Rowley, Megan E.; Lown, Jean M.; Piercy, Kathleen W.
In a strengths-based study, 17 women ages 25 to 54 participated in focus groups to identify their motivations for positive financial behavior change. Performing a thematic analysis of data, evidence shows they progressed through the Transtheoretical Model stages of change. Emotion, family influence, and life transitions helped participants…
Moller, Arlen C.; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie
Financial incentives are widely used in health behavior interventions. However, self-determination theory posits that emphasizing financial incentives can have negative consequences if experienced as controlling. Feeling controlled into performing a behavior tends to reduce enjoyment and undermine maintenance after financial contingencies are removed (the undermining effect). We assessed participants' context-specific financial motivation to participate in the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing four different strategies for improving four health risk behaviors: low fruit and vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary screen time. The primary outcome was overall healthy lifestyle change; weight loss was a secondary outcome. Financial incentives were contingent upon meeting behavior goals for 3 weeks and became contingent upon merely providing data during the 4.5-month maintenance period. Financial motivation for participation was assessed at baseline using a 7-item scale (α = .97). Across conditions, a main effect of financial motivation predicted a steeper rate of weight regained during the maintenance period, t(165) = 2.15, P = .04. Furthermore, financial motivation and gender interacted significantly in predicting maintenance of healthy diet and activity changes, t(160) = 2.42, P = .016, such that financial motivation had a more deleterious influence among men. Implications for practice and future research on incentivized lifestyle and weight interventions are discussed. PMID:22548152
Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Maison, Dominika Agnieszka; Trzcińska, Agata
People's preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people's choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory) in explaining people's financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people's chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1) invest, (2) undertake investment risks, and (3) assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame. Moreover, we aimed to investigate how chronic motivational systems confronted with situationally induced promotion and prevention motivation would affect people's propensity to invest and embrace financial risks. Two CAWI studies on a Polish national representative sample (N 1 = 1093; N 2 = 1096) were conducted. The second study consisted of two waves with a 2-week break. The studies provided evidence of higher chronic promotion motivation as well as higher prevention motivation associated with the propensity to invest; however, induced promotion motivation results in a lower propensity to invest compared to induced prevention motivation. Participants with an activated promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with an induced prevention system. Moreover, participants with a low chronic promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with a high promotion motivation system as long as their prevention system was also low. In terms of gambling decisions in both the gain and loss frame, a higher level of chronic promotion motivation and situationally induced promotion motivation were related to the preference for the non-sure option over the sure one.
Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Maison, Dominika Agnieszka; Trzcińska, Agata
People's preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people's choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory) in explaining people's financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people's chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1) invest, (2) undertake investment risks, and (3) assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame. Moreover, we aimed to investigate how chronic motivational systems confronted with situationally induced promotion and prevention motivation would affect people's propensity to invest and embrace financial risks. Two CAWI studies on a Polish national representative sample (N1 = 1093; N2 = 1096) were conducted. The second study consisted of two waves with a 2-week break. The studies provided evidence of higher chronic promotion motivation as well as higher prevention motivation associated with the propensity to invest; however, induced promotion motivation results in a lower propensity to invest compared to induced prevention motivation. Participants with an activated promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with an induced prevention system. Moreover, participants with a low chronic promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with a high promotion motivation system as long as their prevention system was also low. In terms of gambling decisions in both the gain and loss frame, a higher level of chronic promotion motivation and situationally induced promotion motivation were related to the preference for the non-sure option over the sure one. PMID:27630611
Rice, Jennifer King; Malen, Betty; Jackson, Cara; Hoyer, Kathleen Mulvaney
The effectiveness of educator incentive programs rests on the assumption that the potential rewards for participants will motivate them to behave in certain ways (e.g., choose certain jobs, expend greater effort, engage in capacity-building professional development). Some researchers have examined the impact of financial incentives on teacher…
Moller, Arlen C; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie
The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial-a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit-vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation.
Clayton, Byron C.
Successful corporate acquisitions require its managers to achieve substantial performance improvements in order to sufficiently cover acquisition premiums, the expected return of debt and equity investors, and the additional resources needed to capture synergies and accelerate growth. Acquirers understand that achieving the performance improvements necessary to cover these costs and create value for investors will most likely require a significant effort from mergers and acquisitions (M&A) management teams. This understanding drives the common and longstanding practice of offering hefty performance incentive packages to key managers, assuming that financial incentives will induce in-role and extra-role behaviors that drive organizational change and growth. The present study debunks the assumptions of this common M&A practice, providing quantitative evidence that shared vision and autonomous motivation are far more effective drivers of managerial performance than financial incentives. PMID:25610406
Clayton, Byron C
Successful corporate acquisitions require its managers to achieve substantial performance improvements in order to sufficiently cover acquisition premiums, the expected return of debt and equity investors, and the additional resources needed to capture synergies and accelerate growth. Acquirers understand that achieving the performance improvements necessary to cover these costs and create value for investors will most likely require a significant effort from mergers and acquisitions (M&A) management teams. This understanding drives the common and longstanding practice of offering hefty performance incentive packages to key managers, assuming that financial incentives will induce in-role and extra-role behaviors that drive organizational change and growth. The present study debunks the assumptions of this common M&A practice, providing quantitative evidence that shared vision and autonomous motivation are far more effective drivers of managerial performance than financial incentives.
Robinson, Lucy J; Stevens, Lucy H; Threapleton, Christopher J D; Vainiute, Jurgita; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish; Gallagher, Peter
It is well recognised that motivational factors can influence neuropsychological performance. The aim of this study was to explore individual differences in intrinsic motivation and reward-seeking and the effect of these on attentional and mnemonic processes, in the presence or absence of financial incentives. Forty participants (18-35years) completed two testing sessions where the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Newcastle Spatial Memory Test (NSMT) were administered. After a baseline assessment, participants were re-tested after randomisation to a non-motivated (control) group or to a motivated group, where payment was contingent upon performance. Performance in the motivated group was significantly improved compared to the control group on the NSMT (condition by session; F(1,33)=4.52, p=0.041) and the ANT, with participants increasing performance to cued presentations within the alerting network (F(1,36)=5.48, p=0.025) and being less distracted by incongruent stimuli in the executive control network (F(1,36)=6.74, p=0.014). There were significant negative correlations between the 'Interest/ Enjoyment' Intrinsic Motivation Inventory subscale and both NSMT between-search errors and ANT(alerting). In the motivated group, those who had higher self-reported internal motivation were less susceptible to- or affected by- the external motivation of financial incentive. The effects of motivational factors should not be overlooked when interpreting absolute levels of performance in neuropsychological processes.
This study, in which a descriptive scanning model is used, aims to determine the effects of motivational sources on teachers' motivation levels. The population sample for this study consists of teachers working in the Elazig city center in 2006-2007 academic year. A sample of 225 teachers was randomly selected from this population. Data obtained…
Seven, Mehmet Ali; Engin, Ali Osman
This research is about the importance of the integrative, instrumental, and work avoidance motivation in second language learning and being successful. Firstly, we had a motivation questionnaire then we applied this questionnaire and the achievement test to 90 students in Education Faculty English Department. Before the motivation questionnaire…
Chumbley, Justin; Fehr, Ernst
We aimed to predict how hard subjects work for financial rewards from their general trait and state reward-motivation. We specifically asked 1) whether individuals high in general trait “reward responsiveness” work harder 2) whether task-irrelevant cues can make people work harder, by increasing general motivation. Each trial of our task contained a 1 second earning interval in which male subjects earned money for each button press. This was preceded by one of three predictive cues: an erotic picture of a woman, a man, or a geometric figure. We found that individuals high in trait “reward responsiveness” worked harder and earned more, irrespective of the predictive cue. Because female predictive cues are more rewarding, we expected them to increase general motivation in our male subjects and invigorate work, but found a more complex pattern. PMID:25259798
Chumbley, Justin; Fehr, Ernst
We aimed to predict how hard subjects work for financial rewards from their general trait and state reward-motivation. We specifically asked 1) whether individuals high in general trait "reward responsiveness" work harder 2) whether task-irrelevant cues can make people work harder, by increasing general motivation. Each trial of our task contained a 1 second earning interval in which male subjects earned money for each button press. This was preceded by one of three predictive cues: an erotic picture of a woman, a man, or a geometric figure. We found that individuals high in trait "reward responsiveness" worked harder and earned more, irrespective of the predictive cue. Because female predictive cues are more rewarding, we expected them to increase general motivation in our male subjects and invigorate work, but found a more complex pattern.
Stamer, Rick A.
The purpose of this study is to determine differences in choral students' perceptions of motivation strategies. A survey provided the opportunity for students (N = 515) to identify effective motivation techniques. Students identified director/student attention and knowledge of results as being highly effective, interest as being effective, and…
Prescott, Ann; Simpson, Edward
The evolution in students' expectations based on Maslow's theory of human motivation shows a transition from expectations having an effect upon motivation towards those providing a satisfactory experience. Maslow's argument was that once the lower level needs, such as physiological and safety needs, are met other higher needs emerge. In the…
Chung, Yunhyung; Park, Youngkyun
This study investigates the joint effects of financial education and educational networks on students' financial literacy. With a sample (N = 105) of senior students in a business college, the study finds that not only financial education, but also strong networks with professors, are positively related to the financial literacy of business…
8 Situational Theories............................ 40 Interpersonal Influence............................ 44 Communication...5 Intrapersonal.................................... 51 Interpersonal .................................... 54 Motivation...Leadership Style, task orientation and interpersonal relations orientation ....... 123 6. Degree to which the leader emphasizes consideration
Sushinsky, Leonard W.
Attribution Theory has led to predictions that the use of material reward may impair intrinsic motivation in the rewarded activity (decreased play effects). A review of the pertinent literature reveals, however, (a) that attribution research has failed to reliably demonstrate that decreased play effects occur in minimal-trial studies (b) that for…
...] Request for Information on Effective Financial Education AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection... Protection Act of 2010 (``Dodd-Frank'') established the Office of Financial Education (``OFE'') within the... effective financial education approaches--including tools, topics and dissemination strategies--that...
Moskovsky, Christo; Alrabai, Fakieh; Paolini, Stefania; Ratcheva, Silvia
While consensus exists about the critical role of learners’ motivation in second language acquisition, controlled investigations of the effects of teachers’ motivational strategies are limited. The research reported here used a quasi-experimental design to assess the effects of motivational strategies used by Saudi English as a foreign language…
Eisele, Lisa; Grohnert, Therese; Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien
Purpose: This article aims to understand conditions under which personal development plans (PDPs) can effectively be implemented for professional learning. Both the organization's manner of supporting the PDP practice as well as the individual employee's motivation is taken into account. Design/ methodology/approach: A questionnaire was…
Zook, J. M.; Herman, A. P.
This study examined the effects of instructor support and students' global academic motivation on students' course-specific intrinsic motivation. The authors hypothesized, based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), that instructor support for students' psychological needs would enhance intrinsic motivation. Students reported their…
Chambers, David W
Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.
Harter, Susan; Zigler, Edward
Several measures of effectance motivation were constructed; their validity was assessed by administering them to groups of subjects whose effectance motivation was assumed to differ: normal, noninstitutionalized retarded, and institutionalized children matched on mental age. (CS)
Engelmann, Jan B.; Damaraju, Eswar; Padmala, Srikanth; Pessoa, Luiz
We investigated how the brain integrates motivational and attentional signals by using a neuroimaging paradigm that provided separate estimates for transient cue- and target-related signals, in addition to sustained block-related responses. Participants performed a Posner-type task in which an endogenous cue predicted target location on 70% of trials, while motivation was manipulated by varying magnitude and valence of a cash incentive linked to task performance. Our findings revealed increased detection performance (d′) as a function of incentive value. In parallel, brain signals revealed that increases in absolute incentive magnitude led to cue- and target-specific response modulations that were independent of sustained state effects across visual cortex, fronto-parietal regions, and subcortical regions. Interestingly, state-like effects of incentive were observed in several of these brain regions, too, suggesting that both transient and sustained fMRI signals may contribute to task performance. For both cue and block periods, the effects of administering incentives were correlated with individual trait measures of reward sensitivity. Taken together, our findings support the notion that motivation improves behavioral performance in a demanding attention task by enhancing evoked responses across a distributed set of anatomical sites, many of which have been previously implicated in attentional processing. However, the effect of motivation was not simply additive as the impact of absolute incentive was greater during invalid than valid trials in several brain regions, possibly because motivation had a larger effect on reorienting than orienting attentional mechanisms at these sites. PMID:19434242
Takeuchi, Riki; Bolino, Mark C; Lin, Cheng-Chen
Prior research indicates that employees engage in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) because of prosocial values, organizational concern, and impression management motives. Building upon and extending prior research, we investigate all 3 OCB motives by developing a categorization scheme to differentiate their distinctiveness and by building a contextualized argument regarding their interactive effects on OCB in a more collectivistic culture. In a sample of 379 Chinese employee-supervisor dyads from Taiwan, we found that the relationship between prosocial values motives and OCBs directed at individuals was strengthened by organizational concern motives; likewise, the relationship between organizational concern and OCBs directed at the organization was strengthened by prosocial values motives. However, in contrast to prior research (Grant & Mayer, 2009), the relationship between prosocial values motives and OCBs directed at individuals was weakened by impression management motives. A 3-way interaction between all 3 motives further suggests that, in Asian cultures, impression management motives may undermine the positive effects of prosocial values and organizational concern motives on OCBs directed at individuals but not OCBs directed at the organization.
O'Block, Frank; Evans, Fred
Analyzed the effect of a seven-week motivational training program on competitive veteran swimmers. Results suggested that the motivational training program exerted significant and positive influences on swimming performances. Swimmers perceived the program effective in improving swimming performances, developing personal motivation, establishing…
Rodgers, David L.; Withrow-Thorton, Beverly J.
Motivation is an important element required for learning. Educators have a variety of instructional media and teaching formats available to present information. Selecting a medium that motivates learners is an important consideration. This study compares the effect of different media on learners' motivation to learn. Through the use of a survey…
El, Ron Pat; Tillema, Harm; van Koppen, Sabine W. M.
In this study we investigate the influence of ethnic differences on student motivation when learning from formative feedback. Interpersonal teacher behavior and student motivational needs are used to explain the effects of assessment for learning on intrinsic motivation by comparing students from different ethnic backgrounds. The final study's…
Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R
This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT.
