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Sample records for moti yung dongdai

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of MotY, a stator component of the Vibrio alginolyticus polar flagellar motor

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Akari; Sakuma, Mayuko; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Kojima, Seiji; Namba, Keiichi; Homma, Michio; Imada, Katsumi

    2007-02-01

    Crystals of MotY, a stator protein of the V. alginolyticus polar flagellar motor, have been produced and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The polar flagellum of Vibrio alginolyticus is rotated by the sodium motor. The stator unit of the sodium motor consists of four different proteins: PomA, PomB, MotX and MotY. MotX and MotY, which are unique components of the sodium motor, form the T-ring structure attached to the LP ring in the periplasmic space. MotY has a putative peptidoglycan-binding motif in its C-terminal region and MotX is suggested to interact with PomB. Thus, MotX and MotY are thought to be required for incorporation and stabilization of the PomA/B complex. In this study, mature MotY composed of 272 amino-acid residues and its SeMet derivative were expressed with a C-terminal hexahistidine-tag sequence, purified and crystallized. Native crystals were grown in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22/P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 104.1, c = 132.6 Å. SeMet-derivative crystals belonged to the same space group with the same unit-cell parameters as the native crystals. Anomalous difference Patterson maps of the SeMet derivative showed significant peaks in their Harker sections, indicating that the derivatives are suitable for structure determination.

  2. Combining Persuasive Technology With Behavioral Theory to Support Weight Maintenance Through a Mobile Phone App: Protocol for the MotiMate App

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Freyne, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of health-focused mobile phone apps available for download increases daily, with weight management apps being among the most proliferative. However, most lack theoretic grounding or evidence of efficacy. There is a significant body of literature which provides evidence for behaviors which are associated with successful weight loss maintenance. Behavioral theory also provides further insight regarding successful behavior change and maintenance. Objective We aimed to apply this knowledge to the development of the functionality of an app targeting weight loss maintenance. Methods We have subsequently undertaken the development of a persuasive and behavior targeting mobile app (MotiMate) to assist in maintenance of weight loss. MotiMate combines persuasive and behavior change theories in a practical targeted tool through its motivational messages, personalized feedback, and intelligent supportive tools to manage weight, food, exercise, mood and stress. Results The development and trial of MotiMate received funding support in May 2014. All 88 volunteers started the trial by December 2014 and were in the process of completing their final visits when this paper was submitted (May 2015). Data analysis is currently underway. Conclusions The paper has presented a scientifically informed mobile phone app to support weight loss maintenance. Further evaluation of its efficacy is in progress. Trial Registration ANZCTR 12614000474651; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366120 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eJeQiKxi). PMID:26747725

  3. Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in Bir Moti Bagh mini zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Mir, A. Q.; Dua, K.; Singla, L. D.; Sharma, S.; Singh, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals at Bir Moti Bagh Mini Zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 fecal samples from eight species of captive animals including Civet cat (Viverra zibetha), Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Spotted deer (Axis axis), Black buck (Antelope cervicapra), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Hog deer (Axis porcinus), and Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) were screened using classical parasitological techniques including sedimentation and floatation technique. Results: Out of 31 fecal samples examined, 20 were positive for parasitic ova/oocysts of different species indicating an overall prevalence of 68.0%. The six different types of parasites observed in the study included strongyle (67%), Strongyloides spp. (14%), coccidia (38%), Trichuris spp. (19%), ascarid (10%), and Capillaria spp. (10%). Strongyles were the most common parasites observed (67%) followed by coccidia (38%). Mixed helminth and protozoan infection were observed in 48% of animals. No cestode or trematodes were detected during the study. Conclusion: The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites without overt clinical signs of disease or mortality as observed in this study is suggestive of subclinical infection. The findings will help in formulating the appropriate deworming protocol for parasitic control in these captive animals. PMID:27397973

  4. Modeling constitutive behavior of a 15Cr-15Ni-2.2Mo-Ti modified austenitic stainless steel under hot compression using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sumantra

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) model has been suggested to predict the constitutive flow behavior of a 15Cr-15Ni-2.2Mo-Ti modified austenitic stainless steel under hot deformation. Hot compression tests in the temperature range 850°C- 1250°C and strain rate range 10-3-102 s-1 were carried out. These tests provided the required data for training the neural network and for subsequent testing. The inputs of the neural network are strain, log strain rate and temperature while flow stress is obtained as output. A three layer feed-forward network with ten neurons in a single hidden layer and back-propagation learning algorithm has been employed. A very good correlation between experimental and predicted result has been obtained. The effect of temperature and strain rate on flow behavior has been simulated employing the ANN model. The results have been found to be consistent with the metallurgical trend. Finally, a monte carlo analiysis has been carried out to find out the noise sensitivity of the developed model.

  5. Mo/Ti Diffusion Bonding for Making Thermoelectric Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Kisor, Adam; Caillat, Thierry; Lara, Liana; Ravi, Vilupanur; Firdosy, Samad; Fleuiral, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    An all-solid-state diffusion bonding process that exploits the eutectoid reaction between molybdenum and titanium has been developed for use in fabricating thermoelectric devices based on skutterudite compounds. In essence, the process is one of heating a flat piece of pure titanium in contact with a flat piece of pure molybdenum to a temperature of about 700 C while pushing the pieces together with a slight pressure [a few psi (of the order of 10 kPa)]. The process exploits the energy of mixing of these two metals to form a strong bond between them. These two metals were selected partly because the bonds formed between them are free of brittle intermetallic phases and are mechanically and chemically stable at high temperatures. The process is a solution of the problem of bonding hot-side metallic interconnections (denoted hot shoes in thermoelectric jargon) to titanium-terminated skutterudite n and p legs during the course of fabrication of a unicouple, which is the basic unit cell of a thermoelectric device (see figure). The hot-side operating temperature required for a skutterudite thermoelectric device is 700 C. This temperature precludes the use of brazing to attach the hot shoe; because brazing compounds melt at lower temperatures, the hot shoe would become detached during operation. Moreover, the decomposition temperature of one of the skutterudite compounds is 762 C; this places an upper limit on the temperature used in bonding the hot shoe. Molybdenum was selected as the interconnection metal because the eutectoid reaction between it and the titanium at the ends of the p and n legs has characteristics that are well suited for this application. In addition to being suitable for use in the present bonding process, molybdenum has high electrical and thermal conductivity and excellent thermal stability - characteristics that are desired for hot shoes of thermoelectric devices. The process takes advantage of the chemical potential energy of mixing between molybdenum and titanium. These metals have a strong affinity for each other. They are almost completely soluble in each other and remain in the solid state at temperatures above the eutectoid temperature of 695 C. As a result, bonds formed by interdiffusion of molybdenum and titanium are mechanically stable at and well above the original bonding temperature of about 700 C. Inasmuch as the bonds are made at approximately the operating temperature, thermomechanical stresses associated with differences in thermal expansion are minimized.

  6. Soundness and Completeness of Formal Encryption: The Cases of Key Cycles and Partial Information Leakage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    implementations of equational theories against passive adversaries. In L. Caires, G. Italiano , L. Monteiro, C. Palamidessi, and M. Yung, editors...protocol security logic. In L. Caires, G. Italiano , L. Monteiro, C. Palamidessi, and M. Yung, editors, Proceedings of the The 32nd International Collo

  7. Upper airway biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... upper airway Images Upper airway test Bronchoscopy Throat anatomy References Yung RC, Boss EF. Tracheobronchial endoscopy. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  8. The Development of Space Science and Technology in China,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-22

    TESI ’.V-i . (0 00 FTD-ID (RS) T-0282-86 ~/ 4: FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA by Yung-An Liu...TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-0282-86 22 May 1986 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-86-C-001864 THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA By: Yung-An Liu English

  9. Hiedelberg AAF, Germany Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-05

    NcV STATIOS STATION AME YungS MONTS ALL WEATHER 15 0-170 ; CLASS HOUSE (L.IT.) SPEED 1 MEAN(KNTS) 1-3 4.-6 7.-10 11-16 17-21 22-27 28-.33 34-40 41 -47...82.0 87.7 92.4 93.5 96.0 97.1 97.6 98.2 99.0 99.4 ru.C TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS 9 3 USAF ETAC 0- 1-5 (OL A) P...OU.T.. OF...... PORN AN.. . v "..+w

  10. Effects of Modular Technology Education on Junior High Students' Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Cory; Daugherty, Michael; Merrill, Chris

    2004-01-01

    In the quest to improve public schools, an education in basic technological concepts and systems, or "technological literacy," has been viewed as an important part of a school curriculum (Dugger & Yung, 1995, pp. 7-8). Proponents of technology education have claimed that technological knowledge may be critical to the future needs of…

  11. New Visions in Asian American Studies. Diversity, Community, Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of essays from the eighth national conference of the Association for Asian American Studies is organized into four sections: history and women's studies; social science; literature; and Hawaiian studies. The following papers are included: (1) "History and Women Studies" (Yung); (2) "From Old to New Plantations: Labor's Growing…

  12. Measuring Civic Engagement Processes and Youth Civic Empowerment in the Classroom: The CIVVICS Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolte, Laurel Cadwallader; Isenbarger, Molly; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in the context of the gap in civic participation, action-based civics curricula, and how classroom interactions may affect student development, we present the CIVVICS (Civic Interactions motiVating diVerse Individuals in Classroom Settings) observation tool. CIVVICS's four domains--Lesson Planning and Implementation, Classroom…

  13. The Use of Chaff in Space as a Jamming Device between Ground Stations and Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    of Fi•Yu es Figure Page 1. Rasic Orbital Parameters . . . . . . . .... 2. Satellite Orientation for Cases I, II, III, and IV...Moti r on Spin Direction PCe of sot on c.SSO..!Path of notion Case.X AngLe of Tk~t Case-III Cast IV Figure 2. SatelLite Orientation for Cases I, II

  14. Microfluidically supported biochip design for culture of endothelial cell layers with improved perfusion conditions.

    PubMed

    Raasch, Martin; Rennert, Knut; Jahn, Tobias; Peters, Sven; Henkel, Thomas; Huber, Otmar; Schulz, Ingo; Becker, Holger; Lorkowski, Stefan; Funke, Harald; Mosig, Alexander

    2015-03-02

    Hemodynamic forces generated by the blood flow are of central importance for the function of endothelial cells (ECs), which form a biologically active cellular monolayer in blood vessels and serve as a selective barrier for macromolecular permeability. Mechanical stimulation of the endothelial monolayer induces morphological remodeling in its cytoskeleton. For in vitro studies on EC biology culture devices are desirable that simulate conditions of flow in blood vessels and allow flow-based adhesion/permeability assays under optimal perfusion conditions. With this aim we designed a biochip comprising a perfusable membrane that serves as cell culture platform multi-organ-tissue-flow (MOTiF biochip). This biochip allows an effective supply with nutrition medium, discharge of catabolic cell metabolites and defined application of shear stress to ECs under laminar flow conditions. To characterize EC layers cultured in the MOTiF biochip we investigated cell viability, expression of EC marker proteins and cell adhesion molecules of ECs dynamically cultured under low and high shear stress, and compared them with an endothelial culture in established two-dimensionally perfused flow chambers and under static conditions. We show that ECs cultured in the MOTiF biochip form a tight EC monolayer with increased cellular density, enhanced cell layer thickness, presumably as the result of a rapid and effective adaption to shear stress by remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Moreover, endothelial layers in the MOTiF biochip express higher amounts of EC marker proteins von-Willebrand-factor and PECAM-1. EC layers were highly responsive to stimulation with TNFα as detected at the level of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression and modulation of endothelial permeability in response to TNFα/IFNγ treatment under flow conditions. Compared to static and two-dimensionally perfused cell culture condition we consider MOTiF biochips as a valuable tool for studying EC biology in vitro under

  15. Effect of Transversely Low-Velocity Impact on Graphite/Epoxy Laminated Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-30

    VELOCITY IMPACT ON GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATED COMPOSITES FINAL REPORT BY I- YUNG -YUN CHOI AND FU-KUO CHANG SEPTEMIBER 31, 1990 U.S. ARMlY RESEARCH OFFICE ,~*n...0.10000003-03 OENTZR TIHE X1_-OC lTz or Porn NO. 1 7 0.10000003-03 *DlTER THE XI-COOlrNAT Or Po011" NO. 1 ? 0.10000009-05 TIE DiSnAJUIMS AND VELOC’T:ES

  16. Wear Resistant Coating on Tungsten Carbide Hard Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskolkova, T. N.

    2015-09-01

    The article reveals new knowledge about the role of zirconium in the composition of (Ti, Zr)N ion-plasma coating applied on WC10KS alloy. It is determined that when zirconium is introduced into ion-plasma coating TiN (50%) wear resistance and adhesion strength grow, nanohardness increases by 23% (up to 38500MPa), Yung's modulus rises by 67%, friction coefficient reduces to p = 0.07 and performance characteristics of a carbide alloy improve.

  17. Corrosion Control through a Better Understanding of the Metallic Substrate/Organic Coating/Interface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-13

    Delamination Process at the Organic Coating/Metal Substrate Interface," Wendy, Ching-Yung Wang, Ph.D. Thesis, Chemical Engineer- ing, January 1984... Process ," Jeffrey M. Parks, Ph.D. Thesis, Physical Chemistry, January 1985. -4- * S Papers Submitted, Accepted or in Fres "A Mathematical Model for the...ferric oxide. 47 -26- "" levels in the bed can be obtained by pump-down through the evaporative cooling process , and even lower moisture levels can be

  18. High Resolution Measurements of Nonlinear Internal Waves and Mixing on the Washington Continental Shelf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    ocean mixing. Knowledge of these is important for advancing the performance of operational and climate models, as well as for understanding local... Chang et al (2011) using shipboard measurements has proven difficult, and further work is required. Based on the velocity data from NEMO-SS (deployed...Oceanography, 25(2):66–79, 2012. Ming-Huei Chang , Ren-Chieh Lien, Yiing Jang Yang, and Tswen Yung Tang, 2011: Nonlinear Internal Wave Properties Estimated

  19. China’s Historic Rights in the South China Sea: A Time for Reconsideration and Pacific Settlement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-18

    West disputed between China and Philippines. 12 The Paracel Islands group of about 130 small coral islands and reefs lie about 250 miles east...a ring-shaped coral reef , which has several rocks encircling a lagoon.” 196 China has asserted the position that Scarborough Shoal is Huang Yung...the north to the Malacca Strait in the south. 10 Inside this vast expanse of water are hundreds of islands, including rocks, and reefs , as well as

  20. [The Jung model of active style of schema].

    PubMed

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2011-12-01

    Yung was of an opinion that the borderline personality as a pathology results from the experiences of a frightened and violence-experiencing child who is left to their own devices in the hostile world. In that situation, the child, longing for safety, simultaneously experiences fear of abuse, hurt and rejection and remains distrustful. In order to understand the dramatic changes in the individual's behaviour, in case of the borderline personality disorders, Yung developed the concept, presented by Aaron Beck at the therapeutic workshops in the 1980s. Beck's concept was based upon the assumption that some pathological states expressed strong emotional states, experienced in childhood on the basis of regression. Yung presented them in the form of conceptualization in the categories of the active styles of schema. Apart from the states of regression, he also differentiated less regressive styles of schema. The style of schema should be interpreted as a pattern of experiencing, thinking and behaviour, based upon a determined set of schema, and characterized by independence from other styles.

