Candice; Miller, Natalie
We examined whether instructional materials describing how to rate child ADHD symptoms would improve the accuracy of mothers' ratings of ADHD symptoms presented in standard child behavior stimuli, and whether instructions would be equally effective across a range of maternal depressive symptoms and family incomes. A community sample of 100 mothers…
Audu, R A; Salu, O B; Musa, A Z; Onyewuche, J; Funso-Adebayo, E O; Iroha, E O; Ezeaka, V C; Adetifa, I M O; Okoeguale, B; Idigbe, E O
Definitive diagnosis of HIV infection in infants < 18 months of age who were born to HIV-infected mothers is still posing some difficulty in Nigeria and other developing countries. Within this age definitive diagnosis can only be carried out by antigen based techniques which are indeed not available in these developing countries. This has resulted in the absence of authoritative data on the rate of mother-to-child transmission in these countries. Nigeria inclusive. The present pilot study was therefore carried out to generate some information on the rate of mother to child transmission in Nigeria using the PCR technique. Plasma samples were obtained from 68 children of both sexes less than 18 months of age and who were born to HIV infected mothers. The samples were collected from two pediatric departments. in Lagos and in Benin. The presence of HIV 1 RNA in each of the samples. was determined using the Amplicor Monitor V 1.5 technique (Roche Diagnostics). Data showed that HIV-1 RNA was detected in 15 of the 68 samples tested. This gave an HIV-1 RNA detection rate of 22%. Among women who had some intervention, the rate of transmission of infection was 11% while the rate among those without intervention was 30%. The 22% transmission rate recorded in this study is close to the range of 25 to 35% that has been reported in several developed and a few developing countries. A multicenter nationwide study will still be needed to determine the national mother to child transmission rate in Nigeria.
Evans, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Jennings, Rose; Dave, Jayna; Scoblick, Kathryn; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Loyo, Jennifer
This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four Latino parents (33 women; 27 born in Mexico; 21 food-insecure) of preschool-aged children participated in four focus group discussions conducted in Spanish by a trained moderator. The focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded by independent raters. Results suggest that in general, parents were very knowledgeable about healthful eating and cited both parents and school as significant factors influencing children's eating habits; at home, most families had more traditional Mexican foods available than American foods; cost and familiarity with foods were the most influential factors affecting food purchasing; many parents had rules regarding sugar intake; and parents cited role modeling, reinforcement, and creative food preparation as ways to encourage children's healthful eating habits. Finally, parents generated ideas on how to best assist Latino families through interventions. Parents indicated that future interventions should be community based and teach skills to purchase and prepare meals that include low-cost and traditional Mexican ingredients, using hands-on activities. In addition, interventions could encourage and reinforce healthy food-related practices that Latino families bring from their native countries.
Wilson, Amanda; Kato, Hiroaki; Tajima, Keiichi
Japanese words can be distinguished by the length of phonemes, e.g., ``chizu'' (map) versus ``chiizu'' (cheese). Perceiving these length contrasts is therefore important for learning Japanese as a second language. The present study examined native English listeners' perception of length contrasts at different speaking rates and in different contexts. Stimuli consisted of 20 Japanese word pairs that minimally contrasted in vowel length, and 10 synthesized nonwords. The nonwords were created by modifying the duration of the second vowel of the nonword ``erete'' along a continuum (from ``erete'' to ``ereete''). Stimuli were presented with or without a carrier sentence at three rates (fast, normal, slow). Rate was either fixed or randomized trial by trial. Sixteen native English and 16 native Japanese listeners participated in a single-stimulus, two-alternative forced-choice identification task. Results suggest that native Japanese listeners' identification boundaries systematically shifted due to changes in speaking rate when the stimuli were in the context of a sentence with mixed rates of presentation. In contrast, native English listeners show a shift in the opposite direction, suggesting that they did not follow the variation in speaking rate. These results will be discussed from the viewpoint of training second-language phoneme perception. [Work supported by JSPS.
Vaala, Sarah E.; Hornik, Robert C.
There has been rising international concern over media use with children under two. As little is known about the factors associated with more or less viewing among very young children, this study examines maternal factors predictive of TV/video viewing rates among American infants and toddlers. Guided by the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this survey study examines relationships between children's rates of TV/video viewing and their mothers' structural life circumstances (e.g., number of children in the home; mother's screen use), and cognitions (e.g., attitudes; norms). Results suggest that mothers' structural circumstances and cognitions respectively contribute independent explanatory power to the prediction of children's TV/video viewing. Influence of structural circumstances is partially mediated through cognitions. Mothers' attitudes as well as their own TV/video viewing behavior were particularly predictive of children's viewing. Implications of these findings for international efforts to understand and reduce infant/toddler TV/video exposure are discussed. PMID:25489335
Ji, Caili; Galvin, John J.; Xu, Anting; Fu, Qian-Jie
Objective Most studies have evaluated cochlear implant (CI) performance using “clear” speech materials, which are highly intelligible and well-articulated. CI users may encounter much greater variability in speech patterns in the “real-world,” including synthetic speech. In this study, we measured normal-hearing (NH) and CI listeners’ sentence recognition with multiple talkers and speaking rates, and with naturally produced and synthetic speech. Design NH and CI subjects were asked to recognize naturally produced or synthetic sentences, presented at a slow, normal, or fast speaking rate. Natural speech was produced by one male and one female talker; synthetic speech was generated to simulate a male and female talker. For natural speech, the speaking rate was time-scaled while preserving voice pitch and formant frequency information. For synthetic speech, the speaking rate was adjusted within the speech synthesis engine. NH subjects were tested while listening to unprocessed speech or to an 8-channel acoustic CI simulation. CI subjects were tested while listening with their clinical processors and the recommended microphone sensitivity and volume settings. Results The NH group performed significantly better than the CI simulation group, and the CI simulation group performed significantly better than the CI group. For all subject groups, sentence recognition was significantly better with natural than with synthetic speech. The performance deficit with synthetic speech was relatively small for NH subjects listening to unprocessed speech. However, the performance deficit with synthetic speech was much greater for CI subjects and for CI simulation subjects. There was significant effect of talker gender, with slightly better performance with the female talker for CI subjects and slightly better performance with the male talker for the CI simulations. For all subject groups, sentence recognition was significantly poorer only at the fast rate. CI performance was
Zekeri, Andrew A
Using previous data from a random sample of 300 single mothers from rural Alabama, multiple regression analysis indicated that food insecurity and employment status had a modest effect on self-rated health status, while educational attainment and income had the greatest effect. These variables explained 29% of the variance in health status. Social and economic policies that affect educational attainment and income distribution may have important consequences for health status in these rural areas.
Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Miller, Elizabeth B
Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 4,442) were used to test for differences between Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLLs) and monolingual English-speaking children in: (1) Head Start attendance rates when randomly assigned admission; and (2) quality ratings of other early childhood education (ECE) programs attended when not randomly assigned admission to Head Start. Logistic regressions showed that Spanish-speaking DLL children randomly assigned a spot in Head Start were more likely than monolingual-English learners to attend. Further, Spanish-speaking DLLs not randomly assigned a spot in Head Start were more likely to attend higher-quality ECE centers than non-DLL children. Policy implications are discussed, suggesting that, if given access, Spanish-speaking DLL families will take advantage of quality ECE programs.
Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 4,442) were used to test for differences between Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLLs) and monolingual English-speaking children in: (1) Head Start attendance rates when randomly assigned admission; and (2) quality ratings of other early childhood education (ECE) programs attended when not randomly assigned admission to Head Start. Logistic regressions showed that Spanish-speaking DLL children randomly assigned a spot in Head Start were more likely than monolingual-English learners to attend. Further, Spanish-speaking DLLs not randomly assigned a spot in Head Start were more likely to attend higher-quality ECE centers than non-DLL children. Policy implications are discussed, suggesting that, if given access, Spanish-speaking DLL families will take advantage of quality ECE programs. PMID:25018585
de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.
This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…
Understanding Trait and Sources Effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Rating Scales: Mothers', Fathers', and Teachers' Ratings of Children from the Balearic Islands
Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Burns, G. Leonard
Confirmatory factor analysis was used to model a multitrait (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]-inattention, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity, oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]) by multisource (mothers, fathers, and teachers) matrix to determine the convergent and discriminant validity of ratings by mothers, fathers, and teachers.…
Among Hispanics in the United States, breastfeeding initiation and duration decrease with acculturation. Therefore, in communities with significant Hispanic immigrant populations, surveys of breastfeeding rates conducted in English will provide a biased picture of feeding behaviors. Three major su...
Larmer, John; Mergendoller, John R.
From the early elementary grades through high school, the Common Core State Standards ask students to organize and explain their ideas in oral presentations, use visual aids, and speak appropriately for various contexts and tasks. Although teachers could give assignments that teach some of these skills in isolation, the authors have found that…
Van de Velde, Sarah; Bambra, Clare; Van der Bracht, Koen; Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Bracke, Piet
This study examines whether health inequalities exist between lone and cohabiting mothers across Europe, and how these may differ by welfare regime. Data from the European Social Survey were used to compare self-rated general health, limiting long-standing illness and depressive feelings by means of a multi-level logistic regression. The 27 countries included in the analyses are classified into six welfare regimes (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Nordic, Central East Europe (CEE) (new EU) and CEE (non-EU). Lone motherhood is defined as mothers not cohabiting with a partner, regardless of their legal marital status. The results indicate that lone mothers are more at risk of poor health than cohabiting mothers. This is most pronounced in the Anglo-Saxon regime for self-rated general health and limiting long-standing illness, while for depressive feelings it is most pronounced in the Bismarckian welfare regime. While the risk difference is smallest in the CEE regimes, both lone and cohabiting mothers also reported the highest levels of poor health compared with the other regimes. The results also show that a vulnerable socioeconomic position is associated with ill-health in lone mothers and that welfare regimes differ in the degree to which they moderate this association.
Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.
Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…
Duncan, Larissa G; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Gayles, Jochebed G; Geier, Mary H; Greenberg, Mark T
Research on mindful parenting, an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships, has been limited by its reliance on self-report assessment. The current study is the first to examine whether observational indices of parent-youth interactions differentiate between high and low levels of self-reported mindful parenting. The Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS) were used to code interactions between mothers and their 7th grade youth. Mothers drawn from the top and bottom quartiles (n = 375) of a larger distribution of self-reported interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (N = 804) represented clearly defined high- and low-mindful parenting groups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze how well 6 composite IFIRS observational rating variables (e.g., parental warmth, consistent discipline) discriminated between high and low self-reports of mindful parenting. DFA results were cross-validated, with statistically significant canonical correlations found for both subsamples (p < .05). Subsequent independent samples t tests revealed that group means were significantly different on all 6 IFIRS composite ratings. Confirmation of the relations between self-report mindful parenting and the observational ratings was also provided through hierarchical regression analyses conducted with a continuous predictor of mindful parenting using the full sample. Thus, the present study provides preliminary evidence for a link between self-reported mindful parenting and observed interactions between parents and youth.
Wu, Chi-Fang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Eamon, Mary Keegan
Using a national sample of single mothers from the 2007 and 2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined the effects of multiple employment statuses on the selfrated health of single mothers during the recent economic recession. Unlike other studies, the current study minimized selection bias by controlling for prior self-rated health, in addition to other predisposing factors, enabling factors, and need factors. We found that underemployment, but not unemployment, is associated with lower levels of self-rated health of single mothers. Results further indicate that the 25-39 age range (compared to the 18-24 age range), lower family income, prior lower self-rated health, more chronic diseases, and binge drinking place single mothers at an increased risk of lower levels of self-rated health. In contrast, strength-building physical activity is significantly associated with higher levels of self-rated health. Implications for health care policy and social work practice are drawn from the results.
Cooke, Dawson; Marais, Ida; Cavanagh, Robert; Kendall, Garth; Priddis, Lynn
The psychometric properties of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device were examined using the Rasch Model (N = 237 couples). Mothers' and fathers' ratings of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device are recommended, provided these are analyzed separately. More than a quarter of…
Arlet, Małgorzata E; Veromann, Linda-Liisa; Mänd, Raivo; Lemasson, Alban
Studies have shown that becoming a mother triggers important social changes within females, according to both social experience and infant characteristics, showing different maternal concerns. But how this impacts call usage has been far less studied. Based on 6 months of observations of five free-ranging groups of gray-cheeked mangabeys, we investigated variations in the production of three call types (contact, excitement, and alarm calls) in 29 females of different ages, dominance ranks, and infant rearing experiences: 15 females with infants of different ages and sexes, and 14 females without infants. We found that in females with infants-both maternal and infant characteristics influenced call production in a call type-dependent way. Females produced contact calls at a higher rate during the first month of infant age and after weaning when infants start to move away. Mothers of daughters produced more contact calls than mothers of sons. More excitement calls were recorded for first-time and young mothers and for females with young infants, while alarm call rates were not influenced by any of these factors. Increased mother-infant spatial separation enhanced only contact and excitement call rates. Finally, we found that females with infants vocalized much more than females without infants. Our results contribute to the current debate about the social factors responsible for the flexibility of call usage in nonhuman primates and open new lines for research on mothering behavior in forest-dwelling species. Am. J. Primatol. 78:983-991, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Van Puyvelde, Martine; Loots, Gerrit; Gillisjans, Lobcke; Pattyn, Nathalie; Quintana, Carmen
This study reports a cross-cultural comparison of the vocal pitch patterns of 15 Mexican Spanish-speaking and 15 Belgian Flemish-speaking dyads, recorded during 5min of free-play in a laboratory setting. Both cultures have a tradition of dyadic face-to-face interaction but differ in language origins (i.e., Romanic versus Germanic). In total, 374 Mexican and 558 Flemish vocal exchanges were identified, analyzed and compared for their incidence of tonal synchrony (harmonic/pentatonic series), non-tonal synchrony (with/without imitations) and pitch and/or interval imitations. The main findings revealed that dyads in both cultures rely on tonal synchrony using similar pitch ratios and timing patterns. However, there were significant differences in the infants' vocal pitch imitation behavior. Additional video-analyzes on the contingency patterns involved in pitch imitation showed a cross-cultural difference in the maternal selective reinforcement of pitch imitation. The results are interpreted with regard to linguistic, developmental and cultural aspects and the 'musilanguage' model.
Oquendo-Jiménez, Ilia; Mena, Rafaela; Antoun, Mikhail D.; Wojna, Valerie
Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. In Hispanic populations there are few validated tests for the accurate identification and diagnosis of AD. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale is an internationally recognized questionnaire used to stage dementia. This study's objective was to develop a linguistic adaptation of the CDR for the Puerto Rican population. Methods The linguistic adaptation consisted of the evaluation of each CDR question (item) and the questionnaire's instructions, for similarities in meaning (semantic equivalence), relevance of content (content equivalence), and appropriateness of the questionnaire's format and measuring technique (technical equivalence). A focus group methodology was used to assess cultural relevance, clarity, and suitability of the measuring technique in the Argentinean version of the CDR for use in a Puerto Rican population. Results A total of 27 semantic equivalence changes were recommended in four categories: higher than 6th grade level of reading, meaning, common use, and word preference. Four content equivalence changes were identified, all focused on improving the applicability of the test questions to the general population's concept of street addresses and common dietary choices. There were no recommendations for changes in the assessment of technical equivalence. Conclusions We developed a linguistically adapted CDR instrument for the Puerto Rican population, preserving the semantic, content, and technical equivalences of the original version. Further studies are needed to validate the CDR instrument with the staging of Alzheimer's disease in the Puerto Rican population. PMID:20496524
Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Guiberson, Mark
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a teacher report measure, the Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL; Dickinson et al. in "Teacher rating of oral language and literacy (TROLL): a research-based tool." Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,…
Kisilevsky, Barbara S.; Hains, Sylvia M. J.
Background: Term fetuses discriminate their mother's voice from a female stranger's, suggesting recognition/learning of some property of her voice. Identification of the onset and maturation of the response would increase our understanding of the influence of environmental sounds on the development of sensory abilities and identify the period when…
Scheidel, Thomas M.
This book, for either college or secondary-school speech or rhetoric courses, defines persuasive speaking as essentially a process or activity and discusses the elements which facilitate analyzing that process. Sections deal with (1) the nature and history of persuasive speaking, especially classical and modern canons of rhetoric, (2) the…
Bleistein, T.; Smith, M. K.; Lewis, M.
To meet the needs of students, teachers of oral English have three main tasks: find out all they can about how speaking works, look for ways to introduce their classes to the language of conversation, and provide students with opportunities to practice speaking English. This book covers these three tasks in an easy-to-follow guide that language…
Tanabe, S.; Surbramanian, A.; Hidaka, H.; Tatsukawa, R.
Mother to egg transfer of PCB isomers and congeners and p,p'-DDE was examined in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from Antarctica. Transfer rate to a clutch of two eggs was estimated to be small, accounting to about 4.0% for both PCBs and p,p-DDE to the burden in mother. No significant difference was found in the concentration ratios of individual PCB isomers and congeners between mother and egg, which apparently differed from those between mother and fetus of striped dolphin previously reported.
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Braeken, Marijke A. K. A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Outhred, Tim; Otte, Renée A.; Monsieur, Geert J. Y. J.; Jones, Alexander; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.
Objective Active anxiety disorders have lasting detrimental effects on pregnant mothers and their offspring but it is unknown if historical, non-active, maternal anxiety disorders have similar effects. Anxiety-related conditions, such as reduced autonomic cardiac control, indicated by reduced heart rate variability (HRV) could persist despite disorder resolution, with long-term health implications for mothers and children. The objective in this study is to test the hypotheses that pregnant mothers with a history of, but not current anxiety and their children have low HRV, predicting anxiety-like offspring temperaments. Methods The participants in this case-control study consist of 56 women during their first trimester and their offspring (15 male, 29 female). Women had a history of an anxiety disorder (n=22) or no psychopathology (n=34) determined using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The main outcome measures were indices of autonomic cardiac control including root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and high frequency (HF) variability. Children’s fearfulness was also assessed using the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB)-Locomotor Version. Results HRV was lower in women and children in the past anxiety group compared to controls. HRV measures for mothers and children were positively correlated in the anxiety group only. In all children, low HRV measures at 2-4 months were associated with a higher chance of fearful behavior at 9-10 months. Conclusions Pregnant women with previous but not current anxiety and their children have low HRV. Children with low HRV tend to show more fearfulness. These findings have implications for identifying children at risk of anxiety disorders and point to possible underlying mechanisms of child psychopathology. PMID:24340091
Burd, L; Blair, J; Dropps, K
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a common cause of intellectual impairment and birth defects. More recently, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been found to be a risk factor for fetal mortality, stillbirth and infant and child mortality. This has led to increased concern about detection and management of PAE. One to 2 h after maternal ingestion, fetal blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) reach levels nearly equivalent to maternal levels. Ethanol elimination by the fetus is impaired because of reduced metabolic capacity. Fetal exposure time is prolonged owing to the reuptake of amniotic-fluid containing ethanol by the fetus. Alcohol elimination from the fetus relies on the mother's metabolic capacity. Metabolic capacity among pregnant women varies eightfold (from 0.0025 to 0.02 g dl(-1) h(-1)), which may help explain how similar amounts of ethanol consumption during pregnancy results in widely varying phenotypic presentations of FASD. At birth physiological changes alter the neonate's metabolic capacity and it rapidly rises to a mean value of 83.5% of the mother's capacity. FASDs are highly recurrent and younger siblings have increased risk. Detection of prenatal alcohol use offers an important opportunity for office-based interventions to decrease exposure for the remainder of pregnancy and identification of women who need substance abuse treatment. Mothers of children with FAS have been found to drink faster, get drunk quicker and to have higher BACs. A modest increase in the prevalence of a polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase, which increases susceptibility to adverse outcomes from PAE has been reported. Lastly, detection of alcohol use and appropriate management would decrease risk from PAE for subsequent pregnancies.
Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji
Speaking a second language is probably the most difficult skill to test in that it involves a combination of skills that may have no correlation with each other, and which do not lend themselves to objective testing. In addition, what can be understood is a function of the listener's background and ability as well as those of the speaker. Another…
Anderson, Laurie Halse
Discusses how the author uses her nightmares to get ideas for her writing. Describes "Speak," one particular young adult novel inspired by a nightmare that she guesses was provoked by memories of her older sister coming of age. Discusses the exploration and impact of cliques or clans among adolescents. (SC)
Wang, Emily Q; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Bakay, Roy A E; Arzbaecher, Jean; Bernard, Bryan; Corcos, Daniel M
This study tested the hypothesis that left versus right deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) would have differential effects on speech. Twenty right-handed individuals with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) underwent unilateral STN DBS. Ten were operated on the right and 10 on the left hemisphere as indicated by severity of nonspeech motor function. Speech was evaluated before surgery and 3 to 6 months after surgery with stimulator-off and with stimulator-on, with all participants off anti-parkinsonian medication for 12 hours before evaluation. Evaluators and patient speakers were blinded to the stimulator status at the postsurgery evaluations. Motor performance was assessed with UPDRS-III. Each participant produced three samples of diadochokinetic syllables. Syllable rate, syllable and vowel duration, VOT, and F0 were obtained. The diadochokinetic syllables were rated for articulatory accuracy and speaking rate. Twenty graduate clinicians served as judges. The samples were randomly presented via headphones. A mixed ANOVA with repeated measures was used to assess the significance of the changes in UPRS-III scores and speech measures. The results indicated that unilateral STN DBS produced improvement in nonspeech motor function regardless of the side of stimulation. In contrast, the changes in articulatory accuracy and syllable rate associated with the STN DBS were hemisphere specific.
Clark, Katy M.; Su, Jing; Kaciroti, Niko; Castillo, Marcela; Millan, Rebeca; Rule, Heather; Lozoff, Besty
Previous research on maternal speech and depression has focused almost exclusively on how depressed mothers talk to their infants and toddlers in the U.S. and U.K., two English-speaking countries. This study considered how depressed Spanish-speaking mothers from a Latin American country talk about their preschool-age children. Five-minute speech samples were provided by 178 Chilean mothers who were asked to talk about their 5½-year-old children to a project psychologist. Maternal depressive symptomatology was measured by the Spanish-language version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), higher maternal depressed mood showed statistically significant associations with the following maternal speech characteristics: more criticisms, less laughter, fewer medium pauses, less positive satisfaction with the child’s behavior or characteristics, a rating of a negative overall relationship with the child, and more crying (suggestive trend). A structural equation model confirmed these findings and found an indirect effect between laughter and criticisms: mothers with higher depressed mood who laughed less criticized their children less. The findings illustrate that depressed mood adversely affects how a group of Chilean mothers speak about their children. PMID:21785514
Queen, Alexander H.; Stewart, Lindsay M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B.
This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The…
Denney, Maria K.; Okamoto, Yukari; Singer, George H. S.; Brenner, Mary E.; Barkley, Steven C.
This study examined the levels of maternal stress and efficacy for Spanish- and English-speaking Latina mothers whose infants were in neonatal intensive care. Thirty-two Latina mothers participated in the study. Significant group differences were found between Spanish-and English-speaking Latina mothers. More stress was experienced by Spanish-…
Low, Hui Min; Nicholas, Howard; Wales, Roger
This paper reports the findings of a survey of 100 mothers of Chinese children aged between 6 and 36 months from middle to upper-middle socio-economic backgrounds in Penang, Malaysia. The findings include the language backgrounds of these mothers, their contextual uses of multiple languages and their language choices with their children. Through…
Jamieson, Joan; Poonpon, Kornwipa
Research and development of a new type of scoring rubric for the integrated speaking tasks of "TOEFL iBT"® are described. These "analytic rating guides" could be helpful if tasks modeled after those in TOEFL iBT were used for formative assessment, a purpose which is different from TOEFL iBT's primary use for admission…
Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Au, Terry Kit-fong
Examined impact of experimentally altering mothers' style when discussing sexuality and AIDS with adolescent children. Found that intervention group mothers reduced their amount of speaking, asked more open-ended questions, acted less judgmental, and discussed dating and sexuality more than did control group mothers. Intervention group adolescents…
Griffith, Gemma M.; Hastings, Richard P.; Petalas, Michael A.
Debate is ongoing about whether typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at greater risk of behavioral or emotional problems than siblings of children without ASD. Most data on behavior is provided by mothers, and we do not know whether fathers' reports differ. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire…
Children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) who attend mainstream settings face social skills deficits that have not been adequately explored. This study aims to examine social skills through self-reports of children with AS (N = 21) and a matched group of typically developing peers, as well as reports from their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Results…
Guntzviller, Lisa M.
One hundred dyads of low-income, Spanish-speaking mothers and their bilingual children (age = 12-18; M = 14.12, SD = 1.89) who have language brokered for the mother (i.e., culturally or linguistically mediated between the mother and English speakers) were surveyed. Multiple goals theory posits that mothers and children who do not recognize and…
Droppleman, Leo F.; McNair, Douglas M.
Using finger sweat prints and arousal ratings two different types of stress were measured: anticipation of, and stress during, simulated public speaking. The results indicated that the stress producing properties of public speaking can be reproduced in the laboratory, thus the model has acceptable stimulus properties and can be used in…
Yeo, Seungsoo; Park, Sohee
The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental difference in curriculum-based measurement (CBM) reading aloud performance between Grade 8 English-speaking students and English language learners (ELLs) using two theories of reading development: compensatory model and cumulative model. Fifty non-ELLs and 133 ELLs were administered the…
Assessing speaking skills is regarded as a complex and hard process compared with the other language skills. Considering the idiosyncratic characteristics of EFL learners, oral proficiency assessment issue becomes even more important. Keeping this situation in mind, judgements and reliability of raters need to be consistent with each other. This…
Girard, Lisa-Christine; Côté, Sylvana M.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Dubois, Lise; Falissard, Bruno; Forhan, Anne; Doyle, Orla; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Heude, Barbara; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Kaminski, Monique; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.
Background Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts. Methods Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation. Results Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having ‘some university’ was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France. Conclusions and Implications for Practice While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors. PMID:27902741
Duncan, Larissa G.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Geier, Mary H.; Greenberg, Mark T.
Research on mindful parenting, an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships, has been limited by its reliance on self-report assessment. The current study is the first to examine whether observational indices of parent-youth interactions differentiate between high and low levels of self-reported mindful parenting. The Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS) were used to code interactions between mothers and their 7th grade youth. Mothers drawn from the top and bottom quartiles (n = 375) of a larger distribution of self-reported interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (N = 804) represented clearly defined high and low mindful parenting groups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze how well six composite IFIRS observational rating variables (e.g., parental warmth, consistent discipline) discriminated between high and low self-reports of mindful parenting. DFA results were cross-validated, with statistically significant canonical correlations found for both subsamples (p < .05). Subsequent independent samples t-tests revealed that group means were significantly different on all six IFIRS composite ratings. Confirmation of the relations between self-report mindful parenting and the observational ratings was also provided through hierarchical regression analyses conducted with a continuous predictor of mindful parenting using the full sample. Thus, the present study provides preliminary evidence for a link between self-reported mindful parenting and observed interactions between parents and youth. PMID:25844494
Children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) who attend mainstream settings face social skills deficits that have not been adequately explored. This study aims to examine social skills through self-reports of children with AS (N = 21) and a matched group of typically developing peers, as well as reports from their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Results showed that children with AS had more social skills deficits according to all raters and that they reported more aggressiveness/antisocial behavior, more conceit/haughtiness, more loneliness/social anxiety, and less assertiveness than controls. The level of agreement between raters varied significantly, suggesting that social skills are best studied with multiple informants.