Goetz, Joseph W.; Zhu, Dandan; Hampton, Vickie L.; Chatterjee, Swarn; Salter, John
This article provides a theoretical-based rationale and plan of action for educational programs to encourage and create opportunities for the integration of course study with professional exam preparation, while highlighting the complementary benefits for students, academic programs, and the financial services profession. Serving primarily as a…
Grenchik, Denise; O'Connor, Elaine; Postelli, Gina
High school students' lack of personal responsibility and academic ownership, negative or indifferent attitude, and lack of initiative and general motivation are often of concern to teachers and parents. This action research project evaluated an intervention to increase high school students' motivation, responsibility, and initiative. Students…
The financial difficulty of dementia caregivers and its effects on mental health has gained increasing attention from researchers. The present study examines the longitudinal relationship between financial difficulty and the depressive symptoms of dementia caregivers using matching methods to account for potential selection bias. Propensity score matching methods and mixed-effects models were used to determine the effects of financial difficulty on depressive symptoms among caregivers participating in the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) intervention program. Propensity score matching confirmed that caregivers experiencing financial difficulty were more likely to have depressive symptoms. The results suggest that dementia caregivers require support for their financial difficulty. Future research should fully examine the complex relationship between financial difficulty and the mental health of caregivers and how this issue can be addressed through assessment and intervention methods.
DePasque, Samantha; Tricomi, Elizabeth
Learning commonly requires feedback about the consequences of one's actions, which can drive learners to modify their behavior. Motivation may determine how sensitive an individual might be to such feedback, particularly in educational contexts where some students value academic achievement more than others. Thus, motivation for a task might influence the value placed on performance feedback and how effectively it is used to improve learning. To investigate the interplay between intrinsic motivation and feedback processing, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during feedback-based learning before and after a novel manipulation based on motivational interviewing, a technique for enhancing treatment motivation in mental health settings. Because of its role in the reinforcement learning system, the striatum is situated to play a significant role in the modulation of learning based on motivation. Consistent with this idea, motivation levels during the task were associated with sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback in the striatum. Additionally, heightened motivation following a brief motivational interview was associated with increases in feedback sensitivity in the left medial temporal lobe. Our results suggest that motivation modulates neural responses to performance-related feedback, and furthermore that changes in motivation facilitate processing in areas that support learning and memory.
Speed- and distance control by automobile-drivers is described best by linear models when the leading vehicles speed varies randomly and when the driver is motivated to keep a large distance. A car-following experiment required subjects to follow at 'safe' or at 'close' distance. Transfer-characteristics of the driver were extended by 1 octave when following 'closely'. Nonlinear properties of drivers control-movements are assumed to reflect different motivation-dependent control strategies.
Rygula, Rafal; Golebiowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Jakub; Kubik, Jakub; Popik, Piotr
In humans, optimism is a cognitive construct related to motivation; optimists exert effort, whereas pessimists disengage from effort. In this study, using a recently developed ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm we took the unique opportunity to investigate whether "optimism" as a trait is correlated with motivation in rodents. In a series of ACI tests (cognitive bias screening, CBS), we identified rats displaying "pessimistic" and "optimistic" traits. Subsequently, we investigated the trait differences in the motivation of these rats to gain reward and to avoid punishment using a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement paradigm. Although "optimistic" and "pessimistic" animals did not differ in their motivation to avoid punishment, the "optimistic" rats were significantly more motivated to gain reward than their "pessimistic" conspecifics. For the first time, we showed an association between cognitive judgment bias and motivation in an animal model. Because both investigated processes are closely related to mental health and wellbeing, our results may be valuable for preclinical modeling of many psychiatric disorders.
Lee, Sung Heum; Boling, Elizabeth
Screen designers for computer-mediated instruction (CMI) products must consider the motivational appeal of their designs. Although learners may be motivated to use CMI programs initially because of their novelty, this effect wears off and the instruction must stand on its own. Instructional screens must provide effective and efficient instruction,…
Icekson, Tamar; Roskes, Marieke; Moran, Simone
Focusing on avoiding failure or negative outcomes (avoidance motivation) can undermine creativity, due to cognitive (e.g., threat appraisals), affective (e.g., anxiety), and volitional processes (e.g., low intrinsic motivation). This can be problematic for people who are avoidance motivated by nature and in situations in which threats or potential losses are salient. Here, we review the relation between avoidance motivation and creativity, and the processes underlying this relation. We highlight the role of optimism as a potential remedy for the creativity undermining effects of avoidance motivation, due to its impact on the underlying processes. Optimism, expecting to succeed in achieving success or avoiding failure, may reduce negative effects of avoidance motivation, as it eases threat appraisals, anxiety, and disengagement—barriers playing a key role in undermining creativity. People experience these barriers more under avoidance than under approach motivation, and beneficial effects of optimism should therefore be more pronounced under avoidance than approach motivation. Moreover, due to their eagerness, approach motivated people may even be more prone to unrealistic over-optimism and its negative consequences. PMID:24616690
Sauleau, Paul; Eusebio, Alexandre; Vandenberghe, Wim; Nuttin, Bart; Brown, Peter
It is unclear how motivation leads to improved motor performance. Here we test the hypothesis that motivation interacts with behavioural performance in the basal ganglia. We recorded trial-to-trial performance in a bimanual motor task in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease with electrodes chronically implanted in the subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation. Motivation-associated improvements in trial-to-trial performance were contrasted with and without stimulation at high frequency. Motivation and stimulation improved trial-to-trial performance, but the effect of motivation was halved during stimulation. We conclude that the subthalamic area is mechanistically important in those processes linking motivation to improvement in motor performance. This finding may be relevant to some of the cognitive and emotional changes associated with bilateral subthalamic stimulation.
Radzi, Norfariza Mohd; Ghani, Muhammad Faizal A.; Siraj, Saedah; Afshari, Mojgan
This article presents findings on the essential strategies required at the school site and the relevant people responsible for the effective implementation of school-based financial management in Malaysia. Many lessons have been learned since more than a decade of the school-based financial management reform in Malaysia through the establishment…
Hollon, Nick G; Burgeno, Lauren M; Phillips, Paul E M
Exposure to stress has profound, but complex, actions on motivated behavior and decision-making. These effects are central to core symptoms of a number of psychiatric disorders that are precipitated or augmented by stress, such as depressive disorders and substance use disorders. Studying the neural substrates of stress's effects on motivation has revealed that stress affects multiple targets on circuits throughout the brain using diverse molecular signaling processes. Moreover, stress does not have unitary effects on motivated behavior, but differences in the intensity, duration, intermittency, controllability and nature of the stressor produce qualitatively and quantitatively different behavioral endpoints. Unsurprisingly, the results of neuroscientific investigations into stress and motivation often open more questions than they resolve. Here we discuss contemporary results pertaining to the neural mechanisms by which stress alters motivation, identify points of contention and highlight integrative areas for continuing research into these multifaceted complexities.
Waytz, Adam; Morewedge, Carey K; Epley, Nicholas; Monteleone, George; Gao, Jia-Hong; Cacioppo, John T
People commonly anthropomorphize nonhuman agents, imbuing everything from computers to pets to gods with humanlike capacities and mental experiences. Although widely observed, the determinants of anthropomorphism are poorly understood and rarely investigated. We propose that people anthropomorphize, in part, to satisfy effectance motivation-the basic and chronic motivation to attain mastery of one's environment. Five studies demonstrated that increasing effectance motivation by manipulating the perceived unpredictability of a nonhuman agent or by increasing the incentives for mastery increases anthropomorphism. Neuroimaging data demonstrated that the neural correlates of this process are similar to those engaged when mentalizing other humans. A final study demonstrated that anthropomorphizing a stimulus makes it appear more predictable and understandable, suggesting that anthropomorphism satisfies effectance motivation. Anthropomorphizing nonhuman agents seems to satisfy the basic motivation to make sense of an otherwise uncertain environment.
Opheim, Arild; Andreasson, Sven; Eklund, Astri Brandell; Prescott, Peter
Objective: To explore the effects of brief training in Motivational interviewing (MI) for medical students. Design: Video recordings of consultations between 113 final-year medical students and simulated patients were scored blind by two independent raters with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). Half of the students participated in a…
Klein, James D.; Freitag, Eric
Researchers investigated the effects of an instructional game and supplemental reading on undergraduate students' motivation and performance. Two groups used either a worksheet or a board game to practice materials learned via lecture. The game significantly affected four motivational components (attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction)…
Bess, James L., Ed.
Chapters in this collection on college faculty motivation and teaching effectiveness include: "The Meaning of Human Motivation" (Charles J. Walker and Cynthia Symons); "Wanting to Be a Good Teacher: What Have We Learned To Date?" (Wilbert J. McKeachie); "Beyond Male Theory: A Feminist Perspective on Teaching…
DeHart, William B.; Friedel, Jonathan E.; Lown, Jean M.; Odum, Amy L.
Delay discounting, as a behavioral measure of impulsive choice, is strongly related to substance abuse and other risky behaviors. Therefore, effective techniques that alter delay discounting are of great interest. We explored the ability of a semester long financial education course to change delay discounting. Participants were recruited from a financial education course (n = 237) and an abnormal psychology course (n = 80). Both groups completed a delay-discounting task for $100 during the first two weeks (Time 1) of the semester as well as during the last two weeks (Time 2) of the semester. Participants also completed a personality inventory and financial risk tolerance scale both times and a delay-discounting task for $1,000 during Time 2. Delay discounting decreased in the financial education group at the end of the semester whereas there was no change in delay discounting in the abnormal psychology group. Financial education may be an effective method for reducing delay discounting. PMID:27442237
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Basu, Sanjay; Kiernan, Michaela
Introduction While increasingly popular among mid- to large-size employers, using financial incentives to induce health behavior change among employees has been controversial, in part due to poor quality and generalizability of studies to date. Thus, fundamental questions have been left unanswered: to generate positive economic returns on investment, what level of incentive should be offered for any given type of incentive program and among which employees? Methods We constructed a novel modeling framework that systematically identifies how to optimize marginal return on investment from programs incentivizing behavior change by integrating commonly-collected data on health behaviors and associated costs. We integrated “demand curves” capturing individual differences in response to any given incentive with employee demographic and risk factor data. We also estimated the degree of self-selection that could be tolerated, i.e., the maximum percentage of already-healthy employees who could enroll in a wellness program while still maintaining positive absolute return on investment. In a demonstration analysis, the modeling framework was applied to data from 3,000 worksite physical activity programs across the nation. Results For physical activity programs, the incentive levels that would optimize marginal return on investment ($367/employee/year) were higher than average incentive levels currently offered ($143/employee/year). Yet a high degree of self-selection could undermine the economic benefits of the program; if more than 17% of participants came from the top 10% of the physical activity distribution, the cost of the program would be expected to always be greater than its benefits. Discussion Our generalizable framework integrates individual differences in behavior and risk to systematically estimate the incentive level that optimizes marginal return on investment. PMID:25977362
McCann, Karen L.
New Jersey school districts establish curriculums to meet the proficiencies found in the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards (NJCCCS). The research focuses on the effectiveness of the Washington Township High School Career and Technology Education Department's curriculum in addressing the NJCCS Financial Literacy benchmarks. The…
Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J
Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.
Dolan, Paul; Rudisill, Caroline
Financial incentives have been used in a variety of settings to motivate behaviors that might not otherwise be undertaken. They have been highlighted as particularly useful in settings that require a single behavior, such as appointment attendance or vaccination. They also have differential effects based on socioeconomic status in some applications (e.g. smoking). To further investigate these claims, we tested the effect of providing different types of non-cash financial incentives on the return rates of chlamydia specimen samples amongst 16-24 year-olds in England. In 2011 and 2012, we ran a two-stage randomized experiment involving 2988 young people (1489 in Round 1 and 1499 in Round 2) who requested a chlamydia screening kit from Freetest.me, an online and text screening service run by Preventx Limited. Participants were randomized to control, or one of five types of financial incentives in Round 1 or one of four financial incentives in Round 2. We tested the effect of five types of incentives on specimen sample return; reward vouchers of differing values, charity donation, participation in a lottery, choices between a lottery and a voucher and including vouchers of differing values in the test kit prior to specimen return. Financial incentives of any type, did not make a significant difference in the likelihood of specimen return. The more deprived individuals were, as calculated using Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), the less likely they were to return a sample. The extent to which incentive structures influenced sample return was not moderated by IMD score. Non-cash financial incentives for chlamydia testing do not seem to affect the specimen return rate in a chlamydia screening program where test kits are requested online, mailed to requestors and returned by mail. They also do not appear more or less effective in influencing test return depending on deprivation level.
Mieszczak, Gina L.
Organizations depend extensively on Information Technology professionals to drive and deliver technology solutions quickly, efficiently, and effectively to achieve business goals and profitability. It has been demonstrated that professionals with experience specific to the company are valuable assets, and their departure puts technology projects…
Denault, Anne-Sophie; Guay, Frédéric
Participation in extracurricular activities is a promising avenue for enhancing students' school motivation. Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the goal of this study was to test a serial multiple mediator model. In this model, students' perceptions of autonomy support from their extracurricular activity leader predicted their activity-based intrinsic and identified regulations. In turn, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations during the same school year. Finally, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations one year later. A total of 276 youths (54% girls) from disadvantaged neighborhoods were surveyed over two waves of data collection. The proposed mediation model was supported for both types of regulation. These results highlight the generalization effects of motivation from the extracurricular activity context to the school context.
CENGİSİZ, Cengiz; DEVECİ, Artuner; YAPICI, Aslıhan
Introduction Treatment motivation in alcohol dependents is usually viewed as a strong predictor of seeking treatment and treatment success. The conditions affecting motivation in alcohol dependence, however, has not been clarified. In this study, it is aimed to determine the effects of depression on treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Methods The present study included 34 male alcohol dependents presenting to outpatient clinics in Manisa Hospital of Mental Disorders and Hospital of Celal Bayar University. The patients underwent evaluation using the socio-demographic and clinical information form, DSM-IV SCID-I Clinical Version, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Results A significant relationship was found between the total score of TMQ and HDRS (p=.039). Conclusion We believe that the present study, in which we examined the relationship between treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence and depression, would provide a significant contribution to literature. It is also important to investigate other factors that may affect treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Studies with larger samples are needed on this topic.