  1. Asymmetrical Warfare, Transformation, and Foreign Language Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Indonesia − Indonesian/ Javanese • Malaysia − Malay Sources of Foreign Language Capability: Strengths and Weaknesses Expanding foreign language...knowing our enemy” requires understanding the culture , politics, and re- ligion of the terrorists, which in turn requires experts in their language...Understanding the ideology of our present enemies, and thereby what moti- vates their desire to kill, requires understanding culture and politics, which

  2. Feasibility Study of Alternative Fabrication Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    solution would be to continually deform the lead liner i as it goes through the sewing path to make it conform to the sew- ing path. The second method...SELECMe I $ I I ~ I~ i -( 2)MOTiWc BA5e I PC-90 FIJOUS1R#AL SOLID SrAT- coJtiRoi.5 -YO&iK PA. wWWAY(Z) o-rAL CENTRAL PROCESSORL UNIT LPC .90 IIJOU57RIAL

  3. Optimal Regulation of Structural Systems with Uncertain Parameters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-02

    been addressed, in part, by Statistical Energy Analysis . Moti- vated by a concern with high frequency vibration and acoustical- structural...Parameter Systems," AFOSR-TR-79-0753 (May, 1979). 25. R. H. Lyon, Statistical Energy Analysis of Dynamical Systems: Theory and Applications, (M.I.T...Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1975). 26. E. E. Ungar, " Statistical Energy Analysis of Vibrating Systems," Trans. ASME, J. Eng. Ind. 89, 626 (1967). 139 27

  4. Motion of Thin Bodies at High Supersonic Velocities USSR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    8217The ’change in 6 under the condition that K remain constant is simply a change in the scale in the non steady-state problem. Thus, the problem on...constant 2petd. The ae.ed of piston moti(.n is 3 •-* " obviously e uel to the vertical Ve - M0.-7 ioe• ty of the Vedge, i e, , . . . - .v = IV tgE( (4.3) V

  5. An Analysis of Meteorological Measurements Using a Miniature Quad-Rotor Unmanned Aerial System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    2014) and Moti (2014), where temperature comparison between day and night balloon soundings revealed a reproducibility of less than 0.1 C, with a...correction table RSN2010 for RS92 temperature sensor,” Vaisala, Sounding Data Continuity tables, [Available online at: http://www.vaisala.com/en...accuracy of temperature and pressure profiles in the surface layer. In unstable atmospheres temperature measurements made in the surface layer are as

  6. Case Studies Working Group Report Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Juan J. Linz, and Seymour Martin Lipset, eds., Politics in Developing Countries: Com- paring Experiences with Democracy, Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner...American rescue efforts in the region. Analyst Justin Robertson points out that as the most unilateral arm of government, which exercises...they were not steering the ship, according to Robertson . In his opinion, strategic and ideological concerns moti- vated U.S. foreign economic policy

  7. Synthesis and characterization of conducting polymer inserted carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, A. Jeong; Nam, Young Woo; Park, Yung Woo

    2008-03-01

    The carbon nanotubes filled with the photo-conducting polymer poly(N-vinyl carbazole) and the conducting polymer polypyrrole were prepared by polymerizing the monomers inside the nanotubes using the supercritical carbon dioxide. The endohedral nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM and ^1H NMR, which confirmed that the inserted material was indeed the conducting polymer [1]. I-V characteristics of the polymer inserted carbon nanotubes are presented. [1] Johannes Steinmetz, Soyoung Kwon, Hyun-Jung Lee, Edy Abou-Hamad, Robert Almairac, Christophe Goze-Bac, Hwayong Kim, Yung-Woo Park,, Chem. Phys. Lett., 431, 139 (2006)

  8. The Molecular Mechanism of the Supra-Additive Response of Prostate Cancer to Androgen Ablation and Radiotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    Biol. Phys., 43: 607-616, 1999. wild-type p53 gene and induction of apoptosis in cervical cancer . 29. Lang, F. F., Yung, W. K. A., Raju, U., Libunao... cervical cancer . Cancer Res 1996;56:3047- 25. Li JH, Lax SA, Kim J, et al. The effects of ionizing radiation 3054. and adenoviral p53 therapy in...Mechanism of the Supra-Additive Response of Prostate Cancer to Androgen Ablation and Radiotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alan Pollack, M.D., Ph.D

  9. Identification of Biomarkers Associated with the Healing of Chronic Wounds. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    from Poly (L- lactic acid ) and Pluronic 104," Appl. Spectrosc. 2010, 64, 359-364. • P.J.R. Roche, M.C-K Cheung, K.Y. Yung, A.G. Kirk, V.P. Chodavarpu...hypertrophic scarring is the result of a protein imbalance at the injury site, the biochemical characterization of the burn wound from the time of...Characterize the protein biochemistry of burn wounds. a. Analyze wound fluid samples to determine proteins present a. Identify trends present in

  10. AGU membership applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications for membership have been received from the following individuals. The letter after the name denotes the proposed primary section affiliation.Henry D. I. Abarbanel (O), Julia C. Allen (H), Gwendolyn L. Anson (GP), Andrew Bakun (O), C. A. Bengtson (T), Patricia A. Berge (S), Peter R. Betzer (O), Pierre Boivin (V), Michael V. Capobianco (P), Martin C. Chapman (S), Chu-Yung Chen (V), Timothy J. Clarke (S), Steven C. Constable (GP), Michele Dermer (H), G. M. Dow (T), Carl E. Draper (G), Dean A. Dunn (O), I. B. Everingham (S).

  11. JPRS Report, China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-28

    Affairs advisors, 13 are from busisness circles. Cheng Yu-tung, Li Chao-chi, Kuo Bin- hsiang , Wu Kuang-cheng, as well as advisors appointed last...Machinery Group 70 Kuo He-nien Chairman of the Board, Chia Li Trading Co. Ltd 69 Kuo Ping- hsiang Chairman of the Board, New Hung Chi Real Estate Development... chuan Director of the Board, Yung An Group 55 Li Ye-kuang Chairman of Social Connection Co. 57 Hsieh Kuo-ming Chairman of the Board, Chen Ta Group

  12. International Symposium on Organosilicon Chemistry (8th) Held in St. Louis Missouri on 7-12 June 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-13

    22 P.O. Box 101 69191 Saint-Fons Cedex, France Fushun, Sichuan People’s Republic of China Jorge Cervantes Facultad de Quimica Yung-Lin Chen...Chemistry Alessandro Degl’Innocenti Northern Illinois University Centro C.N.R. Composti Eterociclici DeKalb, Illinois 60115 Dipartimento di Chimica Organica ...8217 ’qt’ ff" ’ ’ ’’or Alfredo Ricci James Rozell Dipartimento de Chimica Organica Department of Chemistry University of Florence University of Texas Via

  13. Engineering Systems Thinking: Definition, Assessing and Correlation with Project Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Engineering  Systems   Thinking :  Definition, Assessing and Correlation with  Project Success Moti Frank – HIT, Holon Institute of Technology, Israel...00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Engineering Systems Thinking : Definition, Assessing and Correlation with Project Success 5a...b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Engineering  Systems   Thinking : •Definition

  14. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  15. Superstring limit of Yang-Mills theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Popov, Alexander D.

    2016-11-01

    It was pointed out by Shifman and Yung that the critical superstring on X10 =R4 ×Y6, where Y6 is the resolved conifold, appears as an effective theory for a U(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs system with four fundamental Higgs scalars defined on Σ2 ×R2, where Σ2 is a two-dimensional Lorentzian manifold. Their Yang-Mills model supports semilocal vortices on R2 ⊂Σ2 ×R2 with a moduli space X10. When the moduli of slowly moving thin vortices depend on the coordinates of Σ2, the vortex strings can be identified with critical fundamental strings. We show that similar results can be obtained for the low-energy limit of pure Yang-Mills theory on Σ2 × Tp2, where Tp2 is a two-dimensional torus with a puncture p. The solitonic vortices of Shifman and Yung then get replaced by flat connections. Various ten-dimensional superstring target spaces can be obtained as moduli spaces of flat connections on Tp2, depending on the choice of the gauge group. The full Green-Schwarz sigma model requires extending the gauge group to a supergroup and augmenting the action with a topological term.

  16. Laboratory studies on the reactions between chlorine, sulfur dioxide, and oxygen - Implications for the Venus stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.; Leu, M.-T.; Smith, R. H.; Yung, Y. L.

    1985-01-01

    Fourier transform IR spectrophotometry is used to monitor the reactants and products in a Venus stratosphere simulation study involving the photolysis of mixtures of Cl2 and SO2, with and without O2 present in an atmosphere of N2. When several speculative reactions inferred from these experiments are incorporated by the Yung and DeMore (1982) model of Venus stratospheric chemistry, it emerges that SO2Cl2 is a key reservoir species for chlorine, and that the reaction between Cl and SO2 furnishes an important cycle for the destruction of O2 and the conversion of SO2 to H2SO4, thereby providing a possible solution to the photochemistry of the Venus stratosphere.

  17. Comparative Genomics of Cluster O Mycobacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Cresawn, Steven G.; Pope, Welkin H.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Bowman, Charles A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Dedrick, Rebekah M.; Adair, Tamarah; Anders, Kirk R.; Ball, Sarah; Bollivar, David; Breitenberger, Caroline; Burnett, Sandra H.; Butela, Kristen; Byrnes, Deanna; Carzo, Sarah; Cornely, Kathleen A.; Cross, Trevor; Daniels, Richard L.; Dunbar, David; Findley, Ann M.; Gissendanner, Chris R.; Golebiewska, Urszula P.; Hartzog, Grant A.; Hatherill, J. Robert; Hughes, Lee E.; Jalloh, Chernoh S.; De Los Santos, Carla; Ekanem, Kevin; Khambule, Sphindile L.; King, Rodney A.; King-Smith, Christina; Klyczek, Karen; Krukonis, Greg P.; Laing, Christian; Lapin, Jonathan S.; Lopez, A. Javier; Mkhwanazi, Sipho M.; Molloy, Sally D.; Moran, Deborah; Munsamy, Vanisha; Pacey, Eddie; Plymale, Ruth; Poxleitner, Marianne; Reyna, Nathan; Schildbach, Joel F.; Stukey, Joseph; Taylor, Sarah E.; Ware, Vassie C.; Wellmann, Amanda L.; Westholm, Daniel; Wodarski, Donna; Zajko, Michelle; Zikalala, Thabiso S.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteriophages – viruses of mycobacterial hosts – are genetically diverse but morphologically are all classified in the Caudovirales with double-stranded DNA and tails. We describe here a group of five closely related mycobacteriophages – Corndog, Catdawg, Dylan, Firecracker, and YungJamal – designated as Cluster O with long flexible tails but with unusual prolate capsids. Proteomic analysis of phage Corndog particles, Catdawg particles, and Corndog-infected cells confirms expression of half of the predicted gene products and indicates a non-canonical mechanism for translation of the Corndog tape measure protein. Bioinformatic analysis identifies 8–9 strongly predicted SigA promoters and all five Cluster O genomes contain more than 30 copies of a 17 bp repeat sequence with dyad symmetry located throughout the genomes. Comparison of the Cluster O phages provides insights into phage genome evolution including the processes of gene flux by horizontal genetic exchange. PMID:25742016

  18. The connection between typological complexes of properties of the nervous system, temperaments, and personality types in the professions and sports.

    PubMed

    Drozdovski, Aleksandr K

    2015-01-01

    Based on experimental studies in education, professions and sports, an attempt was made to combine the following two historically disconnected research directions in the study of the natural human traits into a single coordinate system: Pavlov's theory on the properties of the nervous system, as well as the types of higher nervous activity, and Jung's theory on psychological types. It is noted that Pavlov's school of thought was developed by his followers in Russia within the scientific school of differential psychophysiology, while Yung's theory was developed through the works of well-known American researchers Myers and Keirsey. The spatial model that is presented here rests on the knowledge of the properties of the human nervous system and enables the prediction of psychological characteristics, temperament, and psychological types of individuals belonging to a wide age range.

  19. Titan ocean: Ethane, methane, nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Detection of the atmosphere of Saturn's satellite Titan by the Voyager I spacecraft indicated an abundance of only 3 mol % methane (CH4). Recently J.I. Lunine, D.J. Stevenson, and Y.L. Yung calculated that 3 mol % methane is sufficiently low to preclude the stable coexistence of liquid methane on Titan's surface, which has a temperature of 94 K (Science, 222, 1229, 1983). Instead, Lunine et al. suggest that Titan's atmospheric methane may have broken down by a catalyzed photochemical reaction to ethane (C2H6). The resulting ocean would consist of a mixture of C2H6 and CH4 in the proportion of 3 to 1.

  20. [Results of school children with enterobiasis in Tainan city, treated with mebendazole].

    PubMed

    Chang, J H; Huang, W H; Chen, E R; Hu, S C

    1995-01-01

    There were 2,471 school children suffering from enterobiasis in six primary schools of Tainan city. The infected children in five primary schools, Po-Ai, Yung-Hua, Fu-Hsiao, Pao-Jeng and Hsin-Nan, were treated with one single dosage of 100 mg mebendazole. In Shih-Men primary school, the sixth, the students were given placebos as a control group. Negative conversion rates of infected children were examined after three weeks of chemotherapy and school children in the six primary schools were surveyed for enterobiasis two months after chemotherapy to obtain infection rates. The method of examination was two consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swabs. With the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of treatment, positive reduction rates were used and calculated according to the infection rates of school children gained before and after chemotherapy. Those rates in Pao-Jeng, Fu-Hsiao, Yung-Hua, Po-Ai and Hsin-Nan were 62.1%, 47.8%, 41.8%, 37.1% and 3.3%, respectively, and in Shih-Men 3.9%. Judging the data obtained from each grade or each class of schools showed that the efficacy of chemotherapy in reducing the rate of infection was variable. Hence, one single dose of mebendazole and education on personal hygiene were not sufficient to reduce the prevalence of enterobiasis in primary schools. This was because the cycle of E. vermicularis was relatively short, cutting out the routes of transmission was very difficult, and the factors involved were very complex. Overall, though the positive reduction rate presented in Hsin-Nan primary school showed nearly no success in reducing the infection, the other four schools showed valuable rates. Whether continue a treatment, of about three-months in duration, can inhibit the prevalence of enterobiasis among children in primary schools or not will need further study.

  1. Mapping water in Jupiter with Herschel/HIFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalié, Thibault; Hartogh, P.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Jarchow, C.; Billebaud, F.; Orton, G.; Rengel, M.; Sagawa, H.; Lara, L.; Gonzalez, A.; HssO Team

    2010-10-01

    A major discovery of ISO was the detection of water in the upper atmospheres of the four giant planets and Titan (Feuchtgruber et al, 1997; Coustenis et al, 1998), implying the existence of external sources of water. This oxygen supply, which manifests itself also through the presence of CO2 and CO in these atmospheres, may have several sources: (i) a permanent flux from interplanetary dust particles produced from asteroid collisions and from comet activity (Prather et al,1978), (ii) local sources from planetary environments (rings, satellites) (Strobel and Yung, 1979; Prangé et al, 2006), (iii) cometary ``Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) type'’ impacts (Lellouch et al, 1995). Disentangling the various sources at Jupiter is a key objective of the Herschel Space Observatory key program HssO (Hartogh et al, 2009). Herschel/HIFI observed H2O in Jupiter at 1669 GHz in a 5x5 point map on July 7, 2010. From this observation, we will present and discuss the search for latitudinal variability of H2O in Jupiter. Acknowledgement: Research by T. Cavalié was supported by the Fondation des Amis des Sciences. References: Coustenis et al, A&A 336,L85-L89. Feuchtgruber et al, 1997. Nature 389, 159-162. Hartogh et al, 2009. Planet. Space Sci. 57, 1596-1606. Lellouch et al, 1995. Nature 373, 592-595. Prangé et al, 2006. Icarus 180, 379-392. Prather, 1978. ApJ 223, 1072-1081. Strobel & Yung, 1979. Icarus 37, 256-263.

  2. List mode reconstruction for PET with motion compensation: A simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Jinyi; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2002-07-03

    Motion artifacts can be a significant factor that limits the image quality in high-resolution PET. Surveillance systems have been developed to track the movements of the subject during a scan. Development of reconstruction algorithms that are able to compensate for the subject motion will increase the potential of PET. In this paper we present a list mode likelihood reconstruction algorithm with the ability of motion compensation. The subject moti is explicitly modeled in the likelihood function. The detections of each detector pair are modeled as a Poisson process with time vary ingrate function. The proposed method has several advantages over the existing methods. It uses all detected events and does not introduce any interpolation error. Computer simulations show that the proposed method can compensate simulated subject movements and that the reconstructed images have no visible motion artifacts.

  3. [Polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Part II: application in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Pokorný, D; Fulín, P; Slouf, M; Jahoda, D; Landor, I; Sosna, A

    2010-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is one of the up-to-date organic polymer thermoplastics with applications in orthopaedics and trauma medicine. This study presents a detailed analysis of its tests and applications in clinical medicine. A wide range of PEEK modifications and composites are commercially available, e.g., PEEK-Classix, PEEK-Optima, Endolign and Motis. They differ in their physical properties, which makes them suitable for different applications. Other forms, so-called PEEK bioactive composites, contain beta-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. Research in this field is also concerned with the surface finish of this polymer thermoplastic and involves macroporous titanium and hydroxyapatite layers, or treatment with laser for an exactly defined surface structure. The clinical applications of PEEK and its composites include, in addition to components for spinal surgery, osteosynthesis plates, screws, intramedullary nails or external fixators, which are implants still at the stage of prototypes. In this review, attention is paid to the use of PEEK thermoplastics for joint replacement. Mid-term studies involving hundreds of patients have shown that, for instance, the VerSys Epoch Fullcoat Hip System (Zimmer) has a markedly lower stress-shielding effect. Carbon fibre-reinforced (CFR-PEEK) composites are used to make articulating components for total hip replacement. Their convenient properties allow for production of much thinner liners and an enlargement of the femoral head diameter, thus reducing the wear of joint implants. CFR-PEEK composites are particularly effective for hip resurfacing in which the Mitch PCR (Stryker) acetabular component has been used with good results. The MOTIS polymer acetabular cup (Invibio Ltd.) is another example. Further PEEK applications include the construction of finger-joint prostheses (Mathys AG), suture anchors (Stryker) and various kinds of augmentations (Medin). Based on the information obtained, the authors suggest

  4. Titan's Timescales: Constraints On The Age of The Methane-Supported Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Mandt, K.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Titan's atmosphere, unique amongst moons in the solar system presents a persistent riddle: how can it survive over geologic time if its methane is being rapidly destroyed by solar radiation and will last only another ~20 Myr? (Yung et al. 1984; Krasnopolsky 2010) Methane, the second most abundant (CH4, 2-6%) atmospheric gas after nitrogen (N2, 98-94%) supports the entire atmosphere via its greenhouse effect (McKay 1991) and total loss of methane could theoretically lead to atmospheric collapse (Lorenz et al. 1997). In this presentation we will review the available evidence constraining methane's prior lifetime in the atmosphere, including (i) isotopic constraints, especially D/H and 12C/13C in CH4 (Nixon et al. 2012; Mandt et al. 2012), 40Ar and 36Ar abundances, and 14N/15N in N2 (Niemann et al. 2010); (ii) the surface hydrocarbon inventory (Lorenz et al. 2008); (iii) the time to chemically produce Titan's CO (Hörst et al. 2008); (iv) the crater retention age of the surface (Neish and Lorenz 2012); (v) interior models (Tobie et al. 2006); (vi) changes in Titan's shape (Choukroun and Sotin 2012). Each of these independent lines of evidence yields a time estimate that, although individually ambiguous, combine to provide context for a cohesive understanding of the history of Titan's methane. We will conclude by summarizing the current constraints on the age of Titan's atmosphere in its present form, and highlight the key remaining challenges and critical measurements and modeling work needed to further refine our understanding of Titan's perplexing atmospheric history. References: Choukroun, M. and Sotin, C., Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L04201, 2012. Hörst, S. M., R. V. Yelle and V. Vuitton, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E10006, 2008. Krasnopolsky, V. A., Plan. and Space Sci., 58, 1507-1515, 2010. Lorenz, R. D., C. P. McKay and J. I. Lunine, Science, 275, 642-644, 1997. Lorenz, R. D. et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L02206, 2008. McKay, C. P., J. B. Pollack and R

  5. Extreme Global Variability in the Middle Atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Sandor, B. J.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.