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.
Shows that recollections of state speaking anxiety decreased over time, and that the rate of attenuation was associated with the speaker's level of trait speaking anxiety. Finds also that recollections of state speaking anxiety (implicit memory) were attenuated over time, and that the magnitude of this decline was predicted by the speaker's level…
Bergeson, Tonya R.; Miller, Rachel J.; McCune, Kasi
This study investigated the effects of age, hearing loss, and cochlear implantation on mothers' speech to infants and children. We recorded normal-hearing (NH) mothers speaking to their children as they typically would do at home and speaking to an adult experimenter. Nine infants (10-37 months) were hearing-impaired and had used a cochlear…
Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Woolson, Sandra; Hamer, Robert M; Smith, J Keith; Lury, Kenneth; Gilmore, John H
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently prescribed to pregnant women. Therefore, research on in utero exposure to SSRIs can be helpful in informing patients and clinicians. The aim of this retrospective two-cohort study was to determine whether there is a statistically significant increase in Chiari I malformations (CIM) in children exposed to SSRIs during pregnancy. A total of 33 children whose mothers received a diagnosis of depression and took SSRIs during pregnancy (SSRI-exposed cohort) were matched to 66 children with no history of maternal depression and no SSRI exposure. In addition, 30 children whose mothers received a diagnosis of depression, but did not receive antidepressants during pregnancy (history of maternal depression cohort), were matched to 60 children with no history of maternal depression and no SSRI exposure. Main outcome was presence/absence of CIM on MRI scans at 1 and/or 2 years of age. Scans were reviewed by two independent neuroradiologists who were blind to exposure status. The SSRI-exposed children were significantly more likely to be classified as CIM than comparison children with no history of maternal depression and no SSRI exposure (18% vs 2%, p=0.003, OR estimate 10.32, 95% Wald confidence limits 2.04-102.46). Duration of SSRI exposure, SSRI exposure at conception, and family history of depression increased the risk. The history of maternal depression cohort did not differ from comparison children with no history of maternal depression and no SSRI exposure in occurrence of CIM (7% vs 5%, p=0.75, OR estimate 1.44, 95% Wald confidence limits 0.23-7.85). Replication is needed, as is additional research to clarify whether SSRIs directly impact risk for CIM or whether this relationship is mediated by severity of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. We would discourage clinicians from altering their prescribing practices until such research is available.
Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O’Brien
Research Findings The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children’s inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother–child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal behavior was rated independently from the interactions. Inhibitory control was measured with a battery of tasks at ages 2½ and 3½. Greater maternal sensitivity was correlated with higher vocabulary at 2½. Greater vocabulary predicted positive growth in child inhibitory control skills from ages 2½ to 3½ in multivariable regression models that controlled for maternal education, family income, the home environment, and mothering quality. Practice or Policy These findings suggest that supporting vocabulary development in low-income Spanish-speaking children is important for the development of inhibitory control skills, an important foundation for school readiness and academic success. PMID:26306074
This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…
Miyazaki, Shinji; Hiraoka, Yuichi; Hidema, Shizu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication, difficulty in companionship, repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Recent studies have shown amelioration of ASD symptoms by intranasal administration of oxytocin and demonstrated the association of polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) gene with ASD patients. Deficient pruning of synapses by microglial cells in the brain has been proposed as potential mechanism of ASD. Other researchers have shown specific activation of microglial cells in brain regions related to sociality in patients with ASD. Although the roles of Oxtr and microglia in ASD are in the spotlight, the relationship between them remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found abnormal activation of microglial cells and a reduction of postsynaptic density protein PSD95 expression in the Oxtr-deficient brain. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of microglia during development can alter the expression of PSD95 and ameliorate abnormal mother-infant communication in Oxtr-deficient mice. Our results suggest that microglial abnormality is a potential mechanism of the development of Oxt/Oxtr mediated ASD-like phenotypes.
Nomura, Takako; Caidi, Nadia
Introduction: In this study, we examine the case of Japanese-speaking families in Canada and their experiences with teaching a heritage language at home, along with the uses and perceived usefulness of public library resources, collections, and services in the process. Methods: We interviewed fourteen mothers who speak Japanese to their children.…
While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…
Autism Speaks, the world's largest autism non-profit organization, is addressing a struggle to obtain evidence-based treatment on autism. The mission of Autism Speaks is to change the future for all who struggle with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Part of their focus is to change state insurance laws to require private health insurance policies…
Brigance, Linda Czuba
Designing and presenting a speech is a solitary task. By definition, public speaking involves one person speaking to a group, which sets it apart from other types of communication situations, such as interpersonal and small group communication. Due to the inherently individualistic nature of assignments in the basic course, students rarely profit…
This paper offers a summary of two aspects of effective speaking in public, whether it be with co-workers, supervisors, friends, or a group of little-known or unknown others. One aspect of public speaking is the level of sincerity, and the other is the level and variety of skills used. The paper first considers sincerity and then, it discusses the…
Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Sue, Easton; Walters, Stephen
Introduction Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Methods and analysis Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The ‘Nourishing Start for Health’ (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6–8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10 833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0–6 months. Ethics and
Foss, Gwendolyn F; Chantal, Andjukenda W; Hendrickson, Simone
Studies that investigate infant and/or child development in families of depressed or anxious mothers do not include samples of foreign-born non-English-speaking mothers. This article describes a pilot study investigating infant development, maternal depression, and anxiety in comparison samples of native-born and foreign-born mothers and children from Vietnam, Laos (Hmong), and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Maternal depression and anxiety were measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, and the developmental status of children 0-25 months of age was measured with the Denver II. Foreign-born mothers were more anxious than native-born mothers. Non-English-speaking foreign-born mothers were clinically depressed (1.83) and moderately anxious (1.62). Infants of native-born mothers and English-speaking foreign-born mothers performed better on the Denver II than children of foreign-born non-English-speaking mothers. Infants and toddlers of non-English-speaking mothers appear to be at high risk for delays during their first 25 months of life. Public health nurses need to advocate for appropriate interpreter services and mental health resources for non-English-speaking mothers of young children. Developmental screening should reflect cultural variations in parental expectations of how and when children meet developmental milestones. Replication studies and investigation about the long-term development of this high-risk group of children are needed.
Mendez Perez, Anita
A study examined beliefs about language acquisition among seven Spanish-speaking Mexican American mothers with young children (24-37 months) receiving early intervention services for language disabilities. Emerging themes included mothers'"alternative" explanations for children's communication difficulties, mothers' efforts to help…
Lai, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yen-Yu
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the evaluative language performance of Mandarin-Chinese-speaking young children and their mothers. The participants were 65 mother-child dyads recruited in Taiwan. Thirty-four of these dyads were from middle-class families and 31 were from…
Green, G. Dorsey
Clinical interest in lesbian mothers has begun to emerge from the closet in recent years. Culture has dictated the milieu in which lesbian parents live and has prevented most therapists from being able to respond to lesbian parenting as a healthy option. In a heterosexist world, virtually all public displays of sexuality or family life are…
Chaillon, Antoine; Wack, Thierry; Braibant, Martine; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Blanche, Stéphane; Warszawski, Josiane; Barin, Francis
It has been hypothesized that neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) should have broad specificity to be effective in protection against diverse HIV-1 variants. The mother-to-child transmission model of HIV-1 provides the opportunity to examine whether the breadth of maternal NAbs is associated with protection of infants from infection. Samples were obtained at delivery from 57 transmitting mothers (T) matched with 57 nontransmitting mothers (NT) enrolled in the multicenter French perinatal cohort (ANRS EPF CO1) between 1990 and 1996. Sixty-eight (59.6%) and 46 (40.4%) women were infected by B and non-B viruses, respectively. Neutralization assays were carried out with TZM-bl cells, using a panel of 10 primary isolates of 6 clades (A, B, C, F, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG), selected for their moderate or low sensitivity to neutralization. Neutralization breadths were not statistically different between T and NT mothers. However, a few statistically significant differences were observed, with higher frequencies or titers of NAbs toward several individual strains for NT mothers when the clade B-infected or non-clade B-infected mothers were analyzed separately. Our study confirms that the breadth of maternal NAbs is not associated with protection of infants from infection.
Speaking is sending the message which is desired to be transferred to another one with vocal organs and produced by complicated operations in the brain. Speaking, which is a complicated process, is the most common and important means of communication among people. Speaking, which has essential place both individually and socially, affects success…
Effects of natural childbirth preparation versus standard antenatal education on epidural rates, experience of childbirth and parental stress in mothers and fathers: a randomised controlled multicentre trial
Bergström, M; Kieler, H; Waldenström, U
Objective To examine the effects of antenatal education focussing on natural childbirth preparation with psychoprophylactic training versus standard antenatal education on the use of epidural analgesia, experience of childbirth and parental stress in first-time mothers and fathers. Design Randomised controlled multicentre trial. Setting Fifteen antenatal clinics in Sweden between January 2006 and May 2007. Sample A total of 1087 nulliparous women and 1064 of their partners. Methods Natural group: Antenatal education focussing on natural childbirth preparation with training in breathing and relaxation techniques (psychoprophylaxis). Standard care group: Standard antenatal education focussing on both childbirth and parenthood, without psychoprophylactic training. Both groups: Four 2-hour sessions in groups of 12 participants during third trimester of pregnancy and one follow-up after delivery. Main outcome measures Epidural analgesia during labour, experience of childbirth as measured by the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire (B), and parental stress measured by the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire. Results The epidural rate was 52% in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the experience of childbirth or parental stress between the randomised groups, either in women or men. Seventy percent of the women in the Natural group reported having used psychoprophylaxis during labour. A minority in the Standard care group (37%) had also used this method, but subgroup analysis where these women were excluded did not change the principal findings. Conclusion Natural childbirth preparation including training in breathing and relaxation did not decrease the use of epidural analgesia during labour, nor did it improve the birth experience or affect parental stress in early parenthood in nulliparous women and men, compared with a standard form of antenatal education. PMID:19538406
Bloch, Joan Rosen
Objective To examine spatial patterns of neighborhood contextual factors of stress with preterm birth (PTB) and nativity (foreign-born and U.S.-born) among Black mothers. Design Descriptive geographic-spatial research. Setting & Participants Births to Philadelphia residents during 2003–2005 in the context of Philadelphia residential neighborhoods (N = 350) were studied. Methods All data were aggregated to neighborhood levels (census tracts). Maps were created to assess geographic-spatial patterns. A geographic information system (GIS) database was created that imported geo-coded data on births, crime (assaults with guns and domestic abuse), poverty, race, and nativity (foreign-born vs. U.S.-born). Results Clear visual patterns of “bad” neighborhoods emerged and were significantly associated with higher prevalence of PTB for foreign-born Black and U.S.-born Black mothers (p < .0001). Conclusions This study demonstrated how GIS visually clarified important spatial patterns of adverse living conditions and PTB prevalence. Nurses can use GIS to better understand living environments of mothers and their families and to target interventions in geographical areas with the greatest service needs. Further research on individual and contextual factors is warranted to address the observed health disparities among the heterogeneous groups of foreign-born Black mothers. Despite limitations of aggregate data, it is clear that where mothers live matters. This has important implications for nursing practice and policy. PMID:22273411
The presence of a bilingual educator is proving pivotal to the success of technology initiatives aimed at developing Spanish-speaking students' grasp of both the concepts and the language of mathematics. This article features Ginny Badger, a teaching assistant at Glenwood Springs High School in Glenwood Springs, Colorado, who sacrificed her…
Axford, Roger W.
Given in this book are 23 brief biographies of outstanding Spanish speaking athletes, businessmen, government employees, educators, politicians, a labor leader, singer, actor, and musician. Their struggles, sacrifices, courage, educational background, and accomplishments are described. Among those discussed are Cesar Chavez; Senator Joseph M.…
Reviews the "Speak Mandarin Campaign," that is intended to persuade the Singaporean ethnic Chinese to use Mandarin in place of Chinese dialects. The purported educational, cultural, and practical advantages are discussed, and the support of higher education and the media is evaluated. (Author/CB)
Too much speaking and indiscipline in class is an on-going problem for any teacher, it is at its least disruptive and at most it destroys a good positive classroom atmosphere. This article recognizes this and continues this debate and suggests key clues to support teachers in their efforts to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere and discipline…
This article discusses a documentary film created by students with learning disabilities to share their wisdom. "Speak Out for Understanding" is a new film on learning disabilities created by a group of students at a Vermont high school. Made on a shoestring, the award-winning 32-minute documentary overturns a number of popular…
Rhetoric is a discipline with a long and storied past with its roots in the seminal moments of democracy. In the incipient democratic societies of ancient Greece, rhetoric grew out of the new need to persuade large groups of people to come to a consensus. Public speaking, though featured prominently in many states' standards, is rarely a required…
In a time where standards and accountability override trust in teachers and principals, mandated versions of pedagogy have recently appeared in the Australian landscape. This article critiques one pedagogical reform initiative and suggests that in performative times, it may be preferable for principals and teachers to speak "over" reform…
Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…
Wilbur, Michael P.
Focuses on decision of "Journal of Counseling and Development" to discontinue "Personally Speaking" section of the journal. Author discusses his own personal/professional history and explains importance of being able to speak personally and honestly about ourselves, supporting others' ability to speak personally and honestly about themselves, and…
Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D; Hetterle, Thomas; Beutl, Leon; Hlavacs, Helmut; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse
The link between anxiety and presence in a virtual environment (VE) is still a subject of an unresolved debate, with little empirical research to support theoretical claims. Thus, the current study analyzed presence, self-reported anxiety, and a physiological parameter (heart rate [HR]) in a sample of 30 high anxious and 35 low anxious participants. Both groups delivered a 5 minute speech in a virtual lecture hall. Results indicate no mediating influences of presence on group differences in self-reported state anxiety during the speech, but point toward negative correlations between state anxiety and the iGroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ) scales "sense of being there" and "realism." Furthermore, HR was found to be unrelated to self-reported presence. Only the IPQ scale "spatial presence" showed a marginally significant influence on group differences in state anxiety. The present results support the assumption that presence and anxiety are logically distinct, meaning that presence does not directly influence the intensity of an emotion felt in a VE. Rather, it constitutes a precondition for an emotion to be at all elicited by a VE. Also, HR has proven to be no adequate substitute measure for presence, since it only assesses anxiety not presence. It may, however, mediate the interplay between trait anxiety and state anxiety. Possible implications of the current findings are discussed alongside the problem of using presence questionnaires that seem to be prone to subjective bias (i.e., participants confusing presence and emotion).
Ciaranello, Andrea L.; Perez, Freddy; Keatinge, Jo; Park, Ji-Eun; Engelsmann, Barbara; Maruva, Matthews; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Dabis, Francois; Chu, Jennifer; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Mushavi, Angela; Freedberg, Kenneth A.
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the “virtual elimination” of pediatric HIV: a mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk of less than 5%. We investigated uptake of prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) services, infant feeding recommendations, and specific drug regimens necessary to achieve this goal in Zimbabwe. Methods and Findings We used a computer model to simulate a cohort of HIV-infected, pregnant/breastfeeding women (mean age, 24 y; mean CD4, 451/µl; breastfeeding duration, 12 mo). Three PMTCT regimens were evaluated: (1) single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP), (2) WHO 2010 guidelines' “Option A” (zidovudine in pregnancy, infant nevirapine throughout breastfeeding for women without advanced disease, lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy for women with advanced disease), and (3) WHO “Option B” (pregnancy/breastfeeding-limited combination antiretroviral drug regimens without advanced disease; lifelong antiretroviral therapy with advanced disease). We examined four levels of PMTCT uptake (proportion of pregnant women accessing and adhering to PMTCT services): reported rates in 2008 and 2009 (36% and 56%, respectively) and target goals in 2008 and 2009 (80% and 95%, respectively). The primary model outcome was MTCT risk at weaning. The 2008 sdNVP-based National PMTCT Program led to a projected 12-mo MTCT risk of 20.3%. Improved uptake in 2009 reduced projected risk to 18.0%. If sdNVP were replaced by more effective regimens, with 2009 (56%) uptake, estimated MTCT risk would be 14.4% (Option A) or 13.4% (Option B). Even with 95% uptake of Option A or B, projected transmission risks (6.1%–7.7%) would exceed the WHO goal of less than 5%. Only if the lowest published transmission risks were used for each drug regimen, or breastfeeding duration were shortened, would MTCT risks at 95% uptake fall below 5%. Conclusions Implementation of the WHO PMTCT guidelines must be accompanied by efforts to improve access to PMTCT services, retain
Comparison of the Effects of Two Auditory Methods by Mother and Fetus on the Results of Non-Stress Test (Baseline Fetal Heart Rate and Number of Accelerations) in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Khoshkholgh, Roghaie; Keshavarz, Tahereh; Moshfeghy, Zeinab; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Asadi, Nasrin; Zare, Najaf
Objective: To compare the effects of two auditory methods by mother and fetus on the results of NST in 2011-2012. Materials and methods: In this single-blind clinical trial, 213 pregnant women with gestational age of 37-41 weeks who had no pregnancy complications were randomly divided into 3 groups (auditory intervention for mother, auditory intervention for fetus, and control) each containing 71 subjects. In the intervention groups, music was played through the second 10 minutes of NST. The three groups were compared regarding baseline fetal heart rate and number of accelerations in the first and second 10 minutes of NST. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and paired T-test. Results: The results showed no significant difference among the three groups regarding baseline fetal heart rate in the first (p = 0.945) and second (p = 0.763) 10 minutes. However, a significant difference was found among the three groups concerning the number of accelerations in the second 10 minutes. Also, a significant difference was observed in the number of accelerations in the auditory intervention for mother (p = 0.013) and auditory intervention for fetus groups (p < 0.001). The difference between the number of accelerations in the first and second 10 minutes was also statistically significant (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Music intervention was effective in the number of accelerations which is the indicator of fetal health. Yet, further studies are required to be conducted on the issue. PMID:27385971
Pagani, Linda; Larocque, Denis; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Studied factors that can increase the risk of abusive behaviors toward mothers. Findings for 6,397 French-speaking Canadian adolescents show that parental divorce is associated with a greater risk of physical aggression directed toward mothers, but family environment and parental coping strategies partially mediated that relationship. (SLD)
Epps, R P; Corona, E; Kodagoda, N; Simonen, M
Unique experience has accumulated in the English-speaking Caribbean in the field of family life education for youth. Although birth rates are relatively low, the increase in adolescent pregnancy and births is becoming more visible. Mother-centered homes are frequent, and support from the father is often lacking. A series of family life education (FLE) programs funded by the United National Fund for Population Activities is aimed at providing help to the various groups in the Caribbean in an acceptable and non-threatening manner. These out-of-school FLE techniques include several approaches: integration of the proposed program into an already established place (a factory, youth center, or community center); education in human growth, food and nutrition, environmental health, mental health, safety and first-aid, dental health and human relations, including human sexuality, rights and responsibilities, and decision making; and the use of specially trained personnel who understand the conditions of the particular community. In some countries adolescent pregnancy is viewed as a problem. In others it may not be so considered. It is vital for the staff and community leaders to review proposals for the FLE program and bring into the centers all subjects that are free of controversy. Family planning, contraceptive delivery and even human sexuality may be acceptable subjects in some quarters, and not in others. Efforts must be continued to find innovative approaches to assure that the benefits of these learning activities continue to be provided, and expanded in response to growing acceptance.
Lee, Sang Min; Thorn, Antoinette; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras; Ha, Jung Hee; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Jayoung
The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationships between three predictor variables (attitude toward school, parent-child communication, and school commitment action) and the criterion variable (parent involvement) in a representative sample and to examine if these relationships were consistent across three groups (English speaking Caucasian family, English speaking Latino family, and Spanish speaking Latino families). Using a national database (N = 9.841), multi-group SEM analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between three predictor variables and the criterion variable in three family groups. While all three predictor variables significantly predicted parent involvement in English speaking Caucasian and Latino families, only two variables (parent-child communication and school commitment actions), significantly predicted parent involvement in Spanish speaking Latino families. The results of this study suggest that when administrators, teachers and counselors in school strive to share specific school-related information with Latino families, Spanish speaking families are more likely to become involved with schools.
Sanborn, Keri B.; Somasundaran, Mohan; Luzuriaga, Katherine; Leitner, Thomas K.
Some previous studies have demonstrated that single HIV-1 genotypes are commonly transmitted from mother to child, but such analyses primarily used single samples from mother and child. It is possible that in a single sample, obtained early after infection, only the most replication competent virus is detected even when other forms may have been transmitted. Such forms may have advantages later in infection, and may thus be detected in follow-up samples. Furthermore, because HIV-1 frequently recombines, phylogenetic analyses that ignore recombination may miss transmission of multiple forms if they recombine after transmission. Moreover, recombination may facilitate adaptation, thus providing an advantage in establishing infection. The effect of recombination on viral evolution in HIV-1 infected children has not been well defined.
Sanborn, Keri B.; Somasundaran, Mohan; Luzuriaga, Katherine; ...
Some previous studies have demonstrated that single HIV-1 genotypes are commonly transmitted from mother to child, but such analyses primarily used single samples from mother and child. It is possible that in a single sample, obtained early after infection, only the most replication competent virus is detected even when other forms may have been transmitted. Such forms may have advantages later in infection, and may thus be detected in follow-up samples. Furthermore, because HIV-1 frequently recombines, phylogenetic analyses that ignore recombination may miss transmission of multiple forms if they recombine after transmission. Moreover, recombination may facilitate adaptation, thus providing anmore » advantage in establishing infection. The effect of recombination on viral evolution in HIV-1 infected children has not been well defined.« less
Drama through Mother Goose nursery rhymes can be integrated in the pre-K-3 curriculum. Activities can range from spontaneous gestures and facial expression, to guided performance where a teacher might have specific objectives in mind and rehearse a rhyme for formal performance. Activities include unison or choral speaking; "line-a-child"…
Kelly, Deirdre M.
Those interested in critical, feminist, and anti-racist pedagogy are on a search for means to counter dominant ways of speaking about stigmatized groups. Some see promise in popular theater, which starts from the experience of those on the margins. This ethnographic study followed 12 teen mothers, a highly stereotyped group, as they wrote and…
Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia
Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…
Ozer, Erdal; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Yildirim, Ali; Enginyurt, Ozgur; Din, Hasan; Evcuman, Durmus
Background All individuals under the age of 18 are considered as children by the Convention on the Rights of Children. Underage mothers are a pediatric-age group of children that become pregnant and give birth. It may be unfamiliar in Western countries, but in Middle-Eastern countries ruled by religious laws and old-fashioned traditions, it is common for an older man to marry a girl. The aim of this study was to describe the status of underage mothers within the framework of children’s rights and to draw attention to this issue. We presented this study to increase awareness and sensitivity, and to scrutinize and discuss these topics. Material/Methods We retrospectively investigated cases of underaged pregnant girls who applied to Forensic Science Department outpatient clinics and Obstetrics and Gynecology Department outpatient clinics of Gaziosmanpasa University Faculty of Medicine between 2003 and 2013. Results We accessed records of 163 underage mothers (≤18 age). Mean age was 16.9±0.83 (14–18 years). Gravida and parity rates increased proportionately with increasing age. Most of our cases were 16 and 17 years of age (n: 117, 71.8%). Conclusions Underage motherhood is not only a medical issue; it is a multi-dimensional problem with social, economic, traditional, religious, and legal aspects. PMID:24714663
Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.
This paper comments on two documents prepared by the Washington-based World Bank: the "World Development Report" and the three-volume study "Voices of the Poor." The author provides a brief overview of these documents then examines their potential impact on the delegates to the annual meetings of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in Prague on September 19-28, 2000. The author further examines the implication of the new strategies embraced by the global lenders--"opportunity, empowerment, security." Apart from these strategies, the World Bank sets out other strategies like spreading the benefits of technology, as it calls for the elimination of absolute poverty by 2015. However, the most crucial tack is the one illustrated by the way the reports were made: letting the poor speak and responding to their cries.
Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien
Research Findings: The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children's inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother-child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal…
Johnson, Keith; And Others
Excerpts from a discussion session involving six panelists and 150 teachers of English in non-English-speaking countries range from the revolution in the communicative approach to the extent to which the mother tongue is taken into account, translation, grammatical correctness, teaching large classes, and textbook development. (MSE)
Korat, Ofra; Arafat, Safieh H.; Aram, Dorit; Klein, Pnina
This article investigates the contribution of maternal mediation in storybook reading, socioeconomic status (SES), and home literacy environment (HLE) to children's literacy level in kindergarten and first grade in Israeli Arabic-speaking families. A total of 109 kindergarten children and their mothers participated. Children's literacy level was…
Okoko, Nicollate A; Owuor, Kevin O; Kulzer, Jayne L; Owino, George O; Ogolla, Irene A; Wandera, Ronald W; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Abuogi, Lisa L
Despite the availability of efficacious prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and improved access to preventive services in many developing countries, vertical HIV transmission persists. A matched case-control study of HIV-exposed infants between January and June 2012 was conducted at 20 clinics in Kenya. Cases were HIV-infected infants and controls were exposed, uninfected infants. Conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine characteristics associated with HIV infection. Forty-five cases and 45 controls were compared. Characteristics associated with HIV-infection included poor PMTCT service uptake such as late infant enrollment (odds ratio [OR]: 7.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6-16.7) and poor adherence to infant prophylaxis (OR: 8.3, 95%CI: 3.2-21.4). Maternal characteristics associated with MTCT included lack of awareness of HIV status (OR: 5.6, 95%CI: 2.2-14.5), failure to access antiretroviral prophylaxis (OR: 22.2, 95%CI: 5.8-84.6), and poor adherence (OR: 8.1, 95%CI: 3.7-17.8). Lack of clinic-based HIV education (OR: 7.7, 95%CI: 2.0-25.0) and counseling (OR: 8.3, 95%CI: 2.2-33.3) were reported by mothers of cases. Poor uptake of PMTCT services and a reported absence of HIV education and counseling at the clinic were associated with MTCT. More emphasis on high-quality, comprehensive PMTCT service provision are urgently needed to minimize HIV transmission to children.
Fischer, Lucy Rose
Indicated how a shift in the structure of kinship networks created changes in both the content and balance of kinship relationships. Compared the mother-daughter and the mother-in-law/daughter-in-law relationships. The shift in their kin network consisted of the birth of the daughter(in-law)'s child. (Author/RC)
Mondschein, E R; Adolph, K E; Tamis-LeMonda, C S
Although boys outshine girls in a range of motor skills, there are no reported gender differences in motor performance during infancy. This study examined gender bias in mothers' expectations about their infants' motor development. Mothers of 11-month-old infants estimated their babies' crawling ability, crawling attempts, and motor decisions in a novel locomotor task-crawling down steep and shallow slopes. Mothers of girls underestimated their performance and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Mothers' gender bias had no basis in fact. When we tested the infants in the same slope task moments after mothers' provided their ratings, girls and boys showed identical levels of motor performance.
Kangaroo mother care is a safe, simple method to care for low birth weight infants. This article looks at its origins, what is involved in kangaroo mother care and reviews the evidence for improved outcomes resulting from its implementation.
Schwartz, Scott C
The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.
Pearce, Joseph Chilton
Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)
Tottenham, Nim; Shapiro, Mor; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.