Yang, Kenneth C C
Past studies on uses and gratifications theory suggested that consumer motives affect how they will use media and media contents. Recent advertising research has extended the theory to study the use of Internet advertising. The current study explores the effects of consumer motives on their search behavior using Internet advertising. The study employed a 2 by 2 between-subjects factorial experiment design. A total of 120 subjects were assigned to an experiment condition that contains an Internet advertisement varying by advertising appeals (i.e., rational vs. emotional) and product involvement levels (high vs. low). Consumer search behavior (measured by the depth, breadth, total amount of search), demographics, and motives were collected by post-experiment questionnaires. Because all three dependent variables measuring search behavior were conceptually related to each other, MANCOVA procedures were employed to examine the moderating effects of consumer motives on the dependent variables in four product involvement-advertising appeal conditions. Results indicated that main effects for product involvements and advertising appeals were statistically significant. Univariate ANOVA also showed that advertising appeals and product involvement levels influenced the total amount of search. Three-way interactions among advertising appeals, product involvement levels, and information motive were also statistically significant. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Burgoon, Judee K.; Floyd, Kory
Explains the motivation impairment effect (MIE) hypothesis, in which deceivers who are highly motivated to succeed suffer detrimental effects on nonverbal performance yet facilitate effects on verbal performance for less motivated deceivers. Challenges this hypothesis by proposing motivation enhances verbal and nonverbal performance irrespective…
Hom, H L; Berger, M; Duncan, M K; Miller, A; Blevin, A
The effects of cooperative versus individualistic reward on students' intrinsic motivation were investigated. The controlling aspects of extrinsic reward may be heightened or produce greater ego threat in the individualistic situation when compared with a group situation. We predicted that students in the cooperative social situation would show higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Fifth-grade students from existing cooperative groups were assigned randomly to receive a tangible reward based on either cooperative or individualistic achievement for completing pattern block designs. Cooperation affected intrinsic motivation positively. Students in the cooperative dyad solved the block designs more quickly, interacted positively, and viewed the task as easier than did those in the individualistic situation, and they reported that their peers were helpful. There was little evidence that the controlling functions of reward or ego-threat were factors in producing the outcome. Some evidence supporting the importance of the social nature of cooperation was provided.
Kim, ChanMin; Keller, John M.
This study investigated what kind of supportive information can be effective in improving the situation where there were severe motivational challenges. Motivational and volitional email messages (MVEM) were constructed based on an integrated model of four theories and methods, which are Keller's ARCS model, Kuhl's action control theory,…
Dickenson, Karen Nadean
The purpose of this pretest-posttest control group experimental study was to see the effect of classroom walkthroughs on middle school teacher motivation. The independent variable was; classroom walkthroughs and the four dependent variables were teachers' self-concept of the ability to affect student achievement, teachers' attitude toward the…
Hong, Eunsook; O'Neil, Harold F.; Peng, Yun
Effects of explicit instructions, metacognition, and intrinsic motivation on creative homework performance were examined in 303 Chinese 10th-grade students. Models that represent hypothesized relations among these constructs and trait covariates were tested using structural equation modelling. Explicit instructions geared to originality were…
Conradty, Cathérine; Bogner, Franz X.
Computers are considered innovative in classrooms, raising expectations of increased cognitive learning outcomes or motivation with effects on Deeper Learning (DL). The "new medium", however, may cause cognitive overloads. Combined with gender-related variations in ability, self-efficacy or self-confidence, computers may even diminish…
Chiang, Bea; Nouri, Hossein; Samanta, Subarna
The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of the two different teaching approaches in the first accounting course on student performance in a subsequent finance course. The study compares 128 accounting and finance students who took introductory financial accounting by either a user approach or a traditional preparer approach to examine…
Yu, Baohua; Downing, Kevin
This study examined the influence of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language (L2) proficiency on socio-cultural/academic adaptation in a sample of two groups of international students studying Chinese in China. Results revealed that the non-Asian student group reported higher levels of integrative motivation,…
Piškorec, Matija; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Novak, Petra Kralj; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha; Vodenska, Irena; Šmuc, Tomislav
Motivated by recent financial crises, significant research efforts have been put into studying contagion effects and herding behaviour in financial markets. Much less has been said regarding the influence of financial news on financial markets. We propose a novel measure of collective behaviour based on financial news on the Web, the News Cohesiveness Index (NCI), and we demonstrate that the index can be used as a financial market volatility indicator. We evaluate the NCI using financial documents from large Web news sources on a daily basis from October 2011 to July 2013 and analyse the interplay between financial markets and finance-related news. We hypothesise that strong cohesion in financial news reflects movements in the financial markets. Our results indicate that cohesiveness in financial news is highly correlated with and driven by volatility in financial markets.
Piškorec, Matija; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Novak, Petra Kralj; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha; Vodenska, Irena; Šmuc, Tomislav
Motivated by recent financial crises, significant research efforts have been put into studying contagion effects and herding behaviour in financial markets. Much less has been said regarding the influence of financial news on financial markets. We propose a novel measure of collective behaviour based on financial news on the Web, the News Cohesiveness Index (NCI), and we demonstrate that the index can be used as a financial market volatility indicator. We evaluate the NCI using financial documents from large Web news sources on a daily basis from October 2011 to July 2013 and analyse the interplay between financial markets and finance-related news. We hypothesise that strong cohesion in financial news reflects movements in the financial markets. Our results indicate that cohesiveness in financial news is highly correlated with and driven by volatility in financial markets. PMID:24849598
Piškorec, Matija; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Novak, Petra Kralj; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha; Vodenska, Irena; Smuc, Tomislav
Motivated by recent financial crises, significant research efforts have been put into studying contagion effects and herding behaviour in financial markets. Much less has been said regarding the influence of financial news on financial markets. We propose a novel measure of collective behaviour based on financial news on the Web, the News Cohesiveness Index (NCI), and we demonstrate that the index can be used as a financial market volatility indicator. We evaluate the NCI using financial documents from large Web news sources on a daily basis from October 2011 to July 2013 and analyse the interplay between financial markets and finance-related news. We hypothesise that strong cohesion in financial news reflects movements in the financial markets. Our results indicate that cohesiveness in financial news is highly correlated with and driven by volatility in financial markets.
Mirzamani, S. Mahmoud; Esfahani, Hamideh Darb
Objective This study examines the effective factors in enhancing school manager's job motivation from viewpoint of school mangers, teachers, education department managerial and staff experts in teaching, and also identifies and prioritizes each of these factors and indicators. Method For selecting a representative sample and increasing measurement precision, 587 people were selected using classified random sampling. The measurement tool was a 79-questionnaire made by the researcher. The questionnaire was collected using motivation theories and observing the findings of previous researches. Then, according to the three-stage Delphi technique, the questionnaire was sent to experts in education. The reliability of instruments was measured by calculating Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, and total reliability of the test was 0.99; the validity of the instrument was assessed by factor analysis (Construct Validity) and its load factor was 0.4 which was high. Results The results from factor analysis shows that the effective factors in enhancing manager's job motivation are as follows: self- actualization (51%) including 28 indices; social factor (7/9%) including 22 indices; self-esteem (3.2%) including 17 indices; job desirable features (2.2%) including 4 indices; physiologic (1.8%) including 4 indices; and job richness (1.6%) including 4 indices. Conclusions The results show that the six mentioned factors determine 68% of the total variance of manager's motivation. PMID:22952541
when we created them. As indicated in Figure 1, the financial crisis began with a rising default level in subprime mortgages, bankruptcies, an...political crises in Eastern Europe and tug-of- war for influence there between Russia and the EU/U.S. Fundamental Philosophies Rise of state capitalism and...designed to prevent future crises and correct past abuses of the system. The fourth phase has been to deal with political and foreign policy effects of the
Maas, Alexander; Goemans, Christopher; Manning, Dale; Kroll, Stephan; Arabi, Mazdak; Rodriguez-McGoffina, Mariana
Utilities and water suppliers in the southwestern United States have used education and conservation programs over the past two decades in an attempt to ameliorate the pressures of increasing water scarcity. This paper builds on a long history of water demand and environmental psychology literature and attempts to answer a simple question: do households primarily motivated by environmental and social (E&S) considerations consume water differently than households motivated primarily by cost and convenience (C&C)? We find that E&S consumers use less water than C&C consumers on average. We also find that there is no statistical difference between E&S and C&C consumers in their consumption responses to changing prices, temperature, and precipitation. This implies that targeting future conservation efforts to self-reported consumer groups may not improve policy effectiveness.
Ashmarina, Svetlana I.; Zotova, Anna S.; Smolina, Ekaterina S.
The article considers the need of ensuring the sustainable development of organizations in the unstable external environment; financial sustainability which is understood as the optimal structure of funding sources of a business entity is proved to be the most significant factor of sustainable development. The article proves that the index of…
Rabe, C; Ghadimi, M; König, S
Background/Purpose: Surgical patient care has grown in complexity, as hospital workload has continuously increased. We therefore established a pool of "undergraduate medical students on call" to assist in the theatre outside working hours. We aimed to recruit talented students to reduce the burden on physicians and to motivate students into entering surgery. Methods: An exploratory mixed-method study was performed. In a qualitative study, guided interviews were conducted with five students about their reasons for working in the theatre and the results were used to construct an online questionnaire using EvaSys®. This was presented to 16 current and former students in a subsequent quantitative study. Furthermore, the cost of student employment was calculated and compared with physicians' salaries. Results: In 2013 and 2014, 8-9 students worked a total of 1063 and 1211 hours in the theatre, respectively. The difference in salaries between the students and surgical residents was € 28.37 per hour. We calculated that the annual savings were approximately € 60,000. When questioned on their motives during the interview, only a few students emphasised the financial aspects, whereas the majority emphasised the gain in experience. The analysis was based on comparison of the mean values (online survey) with a 4-point Likert scale (1 = high acceptance; 4 = no acceptance). We defined the motives with a mean ≤ 1.3 as primary. Based on this selection, gathering experience, fun/enjoyment, interest in surgery, and the change from studying were considered as distinct motives. In the interviews, students clearly pointed out that teaching and learning opportunities in the theatre were not commonly taken advantage of and that interaction with the surgeons should be improved. Conclusion: Students actively chose to work as assistants in the theatre, for a variety of motives. The financial aspects were subordinate. The concept of students assisting in the theatre is
Akyurek, Erkan; Afacan, Ozlem
The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of brain-based learning approach on attitudes and motivation levels in 8th grade students' science classes. The main reason for examining attitudes and motivation levels, the effect of the short-term motivation, attitude shows the long-term effect. The pre/post-test control group research model…
Other Financial Benefits Statement of Gene L. Dodaro Comptroller General of the United States Testimony Before the Committee on Oversight and...Efficiency and Effectiveness: Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...GOVERNMENT EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits Why
Perelló, Josep; Masoliver, Jaume
We prove that Brownian market models with random diffusion coefficients provide an exact measure of the leverage effect [J-P. Bouchaud et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 228701 (2001)]. This empirical fact asserts that past returns are anticorrelated with future diffusion coefficient. Several models with random diffusion have been suggested but without a quantitative study of the leverage effect. Our analysis lets us to fully estimate all parameters involved and allows a deeper study of correlated random diffusion models that may have practical implications for many aspects of financial markets.
Perelló, Josep; Masoliver, Jaume
We prove that Brownian market models with random diffusion coefficients provide an exact measure of the leverage effect [J-P. Bouchaud et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 228701 (2001)]. This empirical fact asserts that past returns are anticorrelated with future diffusion coefficient. Several models with random diffusion have been suggested but without a quantitative study of the leverage effect. Our analysis lets us to fully estimate all parameters involved and allows a deeper study of correlated random diffusion models that may have practical implications for many aspects of financial markets.
Bridges, Judith S.; Etaugh, Claire
Obtained 460 college students' perceptions of mother's employment-child rearing patterns and employment motives. Results show that continuously employed mothers (CEMs) were perceived as less communal and less were positively evaluated. CEMs were also seen as less communal if their employment was for fulfillment rather than financial necessity.…
Simões-Franklin, Cristina; Hester, Robert; Shpaner, Marina; Foxe, John J; Garavan, Hugh
Reacting appropriately to errors during task performance is fundamental to successful negotiation of our environment. This is especially true when errors will result in a significant penalty for the person performing a given task, be they financial or otherwise. Error responses and monitoring states were manipulated in a GO/NOGO task by introducing a financial punishment for errors. This study employed a mixed block design alternating between punishment and no punishment (neutral) conditions, enabling an assessment of tonic changes associated with cognitive control as well as trial-specific effects. Behavioural results revealed slower responses and fewer commission errors in the punishment condition. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) had equal trial-specific activity for errors in the neutral and punishment conditions but had greater tonic activity throughout the punishment condition. A region of interest analysis revealed different activation patterns between the dorsal and the rostral parts of the ACC with the rostral ACC having only trial-specific activity for errors in the punishment condition, an activity profile similar to one observed in the nucleus accumbens. This study suggests that there is a motivational influence on cognitive processes in the ACC and nucleus accumbens and hints at a dissociation between tonic proactive activity and phasic reactive error-related activity.
Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling
This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…
Zakaria, Effandi; Nordin, Norazah Mohd
The study investigated the effects of mathematics anxiety on matriculation students as related to motivation and achievement. Subjects included 88 students who were at the end of their second semester of study. Anxiety and motivation were measured using the Fennema-Sherman Math Anxiety Scale (MAS) and Effectance Motivation Scale (EMS)…
Berger, Jean-Louis; Karabenick, Stuart A.
Considerable evidence indicates that student motivation and use of learning strategies are related. There is insufficient understanding, however, about their reciprocal effects--whether motivation affects strategy use, the converse, or whether the effects are bidirectional--and which components of motivation and strategies are involved. A two-wave…
Yang, Pengbo; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing
Transfer entropy is a powerful technique which is able to quantify the impact of one dynamic system on another system. In this paper, we propose the effective phase transfer entropy method based on the transfer entropy method. We use simulated data to test the performance of this method, and the experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is capable of detecting the information transfer between the systems. We also explore the relationship between effective phase transfer entropy and some variables, such as data size, coupling strength and noise. The effective phase transfer entropy is positively correlated with the data size and the coupling strength. Even in the presence of a large amount of noise, it can detect the information transfer between systems, and it is very robust to noise. Moreover, this measure is indeed able to accurately estimate the information flow between systems compared with phase transfer entropy. In order to reflect the application of this method in practice, we apply this method to financial time series and gain new insight into the interactions between systems. It is demonstrated that the effective phase transfer entropy can be used to detect some economic fluctuations in the financial market. To summarize, the effective phase transfer entropy method is a very efficient tool to estimate the information flow between systems.