    2005-12-01

    Circulation and photochemical behaviors of the Venus middle atmosphere (mesosphere, 65-105 km altitudes) exhibit remarkable temporal variations that are often defined by ground-based studies. Sub-millimeter spectral line observations in particular play an important role in the investigation of the Venus mesosphere due to relatively strong transitions for CO, HDO, SO2, and SO in this wavelength region and the pressure-broadened lineshapes of these absorptions. Venus nightside sub-millimeter 12CO spectra (345 GHz) exhibit very sharp, deep absorption cores which yield excellent temperature weighting functions about the Venus mesopause (Clancy et al., 2003) and maximum sensitivity to Doppler line shifts, a modest 10 m/sec line-of-sight wind is easily detectable in short integration periods (5-10 minutes). An accumulated set of James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) observations during Venus inferior conjunctions in 2000, 2002, and 2004 provide nightside mapping of Doppler winds, CO and temperatures over the 95-105 km altitude region. The nightside distribution of winds varies over all observed timescales. For periods separated by one week, the Venus nightside global circulation changes character from zonal rotation to subsolar-to-antisolar (SS-AS) flow. On hourly timescales, wind velocities may vary by > 50 m/sec over 3000 km spatial scales. The instantaneous nightside circulation field is extremely asymmetric in latitude and local time. During the June 2004 inferior conjunction of Venus, we also obtained the first detection of mesospheric SO2 and a very sensitive upper limit for SO; indicating Venus mesospheric SO2 abundances roughly twice that predicted by the preferred Venus photochemical model of Yung and DeMore (1982), and an SO2/SO ratio at least 8 times the same model predictions. These departures from the model are probably due in large part to the fixed water vapor abundance of 1 ppmv throughout the Venus mesosphere, employed in the Yung and DeMore model for

  6. Submillimeter Observations of Global Variations in Chemistry and Dynamics in the Venus Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Sandor, B. J.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.

    2005-08-01

    Circulation and photochemical behaviors of the Venus middle atmosphere (mesosphere, 65-105 km altitudes) exhibit remarkable temporal variations that are often defined by ground-based studies. Sub-millimeter spectral line observations in particular play and important role in the investigation of the Venus mesosphere due to relatively strong transitions for CO, HDO, SO2, and SO in the wavelength region and the pressure-broadened lineshapes of these absorptions. Venus nightside sub-millimeter 12CO spectra (345 GHz) exhibit sharp, deep absorption cores that yield excellent temperature weighting functions about the Venus mesopause (Clancy et al., 2003) and maximum sensitivity to Doppler line shifts, a modest 10 m/sec line-of-sight wind is easily detectable in short integrations (5-10 minutes). An accumulated set of James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) observations during Venus inferior conjunctions in 2000, 2002, and 2004 provide nightside mapping of Doppler winds, CO, and temperatures over the 95-105 km altitude region. The nightside distribution of winds varies over all observed timescales. For periods separated by one week, the Venus nightside global circulation changes character for zonal rotation to subsolar-to-antisolar (SS-AS) flow. On hourly timescales, wind velocities may vary by > 50 m/sec over 3000 km spatial scales. The instantaneous nightside circulation field is extremely asymmetric in latitude and local time. During the June 2004 inferior conjunction of Venus, we also obtained the first detection of mesospheric SO2 and a very sensitive upper limit for SO; indicating Venus mesospheric SO2 abundances roughly twice that predicted by the preferred photochemical model of Yung and DeMore (1982), and an SO2/SO ratio at least 8 times the same model predictions. These departures from the model are probably due in large part to the fixed water vapor abundance of 1 ppmv throughout the Venus mesosphere, employed in the Yung and DeMore model for lack of data. As an

  7. Technical Knowledge, Cultural Practices and Social Boundaries: Wan-Nan Scholars and the Recasting of Jesuit Astronomy, 1600-1800

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ping-Yi.

    Taking four Wan-nan Confucian scholars--Yang Kuang -hsien, Mei Wen-ting, Chiang Yung and Tai Chen--as examples, this dissertation studies how an immigrant Jesuit scientific community built and defended itself in a specialized institutional niche located at the Ch'ing court and how a defeated Chinese scientific tradition successfully survived by occupying a broader cultural space, with the Manchu emperor in between. Special attention is paid to how these four Confucian scholars constructed social boundaries between the Chinese and the Westerners in their astronomical discourses and how they domesticated Western astronomy in order to fit the Chinese cultural conditions situated in the power structure built by the Manchus. This inquiry begins with a brief introduction of Wan-nan and the Wan-nan school. I then discuss how the Jesuits legitimated their knowledge during the Ming -Ch'ing transition, and how Jesuit astronomy was situated within the power nexus between the Confucian literati and the emperors. The next chapter focuses on Yang Kuang-hsien and his challenges to the Jesuits. I examine his strategies and the power structure in which Yang carried out his challenge to the Jesuits. The fourth and fifth chapters investigate how Mei Wen-ting restructured the relationship between Confucianism and astronomy. The former chapter focuses on Mei's social networking and his ambivalence towards the Ming and Ch'ing dynasties, on the one hand, and towards Chinese and Western learning on the other. The latter chapter deals with how Mei Wen-ting recast Chinese astronomical tradition and Confucianism. In the sixth chapter, I will compare the fame of Chiang Yung and Tai Chen in order to demonstrate how astronomy was practiced in evidential studies after Mei Wen-ting, and how evidential studies itself conveyed an ideological construction of the other. Through integrating Western astronomy with indigenous tradition while exorcising the otherness contained within the cultural package

  8. Titan's Surface Properties: Correlations Among DISR, RADAR And VIMS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, Laurence A.; DISR, Cassini-Huygens; RADAR; VIMS Teams

    2006-09-01

    Titan's vast equatorial fields of longitudinal dunes seen in radar images (Lorenz et al. 2006) correlate with one of two dark surface units discriminated as “ brown” and "blue” in color composites (RGB as 2.0, 1.6, 1.3 μm) of near-IR spectral cubes. Earth-based spectroscopy (Griffith et al. 2003) shows a surface consistent with dirty H2O ice; VIMS data show more evidence of H2O ice in darker than brighter units (McCord et al. 2006). Our work shows that relative to the VIMS dark blue unit, the albedo of the dark brown unit is lower at 1.3 μm, higher at 2.0 μm, shows less evidence of water ice, and correlates with the radar-dark dunes. This suggests that the dunes are dryer, higher in hydrocarbon or nitrile composition. VIMS bright units show even less evidence of H2O, inferred to consist of very fine tholin dust. If the rate of deposition of hydrocarbons is 0.1 μm/yr (Yung et al. 1984), the surface would be coated (optically) in a few years unless cleansing processes are active. The dunes must be mobile on this timescale to prevent accumulation of bright coatings. Likewise fluvial/pluvial processes every few decades must be cleaning the dark floors of the incised channels and dark scoured plains at the Huygens landing site. In this model Xanadu is a large inactive region where eolian, fluvial, pluvial activity is currently at a low ebb. Huygens landing in a region of the dark blue materials a few kilometers south of bright highlands and about 30 km south of the nearest occurrence of the VIMS-dark-brown Radar-dunes unit. References: Lorenz, R. D., et al., Science, 312, 2006; Griffith, C. A., et al., Science 300, 2003; McCord, T. B., et al., Pl. Sp. Sci. in press, 2006; Yung, Y. L., et al., Ap. J. Supp, 55, 1984.

  9. [A study on the size, location and medical function of the Jaedong Jejoongwon].

    PubMed

    Park, H W; Lee, K L; Wang, H J

    2000-06-01

    This is the study of Jaedong Jejoongwon, the first westernized hospital in Korea founded in 1885. To build the groundwork for study of Jejoongwon, its size, location, building structure, and medical functions were studied. At the same time, the history of Jejoongwon, particularly that of the time when there arose a need for its moving and expansion, was studied. Jaedong Jejoongwon was founded in a renovated building. The building was formerly owned by Hong Young-sik, who was killed while leading the Gapsinjungbyun. According to the existing block plan of Jaedong Jejoongwon, when it was opened in 1885, it was located in the place which later became a park. Nowadays this park is to northwest of the Constitutional Court. At that time, its size was about 600 p'yung. As the medical school was built, from end of 1885 to early 1886, Jejoongwon was expanded to north, and its size was enlarged to 862.16 p'yung. Jaedong Jejoongwon reflected the characteristics of western medical system. When it was opened in 1885, Jejoongwon consisted of a servants' room, an assistants' room, the outpatient clinic, the operation room (which was also used as the pharmacy), surgical wards, women's wards, and general wards. In 1886, as the number of patients was increased and medical school was opened, the function and the structure of hospital changed. The most significant change was that a new medical school building was built, as the nearby buildings were brought. The medical school consisted of the students' dormitory, a chemistry laboratory, and classrooms. Moreover, new functions were added to already-existed hospital building : a contagious ward, a waiting room for outpatients, an eye ward, a darkroom, a room for special diagnosis and treatment, and a vaccination room. Also, from the time when it was first opened, Jejoongwon needed the expansion, as too many patients came in and the medical education was started. Therefore, in the summer of 1886, Allen positively explored ways toward the

  10. Helical Majorana fermions in d+id'-wave topological superconductivity of doped correlated quantum spin Hall insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chung-Hou; Sun, Shih-Jye; Chang, Yung-Yeh; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Fuchun

    Large Hubbard U limit of the Kane-Mele model on a zigzag ribbon of honeycomb lattice near half-filling is studied via a renormalized mean-field theory. The ground state exhibits time-reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking dx2 -y2 + idxy -wave superconductivity. At large spin-orbit coupling, the Z2 topological phase with non-trivial spin Chern number in the pure Kane-Mele model is persistent into the TRS broken state (called ``spin-Chern phase''), and has two pairs of counter-propagating helical Majorana modes at the edges. As the spin-orbit coupling is reduced, the system undergoes a topological quantum phase transition from the spin-Chern to chiral superconducting states. Possible relevance of our results to adatom-doped graphene and irridate compounds is discussed.Ref.:Shih-Jye Sun, Chung-Hou Chung, Yung-Yeh Chang, Wei-Feng Tsai, and Fu-Chun Zhang, arXiv:1506.02584. CHC acknowledges support from NSC Grant No. 98-2918-I-009-06, No. 98-2112-M-009-010-MY3, the NCTU-CTS, the MOE-ATU program, the NCTS of Taiwan, R.O.C.

  11. A first application of marine-controlled source method on gas-hydrate study off SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C.; Hsu, S.; Chen, C.; Evans, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Bottom simulating reflector (BSR), high methane flux, shallow sulfide/methane interface, fluid gushed from the seafloor, self-carbonate within sediment, methane reef, and self-biome are widely distributed in the offshore of the southwestern Taiwan. These geophysical and geochemistry signatures imply a high gas hydrate reservoir area. However, the upper bound of the gas hydrate and shallow section of the sediment are still unclear. This study shows the results of our first marine controlled-source electromagnetic survey in 2010 and provides the information of shallow sediment around the offshore of southwestern Taiwan. Three target areas were conducted: the southeast of Small Ryukyu Islands (seepage, G96), west of Yung-An Ridge (YAR) and northwest of Good Weather Ridge (GWR). In total, fourteen survey lines have been carried out, and the total survey length is about 72 km. Our preliminary result shows that the resistivity/porosity anomalies within pockmarks and seepages correspond to the features from the sub-bottom profilers. The range of porosity change is 4 % in G96 and YAR sites, while in the GWR site there is up to 8 % of porosity change and implies a high gas hydrate potential area.

  12. International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of Venus SO sub 2 and SO

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Chan Y.; Esposito, L.W.; Skinner, T.E. )

    1990-05-20

    Results of recent International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Venus made on January 20, 1987, and April 2 and 3, 1988, along with a reanalysis of the 1979 observations (Conway et al., 1979) are presented. The observations indicate that the amount of sulfur dioxide at the cloud tops of Venus declined by a factor of 8 {plus minus} 4 from 3809 {plus minus} 70 ppb in 1987 and 1988. These values are consistent with the Pioneer Venus results (L.W. Esposito, A recalibration of the solar flux for Pioneer Venus results and a comparison of existing SO{sub 2} measurements on Venus, unpublished manuscript, 1989). The authors identify absorption features of sulfur monoxide for the first time, and estimate the SO mixing ratio above the cloud level is 20 {plus minus} 10 ppb for 1979. This is consistent with photochemical models by Winick and Stewart (1980) and Yung and DeMore (1982) and with the upper limit from Wilson et al. (1981).

  13. Summer fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 from mangrove soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, G C; Tam, N F Y; Ye, Y

    2010-06-01

    The atmospheric fluxes of N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) from the soil in four mangrove swamps in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, South China were investigated in the summer of 2008. The fluxes ranged from 0.14 to 23.83 micromol m(-2)h(-1), 11.9 to 5168.6 micromol m(-2)h(-1) and 0.69 to 20.56 mmol m(-2)h(-1) for N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2), respectively. Futian mangrove swamp in Shenzhen had the highest greenhouse gas fluxes, followed by Mai Po mangrove in Hong Kong. Sha Kong Tsuen and Yung Shue O mangroves in Hong Kong had similar, low fluxes. The differences in both N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes among different tidal positions, the landward, seaward and bare mudflat, in each swamp were insignificant. The N(2)O and CO(2) fluxes were positively correlated with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphate, total iron and NH(4)(+)-N contents, as well as the soil porosity. However, only soil NH(4)(+)-N concentration had significant effects on CH(4) fluxes.

  14. Schrödinger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilmister, C. W.

    1989-03-01

    1. Introduction C. W. Kilmister; 2. Boltzmann's influence on Schrödinger Dieter Flamm; 3. Schrödinger's original interpretation of the Schrödinger equation: a rescue attempt Jon Dorling; 4. Are there quantum jumps? J. S. Bell; 5. Square root of minus one, complex phases and Erwin Schrödinger Chen Ning Yung; 6. Consequences of the Schrödinger equation for atomic and molecular physics W. E. Thirring; 7. Molecular dynamics: from H + H, to biomolecules Martin Karplus; 8. Orbital presentation of chemical reactions Kenichi Fukui; 9. Quantum chemistry A. D. Buckingham; 10. Eamon de Valera, Erwin Schrödinger and the Dublin Institute Sir William McCrea; 11. Do bosons condense? J. T. Lewis; 12. Schrödinger's nonlinear optics James McConnell; 13. Schrödinger's unified field theory seen 40 years later O. Hittmair; 14. The Schrödinger equation of the Universe S. W. Hawking; 15. Overview of particle physics A. Salam; 16. Gauge fields, topological defects and cosmology T. W. B. Kibble; 17. Quantum theory and astronomy M. J. Seaton; 18. Schrödinger's contributions to chemistry and biology Linus Pawling; 19. Erwin Schrödinger's What is Life? and molecular biology M. F. Perutz.

  15. Formation of C-N-Si Film for Interlayer of Hard Material Coating by Pulsed Discharge Plasma CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Mikio

    2013-03-01

    Carbon nitride (C-N) and Si added C-N (C-N-Si) films were deposited on SKD61 steel plate by pulsed discharge (PD) plasma chemical vapour deposition (CVD). When the films were deposited with N2 and H2 diluted CH4 source gases, the deposition rate increased and the hardness decreased with increasing CH4 concentration. By means of adding mono-methyl-silane (MMS) gas to the source gases, the C-N-Si film having high hardness of 10 GPa and low Yung's modulus of 80 GPa could be deposited. The FT-IR spectrum of the films showed a peak of graphitic ring and peaks of terminating with H and N were observed. Raman spectra showed D and G peaks at around 1350 and 1590 cm-1, respectively. The intensity of D peak compared to G peak decreased when MMS was added. Ball on disk test of the C-N-Si film against SUJ2 ball showed the friction coefficient was about 0.2. These results shows that the C-N-Si film having high hardness and low Young's modulus, which is suitable for interlayer of hard film coating, can deposit by the PD plasma CVD, and suggest that the film is composed of fullerene-like structure which forms resilient and fracture tough materials.

  16. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium in Hot Jovians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Mandell, Avi; Hébrard, Eric; Venot, Olivia; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that equilibrium chemistry is usually achieved deep in the atmosphere of hot Jovians where timescales are short (Line and Yung 2013). Thus, equilibrium chemistry has been used as a starting point (setting initial conditions) for evaluating disequilibrium processes. We explore parameters of setting these initial conditions including departures from solar metallicity, the number of species allowed in a system, the types of species allowed in a system, and different thermodynamic libraries in an attempt to create a standard for evaluating equilibrium chemistry. NASA's open source code Chemical Equilibrium and Applications (CEA) is used to calculate model planet abundances by varying the metallicity, in the pressure regime 0.1 to 1 bar. These results are compared to a variety of exoplanets(Teq between 600 and 2100K) qualitatively by color maps of the dayside with different temperature redistributions. Additionally, CEA (with an up-dated thermodynamic library) is compared with the thermochemical model presented in Venotet al. (2012) for HD 209458b and HD 189733b. This same analysis is then applied to the cooler planet HD 97658b. Spectra are generated and we compare both models' outputs using the open source codetransit (https://github.com/exosports/transit) using the opacities of 15 molecules. We make the updated CEA thermodyanamic library and supporting Python scripts to do the CEA analyses available open source. Thiswork was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G.