In altricial species, like the human, the caregiver, very often the mother, is one of the most potent stimuli during development. The distinction between mothers and other adults is learned early in life and results in numerous behaviors in the child, most notably mother-approach and stranger wariness. The current study examined the influence of…
Arora, Amit; Nguyen, Deon; Do, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Bao; Hilton, Glen; Do, Loc Giang; Bhole, Sameer
Objective: This study, nested within a large cohort study, sought to explore how well Vietnamese mothers with pre-school children understood the dental health education material commonly available in New South Wales, Australia. Design: Qualitative research. Setting: Home-based interviews. Method: Vietnamese-speaking mothers ("n" = 24)…
Ybarra, Gabriel; Passman, Richard H.; Eisenberg, Carl S. L.
This study compared the degree to which young children were placated during a standard medical evaluation by the presence of their mother, blanket, mother plus blanket, or no supportive agent. Participating were 64 three-year-olds who underwent 4 routine medical procedures. Children were rated by their mothers as attached or nonattached to…
Melzi, Gigliana; King, Kendall A
The present study examined gender and age patterns of diminutive use in conversations between 32 Spanish-speaking Peruvian mothers and their three- and five-year-old children. Results confirm previous findings concerning both parents' greater use of diminutives with younger children and children's early acquisition of this complex aspect of morphology. However, findings do not support previous studies on gender differences in parental use of diminutives with young children. Results also revealed that mothers' and children's imitations of their interlocutors' diminutized words promoted their interlocutors' overall diminutive use. This finding highlights the acute sensitivity of both speakers to each others' language and the potential role of imitation in older children's language development.
Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65%) males and 270 (35%) females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8%) were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2%) had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test). The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test). There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring. PMID:26605033
Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65%) males and 270 (35%) females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8%) were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2%) had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher's exact test). The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher's exact test). There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring.
All teachers at all grade levels in all subjects have speaking assignments for students, but many teachers believe they don't know how to teach speaking, and many even fear public speaking themselves. In his new book, "Well Spoken", veteran teacher and education consultant Erik Palmer shares the art of teaching speaking in any classroom. Teachers…
Kikas, Eve; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Kontoniemi, Marita; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niilo, Airi
Mutual trust between mothers and kindergarten teachers along with its relation to mother's educational level and child's gender was studied in two neighboring countries--Estonia and Finland. From Estonia 543 ratings of mothers and 232 ratings of teachers were collected, and, from Finland, 712 ratings of mothers and 712 ratings of teachers. Trust…
Hancock, Adrienne B; Stone, Matthew D; Brundage, Shelley B; Zeigler, Mark T
In light of infamous levels of fear associated with public speaking, businesses are training staff in communication effectiveness and universities are requiring courses in public speaking. A variety of approaches to individual training are available, but few studies have assessed effectiveness of group instruction, as in academic curricula. The specific purpose of this study was to compare changes in scores on measures of self-perceived confidence, competence, and apprehension associated with public speaking after two types of courses: one focused on knowledge of the vocal mechanism and mastering vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate, quality), and one addressing general communication theory and public speaking. Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in "Voice and Diction" at George Washington University (GWU) and 68 enrolled in "Fundamental Speech" at Florida State University completed questionnaires before and after the courses. Scores on Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale, Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker, and Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24, were compared within subjects (ie, prepost course) and between courses. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found on all measures: students reported less apprehension and more confidence and competence after the courses. No differences were found between the two courses when comparing the mean changes from pre- to postscore. Traditional public speaking curriculum of how to design and deliver a speech and curriculum tailored to the voice and speech mechanism succeeded in reducing public speaking apprehension and increasing feelings of confidence and competency for these undergraduate students.
Hurlburt, Russell T; Heavey, Christopher L; Kelsey, Jason M
Inner speaking is a common and widely discussed phenomenon of inner experience. Based on our studies of inner experience using Descriptive Experience Sampling (a qualitative method designed to produce high fidelity descriptions of randomly selected pristine inner experience), we advance an initial phenomenology of inner speaking. Inner speaking does occur in many, though certainly not all, moments of pristine inner experience. Most commonly it is experienced by the person as speaking in his or her own naturally inflected voice but with no sound being produced. In addition to prototypical instances of inner speaking, there are wide-ranging variations that fit the broad category of inner speaking and large individual differences in the frequency with which individuals experience inner speaking. Our observations are discrepant from what many have said about inner speaking, which we attribute to the characteristics of the methods different researchers have used to examine inner speaking.
Hay, Carter; Evans, Michelle M.
Rates of serious crime in the United States dropped greatly throughout the 1990s for virtually all offenses. John Donohue and Steven Levitt have argued that this reduction relates strongly to the 1973 "Roe v. Wade" decision that legalized the abortion of unwanted pregnancies. If such pregnancies result in children with higher lifetime risks of…
Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail
The global epidemic of diabetes has not spared the Arabic-speaking countries, which have some of the highest prevalence of type II diabetes. This is particularly true of the Arab Gulf, a conglomerate of high income, oil-producing countries where prevalence rates are the highest. The prevalence rates among adults of the Arabic speaking countries as a whole range between 4%–21%, with the lowest being in Somalia and the highest in Kuwait. As economic growth has accelerated, so has the movement of the populations to urban centers where people are more likely to adopt lifestyles that embrace increased high-calorie food consumption and sedentary lifestyles. These factors likely contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Arabic speaking countries. PMID:22851968
Bryan, Amy E.; Dix, Theodore
This article examines mothers' support for children's interests and, specifically, emotional processes in mothers that may explain why they display different levels of support with children of different temperaments. We observed 114 mothers and their 14-27 month-old children during a laboratory interaction. Mothers rated children on three…
Beckert, Troy; Strom, Robert; Strom, Paris; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Shen, Yuh-Ling
Education for parents was recently mandated in Taiwan and presents a challenge to the schools. The purpose of this study was to determine how two generations perceive parenting strengths and learning needs. Taiwanese mothers of 10- to 14-year-olds (n=209) and their adolescent children (n=201) completed the Parent Success Indicator. Generational reports were compared, and effects of independent variables were examined. The amount of time mothers spent talking to and doing things with their adolescents had the greatest influence on how both groups rated mother success. Unfavorable ratings expressed by mothers and adolescents identified topics that would be appropriate for parent education. The findings will be used by educators and researchers to support parent development in Taiwan.
Osmond, Erica R.
This study addressed pedagogical practices in the public speaking classroom in an attempt to help control communication apprehension (CA) levels and improve retention rates among college students in the basic public speaking course. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of Berger and Calabrese's uncertainty reduction theory and Weiner's attribution…
Hase, Maria; Ingram, David; Bunta, Ferenc
This study compared two phonological assessment tools for use with young Spanish-speaking children in the American Southwest, FON and STAR. Each was administered to 27 1-, 2- and 3-year-old monolingual Spanish-speaking children in the greater Phoenix area. Analyses compared the children's rate of response, complexity of the children's productions,…
Chen, Lei; Feng, Gary; Leong, Chee Wee; Joe, Jilliam; Kitchen, Christopher; Lee, Chong Min
Traditional assessments of public speaking skills rely on human scoring. We report an initial study on the development of an automated scoring model for public speaking performances using multimodal technologies. Task design, rubric development, and human rating were conducted according to standards in educational assessment. An initial corpus of…
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Ferando, Annette; Newbert, David
Funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act, the Assertiveness Training Program for Single Mothers was offered to mothers with children enrolled in the Omaha Head Start and Parent-Child Center Programs. The 16-week long program, providing a total of 40 hours of training, covered a wide range of topics in addition to the initial workshops on…
Berridge, Gina G.; Goebel, Vella
The high teacher attrition and early-career exodus of beginning teachers suggest that traditional methods fall short of providing the support needed by beginning teachers. This qualitative study examined the challenges encountered by student teachers during their practicum experience. Findings suggest that the attrition rate may be at least…
Structural Level Differences in the Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Rate in South Africa: A Multilevel Assessment of Individual-, Health Facility-, and Provincial-Level Predictors of Infant HIV Transmission
Jackson, Debra J.; Lombard, CJ; Dinh, Thu-Ha; Ramokolo, Vundli; Doherty, Tanya; Sherman, Gayle G.; Pillay, Yogan; Goga, Ameena E.
Objectives: In 2010, South Africa reported an early mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate of 3.5% at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Provincial early MTCT rates ranged from 1.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1 to 3.4] to 5.9% (95% CI: 3.8 to 8.0). We sought to determine reasons for these geographic differences in MTCT rates. Methods: This study used multilevel modeling using 2010 South African prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) evaluation (SAPMTCTE) data from 530 facilities. Interview data and blood samples of infants were collected from 3085 mother–infant pairs at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Facility-level data on human resources, referral systems, linkages to care, and record keeping were collected through facility staff interviews. Provincial level data were gathered from publicly available data (eg, health professionals per 10,000 population) or aggregated at province-level from the SAPMTCTE (PMTCT maternal-infant antiretroviral (ARV) coverage). Variance partition coefficients and odds ratios (for provincial facility- and individual-level factors influencing MTCT) from multilevel modeling are reported. Results: The provincial- (5.0%) and facility-level (1.4%) variance partition coefficients showed no substantive geographic variation in early MTCT. In multivariable analysis accounting for the multilevel nature of the data, the following were associated with early MTCT: individual-level—low maternal–infant ARV uptake [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.7 to 3.5], mixed breastfeeding (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.9) and maternal age <20 years (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.0); facility-level–insufficient (≤2) health care-personnel for HIV-testing services (AOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.0); provincial-level PMTCT ARV (maternal–infant) coverage lower than 80% (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.9), and number of health professionals per 10,000 population (AOR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98 to 0.99). Conclusions: There was no substantial province
How to improve students' ability of speaking English? That is the key point we are concerned about. This paper discusses the possibility and necessity of improving students' ability by combining the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing.
McConachie, Helen; Hammal, Donna; Welsh, Brenda; Keane, Brigid; Waterston, Tony; Parker, Louise; Cook, Margaret
This paper reports indicators of wellbeing and early parenting stress in a representative sample of first-time mothers in north-east England. A total of 185 mothers were recruited in the antenatal period to a controlled trial of an early parenting intervention. They were interviewed at home when the baby was aged around one month, and completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and the Parenting Daily Hassles Scale. Almost half of mothers reported psychological distress above the accepted GHQ12 cut-off point. However, distress was not related to variables such as low socio-economic status, as had been predicted. Early parenting stress was greater in relatively more educated and older mothers. New motherhood is likely to be stressful, even where mothers do not have postpartum depression, and so a range of supports is required.
Carlson, Ruth Kearney
This book contains a selection of activities, techniques, and sources to be used by those who are concerned with oral communication experiences of children and youth. Chapter topics are as follows: (1) multi-sensory awareness: speaking and acting for kindergarten through third grade; (2) kinesics and drama for primary children; (3) imaginative…
Does the language one speaks influence the way he thinks? Does it help define his world view? Anyone who has tried to master a foreign tongue has at least considered the possibility. Little linguistic peculiarities, though amusing, don't change the objective world people are describing. So how can they alter the way they think? Scientists and…
Hess, Frederick M.
Teachers have a lot of frustrating things to deal with in school--obdurate administrators, inane work rules, and ham-fisted policies, to name a few. Instead of speaking up for change, many teachers have just come to accept all the dysfunction and take refuge in their classrooms. But teachers have it in their power to bust out of that classroom…
Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah
Through selected theories of melancholia, this paper seeks to shed some fresh interpretive light on the reproduction and disruption of gender, violence and family turmoil across generations of mothers and daughters. The originality of the paper lies in its exploratory deployment of theories of melancholia to consider issues of women, violence and…
This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigated the effect of extensive speaking practice on the development of L2 speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency in voice blogging. The participants were 30 college EFL (English as a foreign language) learners in Taiwan. As a supplement to the insufficient speaking practice in class, each…
Karim, Shahzad; Haq, Naushaba
The present study focused on assessing the speaking test of IELTS. The assessment discussed both positive aspects and weaknesses in IELTS speaking module. The researchers had also suggested some possible measures for the improvement in IELTS speaking test and increasing its validity and reliability. The researchers had analysed and assessed IELTS…
Kaye, Nancy; Matson, Don
Proposes an instructional progression that goes from writing to speaking in learning English as a Second Language. Specific focus is on writing to improve speaking, games for writing to speaking, free writes from personal experiences, creating a scene, autobiographies, and argumentation. (Author/VWL)
Rachmawaty, Noor; Hermagustiana, Istanti
This paper is based on a study on speaking fluency performed by six low level students using retelling technique. The aim of the study is to find out the effect of retelling on the students' speaking fluency and to know the strategies used by those students while retelling a story. The data were the speaking transcripts which were analyzed to see…
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
This profile in outline form discusses the English language teaching situation in the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking areas of Belgium. The situation in the Dutch-speaking region, which includes Flanders and Brussels (the latter having both Dutch and French as official languages), is described in terms of the extent of English instruction…
Iwashita, Noriko; Brown, Annie; McNamara, Tim; O'Hagan, Sally
The study reported in this paper is an investigation of the nature of speaking proficiency in English as a second language in the context of a larger project to develop a rating scale for a new international test of English for Academic Purposes, TOEFL iBT (Brown et al. 2005). We report on a large-scale study of the relationship between detailed…
Cox, Troy L.
Speaking assessments for second language learners have traditionally been expensive to administer because of the cost of rating the speech samples. To reduce the cost, many researchers are investigating the potential of using automatic speech recognition (ASR) as a means to score examinee responses to open-ended prompts. This study examined the…
Laske, Timothy G.; Iaizzo, Paul A.; Garshelis, David L.
Physiological monitoring of free-ranging wild animals is providing new insights into their adaptations to a changing environment. American black bears (Ursus americanus) are highly adaptable mammals, spending up to half the year hibernating, and the remainder of the year attempting to gain weight on a landscape with foods that vary seasonally and year to year. We recorded heart rate (HR) and corresponding activity of an adult female black bear over the course of six years, using an implanted monitor. Despite yearly differences in food, and an every-other year reproductive cycle, this bear exhibited remarkable consistency in HR and activity. HR increased for 12 weeks in spring, from minimal hibernation levels (mean 20–25 beats/minute [bpm]; min 10 bpm) to summer active levels (July daytime: mean 95 bpm). Timing was delayed following one cold winter. In August the bear switched from primarily diurnal to nocturnal, coincident with the availability of baits set by legal hunters. Activity in autumn was higher when the bear was with cubs. Birthing of cubs in January was identified by a transient increase in HR and activity. Long-term physiological and behavioral monitoring is valuable for understanding adaptations of free-ranging animals to climate change, food availability, and human-related stressors.
Laske, Timothy G.; Iaizzo, Paul A.; Garshelis, David L.
Physiological monitoring of free-ranging wild animals is providing new insights into their adaptations to a changing environment. American black bears (Ursus americanus) are highly adaptable mammals, spending up to half the year hibernating, and the remainder of the year attempting to gain weight on a landscape with foods that vary seasonally and year to year. We recorded heart rate (HR) and corresponding activity of an adult female black bear over the course of six years, using an implanted monitor. Despite yearly differences in food, and an every-other year reproductive cycle, this bear exhibited remarkable consistency in HR and activity. HR increased for 12 weeks in spring, from minimal hibernation levels (mean 20–25 beats/minute [bpm]; min 10 bpm) to summer active levels (July daytime: mean 95 bpm). Timing was delayed following one cold winter. In August the bear switched from primarily diurnal to nocturnal, coincident with the availability of baits set by legal hunters. Activity in autumn was higher when the bear was with cubs. Birthing of cubs in January was identified by a transient increase in HR and activity. Long-term physiological and behavioral monitoring is valuable for understanding adaptations of free-ranging animals to climate change, food availability, and human-related stressors. PMID:28094804
Laske, Timothy G; Iaizzo, Paul A; Garshelis, David L
Physiological monitoring of free-ranging wild animals is providing new insights into their adaptations to a changing environment. American black bears (Ursus americanus) are highly adaptable mammals, spending up to half the year hibernating, and the remainder of the year attempting to gain weight on a landscape with foods that vary seasonally and year to year. We recorded heart rate (HR) and corresponding activity of an adult female black bear over the course of six years, using an implanted monitor. Despite yearly differences in food, and an every-other year reproductive cycle, this bear exhibited remarkable consistency in HR and activity. HR increased for 12 weeks in spring, from minimal hibernation levels (mean 20-25 beats/minute [bpm]; min 10 bpm) to summer active levels (July daytime: mean 95 bpm). Timing was delayed following one cold winter. In August the bear switched from primarily diurnal to nocturnal, coincident with the availability of baits set by legal hunters. Activity in autumn was higher when the bear was with cubs. Birthing of cubs in January was identified by a transient increase in HR and activity. Long-term physiological and behavioral monitoring is valuable for understanding adaptations of free-ranging animals to climate change, food availability, and human-related stressors.
Harris, Sandra R; Kemmerling, Robert L; North, Max M
The primary goal of this research program was to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality therapy (VRT) in reducing public speaking anxiety of university students. The prevalence and impact of public speaking anxiety as a type of Social Phobia are discussed. Studies of VRT as an emerging treatment for psychological problems are reviewed. In the present study, eight students completed VRT individual treatment and post-testing, and six students in a Wait-List control group completed post-testing. Assessment measures included four self-report inventories, self-report of Subjective Units of Discomfort during exposure to VRT and physiological measurements of heart rate during speaking tasks. Four weekly individual exposure treatment sessions of approximately 15 min each were conducted by the author serving as therapist. Results on self-report and physiological measures appear to indicate that four virtual reality treatment sessions were effective in reducing public speaking anxiety in university students, corroborating earlier studies of VRT's effectiveness as a psychotherapeutic modality. Future research directions are discussed, primarily the need for research on younger populations, to assess the effectiveness of VRT for earlier intervention with public speaking anxiety.
Sahler, Olle Jane Z.; Fairclough, Diane L.; Phipps, Sean; Mulhern, Raymond K.; Dolgin, Michael J.; Noll, Robert B.; Katz, Ernest R.; Varni, James W.; Copeland, Donna R.
Mothers of children with cancer experience significant distress associated with their children's diagnosis and treatment. The efficacy of problem-solving skills training (PSST), a cognitive-behavioral intervention based on problem-solving therapy, was assessed among 430 English- and Spanish-speaking mothers of recently diagnosed patients.…
Wang, Hui-Ting; West, Elizabeth A.
Asian American immigrant parents supporting children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been understudied. The purpose of this qualitative study was to probe the perceptions of Mandarin-speaking immigrant mothers and fathers raising children with ASD in the United States. Ten participating parents were first-generation native…
This study examines the challenges of minority language transmission in exogamous families in a society where linguistic and cultural homogeneity still prevails. Specifically, it investigates the macro and micro ideological influences that lead multilingual migrant mothers in Japan to speak Japanese to their children. Interview data with six Thai…
Niles, Gloria Y.
Using basic qualitative research methodology, the purpose for this dissertation study was to explore the language, social and learning considerations and subsequent actions taken by eight, bilingual, Hispanic-American mothers of children with autism between the ages of four and eight-years-old regarding speaking Spanish, English or both languages…
Mervis, Carolyn B.; Mervis, Cynthia A.
Tests the hypothesis that mothers would label objects with adult-basic level terms when talking to other adults, but would label the same objects with child-basic terms when speaking to their young children who were just starting to talk, even though these labels may be very much "incorrect" by adult standards. (Author/RH)
Mueller, Tracy Gershwin; Milian, Madeline; Islas Lopez, Maria
Parent-professional partnership literature continues to emphasize the importance of including the parent voice. Spanish-speaking families are often excluded from such studies because of the language barrier. This article presents a qualitative interview study of eight Latina mothers of children with severe disabilities. All participants were…
Solis-Camarar, P; Fox, R A
Parenting practices and developmental expectations were examined in a sample of 221 Mexican mothers with very young children living in Guadalajara, Jalisco. They completed a Spanish version of the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC), a 100-item rating scale that measures parents' developmental expectations, discipline, and nurturing practices. The psychometric properties of the PBC for Mexican mothers, including test-retest reliabilities, were very similar to those found for mothers of young children in the United States. Younger Mexican mothers used more frequent discipline and less nurturing with their young children than older mothers did. Married mothers nurtured their children more than unmarried mothers; young, unmarried mothers nurtured their children the least. Lower nurturing scores were associated with lower education levels, and higher nurturing scores were associated with higher education levels. Mothers from higher socioeconomic levels held higher developmental expectations for their children, and they used less frequent discipline and more frequent nurturing practices than mothers from lower socioeconomic levels. These findings are consistent with those for mothers of young children in the United States.
Being able to identify problems and bring them to the attention of OR team colleagues is crucial for the safety of both patients and perioperative team members; however, being able to do this means being comfortable with speaking up under circumstances that may be difficult. Disruptive or intimidating coworker behavior also makes speaking up difficult, but it is important to address in the interest of providing safe, effective care to patients. To remedy this, health care workers should create awareness of the problem and motivate others to take action; establish a culture of respect; set expectations to help eliminate disrespectful behavior; and create a learning environment that eliminates hierarchical structures, fosters professionalism, demonstrates respect, and enforces a zero tolerance policy.
gets a chance to develop her own leadership skills , and the event is much more likely to be a success. (Large headquarters companies might even prefer...from a very different unique in nature . . . and one learns to develop new skills in the art of communication with the people of the command. 33 ].q...information from our family communication network: 1. A few of our wives could not speak English . The family group supplied babysitting so these ladies
Evans, A. L.; Evans, V.; Kanra, A. M. Lami; Jones, O. S. L.
In this day, people all over academia feel that our democracy is eroding and that there is no need for rhetoric. Yet, if some effort is not made to help young people understand democracy and the role of public speaking in this form of government, all will truly be lost. The battle is always ongoing as long as on person stands to tell the story.…
Hequembourg, Amy L
Lesbian mothering strategies are commonly theorized as instances of assimilationism or resistance. This essay critiques those approaches and presents a promising alternative using the conceptual framework of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Their concepts of "becoming" and "rhizoming" are utilized as mechanisms for understanding the inconsistencies and contradictions that constitute the subjectivities of two lesbian co-mothers. The essay concludes with the political implications of these analyses.
Stolarova, Margarita; Wolf, Corinna; Rinker, Tanja; Brielmann, Aenne
This report has two main purposes. First, we combine well-known analytical approaches to conduct a comprehensive assessment of agreement and correlation of rating-pairs and to dis-entangle these often confused concepts, providing a best-practice example on concrete data and a tutorial for future reference. Second, we explore whether a screening questionnaire developed for use with parents can be reliably employed with daycare teachers when assessing early expressive vocabulary. A total of 53 vocabulary rating pairs (34 parent–teacher and 19 mother–father pairs) collected for two-year-old children (12 bilingual) are evaluated. First, inter-rater reliability both within and across subgroups is assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Next, based on this analysis of reliability and on the test-retest reliability of the employed tool, inter-rater agreement is analyzed, magnitude and direction of rating differences are considered. Finally, Pearson correlation coefficients of standardized vocabulary scores are calculated and compared across subgroups. The results underline the necessity to distinguish between reliability measures, agreement and correlation. They also demonstrate the impact of the employed reliability on agreement evaluations. This study provides evidence that parent–teacher ratings of children's early vocabulary can achieve agreement and correlation comparable to those of mother–father ratings on the assessed vocabulary scale. Bilingualism of the evaluated child decreased the likelihood of raters' agreement. We conclude that future reports of agreement, correlation and reliability of ratings will benefit from better definition of terms and stricter methodological approaches. The methodological tutorial provided here holds the potential to increase comparability across empirical reports and can help improve research practices and knowledge transfer to educational and therapeutic settings. PMID:24994985
Suzuki believed that all human beings are endowed with remarkable musical ability and can learn to play musical instruments in the same way they learn to speak. The Suzuki method of teaching music and its evolution in the United States are discussed. (RM)
Manno, Bruno V.
The organization that claims to represent the voice and interests of K-12 students and their parents is the Parent Teacher Association, widely known as the PTA. The organization aims to provide "parents and families with a powerful voice to speak on behalf of every child while providing the best tools for parents to help their children be…
Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara; Caldwell, Cleopatra H
The purpose of this secondary analysis of data is to examine relationships among Asian American Pacific Islanders (AAPI) adolescents' level of acculturation, maternal influences, and age of sexual initiation. Selected predictive variables are based on the theoretical frameworks and literature review. The results indicate that for these adolescents speaking English at home was positively associated with maternal sexual discussion, mothers' perceptions of connectedness with their adolescents, adolescents' perceived maternal sexual expectations, and later sexual initiation at Wave 1. Adolescents' years of U.S. residency are positively associated with adolescents' level of perceived connectedness with their mothers and later sexual initiation at Wave 2. Adolescents' level of acculturation influence how they interacted with their mothers, perceived their mothers' sexual expectations, and when they decided to initiate sexual intercourse. Interventions to delay AAPI adolescents' sexual debut should consider factors related to AAPI adolescents' and their mothers' levels of acculturation.
Garcia, Erik Fernandez y; Joseph, Jill; Wilson, Machelle D.; Hinton, Ladson; Simon, Gregory; Ludman, Evette; Scott, Fiona; Kravitz, Richard L.
OBJECTIVE To determine the initial effectiveness of a novel, pediatric office-based intervention in motivating mothers to seek further assessment of positive depression screens. METHODS In this pilot randomized controlled trial, English-speaking mothers (n=104) with positive 2-question depression screens and presenting with children 0–12 years old for well-child care to a general pediatric training clinic received interventions from a trained research assistant. The Motivating Our Mothers (MOM) intervention included office-based written and verbal targeted depression education and motivational messages encouraging further depression assessment and a semi-structured telephone “booster” delivered 2 days later. The control intervention included non-targeted written and verbal messages and 2 days later, an attention control telephone survey. Both groups received a list of depression care resources. The primary outcome was the proportion of mothers in each group who reported trying to contact any of 6 types of resources to discuss the positive screen at 2 weeks post-intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01453790). RESULTS Despite 6 contact attempts, 10 MOM and 9 control mothers were lost to follow-up. More mothers in the MOM intervention tried to contact a resource compared to control (73.8% vs. 53.5%, difference 20.3%, 95% CI for difference −0.1% to 38.5%, P = 0.052). CONCLUSIONS Mothers receiving the MOM intervention made more attempts to contact a resource for follow-up of positive depression screens. If found effective in larger studies, MOM may prove a promising approach for motivating depression screen-positive mothers identified in general pediatric settings within and beyond the postpartum period, to seek further depression assessment and support. PMID:25906700
Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C
Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction.
Moulton, Anthony D.
Workplace barriers contribute to low rates of breastfeeding. Research shows that supportive state laws correlate with higher rates, yet by 2009, only 23 states had adopted any laws to encourage breastfeeding in the workplace. Federal law provided virtually no protection to working mothers until the 2010 enactment of the “reasonable break time” provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This provision nonetheless leaves many working mothers uncovered, requires break time only to pump for (not feed) children younger than 1 year, and exempts small employers that demonstrate hardship. Public health professionals should explore ways to improve legal support for all working mothers wishing to breastfeed. Researchers should identify the laws that are most effective and assist policymakers in translating them into policy. PMID:21164100
Murtagh, Lindsey; Moulton, Anthony D
Workplace barriers contribute to low rates of breastfeeding. Research shows that supportive state laws correlate with higher rates, yet by 2009, only 23 states had adopted any laws to encourage breastfeeding in the workplace. Federal law provided virtually no protection to working mothers until the 2010 enactment of the "reasonable break time" provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This provision nonetheless leaves many working mothers uncovered, requires break time only to pump for (not feed) children younger than 1 year, and exempts small employers that demonstrate hardship. Public health professionals should explore ways to improve legal support for all working mothers wishing to breastfeed. Researchers should identify the laws that are most effective and assist policymakers in translating them into policy.