Gross, Jacob P. K.; Berry, Matthew; Reynolds, Pauline
Financial aid and student success are interrelated and essential components of strategic enrollment management. From an economic perspective, by reducing the price students pay, financial aid affects student demand for education. However, financial aid also has nonmonetary effects. For example, students receiving institutional scholarships may…
Vollmeyer, Regina; Rheinberg, Falko
In our cognitive motivational process model (Vollmeyer & Rheinberg, "Zeitschrift fur Padagogische Psychologie," 12:11-23, 1998) we assume that initial motivation affects performance via motivation during learning and learning strategies. These variables are also central for self-regulation theories (e.g., M. Boekaerts, "European Psychologist,"…
Tuckman, Bruce W.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching students the use of specific learning and motivation strategies and substrategies to meet the cognitive and motivational demands of college. Findings indicate that training in learning and motivation strategy use contributed to GPA improvement. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)
This article reports the findings of a controlled quasi-experimental study investigating the effects of motivational strategies on learner motivation and achievement in English language classes in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the most important motivational strategies were identified. In the second…
Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun
The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…
The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.
Hao, Yu; Zhang, Zong-Yong; Liao, Hua; Wei, Yi-Ming; Wang, Shuo
Based on panel data for 29 Chinese provinces from 1995 to 2012, this paper explores the relationship between financial development and environmental quality in China. A comprehensive framework is utilized to estimate both the direct and indirect effects of financial development on CO2 emissions in China using a carefully designed two-stage regression model. The first-difference and orthogonal-deviation Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) methods are used to control for potential endogeneity and introduce dynamics. To ensure the robustness of the estimations, two indicators measuring financial development-financial depth and financial efficiency-are used. The empirical results indicate that the direct effects of financial depth and financial efficiency on environmental quality are positive and negative, respectively. The indirect effects of both indicators are U shaped and dominate the shape of the total effects. These findings suggest that the influences of the financial development on environment depend on the level of economic development. At the early stage of economic growth, financial development is environmentally friendly. When the economy is highly developed, a higher level of financial development is harmful to the environmental quality.
Social advertisers--those responsible for public and nonprofit advertising and marketing--must employ many of the major psychological motivations used by commercial advertisers to stimulate desire and action on the part of target audiences. For example, commercial advertisers create psychological stimuli to facilitate motivation of the fulfillment…
Many teachers hesitate to integrate film into English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classrooms because of the uncertainty of the educational efficacy of viewing an entire film in class and the motivational value of the repeated use of short film clips. However, both short film clips and longer films can be used in class to motivate ESL students and…
Williams, Nocola Ann
A discrepancy exists on both state and local assessments between economically disadvantaged and noneconomically disadvantaged 4th grade students in the area of reading. As students enter the intermediate grades, their motivation to read begins to dwindle. This lack of motivation can ultimately put the academic career of these students in jeopardy.…
Tuckman, Bruce W.
The purpose of the research was to determine experimentally whether the addition of features to enhance learner motivation and collaboration, termed motivational scaffolding, to the ''traditional'' distance learning design improved engagement, and performance, particularly among procrastinators. Two versions of a web-based five-credit study skills…
Crow, Sherry R.; Small, Ruth V.
Motivation is a complicated issue. There are myriad reasons why people choose to do what they do. For example, employees usually work for money, students study to earn grades, heart attack victims learn that when they diet they will live longer--the list of extrinsic motivators is endless. Conversely, there are things people do just for the…
Chen, Pin-Hwa; Wu, Jen-Rung
In recent years, many Taiwanese elementary schools have implemented extensive reading activities in their respective campuses. In order to motivate pupils to read, teachers and parents would offer pupils contingent rewards. As we know, the use of rewards in educational settings as a way to improve motivation is a controversial issue. Previous…
ATKINSON'S 1957 MODEL AND HIS MODIFIED 1964 MODEL ARE MODELS FOR THE DETERMINANTS OF ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED BEHAVIOR. ONE COMPONENT OF THE 1964 MODEL, INERTIAL GOAL TENDENCY, CAPTURES THE IDEA THAT MOTIVATION, ONCE AROUSED, PERSISTS UNTIL SATISFIED. THE INFLUENCE OF UNSATISFIED MOTIVATION HAS BEEN BOTH HYPOTHESIZED AND DEMONSTRATED. EXPERIMENTS…
Koenig, Lori A.
Offenders involved in this study lacked basic financial knowledge which presented a barrier to their success upon release. The researcher modified existing curriculum and created a course in financial literacy for offenders within a medium security correctional facility based upon their personal experiences. The offenders gained financial…
Gross, Jacob P. K.; Zerquera, Desiree; Inge, Brittany; Berry, Matthew
Lack of financial resources to pay for postsecondary education--perceived and actual--has been cited as a barrier to student access and persistence, particularly for Latino students. This study investigates the following question: "To what extent does financial aid affect the educational attainment of Latinos enrolled in Associate's degree…
Ragland, Sheri E.
In 2008, state legislatures provided $6 billion in financial aid to 2 million low-income young adults. When low-income young adults receive state financial aid and do not complete college, states lose their investment because fewer people with degrees will contribute to the state's economy. Declining states' budgets have led to (a) the rising cost…
Steele-Johnson, Debra; Kalinoski, Zachary T
Our purpose was to examine whether positive error framing, that is, making errors salient and cuing individuals to see errors as useful, can benefit learning when task exploration is constrained. Recent research has demonstrated the benefits of a newer approach to training, that is, error management training, that includes the opportunity to actively explore the task and framing errors as beneficial to learning complex tasks (Keith & Frese, 2008). Other research has highlighted the important role of errors in on-the-job learning in complex domains (Hutchins, 1995). Participants (N = 168) from a large undergraduate university performed a class scheduling task. Results provided support for a hypothesized path model in which error framing influenced cognitive, motivational, and affective factors which in turn differentially affected performance quantity and quality. Within this model, error framing had significant direct effects on metacognition and self-efficacy. Our results suggest that positive error framing can have beneficial effects even when tasks cannot be structured to support extensive exploration. Whereas future research can expand our understanding of error framing effects on outcomes, results from the current study suggest that positive error framing can facilitate learning from errors in real-time performance of tasks.
McCaughan, Lindsay R.; McKinlay, Sue
Female high school students participated in a motor task to assess the effects of success/failure feedback and extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. It was found that a significant change in intrinsic motivation was due to the effects of success/failure feedback, but not to the effect of a tangible reward. (Authors/FG)
Iajya, Victor; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario; Slonim, Robert
In many low- and middle-income countries blood donations per capita are substantially lower than in advanced economies. In these countries blood supply is mostly collected through directed donations from relatives and friends to individuals needing transfusions or to replace blood used in emergencies. The World Health Organization considers this method of blood supply inefficient compared to undirected voluntary donations. To examine methods to motivate undirected voluntary donations, we ran a large-scale, natural field experiment in Argentina, testing the effectiveness of information, social and financial incentives. We find that only higher-valued financial incentives generated more donations, increasing with the value of the reward. These incentives did not create adverse selection in the safety or usability of the donated blood. We discuss the implications of our findings for researchers interested in understanding motivations for pro-social behavior and for health agencies and policymakers concerned with the current and growing shortages in blood supply in low- and middle-income countries.
... a bridge financial company. 380.26 Section 380.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE... Effect of transfer of assets and obligations to a bridge financial company. (a) The purchase of any asset or assumption of any asset or liability of a covered financial company by a bridge financial...
... a bridge financial company. 380.26 Section 380.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE... Effect of transfer of assets and obligations to a bridge financial company. (a) The purchase of any asset or assumption of any asset or liability of a covered financial company by a bridge financial...
... a bridge financial company. 380.26 Section 380.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE... Effect of transfer of assets and obligations to a bridge financial company. (a) The purchase of any asset or assumption of any asset or liability of a covered financial company by a bridge financial...
Foster, Caroline; McDonald, Susan; Frize, Graham; Ayers, Sarah; Fidler, Sarah
Emerging evidence suggests financial incentives (FIs) improve medication adherence in select populations. A small proportion of adolescents with perinatal HIV (PaHIV) transfer to adult services with established poor adherence and advanced disease. We describe a single center adherence intervention combining FIs with motivational interviewing (MI). Eligible patients (PaHIV,16-25 years, CD4 count ≤ 200, off ART despite multiple attempts) received MI, and FI dependent on viral load (VL) reduction for 1 year. Outcome measures compared CD4 gain from baseline at 1 year and 12 months post cessation of FI/MI. Eleven young people enrolled; median age 19 years, 8 female. Baseline median CD4 count 30 cells/μL (IQR 10-160), VL 12,870 c/mL. Outcomes at 12 months: 9/11 ever achieved VL < 50, 5 sustained undetectable VL, median CD4 140, mean CD4 gain 90 cells/μL at 1 year. Twelve months post cessation of MI/FI; six VL < 50, median CD4 75, mean CD4 gain 122 cells/μL. Total FI expenditure £1,350: £68 per 50 CD4 cells at 1 year, £55 at 24 months. To prevent death, adolescents with PaHIV require novel interventions to reverse poor patterns of adherence established since childhood. FI/MI improved virological and immunological outcomes with minimal expenditure. Extension of this pilot work for vulnerable individuals is now indicated.
Felger, Jennifer C; Treadway, Michael T
Motivational and motor deficits are common in patients with depression and other psychiatric disorders, and are related to symptoms of anhedonia and motor retardation. These deficits in motivation and motor function are associated with alterations in corticostriatal neurocircuitry, which may reflect abnormalities in mesolimbic and mesostriatal dopamine (DA). One pathophysiologic pathway that may drive changes in DAergic corticostriatal circuitry is inflammation. Biomarkers of inflammation such as inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins are reliably elevated in a significant proportion of psychiatric patients. A variety of inflammatory stimuli have been found to preferentially target basal ganglia function to lead to impaired motivation and motor activity. Findings have included inflammation-associated reductions in ventral striatal neural responses to reward anticipation, decreased DA and DA metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid, and decreased availability, and release of striatal DA, all of which correlated with symptoms of reduced motivation and/or motor retardation. Importantly, inflammation-associated symptoms are often difficult to treat, and evidence suggests that inflammation may decrease DA synthesis and availability, thus circumventing the efficacy of standard pharmacotherapies. This review will highlight the impact of administration of inflammatory stimuli on the brain in relation to motivation and motor function. Recent data demonstrating similar relationships between increased inflammation and altered DAergic corticostriatal circuitry and behavior in patients with major depressive disorder will also be presented. Finally, we will discuss the mechanisms by which inflammation affects DA neurotransmission and relevance to novel therapeutic strategies to treat reduced motivation and motor symptoms in patients with high inflammation.
Gurcay, Deniz; Balta, Ebru
It is emphasized in several studies that both domain specific factors and cultural values and beliefs could have an effect on students' metacognitive self-regulation and motivational beliefs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of motivational beliefs on Turkish students' metacognitive self-regulation in physics courses. Therefore,…
McFarland, Daniel; Pals, Heili
In this paper we interrelate different theories of identity and describe how various social contexts and cognitive motives influence the process of identity change. We consider two competing theories about the linkage of contexts with motives for identity change: the effect of category traits, based on social identity theory, and the effect of…
Today, most healthcare organizations aim to manage professionals' motivation through monetary incentives, such as pay for performance. However, addressing motivation extrinsically can involve negative effects, such as disturbed teamwork, gaming the system, and crowd-out of intrinsic motivation. To offset these side effects, it is crucial to support professionals' intrinsic motivation actively, which is largely determined by enjoyment- and obligation-based social norms that derive from professionals' culture. For this study, a professional culture questionnaire was designed and validated, the results of which uncovered three factors: relationship to work, relationship to colleagues, and relationship to organization. These factors served as independent variables for regression analyses. Second, Amabile's validated work preference inventory was used to measure intrinsic motivation as a dependent variable. The regression analysis was controlled for sex, age, and experience. The study revealed that relationship to work had the strongest (and a positive) impact on intrinsic motivation in general and on Amabile's intrinsic subscales, enjoyment and challenge. Relationship to organization had a negative impact on intrinsic motivation and both subscales, and relationship to colleagues showed a low positive significance for the intrinsic scale only. Healthcare organizations have mostly focused on targeting professionals' extrinsic motivation. However, managing dimensions of professional culture can help support professionals' intrinsic motivation without incurring the side effects of monetary incentives.
Dewhurst, Tahnee N; Found, Bryan; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Rogers, Doug
Expertise studies in forensic handwriting examination involve comparisons of Forensic Handwriting Examiners' (FHEs) opinions with lay-persons on blind tests. All published studies of this type have reported real and demonstrable skill differences between the specialist and lay groups. However, critics have proposed that any difference shown may be indicative of a lack of motivation on the part of lay participants, rather than a real difference in skill. It has been suggested that qualified FHEs would be inherently more motivated to succeed in blinded validation trials, as their professional reputations could be at risk, should they perform poorly on the task provided. Furthermore, critics suggest that lay-persons would be unlikely to be highly motivated to succeed, as they would have no fear of negative consequences should they perform badly. In an effort to investigate this concern, a blind signature trial was designed and administered to forty lay-persons. Participants were required to compare known (exemplar) signatures of an individual to questioned signatures and asked to express an opinion regarding whether the writer of the known signatures wrote each of the questioned signatures. The questioned signatures comprised a mixture of genuine, disguised and simulated signatures. The forty participants were divided into two separate groupings. Group 'A' were requested to complete the trial as directed and were advised that for each correct answer they would be financially rewarded, for each incorrect answer they would be financially penalized, and for each inconclusive opinion they would receive neither penalty nor reward. Group 'B' was requested to complete the trial as directed, with no mention of financial recompense or penalty. The results of this study do not support the proposition that motivation rather than skill difference is the source of the statistical difference in opinions between individuals' results in blinded signature proficiency trials.
Huang, Yunhui; Lv, Wei; Wu, Jiang
This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of "intrinsic academic motivation and depression" and that of "intrinsic academic motivation and stress" was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict.
Soutschek, Alexander; Stelzel, Christine; Paschke, Lena; Walter, Henrik; Schubert, Torsten
Previous studies suggest that both motivation and task difficulty expectations activate brain regions associated with cognitive control. However, it remains an open question whether motivational and cognitive determinants of control have similar or dissociable impacts on conflict processing on a neural level. The current study tested the effects of motivation and conflict expectancy on activity in regions related to processing of the target and the distractor information. Participants performed a picture-word interference task in which we manipulated the size of performance-dependent monetary rewards (level of motivation) and the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials within a block (level of conflict expectancy). Our results suggest that motivation improves conflict processing by facilitating task-relevant stimulus processing and task difficulty expectations mainly modulate the processing of distractor information. We conclude that motivation and conflict expectancy engage dissociable control strategies during conflict resolution.