  17. 2D-4D correspondence: Towers of kinks versus towers of monopoles in N=2 theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolokhov, Pavel A.; Shifman, Mikhail; Yung, Alexei

    2012-04-01

    We continue to study the BPS spectrum of the N=(2,2) CPN-1 model with the ZN-symmetric twisted mass terms. We focus on analysis of the “extra” towers found previously in [P. A. Bolokhov, M. Shifman, and A. Yung, arXiv:1104.5241], and compare them to the states that can be identified in the quasiclassical domain. Exact analysis of the strong-coupling states shows that not all of them survive when passing to the weak-coupling domain. Some of the states decay on the curves of the marginal stability. Thus, not all strong-coupling states can be analytically continued to weak coupling to match the observable bound states. At weak coupling, we confirm the existence of bound states of topologically charged kinks and elementary quanta. Quantization of the U(1) kink modulus leads to formation of towers of such states. For the ZN-symmetric twisted masses their number is by far less than N-1 as was conjectured previously. We investigate the quasiclassical limit and show that out of N possible towers only two survive in the spectrum for odd N, and a single tower for even N. In the case of CP2 theory the related curves of the marginal stability are discussed in detail. In these points we overlap and completely agree with the results of Dorey and Petunin. We also comment on 2D-4D correspondence.

  18. Conflict Aversion: Preference for Ambiguity vs Conflict in Sources and Evidence.

    PubMed

    Smithson

    1999-09-01

    This research investigates preferences and judgments under ambiguous vs conflicting information. Three studies provided evidence for two major hypotheses: (1) Conflicting messages from two equally believable sources are dispreferred in general to two informatively equivalent, ambiguous, but agreeing messages from the same sources (i.e., conflict aversion); and (2) conflicting sources are perceived as less credible than ambiguous sources. Studies 2 and 3 yielded evidence for two framing effects. First, when the outcome was negative, subjects' preferences were nearly evenly split between conflict and ambiguity, whereas a positive outcome produced marked conflict aversion. Second, a high probability of a negative outcome or a low probability of a positive one induced conflict preference. However, no framing effects were found for source credibility judgments. Study 3 also investigated whether subject identification with a source might affect preferences or credibility judgments, but found no evi dence for such an effect. The findings suggest cognitive and moti vational explanations for conflict aversion as distinct from ambi guity aversion. The cognitive heuristic is that conflict raises suspicions about whether the sources are trustworthy or credi ble. The motivational explanation stems from that idea that if sources disagree, then the judge not only becomes uncertain but also must disagree with at least one of the sources, whereas if the sources agree then the judge may agree with them and only has to bear the uncertainty. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Evaluation of stainless steels for their resistance to intergranular corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostelev, A. B.; Abramov, V. Ya.; Belous, V. N.

    1996-10-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are being considered as structural materials for first wall/blanket systems in the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER). The uniform corrosion of stainless steels in water is well known and is not a critical issue limiting its application for the ITER design. The sensitivity of austenitic steels to intergranular corrosion (IGC) can be estimated rather accurately by means of calculation methods, considering structure and chemical composition of steel. There is a maximum permissible carbon content level, at which sensitization of stainless steel is eliminated: K = Cr eff - αC eff, where α-thermodynamic coefficient, Cr eff-effective chromium content (regarding molybdenum influence) and C eff-effective carbon content (taking into account nickel and stabilizing elements). Corrosion tests for 16Cr11Ni3MoTi, 316L and 316LN steel specimens, irradiated up to 2 × 10 22 n/cm 2 fluence have proved the effectiveness of this calculation technique for determination of austenitic steels tendency to IGC. This method is directly applicable in austenitic stainless steel production and enables one to exclude complicated experiments on determination of stainless steel susceptibility to IGC.

  20. NASA Tech Briefs, July 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Topics covered include: Miniature Intelligent Sensor Module; "Smart" Sensor Module; Portable Apparatus for Electrochemical Sensing of Ethylene; Increasing Linear Dynamic Range of a CMOS Image Sensor; Flight Qualified Micro Sun Sensor; Norbornene-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Cells; Making Single-Source Precursors of Ternary Semiconductors; Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells; Mo/Ti Diffusion Bonding for Making Thermoelectric Devices; Photodetectors on Coronagraph Mask for Pointing Control; High-Energy-Density, Low-Temperature Li/CFx Primary Cells; G4-FETs as Universal and Programmable Logic Gates; Fabrication of Buried Nanochannels From Nanowire Patterns; Diamond Smoothing Tools; Infrared Imaging System for Studying Brain Function; Rarefying Spectra of Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators; Large-Area Permanent-Magnet ECR Plasma Source; Slot-Antenna/Permanent-Magnet Device for Generating Plasma; Fiber-Optic Strain Gauge With High Resolution And Update Rate; Broadband Achromatic Telecentric Lens; Temperature-Corrected Model of Turbulence in Hot Jet Flows; Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation; Automated Knowledge Discovery From Simulators; Electro-Optical Modulator Bias Control Using Bipolar Pulses; Generative Representations for Automated Design of Robots; Mars-Approach Navigation Using In Situ Orbiters; Efficient Optimization of Low-Thrust Spacecraft Trajectories; Cylindrical Asymmetrical Capacitors for Use in Outer Space; Protecting Against Faults in JPL Spacecraft; Algorithm Optimally Allocates Actuation of a Spacecraft; and Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets.

  1. Influence of plasma molybdenizing and shot-peening on fretting damage behavior of titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chang-bin; Liu, Dao-xin; Tang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-hua; Qin, Lin; Liu, Cheng-song

    2016-12-01

    Effect of plasma molybdenizing and shot-peening on fretting wear and fretting fatigue behaviors of Ti6Al4V alloy was investigated. The plasma molybdenized layer composed of a dense molybdenum deposition layer and a Mo-Ti solid-solution layer can increase surface hardness by 2.8 times and cause its volume loss by fretting wear to decrease to 1/14 compared with that of the substrate. Plasma molybdenized treatment results in a significant decrease in resistance of the substrate to fretting fatigue. It is ascribed that the molybdenized layer with high hardness yields a low toughness, and its high surface roughness leads to a micro-notched effect. However, proper combination plasma molybdenizing and subsequent shot-peening may enhance the simultaneous fretting fatigue and fretting wear resistance of Ti6Al4V significantly, which can decrease the fretting wear volume loss to 1/27, and may increase the fretting fatigue life by more than 69 times. A synergistic improvement in fretting fatigue of the titanium alloy by combining surface alloying with shot-peening can be achieved. The results indicate that a beneficial residual compressive stress distribution, high surface hardness with suitable hardness gradient distribution, good apparent toughness, relatively low surface roughness, and excellent surface integrity are achieved.

  2. Visualization of bacterial flagella dynamics in a viscous shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jamel; Kim, Minjun

    2016-11-01

    We report on the dynamics of tethered bacterial flagella in an applied viscous shear flow and analyze their behavior using image processing. Flagellin proteins were repolymerized into flagellar filaments functionalized with biotin at their proximal end, and allowed to self-assemble within a micro channel coated with streptavidin. It was observed that all attached flagellar filaments aligned with the steady shear flow of various polymeric solutions. Furthermore it was observed that many of the filaments were stretched, and at elevated flow rates began to undergo polymorphic transformations, which were initiated at one end of the flagellum. When undergoing a change to a different helical form the flagellum was observed to transform to an oppositely handed helix, as to counteract the viscous torque imparted by the shear flow. It was also observed that some flagellar filaments did not undergo polymorphic transformations, but rotated about their helical axis. The rate of this rotation appears to be a function of the applied flow rate. These results expand on previous experimental work and aid in the development of a novel platform that harnesses the autonomic response of a 'forest' of bacterial flagella for engineering applications. This work was funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000255, KEIT MOTIE Grant No. 10052980, and with Government support under and awarded by DoD, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a.

  3. Aging behavior and mechanical properties of maraging steels in the presence of submicrocrystalline Laves phase particles

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoudi, A.; Ghavidel, M.R. Zamanzad; Nedjad, S. Hossein; Heidarzadeh, A.; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili

    2011-10-15

    Cold rolling and annealing of homogenized Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo-Ti-Cr maraging steels resulted in the formation of submicrocrystalline Fe{sub 2}(Mo,Ti) Laves phase particles. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile and hardness tests were used to study the microstructure, aging behavior and mechanical properties of the annealed steels. The annealed microstructures showed age hardenability during subsequent isothermal aging at 753 K. Ultrahigh fracture stress but poor tensile ductility was obtained after substantial age hardening in the specimens with 2% and 4% chromium. Increasing chromium addition up to 6% toughened the aged microstructure at the expense of the fracture stress by increasing the volume fraction of retained austenite. The Laves phase particles acted as crack nucleation sites during tensile deformation. - Highlights: {yields} Laves phases dispersed in a BCC iron matrix by annealing of cold rolled samples. {yields} The samples showed age hardenability during subsequent isothermal aging at 753 K. {yields} Ultrahigh fracture stress but poor ductility was obtained after age hardening. {yields} Increasing chromium addition toughened the aged microstructure. {yields} Laves phase particles acting as crack nucleation sites during tensile deformation.

  4. "Tinni" rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) production: an integrated sociocultural agroecosystem in eastern Uttar Pradesh of India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjay K; Turner, Nancy J; Pandey, C B

    2012-01-01

    This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, 'tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively selected Bhar villages. Two distinct varieties of tinni ('tinni patali' and 'tinni moti') with differing habitats and phenotypic characters were identified. Seven microecosystems (Kari, Badaila, Chammo, Karmol, Bhainsiki, Bhainsala and Khodailia) were found to support these varieties in differing proportions. Tinni rice can withstand more extreme weather conditions (the highest as well as lowest temperatures and rainfall regimes) than the 'genetically improved' varieties of rice (Oriza sativa L.) grown in the region. Both tinni varieties are important bioresources for the Bhar's subsistence livelihoods, and they use distinctive conservation approaches in their maintenance. Bhar women are the main custodians of tinni rice agrobiodiversity, conserving tinni through an institution called Sajha. Democratic decision-making at meetings organized by village elders determines the market price of the tinni varieties. Overall, the indigenous institutions and women's participation seem to have provided safeguards from excessive exploitation of tinni rice varieties. The maintenance of tinni through cultural knowledge and institutions serves as an example of the importance of locally maintained crop varieties in contributing to people's resilience and food security in times of rapid social and environmental change.

  5. "Tinni" Rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Production: An Integrated Sociocultural Agroecosystem in Eastern Uttar Pradesh of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Turner, Nancy J.; Pandey, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, ` tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively selected Bhar villages. Two distinct varieties of tinni (` tinni patali' and ` tinni moti') with differing habitats and phenotypic characters were identified. Seven microecosystems (Kari, Badaila, Chammo, Karmol, Bhainsiki, Bhainsala and Khodailia) were found to support these varieties in differing proportions. Tinni rice can withstand more extreme weather conditions (the highest as well as lowest temperatures and rainfall regimes) than the `genetically improved' varieties of rice ( Oriza sativa L.) grown in the region. Both tinni varieties are important bioresources for the Bhar's subsistence livelihoods, and they use distinctive conservation approaches in their maintenance. Bhar women are the main custodians of tinni rice agrobiodiversity, conserving tinni through an institution called Sajha. Democratic decision-making at meetings organized by village elders determines the market price of the tinni varieties. Overall, the indigenous institutions and women's participation seem to have provided safeguards from excessive exploitation of tinni rice varieties. The maintenance of tinni through cultural knowledge and institutions serves as an example of the importance of locally maintained crop varieties in contributing to people's resilience and food security in times of rapid social and environmental change.

  6. Free-surface turbulent wake of a surface-piercing slender body at various Froude numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeonghwa; Samad, Abdus; Rhee, Shin Hyung

    2016-11-01

    Free-surface effects on the near-wake around a surface-piercing slender body were investigated through flow field and wave elevation measurements. The near-wake flow field was measured by a towed underwater stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) system. The measured flow field was analyzed to obtain coherent turbulence structures by using the Reynolds and proper orthogonal decomposition methods. Three different Froude numbers (Fr) - 0.126, 0.282, and 0.400 - were selected to represent mild, intermediate, and violent free-surface motions. At Fr = 0.126, the wave was hardly visible, although the turbulence strength and isotropy increased near the free-surface. At Fr = 0.282, though it was steady and smooth, wave-induced separation was clearly observed near the juncture of the free-surface and model trailing edge. At Fr = 0.400, wave breaking and the resulting bubbly free-surface were developed with an expanded wave-induced separation region. The wave-induced separation stimulated momentum transfer and turbulence dissipation, resulting in a significant change in the frequency of dominant free-surface motion in the downstream. This research was supported by the IT R&D program of MOTIE/KEIT (Grant No. 100660329) and the National Research Foundation of Korea, Grant funded by the Korean government (Grant No. 2013R1A1A2012597).

  7. The FlgT Protein Is Involved in Aeromonas hydrophila Polar Flagella Stability and Not Affects Anchorage of Lateral Flagella

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila sodium-driven polar flagellum has a complex stator-motor. Consist of two sets of redundant and non-exchangeable proteins (PomA/PomB and PomA2/PomB2), which are homologs to other sodium-conducting polar flagellum stator motors; and also two essential proteins (MotX and MotY), that they interact with one of those two redundant pairs of proteins and form the T-ring. In this work, we described an essential protein for polar flagellum stability and rotation which is orthologs to Vibrio spp. FlgT and it is encoded outside of the A. hydrophila polar flagellum regions. The flgT was present in all mesophilic Aeromonas strains tested and also in the non-motile Aeromonas salmonicida. The A. hydrophila ΔflgT mutant is able to assemble the polar flagellum but is more unstable and released into the culture supernatant from the cell upon completion assembly. Presence of FlgT in purified polar hook-basal bodies (HBB) of wild-type strain was confirmed by Western blotting and electron microscopy observations showed an outer ring of the T-ring (H-ring) which is not present in the ΔflgT mutant. Anchoring and motility of proton-driven lateral flagella was not affected in the ΔflgT mutant and specific antibodies did not detect FlgT in purified lateral HBB of wild type strain. PMID:27507965

  8. Mutational analysis and overproduction effects of MotX, an essential component for motor function of Na+-driven polar flagella of Vibrio.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, Norihiro; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio

    2016-10-25

    The bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary motor complex composed of various proteins. The motor contains a central rod, multiple ring-like structures and stators. The Na(+)-driven polar flagellar motor of the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus has a specific ring, called the 'T-ring', which consists of two periplasmic proteins, MotX and MotY. The T-ring is essential for assembly of the torque-generating unit, the PomA/PomB stator complex, into the motor. To investigate the role of the T-ring for motor function, we performed random mutagenesis of the motX gene on a plasmid. The isolated MotX mutants showed nonmotile, slow-motile, and up-motile phenotypes by the expression from the plasmid. Deletion analysis indicated that the C-terminal region and the signal peptide in MotX are not always essential for flagellar motor function. We also found that overproduction of MotX caused the delay of growth and aberrant cell shape. MotX might have unexpected roles not only in flagellar motor function but also in cell morphology control.

  9. Comparison of a Simple Patched Conic Trajectory Code to Commercially Available Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    AndersonPark, Brooke M.; Wright, Henry S.

    2007-01-01

    Often in spaceflight proposal development, mission designers must eva luate numerous trajectories as different design factors are investiga ted. Although there are numerous commercial software packages availab le to help develop and analyze trajectories, most take a significant amount of time to develop the trajectory itself, which isn't effectiv e when working on proposals. Thus a new code, PatCon, which is both q uick and easy to use, was developed to aid mission designers to condu ct trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given target pla net. The code is able to run quick analyses, due to the incorporation of the patched conic approximation, to determine the trajectory. PatCon provides a simple but accurate approximation of the four body moti on problem that would be needed to solve any planetary trajectory. P atCon has been compared to a patched conic test case for verification, with limited validation or comparison with other COTS software. This paper describes the patched conic technique and its implementation i n PatCon. A description of the results and comparison of PatCon to ot her more evolved codes such as AGI#s Satellite Tool Kit and JAQAR As trodynamics# Swingby Calculator is provided. The results will include percent differences in values such as C3 numbers, and Vinfinity at a rrival, and other more subjective results such as the time it takes to build the simulation, and actual calculation time.

  10. Novel co-enrichment method for isolation of magnetotactic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sorty, Ajay M; Shaikh, Nasir R

    2015-04-01

    A novel co-enrichment technique was designed for enrichment of magnetotactic bacteria from soil, water, and sediments. Delayed addition of iron uptake inducer and the iron source proved amenable to induce magnetosome synthesis by MTB followed by their separation from consortium using magnetic flux. We successfully enriched and isolated both North seeking as well as South seeking magnetotactic bacteria from Lonar Lake (Buldhana), Moti Lake (Jalna), Ghanewadi Lake (Jalna), Ganesh Lake (Miraj), Rankala Lake (Kolhapur), and industrial metal-contaminated glaying soils (Jalna) and a soil (Karad), (MS, India) exposed to high-voltage electric current. The hanging drop preparations and growth under magnetic stress on low-agar media allowed conformation of magnetotactic behavior of the isolates. Both Gram positive and Gram negative MTB were isolated with diverse morphologies. South seeking population was more predominant. The soil inhabitants showed little dwelling property which was more prominent in case of aquatic inhabitants. The use of in situ pH and salt concentrations during enrichment and isolation found suited. The simultaneous growth of whole consortium in the system ensured the in situ simulation of microenvironment needful for proper growth of fastidious MTB.

  11. SOIR/VEX mesospheric aerosols observations and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilquet, Valérie; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Drummond, Rachel; Mahieux, Arnaud; Robert, Séverine; Daerden, Frank; Neary, Lori; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    2013-04-01

    , A. Mahieux, A.A. Fedorova, O.I. Korablev., E. Marcq, Y.L. Yung, X. Zhang. Icarus, 217, 740-751 (2012). Sandor, B.J., R.T. Clancy, G. Moriarty-Schieven, F.P. Mills. Icarus, 208, 49-60 (2010). Wilquet, V., A. Fedorova, F. Montmessin, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, A.C. Vandaele, E. Villard, O. Korablev, and J.-L. Bertaux. J. Geophys. Res., 114 (E00B42), doi:10.1029/2008JE003186 (2009). Wilquet, V., R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, S. Robert, A.C. Vandaele, J.-L. Bertaux. Icarus 217, 875-881 (2012). Zhang, X., M. Chang Liang, F.P. Mills, D.A. Belyaev, Y.L. Yung. Icarus, 217, 714-739 (2012).