Hoover, D W; Milich, R
This study tested the hypothesis that commonly reported negative effects of sugar on children's behavior may be due to parental expectancies. A challenge study design was employed, in which thirty-five 5- to 7-year-old boys reported by their mothers to be behaviorally "sugar sensitive," and their mothers, were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, mothers were told their children had received a large dose of sugar, whereas in the control condition mothers were told their sons received a placebo; all children actually received the placebo (aspartame). Mothers and sons were videotaped while interacting together and each mother was then questioned about the interaction. Mothers in the sugar expectancy condition rated their children as significantly more hyperactive. Behavioral observations revealed these mothers exercised more control by maintaining physical closeness, as well as showing trends to criticize, look at, and talk to their sons more than did control mothers. For several variables, the expectancy effect was stronger for cognitively rigid mothers.
Puckett, Julia A; Horne, Sharon G; Levitt, Heidi M; Reeves, Teresa
Rural and urban sexual minority mothers' parenting experiences related to sexual orientation were compared. Participants were 414 mothers in same-sex relationships with at least one child under the age of 18 years living in their home who was planned with their current partner. Rural mothers were more likely to be biological parents and not adoptive parents. Rural mothers reported higher rates of discrimination from strangers and people in service or helping professions. Although outness for rural and urban mothers did not differ, for children, classmates' parents and neighbors were less likely to know the family's status in rural areas. Rural and urban mothers did not differ on internalized homophobia, social support, or stigma consciousness. Clinical and policy implications are discussed.
Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
We assessed prevalence rates of mental disorders in 206 mothers who had experienced the Kosovo war 10 years previously: 100 lone mothers widowed by the war, 71 non-bereaved married mothers, and 35 married mothers bereaved since the war (loss of family other than husband). A total of 96% of widowed lone mothers reported a major depressive episode, an anxiety disorder or a substance use disorder as compared with 54.9% and 60% in the married groups. Furthermore, 45% of widowed lone mothers reported current suicide risk as compared with 16.9% and 22.9% in the married samples. War-related widowhood combined with lone motherhood constitutes a significant factor for elevated psychopathology.
Turnbull, Bernardo; Martinez-Andrade, Gloria; Huerfano, Nazly; Ryan, Gery W.; Martinez, Homero
Objective: To compare mothers' assessments of nutritional status with anthropometric measures and gain further insights into mothers' reasons for their judgment. Design: Each mother was asked to assess the nutritional status of her child and 2 other children and to compare all 3. Rates for "hits" and "misses" between mothers'…
If you've been working in EMS for much more than a week, the title of this column probably evoked some sort of visceral response from you--and not a positive one. The phrase "Mother, may I...?" has long been attached to EMS systems that require EMTs and paramedics to call their base hospitals prior to performing most interventions or delivering medications. Where the rub comes in is that most field people I know would prefer a little more leeway, something like a "Mother, I'm going out now" type of system.
Appel, Christine; Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Jager, Sake; Prizel-Kania, Adriana
SpeakApps 2 is a project with support of the Lifelong Learning Programme, Accompanying Measures. It follows up on the work and results reached during the KA2 project "SpeakApps: Oral production and interaction in a foreign language through ICT tools". The overarching aim of SpeakApps 2 is to further enhance Europeans' language learning…
Miller, Ann Neville
Examines the public speaking patterns of Kenya, and compares those findings to the content of American introductory public speaking courses. Finds that most frequently mentioned areas of difference between American and Kenyan public speaking were establishment of speaker credibility, structure of the speech, selection of supporting materials,…
Asakereh, Ahmad; Dehghannezhad, Maliheh
This study investigated the relationship between student satisfaction with speaking classes, speaking skills self-efficacy beliefs, and speaking skills achievement. To this end, one hundred Iranian EFL undergraduate students filled out two questionnaires; a research-made and pilot-tested questionnaire for student satisfaction with speaking…
Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Ed.; Surrey, Janet L., Ed.; Weingarten, Kathy, Ed.
Based on the view that increasing numbers of mothers who do not fit a narrow traditional image are often maligned, misunderstood, or ignored, this book presents the stories of a diverse group of mothers whose life circumstances place them outside the mainstream. Chapters explore the lives of mothers of exceptional children and biracial children;…
Eiduson, Bernice T.
Fifty Caucasian, never-married single mothers aged 18-30, who had opted to keep their babies, were studied longitudinally from the last trimester of pregnancy through the first three years of their children's lives in order to learn the extent to which they had reinterpreted traditional roles and responsibilities and had restructured their lives.…
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Mathers, Sherry; And Others
Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…
Kelly, Marguerite; Parsons, Elia
This book is a compilation of practical suggestions for mothers on caring for children from birth through age 6. Everyday problems are discussed in an easy-to-read anecdotal style. The first section of the book deals with family life, including discussions of birth, breast feeding, basic child care (e.g., how to diaper a squirming baby),…
Describes Trees for Mother Earth, a program in which secondary students raise funds to buy fruit trees to plant during visits to the Navajo Reservation. Benefits include developing feelings of self-worth among participants, promoting cultural exchange and understanding, and encouraging self-sufficiency among the Navajo. (LP)
Roth, Patricia H.
A mother writes of her early years with her son as a single parent and the difficult years with twin younger siblings when she was trying to find a diagnosis and help for her son. Her son is 9 years old now, and she reflects on her experiences. (Author/CR)
Elliott, Sinikka; Reid, Megan
Baltimore mother Toya Graham became a viral video sensation after being filmed yelling at and hitting her teen son. Graham, who is Black, was trying to stop her son from joining the protests following Freddie Gray’s death in police custody in Baltimore in April 2015. Dubbed “mother of the year,” news outlets applauded Graham for her fierce determination to keep her son out of harm’s way by any means necessary. The media and ensuing public response to the video are illuminating for what they say about cultural notions of Black motherhood: the good Black mom should be superstrong to protect her children, but she is also responsible for controlling her children and preventing them from getting into trouble. In celebrating Graham, the media was implicitly condemning all the other mothers whose children participated in the protests—that is, the mothers who did not prevent their children from “senseless” rioting against institutional racism in policing. PMID:27134576
Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily
This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…
Sylvia Barnard, a classics professor at State University of New York at Albany, discusses growing up on a dairy farm in western Massachusetts; the influence of her mother's college education at Mount Holyoke; her own educational experiences, including those at Yale University where she obtained her doctorate; and her relationship with her…
Chicago Dept. of Development and Planning, IL.
Based on selected data from the 1970 census, this report provides a general description of Chicago's Spanish-speaking population's: (1) general population characteristics; (2) age and family characteristics; (3) income; (4) labor force characteristics; (5) education; and (6) housing. Using the Census Bureau's definition of Spanish speaking (all…
Rather than relegating Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to history of rhetoric courses, where it is regarded with only an antiquarian interest, it can be used as a practical text for introductory public speaking courses. The advantages would be threefold: (1) its emphasis is essentially on rhetoric as a speaking art rather than an art of…
According to Ur (1996, 120), "of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important." Indeed, whether for business or pleasure, a primary motivation to learn a second language is to be able to converse with speakers of that language. However, in addition to being an important…
Fineman, Carol A.; Ross, Amparo
The project titled "Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped" was established to research existing evaluation instruments in language other than English, validate the tests as well as additional translations where needed, and develop a procedural manual for distribution to utilize in evaluating non-English speaking handicapped students. The…
Katchen, Johanna E.
The outline of a 2-hour-per-week public speaking course developed over the past 3 years for sophomore English language majors at National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, is described. The course is built around rhetorical modes, with informative speaking (e.g., process and comparison/contrast), the focus of the first semester and persuasive speaking…
Cheng, Yuh-show; Horwitz, Elaine K.; Schallert, Diane L.
Investigated the links between second-language classroom anxiety and second-language writing anxiety, as well a their associations with second-language speaking and writing achievement. Findings suggest that second-language classroom anxiety is a more general type of anxiety about learning a second language with a strong speaking-anxiety element,…
Being able to speak naturally and appropriately with others in a variety of situations is an important goal for many English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. Because the skill of speaking invariably involves interaction with people and using language to reach objectives (e.g., ordering food, making friends, asking for favors), it is crucial…
This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
INFORMATION ON THE STATUS OF WORKING MOTHERS AND ON THE FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE THEM TO SEEK PAID EMPLOYMENT IS PROVIDED THROUGH 20 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. AMONG THE NEARLY 27 MILLION WOMEN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES IN MARCH 1966 WERE 9.9 MILLION MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE. THESE WORKING MOTHERS CONSTITUTED 36 PERCENT OF ALL…
Schembri, John; Cortis, Kelvin; Mallia Azzopardi, Charles; Montefort, Stephen
Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a relatively common and serious condition that can result in a spectrum of presentations ranging from incidental to acutely life-threatening. Described here is a case of aspiration of a tracheo-oesophageal speaking valve through a permanent tracheostomy that went unnoticed for a number of years, and an overview of the technique used for its removal. A 70-year-old ex-heavy smoker with a permanent tracheo-oesophageal fistula presented with a relatively recent history of increasing shortness of breath, sputum purulence and haemoptysis. Further investigation with a CT scan and bronchoscopy revealed the presence of a foreign body within his right lower lobe bronchus which was later removed by advancing a flexible bronchoscope over a rigid one. PMID:23861275
Marty, M E; Guinn, D E; Greenfield, L
This article is excerpted from the Park Ridge Center for the Study of Health, Faith, and Ethics 28-page handbook entitled "Religion and Public Discourse: Principles and Guidelines for Religious Participants." These principles are the product of a three-year research project conducted by the Center. The project "To Speak and Be Heard" is based upon a wide range of resources from within the participants' religious traditions, including practices, rituals, and tenets of faith. While this project grew out of the specific controversies around the Cairo Conference, the principles of civil discourse spelled out in this document are general in application and may be used to facilitate constructive public dialogue. This article also discusses the nature of civil discourse in the public square, covenants of conversation, engaging the other, living with conflict during and after conversation and argument, and the hope of civil discourse.
C++ supports several styles ("multiple paradigms") of programming. This allows great flexibility, notational convenience, maintainability, and close-to-optimal performance. Programmers who don't know the basic native C++ styles and techniques "speak" C++ with a thick accent, limiting themselves to relatively restrictive pidgin dialects. Here, I present language features such as classes, class hierarchies, abstract classes, and templates, together with the fundamental programming styles they support. In particular, I show how to provide generic algorithms, function objects, access objects, and delayed evaluation as needed to build and use flexible and efficient libraries. The aim is to give an idea of what's possible to provide, and some understanding of the fundamental techniques of modern C++ libraries.
Shpancer, Noam; Melick, Katherine M.; Sayre, Pamela S.; Spivey, Aria T.
The present study was designed to find whether evaluations of maternal competence are linked to mothers' employment status and the quality of maternal care. Participants rated videotaped vignettes, depicting either high-quality or low-quality mother-infant interactions, on various dimensions of care quality. The videotaped mothers were described…
Historically, research demonstrates that mothers' attitudes and characteristics of their parenting are intertwined. More recently, mothers' perceptions of their children are becoming a new focus of interest. To further understand the relationships among mothers' perceptions of their young children, their parenting behaviors, and their ratings of…
Moon, Michelle; Hoffman, Charles D.
In 3 studies using 6 subscales, the authors investigated (a) others' parenting expectancies for mothers and fathers and (b) parents' reports of the frequency of their parenting behaviors with their 3- to 6-year-old sons and daughters. Mothers rated higher for physical care and emotional support than did fathers, and mothers reported engaging in…
Wang, Jun; Morgan, George A.; Biringen, Zeynep
This study examined the longitudinal relations of mother-child affect exchanges at 18?months with children's mastery motivation at 39?months. Observation and questionnaire data were collected from mother-child dyads when children were 18?months; 43 mothers again rated their children's mastery motivation at 39?months. Results suggested…
Arvaniti, A; Spyropoulou, A; Zervas, I
Recent studies indicate that the pregnancy rates of mothers with schizophrenia do not differ significantly from those of the general population. Mothers' severe mental illness, combined with poor social support and comorbidity, may significantly affect her parenting capacity. However, the poor quality of parenting by psychotic mothers should not be taken for granted, in advance. Some of them may become excellent parents while other may abuse their children and finally lose custody because of this. The parenting capacity is significantly influenced by the existing insight of patient-parent's disease. Assessing the parenting capacity comprises the measurement of insight and of the risk of child abuse as well. Factors associated with increased risk for child abuse are: (a) active psychiatric symptomatology, (b) history of violent behavior in the past, (c) maternal history of abuse during childhood, (d) dangerous domestic environment, (e) stressful events and poor social support to the mother and (f) unrealistic parental expectations. These factors should be assessed both clinically and by using the appropriate psychometric tools. Tools which have been widely used for this purpose are: (a) "Schedule for Assessment of Insight-SAI", (b) "Childhood Trauma Interview", (c) "Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment Inventory-HOME" and "Home Screening Questionnaire -HSQ", (d) "Parental Stress Inventory-PSI", "Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire-SPSQ", "Arizona Social Support Inventory" (e) "Parent Opinion Questionnaire-POQ". Interventions to ensure a more adequate parenting capacity should be focused on family planning: mothers with severe mental illness have poor knowledge about reproductive and contraception issues. Their pregnancies are mostly not planned. It is important for the family planning to be tailored according to the specific needs of schizophrenic mothers and to take into account the following issues: (a) the severity and the duration
This article explores ideals and experiences of the mother-in-law/daughter-in-law relationship using semi-structured interviews with 46 members of 22 families living in one Indian village. Ideally, the relationship is characterized by love and understanding, where one's mother-in-law or daughter-in-law is like one's own daughter or mother. In practice, the relationship varies in quality. Some women experienced affectionate, high quality relationships, while others' relationships were characterized by hurtful exchanges and not speaking. Previous literature portrays the relationship as negative, but these results point to the relevance of positive aspects as well. I also suggest that these ideals and experiences are shaped by the joint family system. The joint family system contributes to the strongly positive ideal, while the tensions that women experience arise from the contradictory family locations that they occupy within that system. Daughters-in-law and mothers-in-law are simultaneously strangers and close family members.
Bornstein, M H; Cote, L R; Venuti, P
Similarities and differences in northern and southern Italian mothers' social and didactic parenting beliefs and behaviors, and relations between their beliefs and behaviors, are reported. Both groups of mothers reported that they engaged more in social than didactic interactions with their infants, whereas in actuality both groups engaged in didactic behaviors with their infants for longer periods of time than they engaged in social behaviors. In addition, northern mothers engaged in more social interactions with their infants than did southern mothers. No correlations between beliefs and behaviors emerged in either group. These data speak to issues of intracultural variation and cross-cultural similarities in family psychology and parenting, belief-behavior relations in parenting, and the importance of methodology (parental report or observation) in the study of parenting and family functioning.
Kilanowski, Jill F.
Introduction The purpose of the study was to learn preferences of Latina migrant farmworker (MFW) mothers’ in the presentation of health education materials by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of numerous mixed-media samples. Method This community-based participatory study was qualitative and descriptive in design. Focus groups were conducted in Spanish in four Midwest migrant camps with a convenience sample of mothers (n=31). Adult learning and cultural care theories guided the study. Various modes of educational materials on various topics were presented. Results Mothers preferred comic book-style handouts, games, food replicas, text in English/Spanish, and DVDs, but almost all did not have media-playing equipment. They did not like black-and-white photos, or cartoon-like illustrations. Identified themes of importance were colored illustrations, sizes mothers could easily carry in purses, and limited verbiage on a page. Discussion Learned knowledge will be used to customize health promotion interventions that are sensitive to MFW preferred learning styles. The findings from this study can inform other interventions with Latino populations and serve as a prototype for other populations of immigrant non-English speaking mothers. PMID:23611456
Krugman, Scott D; Parra-Roide, Lilia; Hobson, Wendy L; Garfunkel, Lynn C; Serwint, Janet R
Prior research has demonstrated that limited English proficiency in Hispanic patients is associated with adverse health outcomes. The authors sought to compare the perception of primary care in resident practices between Spanish-speaking and English-speaking parents using a previously validated tool, the Parents' Perception of Primary Care. Using survey results from 19 CORNET sites nationwide, they compared mean scores for each primary care domain and the full scale between the groups using Student's t test. Multiple linear regression models compared outcomes controlling for demographic variables. Of the 2122 analyzable surveys, 490 (23%) were completed in Spanish and 1632 (77%) in English. The mean scores for each domain and the total scale were not statistically different between the 2 groups. After adjustment, Spanish-speaking parents rated communication significantly higher. Resident clinics may use systems to provide high quality care to Spanish-speaking patients, which may help other sites improve care.
Tully, Erin C; Donohue, Meghan Rose; Garcia, Sarah E
This study investigated children's empathic responses to their mother's distress to provide insight about child factors that contribute to parental socialisation of emotions. Four- to six-year-old children (N = 82) observed their mother's sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children's facial negative affect was rated and their heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded during the conversation, and their emotion understanding of the conversation was measured through their use of negative emotion words and perspective-taking themes (i.e., discussing the causes or resolution of mother's emotions) in narrative accounts of the conversation. There were positive quadratic relationships between HRV and ratings of facial affect, narrative references to mother's negative emotions and perspective-taking themes. High and low HRV was associated with high facial negative affect, suggesting well-regulated sympathy and poorly regulated personal distress empathic responses, respectively. Moderate HRV was associated with low facial negative affect, suggesting minimal empathic engagement. High and low HRV were associated with the highest probabilities of both emotion understanding indicators, suggesting both sympathy and personal distress responses to mother's distress facilitate understanding of mother's emotions. Personal distress may motivate attempts to understand mother's emotions as a self-soothing strategy, whereas sympathy-related attempts to understand may be motivated by altruism.
Maas, A Janneke B M; Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A
Research has shown that the early parent-infant relationship is of critical importance for children's developmental outcomes. While the effect of different settings on mother-infant interactive behavior is well studied, only few researchers systematically examined the effect of situational variables on mother-infant interaction. In the present study the effect of situational variables within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interaction at 6 months was examined as well as the consistency in the quality of behaviors of mother and infant across these situations. During a home visit 292 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in three different situations (i.e., free play, face-to-face play, and diaper change). Interactive behaviors of mother and infant were assessed with the NICHD global ratings scales. Results showed substantial effects of situation on the interactive behavior of the mother-infant dyad. Despite the observed situational effects maternal sensitivity to non-distress, intrusiveness, stimulation of development, and positive regard and all five infant behavioral scales remained stable across the different situations. Insight into situational effects within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interactive behavior may assist researchers to make well-informed decisions about measuring the parent-infant interaction in one or more specific situations.
Expedition 32 Flight Engineer Joe Acaba speaks with high school students participating in a summer program called Women in STEM High School Aerospace Scholars, or WISH, using the stationâs ham ra...
Durrant, Joan E.; Broberg, Anders G.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
Used maternal beliefs, emotions, and experiences of Canadian and Swedish mothers to predict hypothetical physical punishment of preschoolers. Found that Canadians were more likely than Swedes to suggest physical punishment and demonstrate stronger support for spanking. Support for physical punishment and rating target misbehaviors as stable…
Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Marquez, Michelle
The ability to speak in various public speaking situations is imperative for success in school, business, and industry. Aspects which improve public speaking skills include preparation, organization, paying attention to the "nuts and bolts" of the speaking situation, identifying the topic, using invigorating language, watching other…
Understanding the sources of variance in speaking assessment is important in Japan where society's high demand for English speaking skills is growing. Three challenges threaten fair assessment of speaking. First, in Japanese university speaking courses, teachers are typically the only raters, but teachers' knowledge of their students may unfairly…
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Head, James; Helton, William; Russell, Paul; Neumann, Ewald
Dual task experiments have highlighted that driving while having a conversation on a cell phone can have negative impacts on driving (Strayer & Drews, 2007). It has also been noted that this negative impact is greater when reading a text-message (Lee, 2007). Commonly used in text-messaging are shortening devices collectively known as text-speak (e.g.,Ys I wll ttyl 2nite, Yes I will talk to you later tonight). To the authors' knowledge, there has been no investigation into the potential negative impacts of reading text-speak on concurrent performance on other tasks. Forty participants read a correctly spelled story and a story presented in text-speak while concurrently monitoring for a vibration around their waist. Slower reaction times and fewer correct vibration detections occurred while reading text-speak than while reading a correctly spelled story. The results suggest that reading text-speak imposes greater cognitive load than reading correctly spelled text. These findings suggest that the negative impact of text messaging on driving may be compounded by the messages being in text-speak, instead of orthographically correct text.
This study demonstrates the difficult life situation of many single mothers and their children on the basis of important studies on the problematical social status, elevated health risks and particularly, on the mental/psychosomatic strain of single mothers. From these investigations, potential impact on the development of the children and the necessity of attachment-oriented prevention-programs in terms of a training of the intuitive parental competences are derived. In spite of the increasing number of single mothers, a sufficient amount of such offers does not yet exist in Germany. A first group-program, especially adapted to the needs and conflicts of single mothers, will be presented.
Cardalda, Elsa B; Miranda, Susana E; Pérez, Melanie; Sierra, Elizabeth M
This investigation assesses attitudes towards breastfeeding working mothers, employees' knowledge of their legal rights and employees' views of the new amendment of Law 427 in Puerto Rico. The sample consists of 36 men and 64 women (N = 101) employed in different institutions of the San Juan metropolitan area. Participants completed the Attitude Scale toward working breastfeeding mothers. The scale's consistency is substantiated by an item-total reliability coefficient yielding r (92) = .70, p < .05. Results show that employed Puerto Ricans may support breastfeeding working mothers. However, many individuals are not aware of the laws that protect a breastfeeding working mother and how extracting milk may help productivity instead of impairing it.
Badiee, Zohreh; Faramarzi, Salar; MiriZadeh, Tahereh
Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group). Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001). Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers. PMID:25371871
Hennis, Anselm; Fraser, Henry S
Rates of diabetes mellitus in the English-speaking Caribbean have been rising in recent years, and they are projected to continue climbing in the new millennium. Prevalence rates across countries of the African diaspora mirror levels of Western acculturation, and available data emphasize the importance of obesity as a modifiable risk factor. The population-based Barbados Eye Studies have provided new information about the burden of ocular complications of diabetes such as retinopathy and lens opacities. Diabetes was shown to increase the risk of lens opacities, and 14% of prevalent cataract was attributed to diabetes. Persons with type 1 diabetes were particularly at increased risk of retinopathy, as a result of longer durations of illness and poor glycemic control. Other Caribbean studies have suggested that glycemic control in patients evaluated in various clinical settings is suboptimal, which raises important concerns about quality of care. Diabetics are at increased risk of mortality compared with nondiabetics, and that mortality risk increases with higher baseline levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, even among nondiabetics. These data highlight the need for urgent attention to public health and clinical strategies to prevent diabetes in unaffected persons as well as to prevent or reduce the burden of complications among those who are affected. Among the measures that should be adopted to stem the flood of diabetes in the Caribbean region are lifestyle interventions to promote better nutrition and to increase exercise; patient education, particularly about the central role of diabetes self-management; and the multidisciplinary team approach in the provision of care.
Hough, Edythe s; Templin, Thomas N; Kulwicki, Anahid; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne
We examined the mother-child adjustment and child behavior problems in Arab Muslim immigrant families residing in the U.S.A. The sample of 635 mother-child dyads was comprised of mothers who emigrated from 1989 or later and had at least one early adolescent child between the ages of 11 to 15 years old who was also willing to participate. Arabic speaking research assistants collected the data from the mothers and children using established measures of maternal and child stressors, coping, and social support; maternal distress; parent-child relationship; and child behavior problems. A structural equation model (SEM) was specified a priori with 17 predicted pathways. With a few exceptions, the final SEM model was highly consistent with the proposed model and had a good fit to the data. The model accounted for 67% of the variance in child behavior problems. Child stressors, mother-child relationship, and maternal stressors were the causal variables that contributed the most to child behavior problems. The model also accounted for 27% of the variance in mother-child relationship. Child active coping, child gender, mother’s education, and maternal distress were all predictive of the mother-child relationship. Mother-child relationship also mediated the effects of maternal distress and child active coping on child behavior problems. These findings indicate that immigrant mothers contribute greatly to adolescent adjustment, both as a source of risk and protection. These findings also suggest that intervening with immigrant mothers to reduce their stress and strengthening the parent-child relationship are two important areas for promoting adolescent adjustment. PMID:19758737
Monzo, Lilia D.
This paper examines how Latina mothers experience violence in schools through everyday interactions with those positioned with greater power in our society. Drawing on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence, the article discusses how deficit perspectives held toward Latina mothers and the privileging of White, middle-class frames result in…
Lass, Norman J.; And Others
This study compared the ratings of 19 adolescents when listening to recordings of the speech of eight children with cerebral palsy and eight normal-speaking children. For all 22 adjective pairs, the normal speakers were rated significantly more positively. (Author/DB)
Field, T; Widmayer, S; Greenberg, R; Stoller, S
Parent training was provided for 80 low-income, black teenage mothers during their infants' first six months. Half of the mothers were visited biweekly in their homes to be instructed in caregiving and in sensorimotor and interaction exercises, and half were trained as CETA (Comprehensive Employment Training ACT)-paid, teacher's aides in a medical school infant nursery that provided care for their infants and infants of medical faculty. Growth and development during the first two years were superior for the infants whose mothers received training, particularly those who received paid parent training as teacher's aides in the infant nursery. Repeat pregnancy rates were lower and return to work/school rates were higher for the infant nursery mothers, most of whom subsequently pursued nurse's aide training.
Lammintausta, Aino; Immonen-Räihä, Pirjo; Lehtonen, Aapo; Räihä, Ismo; Harald, Kennet; Torppa, Jorma; Airaksinen, Juhani K E; Salomaa, Veikko
BACKGROUND. The Swedish-speaking minority of Finland is unique, because it has a higher socioeconomic status (SES) and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. We hypothesized that this minority may have a lower attack rate of coronary events and analysed whether this could be explained by their higher SES. METHODS. The population-based myocardial infarction (MI) registers recorded 4,845 MI events in Turku during 1988-1998. Individual-level indicators of SES were obtained from Statistics Finland. The population-based FINRISK surveys recorded cardiovascular risk factors and native languages of 10,432 people in 1987, 1997, and 2002. RESULTS. The age-standardized attack rate of MI was lower among the 35-64-year-old Swedish-speaking men than among Finnish-speaking men (rate ratio 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.85) and the difference remained significant after adjustment for SES. The Swedish-speaking inhabitants had higher age-, sex-, and SES-adjusted high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower triglycerides, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The Swedish-speaking inhabitants of Turku had lower MI morbidity and coronary mortality than the Finnish-speaking inhabitants. After controlling for SES, these differences remained significant among men, suggesting that other factors, such as differences in the risk factor profiles may also play a role.