Graham, Camelia; Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Latimer, William
Motivational theorists in psychology have moved away from individual-based approaches to socio-cognitive and socio-ecological models to explain student engagement and motivation for learning. Such approaches consider, for example, the influence of family and neighborhood environments as important constructs in youth behavior. In this study, links between neighborhood condition (e.g. external appearance of the blocks nearest to the respondents’ home), family dysfunction, and motivation for learning are investigated. Data were obtained from two hundred and sixteen (216) urban African American middle school children enrolled in a substance use prevention intervention. Analytic models show associations between poor neighborhood condition and both family dysfunction and lower learning motivation. Family dysfunction was also found to mediate the effect of neighborhood condition on motivated learning. Neighborhood and family characteristics are important determinants of urban schoolchildren’s motivation for learning. PMID:22389576
Barbuto, John E; Xu, Ye
126 leaders and 624 employees were sampled to test the relationship between sources of motivation and conflict management styles of leaders and how these variables influence effectiveness of leadership. Five sources of motivation measured by the Motivation Sources Inventory were tested-intrinsic process, instrumental, self-concept external, self-concept internal, and goal internalization. These sources of work motivation were associated with Rahim's modes of interpersonal conflict management-dominating, avoiding, obliging, complying, and integrating-and to perceived leadership effectiveness. A structural equation model tested leaders' conflict management styles and leadership effectiveness based upon different sources of work motivation. The model explained variance for obliging (65%), dominating (79%), avoiding (76%), and compromising (68%), but explained little variance for integrating (7%). The model explained only 28% of the variance in leader effectiveness.
Caudwell, Kim M; Keatley, David A
Caudwell, KM and Keatley, DA. The effect of men's body attitudes and motivation for gym attendance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2550-2556, 2016-The current study integrates men's body attitudes with implicitly and explicitly measured motivation to investigate the role of these factors in predicting gym attendance. Male participants (N = 99) who regularly attended a gym were recruited to participate in an online questionnaire. Participants completed implicit and explicit measures of motivation, explicitly measured men's body attitudes, and reported the average number of gym visits per week. Attitudes related to body fat and explicitly measured autonomous motivation significantly predicted typical gym attendance. Implicitly measured motivation significantly and negatively predicted gym attendance. Results indicate some support for a dual-systems account of gym attendance. Men's body attitudes and autonomous motivation influences gym attendance; however, implicitly measured motivation showed antagonistic effects. Although individuals may explicitly state their autonomous motivation for gym attendance, attendance may also be influenced at the explicit level. Health and fitness professionals may improve gym attendance by focusing on people's reasons for attending a gym, facilitating autonomous motivation in clients, and minimizing the influence of controlled reasons for exercise.
Bigliassi, Marcelo; Silva, Vinícius B; Karageorghis, Costas I; Bird, Jonathan M; Santos, Priscila C; Altimari, Leandro R
Motivational audiovisual stimuli such as music and video have been widely used in the realm of exercise and sport as a means by which to increase situational motivation and enhance performance. The present study addressed the mechanisms that underlie the effects of motivational stimuli on psychophysiological responses and exercise performance. Twenty-two participants completed fatiguing isometric handgrip-squeezing tasks under two experimental conditions (motivational audiovisual condition and neutral audiovisual condition) and a control condition. Electrical activity in the brain and working muscles was analyzed by use of electroencephalography and electromyography, respectively. Participants were asked to squeeze the dynamometer maximally for 30s. A single-item motivation scale was administered after each squeeze. Results indicated that task performance and situational motivational were superior under the influence of motivational stimuli when compared to the other two conditions (~20% and ~25%, respectively). The motivational stimulus downregulated the predominance of low-frequency waves (theta) in the right frontal regions of the cortex (F8), and upregulated high-frequency waves (beta) in the central areas (C3 and C4). It is suggested that motivational sensory cues serve to readjust electrical activity in the brain; a mechanism by which the detrimental effects of fatigue on the efferent control of working muscles is ameliorated.
M ter Bogt, Tom F; Engels, Rutger C M E
This study examines motives for and consequences of MDMA use at different types of dance parties in the Netherlands (2001 and 2002). Participants were 490 visitors of three different types of rave parties, "club/mellow," "trance/mainstream," and "hardcore" (34% female, mean age 22.3 years, 76.5% MDMA users). Partygoers are motivated primarily by the energetic and euphoric effects they expect from MDMA. Quantity of MDMA use is associated with hardcore and trance/mainstream party style, with the motives of euphoria, sexiness, self-insight, and sociability/flirtatiousness (negative), and with gender, educational level (negative), and MDMA use by friends. Women report more (acute) negative effects--depression, confusion, loss of control, suspiciousness, edginess, nausea, dizziness--than men; and in particular, women who are motivated to cope with their problems by using MDMA are at risk. Men's polydrug use and notably their motivation to conform to friends by using MDMA are associated with negative effects.
Hu, Weiping; Jia, Xiaojuan; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Shan, Xinxin
Learning motivation has a significant effect on student learning, which is a key determinant of academic performance and creativity. It is increasingly popular and important to cultivate learning motivation in schools. To consider this trend, a long-term intervention program named "Learn to Think" (LTT) was designed not only to improve…
Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb
Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…
Marchant, Gregory J.
This study examined the effects of specific motivational dimensions and self-perceptions of a group of 47 urban black fourth and fifth grade students on attendance and academic achievement. Each student's responses to a measure of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and a self-perception inventory were compared to each other and to his or her…
Nguyen, Tung Nhu
Motivational effects during a simulated educational game should be studied because a general concern of lecturers is motivating students and increasing their knowledge. Given advances in internet technology, traditional short in-class games are being substituted with long web-based games. To maximize the benefits of web-based simulation games, a…
Retelsdorf, Jan; Koller, Olaf; Moller, Jens
This research aimed at identifying unique effects of reading motivation on reading performance when controlling for cognitive skills, familial, and demographic background. We drew upon a longitudinal sample of N = 1508 secondary school students from 5th to 8th grade. Two types of intrinsic reading motivation (reading enjoyment, reading for…
Chang, Chiung-Sui; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Sung, Hung-Yen; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chen, Nian-Shing; Cheng, Shan-Shan
This study investigates how Internet self-efficacy helps students to transform motivation into learning action, and its influence on learning performance. In this study, the effects of Internet self-efficacy on motivation and the learning performance of online college students were examined using social cognitive theory. The subjects of this study…
Kebritchi, Mansureh; Hirumi, Atsusi; Bai, Haiyan
This study examined the effects of a computer game on students' mathematics achievement and motivation, and the role of prior mathematics knowledge, computer skill, and English language skill on their achievement and motivation as they played the game. A total of 193 students and 10 teachers participated in this study. The teachers were randomly…
Brackney, Ryan J.; Cheung, Timothy H. C.; Neisewander, Janet L.; Sanabria, Federico
Dissociating motoric and motivational effects of pharmacological manipulations on operant behavior is a substantial challenge. To address this problem, we applied a response-bout analysis to data from rats trained to lever press for sucrose on variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Motoric, motivational, and schedule factors (effort…
Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa; Peng, Yun; Lee, Nancy
Direct and mediating effects of homework worry anxiety on homework effort and homework achievement and the differences in the structural relations among homework motivation constructs and homework achievement across mathematics and English homework were examined in 268 tenth graders in China. Homework motivation included task value, homework…
Pak, Sarah S.; Weseley, Allyson J.
Reading logs have become a practice in many elementary schools. Although lack of autonomy undermines intrinsic motivation (Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett, 1973), no study has examined the effect of logs. Second and third-grade students (N = 112) were assigned either a mandatory or voluntary log and surveyed about their motivation to read at…
Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve
Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion at both institutional settings and that motivation has indirect effects (via 1st-year academic performance). The total effects of both interest-major congruence and motivation on timely degree completion underscore the importance of both constructs in understanding student adjustment and postsecondary success. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed.
Blocker, Richard A.; Edwards, R. P.
Discusses the role of extrinsic reinforcement in intrinsic motivation in cognitive attribution theory. Concludes that cognitive attribution theory lacks parsimony, in that extant reinforcement analysis can account for undermining with equal facility. Suggests undermining is of little significance due to its elusive and transient impact on operant…
Taboada, Ana; Tonks, Stephen M.; Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.
The authors examined how motivational and cognitive variables predict reading comprehension, and whether each predictor variable adds unique explanatory power when statistically controlling for the others. Fourth-grade students (N = 205) completed measures of reading comprehension in September and December of the same year, and measures of…
Marinak, Barbara A.
In an attempt to more clearly understand the erosion of engagement in some readers, a number of researchers (J. Brophy, 2008; J. Guthrie, 2010; K. Mohr, 2006) and organizations (Education Alliance, 2010) have called for the investigation of strategies to improve elementary reading motivation. Consequently this mixed-methods investigation focused…
The purpose of this article was to investigate the reasons why elementary-aged boys often lack motivation in literacy and to provide teachers with useful approaches to engage reluctant boys in reading and writing. Following a comprehensive search of multiple university data base search engines, the author critically evaluated 21 peer-reviewed…
Mittelhaëuser, Marie-Anne; Béguin, Anton A.; Sijtsma, Klaas
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether simulated differential motivation between the stakes for operational tests and anchor items produces an invalid linking result if the Rasch model is used to link the operational tests. This was done for an external anchor design and a variation of a pretest design. The study also investigated…
A questionnaire administered to 1,391 nurses in big hospitals revealed that they were strongly motivated if they expected good results from their efforts and if they had enough information about what they were supposed to do and how. Satisfactory work situations were characterized by smooth feedback, role clarity and so on. Even nurses who responded to external rewards were internally motivated to carry out complex jobs if they received sufficient information about the jobs presumably because the information eliminated uncertainty about their roles. Autonomy, or delegated power and responsibility, tended to be motivating only for the nurses who placed high valence on intrinsic rewards, that is, who received encouragement from the accomplishment of the job itself. These results suggest that even those who have more extrinsic needs may be motivated by the complexity of the job. Individual differences in the response to the job may be understood as a matter of information-processing such as the extent of adaptation to the job.
Fenner, Dorraine; Mansour, Sueha Kayyal; Sydor, Natalie
This report described how implementation of differentiated assignments provided documentation of how students' motivation increased. The volunteers that participated in this study were 6th, 7th, and 8th graders. Students struggle academically to meet the expectations of their instructors. These struggles impact how students learn academically,…
This study examined the effect of unhealthy eating habits on behavior within the dual-process perspective, including intentional and reactive motivation. Previous studies assumed that habits elicit behavior directly. However, this study hypothesized that habits affect behavior through their effect on action control and reactive motivation. Longitudinal data were available from undergraduate students (n=286) who completed the first questionnaire assessing their habits, action control (internal and external), intentional motivation, and reactive motivation, and the second questionnaire accessing their actual eating behavior of high-calorie snacks in the 2 weeks following the first questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the predictors of their eating behavior. The results showed that habits inhibited internal control and promoted external control. These two sources of control affected intentional and reactive motivations, respectively, which determine behavior. It is concluded that habitual unhealthy eating behavior results from a decrease in conscious control leading to a switch from an intentional to a reactive route.
Capa, Rémi L; Audiffren, Michel; Ragot, Stéphanie
The interactive effect of achievement motivation and task difficulty on invested mental effort, postulated by Humphreys and Revelle [Humphreys, M.S., Revelle, W., 1984. Personality, motivation, and performance: a theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing. Psychol. Rev. 91, 153-184], was examined using behavioral, subjective, and effort-related physiological measures. Eighteen approach-driven participants and 18 avoidance-driven participants were selected based on their motive to achieve success scores and their motive to avoid failure scores. A 2x3 factorial design was used, with three levels of task difficulty. As expected, approach-driven participants performed better and had a stronger decrease of midfrequency band of heart rate variability than avoidance-driven participants, especially during the difficult task. These results support the interactive effect of achievement motivation and task difficulty on invested mental effort.
Gable, Philip A; Poole, Bryan D
Time flies when you're having fun, but what is it about pleasant experiences that makes time seem to go by faster? In the experiments reported here, we tested the proposal that approach motivation causes perceptual shortening of time during pleasant experiences. Relative to a neutral state or a positive state with low approach motivation (experiment 1), a positive state with high approach motivation shortened perceptions of time. Also, individual differences in approach motivation predicted shorter perceptions of time. In experiment 2, we manipulated approach motivation independently of the affective state and showed that increasing approach motivation caused time to be perceived as passing more quickly. In Experiment 3, we showed that positive approach motivation, as opposed to arousal, shortens perception of time by comparing a highly arousing positive state with a highly arousing negative state. Shortening of time perception in appetitive states may prolong approach-motivated behavior and increase the likelihood of acquiring appetitive objects or goals.
Cameron, Judy; Banko, Katherine M.; Pierce, W. David
A major concern in psychology and education is that rewards decrease intrinsic motivation to perform activities. Over the past 30 years, more than 100 experimental studies have been conducted on this topic. In 1994, Cameron and Pierce conducted a meta-analysis of this literature and concluded that negative effects of reward were limited and could be easily prevented in applied settings. A more recent meta-analysis of the literature by Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999) shows pervasive negative effects of reward. The purpose of the present article is to resolve differences in previous meta-analytic findings and to provide a meta-analysis of rewards and intrinsic motivation that permits tests of competing theoretical explanations. Our results suggest that in general, rewards are not harmful to motivation to perform a task. Rewards given for low-interest tasks enhance free-choice intrinsic motivation. On high-interest tasks, verbal rewards produce positive effects on free-choice motivation and self-reported task interest. Negative effects are found on high-interest tasks when the rewards are tangible, expected (offered beforehand), and loosely tied to level of performance. When rewards are linked to level of performance, measures of intrinsic motivation increase or do not differ from a nonrewarded control group. Overall, the pattern of results indicates that reward contingencies do not have pervasive negative effects on intrinsic motivation. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are addressed. PMID:22478353
College students who are unprepared for financial decision making may make risky decisions such as compulsive spending and debt accumulation. Financial stress impacts both academic achievement and retention. The current literature addresses the deficiency college students have when making financially responsible decisions, but little is mentioned…
Scarapicchia T, M F; Sabiston, Catherine M; Andersen, Ross E; Garcia Bengoechea, Enrique
Young inactive healthy-weight females (n = 42) were randomly assigned to exercise at a self-selected pace on a treadmill beside a confederate who was providing either intrinsic or externally regulated verbal primes. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), percentage of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and exercise continuance were recorded. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing mood pre- and postexercise session and postexercise motivational outcomes. The intrinsic motivation group reported higher RPE values after 8 min of exercise, had higher recorded HR measures at all 5 recorded time points, exercised at a higher %HR max, spent more time in MVPA, and were more likely to continue to exercise than participants in the externally regulated motivation group. A time effect was noted for vigor. Based on these findings, exercise motivation can be "contagious" through verbal primes, suggesting that exercising with or around intrinsically motivated individuals may have beneficial outcomes.