  12. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  13. Photochemical Distribution of Venusian Sulfur and Halogen Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Chris; Atreya, S.; Mills, F.; Yung, Y.; Wong, A.

    2008-09-01

    The photochemistry of Venus’ atmosphere from 40 to 100 km has been modeled using an updated/expanded chemical scheme, with the view to improving our understanding of the vertical distributions of sulfur and halogen species. We mainly follow Yung and DeMore (1982), Mills (1998), and Pernice et al. (2004) in our choice of chemical reactions, chemical rate constants, and boundary conditions for 38 species. We examine two models, with HCl mixing ratios of 10-7 and 4 x 10-7, respectively. The former corresponds to Venus Express observations made at high northern latitudes and the latter to the mid- to low-latitude value Young (1972) determined based on infrared measurements by Connes et al (1967). Both models agree satisfactorily with stratospheric observations of key species such as CO, O2 and SO2, but we hope to better quantify the implications of the different HCl mixing ratios observed. Additionally, we perform sensitivity tests where water is set to 31 ppm at 40 km, but vary the SO2 mixing ratio at the lower boundary about a nominal value of 25 ppm. We also consider a range of eddy diffusion profiles and other sensitivity studies. For most cases, K = Ko (n(z)/n_ref)-a, where Ko is the eddy diffusion coefficient at some reference altitude, n is the number density, z is altitude, and a is the variable parameter (<1). Our modeling suggests lower HCl abundances result in greater abundances of SO2, SO, and SO3 generally lower O2 abundances, and greater ClO abundances. Also, the effects on sulfur compounds seems more evident/pronounced for lower mixing ratios of SO2 at the lower boundary as well as higher up in the atmosphere i.e. above 58 km. We will use some of this 1-D chemistry in the Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (VTGCM) (Bougher et al, 1997) for comparison to VEX datasets.

  14. [From influence to confluence : positioning the history of pre-modern Korean medicine in East Asia].

    PubMed

    Suh, Soyoung

    2010-12-31

    This article surveys studies focusing on pre-modern Korean medicine, which are both written in English and analyzed primary sources up to 1876. Overall, the history of pre-modern Korean medicine is an unknown filed in Anglophone academia. Yung Sik Kim's, James Palais's, and Carter Ecart's problematization of the nationalist framework of Korean scholarship partially explains the marginality of the field. Addressing these criticisms, this review argues that pre-modern Korean medicine's uneasy task lies in both elaborating Korea's own experience of medicine, while simultaneously avoiding making the "Korean" category itself essential. Korean narratives of premodern medicine need to go beyond the mere territorilalization of Korean medicine against its Chinese, Japanese, or Western counterparts, thereby to tackle the field's own boundary of research objects. The existing scholarship in English responds to this challenge by primarily examining the way in which Korea has shared textual tradition with China. Sirhak scholars' innovation in medicine, visual representation of Tongŭi bogam, Korean management of epidemics in the eleventh century, and Korean indexing of local botanicals, engages not only native achievements, but also the process of modifying medicine across geographical and political boundaries. More to the point, the emerging native narratives, although written in Korean, are implicitly resonant with those currently present in Anglophone academia. Taking "tension," "intertextuality," and "local traits" as a lens, this article assesses a series of current research in Korea. Aiming to go beyond appeals for a "distinctively" Korean experience of medicine, the future study of Korean pre-modern medicine will further elucidate confluences of different flows, such as "Chinese and Korean," "universal and local," "center and periphery," and "native and foreign," which will eventually articulate a range of Korean techniques of creating a bricolage in medicine.

  15. Cellular mechanisms and behavioral consequences of Kv1.2 regulation in the rat cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael R; Fuchs, Jason R; Green, John T; Morielli, Anthony D

    2012-01-01

    The potassium channel Kv1.2 alpha-subunit is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) dendrites where its pharmacological inhibition increases excitability (Khavandgar et al., 2005). Kv1.2 is also expressed in cerebellar basket cell (BC) axon terminals (Sheng et al., 1994), where its blockade increases BC inhibition of PCs (Southan and Robertson, 1998a). Secretin receptors are also expressed both in PC dendrites and BC axon terminals (reviewed in (Yuan et al.). The effect of secretin on PC excitability is not yet known, but, like Kv1.2 inhibitors, secretin potently increases inhibitory input to PCs (Yung et al., 2001). This suggests secretin may act in part by suppressing Kv1.2. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a mechanism of Kv1.2 suppression (Nesti et al., 2004). This process can be regulated by protein kinase A (PKA) (Connors et al., 2008). Since secretin receptors activate PKA (Wessels-Reiker et al., 1993), we tested the hypothesis that secretin regulates Kv1.2 trafficking in the cerebellum. Using cell surface protein biotinylation of rat cerebellar slices, we found secretin decreased cell-surface Kv1.2 levels by modulating Kv1.2 endocytic trafficking. This effect was mimicked by activating adenylate cyclase (AC) with forskolin, and was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of AC or PKA. Imaging studies identified the BC axon terminal and Purkinje cell dendrites as loci of AC-dependent Kv1.2 trafficking. The physiological significance of secretin regulated Kv1.2 endocytosis is supported by our finding that infusion into the cerebellar cortex of either the Kv1.2 inhibitor Tityustoxin-Kα, or of the Kv1.2 regulator secretin, significantly enhances acquisition of eyeblink conditioning in rats. PMID:22764231

  16. Observations of Altitude Dependence and Temporal Variation of ClO in the Venus Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandor, Brad J.; Clancy, R. Todd

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of the first observations of ClO in the Venus mesosphere indicate ClO is present above 85 +/-3 km altitude and not below. The retrieved nightside mean abundances show a factor of 2 decrease between observation dates Oct. 23 and Nov. 11, 2015, with change between the two dates evident at more than two sigma confidence. Abundances and altitude distributions are retrieved from submm spectroscopic observations of the 352.88 GHz line of 35ClO (made with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope - JCMT - located an Mauna Kea, Hawaii).Detection of ClO in the Venus atmosphere confirms a theory put forward by Yung and DeMore (1982) that the Venus atmosphere is stabilized as CO2 due to chlorine catalytic recombination of CO and O. (Without some form of catalysis, the Venus atmosphere would have 10s of percent CO and O2, but it is in fact 97% CO2 and 3% N2, with only trace amounts of CO and O2.) Detailed retrieval of ClO abundances and altitude distributions (the focus of this talk) provides greater insight to the catalytic process, and to other aspects of Venus atmospheric chlorine chemistry. We compare findings of our quantitave retrieval with predictions of photochemical models, and discuss the implications for chlorine photochemisty of the Venus atmosphere. We also discuss retrieved ClO temporal variation with that of upper mesospheric HCl (Sandor and Clancy, 2012).[We acknowledge funding of this project by NASA grants NNX10AB33G, NNX12AI32G, and NNX14AK05G, as well as NSF grant AST-1312985.

  17. Photochemical Distribution of Venusian Sulfur and Halogen Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, C. D.; Mills, F.; Brecht, A.; Bougher, S. W.; Yung, Y. L.

    2010-10-01

    The photochemistry of Venus’ atmosphere from the cloudtops to 110 km has been modeled using an updated/expanded chemical scheme, with the view to improving our understanding of the vertical distributions of sulfur and halogen species. We mainly follow Yung and DeMore (1982), Mills (1998), Pernice et al. (2004), and Krasnopolsky (2009) in our choice of chemical reactions, chemical rate constants, and boundary conditions for several key species. We examine two models, with HCl mixing ratios of 10-7 and 4 x 10-7, respectively. The former corresponds to Venus Express observations made at high northern latitudes and the latter to the mid- to low-latitude value Young (1972) determined based on infrared measurements by Connes et al (1967). Both models agree satisfactorily with stratospheric observations of key species such as CO, O2 and SO2, but we hope to better quantify the implications of the different HCl mixing ratios observed. Additionally, we perform sensitivity tests where water is set to 31 ppm at 40 km, but vary the SO2 mixing ratio at the lower boundary about a nominal value of 25 ppm. We also consider a range of eddy diffusion profiles and other sensitivity studies. For most cases, K = Ko (n(z)/n_ref)-a, where Ko is the eddy diffusion coefficient at some reference altitude, n is the number density, z is altitude, and a is the variable parameter (<1). Our modeling suggests lower HCl abundances result in greater abundances of SO2, SO, and SO3 generally lower O2 abundances, and greater ClO abundances. Also, the effects on sulfur compounds seems more evident/pronounced for lower mixing ratios of SO2 at the lower boundary as well as higher up in the atmosphere i.e. above 58 km. We consider both SO2 observations of Bertaux et al (2009) and Sandor and Clancy (2010) in our analysis of results.

  18. Hydrogen in biogas and its impact to the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Laukenmann, S.; Stams, A. J. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-04-01

    The shortage and increase in cost of fossil fuels leads to an increased interest in renewable energy sources. One important renewable energy source is biogas, produced by fermentation of organic material. During the last ten years the number of biogas plants has continuously increased and it is expected to increase further. Biogas is a mixture of mainly methane and carbon dioxide but contains also molecular hydrogen (H2). The hydrogen content of biogas depends on the used substrate and the production process. Hydrogen is also produced by conversion of biogas. Although hydrogen is considered as one of the most important future energy carriers, little is known about the global biogeochemical cycle of this trace gas (Rhee et al. 2006) and its impact to the atmosphere is discussed controversially. In order to assess the impact of an expected increasing H2 concentration to the atmosphere a fundamental understanding of the sources and sinks of the global H2 cycle is indispensable (Tromp et al. 2003, Warwick et al. 2004). Due to the large mass difference between hydrogen and deuterium the isotope composition is one possibility to obtain further information about the sources and sinks. Here we will present first results of the isotope composition of hydrogen in biogas. Literature Rhee, T.S., C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, and T. Röckmann; The overwhelming role of soils in the global atmospheric hydrogen cycle, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1611-1625, 2006. Tromp, T.K., Shi, R.-L., Allen, M., Eiler, J.M., and Y. L. Yung1; Potential Environmental Impact of a Hydrogen Economy on the Stratosphere, Science, 300, 1740-1742, 2003. Warwick, N.J., Bekki, S., Nisbet, E.G., and J.A. Pyle; Impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere and troposphere studied in a 2-D model; Geo.Res.Lett., 31, L05107, doi:10.1029/2003GL019224, 2004.

  19. Studies on Ammonia Spectral Signatures Relevant to Jupiter's Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, A. U.; Marschall, J.; Wong, M. H.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2006-12-01

    Observational evidence and thermochemical models indicate an abundance of ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. However, spectrally identifiable ammonia ice clouds are found covering less than 1% of Jupiter's atmosphere, notably in turbulent areas [1,2]. Current literature suggests two possible explanations: coating by a hydrocarbon haze and/or photochemical processing ("tanning")[2,3]. We are pursuing a research program investigating the above hypotheses. In the experiments, thin films of ammonia ices are deposited in a cryogenic apparatus, coated with hydrocarbons, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The ice films can be irradiated by ultraviolet light to study their photochemistry. The spectroscopic measurements aim to identify the processes that control the optical properties of the ice mixtures and quantify their dependence on the identity of the coating, the temperature, and the ice composition. We have observed a consistent suppression of the ammonia absorption feature at 3 μm with coverage by thin layers of hydrocarbons. Modeling calculations of the multi-layer thin films assist in the interpretation of the experimental results and reveal the role of optical interference in masking the aforementioned ammonia spectral feature. The implications of these results for Jupiter's atmosphere will be discussed. Funding from the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program under grant AST-0206270 and from the NASA Outer Planets Research Program under grant NNG06GF37G is gratefully acknowledged. The participation of Anand Oza (Princeton University) was made possible by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program under grant PHY-0353745. 1. S. K. Atreya, A.-S. Wong, K. H. Baines, M. H. Wong, T. C. Owen, Planet. Space Science 53, 498 (2005). 2. K. H. Baines, R. W. Carlson, and L. W. Kamp, Icarus 159, 74 (2002). 3. A.-S. Wong, Y. L. Yung, and A. J. Friedson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1447 (2003).

  20. Infrared Spectroscopy of Ammonia - Hydrocarbon Ices Relevant to Jupiter's Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, P. A.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    Observational evidence and thermochemical models indicate an abundance of ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. However, spectrally identifiable ammonia ice clouds are found covering less than 1% of Jupiter's atmosphere, notably in turbulent areas.1,2 This discrepancy highlights an important gap in our understanding of ammonia and its spectral signatures in Jupiter's atmosphere. Current literature suggests two possible explanations: coating by a hydrocarbon haze and/or photochemical processing ("tanning").2,3 We are performing laboratory experiments that investigate the above hypotheses. Thin films of ammonia ices are deposited in a cryogenic apparatus, coated with hydrocarbons, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The ice films can be irradiated by ultraviolet light. These spectroscopic measurements aim to identify the photophysical and chemical processes that control the optical properties of the ice mixtures and quantify their dependence on the identity of the coating, the temperature, and the ice composition. Our current results indicate a consistent suppression of the ammonia absorption feature at 3 μm with coverage by thin layers of hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene. Furthermore, strongest suppression is observed in the case of benzene, followed in magnitude by hexane and cyclohexane. Funding from the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program under grant AST-0206270 is gratefully acknowledged. The participation of Patricia A. Engel was made possible by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program under grant PHY-0353745. 1. S. K. Atreya, A.-S. Wong, K. H. Baines, M. H. Wong, T. C. Owen, Planet. Space Science 53, 498 (2005). 2. K. H. Baines, R. W. Carlson, and L. W. Kamp, Icarus 159, 74 (2002). 3. A.-S. Wong, Y. L. Yung, and A. J. Friedson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1447 (2003).

  1. Studies on Ammonia Spectral Signatures Relevant to Jupiter's Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Oza, A. U.; Marschall, J.; Wong, M. H.

    2006-09-01

    Observational evidence and thermochemical models indicate an abundance of ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. However, spectrally identifiable ammonia ice clouds are found covering less than 1% of Jupiter's atmosphere, notably in turbulent areas [1,2]. Current literature suggests two possible explanations: coating by a hydrocarbon haze and/or photochemical processing ("tanning") [2,3]. We are pursuing a research program investigating the above hypotheses. In the experiments, thin films of ammonia ices are deposited in a cryogenic apparatus, coated with hydrocarbons, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The ice films can be irradiated by ultraviolet light to study their photochemistry. The spectroscopic measurements aim to identify the processes that control the optical properties of the ice mixtures and quantify their dependence on the identity of the coating, the temperature, and the ice composition. We have observed a consistent suppression of the ammonia absorption feature at 3 μm with coverage by thin layers of hydrocarbons. Modeling calculations of the multi-layer thin films assist in the interpretation of the experimental results and reveal the role of optical interference in masking the aforementioned ammonia spectral feature. The implications of these results for Jupiter's atmosphere will be discussed. Funding from the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program under grant AST-0206270 and from the NASA Outer Planets Research Program under grant NNG06GF37G is gratefully acknowledged. The participation of Anand Oza (Princeton University) was made possible by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program under grant PHY-0353745. 1. S. K. Atreya, A.-S. Wong, K. H. Baines, M. H. Wong, T. C. Owen, Planet. Space Science 53, 498 (2005). 2. K. H. Baines, R. W. Carlson, and L. W. Kamp, Icarus 159, 74 (2002). 3. A.-S. Wong, Y. L. Yung, and A. J. Friedson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1447 (2003).

  2. Relating sulfate and methane dynamics to geology: Accretionary prism offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Pei-Chuan; Dale, Andrew W.; Wallmann, Klaus; Haeckel, Matthias; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chen, Nai-Chen; Chen, Hsiao-Chi; Chen, Hsuan-Wen; Lin, Saulwood; Sun, Chih-Hsien; You, Chen-Feng; Horng, Chorng-Shern; Wang, Yunshuen; Chung, San-Hsiung

    2013-07-01

    Geochemical data (CH4, SO42-, I-, Cl-, particulate organic carbon (POC), δ13C-CH4, and δ13C-CO2) are presented from the upper 30 m of marine sediment on a tectonic submarine accretionary wedge offshore southwest Taiwan. The sampling stations covered three ridges (Tai-Nan, Yung-An, and Good Weather), each characterized by bottom simulating reflectors, acoustic turbidity, and different types of faulting and anticlines. Sulfate and iodide concentrations varied little from seawater-like values in the upper 1-3 m of sediment at all stations; a feature that is consistent with irrigation of seawater by gas bubbles rising through the soft surface sediments. Below this depth, sulfate was rapidly consumed within 5-10 m by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) at the sulfate-methane transition. Carbon isotopic data imply a mainly biogenic methane source. A numerical transport-reaction model was used to identify the supply pathways of methane and estimate depth-integrated turnover rates at the three ridges. Methane gas ascending from deep layers, facilitated by thrusts and faults, was by far the dominant term in the methane budget at all sites. Differences in the proximity of the sampling sites to the faults and anticlines mainly accounted for the variability in gas fluxes and depth-integrated AOM rates. By comparison, methane produced in situ by POC degradation within the modeled sediment column was unimportant. This study demonstrates that the geochemical trends in the continental margins offshore SW Taiwan are closely related to the different geological settings.