Schwappach, David L. B.; Gehring, Katrin
Purpose To investigate the likelihood of speaking up about patient safety in oncology and to clarify the effect of clinical and situational context factors on the likelihood of voicing concerns. Patients and Methods 1013 nurses and doctors in oncology rated four clinical vignettes describing coworkers’ errors and rule violations in a self-administered factorial survey (65% response rate). Multiple regression analysis was used to model the likelihood of speaking up as outcome of vignette attributes, responder’s evaluations of the situation and personal characteristics. Results Respondents reported a high likelihood of speaking up about patient safety but the variation between and within types of errors and rule violations was substantial. Staff without managerial function provided significantly higher levels of decision difficulty and discomfort to speak up. Based on the information presented in the vignettes, 74%−96% would speak up towards a supervisor failing to check a prescription, 45%−81% would point a coworker to a missed hand disinfection, 82%−94% would speak up towards nurses who violate a safety rule in medication preparation, and 59%−92% would question a doctor violating a safety rule in lumbar puncture. Several vignette attributes predicted the likelihood of speaking up. Perceived potential harm, anticipated discomfort, and decision difficulty were significant predictors of the likelihood of speaking up. Conclusions Clinicians’ willingness to speak up about patient safety is considerably affected by contextual factors. Physicians and nurses without managerial function report substantial discomfort with speaking up. Oncology departments should provide staff with clear guidance and trainings on when and how to voice safety concerns. PMID:25116338
Gade, Eldon M.; Cory, Mark
The vocational interest patterns of young unwed mothers were investigated by comparing the scores of a sample of unwed mothers with percentile averages from a national norm group. The interest differences of mothers who gave up their babies and mothers who kept their babies were also examined. Subjects were 53 young unwed mothers enrolled in a…
Noble-Carr, Debbie; Bell, Catherine
This qualitative study, conducted by volunteers from the Australian Capital Territory/Southern New South Wales (ACT/SNSW) Branch of the Australian Breastfeeding Association (ABA), explored the breastfeeding experiences of younger mothers (under the age of 26 years) in the ACT by conducting three focus groups. The study aimed to gain an understanding of how, when and where younger mothers want and need to receive breastfeeding information and support. Younger mothers provided important insights into their breastfeeding experiences, which were often characterised by judgement from health professionals and the wider public. A number of key issues were identified including: breastfeeding is far from a cultural norm in our society and as such the risks of artificial baby milk are not clearly understood by many younger mothers; younger mothers are strongly influenced by their partners, mothers and peers and they rely upon them for breastfeeding information and support. Younger mothers indicated that a number of improvements could be made to the way that breastfeeding information and support is currently provided within the ACT. The findings indicated that younger mothers (and their significant others) would benefit from receiving clear, concise and consistent breastfeeding information early on in their pregnancy, that is positive in tone, not necessarily 'young mum' specific and consistent with a 'less is more' approach. Younger mothers indicated that after the birth of their baby this breastfeeding information needs to be complemented by readily accessible, seamless, respectful support for as long as they need to establish breastfeeding and overcome any breastfeeding challenges. The focus group findings were largely consistent with the existing literature available on younger mothers and breastfeeding and provide valuable insights to all stakeholders responsible for providing breastfeeding information and support to younger mothers.
Scott, Ronald L.; Flowers, John V.; Bulnes, Alejandro; Olmsted, Eileen; Carbajal-Madrid, Pedro
The use of assessments to characterize domestic violence perpetrators continues to develop with an emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of domestic violence interventions. The present study examines and compares Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 responses from 41 English-speaking and 48 Spanish-speaking men who were in…
To successfully assess how language learners enhance their performance and achieve language learning goals, the four macro skills of listening, speaking reading and writing are usually the most frequently assessed and focused areas. However, speaking, as a productive skill, seems intuitively the most important of all the four language skills…
Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing
This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.
Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik
This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…
Kresovich, Brant M.
A survey of teachers of composition in English as a Second Language in Japan addressed the perceptions of native-English-speaking and non-native-English-speaking teachers of the acceptability of specific error types within sentences. The native speakers of English were one British and 16 Americans. The non-native group was comprised of 26 Japanese…
Walker, Jean F.; Archibald, Lisa M. D.
Background: Speaking rate has implications for both clinical practice and an understanding of normal and disordered communication processes. Fundamental information on speaking rate is required by the clinician for the appropriate management of those disorders with disturbances of rate or those in which rate modification strategies are applied.…
Brassard, Marla R.; And Others
The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales (PMRS) were developed for assessing psychological maltreatment in the mother-child interaction, and were used to rate the videotaped interaction of 49 high-risk mother-child dyads and predict child protective service involvements. The PMRS was found to be a moderately reliable and valid measure.…
Literacy Work, 1974
Reviewing the situation of literacy in the mother tongue, the article reports on projects in: (1) Africa--Mali and Nigeria, (2) the Amazonian jungle of Peru in Latin America, and (3) Papua, New Guinea. Psychological, sociological, and educational advantages of the mother tongue are discussed. (MW)
Kalmar, Magda; And Others
This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…
Maintains that the photograph, "Migrant Mother," is recognized throughout the world. Provides a three-part instructional unit on Dorothea Lange and social issues related to migrant workers. Includes four photographs by Lange, including the most well-known, "Migrant Mother 5." (CFR)
This article is concerned with exploring the impact of stigma upon teenage mothers. Drawing upon the findings of in-depth interviews with 20 teenage mothers, the study explores the ways and contexts within which stigma is experienced and identifies differential effects and coping mechanisms reported by the participants. Thereafter, it is suggested…
Endres, Thomas G.
Examines the symbolic reality of unmarried mothers using Bormann's fantasy theme analysis and Q-methodology. Identifies three rhetorical visions with a dramatistic humanistic analysis produced by and about unmarried mothers: the Down and Out Vision, the Making the Best Vision, and the Yummie Vision. (MS)
BERNSTEIN, ROSE; HERZOG, ELIZABETH
FROM REPORTS AND DATA THAT WERE AVAILABLE TO THE UNITED STATES CHILDREN'S BUREAU THROUGH 1962, A REVIEW WAS MADE OF RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATIONS THAT RELATED TO AVAILABILITY AND USE OF HEALTH SERVICES BY UNMARRIED MOTHERS. INCLUDED ARE COMPLICATIONS OF PREGNANCY IN BIRTHS OUT OF WEDLOCK--(1) STUDIES OF PRENATAL MEDICAL CARE FOR UNMARRIED MOTHERS,…
Wells, Robin A.; Thompson, Barbara
Programs for teenage mothers provided through school districts or community agencies often have their own curricular agenda for teaching teenage mothers about the proper care of and nutrition for infants and the typical stages of child development, but not all programs are successful in supporting the development of positive early relationships…
D'Arcy, Catherine; Turner, Colleen; Crockett, Belinda; Gridley, Heather
This article is a reflective narrative bringing together personal, collective, and action learning reflections from three women: all mothers, feminists, and community psychology practitioners. Its focus on mothering highlights the interconnectedness and tensions across these roles, as well as the shared learnings arising from this collaboration.…
This paper examines psychological and social issues for single mothers in the context of therapeutic strategies for effective intervention. Never married, previously married, and Lesbian mothers are considered in terms of sociocultural myths and sources of stigma; research findings related to these myths; and interventions targeting the…
Oberlander, Sarah E.; Shebl, Fatma M.; Magder, Laurence S.; Black, Maureen M.
This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the…
Describes and evaluates the replication of the Mother Child Home Program by a Canadian child welfare agency in a rural setting to determine its effectiveness in fostering a positive emotional relationship between mother and child with families at risk of abuse and neglect. (BB)
Oberlander, Sarah E; Shebl, Fatma M; Magder, Laurence S; Black, Maureen M
This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the multigenerational household; 56% lived in the household of origin continuously (IN), 21% left and never returned (OUT), and 23% had multiple moves in and out of the household (IN/OUT). Older adolescent maternal age, less supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relations, and high household density were associated with leaving the household of origin. The IN/OUT group had difficulty adopting the roles of adult and parent. Helping adolescent mothers and grandmothers negotiate roles to reduce conflict may promote autonomy and relatedness, allowing mothers to learn parenting skills, qualify for public assistance, and continue their education.
Rodriguez, Barbara L; Olswang, Lesley B
This study investigated the cross-cultural and intra cultural diversity of mothers' beliefs and values regarding child rearing, education, and the causes of language impairment. Thirty Mexican-American and 30 Anglo-American mothers of children with language impairments completed 2 questionnaires, and 10 randomly selected mothers from each group participated in an interview. In addition, the Mexican-American mothers completed an acculturation rating scale. Results indicated that Mexican-American mothers held more strongly traditional, authoritarian, and conforming educational and child rearing beliefs and values than Anglo-American mothers. Mexican-American mothers cited extrinsic attributes as the cause of their children's language impairment, whereas Anglo-American mothers cited intrinsic attributes. Mexican-American mothers exhibited differences in their beliefs that were related to their level of acculturation to the mainstream culture.
... struggled to raise children while pursuing their careers, or as single parents working to provide for their... two parents, a single mother, two mothers, a step-mom, a grandmother, or a guardian. Mother's...
Zhang, Ke; Tang, Li; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Li-Qian; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.
In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74%) as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54%) lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly. PMID:25918908
Brown, Julie; Brown, Robert
The "writing workshop" approach to teaching creative writing, virtually unchallenged throughout the United States, has recently come under fire. Two schools of thought, while agreeing that the traditional workshop needs a thorough overhaul, differ in approaches to that overhaul. One approach, using the theories of Harold Bloom, argues…
Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Arnow, Katherine D; Lock, James D
The connection between maternal eating disorders and feeding and eating problems among their children has been substantially demonstrated. This pilot study focused on the interactions between mothers with eating disorders and their toddlers in non-feeding situations. Twenty-eight dyads of mothers with prenatal eating disorders and their toddlers were compared to a case-matched control group with no eating disorder. Maternal current eating and co-occurring psychopathology, children's symptoms and mother-child interactions were measured. Mothers with eating disorders were less sensitive to their children, tried to control their children's behaviors more, and were less happy during mother-child interactions. The children in the maternal eating disorder group were rated as less responsive to their mothers and their mothers also reported more behavioral problems than those in the control group. Findings imply that maternal eating disorders may be linked with a wide range of adverse maternal and child behaviors beyond those associated with eating.
Bellando, Jayne; Fussell, Jill J; Lopez, Maya
Given the increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), it is likely that busy primary care providers (PCP) are providing care to individuals with ASD in their practice. Autism Speaks provides a wealth of educational, medical, and treatment/intervention information resources for PCPs and families, including at least 32 toolkits. This article serves to familiarize PCPs and families on the different toolkits that are available on the Autism Speaks website. This article is intended to increase physicians' knowledge on the issues that families with children with ASD frequently encounter, to increase their ability to share evidence-based information to guide treatment and care for affected families in their practice.
Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions throughout the globe, and this has also impacted people of the Arabic-speaking countries, especially those in higher-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. There is a significant increase in the incidence of obesity with a prevalence of 2%–55% in adult females and 1%–30% in adult males. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and multiple pregnancies may be important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity engulfing the Arabic-speaking countries. PMID:22175002
Brown, Geoffrey L.; McBride, Brent A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana
This study examined how child temperament was related to parents’ time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier children on non-workdays. After accounting for work hours, some associations between temperament and fathers’ workday involvement dropped to non-significance. For fathers, work hours also moderated the relation between irregular temperament and workday play. For mothers, work hours moderated the relation between both difficult and irregular temperament and workday interaction. Mothers also spent more time with girls (but not boys) who were temperamentally irregular. Results speak to the influence of child temperament on parenting behavior, and the differential construction of parenting roles as a function of child characteristics and patterns of work. PMID:25960588
Brown, Geoffrey L; McBride, Brent A; Bost, Kelly K; Shin, Nana
This study examined how child temperament was related to parents' time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier children on non-workdays. After accounting for work hours, some associations between temperament and fathers' workday involvement dropped to non-significance. For fathers, work hours also moderated the relation between irregular temperament and workday play. For mothers, work hours moderated the relation between both difficult and irregular temperament and workday interaction. Mothers also spent more time with girls (but not boys) who were temperamentally irregular. Results speak to the influence of child temperament on parenting behavior, and the differential construction of parenting roles as a function of child characteristics and patterns of work.
Camaioni, L; Longobardi, E
This paper examines naturalistic adult-to-child speech produced by 15 Italian middle-class mothers to determine which specific patterns characterize linguistic input to children at 1;4 and 1;8. Since Italian is a pro-drop language, we expect that adult-to-child speech will show a bias towards a more salient semantic and morphological significance of verbs relative to nouns. We expect that verbs will more likely occupy the sentence-initial position, and have more morphological inflections relative to nouns. Mother-to-child speech was coded for type and token frequency, utterance position, and morphological variation of nouns and verbs. The results confirm our predictions. Namely, Italian-speaking mothers produced verb types and tokens more frequently than noun types and tokens, they placed verbs more frequently than nouns in salient utterance position, and they morphologically marked verb stems more than noun stems.
Diener, Marissa L.; Isabella, Russell A.; Behunin, Melissa G.; Wong, Maria S.
Attachment relationships of first, third, and fifth graders with their mothers and fathers, and their associations with self-perceived and teacher-rated competence, were investigated. Children rated their attachment security with mothers and fathers using the Kerns security scale. Children's perceptions of academic and peer competence were…
Fairthorne, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen
Compared to other mothers, mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) have higher rates of treatment episodes for psychiatric disorders. We aimed to estimate the maternal burden of care by comparing the length of hospitalisations for psychiatric disorders and the treatment rates for psychiatric…
Handleman, Jan S.; And Others
Mothers, fathers, teachers, and speech therapists rated improvement in communication skills of 11 young children (ages 3-5) with autism following one year of intensive treatment. Results found fathers, teachers, and speech therapists in significant agreement with a psychometric measure of speech and language, whereas mothers' ratings bore no…
Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.
The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…
Bann, Carla; Higgins, Rosemary; Vohr, Betty
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely preterm infants and infants born to adolescent mothers are at risk for adverse developmental. The objectives were to evaluate development and behavior outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to adolescent mothers <20 compared with adult mothers ≥20 years and to identify socioeconomic risk factors that affect outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of 211 infants >27 weeks of adolescent mothers and 1723 infants of adult mothers at Neonatal Research Network centers from 2008 to 2011. Groups were compared and regression models were run to predict 18- to 22-month adverse outcomes. Primary outcomes were Bayley-III scores, neurodevelopmental impairment, and Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment problem scores (BITSEA/P) ≥75th percentile. RESULTS: Adolescent mothers were more often single, Hispanic, less educated, and had public insurance. By 18 to 22 months, their children had significantly increased rates of having lived ≥3 places (21% vs 9%), state supervision (7% vs 3%), rehospitalization (56% vs 46%), and BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (50% vs 32%) and nonsignificant Bayley-III language scores <85 (56% vs 49%, P = .07). In regression analysis, children of adolescent mothers were more likely to have BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (relative risk 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.08–2.07). Living ≥3 places and nonwhite race were predictors of adverse behavior. State supervision was an independent predictor of each Bayley-III composite <70 and neurodevelopmental impairment. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW infants of adolescent mothers experience high social and environmental risks that are associated with adverse behavior outcomes. These findings inform the need for comprehensive follow-up, coordinated care services, and behavior interventions for ELBW infants of adolescent mothers. PMID:25963007
Lipman, E L; Offord, D R; Boyle, M H
OBJECTIVE: To examine the sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics of single mothers in Ontario. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Ontario residents aged 15 years or older who participated in the Ontario Health Supplement survey conducted between December 1990 and April 1991; of 9953 eligible participants, 1540 were mothers with at least 1 dependent child (less than 16 years of age). OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence rates of sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics. RESULTS: Single mothers were significantly more likely than the mothers in 2-parent families to be poor, to be 25 years of age or less, to have mental health problems (dissatisfaction with multiple aspects of life, affective disorder ever and 1 or more psychiatric disorders in the past year or ever) and to use mental health services. When compared by income level, poor single mothers had a higher prevalence of all mental health outcomes measured; the difference was significant for anxiety disorder in the past year or ever and for 1 or more psychiatric disorders in the past year or ever. In a logistic regression analysis, single-mother status was found to have the strongest independent effect on predicting mental health morbidity and utilization of mental health services; the next strongest was low income. CONCLUSIONS: Single mothers are more likely to be poor, to have an affective disorder and to use mental health services than mothers in 2-parent families. The risk of mental health problems is especially pronounced among poor single mothers. Further studies are needed to determine which aspects of single motherhood, apart from economic status, affect mental health outcomes. PMID:9068569
De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H.
An important aspect of Family Language Policy in bilingual families is parental language choice. Little is known about the continuity in parental language choice and the factors affecting it. This longitudinal study explores maternal language choice over time. Thirty-one bilingual mothers provided reports of what language(s) they spoke with their children. Mother-child interactions were videotaped when children were pre-verbal (5M), producing words in two languages (20M), and fluent speakers (53M). All children had heard two languages from birth in the home. Most mothers reported addressing children in the same single language. Observational data confirmed mothers' use of mainly a single language in interactions with their children, but also showed the occasional use of the other language in over half the sample when children were 20 months. Once children were 53 months mothers again used only the same language they reported speaking to children. These findings reveal a possible effect of children's overall level of language development and demonstrate the difficulty of adhering to a strict “one person, one language” policy. The fact that there was longitudinal continuity in the language most mothers mainly spoke with children provided children with cumulative language input learning opportunities. PMID:28210008
De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H
An important aspect of Family Language Policy in bilingual families is parental language choice. Little is known about the continuity in parental language choice and the factors affecting it. This longitudinal study explores maternal language choice over time. Thirty-one bilingual mothers provided reports of what language(s) they spoke with their children. Mother-child interactions were videotaped when children were pre-verbal (5M), producing words in two languages (20M), and fluent speakers (53M). All children had heard two languages from birth in the home. Most mothers reported addressing children in the same single language. Observational data confirmed mothers' use of mainly a single language in interactions with their children, but also showed the occasional use of the other language in over half the sample when children were 20 months. Once children were 53 months mothers again used only the same language they reported speaking to children. These findings reveal a possible effect of children's overall level of language development and demonstrate the difficulty of adhering to a strict "one person, one language" policy. The fact that there was longitudinal continuity in the language most mothers mainly spoke with children provided children with cumulative language input learning opportunities.
Dunn, J; Wooding, C; Hermann, J
Recent research has demonstrated the importance of particular features of mothers' speech in influencing the rate of language acquisition in very young children. In the present study of 22 mother-child pairs, the occurrence of these features was examined in samples of mothers' speech to children (aged 18 to 29 months), obtained in unstructured observations in the homes. The features facilitating language acquisition were found to be more frequent in the context of joint attention to pictures or books; speech in other contexts showed social-class differences, with a higher frequency of 'facilitating' features in the speech of middle-class mothers. There was also a tendency for the relative frequency of these features to be positively associated with the children's linguistic ability.
Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Leung, Christy Y. Y.; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David
The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children’s outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting style, psychological well-being, perceived parenting support and stress, and children’s hyperactivity/attention. Teacher ratings of child adjustment were also obtained. Results revealed that Chinese immigrant mothers of preschoolers strongly endorsed the authoritative parenting style. Moreover, authoritative parenting predicted increased children’s behavioral/attention regulation abilities (lower hyperactivity/inattention), which then predicted decreased teacher rated child difficulties. Finally, mothers with greater psychological well-being or parenting support engaged in more authoritative parenting, but only under conditions of low parenting stress. Neither well-being nor parenting support predicted authoritative parenting when parenting hassles were high. Findings were discussed in light of cultural- and immigration-related issues facing immigrant Chinese mothers of young children. PMID:19586194
Zhang, Ying; Elder, Catherine
This study investigates the impact of raters' language background on their judgements of the speaking performance in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET) of China, by comparing the rating patterns of non-native English-speaking (NNES) teacher raters, who are currently employed to assess performance on the CET-SET, with those of…
Barcroft, Joe; Sommers, Mitchell S.
Previous studies (Barcroft & Sommers, 2005; Sommers & Barcroft, 2007) have demonstrated that variability in talker, speaking style, and speaking rate positively affect second language vocabulary learning, whereas variability in overall amplitude and fundamental frequency (F0) do not, at least for native English speakers. Sommers and…
Ulas, A. Halim
This study aims to determine the effect/contribution of the use of the jigsaw technique in the teaching of punctuation marks in mother tongue education on/to the academic improvement of students. The functionality of reading, speaking and writing skills falling within the understanding and expression domains of learning is dependent upon the…
Kalil, Ariel; Ryan, Rebecca M.
Rising rates of nonmarital childbirth in the United States have resulted in a new family type, the fragile family. Such families, which include cohabiting couples as well as single mothers, experience significantly higher rates of poverty and material hardship than their married counterparts. Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan summarize the economic…
Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Peyman
Objective: The objective was to study the cultural structure of Farsi-speaking parents' ratings with diagnostic definitions of ADHD. Method: The children with ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The parents rated their children on the Farsi-speaking parents' ADHD rating questionnaire. Results: The principal components analysis extracted the…
Kvigne, Valborg L; Randall, Brad; Simanton, Edward G; Brenneman, George; Welty, Thomas K
Very little is known about the alcohol elimination rates of newborns who have had chronic alcohol exposure in utero. In these case reports, blood alcohol levels were taken immediately before delivery, at delivery, and postdelivery for 2 mothers who drank alcohol during their pregnancies and 3 single-birth newborns. Newborn A1 of Mother A had no physical characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The initial blood alcohol level for this newborn was 38.4 mg/dL 129 minutes after birth, with a subsequent blood alcohol level of 5.5 mg/dL 304 minutes after delivery, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 11.3 mg/dL per hour. The blood alcohol level for Mother A was 87.4 mg/dL 66 minutes before delivery. Newborn A2 of mother A had FAS. Sixty minutes after delivery, the blood alcohol level for this newborn was 39.5 mg/dL, and the alcohol level of the mother was 42.1 mg/dL. Newborn B1 of mother B had FAS. At 67 minutes after birth, newborn B1 had a blood alcohol level of 246.5 mg/dL, which dropped to 178.7 mg/dL 302 minutes after birth, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 17.3 mg/dL per hour. This alcohol elimination rate is within the metabolism range (15-49 mg/dL per hour) of adults with alcoholism. The maternal blood alcohol level was 265.9 mg/dL 27 minutes before delivery. Blood alcohol levels drawn on both the mother and newborn at delivery and 2 or 3 hourly follow-up levels can provide evidence that fetal alcohol dehydrogenase activity is induced by chronic maternal alcohol use.
Demircioglu, Haktan; Ömeroglu, Esra
The effect of training from trained mothers and education from mother to mother on family functions and child-rearing attitudes was examined. The study was conducted in the 2010-2011 academic year in Ankara, and was modeled based on a pre-test, post-test control group experimental pattern. The study was conducted with a total of 96 mothers, with…
Daly, John A; And Others
Reports three studies examining the relationship between people's public speaking anxiety and their construals of the public speaking experience. Finds that anxiety is related to both beliefs and concerns that play a major role in the preparation of speeches. (SR)
MacDonald, J. Renee; MacIntyre, Peter D.
Finds that students with the highest level of public speaking anxiety showed the largest improvement in perceived competence and perception of audience pleasantness. Discusses the speaker's perception of the audience as a key factor in public speaking anxiety. (SR)
Speaking Out for Yourself—A Self-Help Guide Acknowledgements This publication was funded by the U.S. Department ... In Closing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Further Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 SMA-3719 Speaking Out for Yourself—A Self-Help Guide Page ...
Levy, David L., Ed.
This document comprises the three issues of Volume 14 of the "Speak Out for Children" newsletter, published to strengthen families through education and to assist children of unwed parents, separation, and divorce. The Spring 1999 issue contains articles on National Child's Day, joint custody presumptions, changes in children's life and…
Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles
Approximately 10 percent of Latino preschoolers are at risk for developing communication problems unrelated to second language acquisition. Many of these children are Spanish-speaking and have difficulties in producing speech sounds in their native language. One of the services afforded Latino preschoolers by speech-language pathologists is the…
Hoit, Jeannette D.; Lansing, Robert W.; Perona, Kristen E.
Purpose: To reveal the qualities and intensity of speaking-related dyspnea in healthy adults under conditions of high ventilatory drive, in which the behavioral and metabolic control of breathing must compete. Method: Eleven adults read aloud while breathing different levels of inspired carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]). After the highest level,…
Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena
This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…
In March and April 1974 guest lecturers from other universities were prevented from speaking at the University of Chicago and at Yale University because of disruptive demonstrations of protest. This article contains reports of committees from each university, requested by their respective presidents, regarding the issues involved in such…
... sluggish or confused. Ask how to reduce these side effects or if you can take another medicine. The goal of the Speak Up ™ program is to help patients and their advocates become more informed and involved in their health care.
Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.
This book attempts to provide cultural information which will enable an American to communicate effectively with German-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and Germanic culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Austria,…
All teachers at all grade levels and in all subject areas assign speaking activities--for example, read-alouds, book reports, class discussions, lab results, research presentations, and dialogues in a foreign language. Effective communication is an essential skill in modern society, and the Common Core State Standards place particular emphasis on…
Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for Spanish Speaking People, Washington, DC.
Information of interest to Spanish speaking people on revenue sharing was presented in this booklet. Major topics were the utilization of General Revenue Sharing Funds, fund distribution, community action, reports on planned and actual use of funds, assurances to the Secretary of the Treasury, and civil rights provisions. Additional information on…
Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick
The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…
Kim, Jungtae; Craig, Daniel A.
Videoconferencing offers new opportunities for language testers to assess speaking ability in low-stakes diagnostic tests. To be considered a trusted testing tool in language testing, a test should be examined employing appropriate validation processes [Chapelle, C.A., Jamieson, J., & Hegelheimer, V. (2003). "Validation of a web-based ESL…
Ettlinger, Marc; Lanter, Jennifer; Van Pay, Craig K.
Does the language we speak affect the way we think, and if so, how? Previous researchers have considered this question by exploring the cognitive abilities of speakers of different languages. In the present study, we looked for evidence of linguistic relativity within a language and within participants by looking at memory recall for monolingual…
Community College Journal, 2013
Immigrants and others who didn't grow up speaking English are often at a disadvantage when entering the workforce. One of the best ways for non-native English speakers to level the playing field is to enroll in targeted courses and job-training programs offered through their local community colleges. The best of these programs combines important…
Herrmann, Anna; Nevo, Baruch
The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive yet detailed account of the current giftedness and gifted education situation in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. It is concerned with four main research questions: (1) How is "giftedness" defined in German-speaking countries? (2) How are gifted children…
This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…
Norton, Nadjwa Effat Laila
This multicultural feminist critical narrative inquiry examines how one Dominican Spanish and English speaking poor immigrant first grader, Pam, utilizes her critical literacies to intervene against inequitable teaching practices and affirm her cultures. Implications for early childhood educators to develop culturally responsive practices that…
Parker, Douglas A.
This resource book seeks to provide the building blocks needed for public speaking while eliminating the fear factor. The book explains how educators can perfect their oratorical capabilities as well as enjoy the security, confidence, and support needed to create and deliver dynamic speeches. Following an Introduction: A Message for Teachers,…
In this investigation, 72 second-, fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade speakers of black English were studied in an attempt to determine whether a relationship exists between the speaking of black English and the reading of standard English. Two variables of oral language were examined: the degree of divergence from standard English and the ability…
Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh Natalie
This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group).…
Dalton, Diana G.
This essay develops the position that the basic public speaking course is in need of reevaluation. Topics discussed include the importance of adopting a critical pedagogical stance, Paolo Freire's (1983) banking versus problem-posing concepts of education, the problems arising from the prevalent use of teaching assistants as public speaking…
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Oral language development facilitates print literacy. In this article, we focus on the ways in which teachers can ensure students' speaking and listening skills are developed. We provide a review of some time-tests classroom routines as well as some that can be enhanced with technology.
Haron, Sueraya Che; Ahmed, Ismaiel Hassanien; Mamat, Arifin; Ahmad, Wan Rusli Wan; Rawash, Fouad Mahmoud M.