Lazarides, Rebecca; Raufelder, Diana
This two-wave longitudinal study examined how developmental changes in students' mastery goal orientation, academic effort, and intrinsic motivation were predicted by student-perceived support of motivational support (support for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in secondary classrooms. The study extends previous knowledge that showed that support for motivational support in class is related to students' intrinsic motivation as it focused on the developmental changes of a set of different motivational variables and the relations of these changes to student-perceived motivational support in class. Thus, differential classroom effects on students' motivational development were investigated. A sample of 1088 German students was assessed in the beginning of the school year when students were in grade 8 (Mean age = 13.70, SD = 0.53, 54% girls) and again at the end of the next school year when students were in grade 9. Results of latent change models showed a tendency toward decline in mastery goal orientation and a significant decrease in academic effort from grade 8 to 9. Intrinsic motivation did not decrease significantly across time. Student-perceived support of competence in class predicted the level and change in students' academic effort. The findings emphasized that it is beneficial to create classroom learning environments that enhance students' perceptions of competence in class when aiming to enhance students' academic effort in secondary school classrooms.
Kelly, Claire L; Crawford, Trevor J; Gowen, Emma; Richardson, Kelly; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I
Self-control is important for everyday life and involves behavioral regulation. Self-control requires effort, and when completing two successive self-control tasks, there is typically a temporary drop in performance in the second task. High self-reported motivation and being made self-aware somewhat counteract this effect-with the result that performance in the second task is enhanced. The current study explored the relationship between self-awareness and motivation on sequential self-control task performance. Before employing self-control in an antisaccade task, participants initially applied self-control in an incongruent Stroop task or completed a control task. After the Stroop task, participants unscrambled sentences that primed self-awareness (each started with the word "I") or unscrambled neutral sentences. Motivation was measured after the antisaccade task. Findings revealed that, after exerting self-control in the incongruent Stroop task, motivation predicted erroneous responses in the antisaccade task for those that unscrambled neutral sentences, and high motivation led to fewer errors. Those primed with self-awareness were somewhat more motivated overall, but motivation did not significantly predict antisaccade performance. Supporting the resource allocation account, if one was motivated-intrinsically or via the manipulation of self-awareness-resources were allocated to both tasks leading to the successful completion of two sequential self-control tasks.
Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Behzadi, Somayeh; Sabouri, Farhad; Alavi, Mousa
Background: Motivation to academic achievement is critical for students of medical sciences, particularly nursing students. It is directly related to high levels of achievement and quality of life. Accordingly, diminished motivation would result in academic decline, study and work desertion and exhaustion. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioural intervention on the motivation for academic achievement of the nursing students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 64 female nursing students who were recruited to study based on the inclusion criteria. After sampling, the subjects were randomly assigned to study and control groups. Then, cognitive behavioural intervention was administered in study group during 60 days. Academic motivation scale was filled before, after and one month after the intervention. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical tests (Chi-square, t-test). Results: After the intervention, mean scores of academic motivation were significantly increased in study group, compared to control group (P < 0.001). Comparison of the mean scores of academic motivation in two groups revealed a significant increase in mean score of academic motivation 151.50 (20.22) after cognitive behavioural intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings suggested that cognitive behavioural intervention was a valuable psychotherapy technique to improve academic achievement motivation among nursing students. PMID:27095983
Lazarides, Rebecca; Raufelder, Diana
This two-wave longitudinal study examined how developmental changes in students’ mastery goal orientation, academic effort, and intrinsic motivation were predicted by student-perceived support of motivational support (support for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in secondary classrooms. The study extends previous knowledge that showed that support for motivational support in class is related to students’ intrinsic motivation as it focused on the developmental changes of a set of different motivational variables and the relations of these changes to student-perceived motivational support in class. Thus, differential classroom effects on students’ motivational development were investigated. A sample of 1088 German students was assessed in the beginning of the school year when students were in grade 8 (Mean age = 13.70, SD = 0.53, 54% girls) and again at the end of the next school year when students were in grade 9. Results of latent change models showed a tendency toward decline in mastery goal orientation and a significant decrease in academic effort from grade 8 to 9. Intrinsic motivation did not decrease significantly across time. Student-perceived support of competence in class predicted the level and change in students’ academic effort. The findings emphasized that it is beneficial to create classroom learning environments that enhance students’ perceptions of competence in class when aiming to enhance students’ academic effort in secondary school classrooms. PMID:28382012
Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan
This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.
Zhou, Ya; Siu, Angela F Y
Recent research on the construct of emotion suggests the integration of a motivational dimension into the traditional two-dimension (subjective valence and physiological arousal) model. The motivational intensity of an emotional state should be taken into account while investigating the emotion-cognition relationship. This study examined how positive emotional states varying in motivational intensity influenced set shifting, after controlling the potential confounding impacts of physiological arousal. In Experiment 1, 155 volunteers performed a set-shifting task after being randomly assigned to five states: high- vs. low-motivating positive affect (interest vs. serenity), high- vs. low-motivating negative affect (disgust vs. anxiety), and neutral state. Eighty-five volunteers participated in Experiment 2, which further examined the effects of higher vs. lower degree of interest. Both experiments measured and compared participants' physiological arousal (blood pressure and pulse rate) under the normal and experimental conditions as the covariate. Results showed no difference in switching performance between the neutral and serenity groups. As compared with the neutral state, the high-motivating positive affect significantly increased set-switching reaction time costs, but reduced error rate costs; the higher the motivational intensity, the greater the time-costs impairment. This indicates a role of the high-motivating positive affect in regulating the balance between the flexible and stable cognitive control. Motivational intensity also modulated the effects of negative emotional states, i.e., disgust caused a larger increase in time costs than anxiety. Further exploration into neurobiological mechanisms that may mediate the emotional effects on set shifting is warranted.
Holland, Alice Ann; Hughes, Carroll W; Harder, Lana; Silver, Cheryl; Bowers, Daniel C; Stavinoha, Peter L
It has been proposed previously that extrinsic motivation may enable survivors of childhood medulloblastoma to significantly improve aspects of neurocognitive performance. In healthy populations, enhanced motivation has been shown to promote academic fluency, a domain likely more relevant to the educational outcomes of pediatric medulloblastoma survivors than academic skill development. The present study investigates the effect of enhanced extrinsic motivation on fluent (i.e., accurate and efficient) academic performance in pediatric medulloblastoma survivors. Participants were 36 children, ages 7-18, who had completed treatment for medulloblastoma. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery that included administration of equivalent tasks on Forms A and B of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Half were randomly assigned to an incentive condition prior to the administration of Form B. Provision of a performance-based incentive resulted in statistically significant improvement, but not normalization of function, in performance on measures of academic fluency. No demographic, treatment-related, academic, neuropsychological, or self-perception variables predicted response to incentive. Findings suggest that academic performance of survivors may significantly improve under highly motivating conditions. In addition to implications for educational services, this finding raises the novel possibility that decreased motivation represents an inherent neuropsychological deficit in this population and provides a rationale for further investigation of factors affecting individual differences in motivational processes. Further, by examining effort in a context where effort is not inherently suspect, present findings also significantly contribute to the debate regarding the effects of effort and motivation on neuropsychological performance.
Glenn, Tina Heard
Academic achievement of public school students in the United States has significantly fallen behind other countries. Students' lack of knowledge of, or interest in, basic science and math has led to fewer graduates of science, technology, engineering, and math-related fields (STEM), a factor that may affect their career success and will certainly affect the numbers in the workforce who are prepared for some STEM jobs. Drawing from self-determination theory and achievement theory, the purpose of this correlational study was to determine whether there were significant relationships between high school academic performance in science classes, motivations (self-efficacy, self-regulation, and intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientation), and academic performance in an introductory online college biology class. Data were obtained at 2 points in time from a convenience multiethnic sample of adult male ( n =16) and female (n = 49) community college students in the southeast United States. Correlational analyses indicated no statistically significant relationships for intrinsic or extrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy, or self-regulation with high school science mean-GPA nor college biology final course grade. However, high school academic performance in science classes significantly predicted college performance in an entry-level online biology class. The implications of positive social change include knowledge useful for educational institutions to explore additional factors that may motivate students to enroll in science courses, potentially leading to an increase in scientific knowledge and STEM careers.
Serving on the board of any nonprofit organization has taken on added significance in recent years. There is greater accountability for trustees and for the overall mission and effectiveness of the organizations that they have the ultimate fiduciary responsibility to maintain. The changes have challenged not only the personal commitment that board…
Jin, Jungkun; Kim, Sehoon; Kwon, Hyuckmo; Kwon, Sejin
Axi-symmetric annular type ejector has been developed as a pressure recovery system for HF/DF chemical laser. Ejector was tested using air as operating gases and low-pressure entrained flow was obtained. In this paper, we changed motive gas since operating gases for chemical laser system are products of chemical reaction. By selection of motive gas, physical properties of operating gas changes, therefore the performance of ejector is different for each motive gas, i.e., specific heat at constant pressure (CP) and average molecular weight (MW) on the effectiveness of ejection. The research was carried out by both numerical analysis using commercial CFD code, FLUENT and experiments.
Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan
This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits.
Legault, Lisa; Gutsell, Jennifer N; Inzlicht, Michael
Although prejudice-reduction policies and interventions abound, is it possible that some of them result in the precise opposite of their intended effect--an increase in prejudice? We examined this question by exploring the impact of motivation-based prejudice-reduction interventions and assessing whether certain popular practices might in fact increase prejudice. In two experiments, participants received detailed information on, or were primed with, the goal of prejudice reduction; the information and primes either encouraged autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice or emphasized the societal requirement to control prejudice. Ironically, motivating people to reduce prejudice by emphasizing external control produced more explicit and implicit prejudice than did not intervening at all. Conversely, participants in whom autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice was induced displayed less explicit and implicit prejudice compared with no-treatment control participants. We outline strategies for effectively reducing prejudice and discuss the detrimental consequences of enforcing antiprejudice standards.
Nida, Robert E
The study was designed to examine the effects of motivation on young children's recall for object names and early-emerging mnemonic activities. Seventy-two 4-year-old children were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 instructional conditions: incidental, intentional, or motivational. Each child was shown 10 small toy objects and provided a 90 s study period prior to recall. The children's mnemonic behaviors were videotaped for subsequent coding. The children in the incidental condition were instructed to simply look at the toys while children in the intentional and motivational condition were given explicit instructions to remember. The motivational group was also told that they could keep whichever toys they remembered. A recognition memory task was employed to examine the extent to which the stimuli were encoded during the study period. The children's recall memory did not vary as a function of instructional condition. Children's use of singular versus multiple strategies was calculated, along with a weighted summary score giving most weight to the participant's use of mature mnemonic strategies. Significant differences in strategy use were found, favoring the motivational condition. Significant positive correlations were found between the weighted summary scores and object recall, and the teacher ratings of mastery motivation and object recall. Mastery motivation was found to be unrelated to the strategic summary scores, failing to mediate strategic behaviors. The results suggest that when providing incentives to remember, children apparently engaged in more effortful mnemonic processing in order to remember the items, even though a greater number of items were not recalled.
Cook, Michele T.
A problem facing educators is students' academic motivation to successfully complete science class offerings and pass state standardized tests. This study focused on the effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods to motivate high school science students to complete classroom activities. It was the intent of this study to provide a voice for students regarding what activities promote their motivation. A constant comparative analysis including open, axial, and selective coding of participants' interview responses and classroom observations provided codes used to develop a substantive theory of motivation and personal investment in students' learning. The findings of this study were that teachers should provide students with constructivist lessons such as cooperative groups, problem-based learning, and inquiry questions in which to learn content objectives. As social beings, students are more motivated to participate in activities that allow them to work with peers, contribute their own ideas, and relate topics of interest to their own realities. Keeping these ideas in mind during lesson preparation will increase students' motivation and achievement. Variation of instruction should include activities that reflect multiple intelligences and real world situations. The researcher recommends the development of professional learning communities as a way for teachers to share teaching practices that motivate students to learn and become problem solvers, thus promoting social change in educators' pedagogy in the researcher's teaching community. In an era of educational accountability and federal regulations, this study provides an important tool for teachers to employ in order to meet the educational needs of their students.
Benslimane, Nabila; Khalifa, Mohamed
High turnover rate among healthcare professionals is a very expensive price that healthcare organizations might pay if they don't have the proper strategies for motivating and satisfying their employees. Healthcare organizations should be able to identify areas that require more attention. Many studies discussed the vital link that bonds job satisfaction with motivation, which has a major impact on productivity, innovation, and overall organizational performance. Our study explored the level of job satisfaction and factors that motivate pharmacists in Saudi hospitals using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. From pharmacy managers' point of view; financial rewards are more important than non-financial incentives and benefits. This contradicts with pharmacists' opinions; who ranked recognition, promotion, job satisfaction, job feedback, autonomy and task significance among the most influential motivators to pharmacists. These results show that managers need to revise their plans and provide further attention to ensure that effective motivation and retention strategies are put in place.
Walczak, M B; Absolon, P L
The ability to communicate effectively with a multidisciplinary team in an assertive manner to resolve conflict, motivate others, and delegate tasks is a prerequisite skill to promote a harmonious work environment. Acquisition of this skill is often a combination of inherent attributes and learned experiences. This article describes a program on assertiveness, conflict resolution, motivation of others, and delegation. Nurses are encouraged to seek expertise from other departments (e.g., Human Resources) to help them develop similar programs.