  3. Perturbative and nonperturbative aspects of heterotic sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaoyi

    Supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models are interesting from various perspectives. They are useful for understanding the most fundamental theory of our world, and for low-energy effective model-building. Mathematically, they make surprising connections between different exciting areas such as complex geometry, deformation theory, quantum algebra and topology. In this thesis, we study perturbative and nonperturbative aspects of sigma models with N = (0, 2) supersymmetry, with an emphasize on a possible version of extended 4d/2d correspondence. We showed that in some N = (0, 2) models, β functions calculated through Feynman graphs can be reproduced by nonrenormalization theorems. And the result can further be compared with the supercurrent analysis. These cases including linear models, minimal CP(1) model (other CP(N) models are obstructed by global anomaly) together with its extended cousins, and heterotic CP(N) models. Nonperturbatively we built the instanton measure for minimal CP(1) model and its (0, 2)-extended cousins. The instanton measure bears similarity to the instanton measure for 4d super-Yang-Mills theories. Through this analogy, there seems to be a correspondence between N = 1 theories in 4d and N = (0, 2) theories in 2d, which extends previous results initiated by Edalati-Tong and Shifman-Yung. An interesting by-product is also obtained during the procedure, which shows that for non-minimal (globally anomaly-free) N = (0, 2) models with CP(1) as target spaces, there seems always exist certain infrared fixed points, induced by the behavior of chiral fermions.

  4. On the one-dimensional chemistry-diffusion model in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam

    Most of the current atmospheric chemistry models for planets (e.g., Krasnopolsky & Parshev 1981; Yung et al., 1984; Lavvas et al., 2008) and exo-planets (e.g., Moses et al., 2011; Line et al., 2011; Hu et al., 2012) adopt a one-dimensional (1D) chemistry-diffusion approach in the vertical coordinate such as pressure or altitude. Although only a crude approximation, these 1D models have succeeded in explaining the global-averaged vertical profiles of many chemical species in observations. One of the important assumptions of these models is that, all chemical species are transported via the same eddy diffusion profile. Here we show that, as also noticed in the Earth community (e.g., Holton 1986), in the presence of horizontal transport driven by eddies in the middle atmospheres such as the stratospheres on Earth and Titan, this “homogenous eddy diffusion” assumption generally breaks down. Instead, the eddy diffusion should depend both on the horizontal eddy mixing and the chemical lifetime of the species. It implies that the long-lived species and short-lived species could have significantly different eddy diffusion profiles. We show analytically why this new approach is more physically based. We also show numerically why the old approach fails compared with the globally averaged results from a more realistic two-dimensional (2D) simulation using the state-of-art Caltech/JPL 2D chemistry-diffusion-advection model (Zhang et al., 2013), and discuss the possible consequences. This research was supported by the Bisgrove Scholar Program in the University of Arizona.

  5. Molecular level models for CO{sub 2} sorption in nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnyakov, A.; Ravikovitch, P.I.; Neimark, A.V,

    1999-12-07

    Adsorption of carbon dioxide in slit-shaped carbon micropores at 273 K has been studied by means of the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations and the nonlocal density functional theory (NLDFT). Three molecular models of CO{sub 2} have been used. Long-run GCMC simulations were performed with the three-center model of Harris and Yung. For NLDFT calculations, the authors developed an effective Lennard-Jones (LJ) model. GCMC simulations of the effective LJ model of CO{sub 2} have been performed for comparison. For each model used, parameters of intermolecular potentials have been determined and validated against two-phase bulk equilibrium data and experimental adsorption isotherms on graphite at 273 and 195 K. In the range of pore widths from 3 to 15 {angstrom}, the NLDFT isotherms of CO{sub 2} adsorption are overall in a satisfactory agreement with the GCMC isotherms generated using the three-center model. Some deviations have been observed between 6.5 and 8.5 {angstrom}, where the adsorbate undergoes a transition from a single-layer to a two-layer structure. The models developed are recommended for studying carbon dioxide adsorption in microporous adsorbents and also for calculating pore size distributions in carbonaceous materials and soil particles. The NLDFT model has the advantage of being much less computationally demanding, whereas the three-center GCMC model serves as a benchmark for quantitative estimates and can be used for studying CO{sub 2} sorption at ambient conditions close to the critical temperature.

  6. Coupled Sulfur and Chlorine Chemistry in Venus' Upper Cloud Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Franklin P.

    2006-09-01

    Venus' atmosphere likely contains a rich variety of sulfur and chlorine compounds because HCl, SO2, and OCS have all been observed. Photodissociation of CO2 and SO2 in the upper cloud layer produces oxygen which can react directly or indirectly with SO2 to form SO3 and eventually H2SO4. Photodissociation of HCl within and above the upper cloud layer produces chlorine which can react with CO and O2 to form ClCO and ClC(O)OO. These two species have been identified as potentially critical intermediaries in the production of CO2. Much less work has been done on the potential coupling between sulfur and chlorine chemistry that may occur within the upper cloud layer. Several aspects have been examined in recent modeling: (1) linkage of the CO2 and sulfur oxidation cycles (based on ideas from Yung and DeMore, 1982), (2) reaction of Cl with SO2 to form ClSO2 (based on ideas from DeMore et al., 1985), and (3) the chemistry of SmCln for m,n = 1,2 (based on preliminary work in Mills, 1998). Initial results suggest the chemistry of SmCln may provide a pathway for accelerated production of polysulfur, Sx, if the oxygen abundance in the upper cloud layer is as small as is implied by the observational limit on O2 (Trauger and Lunine, 1983). Initial results also suggest that ClSO2 can act as a buffer which helps increase the scale height of SO2 and decrease the rate of production of H2SO4. This presentation will describe the results from this modeling; discuss their potential implications for the CO2, sulfur oxidation, and polysulfur cycles; and outline key observations from Venus Express that can help resolve existing questions concerning the chemistry of Venus' upper cloud. Partial funding for this research was provided by the Australian Research Council.

  7. SU-E-J-217: Accuracy Comparison Between Surface and Volumetric Registrations for Patient Setup of Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y; Li, R; Na, Y; Jenkins, C; Xing, L; Lee, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Optical surface imaging has been applied to radiation therapy patient setup. This study aims to investigate the accuracy of the surface registration of the optical surface imaging compared with that of the conventional method of volumetric registration for patient setup in head and neck radiation therapy. Methods: Clinical datasets of planning CT and treatment Cone Beam CT (CBCT) were used to compare the surface and volumetric registrations in radiation therapy patient setup. The Iterative Closest Points based on point-plane closest method was implemented for surface registration. We employed 3D Slicer for rigid volumetric registration of planning CT and treatment CBCT. 6 parameters of registration results (3 rotations and 3 translations) were obtained by the two registration methods, and the results were compared. Digital simulation tests in ideal cases were also performed to validate each registration method. Results: Digital simulation tests showed that both of the registration methods were accurate and robust enough to compare the registration results. In experiments with the actual clinical data, the results showed considerable deviation between the surface and volumetric registrations. The average root mean squared translational error was 2.7 mm and the maximum translational error was 5.2 mm. Conclusion: The deviation between the surface and volumetric registrations was considerable. Special caution should be taken in using an optical surface imaging. To ensure the accuracy of optical surface imaging in radiation therapy patient setup, additional measures are required. This research was supported in part by the KIST institutional program (2E24551), the Industrial Strategic technology development program (10035495) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE, KOREA), and the Radiation Safety Research Programs (1305033) through the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, and the NIH (R01EB016777)

  8. Comparison of Sub1 markers and their combinations for submergence tolerance and analysis of adaptation strategies of rice in rainfed lowland ecology.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Sharat Kumar; Barik, Saumya Ranjan; Sahoo, Jayashree; Pandit, Elssa; Nayak, Deepak Kumar; Pani, Dipti Ranjan; Anandan, Annamalai

    2015-10-01

    Ninety lowland rice cultivars of the eastern region of India were collected and screened for submergence and water logging tolerance and further used for validating the efficiency of molecular markers and their combinations for submergence tolerance. Submergence tolerance and elongation ability of the tested genotypes were measured in screening tanks along with tolerant and susceptible checks. The genotypes FR13A, Khoda, CR Dhan 300, Savitri Sub1, IR64 Sub1, IC-568009 and IC-568842 exhibited high submergence tolerance may be used as donor in the breeding program. Landrace 'Khoda' showed tolerance to submergence with moderate elongation ability for adaption. Boitalpakhia, Gayatri, Atiranga, Aghonibora, Chakaakhi, Moti, IC-567993 and IC-568921 possessed both characters of moderate elongation ability and moderate tolerance to submergence. Both of these traits are required for lowland varieties of eastern India to survive under flash flood and accumulated stagnant water conditions. RM8300, Sub1A203, AEX, Sub1BC2 and Sub1C173 were employed for molecular screening to identify the submergence-tolerant genotypes. Sub1A203 was capable of differentiating the tolerant and susceptible genotypes into groups. RM8300 and Sub1BC2 could also differentiate the genotypes with inclusion of some susceptible genotypes. The AEX and Sub1C173 marker could not show discrimination among the genotypes with respect to the traits. Using Sub1A203+Sub1BC2 was better amongst the combinations studied. The results of the study indicated a trend toward a negative association of Sub1BC2 with submergence tolerance while AEX and Sub1C marker did not show any significant association. The donors identified can be useful as parental lines while the molecular markers can be used for marker-assisted breeding work.

  9. WE-G-18A-07: Clinical Evaluation of Normalized Metal Artifact Reduction in KVCT Using MVCT Prior Images (MVCT-NMAR) Technique in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Paudel, M; MacKenzie, M; Fallone, B; Rathee, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the metal artifacts in diagnostic kVCT images of patients that are corrected using a normalized metal artifact reduction method with MVCT prior images, MVCT-NMAR. Methods: An MVCTNMAR algorithm was developed and applied to five patients: three with bilateral hip prostheses, one with unilateral hip prosthesis and one with dental fillings. The corrected images were evaluated for visualization of tissue structures and their interfaces, and for radiotherapy dose calculations. They were also compared against the corresponding images corrected by a commercial metal artifact reduction technique, O-MAR, on a Phillips™ CT scanner. Results: The use of MVCT images for correcting kVCT images in the MVCT-NMAR technique greatly reduces metal artifacts, avoids secondary artifacts, and makes patient images more useful for correct dose calculation in radiotherapy. These improvements are significant over the commercial correction method, provided the MVCT and kVCT images are correctly registered. The remaining and the secondary artifacts (soft tissue blurring, eroded bones, false bones or air pockets, CT number cupping within the metal) present in O-MAR corrected images are removed in the MVCT-NMAR corrected images. Large dose reduction is possible outside the planning target volume (e.g., 59.2 Gy in comparison to 52.5 Gy in pubic bone) when these MVCT-NMAR corrected images are used in TomoTherapy™ treatment plans, as the corrected images no longer require directional blocks for prostate plans in order to avoid the image artifact regions. Conclusion: The use of MVCT-NMAR corrected images in radiotherapy treatment planning could improve the treatment plan quality for cancer patients with metallic implants. Moti Raj Paudel is supported by the Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship, the Endowed Graduate Scholarship in Oncology and the Dissertation Fellowship at the University of Alberta. The authors acknowledge the CIHR operating grant number MOP 53254.

  10. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  11. The influence of acetabular cup material on pelvis cortex surface strains, measured using digital image correlation.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, A S; Taylor, A C; Browne, M

    2012-02-23

    Acetabular cup loosening is a late failure mode of total hip replacements, and peri-prosthetic bone deterioration may promote earlier failure. Preservation of supporting bone quality is a goal for implant design and materials selection, to avoid stress shielding and bone resorption. Advanced polymer composite materials have closer stiffness to bone than metals, ceramics or polymers, and have been hypothesised to promote less adverse bone adaptation. Computer simulations have supported this hypothesis, and the present study aimed to verify this experimentally. A composite hemi-pelvis was implanted with Cobalt Chromium (CoCr), polyethylene (UHMWPE) and MOTIS(®)carbon-fibre-reinforced polyether etherketone (CFR-PEEK) acetabular cups. In each case, load was applied to the implanted pelvis and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used for surface strain measurement. The test was repeated for an intact hemi-pelvis. Trends in implanted vs. intact bone principal strains were inspected to assess the average principal strain magnitude change, allowing comparison of the potential bone responses to implantation with the three cups. The CFR-PEEK cup was observed to produce the closest bone strain to the intact hip in the main load path, the superior peri-acetabular cortex (+12% on average, R(2)=0.84), in comparison to CoCr (+40%, R(2)=0.91) and UHWMPE cups (-26%, R(2)=0.94). Clinical observations have indicated that increased periacetabular cortex loading may result in reduced polar cancellous bone loading, leading to longer term losses in periprosthetic bone mineral density. This study provides experimental evidence to verify previous computational studies, indicating that cups produced using materials with stiffness closer to cortical bone recreate physiological cortical bone strains more closely and could, therefore, potentially promote less adverse bone adaptation than stiffer press-fitted implants in current use.

  12. The role of spatial frequency channels in letter identification.

    PubMed

    Majaj, Najib J; Pelli, Denis G; Kurshan, Peri; Palomares, Melanie

    2002-04-01

    How we see is today explained by physical optics and retinal transduction, followed by feature detection, in the cortex, by a bank of parallel independent spatial-frequency-selective channels. It is assumed that the observer uses whichever channels are best for the task at hand. Our current results demand a revision of this framework: Observers are not free to choose which channels they use. We used critical-band masking to characterize the channels mediating identification of broadband signals: letters in a wide range of fonts (Sloan, Bookman, Künstler, Yung), alphabets (Roman and Chinese), and sizes (0.1-55 degrees ). We also tested sinewave and squarewave gratings. Masking always revealed a single channel, 1.6+/-0.7 octaves wide, with a center frequency that depends on letter size and alphabet. We define an alphabet's stroke frequency as the average number of lines crossed by a slice through a letter, divided by the letter width. For sharp-edged (i.e. broadband) signals, we find that stroke frequency completely determines channel frequency, independent of alphabet, font, and size. Moreover, even though observers have multiple channels, they always use the same channel for the same signals, even after hundreds of trials, regardless of whether the noise is low-pass, high-pass, or all-pass. This shows that observers identify letters through a single channel that is selected bottom-up, by the signal, not top-down by the observer. We thought shape would be processed similarly at all sizes. Bandlimited signals conform more to this expectation than do broadband signals. Here, we characterize processing by channel frequency. For sinewave gratings, as expected, channel frequency equals sinewave frequency f(channel)=f. For bandpass-filtered letters, channel frequency is proportional to center frequency f(channel) proportional, variantf(center) (log-log slope 1) when size is varied and the band (c/letter) is fixed, but channel frequency is less than proportional to center

  13. Night OH in the mesosphere of Venus and Earth: A comparative planetology perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, C. D.; Brecht, A.; Bougher, S.; Yung, Y. L.

    2009-05-01

    Satellite measurements of the terrestrial nightside mesosphere from the MLS/Aura MLS instrument show a layer of OH near 82 km. This layer confirms earlier measurements by ground-based UVFTS. The MLS and UVFTS observations measure OH in the lowest vibrational state and are distinct, but related chemically, from vibrationally-excited emission from the OH Meinel bands in the near infrared. The Caltech 1-D KINETICS model has been extended to include vibrational dependence of OH reactions and shows good agreement with MLS OH data and with observations of the Meinel bands [1]. The model shows a chemical lifetime of HOx that increases from less than a day at 80 km to over a month at 87 km. Above this altitude transport processes become an im-portant part of HOx chemistry. The model predicts that ground state OH represents 99% of the total OH up to 84 km. Similarly, Venus airglow emissions detected at wavelengths of 1.40 to 1.49 and 2.6 to 3.14 μm in limb observations by the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) on the Venus Express spacecraft are attributed to the OH Meinel band transitions as well [2]. The integrated emission rates for the OH Meinel bands were measured to be 100±40 and 880±90 kR respectively, both peaking at an altitude of 96±2 km near midnight local time for the considered orbit. We use the same Caltech 1-D KINETICS model to model these observations for Venus as was used for the Earth [1] and discuss the conclusions from a comparative planetology perspec-tive, highlighting the similarities and differences between Venus and Earth. References: [1] Pickett H. M., Read W. G., Lee K. K. and Yung Y. L. (2006) GRL, 33, L19808. [2] Piccioni G., Drossart P., Zasova L., Migliorini A., Gérard J.-C., Mills F. P., Shakun A., Garcia Munoz A., Ignatiev N., Grassi D., Cottini V., Taylor F. W., Erard S., and the VIRTIS-Venus Express Technical Team (2008) A and A., 483, L29-L33.

  14. Cryohydrovolcanism: A Missing Link in the Mars Water Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidos, E. J.

    2001-12-01

    Observations of the apparently recent flow of liquid water on the surface of Mars (Malin & Edgett 2000, Science 288, 2330) demand an explanatory mechanism and suggest a more complex history for martian water. Gaidos (2001, Icarus, in press) has proposed that freezing and pressurization of deep aquifers, a consequence of planetary cooling or long-term changes in climate, results in the rapid expulsion of liquid water to the surface or into the shallow regolith where it can carve the gully-like features. In terrestrial permafrost regions, freezing and pressurization of confined aquifers creates pingos and icing outbursts. Cryohydrovolcanism, if it occurs on Mars, provides a mechanism for the transport of water from deep aquifers to the surface, and from there to the atmosphere, and polar caps. This activity may have tangible geomorphological, hydrological, and geochemical effects other than the gullies. At epochs of low obliquity, water ice erupted to the surface or into the interstitial space of the shallow crust will be unstable with respect to the polar caps and will migrate to high latitudes. During periods of high obliquity, lower insolation and higher atmospheric water vapor content may allow water erupted at lowers latitudes to persist as surface or near-surface ice for significant periods of time. The total volume of water displaced from the freezing of a global aquifer in an idealized regolith (Clifford 1993, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10973) is comparable to that in the present polar caps. If the D/H of the reservoir is similar to that of SNC meteorites (e.g., Leshin 2000, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2017) the current mean rate of water transport to the surface is sufficient to buffer atmospheric D/H at its present value against fractionating escape to space (Kass & Yung 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 365; Donahue 2001, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 827). In fact, the model indicates that significant cryovolcanic activity has taken place within the past 10 kyr

  15. Effect of Solar Variability on Earth Climate Patterns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Feynman, J.