This paper describes a study to investigate the challenges and obstacles to speaking Arabic faced by good and poor Malay speakers of Arabic. The study used individual and focus group interviews with 14 participants to elicit data. The findings revealed 2 types of obstacles, namely, internal and external obstacles. Internal obstacles refer to the…
Levy, David L., Ed.
This document comprises the three issues of Volume 13 of the "Speak Out for Children" newsletter, published to strengthen families through education and to assist children of unwed parents, separation, and divorce. The Spring 1998 issue contains articles on joint custody and the reduction of parental conflict, access grant programs,…
Prendiville, Francis; Toye, Nigel
Showing teachers how to use drama to promote speaking and listening for pupils, including those who find learning difficult, this book describes, analyses and teaches how to use role play effectively and looks at how to generate a productive dialogue between teachers and pupils that is both powerful and enabling. The authors present innovative…
An empirical study examined politicians' use of public speaking teleprompters (PSTs) when delivering major addresses to determine if audiences made aware of this practice would more seriously question speaker credibility, sincerity, and communicative ability. After completing an initial survey about political attitudes and awareness, subjects, 36…
Examination of stereotypes about polite speech found that women are expected to speak more politely than men regardless of sex of addressee topic. Men are expected to use different forms for requests for masculine, feminine, and neutral actions and different forms of requests for male and female addressees. (CMG)
Suchman, Nancy E.
Not all mothers with histories of substance use struggle as parents, but many of them do. Research has shown that, although quality of caregiving varies widely, as a group, mothers with histories of chronic substance use are at greater risk than mothers with no substance use history for losing custody of their young children (Grant et al., 2011; Choi & Ryan, 2006; Department of Health and Human Services, 1999). In observational studies, mothers with substance use disorders have demonstrated lower levels of sensitivity and responsiveness to their young children’s emotional cues and marked oscillation between intrusive, over-controlling behavior and passive withdrawal (Hans et al., 1999; Burns et al., 1997). Recent developments in the neuroscience of addiction and parenting may help to explain the marked absence of sensitivity and the dramatic juxtaposition of parenting behaviors. PMID:27840685
Boyce, Janet S.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Riley, Jeanetta G.
Nausea, sweating, weak knees, and a dry mouth are all symptoms associated with the fear of standing in front of an audience. Considering the anxiety that public speaking produces, students of any age are facing a significant challenge when they speak in front of a group. While speaking is considered to be an integral part of language arts, it…
... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...
... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...
... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...
... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...
This study is an attempt to classify raters according to their weighting patterns and explore systematic differences between rater types in the rating process. In the context of an EFL speaking test, 126 raters were classified into three types--form-oriented, balanced, and content-oriented--through cluster analyses of their weighting patterns…
Kim, Hyun Jung
Human raters are normally involved in L2 performance assessment; as a result, rater behavior has been widely investigated to reduce rater effects on test scores and to provide validity arguments. Yet raters' cognition and use of rubrics in their actual rating have rarely been explored qualitatively in L2 speaking assessments. In this study three…
Wei, Jing; Llosa, Lorena
This article reports on an investigation of the role raters' language background plays in raters' assessment of test takers' speaking ability. Specifically, this article examines differences between American and Indian raters in their scores and scoring processes when rating Indian test takers' responses to the Test of English as a Foreign…
Benjamin, Lynn R.; And Others
A study of 54 mothers with a dissociative disorder, 20 mothers with other mental problems, and 20 normal mothers investigated what effect, if any, dissociation had on parenting. When tested on the Subjective Experiences of Parenting Scale, mothers with dissociation presented significantly more negative parenting behavior and attitudes. (CR)
Maddux, Hilary; Cobb, Nina
Noting that the well-being of children and that of mothers cannot be separated, this report uses the Mothers' Index to compare the well-being of mothers and children in 17 developed countries and 77 developing countries. The Mothers' Index is a composite of elements contributing to a woman's well-being, including health status, educational status,…
Karger, Rex H.
A measure of mother-infant synchrony was developed and used to compare the interactions of mothers with pre-term and mothers with full-term infants. Each mother-infant dyad was observed during a standard bottle feeding session on three separate occasions: once prior to discharge and at one and three months after discharge. (JMB)
Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa
Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…
Shah, Q; Sonuga-Barke, E
The relationship between family structure and mental health was examined in a British Pakistani Muslim community. Mothers completed an inventory of psychological symptoms of depression and anxiety while a teacher rated their children's behavioural adjustment. Mothers living in extended families reported feeling more depressed and anxious than those in nuclear families; their children, however, were better adjusted. The significance and reasons for the different patterns of association between family structure and psychological well-being for mothers and children are discussed.
This paper aims at developing a procedural framework for the development and validation of diagnostic speaking tests. The researcher reviews the current available models of speaking performance, analyzes the distinctive features and then points out the implications for the development of a procedural framework for diagnostic speaking tests. On…
Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…
Morales, Leo S.
BACKGROUND The Hablamos Juntos—Together We Speak (HJ)—national demonstration project targeted the improvement of language access for Spanish-speaking Latinos in areas with rapidly growing Latino populations. The objective of HJ was to improve doctor-patient communication by increasing access to and quality of interpreter services for Spanish-speaking patients. OBJECTIVE To investigate how access to interpreters for adult Spanish-speaking Latinos is associated with ratings of doctor/office staff communication and satisfaction with care. DESIGN Cross-sectional cohort study. PATIENTS A total of 1,590 Spanish-speaking Latino adults from eight sites across the United States who participated in the outpatient HJ evaluation. MEASUREMENTS We analyzed two multi-item measures of doctor communication (4 items) and office staff helpfulness (2 items), and one global item of satisfaction with care by interpreter use. We performed regression analyses to control for patient sociodemographic characteristics, survey year, and clustering at the site of care. RESULTS Ninety-five percent of participants were born outside the US, 81% were females, and survey response rates ranged from 45% to 85% across sites. In this cohort of Spanish-speaking patients, those who needed and always used interpreters reported better experiences with care than their counterparts who needed but had interpreters unavailable. Patients who always used an interpreter had better adjusted ratings of doctor communication [effect size (ES = 0.51)], office staff helpfulness (ES = 0.37), and satisfaction with care (ES = 0.37) than patients who needed but did not always use an interpreter. Patients who needed and always used interpreters also reported better experiences with care in all three domains measured [doctor communication (ES = 0.30), office staff helpfulness (ES = 0.21), and satisfaction with care (ES = 0.23)] than patients who did not need interpreters. CONCLUSIONS Among adult
Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Kingston, Debbie; Schultz, Misty
A sociolinguistic analysis of an interaction between a woman with aphasia and a nonaphasic speaking partner was conducted to investigate participant framing in aphasia. Participant frames, or the stances that people take in conversation, help conversational participants structure their talk and collaboratively negotiate meaning (I. Goffman, 1974). This analysis revealed a configuration in which a person with severe aphasia enlisted her speaking partner to speak for her. That is, the interaction was framed such that the nonaphasic speaking partner served as the "spokesperson" for messages that were authored by the person with aphasia. The clinical requirements of adopting a "speaking for another" framework are discussed.
Salomonsson, Majlis Winberg; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Salomonsson, Björn
An earlier randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared 80 mother-infant dyads in a Stockholm sample. One had received mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment [mother-infant psychoanalytic therapies (MIP) group], and the other received Child Health Center care (CHCC group). Effects were found on mother-reported depression and expert-rated mother-infant relationship qualities and maternal sensitivity. When the children were 412 years, the dyads were followed up with assessments of the children's attachment representations, social and emotional development, and global functioning, and the mothers' psychological well-being and representations of the child as well as the mother-child interactions. We gathered data from 66 cases approximately 312 years' posttreatment. All scores involving the mothers had now approached community levels. We found effects on maternal depression in favor of MIP, but no other between-group differences. The MIP treatments seemed to have helped the mothers to recover more quickly on personal well-being, to become more sensitive to their babies' suffering, and to better support and appreciate their children throughout infancy and toddlerhood. If so, this would explain why the MIP children had a better global functioning and were more often "OK" and less often "Troubled" at 412 years.
Johnson, Karen Hill
Literature suggested public speaking is American's most feared activity. Additionally, the public speaking curriculum was removed from the K-12 school system after 2001. This study aimed to examine the effect of previous public speaking instruction, public speaking extra-curricular activity, gender, and self-esteem on public speaking anxiety…
Furnham, Adrian; Mkhize, Nhlanhla
Zulu women (N = 133) were given a structural interview concerning their own and their children's multiple intelligences. The best predictor of their own self-estimated overall intelligence rating was mathematical and spatial intelligence. Mothers showed few significant differences in their estimates of their sons and daughters' overall or multiple intelligences. However, they rated their daughters' interpersonal intelligence higher than those of their sons, and their sons' bodily-kinesthetic intelligence higher than those of their daughters. The mothers believed that overall their children were about 6 IQ points more intelligent than themselves. Although mothers estimated their own spatial, inter-, and intrapersonal intelligence to be higher than those of their children, they also believed that their children had higher mathematical intelligence.
Ip, Hoi Man; Cheung, Sum Kwing; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Chang, Lei
Research Findings: Across 63 Hong Kong families, both Filipina domestic helpers and mothers separately rated their own caregiving style (warmth and control) and kindergarten children's social competence. Results indicated that Filipina helpers rated themselves as higher in warmth than mothers did. In addition, self-rated warmth of both caregivers,…
People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.
Popich, E; Alant, E
This study examined the verbal interactions which occurred between a teacher and two groups of children (children who were non-speaking as well as children who were speaking). Descriptive data, generated by analysing ten lessons, suggested that the teacher's interaction with the children who were non-speaking differed, in terms of quantity and quality. She directed approximately 10% less interaction at each of the three non-speaking children, when compared with the number of interactions that she directed at each of the five speaking children. However, she did not spend an equal amount of time interacting with each of the non-speaking children. Her interaction with the non-speaking children was dominated by questions, attention directing and requesting. Verbalization types, such as answering and imitating did not occur at all in the teacher's interaction with the non-speaking children. This implies that the non-speaking children's learning experiences in the classroom differed from the speaking children's learning experiences. Possible reasons for these discrepancies were proposed, namely that the teacher's attitudes, skill and knowledge played a role, but the non-speaking children's lack of access to communication was also considered to be a factor in determining the amount and type of interaction.
Hulstijn, Jan H.; Schoonen, Rob; de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen
This study examines the associations between the speaking proficiency of 181 adult learners of Dutch as a second language and their linguistic competences. Performance in eight speaking tasks was rated on a scale of communicative adequacy. After extrapolation of these ratings to the Overall Oral Production scale of the Common European Framework of…
Gordon, Rachel A.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; Wang, Xue; Gluzman, Anna
Finding high-quality child care may pose financial and logistical challenges and create ongoing emotional strains for some mothers. We use the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to ask (a) are child-care settings that mothers select on the basis of their own perceptions of quality rated more highly by independent observers (and more…
Curtner-Smith, Mary E.; Culp, Anne M.; Culp, Rex; Scheib, Carrie; Owen, Kelly; Tilley, Angela; Murphy, Molly; Parkman, Lauren; Coleman, Peter W.
We examined links between mothers' parenting and children's relational bullying and overt bullying in a sample of children attending a Head Start program. Mothers completed surveys and face-to-face interviews. Head Start teachers completed assessments on children. Results indicated that a small percentage of children in the sample was rated by…
Vu, Jennifer A.
This study describes the use of story stems in order to determine children's representations of relationships with mothers, teachers, and friends, and how these representations are related to mother- and teacher-rated social competence. Thirty preschool-aged children were administered the story stem tasks featuring three different interactional…
Bishop, Hilary; Cousins, Wendy; Casson, Karen; Moore, Ann
Breastfeeding is a key public health measure to protect and promote the health of one of the most vulnerable groups of the population--infants and children. Northern Ireland, however, has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the world. This paper reports the results of a questionnaire survey of 120 mothers attending mother and toddler groups…
Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Mellins, Claude Ann; Dolezal, Curtis; Spiegel, Dina
Rates of mental health problems in mothers and children in families affected by maternal HIV as compared to those not affected by maternal HIV but living in similar inner-city, low-SES, primarily ethnic-minority neighborhoods were examined. In addition, correspondence between mother and child mental health was explored. Interviews were conducted…
Lorber, Michael F.; O'Leary, Susan G.
The present investigation was designed to evaluate whether mothers' emotion experience, autonomic reactivity, and negatively biased appraisals of their toddlers' behavior and toddlers' rates of misbehavior predicted overreactive discipline in a mediated fashion. Ninety-three community mother-toddler dyads were observed in a laboratory interaction,…
Stockman, Lauren J; Fischer, Thea K; Deming, Michael; Ngwira, Bagrey; Bowie, Cameron; Cunliffe, Nigel; Bresee, Joseph; Quick, Robert E
A national household survey was conducted in Malawi to determine awareness and use of a socially marketed water treatment product. In all, 64% of mothers were aware of the product, and 7% were using it. Both poor and rural mothers had lower awareness and use rates. Targeting promotion to rural populations could enhance program effectiveness.
Ammerman, Robert T.; Shenk, Chad E.; Teeters, Angelique R.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.
Research has documented the deleterious effects of maternal depression and childhood trauma on parenting and child development. There are high rates of both depression and childhood trauma in new mothers participating in home visitation programs, a prevention approach designed to optimize mother and child outcomes. Little is known about the…
Shi, M; Umbach, D M; Vermeulen, S H; Weinberg, C R
The prenatal environment plays an important role in many conditions, particularly those with onset early in life, such as childhood cancers and birth defects. Because both maternal and fetal genotypes can influence risk, investigators sometimes use a case-mother/control-mother design, with mother-offspring pairs as the unit of analysis, to study genetic factors. Risk models should account for both the maternal genotype and the correlated fetal genotype to avoid confounding. The usual logistic regression analysis, however, fails to fully exploit the fact that these are mothers and offspring. Consider an autosomal, diallelic locus, which could be related to disease susceptibility either directly or through linkage with a polymorphic causal locus. Three nested levels of assumptions are often natural and plausible. The first level simply assumes Mendelian inheritance. The second further assumes parental mating symmetry for the studied locus in the source population. The third additionally assumes parental allelic exchangeability. Those assumptions imply certain nonlinear constraints; the authors enforce those constraints by using Poisson regression together with the expectation-maximization algorithm. Calculations reveal that improvements in efficiency over the usual logistic analysis can be substantial, even if only the Mendelian assumption is honored. Benefits are even more marked if, as is typical, information on genotype is missing for some individuals.
Taking present-day research into so-called new momism and intense mothering as a starting point, this article argues that the current mothering discourse, rather than articulating a new phenomenon, perpetuates a regulative discourse developed in the nineteenth century, in advice books written by medical doctors for pregnant women and new mothers. Both the Victorian and the present-day texts play on feelings of guilt and inadequacy in order to control the actions and emotions of mothers, although the threatened outcome differs: present-day mothers are warned that their children may become obese or develop neuropsychological disorders, whereas Victorian mothers are warned that their children might die.
Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Todd, James Torrence; Castellanos, Irina; Sorondo, Barbara M.
The development of attention to dynamic faces vs. objects providing synchronous audiovisual vs. silent visual stimulation was assessed in a large sample of infants. Maintaining attention to the faces and voices of people speaking is critical for perceptual, cognitive, social, and language development. However, no studies have systematically assessed when, if, or how attention to speaking faces emerges and changes across infancy. Two measures of attention maintenance, habituation time (HT) and look-away rate (LAR), were derived from cross-sectional data of 2- to 8-month-old infants (N = 801). Results indicated that attention to audiovisual faces and voices was maintained across age, whereas attention to each of the other event types (audiovisual objects, silent dynamic faces, silent dynamic objects) declined across age. This reveals a gradually emerging advantage in attention maintenance (longer habituation times, lower look-away rates) for audiovisual speaking faces compared with the other three event types. At 2 months, infants showed no attentional advantage for faces (with greater attention to audiovisual than to visual events), at 3 months, they attended more to dynamic faces than objects (in the presence or absence of voices), and by 4 to 5 and 6 to 8 months significantly greater attention emerged to temporally coordinated faces and voices of people speaking compared with all other event types. Our results indicate that selective attention to coordinated faces and voices over other event types emerges gradually across infancy, likely as a function of experience with multimodal, redundant stimulation from person and object events. PMID:27786526
Strutt, Adriana M; Ayanegui, Ingrid G; Scott, Bonnie M; Mahoney, Marita L; York, Michele K; San Miguel Montes, Liza E
The present study compared the performance of English- and Spanish-speaking healthy controls (HCs) on the Spanish translation of the Dementia Rating Scale-Second edition (ST-DRS-2) and examined the classification accuracy of the ST-DRS-2 and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with an age- and education-matched clinical sample. In contrast to previous findings with English-speakers, a stronger relationship was observed between ST-DRS-2 Total scores and education than with age, and despite being matched on both of these variables, English-speaking HCs significantly out-performed their Spanish-speaking counterparts on the ST-DRS-2. The greatest between-group difference was found on the Memory subscale, wherein the majority of errors committed by Spanish-speaking HCs were significantly related to level of acculturation. ST-DRS-2 Total and Memory subscale scores produced greater classification accuracy than the MMSE; however, ST-DRS-2 Total scores yielded the greatest corresponding rates of sensitivity and specificity. Normative data are provided and recommended to improve the ST-DRS-2's diagnostic accuracy with Spanish-speakers.
Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Goossens, Frits A.; Allhusen, Virginia D.
Examined validity of the California Attachment Procedure (CAP), which does not involve mother-child separations. Overall, toddlers were more likely to be classified as secure in the CAP than in the Strange Situation (SS) test. The CAP yielded higher rates of security, particularly for children in day care, and security in the CAP correlated more…
Labarère, José; Gelbert-Baudino, Nathalie; Laborde, Laurent; Arragain, Domitille; Schelstraete, Camille; François, Patrice
The vast majority of breastfeeding mothers in Western countries have routine access to multimedia and Internet resources at home. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a CD-ROM-based intervention in increasing the rates of breastfeeding. We conducted a pre- and post-intervention study involving four control and four intervention maternity units in France. All breastfeeding mothers in intervention units were given a CD-ROM-based program addressing various breastfeeding topics. The primary outcome was any breastfeeding at 4 weeks assessed by follow-up telephone interview. The secondary outcomes included breastfeeding duration, breastfeeding difficulties after discharge and satisfaction with the breastfeeding experience. The rates of any breastfeeding at 4 weeks varied from 88.6% (209/236) to 87.9% (211/240) and from 86.0% (222/258) to 88.0% (228/259) for mothers enrolled in intervention and control maternity units, respectively (P for interaction=0.54). The hazard of breastfeeding discontinuation for mothers enrolled in intervention units did not vary significantly across study periods after adjusting for education level, epidural anaesthesia, breastfeeding assessment score and return to work (P for interaction=0.18). The rates of breastfeeding at 4 weeks remained unchanged when restricting the analysis to the mothers who actually received (87.8% [173/197]) or used [88.2% (105/119)] the CD-ROM during the post-intervention period. No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes between the two study groups. A CD-ROM-based intervention for breastfeeding mothers provides no additional benefit to usual post-natal care. Further study is needed to assess the effectiveness of multimedia packages as part of more intensive multifaceted interventions.
de-Paris, Fernanda; Sant'Anna, Marcia K; Vianna, Monica R M; Barichello, Tatiana; Busnello, Joao V; Kapczinski, Flavio; Quevedo, Joao; Izquierdo, Ivan
The effects of gabapentin, 400 mg and 800 mg, on anxiety induced by simulated public speaking (SPS) were investigated. Thirty-two normal male volunteers (aged 17-30 years) had their anxiety and mood evaluated by self-scales [Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) and Profile of Mood State (POMS)] during the SPS procedure. Physiological measures (heart rate and blood pressure) were taken. Treatment with gabapentin at 800 mg attenuated the anxiety of subjects that had a decrease on the VAMS item calm-excite. In addition, volunteers that received gabapentin at 400 mg and 800 mg showed a decrease in the hostility score in POMS. Our results suggest, in agreement with other studies, an anxiolytic potential to gabapentin.
Sala, X; Monsalve, C; Comas, C; Botet, F; Nalda, M A
The use of beta-adrenergic antagonists for the control of high blood pressure associated to pregnancy is frequent. Their use is related with the appearance of undesirable effects of the fetus. The case of neonatal cardiac arrest attributed, to the administration of labetalol to the mother is presented. The high transplacentary passage, the different pharmacokinetics of the drug in the newborn and the clinical evolution of the patient suggests its involvement. It is concluded that labetalol may cause severe undesirable effects in newborns and fetal heart rate of the mother and neonate should be monitored upon use of this drug.
Adams, P L
Otto Rank pioneered in regarding the mother's place as paramount in the emotional life of the child, even when he was enveloped in Freudian orthodoxy, but expanded his viewpoint after he had left the Freudian ranks. His more mature views were to stress separation and individuation as lifelong dilemmas because they were in tension with our urges to seek oneness and to merge with others and not to regard that struggle as a dialectic that got worked through or transcended in an early, pre-Oedipal stage. He believed that fusing and individuating were lifetime issues for all, in or out of their psychoanalyses. Rank showed radical feminist attitudes far ahead of his time, contending that the female is central and superior to male existence, and that women need a psychology that is not warmed-over male biases but truly a "female psychology." He foreshadowed later writers who emphasized the motherly warmth and caregiving of psychotherapists. He regarded many of his technical innovations as ways to heighten the reexperiencing of early child-and-mother interactions and thought of the analytic setting itself as being akin to the mother-child relationship. Among psychoanalysts of all colorations respecting their Freudian orthodoxy, there is a special mystique and nostalgia around the Oedipus complex and paramountcy of the father in a child's mental life; but Otto Rank took a militant, yet reasoned, stand against such patriarchal biases.
Downie, Jill; Clark, Kim; Clemenston, Katy
Volunteers represent a growing, but often undervalued, section of service delivery in many areas in the community, particularly in health care. This paper is centred on volunteers' perceptions and experiences of home visiting gained through the implementation of the Community Mothers (CM) program in Western Australia (WA). Further, the paper aims to inform debate about the issue of professional versus non-professional home visitors and offers a perspective on the issue that may provide direction for policy makers and practitioners. This qualitative study involved individual telephone interviews with a volunteer sample of 12 participants, purposefully selected. Transcription data from each interview were examined and coded utilising an adapted method of content analysis described by Burnard (1991). Three main themes emerged in the findings as to why volunteers became involved in the Community Mothers Program: (1) Empathetic concern; (2) Contribution to community life; and (3) Lifecourse issues and personal development. With experiences of volunteers in home visiting, four main themes reflected the participants' views: (1) Facilitating client empowerment; (2) Facilitating personal empowerment; (3) Promoting social connectedness; and (4) Enabling goal setting. Although programs such as the Community Mothers Program aim to benefit and support mothers in the parenting role it is clear that there are benefits that emerge also for the individual volunteer, such as increased self-esteem, self-efficacy and satisfaction. Hence, measuring the overall outcomes that result from such program remains a major challenge.
Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Ward, Kelly
In this article we explore the role of academic discipline on the careers of tenure-line faculty women with children. Longitudinal, qualitative findings show that disciplinary contexts and ideal worker norms shape what it means to be an academic and a mother. Even after achieving tenure, ideal worker norms affect these roles; professional…
Mitchell, Helen; Casto, Glendon
Project TEAM (Team Education for Adolescent Mothers) is a support program designed to counteract the socioeconomic consequences of early childbearing, by developing a model for providing high-quality care services for pregnant adolescents, adolescent parents, their infants, and their extended families. The project has four site locations:…
Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus; Behrens, Kazuko; Carbonell, Olga Alicia; Cárcamo, Rodrigo; Cohen-Paraira, Inbar; de la Harpe, Christian; Ekmekçi, Hatice; Emmen, Rosanneke; Heidar, Jailan; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Mels, Cindy; Mooya, Haatembo; Murtisari, Sylvia; Nóblega, Magaly; Ortiz, Jenny Amanda; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Sichimba, Francis; Soares, Isabel; Steele, Howard; Steele, Miriam; Pape, Marloes; van Ginkel, Joost; van der Veer, René; Wang, Lamei; Selcuk, Bilge; Yavuz, Melis; Zreik, Ghadir
In this article, we test the hypothesis that beliefs about the ideal mother are convergent across cultures and that these beliefs overlap considerably with attachment theory's notion of the sensitive mother. In a sample including 26 cultural groups from 15 countries around the globe, 751 mothers sorted the Maternal Behavior Q-Set to reflect their…
Background This study investigated the knowledge of depression and preference for professional help, medications and treatment methods among Australians of Chinese-speaking background, and the perceptions of this population of the causes of mental illness. Methods Adopting a cluster convenience sampling method, the study recruited 200 Chinese-speaking subjects from four major areas in metropolitan Melbourne where many Chinese live. The respondents were presented with a vignette describing an individual with depression and then asked questions to assess their understanding of depression and preference for professional help, medications and treatment methods. A comparative approach was used to compare the findings with those of a previous study of the mental health literacy of Australian and Japanese adults. Results Compared to the Australian and Japanese samples, a much lower percentage of Chinese-speaking Australians (14%) could correctly identify major depression described in the vignette, and a higher percentage believed that counseling professionals could be helpful. Higher percentages of those who believed that close family members could be helpful were found in the Chinese-speaking Australian and Japanese samples, and these two groups also expressed more uncertainty about the usefulness or harmfulness of certain medications compared to the Australian sample. Higher percentages of respondents in both the Chinese-speaking Australian and the Australian sample considered "lifestyle changes" to be helpful compared to the Japanese sample. In the Chinese-speaking sample, 30%, 17.4%, 33% and 27% of the respondents rated "traditional Chinese medicine doctors," "Chinese herbal medications," "taking Chinese nutritional foods/supplements" and "qiqong" as helpful. Many perceived "changing fungshui" and "traditional Chinese worship" to be harmful. Regarding the perception of causes of mental illness, items related to psychosocial perspectives including "life stress" and
Asserts that Mother Goose rhymes are culturally relevant. Offers ways in which Mother Goose can be used in the classroom. Discusses activities for language arts, movement, art, music, science, and mathematics instruction. (PRA)
Kuo, Eddie C. Y.
An explanatory model of the relationship between mother tongue retention, population ratio, and intermarriage is presented. In general, data collected on mother tongue retention in Singapore, a multilingual and multiethnic society, support the proposed model. (DS)
Robichaux, Faye B.; And Others
Describes the Program for Adolescent Mothers (PAM) established to provide opportunities for teen mothers in Louisiana to increase their self-esteem, become productive citizens, and become aware of the physical and emotional development of children. (JOW)
Science News, 1977
Reports that a mother's perception of her newborn infant frequently predicts how well the child will adjust in later childhood. The more positive the mother perceives the child, the more emotionally healthy the child will later become. (SL)
Gay, Caryl L; Lee, Kathryn A; Lee, Shih-Yu
The purpose of this study was to describe the sleep patterns and fatigue of both mothers and fathers before and after childbirth. The authors used wrist actigraphy and questionnaires to estimate sleep and fatigue in 72 couples during their last month of pregnancy and 1st month postpartum. Both parents experienced more sleep disruption at night during the postpartum period as compared to the last month of pregnancy. Compared to fathers, with their stable 24-h sleep patterns over time, mothers had less sleep at night and more sleep during the day after the baby was born. Sleep patterns were also related to parents' work status and type of infant feeding. Both parents self-reported more sleep disturbance and fatigue during the 1st month postpartum than during pregnancy. Mothers reported more sleep disturbance than fathers, but there was no gender difference in ratings of fatigue. At both time points, fathers obtained less total sleep than mothers when sleep was objectively measured throughout the entire 24-h day. Further research is needed to determine the duration of sleep loss for both mothers and fathers, to evaluate the effect of disrupted sleep and sleep loss on psychosocial functioning and job performance, and to develop interventions for improving sleep patterns of new parents.