Bayer, Mareike; Rossi, Valentina; Vanlessen, Naomi; Grass, Annika; Schacht, Annekathrin; Pourtois, Gilles
Motivation and attention constitute major determinants of human perception and action. Nonetheless, it remains a matter of debate whether motivation effects on the visual cortex depend on the spatial attention system, or rely on independent pathways. This study investigated the impact of motivation and spatial attention on the activity of the human primary and extrastriate visual cortex by employing a factorial manipulation of the two factors in a cued pattern discrimination task. During stimulus presentation, we recorded event-related potentials and pupillary responses. Motivational relevance increased the amplitudes of the C1 component at ∼70 ms after stimulus onset. This modulation occurred independently of spatial attention effects, which were evident at the P1 level. Furthermore, motivation and spatial attention had independent effects on preparatory activation as measured by the contingent negative variation; and pupil data showed increased activation in response to incentive targets. Taken together, these findings suggest independent pathways for the influence of motivation and spatial attention on the activity of the human visual cortex.
Teacher motivation is one of the primary variables of students' high performance. It is experienced that students whose teachers are highly motivated are more engaged in the learning process. Therefore, it's mostly the teacher who determines the level of success or failure in achieving institution's goal in the educational process. Thus, teachers…
Kivumbi, George W; Nangendo, Florence; Ndyabahika, Boniface Rutagira
A descriptive case study with multiple sites and a single level of analysis was carried out in four purposefully selected administrative districts of Uganda to investigate the effect of financial management systems under decentralization on malaria control. Data were primarily collected from 36 interviews with district managers, staff at health units and local leaders. A review of records and documents related to decentralization at the central and district level was also used to generate data for the study. We found that a long, tedious, and bureaucratic process combined with lack of knowledge in working with new financial systems by several actors characterized financial flow under decentralization. This affected the timely use of financial resources for malaria control in that there were funds in the system that could not be accessed for use. We were also told that sometimes these funds were returned to the central government because of non-use due to difficulties in accessing them and/or stringent conditions not to divert them to other uses. Our data showed that a cocktail of bureaucratic control systems, corruption and incompetence make the financial management system under decentralization counter-productive for malaria control. The main conclusion is that good governance through appropriate and efficient financial management systems is very important for effective malaria control under decentralization.
Chang, Yu-Kai; Chen, Senlin; Tu, Kun-Wei; Chi, Li-Kang
Using the quasi-experimental design, this study examined the effect of autonomy support on self-determined motivation in elementary school physical education (PE) students. One hundred and twenty six participants were assigned to either the autonomy support group (n = 61) or the control group (n = 65) for a six-week intervention period. Perceived teacher autonomy, perceived autonomy in PE, and self-determined motivation in PE were pre- and post-tested using validated questionnaires. Significant increases in perceived teacher autonomy and perceived autonomy in PE were observed in the autonomy support group, but not in the control group. Intrinsic motivation was higher in the autonomy support group than that in the control group. From an experimental perspective, these findings suggest that the autonomy support was successfully manipulated in the PE classes, which in turn increased the students' perceived autonomy and intrinsic motivation.
Anderson, Carla; Card, Karen
The purpose of this quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group study was to determine the influence that a financial education intervention administered in First Year Experience courses had on students' perceptions of their financial behavior such as compulsive spending and credit card use. This study utilized the five-point Likert-type…
Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali
Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level. PMID:27034927
The goals of this study were to extend the literature about classroom autonomy in several ways. First, since previous research on autonomy has tended to focus on younger learners, we examined whether the positive effects of autonomy on motivation and performance would be replicated in a college sample. Second, we tested to see whether the well-established links between intrinsic motivation and autonomy would also be found using motivational constructs that play key roles in learning (specifically, task value, self-efficacy, and test anxiety). Third, we sought to trace the effect of autonomy on changes in student motivation over the course of a semester. Finally, we examined the role of autonomy on course performance. We found that experiences of classroom autonomy in the college classroom were more closely related to motivational factors than to performance. While the immediate experience of autonomy may not be directly facilitative of high course grades, autonomy does seem to foster intrinsic goal orientation, task value, and self-efficacy, all of which are critical components of "continuing motivation." The data presented here lend further support for the benefits of fostering autonomy within academic settings.
Flodgren, Gerd; Eccles, Martin P; Shepperd, Sasha; Scott, Anthony; Parmelli, Elena; Beyer, Fiona R
Background There is considerable interest in the effectiveness of financial incentives in the delivery of health care. Incentives may be used in an attempt to increase the use of evidence-based treatments among healthcare professionals or to stimulate health professionals to change their clinical behaviour with respect to preventive, diagnostic and treatment decisions, or both. Financial incentives are an extrinsic source of motivation and exist when an individual can expect a monetary transfer which is made conditional on acting in a particular way. Since there are numerous reviews performed within the healthcare area describing the effects of various types of financial incentives, it is important to summarise the effectiveness of these in an overview to discern which are most effective in changing health professionals’ behaviour and patient outcomes. Objectives To conduct an overview of systematic reviews that evaluates the impact of financial incentives on healthcare professional behaviour and patient outcomes. Methods We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) (The Cochrane Library); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE); TRIP; MEDLINE; EMBASE; Science Citation Index; Social Science Citation Index; NHS EED; HEED; EconLit; and Program in Policy Decision-Making (PPd) (from their inception dates up to January 2010). We searched the reference lists of all included reviews and carried out a citation search of those papers which cited studies included in the review. We included both Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), interrupted time series (ITSs) and controlled before and after studies (CBAs) that evaluated the effects of financial incentives on professional practice and patient outcomes, and that reported numerical results of the included individual studies. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of each
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Feres, Nashla; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew
This study examined whether a self-reported family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) moderated the effects of a female-specific group motivational enhancement intervention with first-year college women. First-year college women (N= 287) completed an initial questionnaire and attended an intervention (n=161) or control (n=126) group session, of which 118 reported FH+. Repeated measures ANCOVA models were estimated to investigate whether the effectiveness of the intervention varied as a function of one’s reported family history of alcohol abuse. Results revealed that family history of alcohol abuse moderated intervention efficacy. Although the intervention was effective in producing less risky drinking relative to controls, among those participants who received the intervention, FH+ women drank less across five weeks of follow-up than FH− women. The current findings provide preliminary support for the differential effectiveness of motivational enhancement interventions with FH+ women. Keywords: college women, intervention, alcohol abuse, family history, motivational interviewing PMID:19162406
Whitlock, Terry; Johnston, Kenton
The objective of this study was to use predictive modeling to evaluate a disease management (DM) program's effect on a chronically ill population. Specifically, diagnostic cost grouping (DCG) predictive modeling was utilized to measure the financial effect of DM in populations of individuals with congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease. The literature of current practices regarding DM's financial effect measurement was reviewed and critiqued--especially with reference to the population-based pre-post method. The time period for the present study is three years, and the variables of interest are financial metrics. Claims data and DM program-specific data covering the 24-month period of 2001 to 2002 and the 24-month period of 2002 to 2003 were analyzed. The mean differences between DCG predicted and actual total claims costs in 2002 and in 2003 were computed. Inflation factors, based on actual health plan population experience for the populations in question, were developed and applied to accurately evaluate financial effect. The preliminary findings suggest that a study design utilizing DCG predictive modeling in evaluating DM program financial impact provides more accurate results compared with the population-based pre-post method currently favored by DM companies.
Reimann, Martin; Nenkov, Gergana Y; MacInnis, Deborah; Morrin, Maureen
One construct validation study and four experiments showed that the relationship between hope and financial risk seeking depended on whether or not the possibility of a hoped-for outcome was threatened. Whereas high (vs. low) hope decreased financial risk seeking when the possibility of a hoped-for outcome was not threatened, high (vs. low) hope increased financial risk seeking when the outcome's possibility was threatened. These effects were observed in different contexts (i.e., gambling, stock investing, bidding, retirement investing), when applying different operationalizations of hope and threats to possibility, and when controlling for alternative explanations. We also showed that individuals' motivations to either achieve gains or avoid losses mediated the effects of hope on financial risk seeking. This research, which is the first to study the role of hope in financial decision making, adds to the extant literature by underscoring the psychological impact of threats to the possibility of attaining a hoped-for financial outcome.
Becan, Jennifer E.; Knight, Danica K.; Crawley, Rachel D.; Joe, George W.; Flynn, Patrick M.
Success in substance abuse treatment is improved by problem recognition, desire to seek help, and readiness to engage in treatment, all of which are important aspects of motivation. Interventions that facilitate these at treatment induction for adolescents are especially needed. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of TRIP (Treatment Readiness and Induction Program) in promoting treatment motivation. Data represent 519 adolescents from 6 residential programs who completed assessments at treatment intake (Time 1) and 35 days after admission (Time 2). The design consisted of a comparison sample (n = 281) that had enrolled in treatment prior to implementation of TRIP (standard operating practice) and a sample of clients that had entered treatment after TRIP began and received standard operating practice enhanced by TRIP (n = 238). Repeated measures ANCOVAs were conducted using each Time 2 motivation scale as a dependent measure. Motivation scales were conceptualized as representing sequential stages of change. LISREL was used to test a structural model involving TRIP participation, gender, drug use severity, juvenile justice involvement, age, race-ethnicity, prior treatment, and urgency as predictors of the stages of treatment motivation. Compared to standard practice, adolescents receiving TRIP demonstrated greater gains in problem recognition, even after controlling for the other variables in the model. The model fit was adequate, with TRIP directly affecting problem recognition and indirectly affecting later stages of change (desire for help and treatment readiness). Future studies should examine which specific components of TRIP affect change in motivation. PMID:25456094
Becan, Jennifer E; Knight, Danica K; Crawley, Rachel D; Joe, George W; Flynn, Patrick M
Success in substance abuse treatment is improved by problem recognition, desire to seek help, and readiness to engage in treatment, all of which are important aspects of motivation. Interventions that facilitate these at treatment induction for adolescents are especially needed. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of TRIP (Treatment Readiness and Induction Program) in promoting treatment motivation. Data represent 519 adolescents from 6 residential programs who completed assessments at treatment intake (time 1) and 35 days after admission (time 2). The design consisted of a comparison sample (n=281) that had enrolled in treatment prior to implementation of TRIP (standard operating practice) and a sample of clients that had entered treatment after TRIP began and received standard operating practice enhanced by TRIP (n=238). Repeated measures ANCOVAs were conducted using each time 2 motivation scale as a dependent measure. Motivation scales were conceptualized as representing sequential stages of change. LISREL was used to test a structural model involving TRIP participation, gender, drug use severity, juvenile justice involvement, age, race-ethnicity, prior treatment, and urgency as predictors of the stages of treatment motivation. Compared to standard practice, adolescents receiving TRIP demonstrated greater gains in problem recognition, even after controlling for the other variables in the model. The model fit was adequate, with TRIP directly affecting problem recognition and indirectly affecting later stages of change (desire for help and treatment readiness). Future studies should examine which specific components of TRIP affect change in motivation.
Nilsson, Kent W; Leppert, Jerzy; Åslund, Cecilia
Aim. To investigate whether adolescent online gaming time and the additive effect of gaming motives were associated with depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. The hypothesis was that adolescents who engage in online gaming with escape motives and increased online gaming time have higher probability for depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms compared to adolescents with other online gaming motives and/or less online gaming time. Method. An anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was completed during class hours by 7,757 Swedish adolescents aged 13–18 years. The questionnaire included demographic background, gaming habits, and depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. Results. It was found that increased online gaming time during weekdays increased the probability of having depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. However, these relations with time spent gaming were further explained by online gaming motives. Weekday online gaming for more than five hours a day, in combination with escape motives, was associated with an increased probability of depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 4.614, 95% CI 3.230–6.590), musculoskeletal symptoms (OR 2.494, 95% CI 1.598–3.892), and psychosomatic symptoms (OR 4.437, 95% CI 2.966–6.637). The probability of ill health decreased when gaming was for fun or had social motives. Conclusion. Excessive gaming time and escape motives were found to be associated with increased probability of ill health among adolescents. Gaming motives may identify gamers in need of support to reduce unhealthy gaming behaviour as well as identify individuals at risk for ill health. PMID:26072677
Nyamathi, Adeline; Shoptaw, Steven; Cohen, Allan; Greengold, Barbara; Nyamathi, Kamala; Marfisee, Mary; de Castro, Viviane; Khalilifard, Farinaz; George, Daniel; Leake, Barbara
Background Methadone-Maintained (MM) clients who engage in excessive alcohol use are at high risk for HIV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Nurse-led Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP) may be one strategy to decrease alcohol use in this population. Objective To evaluate the impact of nurse-led HHP, delivered by nurses compared to Motivational Interviewing (MI), delivered by trained therapists in group sessions or one-on-one on reduction of alcohol use. Methods A three-arm randomized, controlled trial, conducted with 256 MM adults attending one of five MM outpatient clinics in the Los Angeles area. Within each site, moderate-to-heavy alcohol-using MM participants were randomized into one of three conditions: 1) nurse-led hepatitis health promotion group sessions (n=87); 2) MI delivered in group sessions (MI-group; n=90), or 3) MI delivered one-on-one sessions (MI-single, n=79). Results Self-reported alcohol use was reduced from a median of 90 drinks/month at baseline to 60 drinks/month at six month follow-up. A Wilcoxon sign-rank test indicated a significant reduction in alcohol use in the total sample (p < .05). In multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for alcohol consumption at baseline and other covariates, no differences by condition were found. Discussion As compared to two programs delivered by MI specialists, a culturally-sensitive and easy to implement nurse-led HHP program produced similar reductions in alcohol use over six months. Employing nurse-led programs may allow cost savings for treatment programs as well as a greater integration of alcohol reduction counseling along with a more comprehensive focus on general health-related issues than previously conducted. PMID:19836904
Hou, Zhiyuan; Van de Poel, Ellen; Van Doorslaer, Eddy; Yu, Baorong; Meng, Qingyue
The introduction of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in rural China has been the most rapid and dramatic extension of health insurance coverage in the developing world in this millennium. The literature to date has mainly used the uneven rollout of NCMS across counties as a way of identifying its effects on access to care and financial protection. This study exploits the cross-county variation in NCMS generosity in 2006 and 2008 in the Ningxia and Shandong provinces to estimate the effect of coverage generosity on utilization and financial protection. Our results confirm earlier findings of NCMS being effective in increasing access to care but not in increasing financial protection. In addition, we find NCMS enrollees to be sensitive to the price incentives set in the NCMS design when choosing their provider and providers to respond by increasing prices and/or providing more expensive care.
Weinstein, Netta; Hodgins, Holley S; Ostvik-White, Elin
In 4 studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that relative to primed autonomy motivation, primed control would increase enjoyment of hostile (compared with nonhostile) humor as assessed by self-reported enjoyment and aversiveness and by nonverbal behavior. Results confirmed the hypothesis. Furthermore, initial state hostility moderated the effect such that high-hostility participants who were primed with control motivation especially enjoyed hostile humor. The 2 final studies showed that the effect was mediated by implicit aggression such that the combination of high initial state hostility and control priming led to implicit aggression, which in turn resulted in hostile humor enjoyment. Results are interpreted in terms of the effects of autonomy versus control motivation on intrapersonal self-regulatory processes, which influence interpersonal functioning.