    2006-12-01

    .1029/2001JD001239, 2002; Ruzmaikin, A., J, Feynman, Xun Jiang, D. C. Noone, A. M. Waple &Y. L. Yung, Geophys. Res. Let., 31, L12201, 2004; Ruzmaikin, A., J. K. Lawrence &A. C. Cadavid, J. Atmos. Space Phys., 68, 1311, 2006.

  16. Photochemical Distribution of Venusian Sulfur and Halogen Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Chris; Bougher, S.; Yung, Y.; Brecht, A.

    2013-10-01

    Recent observations of enhanced amounts of SO2 at 100 km by Venus Express (Bertaux et al, 2009; Marcq et al, 2012) suggest that there is a hitherto unknown source of gaseous sulfur species in the upper atmosphere of Venus. The observations of Sandor and Clancy (2010) also show short and longterm variations in mesopause-level (90-100 km) SO and SO2. Zhang et al (2010) argue that the photolysis of H2SO4 vapor derived from evaporation of H2SO4 aerosols provides a source of SO3, which upon photolysis yields SO2. In this study, the photochemistry and dynamics of Venus’ atmosphere from the cloud tops to 110 km has been modeled using an updated/expanded chemical scheme, with the view to improving our understanding of the vertical and global distributions of sulfur and halogen species by application of the 1-D Caltech/JPL KINETICS chemistry tracer species profiles to the Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (VTGCM) (Bougher et al, 1997) for comparison to VEx and ground-based datasets. Specifically, we compare our model results with the SO2 observations of Bertaux et al (2009), Sandor and Clancy (2010), and Marcq et al (2012) in our analysis. We mainly follow Yung and DeMore (1982), Mills (1998), Pernice et al. (2004), Krasnopolsky (2010), and Zhang et al. (2010) in our choice of chemical reactions, chemical rate constants, and boundary conditions for 38 species. We will examine a model with an HCl mixing ratio of 1E-7 corresponding to Venus Express observations made at high northern latitudes. Our modeling agrees satisfactorily with stratospheric observations of key species such as CO, O2 and SO2, and we better quantify the implications of the different HCl mixing ratios observed. As well, we also include other tunable parameters in our study such as considering a range of eddy diffusion profiles that vary by a factor of 10 and other sensitivity studies such as wave drag using Rayleigh friction parameters.

  17. IUSSP activities. Committee on Historical Demography. Report: Conference on Asian Population History, Taipei, Taiwan, 4-8 January 1996.

    PubMed

    Osirike, A B

    1996-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the Asian Population History Conference held in Taipei, Taiwan, January 4-8, 1996. 41 papers were presented on seven themes: Asian population growth, epidemiological transition and public health, mortality trends in pretransitional populations, marriage patterns and demographic systems, fertility levels and trends in pretransitional Asian populations, migration and population distribution, and family systems. Papers were presented by Anthony Reid; Chris Wilson; Bruce Fetter; Sumit Guha; Sheila Zurbrigg; Timothy Dyson and Monica Das Gupta; Cameron Campbell; Robert Shepherd; Ann Jannetta; Chai-Bin Park, Eise Yokoyama, and Sadahiko Nozaki; Peter Boomgaard; Jose Antonio Ortega Osona; Osamu Saito; Ts'ui-jung Liu and Shi-yung Liu; Wen Shang Yang; Dallas Fernando; Bruce Caldwell; A. Francis Gealogo; S. Irudaya Rajan; Kiyoshi Hamano; Guo Songyi; Wang Feng and James Lee; Christopher Langford; Terence H. Hull; Paul K.C. Liu; Xizhe Peng and Yangfang Hou; Ken'ichi Tomobe; Nokiro O. Tsuya; Peter Xenos; Daniel Doeppers; Chaonan Chen and Su-fen Liu; Jiang Tao; Akira Hayami and Emiko Ochiai; Arthur P. Wolf and Chuang Ying-chang; Myron L. Cohen; Burton Pasternak; Zhongwei Zhao; Li-shou Yang, Arland Thornton, and Tamara Hareven; Chi-chun Yi and Yu-hsia Lu; Lai Huimin; Ding Yizhuang; and John Caldwell, who chaired the concluding session. John Caldwell concluded that the conference provided an impressive collection of findings on Asian population history. There was much more research possible, particularly research based on India's rich historical data archives. Research was needed to confirm the assertion that Asian mortality transition began after the two world wars. A focus on natural family planning methods used prior to the transition was suggested. International Union for Scientific Study of Population Committee Chairman David Reher suggested multidisciplinary research on Asian differences in fertility, mortality, and migration. Hayami and Ts

  18. A physical model of Titan's aerosols.

    PubMed

    Toon, O B; McKay, C P; Griffith, C A; Turco, R P

    1992-01-01

    Microphysical simulations of Titan's stratospheric haze show that aerosol microphysics is linked to organized dynamical processes. The detached haze layer may be a manifestation of 1 cm sec-1 vertical velocities at altitudes above 300 km. The hemispherical asymmetry in the visible albedo may be caused by 0.05 cm sec-1 vertical velocities at altitudes of 150 to 200 km, we predict contrast reversal beyond 0.6 micrometer. Tomasko and Smith's (1982, Icarus 51, 65-95) model, in which a layer of large particles above 220 km altitude is responsible for the high forward scattering observed by Rages and Pollack (1983, Icarus 55, 50-62), is a natural outcome of the detached haze layer being produced by rising motions if aerosol mass production occurs primarily below the detached haze layer. The aerosol's electrical charge is critical for the particle size and optical depth of the haze. The geometric albedo, particularly in the ultraviolet and near infrared, requires that the particle size be near 0.15 micrometer down to altitudes below 100 km, which is consistent with polarization observations (Tomasko and Smith 1982, West and Smith 1991, Icarus 90, 330-333). Above about 400 km and below about 150 km Yung et al.'s (1984, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 55, 465-506) diffusion coefficients are too small. Dynamical processes control the haze particles below about 150 km. The relatively large eddy diffusion coefficients in the lower stratosphere result in a vertically extensive region with nonuniform mixing ratios of condensable gases, so that most hydrocarbons may condense very near the tropopause rather than tens of kilometers above it. The optical depths of hydrocarbon clouds are probably less than one, requiring that abundant gases such as ethane condense on a subset of the haze particles to create relatively large, rapidly removed particles. The wavelength dependence of the optical radius is calculated for use in analyzing observations of the geometric albedo. The lower

  19. Hydrogen in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Steinhoff, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-04-01

    Although hydrogen (H2) is considered as one of the most important future energy carriers, little is known about the global biogeochemical cycle of this trace gas (Rhee et al. 2006). In order to assess the potential impact of expected increasing H2 concentrations to the atmosphere a fundamental understanding of the global H2 cycle is indispensable (Tromp et al. 2003, Warwick et al. 2004). Oceans are one source of atmospheric H2, produced by biological processes such as fermentation and N2-fixation and abiotic photochemical processes (Punshon and Moore 2008 and references herein). Further information can be obtained by studying the isotope composition of H2. However, the isotopic ratio of oceanic released H2 is unknown and has so far only been estimated from thermodynamic equilibrium. We investigated the atmospheric D/H isotopic ratio of H2 in the Atlantic Ocean. First results of atmospheric H2 isotope ratios from the West African coast of Mauritania and from a meridional transect over the Atlantic Ocean will be presented. Samples were taken onboard the German research vessel "Poseidon" in February 2007 associated to SOPRAN and during the cruise Ant XXIV-4 with the German research vessel "Polarstern" in April 2008 between Punta Arenas (Chile) and Bremerhaven (Germany). Literature Punshon, S. and R.M. Moore; Aerobic hydrogen production and dinitrogen fixation in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101; Limnol. Oceanogr., 53(6), 2749-2753, 2008. Rhee, T.S., C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, and T. Röckmann; The overwhelming role of soils in the global atmospheric hydrogen cycle, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1611-1625, 2006. Tromp, T.K., Shi, R.-L., Allen, M., Eiler, J.M., and Y. L. Yung1; Potential Environmental Impact of a Hydrogen Economy on the Stratosphere, Science, 300, 1740-1742, 2003. Warwick, N.J., Bekki, S., Nisbet, E.G., and J.A. Pyle; Impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere and troposphere studied in a 2-D model; Geo.Res.Lett., 31, L05107, doi:10

  20. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ira J; Godinez, Guillermo L; Singh, Baljit K; McCaughey, Kelly M; Alcantara, Raniel R; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S; Nguyen, Henry N; Friera, Annabelle M; White, Kathy A; McLaughlin, John R; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M; Baltgalvis, Kristen A; Claypool, Mark D; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C; Gelman, Marina S; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L; Creger, Daniel P; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J; Wiggs, Michael P; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J; Powers, Scott K; Masuda, Esteban S; Taylor, Vanessa C; Payan, Donald G; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M

    2014-07-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.-Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  1. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ira J.; Godinez, Guillermo L.; Singh, Baljit K.; McCaughey, Kelly M.; Alcantara, Raniel R.; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S.; Nguyen, Henry N.; Friera, Annabelle M.; White, Kathy A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Claypool, Mark D.; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C.; Gelman, Marina S.; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L.; Creger, Daniel P.; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Powers, Scott K.; Masuda, Esteban S.; Taylor, Vanessa C.; Payan, Donald G.; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.—Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  2. Laboratory Studies of Ammonia Ices Relevant to the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meharchand, R. T.; Boulter, J. E.; Baer, C. E.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    PHY-0353745. 1. S. K. Atreya and A.-S. Wong, Eos. Trans. 84(46), Fall. Meet. Suppl., Abstract A12A-0072 (2003), and references therein. 2. K. H. Baines, R. W. Carlson, and L. W. Kamp, Icarus 159, 74 (2002). 3. A.-S. Wong, Y. L. Yung, and A. J. Friedson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1447 (2003).

  3. High-pressure experiments on the stability of methane hydrates in the H2O-NH3-CH4 system with applications to Titan's cryovolcanism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choukroun, M.; Le Menn, E.; Grasset, O.

    2007-08-01

    The current methane abundance in Titan's thick atmosphere cannot be explained without the existence of replenishment processes. Indeed, the intense photochemistry taking place in the atmosphere would destroy the 2-5% CH4 amounts measured by the GCMS onboard the Huygens probe [1] within 10-100 Myr [e.g. 2]. Among the several hypotheses that could explain this replenishment, release of methane during cryovolcanic events seems highly likely. The VIMS [3] and Radar instruments [4] onboard the Cassini spacecraft have brought substantial evidence for cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface. A numerical model has shown the possibility to release CH4 by dissociating methane clathrate hydrates at depth, due to interaction of a clathrate layer with warm ice intrusions [5]. However, the effect of volatile compounds, dissolved (e.g. N2) or in solution (e.g. NH3), would most certainly play a major role in cryovolcanic processes. High-pressure low-temperature experimental investigations on the effect of ammonia on methane hydrates' dissociation are conducted within an optical sapphire-anvil cell. Preliminary results have been previously presented, which lead to contradictory interpretations so far [6,7]. As further experiments are being performed, the reliability of the experimental measurements and the reasons for observing discrepancies in the results can be adressed with more and more confidence. This poster will discuss the experimental issues encountered in the H2O-NH3-CH4 system, up-todate experimental results, as well as their implications for Titan's cryovolcanism. References: [1] Niemann HB et al., Nature 438, 779-784 (2005). [2] Yung YL et al., Astrophys. J. Suppl., 55, 465-506 (1984). [3] Sotin C et al., Nature 435, 786-789 (2005). [4] Lopes RMC et al., Icarus 186, 395-412 (2007). [5] Tobie G et al., Nature 440 (2), 61-64 (2006). [6] Choukroun M et al., 37th Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf. Abstract #1640 (2006). [7] Choukroun M et al., 38th Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf

  4. Phase diagram and density of fluids in the water-methanol system: experiments and implications for the crystallization and dynamics of subsurface oceans in icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, C.; Mantegazzi, D.; Deschamps, F.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

    2013-12-01

    : Deschamps, F., Mousis, O., Sanchez-Valle, C., and Lunine, J.I., Astrophys. J., 2010. Hodyss, R., Parkinson, C.D. Johnson, V.D., Stern, J.V., Goguen, J.D, Yung, Y.L., and Kanik, I., Geophys. Res. Lett., 1992. Miller, G.A., and Carpenter, D.A., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1964. Vuillard, G., and Sanchez, M., Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 1961.

  5. A mechanistic interpretation of the wave-particle interaction of Landau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, Thomas M.

    2016-10-01

    There are two halves to the wave-particle interaction: first there is the effect of the wave on the resonant particles and second the effect of the resonant particles back on the wave. This presentation will focus on the second half of the interaction, which is usually described through Poisson's equation, or equivalently, through a dispersion relation obtained from Poisson's equation. For example, for the case of a Langmuir wave with phase velocity on the tail of a Maxwellian velocity distribution, the resonant electrons make a small imaginary contribution to the wave dispersion relation, which yields a small imaginary contribution to the wave frequency, implying wave damping. An alternate, more mechanical interpretation, starts from the observation that the wave-induced displacement of the non-resonant electrons satisfies an oscillator equation that is driven by the bare electric field from the resonant electrons. This field drives the oscillator resonantly since the resonant electrons travel at the wave phase velocity. From this perspective, the wave damping simply results from the drive of the bare electric field from the resonant electrons back on the wave oscillator. The resonant wave-particle interaction also occurs in waves that are governed by ExB drift dynamics, such as diocotron waves that are excited on a nonneutral plasma column. The column undergoes an ExB drift rotation, and at a resonant radius, the rotational flow matches the azimuthal phase speed of the wave, yielding a wave-particle resonance. Again a mechanical interpretation of the wave damping is possible. The bare electric field from the resonant particles produces ExB drift motion that symmetrizes the plasma column, that is, damps the wave. This mechanistic interpretation also works for the case of Landau growth and for the case where nonlinear effects, such as trapping, play a role in the resonant particle dynamics. In collaboration with Chi Yung Chim. Supported by National Science

  6. NOTE: On the Deuterium Abundance on Mars and Some Related Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir

    2000-12-01

    Strong fractionation of deuterium in photolysis of H 2O and above the hygropause reduces the production of HD relative to H 2 on Mars by a factor of 3.7 total. The model by Y. L. Yung et al. (1988, Icarus76, 146-159) for deuterium fractionation in chemical reactions on Mars corrected for this factor results in (HD/H 2)/(HDO/H 2O)=0.43. This value may fit the deuterium abundance observed by V. A. Krasnopolsky et al. (1998, Science 280, 1576-1580) if the eddy diffusion coefficient does not depend on solar activity: K=1.4×10 13n-1/2 cm 2 s -1 (model 2). The Mariner 9 observations show very low variability of atomic oxygen at the 1.2 n bar pressure level (h˜125 km) with solar activity. This requires eddy diffusion to be proportional to the solar activity index F10.7: K=( F10.7 cm/30)×10 13n-1/2 cm 2 s -1 (model 1). The fractionation factor for escape of hydrogen isotopes is equal to 0.016 and 0.135 for models 1 and 2. These values have been averaged over the solar cycle. The three-reservoir model for hydrogen isotope fractionation suggested by Krasnopolsky et al. (1998) involves a reservoir composed primarily of water ice in the polar caps that isotopically interacts with the atmosphere. Assuming that water ice is half of the total volume of the polar caps and the polar-layered deposits, the total loss of water from Mars is equal to 65 and 120 m for models 1 and 2, respectively. Along with thermal and nonthermal escape, these values may include the loss of water by oxidation of regolith, if the released hydrogen escaped with isotopic fractionation. Although the solar-wind α particles are the main source of He on Mars, capture of the solar-wind H + and D + ions by Mars has a negligible effect on the thermospheric abundances of H and D. Improved observations of minor components in Mars' thermosphere may resolve the problem of eddy diffusion at various solar activity and choosing between the models.

  7. D/H on Mars: Effects of floods, volcanism, impacts, and polar processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Water in the Martian atmosphere is 5.1 times more enriched in deuterium than terrestial water. The enrichment has been previously attributed to either a massive loss of water early in the planet's history or the presence of only a very small reservoir of water that has exchanged with the atmosphere over geologic time. Both these interpretations appear inconsistent with geologic evidence of large floods and sustained volcanism. Large floods are believed to have episodically introduced large amounts of water onto the surface. During a large flood roughly 1017 g of water would almost immediately sublime into the atmospher and be frozen out on polar terrain, to form a new layer several centimeters thick. The long-term effect of a flood would depend on where the water pooled after the flood. If the water pooled at low latitudes, all the water would slowly sublime into the atmosphers and ultimately be frozen out at the poles, thereby adding several meters to the polar deposits for each flood. If the water pooled at high latitude, it would form a permanent ice deposit, largely isolated from further interchange with the atmosphere. Volcanism has also episodically introduced water into the atmosphere. Most of this water has become incorporated into the polar deposits. That released over the last 3.5 Ga could have added a few kilometers to the polar deposits, depending on the amount of dust incorporated along with the ice. Large cometary impacts would have introduced additional large amounts of water into the atmosphere. The long-term evolution of D/H in the atmosphere depends on the rate of exchange of water between the atmosphere and the polar deposits. If exchange is active, then loss rates of hydrogen from the upper atmosphere are substantially higher than those estimated by Y. L. Yung, J. Wen, J. P. Pinto, M. Allen, K. K. Pierce, and S. Paulsen [Icarus 76, 146-159 (1988)]. More plausibly, exchange of water between the atmosphere and the polar deposits is limited, so

  8. Presolar Graphite from AGB Stars: Microstructure and s-Process Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croat, Thomas K.; Stadermann, Frank J.; Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2005-10-01

    Correlated transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry with submicron spatial resolution (NanoSIMS) investigations of the same presolar graphites spherules from the Murchison meteorite were conducted, to link the isotopic anomalies with the mineralogy and chemical composition of the graphite and its internal grains. Refractory carbide grains (especially titanium carbide) are commonly found within the graphite spherules, and most have significant concentrations of Zr, Mo, and Ru in solid solution, elements primarily produced by s-process nucleosynthesis. The effect of chemical fractionation on the Mo/Ti ratio in these carbides is limited, and therefore from this ratio one can infer the degree of s-process enrichment in the gas from which the graphite condensed. The resulting s-process enrichments within carbides are large (~200 times solar on average), showing that most of the carbide-containing graphites formed in the mass outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. NanoSIMS measurements of these graphites also show isotopically light carbon (mostly in the 100<12C/13C<400 range). The enrichment of these presolar graphites in both s-process elements and 12C considerably exceeds that astronomically observed around carbon stars. However, a natural correlation exists between 12C and s-process elements, as both form in the He intershell region of thermally pulsing AGB stars and are dredged up together to the surface. Their observation together suggests that these graphites may have formed in chemically and isotopically inhomogeneous regions around AGB stars, such as high-density knots or jets. As shown in the companion paper, a gas density exceeding that expected for smooth mass outflows is required for graphite of the observed size to condense at all in circumstellar environments, and the spatially inhomogeneous, high-density regions from which they condense may also be incompletely mixed with the surrounding gas. We have greatly expanded

  9. SU-E-T-258: Development of a New Patient Set-Up Monitoring System Using Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) Sensor for the Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kang, S; Kim, D; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T

    2015-06-15

    the Industrial R&D program of MOTIE/KEIT. [10048997, Development of the core technology for integrated therapy devices based on real-time MRI guided tumor tracking] and the Mid-career Researcher Program (2014R1A2A1A10050270) through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT&Future Planning.