Baum, Neil; Boughton, Leonarda
Every public speaker has encountered, or most likely will encounter, a difficult member of the audience who disrupts their presentation. This is a source of anxiety and discomfort, not only for the presenter, but for the audience as well. Learning how to manage the disruptive audience member is an art form, just like being a good public speaker. A professional speaker knows how to handle this disruption without making the audience uncomfortable and without embarrassing the disruptor. This article discusses ways to manage the disruptive audience member and will help those of you who do public speaking to tactfully and professionally disengage someone who is ruining your program.
Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Park, Yoonjung
Knowledge of childrearing and child development is relevant to parenting and the well-being of children. In a sociodemographically heterogeneous sample of 268 European American mothers of 2-year-olds, we assessed the state of mothers’ parenting knowledge, compared parenting knowledge in groups of mothers who varied in terms of parenthood and social status, and identified principal sources of mothers’ parenting knowledge in terms of social factors, parenting supports, and formal classes. On the whole, European American mothers demonstrated a fair but less than complete basic parenting knowledge, and mothers’ age, education, and rated helpfulness of written materials each uniquely contributed to their knowledge. Adult mothers scored higher than adolescent mothers, and mothers improved in their knowledge of parenting from their first to their second child (and were stable across time). No differences were found between mothers of girls and boys, mothers who varied in employment status, or between birth and adoptive mothers. The implications of variation in parenting knowledge and its sources for parenting education and clinical interactions with parents are discussed. PMID:20836597
Pardosi, Jerico Franciscus; Parr, Nick; Muhidin, Salut
Indonesia's infant mortality rates are among the highest in South-East Asia, and there are substantial variations between its sub-national regions. This qualitative study aims to explore early mortality-related health service provision and gender inequity issues based on mothers' pregnancy, delivery and early-age survival experience in Ende district, Nusa Tenggara Timur province. Thirty-two mothers aged 18-45 years with at least one birth in the previous five years were interviewed in depth in May 2013. The results show most mothers have little knowledge about the danger signs for a child's illness. Mothers with early-age deaths generally did not know the cause of death. Very few mothers had received adequate information on maternal and child health during their antenatal and postnatal visits to the health facility. Some mothers expressed a preference for using a traditional birth attendant, because of their ready availability and the more extensive range of support services they provide, compared with local midwives. Unprofessional attitudes displayed by midwives were reported by several mothers. As elsewhere in Indonesia, the power of health decision-making lies with the husband. Policies aimed at elevating mothers' roles in health care decision-making are discussed as measures that would help to improve early-age survival outcomes. Widening the public health insurance distribution, especially among poorer mothers, and equalizing the geographical distribution of midwives and health facilities are recommended to tackle geographical inequities and to increase early-age survival in Ende district.
Fernandez, Roy C.; O'Connor, Carol
This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the decision-making process of two mothers' selection of treatment for their sons' attention deficit disorder (ADD). One mother opted for a medical treatment, and the other mother opted for a non-medical treatment. The boy who is medically treated is 14, and the non-medically treated…
Badger, Earladeen D.
This study hypothesized that mothers from a low socioeconomic area could be trained by teachers to implement an infant tutorial program using their 1- to 2-year-old children as subjects. The 20 mothers recruited were ADC recipients or met the OEO poverty definition. Mothers agreed to attend a 2 hour weekly class to learn teaching techniques to be…
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…
Bzostek, Sharon H.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Carlson, Marcia J.
This article examines the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of unmarried mothers' repartnering patterns following a nonmarital birth. Results indicate that, within five years after a birth, approximately two-thirds of unmarried mothers end their relationship with the focal child's biological father, and more than half of these mothers enter new…
Wadsworth, J.; And Others
Developmental outcome was compared in 1,031 Singleton children of teenage mothers and 10,950 Singleton children of older mothers. Children born to teenage mothers and living with them through the first five years of life performed less well than other children in tests of vocabulary and behavior, were shorter on the average, and had smaller head…
Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka
The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…
de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia; Guibert, Maria; Asla, Nagore; Ormaechea, Amaia
This study investigates whether mothers who are neglectful and at high risk for child physical abuse present a deficit in empathy. Participants were neglectful mothers (n = 37), mothers at high risk for child physical abuse (n = 22), and nonmaltreating mothers (n = 37). The Interpersonal Reactivity Index, a self-report measure assessing specific…
Cipolla, William F.
The paper reviews the selection and use of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model at Western Maryland College. The purpose was to produce a student who could read, understand, speak, and write French easily enough to make a foreign language major attractive and less formidable. The program proposed a three-semester sequence of intensive French…
Colvin, Janet; Tobler, Nancy
This study describes the efficacy of modifications made to a higher education Latina/o public speaking course to enhance student growth and understanding. The changes included the addition of a service-learning component and the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy. Selected research, particularly related to college students, on…
Elaborates results of using electronic extemporaneous speaking in debate tournaments. Provides analysis around four points: preparation, event operation, participant reaction, and postevent analysis by forensic staff. (PA)
Perper, Kate; Manlove, Jennifer
In 2006, the teen birth rate rose for the first time since 1991. Between 2005 and 2006, the birth rate increased 3 percent for teens aged 15-17 and 4 percent for teens aged 18-19. Teenage childbearing has negative consequences both for the mothers involved and for their children. For example, teen mothers and their children experience poorer…
Ton, Quy; Frenkel, Lisa
The purpose of this article is to review prominent studies on HIV drug-resistance in mothers and their infants after the use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent mother-to-child-transmission in resource-limited communities. The effects of drug-resistance on subsequent combination antiretroviral therapy are discussed, as are the probable mechanisms of acquisition and decay or persistence of drug-resistant mutants. Differences in the rates of HIV drug-resistance from interventions used to prevent mother-to-child-transmission in North America and Europe are contrasted to the simplified regimens used in resource-limited settings. Unresolved issues related to HIV drug-resistance are reviewed, including: whether maternal zidovudine monotherapy selects significant resistance; the clinical relevance of HIV drug-resistant variants selected by single-dose nevirapine that persist as minority viral variants and can affect the outcome of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based therapy; and the use of maternal combination antiretroviral therapy during breastfeeding. Finally, the current and upcoming strategies to reduce HIV drug-resistance related to use of antiretrovirals to prevent mother-to-child-transmission are discussed and contrasted with the challenges of financing and administering antiretrovirals to prevent mother-to-child-transmission in resource-limited communities.
Kelman, Alex R; Muñoz, Ricardo F
Background One of the advantages of Internet-based research is the ability to efficiently recruit large, diverse samples of international participants. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the behind-the-scenes process to setting up successful online recruitment tools. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the comparative impact of Spanish- and English-language keywords for a Google AdWords campaign to recruit pregnant women to an Internet intervention and to describe the characteristics of those who enrolled in the trial. Methods Spanish- and English-language Google AdWords campaigns were created to advertise and recruit pregnant women to a Web-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of postpartum depression, the Mothers and Babies/Mamás y Bebés Internet Project. Search engine users who clicked on the ads in response to keyword queries (eg, pregnancy, depression and pregnancy) were directed to the fully automated study website. Data on the performance of keywords associated with each Google ad reflect Web user queries from February 2009 to June 2012. Demographic information, self-reported depression symptom scores, major depressive episode status, and Internet use data were collected from enrolled participants before randomization in the intervention study. Results The Google ads received high exposure (12,983,196 impressions) and interest (176,295 clicks) from a global sample of Web users; 6745 pregnant women consented to participate and 2575 completed enrollment in the intervention study. Keywords that were descriptive of pregnancy and distress or pregnancy and health resulted in higher consent and enrollment rates (ie, high-performing ads). In both languages, broad keywords (eg, pregnancy) had the highest exposure, more consented participants, and greatest cost per consent (up to US $25.77 per consent). The online ads recruited a predominantly Spanish-speaking sample from Latin America of Mestizo racial identity. The
Troutman, Beth R.; Momany, Allison M.
Objective Examine the quality of infant-mother attachment in a prospective case series of infants whose mothers took selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy. Background SSRIs are prescribed to 2 to 6% of pregnant women (National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, 2007; Stewart, 2011). Recent articles on the use of SSRIs during pregnancy note the increased risk for problematic infant-mother relationships among mothers with untreated postpartum depression (Gentile, 2011; Stewart, 2011). However, little is known about the quality of infant-mother relationships among mothers who took SSRIs during pregnancy. Methods Five mothers who took SSRIs during pregnancy were recruited from a community study of infant development. Mothers completed ratings of postpartum depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) 4 to 6 times between 1 month and 1 year following the infant’s birth. At 1 year postpartum, quality of infant-mother attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure. Results Four of the 5 infant-mother dyads (80%) were classified as disorganized, a rate considerably higher than in postpartum depression samples. Conclusion These results are used to raise questions about the clinical implications of research on in utero exposure to SSRIs, perinatal depression, and disorganized attachment. Specifically, this case series raises questions about using research on the link between postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment as a rationale for the use of SSRIs during pregnancy. Current research indicates use of SSRIs during pregnancy may: 1) increase risk for disorganized attachment, 2) decrease risk for disorganized attachment, or 3) have no effect on disorganized attachment. PMID:23509416
Bahrick, Lorraine E; Todd, James Torrence; Castellanos, Irina; Sorondo, Barbara M
The development of attention to dynamic faces versus objects providing synchronous audiovisual versus silent visual stimulation was assessed in a large sample of infants. Maintaining attention to the faces and voices of people speaking is critical for perceptual, cognitive, social, and language development. However, no studies have systematically assessed when, if, or how attention to speaking faces emerges and changes across infancy. Two measures of attention maintenance, habituation time (HT) and look-away rate (LAR), were derived from cross-sectional data of 2- to 8-month-old infants (N = 801). Results indicated that attention to audiovisual faces and voices was maintained across age, whereas attention to each of the other event types (audiovisual objects, silent dynamic faces, silent dynamic objects) declined across age. This reveals a gradually emerging advantage in attention maintenance (longer HTs, lower LARs) for audiovisual speaking faces compared with the other 3 event types. At 2 months, infants showed no attentional advantage for faces (with greater attention to audiovisual than to visual events); at 3 months, they attended more to dynamic faces than objects (in the presence or absence of voices), and by 4 to 5 and 6 to 8 months, significantly greater attention emerged to temporally coordinated faces and voices of people speaking compared with all other event types. Our results indicate that selective attention to coordinated faces and voices over other event types emerges gradually across infancy, likely as a function of experience with multimodal, redundant stimulation from person and object events. (PsycINFO Database Record
Hobson, R Peter; Patrick, Matthew; Crandell, Lisa; García-Pérez, Rosa; Lee, Anthony
The principal aim of this study was to assess personal relatedness and attachment patterns in 12-month-old infants of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We also evaluated maternal intrusive insensitivity toward the infants in semistructured play. We videotaped 10 mother-infant dyads with borderline mothers and 22 dyads where the mothers were free from psychopathology, in three different settings: a modification of Winnicott's Set Situation in which infants faced an initially unresponsive ("still-face") stranger, who subsequently tried to engage the infant in a game of give and take; the Strange Situation of Ainsworth and Wittig; and a situation in which mothers were requested to teach their infants to play with miniature figures and a toy train. In relation to a set of a priori predictions, the results revealed significant group differences as follows: (a) compared with control infants, toward the stranger the infants of mothers with BPD showed lower levels of "availability for positive engagement," lower ratings of "behavior organization and mood state," and a lower proportion of interpersonally directed looks that were positive; (b) in the Strange Situation, a higher proportion (8 out of 10) of infants of borderline mothers were categorized as Disorganized; and (c) in play, mothers with BPD were rated as more "intrusively insensitive" toward their infants. The results are discussed in relation to hypotheses concerning the interpersonal relations of women with BPD, and possible implications for their infants' development.
... powered-lift rating appropriate to the instrument rating sought; (2) Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language. If the applicant is unable to meet any of these requirements due to...
Santa Ana, Elizabeth J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Añez, Luis; Paris, Manuel; Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L.; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Szapocznik, José; Martino, Steve
Despite the fact that the number of Hispanic individuals in need of treatment for substance use problems is increasing internationally, no studies have investigated the extent to which therapists can provide empirically supported treatments to Spanish-speaking clients with adequate fidelity. Twenty-three bilingual Hispanic therapists from five community outpatient treatment programs in the United States were randomly assigned to deliver either three sessions of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or an equivalent number of drug counseling-as-usual sessions (CAU) in Spanish to 405 Spanish-speaking clients randomly assigned to these conditions. Independent ratings of 325 sessions indicated the adherence/competence rating system had good to excellent interrater reliability and indicated strong support for an a priori defined fundamental MET skill factor. Support for an advanced MET skill factor was relatively weaker. The rating scale indicated significant differences in therapists’ MET adherence and competence across conditions. These findings indicate that the rating system has promise for assessing the performance of therapists who deliver MET in Spanish and suggest that bilingual Spanish-speaking therapists from the community can be trained to implement MET with adequate fidelity and skill using an intensive multisite training and supervision model. PMID:19394164
Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; Carroll, Kathleen M; Añez, Luis; Paris, Manuel; Ball, Samuel A; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Szapocznik, José; Martino, Steve
Despite the fact that the number of Hispanic individuals in need of treatment for substance use problems is increasing internationally, no studies have investigated the extent to which therapists can provide empirically supported treatments to Spanish-speaking clients with adequate fidelity. Twenty-three bilingual Hispanic therapists from five community outpatient treatment programs in the United States were randomly assigned to deliver either three sessions of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or an equivalent number of drug counseling-as-usual (CAU) sessions in Spanish to 405 Spanish-speaking clients randomly assigned to these conditions. Independent ratings of 325 sessions indicated the adherence/competence rating system had good to excellent interrater reliability and indicated strong support for an a priori defined fundamental MET skill factor. Support for an advanced MET skill factor was relatively weaker. The rating scale indicated significant differences in therapists' MET adherence and competence across conditions. These findings indicate that the rating system has promise for assessing the performance of therapists who deliver MET in Spanish and suggest that bilingual Spanish-speaking therapists from the community can be trained to implement MET with adequate fidelity and skill using an intensive multisite training and supervision model.
Howard, David L; Soulli, Beth; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin
Objective To compare the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among Spanish-speaking women, as compared to their English-speaking counterparts. Methods Surveys were distributed to English and Spanish speaking female patients in an urban Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic. Patients were at least 18 years old or they were less than 18 years old and pregnant. Results A majority of participants (77.3 % English-speaking vs. 74.1 % Spanish-speaking, respectively) were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term Pap smear. However, Spanish-speaking women were significantly less likely to choose incorrect descriptors. Spanish-speaking women were much less likely to say that a Pap smear was the same as a Pelvic exam (45.7 vs. 78.8 %; p = 0.001), or a test for a sexually transmitted disease (25 vs. 60.6 %; p = 0.001). Conclusions for Practice Compared to English-speaking women, Spanish-speaking women are much less likely to conflate a pelvic exam with a Pap smear. Overall understanding was suboptimal, regardless of primary language, indicating that major efforts are still needed to improve functional health literacy with respect to cervical cancer screening.
Varela, Jorge G; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Gonzalez, Ernie; Gharagozloo, Laadan; Johnson, Shara M
Criminal defense attorneys (N = 142) responded to a survey asking them to read a vignette describing a Hispanic defendant charged with assault and rate the severity of the defendant's mental illness and likelihood of referring him for an evaluation of competence to stand trial (CST). The vignettes varied in terms of whether the defendant spoke English or Spanish, and whether his mental illness symptoms were obvious or ambiguous. Overall, attorneys rated the Spanish-speaking defendant as less mentally ill than the English-speaking defendant, and were less likely to refer the Spanish-speaking defendant for a CST evaluation. Attorneys who perceived more logistical barriers to seeking a CST evaluation in their local communities were less likely to refer the defendant for a CST evaluation, but only when the defendant spoke Spanish. These findings suggest attorney decisions were influenced by language, although further research is needed to identify the mechanism of this influence.
Jill Suitor, J; Sechrist, Jori; Pillemer, Karl
Research has shown that mothers often differentiate among their adult children in terms of closeness and support; however, studies have not addressed why some mothers report preferences among children and others do not. To distinguish between mothers who do and do not report favouring some of their adult children, we used data from a within-family study in which 553 older mothers were interviewed about each of their children. Almost all of the mothers reported differentiating among their children regarding emotional closeness, confiding, or preference among caregivers. Multivariate analyses revealed that mothers' values and mother-child value similarity predicted which mothers differentiated among their children regarding closeness and confiding, whereas mothers' and children's demographic characteristics predicted which mothers differentiated regarding preferred caregivers. Black mothers were less likely than white mothers to differentiate when seeking a confidant; however, race played no role in mothers' likelihood of differentiating regarding emotional closeness or help during illness. Taken together, these findings indicate that differentiating among adult children is common; further, family-level predictors of mothers' differentiating mirror the patterns shown in dyad-level analyses of mothers' favouritism.
de Valk, Helga; Merz, Eva‐Maria
Abstract Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit from their practical and emotional support. Additionally, the grandparents' home can be a (temporary) place to stay shortly after divorce. Data come from the System of social statistical datasets (Statistics Netherlands). This unique dataset combines longitudinal data from a vast number of administrative registers. It covers the complete Dutch population, making it exceptionally well suited for life course and mobility research. We studied mothers with minor children between 1/1/2008 and 31/12/2010. Our study included 579,500 mothers, of whom about 8,800 (1.5%) experienced a separation in 2008. Separated mothers moved to the grandmother's municipality more often than non‐separated mothers, which might be partially motivated by the need for childcare. They also coresided with the grandmother more than non‐separated movers, mostly because of a vulnerable socio‐economic position. Although often temporary, coresidence appears to have a prolonged impact on the mothers' location choice; mothers frequently stayed in the grandmother's municipality after moving out. Finally, our results indicated that some mothers seemed to use the parental home as a stepping stone to cohabit with a new partner. © 2016 The Authors. Population, Space and Place published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28356888
Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon
Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267
Nwokocha, Ezenwa E; Awomoyi, Aanuoluwayomi O
Convulsion among children between six months and five years is a major contributor to childhood mortality in less-developed societies, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies on under-five deaths have ignored the influence of socio-demographic and environmental factors as they relate to causes of the thematic health condition and available therapies. This study investigated mothers' perception of convulsion causation, relevant signs and symptoms, and the influence of socio-economic status on mothers' choice of remedies. The research was conducted in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria, which is densely populated with mainly Yoruba-speaking people. The study population comprised mothers who, at the time of fieldwork for the present analysis, had at least one under-five child. Five hundred questionnaire respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique, and 14 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among different categories of women identified through the snowball technique. Voluntary Social Action Theory and the Health Belief Model were used in explaining the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The findings show that the remedies mothers chose were strongly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as marriage type, religion, level of education, occupation and place of residence. It is strongly suggested that interventions, health policies and programs should focus on how best to empower women to effectively utilize medical information that will enable them recognize symptoms of this common health condition and/or undertake preliminary therapies that contribute positively to convulsion prevention or treatment.
Su, Qiaotong; Galvin, John J; Zhang, Guoping; Li, Yongxin; Fu, Qian-Jie
Cochlear implant (CI) speech performance is typically evaluated using well-enunciated speech produced at a normal rate by a single talker. CI users often have greater difficulty with variations in speech production encountered in everyday listening. Within a single talker, speaking rate, amplitude, duration, and voice pitch information may be quite variable, depending on the production context. The coarse spectral resolution afforded by the CI limits perception of voice pitch, which is an important cue for speech prosody and for tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. In this study, sentence recognition from the Mandarin speech perception database was measured in adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI listeners for a variety of speaking styles: voiced speech produced at slow, normal, and fast speaking rates; whispered speech; voiced emotional speech; and voiced shouted speech. Recognition of Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test sentences was also measured. Results showed that performance was significantly poorer with whispered speech relative to the other speaking styles and that performance was significantly better with slow speech than with fast or emotional speech. Results also showed that adult and pediatric performance was significantly poorer with Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test than with Mandarin speech perception sentences at the normal rate. The results suggest that adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI patients are highly susceptible to whispered speech, due to the lack of lexically important voice pitch cues and perhaps other qualities associated with whispered speech. The results also suggest that test materials may contribute to differences in performance observed between adult and pediatric CI users.
Su, Qiaotong; Galvin, John J.; Zhang, Guoping; Li, Yongxin
Cochlear implant (CI) speech performance is typically evaluated using well-enunciated speech produced at a normal rate by a single talker. CI users often have greater difficulty with variations in speech production encountered in everyday listening. Within a single talker, speaking rate, amplitude, duration, and voice pitch information may be quite variable, depending on the production context. The coarse spectral resolution afforded by the CI limits perception of voice pitch, which is an important cue for speech prosody and for tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. In this study, sentence recognition from the Mandarin speech perception database was measured in adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI listeners for a variety of speaking styles: voiced speech produced at slow, normal, and fast speaking rates; whispered speech; voiced emotional speech; and voiced shouted speech. Recognition of Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test sentences was also measured. Results showed that performance was significantly poorer with whispered speech relative to the other speaking styles and that performance was significantly better with slow speech than with fast or emotional speech. Results also showed that adult and pediatric performance was significantly poorer with Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test than with Mandarin speech perception sentences at the normal rate. The results suggest that adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI patients are highly susceptible to whispered speech, due to the lack of lexically important voice pitch cues and perhaps other qualities associated with whispered speech. The results also suggest that test materials may contribute to differences in performance observed between adult and pediatric CI users. PMID:27363714
Guimarães, F S; Mbaya, P S; Deakin, J F
The effects of ritanserin, a 5-HT2A/2C (5-hydroxytryptamine) antagonist, have been investigated in simulated public speaking with healthy volunteers. The aim was to investigate the role of 5-HT in subjective experimental anxiety. There were three experimental groups each comprising four or five males and 11 females. Subjects received placebo, ritanserin 2.5 or 10 mg, p.o. They rated themselves using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and visual analogue scales factored into anxiety, sedation and discontentment scores. Autonomic measures included skin conductance and heart rate. Subjects were told, 75 min after drug or placebo ingestion, without prior warning, to prepare a 4-min speech. Measures were taken before, during and after the speech. Ritanserin prolonged the anxiety induced by the procedure on the subjective ratings but had minimal effect on autonomic responses to the procedure. The result contrasts with an anxiolytic-like effect of ritanserin on aversively conditioned autonomic responses. The present finding is compatible with animal behavioural evidence that 5-HT has distinct and opposing roles in modulating conditioned and unconditioned anxiety.
6--------------------6 F. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND COMMUNICATION PROCESS 8---------------------------------------8 G. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A...English-speaking recruits have had higher attrition rates than the other recruits during the first term of basic training. [Ref. 2] 7 F. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND...accepted developmental stage of a second language acquisition . [Ref. 6:p. 36] Consequently, this can lead to miscommunication between the ESL speaker
Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham
Listening and speaking, the most used language skills in the classroom, are critical for functioning in an English language context, and are logical starting points for language instruction for low-literacy learners. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving, and processing information. A…
Reviews four books on speech research: (1) "The Speech Chain: The Physics and Biology of Spoken Language" (Peter B. Denes and Elliot N. Pinson); (2) "Speaking: From Intention to Articulation" (Willem J. M. Levelt); (3) "Talking to Learn: Conversation in Second Language Acquisition" (Richard R. Day); and (4) "Speaking" (Martin Bygate). (eight…
Discusses diversity which has arisen in testing of productive skills at GCE O level. Criteria to apply in assessment of foreign language acquisition, and writing and speaking tests in particular, are discussed, as well as the weighting of writing and speaking at O level. (RM)
GREENWOOD, LOUISE; AND OTHERS
A PROGRAM TO PREPARE NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING CHILDREN FOR ENTRY INTO THE FIRST GRADE IS PRESENTED. ONE OF THE FIRST TASKS OF THE TEACHER IS TO ANALYZE THE CHILD TO DISCOVER AREAS OF WEAKNESS IN EXPERIENCES, SO THAT SHE WILL BE ABLE TO SUPPLY SOME OF THE MISSING LEARNING EXPERIENCES. THE WORDS THAT ARE TAUGHT TO THE NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING CHILD ARE…
Rouen university hospital cares for increasing numbers of non-French-speaking patients: tourists, patients from the Mediterranean basin, Eastern Europe, etc. To optimise this care, a communication tool was developed in 2012 to be used with English-speaking patients.
Moller, Sharon Chickering
This book is a guide for librarians and media specialists who recognize the value of bilingual-bicultural education and are looking for ideas to develop library services for their Spanish-speaking patrons. Chapter one gives a brief history of Spanish-speaking people in the United States, as well as cultural characteristics, family role,…
Hackett, Kimberly; Wilson, Theresa
A study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention for improving adolescent writing and speaking using mathematical language. The targeted population consists of high school students in a growing, middle- and upper-middle-class, suburban community located west of Chicago, Illinois. The problems of writing and speaking using mathematical…
This report describes a semester of teaching a group of non-native English-speaking students, aged 17 to 40 years and how the instructor identified three elements that appeared to be necessary for a task-based, advanced English speaking class. The three elements were: (1) ongoing needs assessment; (2) collaboration between instructor and students…
Last, Ellen; DeMuth, Robert J.
This guide contains classroom activities designed to encourage effective listening and speaking instruction at all developmental levels. Called the Comprehensive Listening and Speaking Sequence (CLASS), the activities are developed in three parts. The pre-kindergarten through grade three sequence provides learning activities that may be used by…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bilingual Education Office.
This handbook is designed to assist California's public school teachers of limited-English-speaking native Cantonese-speaking students in understanding this minority group. The first two chapters address general background factors concerning this language group: immigration history, educational background, and historical and sociocultural factors…
Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley; Zhou, Pei
The fuzziness of assessing second language speaking performance raises two difficulties in scoring speaking performance: "indistinction between adjacent levels" and "overlap between scales". To address these two problems, this article proposes a new approach, "confidence scoring", to deal with such fuzziness, leading to "confidence" scores between…
This article assesses the relevance of Basil Bernstein for German-speaking Switzerland. It argues that Bernstein is potentially relevant for German-speaking Switzerland in light of contemporary studies which highlight a connection between social background and differential school achievement. After contextualising Bernstein's theoretical outlook…
De La Mare, Danielle M.
Using Critical Communication Pedagogy, this semester-long service-learning approach to public speaking requires students to apply public speaking concepts to a speech they develop and deliver to a specific community audience, to examine their own biases, and to explore and evaluate various strategies for adapting to their audience.
Ramezani, Raana; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezzati; Kiasi, Mohammad Aghajanzadeh
The current study sought to investigate the relationship between critical thinking and speaking ability among EFL students at Payame Noor University (PNU) of Rasht. This research concerned determining the fact that whether language students who are as critical thinker, perform better in their speaking ability or not. In order to answer the…
Frazier, Stefan; Phillabaum, Scott
This paper reports the results of a survey of California TESOL educators about issues related to nonnative English-speaking teachers (NNESTs). A good deal of research suggests that NNESTs are as effective, if not more so, than native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and that their treatment in today's work world should be reconsidered; in…
Torres, Luz Adriana
This qualitative study sought to uncover the contextual factors of the schooling process that affect the enrollment of gifted Spanish speaking English Learners (ELs) in Advanced Placement (AP) courses. In addition, this study investigated the perceptions of gifted Spanish speaking ELs toward AP courses and how these perceptions might affect their…
Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate
Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect. PMID:28228738
Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate
Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.