  10. SU-E-I-60: Quality Assurance Testing Methods and Customized Phantom for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, K-H; Lee, D-W; Choe, B-Y

    2015-06-15

    factors simultaneously. This study was supported by grant (2012-007883 and 2014R1A2A1A10050270) from the Mid-career Researcher Program through the NRF funded by Ministry of Science. In addition, this study was supported by the Industrial R&D of MOTIE/KEIT (10048997, Development of the core technology for integrated therapy devices based on real-time MRI-guided tumor tracking)

  11. SU-C-207-01: Four-Dimensional Inverse Geometry Computed Tomography: Concept and Its Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K; Kim, D; Kim, T; Kang, S; Cho, M; Shin, D; Suh, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In past few years, the inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT) system has been developed to overcome shortcomings of a conventional computed tomography (CT) system such as scatter problem induced from large detector size and cone-beam artifact. In this study, we intend to present a concept of a four-dimensional (4D) IGCT system that has positive aspects above all with temporal resolution for dynamic studies and reduction of motion artifact. Methods: Contrary to conventional CT system, projection data at a certain angle in IGCT was a group of fractionated narrow cone-beam projection data, projection group (PG), acquired from multi-source array which have extremely short time gap of sequential operation between each of sources. At this, for 4D IGCT imaging, time-related data acquisition parameters were determined by combining multi-source scanning time for collecting one PG with conventional 4D CBCT data acquisition sequence. Over a gantry rotation, acquired PGs from multi-source array were tagged time and angle for 4D image reconstruction. Acquired PGs were sorted into 10 phase and image reconstructions were independently performed at each phase. Image reconstruction algorithm based upon filtered-backprojection was used in this study. Results: The 4D IGCT had uniform image without cone-beam artifact on the contrary to 4D CBCT image. In addition, the 4D IGCT images of each phase had no significant artifact induced from motion compared with 3D CT. Conclusion: The 4D IGCT image seems to give relatively accurate dynamic information of patient anatomy based on the results were more endurable than 3D CT about motion artifact. From this, it will be useful for dynamic study and respiratory-correlated radiation therapy. This work was supported by the Industrial R&D program of MOTIE/KEIT [10048997, Development of the core technology for integrated therapy devices based on real-time MRI guided tumor tracking] and the Mid-career Researcher Program (2014R1A2A1A

  12. SU-E-I-92: Is Photon Starvation Preventing Metal Artifact Reduction Algorithm From Working in KVCT?

    SciTech Connect

    Paudel, M; MacKenzie, M; Fallone, B; Rathee, S

    2014-06-01

    hip implants. Moti Raj Paudel is supported by the Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship, the Endowed Graduate Scholarship in Oncology and the Dissertation Fellowship at the University of Alberta. The authors acknowledge the CIHR operating grant number MOP 53254.

  13. Swell effect correction for the high-resolution marine seismic data acquired using an airgun and an 8-channel streamer cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Young; Koo, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Wonsik; Kim, Byoung-yeop; Cheong, Snons; Kim, Young-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Energy Technology Innovation (ETI) Project of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE). The authors thank the officers and crew of the R/V Tamhae II for their efforts in the field survey.

  14. Fundamental studies of diffusion barriers for copper metallization and atomic layer deposited high-kappa films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Prodyut

    Copper is used as interconnect material due to its lower resistivity, higher melting point and higher electromigration resistance than those of Al. However, Cu diffuses rapidly into Si and SiO2, to form Cu-silicides at temperatures as low as 200°C. Being highly resistive, Cu-silicides are detrimental in the performance of the integrated circuits. The continued downscaling of device dimensions has placed a high priority on the development of thin diffusion barrier layers in copper metallization. The effectiveness and performance of Mo-based bi-layers, such as Mo/WN, Mo/Ti, and Mo/TiN, and a ternary single layer, Mo-V nitride, deposited using magnetron sputtering are investigated in this work. The Cu/barrier film(s)/Si structures are annealed at high temperatures in N2 and the interactions between the layers along with the possible formation of any anneal-induced reaction products are evaluated using different techniques. The formation of Cu3Si due to the intermixing of Cu and Si is indicative of barrier breakdown. The decreasing device dimensions in microelectronic circuits set high demands for film conformality as the barrier layer thickness is anticipated to decrease to 1.9 nm for the 25 nm node (by 2015). In order to meet future requirement of ultrathin barriers, the apparently counter-intuitive approach of using insulating films, such as HfO2 and Al2O 3, deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique has been studied and revealed interesting and promising results. In microelectronics fabrication, there is also a need for thin films with high dielectric constant (kappa) in order to continue device dimension reduction of logic and memory devices. With conventional SiO2 based materials, continued scale minimization mandates single digit atomic layer thicknesses of the dielectric layers that lead to the ultimate limitation of quantum mechanical tunneling. To overcome this limitation, high-kappa metal oxides have been recognized as future gate dielectrics

  15. SU-E-I-64: Transverse Relaxation Time in Methylene Protons of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Song, K-H; Lee, D-W; Choe, B-Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate transverse relaxation time of methylene resonance compared to other lipid resonances. Methods: The examinations were performed using a 3.0 T scanner with a point — resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Lipid relaxation time in a lipid phantom filled with canola oil was estimated considering repetition time (TR) as 6000 msec and echo time (TE) as 40 — 550 msec. For in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H — MRS), eight male Sprague — Dawley rats were given free access to a normal - chow (NC) and eight other male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to a high — fat (HF) diet. Both groups drank water ad libitum. T{sub 2} measurements in the rats’ livers were conducted at a fixed TR of 6000 msec and TE of 40 – 220 msec. Exponential curve fitting quality was calculated through the coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}). Results: A chemical analysis of phantom and liver was not performed but a T{sub 2} decay curve was acquired. The T{sub 2} relaxation time of methylene resonance was estimated as follows: NC rats, 37.07 ± 4.32 msec; HF rats, 31.43 ± 1.81 msec (p < 0.05). The extrapolated M0 values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p < 0.005). Conclusion: This study of {sup 1}H-MRS led to sufficient spectral resolution and signal — to — noise ratio differences to characterize all observable resonances for yielding T{sub 2} relaxation times of methylene resonance. {sup 1}H — MRS relaxation times may be useful for quantitative characterization of various liver diseases, including fatty liver disease. This study was supported by grant (2012-007883 and 2014R1A2A1A10050270) from the Mid-career Researcher Program through the NRF funded by Ministry of Science. In addition, this study was supported by the Industrial R&D of MOTIE/KEIT (10048997, Development of the core technology for integrated therapy devices based on real-time MRI-guided tumor tracking)

  16. Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Integrated Fracture Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Littlewood, David John; Silling, Stewart A.; Mitchell, John A.; Seleson, Pablo D.; Bond, Stephen D.; Parks, Michael L.; Turner, Daniel Z.; Burnett, Damon J.; Ostien, Jakob; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-09-01

    dramatically improved consistency at domain boundaries, and an enhancement to the meshfree discretization applied to peridynamic models that removes irregularities at the limit of the nonlocal length scale and dramatically improves conver- gence behavior. Finally, a novel approach for modeling ductile failure has been developed, moti- vated by the desire to apply coupled local-nonlocal models to a wide variety of materials, including ductile metals, which have received minimal attention in the peridynamic literature. Software im- plementation of the partial-stress coupling strategy, the position-aware peridynamic constitutive models, and the strategies for improving the convergence behavior of peridynamic models was completed within the Peridigm and Albany codes, developed at Sandia National Laboratories and made publicly available under the open-source 3-clause BSD license.

  17. The potential impact of hydrogen energy use on the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ruijven, B. J.; Lamarque, J. F.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Kram, T.; Eerens, H.

    2009-04-01

    ., Hess, P. G., Collins, W. D., Emmons, L. K., Ginoux, P., Luo, C. and Tie, X. X. (2005). "Response of a coupled chemistry-climate model to changes in aerosol emissions: Global impact on the hydrological cycle and the tropospheric burdens of OH, ozone and NOx." Geophysical Research Letters 32(16). Lamarque, J.-F., Kinnison, D. E., Hess, P. G. and Vitt, F. (2008). "Simulated lower stratospheric trends between 1970 and 2005: identifying the role of climate and composition changes." Journal of Geophysical Research 113(D12301). Price, H., Jaegle, L., Rice, A., Quay, P., Novelli, P. C. and Gammon, R. (2007). "Global budget of molecular hydrogen and its deuterium content: constraints from ground station, cruise, and aircraft observations." Journal of Geophysical Research 112(D22108). Sanderson, M. G., Collins, W. J., Derwent, R. G. and Johnson, C. E. (2003). "Simulation of Global Hydrogen Levels Using a Lagrangian Three-Dimensional Model." Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 46(1): 15-28. Schultz, M. G., Diehl, T., Brasseur, G. P. and Zittel, W. (2003). "Air Pollution and Climate-Forcing Impacts of a Global Hydrogen Economy." Science 302(5645): 624-627. Tromp, T. K., Shia, R. L., Allen, M., Eiler, J. M. and Yung, Y. L. (2003). "Potential environmental impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere." Science 300(5626): 1740-1742. van Ruijven, B., Hari, L., van Vuuren, D. P. and de Vries, B. (2008). "The potential role of hydrogen in India and Western Europe." Energy Policy 36(5): 1649-1665. van Ruijven, B., van Vuuren, D. P. and de Vries, B. (2007). "The potential role of hydrogen in energy systems with and without climate policy." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 32(12): 1655-1672. van Vuuren, D. P. (2007). Energy systems and climate policy. Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Faculty of Science. Utrecht, Utrecht University: 326.

  18. The influence of photochemical fractionation on the evolution of the nitrogen isotope ratios - detailed analysis of current photochemical loss rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandt, K. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Westlake, J.; Magee, B.; Liang, M. C.; Bell, J.

    2012-04-01

    . Robertson, and S. Lebonnois: " Coupled ion and neutral rotating model of Titan’s upper atmosphere". Icarus, Vol. 197, pp. 236-262, 2008. Liang M., A. N. Heays, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson and Y. L. Yung: “Source of nitrogen isotope anomaly in HCN in the atmosphere of Titan”. Astrophys. J., Vol. 664, pp. L115-L118, 2007. Mandt, K. E., J. H. Waite, Jr., B. A. Magee, J. Bell, J. Lunine, O. Mousis and D. Cordier: “Isotopic evolution of Titan’s main atmospheric constituents”. Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 57, pp. 1917-1930, 2009. Niemann, H.B., S.K. Atreya, J.E. Demick, D. Gautier, J.A. Haberman, D.N. Harpold, W.T. Kasprzak, J.I. Lunine, T.C. Owen and F. Raulin: “The composition of Titan’s lower atmosphere and simple surface volatiles as measured by the Cassini-Huygens probe gas chromatograph mass spectrometer experiment”. J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 115, pp. E12006, 2010. Vinatier, S., et al.: “Vertical abundance profiles of hydrocarbons in Titan’s atmosphere at 15o S and 80o N retrieved from Cassini/CIRS spectra”. Icarus, Vol. 188, pp. 120-138, 2007.

  19. Titan's Propane from Cassini Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Flaud, J.-M.; Bezard, B.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Ansty, T. M.; Coustenis, A.; Flasar, F. M.

    2009-04-01

    in this spectral region. In this paper, we present the CIRS spectra showing all the visible propane bands, with a view to stimulating laboratory spectroscopic study of the remaining mid-IR bands (especially at 869, 922, 1054 and 1158 cm-1). We also report on our progress in the modeling of the 6-8 and 13 micron bands, and give an update on the propane abundance at low latitudes. References: Coustenis et al., Icarus 161, pp. 383-403, 2003. Flaud et al., J. Chem. Phys. 114, pp. 9361-9366, 2001. Husson et al., J. Quant. Spectro. Rad. Trans. 48, pp. 509-518, 1992. Khare et al., Icarus 60, pp. 127-137, 1984. Maguire et al, Nature 292, pp. 683-686, 1981. Roe et al., Astrophys. J. 597, pp. L65-L68, 2003. Yung et al., Astrophys. J. Supp. 55, pp. 465-506, 1984.

  20. Wave propagation, scattering and emission in complex media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ya-Qiu

    propagation in forested environment / K. Sarabandi, I. Koh. Angle-of-arrival fluctuations due to meteorological conditions in the diffraction zone of C-band radio waves, propagated over the ground surface / T. A. Tyufilina, A. A. Meschelyakov, M. V. Krutikov. Simulating radio channel statistics using ray based prediction codes / H. L. Bertoni. Measurement and simulation of ultra wideband antenna elements / W. Sörgel, W. Wiesbeck. The experimental investigation of a ground-placed radio complex synchronization system / V. P. Denisov ... [et al.] -- VII. Computational electromagnetics. Analysis of 3-D electromagnetic wave scattering with the Krylov subspace FFT iterative methods / R. S. Chen ... [et al.]. Sparse approximate inverse preconditioned iterative algorithm with block toeplitz matrix for fast analysis of microstrip circuits / L. Mo, R. S. Chen, E. K. N. Yung. An Efficient modified interpolation technique for the translation operators in MLFMA / J. Hu, Z. P. Nie, G. X. Zou. Efficient solution of 3-D vector electromagnetic scattering by CG-MLFMA with partly approximate iteration / J. Hu, Z. P. Nie. The effective constitution at interface of different media / L. G. Zheng, W. X. Zhang. Novel basis functions for quadratic hexahedral edge element / P. Liu ... [et al.]. A higher order FDTD method for EM wave propagation in collision plasmas / S. B. Liu, J. J. Mo, N. C. Yuan. Attenuation of electric field eradiated by underground source / J. P. Dong, Y. G. Gao.

  1. PREFACE: XIV International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifang

    2011-03-01

    (Texas Tech University), Weidong Li (IHEP) 3) Readout techniques - Gerald Eigen (University of Bergen), Zheng Wang (IHEP) 4) Operating calorimeters and calibration - Marat Gataullin (CERN), Francesco Lanni (BNL) 5) Future calorimetry - Tohru Takeshita (Shinshu University), Lei Xia (Argonne National Laboratory) 6) Astrophysics and neutrino calorimetry - Giuliana Fiorillo (INFN), Hiro Tajima (SLAC) List of Participants AKCHURIN, NuralTexas Tech University AN, ZhenghuaIHEP AUFFRAY, EtiennetteCERN BANFI, DaniloUniversità degli Studi di Milano, INFN BASHARINA-FRESHVILLE, AnastasiaUniversity College London BEAUCHEMIN, Pierre-HuguesUniversity of Oxford BENAGLIA, Andrea DavideUniversity of Milano - Bicocca and INFN BIAN, JianminIHEP BIINO, CristinaINFN BILKI, BurakUniversity of Iowa BLAHA, JanLAPP BOUDRY, VincentLLR / CNRS-IN2P3 CAI, XiaoIHEP CAPONE, AntonioPhysics Department University "La Sapienza" and INFN CAVALLARI, FrancescaCERN and INFN Rome CECCHI, ClaudiaUniversity di Perugia e INFN CHANG, JinfanIHEP CHEN, HuchengBrookhaven National Laboratory CHILDERS, TaylorUniversität Heidelberg - Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik DAO, ValerioGeneva University - DPNC DE LA TAILLE, ChristopheIN2P3/OMEGA-LAL DIEMOZ, MarcellaINFN Roma DOTTI, AndreaCERN EIGEN, GeraldUniversity of Bergen EPIFANOV, DenisBudker Institute of Nuclear Physics FAIVRE, JulienLPSC Grenoble France FANG, JianIHEP FANG, ShuangshiIHEP FANTONI, AlessandraINFN - LNF FERRI, FedericoCEA/Saclay Irfu/SPP FERRONI, FernandoSapienza University & INFN Roma FISK, Henry EugeneFermilab GABALDON, CarolinaCERN GARUTTI, ErikaDESY GAUDIO, GabriellaIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Pavia GILLBERG, DagCarleton University GIOVANNINI, PaolaMax-Planck-Institut für Physik GLAZOV, AlexanderDESY GRACHOV, OlegUniversity of Kansas HAPPACHER, FabioINFN HE, MiaoIHEP HORI, YasutoUniversity of Tokyo, CNS HU, TaoIHEP HULTH, Per-OlofStockholm University JUN, Soon YungCarnegie Mellon University JURK, StefanISEG Spezialelektronik gmb