Thelamour, Barbara; Jacobs, D'Andrea L.
This study compared the homework practices of English-speaking and non-English-speaking parents. Using a national data set of 7,992 students across ages and ethnicities, the frequency and type of homework practices were investigated. Statistical analysis revealed significant (though small) differences between the overall homework practices between…
Objective: To gain practice with public speaking. Type of speech: Impromptu. Point value: 5% of course grade. Requirements: (a) References: 0; (b) Length: 1-2 minutes; (c) Visual aid: No; (d) Outline: No; (e) Prerequisite reading: None; (f) Additional requirements: None. This assignment offers students an opportunity to speak on a familiar (and…
Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.
Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…
Palmerton, Patricia R.
"Speaking Across the Curriculum" (SAC) has become a catch-all label for a variety of programs aimed at teaching oral communication skills to a large body of students in settings other than the typical public speaking class. Such programs offer both threats and opportunities to the speech field. In many programs, faculty in other…
This paper discusses teaching "Black Elk Speaks" in the college classroom and examines how symbolic language is generated in our own experience. An activity is described in which students' dreams were performed in order that the students might better see how the dream functions in "Black Elk Speaks." The activity resulted in a discussion of the…
A major issue that continues to challenge language teachers is how to ensure that learners develop accuracy and complexity in their speaking, as well as fluency. Teachers know that too much corrective feedback (CF) can make learners reluctant to speak, while not enough may allow their errors to become entrenched. Furthermore, there is controversy…
De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.
This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…
THIS PROVISIONAL GUIDE FOR TEACHING ENGLISH TO NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING MIGRANTS PRESENTS THE USUAL ENGLISH LINGUISTIC PROBLEMS OF SPANISH-SPEAKING LEARNERS--CONSONANT SOUND PROBLEMS, VOWEL SOUND PROBLEMS, CONSONANT CLUSTER PROBLEMS, LANGUAGE RHYTHM PROBLEMS, AND INTONATION PROBLEMS. AIDS TO SPANISH USAGE AND PRONUNCIATION, INCLUDING VOWEL SOUNDS,…
Schreiber, Lisa M.; Paul, Gregory D.; Shibley, Lisa R.
In response to the demand for increased accountability within the university classroom, there have been calls for a new generation of rubrics that effectively assess students' competence in several areas, including public speaking. This article describes the development, test, and factor analyses of the Public Speaking Competence Rubric (PSCR), an…
Reda, Mary M.
Why are students silent? Using written reflections and interviews, Mary M. Reda examines students' perceptions of speaking and being silent in a first-year composition classroom, and explores how their teachers, classroom relationships, and their own sense of identity shape their decisions to speak or be silent. By challenging many firmly held…
Validates an instrument for measuring non-natives' English-speaking proficiency, using Filipinos in the U.S. Navy. Shows significant correlations between test scores, the age at which English was first spoken, and military rank, suggesting an interaction between English-speaking proficiency and occupational advancement. (RL)
The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…
Dewi, Ratna Sari; Kultsum, Ummi; Armadi, Ari
The aims of the study are to know whether communicative games have an impact on teaching speaking skill and describe how communicative games give an influence on speaking skills of students at junior high schools in Jakarta, Indonesia. Classroom Action Research (CAR) was implemented based on Kurt. L model. The procedures used were planning,…
Mowbray, Robert; Perry, Laura B.
Lecturing is a common instructional format but poor lecturing skills can detract from students' learning experiences and outcomes. As lecturing is essentially a form of public communication, training in public speaking may improve lecture quality. Twelve university lecturers in Malaysia participated in a six-week public speaking skills training…
... local chapters that focuses on training people in speaking and leadership skills. If you can't overcome your fear with practice alone, consider seeking professional help. Cognitive behavioral therapy ... of public speaking. As another option, your doctor may prescribe a ...
Compared with reading, writing and listening, there has been a paucity of empirical data documenting learners' experiences of speaking English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) in different learning contexts in spite of the fact that developing the ability to speak in a second or foreign language is widely…
Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Nasrollahi Shahri, Mohammad Naseh
The present article lies at the intersection of research on teacher cognition and speaking competence in a second language. It is a qualitative analysis of teacher accounts of speaking in the context of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Iran. More specifically, the study is an exploration of three EFL teachers' conceptions of learning and…
MCNEIL, JOHN D.
A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN IS REPORTED. A STUDY, SPONSORED BY THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL LABORATORY FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (SWRL), DEVELOPED LEARNING SEQUENCES FOR A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOMS WITH SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN THROUGHOUT THE SOUTHWEST REGION. EACH OF 21 10-MINUTE…
Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Kotsopoulou, Angeliki; Francis, Konstantinos
This study investigates pronoun reference and verbs with nonactive morphology in high-functioning Greek-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It is motivated by problems with reflexive pronouns demonstrated by English-speaking children with ASD and the fact that reflexivity is also expressed via nonactive (reflexive) verbs in…
THE BACKGROUND AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWEST ARE DISCUSSED. THE SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE ARE A HETEROGENEOUS GROUP COMPOSED OF SPANISH-AMERICANS, MEXICAN-AMERICANS, AND MEXICANS INTERMIXED WITH INDIANS. THE SOUTHWEST WAS SETTLED BY THEM DURING THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES. HERE THEY WERE ISOLATED UNTIL THE 19TH…
Mercurio, Mark R
Despite recent declines, the teen birth rate in the United States remains markedly higher than in other developed countries. Infants born to teen mothers are more likely to be preterm than those born to adult mothers and thus more likely to end up in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Critically ill newborns are not infrequently born to teen mothers, including those in early adolescence. The focus of this chapter is the mechanism of decision-making on behalf of those newborns and the role of the early adolescent mother as surrogate decision-maker. It is argued that the current standard in many US hospitals, and likely elsewhere, is suboptimal and inadequately addresses the rights and needs of both mother and newborn.
Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion
The associations between mothers' part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children's preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child rearing years.
Laborda, Mario A; Schofield, Casey A; Johnson, Emily M; Schubert, Jessica R; George-Denn, Daniel; Coles, Meredith E; Miller, Ralph R
Prior studies indicate extinguished fear often partially returns when participants are later tested outside the extinction context. Cues carried from the extinction context to the test context sometimes reduce return of fear, but it is unclear whether such extinction cues (ECs) reduce return of fear of public speaking. Here we assessed return of fear of public speaking, and whether either of two types of ECs can attenuate it. Participants gave speeches of increasing difficulty during an exposure practice session and were tested 2 days later in a different context. Testing occurred in the presence of physical ECs, after mentally rehearsing the exposure session, or without either reminder. Practice reduced fear of public speaking, but fear partially returned at test. Neither physical nor mental ECs reduced partial return of fear of public speaking. The return of extinguished fear of public speaking, although small, was reliable, but not appreciably sensitive to presence of ECs.
Zajac, David J.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Adrianne A.; Barnes, Elizabeth F.; Misenheimer, Jan
Purpose: Increased speaking rate is a commonly reported perceptual characteristic among males with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The objective of this preliminary study was to determine articulation rate--one component of perceived speaking rate--and vowel space characteristics of young males with FXS. Method: Young males with FXS (n = 38), …
Desjardins, L; Rousseau, C; Duplain, J M; Valet, J P; Auger, P
Eighty-five cases of beta-thalassemia minor were found between January 1975 and November 1977 in 18 families of French-speaking Quebeckers without Mediterranean ancestry. Most of the families had settled in Quebec more than 200 years ago, largely in Portneuf county. This is the first report of such a number of cases of beta-thalassemia in this population. Thus, beta-thalassemia minor is a relatively common condition in Quebec and must be considered in cases of microcytic anemia without evidence of iron deficiency. The hematologic findings were similar to those reported in the past in other populations. Two cases of delta beta-thalassemia minor (in sisters) are also reported; this is the first report of such cases in French Canadians.
Bedore, L M
Accurate assessment of the morpho-syntactic skills of Spanish-speaking children depends on the clinician's understanding of the morpho-syntactic system and on the development of tasks that obligate the use of structures of interest. In this article, the nature and acquisition of the Spanish morpho-syntactic system is outlined. The aspects of the system that are likely to be difficult for children with language impairments and those that are critical to communicative competence are emphasized, as the clinician must take these into account when planning assessment tasks. The analysis of spontaneous language samples and the use of structured probes are discussed as alternatives for assessment. The naturalness and linguistic demands of assessment tasks are also considered because they are critical to understanding children's performance on morpho-syntactic tasks.
van der Schuit, Margje; Segers, Eliane; van Balkom, Hans; Stoep, Judith; Verhoeven, Ludo
The current study demonstrates the effectiveness of an intervention that addresses both home care and day care for children with intellectual disabilities while also taking the large individual differences between the children into account. The KLINc Studio intervention was designed to improve the language development, communication skills, and emergent literacy of 10 children with complex communication needs. The focus of the anchor-based intervention program was on the stimulation of vocabulary learning via the incorporation of AAC into the learning environment in the most natural manner possible. While all of the children showed significant progress across the intervention period of 2 years, the group of speaking children showed greater development in the domains of receptive language and productive syntax than the group of non-speaking children. For heterogeneous groups of children with disabilities, the use of a combined intervention such as that described here appears to be promising.
El-Sakka, Samah Mohammed Fahim
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of teaching some self-regulated strategies to Egyptian university students on improving their speaking proficiency and reducing their speaking anxiety. The design of the study was a one group pre-posttest quasi experimental design. Forty 3rd- year EFL university students were selected to form the…
Nachmias, R.; Mioduser, D.; Forkosh-Baruch, A.
Closing educational gaps between sub-populations in Israel, particularly between students in Hebrew-speaking and Arabic-speaking schools, persists to be one of the priorities of Israel's education system. In the field of information and communication technology (ICT), this goal refers to infrastructure as well as practice, i.e. teaching and…
Goldstein, Brian A.; Fabiano, Leah; Washington, Patricia Swasey
Purpose: There is a paucity of information detailing the phonological skills of Spanish-English bilingual children and comparing that information to information concerning the phonological skills of predominantly English-speaking (PE) and predominantly Spanish-speaking (PS) children. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship…
Brady, David; Burroway, Rebekah
We examine the influence of individual characteristics and targeted and universal social policy on single-mother poverty with a multilevel analysis across 18 affluent Western democracies. Although single mothers are disproportionately poor in all countries, there is even more cross-national variation in single-mother poverty than in poverty among the overall population. By far, the United States has the highest rate of poverty among single mothers among affluent democracies. The analyses show that single-mother poverty is a function of the household's employment, education, and age composition, and the presence of other adults in the household. Beyond individual characteristics, social policy exerts substantial influence on single-mother poverty. We find that two measures of universal social policy significantly reduce single-mother poverty. However, one measure of targeted social policy does not have significant effects, and another measure is significantly negative only when controlling for universal social policy. Moreover, the effects of universal social policy are larger. Additional analyses show that universal social policy does not have counterproductive consequences in terms of family structure or employment, while the results are less clear for targeted social policy. Although debates often focus on altering the behavior or characteristics of single mothers, welfare universalism could be an even more effective anti-poverty strategy.
Patterson, Melissa N; Scannapieco, Alison E; Au, Pak Ho; Dorsey, Savanna; Royer, Catherine A; Maxwell, Patrick H
Retrotransposon expression or mobility is increased with age in multiple species and could promote genome instability or altered gene expression during aging. However, it is unclear whether activation of retrotransposons during aging is an indirect result of global changes in chromatin and gene regulation or a result of retrotransposon-specific mechanisms. Retromobility of a marked chromosomal Ty1 retrotransposon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was elevated in mother cells relative to their daughter cells, as determined by magnetic cell sorting of mothers and daughters. Retromobility frequencies in aging mother cells were significantly higher than those predicted by cell age and the rate of mobility in young populations, beginning when mother cells were only several generations old. New Ty1 insertions in aging mothers were more strongly correlated with gross chromosome rearrangements than in young cells and were more often at non-preferred target sites. Mother cells were more likely to have high concentrations and bright foci of Ty1 Gag-GFP than their daughter cells. Levels of extrachromosomal Ty1 cDNA were also significantly higher in aged mother cell populations than their daughter cell populations. These observations are consistent with a retrotransposon-specific mechanism that causes retrotransposition to occur preferentially in yeast mother cells as they begin to age, as opposed to activation by phenotypic changes associated with very old age. These findings will likely be relevant for understanding retrotransposons and aging in many organisms, based on similarities in regulation and consequences of retrotransposition in diverse species.
Lotzin, Annett; Schiborr, Julia; Barkmann, Claus; Romer, Georg; Ramsauer, Brigitte
A heightened synchrony between the mother's and infant's facial affect predicts adverse infant development. We know that maternal psychopathology is related to mother-infant facial affect synchrony, but it is unclear how maternal psychopathology is transmitted to mother-infant synchrony. One pathway might be maternal emotion dysregulation. We examined (a) whether maternal emotion dysregulation is positively related to facial affect synchrony and (b) whether maternal emotion dysregulation mediates the effect of maternal psychopathology on mother-infant facial affect synchrony. We observed 68 mothers with mood disorders and their 4- to 9-month-old infants in the Still-Face paradigm during two play interactions. The mother's and infant's facial affect were rated from high negative to high positive, and the degree of synchrony between the mother's and infant's facial affect was computed with a time-series analysis. Emotion dysregulation was measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and psychopathology was assessed with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Higher maternal emotion dysregulation was significantly associated with higher facial affect synchrony; emotion dysregulation fully mediated the effect of maternal psychopathology on facial affect synchrony. Our findings demonstrate that maternal emotion dysregulation rather than maternal psychopathology per se places mothers and infants at risk for heightened facial affect synchrony.
Ammerman, Robert T; Shenk, Chad E; Teeters, Angelique R; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B
Research has documented the deleterious effects of maternal depression and childhood trauma on parenting and child development. There are high rates of both depression and childhood trauma in new mothers participating in home visitation programs, a prevention approach designed to optimize mother and child outcomes. Little is known about the impacts of maternal depression and childhood trauma on parenting in the context of home visitation. This study contrasted depressed and non-depressed mothers enrolled in the first year of a home visitation program on parenting stress, quality of home environment, social network, and psychiatric symptoms. Mothers were young, low income, and predominantly unmarried. Results indicated that depressed mothers displayed impairments in parenting, smaller and less robust social networks, and increased psychiatric symptoms relative to their non-depressed counterparts. Path analyses for the full sample revealed a path linking childhood trauma, depression, and parenting stress. Path analyses by group revealed several differential relationships between dimensions of social network and parenting. Number of embedded networks, namely the number of different domains in which the mother is actively interacting with others, was associated with lowered parenting stress among non-depressed mothers and increased parenting stress in their depressed counterparts with childhood trauma histories. In depressed mothers, social network size was associated with lower levels of parenting stress but decreased quality of the home environment, whereas number of embedded networks was positively related to quality of the home environment. Implications of findings for home visitation programs are discussed.
Kilanowski, Jill F.; Trapl, Erika S.; Kofron, Ryan M.
This study sought to improve data collection in children’s food frequency surveys for non-English speaking immigrant/migrant farmworker mothers using audio-enhanced tablet computers (ATCs). We hypothesized that by using technological adaptations, we would be able to improve data capture and therefore reduce lost surveys. This Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), a paper-based dietary assessment tool, was adapted for ATCs and assessed consumption of 66 food items asking 3 questions for each food item: frequency, quantity of consumption, and serving size. The tablet-based survey was audio enhanced with each question “read” to participants, accompanied by food item images, together with an embedded short instructional video. Results indicated that respondents were able to complete the 198 questions from the 66 food item FFQ on ATCs in approximately 23 minutes. Compared with paper-based FFQs, ATC-based FFQs had less missing data. Despite overall reductions in missing data by use of ATCs, respondents still appeared to have difficulty with question 2 of the FFQ. Ability to score the FFQ was dependent on what sections missing data were located. Unlike the paper-based FFQs, no ATC-based FFQs were unscored due to amount or location of missing data. An ATC-based FFQ was feasible and increased ability to score this survey on children’s food patterns from migrant farmworker mothers. This adapted technology may serve as an exemplar for other non-English speaking immigrant populations. PMID:25343004
Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Tjus, Tomas
This study investigates spontaneous pretend play during a parent-child free play observation, and deferred imitation observed in an experimental setting in speaking and non-speaking children with autism in comparison to children with typical development. Both groups of children with autism showed a reduced level of deferred imitation compared to the typically developing group, but only the non-speaking children with autism spent significantly less time in pretend play compared to children with typical development. Deferred imitation was related to parents' verbal interaction in both groups. An analysis of the parent-child interaction revealed that parents of children with autism used less synchronized comments compared to parents of typically developing children. Parents of the speaking group with autism used more synchronized than unsynchronized comments, while parents of the non-speaking group used the same amount of synchronized and unsynchronized comments. These findings are discussed in terms of how the developmental level affects behavior and interaction in autism.
This study, which is part of a large-scale study of using objective measures to validate assessment rating scales and assessment tasks in a high-profile school-based assessment initiative in Hong Kong, examined how grammatical complexity measures relate to task type and analytic evaluations of students' speaking proficiency in a classroom-based…
Nettle, Daniel; Dickins, Thomas E.; Coall, David A.; de Mornay Davies, Paul
Background and objectives: Teenage childbearing may have childhood origins and can be viewed as the outcome of a coherent reproductive strategy associated with early environmental conditions. Life-history theory would predict that where futures are uncertain fitness can be maximized through diverting effort from somatic development into reproduction. Even before the childbearing years, future teenage mothers differ from their peers both physically and psychologically, indicating early calibration to key ecological factors. Cohort data have not been deliberately collected to test life-history hypotheses within Western populations. Nonetheless, existing data sets can be used to pursue relevant patterns using socioeconomic variables as indices of relevant ecologies. Methodology: We examined the physical and psychological development of 599 young women from the National Child Development Study who became mothers before age 20, compared to 599 socioeconomically matched controls. Results: Future young mothers were lighter than controls at birth and shorter at age 7. They had earlier menarche and accelerated breast development, earlier cessation of growth and shorter adult stature. Future young mothers had poorer emotional and behavioural adjustment than controls at age 7 and especially 11, and by age 16, idealized younger ages for marriage and parenthood than did the controls. Conclusions and implications: The developmental patterns we observed are consistent with the idea that early childbearing is a component of an accelerated reproductive strategy that is induced by early-life conditions. We discuss the implications for the kinds of interventions likely to affect the rate of teenage childbearing. PMID:24481198
Bulfone, Giampiera; Nazzi, Elisa; Tenore, Alfred
Low birth weight is one of the major health problems throughout the world. All such neonates can benefit from an effective and efficient human care model - Kangaroo Mother Care. A review of the literature was performed to compare the short and long-term outcome of Kangaroo Mother Care to those of conventional care (incubator). Short-term outcome considered heart and breathing frequency, percutaneous oxygen saturation , transcutaneous oxygen pressure , body temperature, sleep-wake cycles, stress and pain. Long-term outcome considered mortality, somatic, psycho-motor and cognitive development, the incidence of infections and duration of hospitalization. Studies including pre-term neonates were also included. 19 of the 80 studies corresponded to the study criteria and demonstrated that Kangaroo Mother Care is important because it reduces pain and infections, shortens hospitalization, favors breast-feeding: in comparison to neonates treated conventionally, this method results in an earlier and better cognitive and motor development . Concerning body temperature, there were no differences with respect to traditional care. The literature shows that the Kangaroo Mother Care method can be a useful "adjunctive" strategy although further studies are necessary to clarify aspects such as heart and breathing rate and oxygen saturation that appear contradictory.
Recent behavioral and physiologic observations of infants and mothers have shown them ready to begin interacting in the first minutes of life. Included among these findings are the newborn infant's ability to crawl toward the breast to initiate suckling and mother-infant thermoregulation. The attachment felt between mother and infant may be biochemically modulated through oxytocin; encouraging attachment through early contact, suckling, and rooming-in has been shown to reduce abandonment.
Medoua, Gabriel Nama; Sajo Nana, Estelle C; Ndzana, Anne Christine A; Makamto, Caroline S; Etame, Lucien S; Rikong, Honorine A; Oyono, Jean Louis E
Exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of infant's life is a public health recommendation and important factor for the promotion of optimal growth, health and behavioural development of each child. The accuracy of the mothers' self-reported past infant-feeding events was examined and compared with the isotopic dilution technique. Breastfeeding practices were assessed in a sample of 44 Cameroonian mother-infant pairs using dietary recall since birth. Intakes of breast milk and non-breast milk water were measured in the same sample using the dose-to-the-mother deuterium-oxide turnover technique and compared with questionnaire. Results showed that mothers' self-reported behaviour overestimates the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Seventy-five per cent of the mothers who claimed to be exclusively breastfeeding were found to be predominantly or partially breastfeeding by the dose-to-the-mother deuterium-oxide turnover technique. Only 11% of the infants were exclusively breastfed, and the breast milk output was not significantly affected (P ≤ 0.05) by the mother's body composition. Mean intakes of breast milk and non-breast milk water were 701 mL day(-1) and 268 mL day(-1), respectively. Introduction of non-breast milk foods is associated with a reduction in the level of breast milk intake, but the difference in breast milk intake was not significant between exclusively and predominantly breastfed infants. In conclusion, the dose-to-the-mother deuterium-oxide turnover technique can be applied to validate the mother's reports of infant-feeding practices, but non-breast milk water intake by breastfeeding category still needs to be normalized.
Hwang, Chung-Feng; Ko, Hui-Chen; Tsou, Yung-Ting; Chan, Kai-Chieh; Fang, Hsuan-Yeh; Wu, Che-Ming
Objectives. We evaluated the causes, hearing, and speech performance before and after cochlear implant reimplantation in Mandarin-speaking users. Methods. In total, 589 patients who underwent cochlear implantation in our medical center between 1999 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Data related to demographics, etiologies, implant-related information, complications, and hearing and speech performance were collected. Results. In total, 22 (3.74%) cases were found to have major complications. Infection (n = 12) and hard failure of the device (n = 8) were the most common major complications. Among them, 13 were reimplanted in our hospital. The mean scores of the Categorical Auditory Performance (CAP) and the Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) obtained before and after reimplantation were 5.5 versus 5.8 and 3.7 versus 4.3, respectively. The SIR score after reimplantation was significantly better than preoperation. Conclusions. Cochlear implantation is a safe procedure with low rates of postsurgical revisions and device failures. The Mandarin-speaking patients in this study who received reimplantation had restored auditory performance and speech intelligibility after surgery. Device soft failure was rare in our series, calling attention to Mandarin-speaking CI users requiring revision of their implants due to undesirable symptoms or decreasing performance of uncertain cause. PMID:27413753
Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate
The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female 3- to 5-year old preschool children, their mothers, and teachers. A structured interview, the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule was used for maternal report and teachers completed the Early Childhood Inventory. Results indicated that mothers reported more symptoms and diagnoses of ODD and CD than teachers, and mother-teacher agreement on both ODD and CD symptoms and diagnoses was low. Level of mother-teacher agreement increased when reporting on behavior in the same context; however, the rates remain modest. Referral status increased the likelihood of mother and teacher agreement on several ODD and CD symptoms, as well as ODD and CD diagnosis. These data suggest that context plays a role in mother-teacher agreement in the assessment of young children's ODD and CD symptoms.
Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth
As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children's well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers' subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers' subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with their biological fathers without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered.
Tran, Alisia G T T; Lee, Richard M
This study examined a specific type of racial microaggression known as an exceptionalizing stereotype, in which an action is framed as interpersonally complimentary but perpetuates negative stereotypical views of a racial/ethnic group. Asian American participants (N = 68) were assigned to 1 of 3 brief semistructured interview conditions that highlight an exceptionalizing stereotype of Asian Americans to varying degrees. In the low racially loaded condition, participants were told, "You speak English well" by a White confederate. In the high racially loaded condition, they were told, "You speak English well for an Asian." In the control condition, the confederate said, "Nice talking to you." Only participants in the high racially loaded condition rated their partner, the interaction, and future interactions less favorably than participants in the control condition. They also evaluated their partner and interaction less positively than participants in the low racial loading condition. The results suggest exceptionalizing stereotypes can be interpersonally damaging for Asian Americans.
Fichera, L V; Andreassi, J L
An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of a real-life stressor (public speaking) upon cardiovascular reactivity (CVR). Changes in blood pressure and heart rate from baseline to task were measured in a sample of 86 men and women. The purpose was to examine the effects of individual differences (Type A personality, hostility and gender) on CVR. Participants gave a 6-min oral presentation during which they were evaluated by their professor and with classmates as the audience. Results indicated that all participants had marked CVR during public speaking. There were differences in reactivity patterns between men and women, but personality did not play a role except for high hostile men. It is suggested that intense stressors may result in high levels of CVR independent of personality variables that moderate reactivity at lower levels of stress.
Carter, Patricia; Price, Larry R.; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Nichols, Francine
Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N = 33), within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9) in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N = 33) reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n = 25) reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed. PMID:28191350
Sheets, Kayla M; Baty, Bonnie J; Vázquez, Juan Carlos; Carey, John C; Hobson, Wendy L
Giving difficult news to patients represents a common dilemma for health care professionals. Based on three decades of research, various authors have proposed guidelines outlining the ideal setting, delivery, and timing. Existing publications focus on patients of European descent and may not be applicable in cross-cultural settings. We explored perceptions of Spanish-speaking mothers who have a child with Down syndrome and how they preferred to receive the news of their child's diagnosis. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 14), which were coded and analyzed by thematic networks to identify common themes. Six significant themes emerged: Cultural Belief System, Communication, Support/Lack of Support, Feelings Engendered, Medical Issues, and Medical System. One overarching theme of mother-child bonding encompassed all sub-themes. The mothers desired the news in a more positive, balanced light and with more complete explanations about the condition. Mothers felt excluded from the diagnostic process and wanted to be better informed about the need for diagnostic studies. Participants used religious beliefs to explain the reason for their child's condition. Many factors influenced Latina mothers' ability to bond initially with their children with Down syndrome. Ideally, these factors should be acknowledged during informing interviews to assist Latino families in adjustment.
Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.
Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent…
Gassman-Pines, Anna; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Using data from an experimental evaluation of the New Hope project, an anti-poverty program that increased employment and income, this study examined the effects of New Hope on entry into marriage among never-married mothers. Among never-married mothers, New Hope significantly increased rates of marriage. Five years after random assignment, 21…
van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie
In recent years in the Netherlands, mothers' labor participation has increased sharply. This article examines which factors influence mothers' employment rates and the division of household and caring responsibilities between parents. From research among 1,285 women with young children, it appears that cultural factors rather than economic motives…
Guralnick, Michael J.; Connor, Robert T.; Neville, Brian; Hammond, Mary A.
Compared mothers' perspectives of children's peer-related social development from matched groups of children with developmental delays, communicative disorders, and typically developing children. Found that mothers rated children's social development as highly important, offered primarily internal rationales for success or difficulties in…
Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; Coplan, Robert J.
This study examined the relation between weather and mothers' perceptions of children's moods. Thirty-three mothers rated their children for 30 days, and these scores were examined for their relation to six weather variables (barometric pressure, humidity, temperature, sunshine hours, precipitation, wind) and daily changes in variables. Results…