Hagger, Martin S; Keatley, David A; Chan, Derwin C K; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Dimmock, James A; Jackson, Ben; Ntoumanis, Nikos
While we agree that personal financial incentives (PFIs) may have some utility in public health interventions to motivate people in the uptake and persistence of health behaviour, we disagree with some of the sentiments outlined by Lynagh et al. (Int J Behav Med 20:114-120, 2012). Specifically, we feel that the article gives a much stronger impression that PFIs will likely lead to long-term behaviour change once the incentive has been removed than is warranted by current research. This claim has not received strong empirical support nor is it grounded in psychological theory on the role of incentives and motivation. We also feel that the presentation of some of the tenets of self-determination theory by the authors is misleading. Based on self-determination theory, we propose that PFIs, without sufficient consideration of the mechanisms by which external incentives affect motivation and the interpersonal context in which they are presented, are unlikely to lead to persistence in health behaviour once the incentive is removed. We argue that interventions that adopt PFIs as a strategy to promote health-behaviour change should incorporate strategies in the interpersonal context to minimise the undermining effect of the incentives on intrinsic motivation. Interventions should present incentives as informational regarding individuals' competence rather than as purely contingent on behavioural engagement and emphasise self-determined reasons for pursuing the behaviour.
Guthrie, John T; Klauda, Susan Lutz
We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students' informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for informational text comprehension, was provided in four-week instructional units for 615 grade 7 students. These classroom motivational-engagement supports were implemented within integrated literacy/history instruction in the Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) framework. CORI increased informational text comprehension compared with traditional instruction (TI) in a switching replications experimental design. Students' perceptions of the motivational-engagement supports were associated with increases in students' intrinsic motivation, value, perceived competence, and increased positive engagement (dedication) more markedly in CORI than in TI, according to multiple regression analyses. Results extended the evidence for the effectiveness of CORI to literacy/history subject matter and informational text comprehension among middle school students. The experimental effects in classroom contexts confirmed effects from task-specific, situated experimental studies in the literature.
The present study examined the effectiveness of the Guilty Action Test in detecting critical information from goal-oriented and task-oriented informed innocent examinees. A mock crime procedure was employed and informed innocent participants were either motivated to prove innocence (goal-oriented motivation) or to prove innocence by being cooperative on the test (task-oriented motivation). Half of the participants in each motivation condition were promised course credit reward for successful completion of their mission to prove innocence or to be cooperative (high incentive level). The other half were promised no reward (low incentive level). A fifth group of uninformed innocent participants served for control purposes. Electrodemal, respiration, and cardiovascular measures were used to indicate the motivation effects. Results showed that the combination of goal-oriented instructions and an incentive for success contributed to enhanced responses to the crime-related information. The combination of task-oriented instructions and an incentive for success attenuated these responses. Skin conductance responses were most sensitive to these effects. Theoretical and practical aspects of the results were discussed.
Rouibi, Khalil; Contarino, Angelo
Altered motivational processes are key features of drug dependence and withdrawal, yet their neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study shows that genetic disruption of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-2 (CRF₂-/-) does not impair motivation for palatable food in drug-naïve mice. However, CRF₂ receptor-deficiency effectively reduces the increase in palatable food-driven motivation induced by opiate withdrawal. Indeed, both in male and female wild-type mice, withdrawal from escalating morphine doses (20-100 mg/kg) induces a dramatic and relatively long-lasting (6 days) increase in palatable food-driven operant behavior under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. In contrast, either male or female morphine-withdrawn CRF₂-/- mice show smaller and shorter (2 days) increases in motivation than wild-type mice. Nevertheless, CRF₂ receptor-deficiency does not impair the ability to discriminate reinforced behavior prior to, during the partial opiate withdrawal periods occurring between morphine injections and following drug discontinuation, indicating preserved cognitive function. Moreover, CRF₂ receptor-deficiency does not affect the ambulatory or body weight effects of intermittent morphine injections and withdrawal. These results provide initial evidence of a gender-independent and specific role for the CRF₂ receptor in the motivational effects of opiate withdrawal.
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz
We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students’ informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for informational text comprehension, was provided in four-week instructional units for 615 grade 7 students. These classroom motivational-engagement supports were implemented within integrated literacy/history instruction in the Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) framework. CORI increased informational text comprehension compared with traditional instruction (TI) in a switching replications experimental design. Students’ perceptions of the motivational-engagement supports were associated with increases in students’ intrinsic motivation, value, perceived competence, and increased positive engagement (dedication) more markedly in CORI than in TI, according to multiple regression analyses. Results extended the evidence for the effectiveness of CORI to literacy/history subject matter and informational text comprehension among middle school students. The experimental effects in classroom contexts confirmed effects from task-specific, situated experimental studies in the literature. PMID:25506087
Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.
Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…
Schultz, James G. W.; Joordens, Steve
With the number and scope of environmental challenges continuing to increase, an understanding of the effectiveness of conservation programs is essential in order to allocate limited resources. This paper examines the effectiveness of environmental education within a zoo setting, focusing on the role of learners' identity-related motivation.…
Haimovitz, Kyla; Henderlong Corpus, Jennifer
This study examined the effects of person praise and process praise on college students' motivation and how these effects change as students progress through their undergraduate years. Hundred and eleven college students worked on three puzzle tasks and received either person praise, process praise, or no praise. Following subsequent failure,…
Sevil, Javier; Abós, Ángel; Aibar, Alberto; Julián, José Antonio; García-González, Luis
Grounded in Self-Determination Theory and Achievement Goal Theory, the objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention programme on a series of motivational variables in a corporal expression teaching unit. An analysis was also conducted in terms of whether the impact of the intervention would be effective in boys and…
Rey, Gunter Daniel; Buchwald, Florian
The expertise reversal effect occurs when a learner's expertise moderates design principles such as the redundancy principle (i.e., redundant information should be excluded rather than included) derived from the cognitive load theory. Although this effect is supported by numerous experiments, indicating an overall large effect size, a variety of…
Background Treatment disengagement and non-completion poses a major problem for the successful treatment of patients with severe mental illness. Motivation for treatment has long been proposed as a major determinant of treatment engagement, but exact mechanisms remain unclear. This current study serves three purposes: 1) to determine whether a feedback intervention based on the patients’ motivation for treatment is effective at improving treatment engagement (TE) of severe mentally ill patients in outpatient psychiatric treatment, 2) to gather insight into motivational processes and possible mechanisms regarding treatment motivation (TM) and TE in this patient population and 3) to determine which of three theories of motivation is most plausible for the dynamics of TM and TE in this population. Methods/design The Motivation and Treatment Engagement Intervention Trial (MotivaTe-IT) is a multi-center cluster randomized trial investigating the effectiveness of feedback generated by clinicians regarding their patients’ treatment motivation upon the patients’ TE. The primary outcome is the patients’ TE. Secondary outcomes are TM, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Patients whose clinicians generate monthly motivation feedback (additional to treatment as usual) will be compared to patients who receive treatment as usual. An estimated 350 patients, aged 18 to 65 years, with psychotic disorders and/or severe personality disorders will be recruited from outpatient community mental health care. The randomization will be performed by a computerized randomization program, with an allocation ratio of 1:1 (team vs. team or clinician vs. clinician) and patients, but not clinicians, will be blind to treatment allocation at baseline assessment. Due to the nature of the trial, follow-up assessment can not be blinded. Discussion The current study can provide important insights regarding motivational processes and the way in which motivation influences the treatment
Anthropomorphic persuasive appeals are prevalent. However, their effectiveness has not been well studied. The present research addresses this issue with two experiments in the context of environmental persuasion. It shows that anthropomorphic messages, relative to non-anthropomorphic ones, appear to motivate more conservation behaviour and elicit more favourable message responses only among recipients who have a strong need for effectance or social connection. Among recipients whose such need is weak, anthropomorphic appeals seem to backfire. These findings extend the research on motivation and persuasion and add evidence to the motivational bases of anthropomorphism. In addition, joining some recent studies, the present research highlights the implications of anthropomorphism of nature for environmental conservation efforts, and offers some practical suggestions for environmental persuasion.
Hall, Nathan C.; Sverdlik, Anna
College students in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) disciplines are increasingly faced with highly competitive and demanding degree programs and are at risk of academic overconfidence. Following from theory and research highlighting the psychological and developmental risks of unrealistic expectations, the present exploratory study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a motivational intervention encouraging college students in STEM degree programs (N = 52) to consider the importance of downgrading one’s expectations in response to academic setbacks. Contrary to study hypotheses, the results showed intervention participants to report significantly higher expectations and optimism on post-test measures administered 4 months later, no significant gains in emotional well-being or achievement goal orientations, and lower GPAs over five subsequent semesters. These paradoxical effects underscore the need for additional larger-scale research on the nature of students’ responses to potentially ego-threatening motivational programs in STEM disciplines so as to minimize achievement deficits at the expense of preserving motivational resources. PMID:27507955
Hofer, Jan; Busch, Holger; Bond, Michael Harris; Campos, Domingo; Li, Ming; Law, Ruby
Research has shown that an individual's implicit power motive relates to 2 types of behavioral clusters: either prosocial, socially appropriate behaviors or profligate, impulsive behaviors. The present study examined the relationship between individuals' implicit power motives and their tendency to engage in sexual activities without strong emotional ties (i.e., sociosexuality). For men, but not for women, this relationship was hypothesized to be moderated by an implicit disposition for responsibility. Whereas most research has been limited to Euro-American contexts, the present study examined the relationship between power motive, disposition for responsibility, and sociosexuality among participants recruited in Cameroon, China, Costa Rica, and Germany. Explicit Big Five measures of personality were controlled for. For women, only a main effect of responsibility on sociosexuality was found across cultural groups; for men, the association between power motivation and sociosexuality was moderated by responsibility, independent of cultural group. Traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were systematically related to lower levels of sociosexuality. Effects for both implicit and explicit measures of personality suggest universality in the processes associated with more enactments of sociosexuality, confirming in part the hypothesized role of responsibility in channeling the realization of the power motive into less impulsive activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf
Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2 years in the intervention programme, which was implemented as an elective in the school curriculum. Our longitudinal study design for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention programme included all students at the grade levels involved in the programme with students who did not participate serving as a control group. Mixed-model analyses of variance showed none of the intended effects of the intervention programme on science motivation; latent growth models corroborated these results. When the programme began, students who enrolled in the science elective (n = 92) were already substantially more motivated than their classmates (n = 228). Offering such an intervention programme as an elective did not further increase the participating students' science motivation. It seems worthwhile to carry out intervention programmes with talented students who show (comparatively) little interest in science at the outset rather than with highly motivated students who self-select into the programme.
Eriamiatoe, Osarumen Rachel
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the components of independent living training and services to determine their effectiveness in preparing foster youth in Tennessee for adulthood, and whether the youth's perceived effectiveness of these services affected their educational motivation. Support factors (i.e., family, financial,…
Soule, Michael C; Beale, Eleanor E; Suarez, Laura; Beach, Scott R; Mastromauro, Carol A; Celano, Christopher M; Moore, Shannon V; Huffman, Jeff C
By understanding common motivations for participating in observational research studies, clinicians may better understand the perceived benefits of research participation from their clients' perspective. We enrolled 164 cardiac patients in a study about the effects of gratitude and optimism. Two weeks post-enrollment, participants completed a four-item questionnaire regarding motivations for study enrollment. Altruistic motivation ranked highest, while intellectual, health-related, and financial motivations rated lower. Four subgroups of participants emerged, each with distinct characteristics and different priorities for participating. These findings may help front-line clinicians to understand which motivations for participation apply to their clients who enroll in non-treatment-based research projects.
Soule, Michael C.; Beale, Eleanor E.; Suarez, Laura; Beach, Scott R.; Mastromauro, Carol A.; Celano, Christopher M; Moore, Shannon V; Huffman, Jeff C.
By understanding common motivations for participating in observational research studies, clinicians may better understand the perceived benefits of research participation from their clients’ perspective. We enrolled 164 cardiac patients in a study about the effects of gratitude and optimism. Two weeks post-enrollment, participants completed a four-item questionnaire regarding motivations for study enrollment. Altruistic motivation ranked highest, while intellectual, health-related, and financial motivations rated lower. Four subgroups of participants emerged, each with distinct characteristics and different priorities for participating. These findings may help front-line clinicians to understand which motivations for participation apply to their clients who enroll in non-treatment-based research projects. PMID:26933943
Wirth, Michelle M.; Waugh, Christian E.; Stanton, Steven J.; Meier, Elizabeth A.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia
This study tested the hypothesis that implicit power motivation (nPower), in interaction with power incentives, influences activation of brain systems mediating motivation. Twelve individuals low (lowest quartile) and 12 individuals high (highest quartile) in nPower, as assessed per content coding of picture stories, were selected from a larger initial participant pool and participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study during which they viewed high-dominance (angry faces), low-dominance (surprised faces) and control stimuli (neutral faces, gray squares) under oddball-task conditions. Consistent with hypotheses, high-power participants showed stronger activation in response to emotional faces in brain structures involved in emotion and motivation (insula, dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex) than low-power participants. PMID:19015083
Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wirth, Michelle M; Waugh, Christian E; Stanton, Steven J; Meier, Elizabeth A; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia
This study tested the hypothesis that implicit power motivation (nPower), in interaction with power incentives, influences activation of brain systems mediating motivation. Twelve individuals low (lowest quartile) and 12 individuals high (highest quartile) in nPower, as assessed per content coding of picture stories, were selected from a larger initial participant pool and participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study during which they viewed high-dominance (angry faces), low-dominance (surprised faces) and control stimuli (neutral faces, gray squares) under oddball-task conditions. Consistent with hypotheses, high-power participants showed stronger activation in response to emotional faces in brain structures involved in emotion and motivation (insula, dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex) than low-power participants.
Barcellos, Silvia Helena; Jacobson, Mireille
Medicare offers substantial protection from medical expenditure risk, protection that has increased in recent years. At age 65, out-of-pocket expenditures drop by 33 percent at the mean and 53 percent at the ninety-fifth percentile. Medical-related financial strain, such as difficulty paying bills and collections agency contact, is dramatically reduced. Nonetheless, using a stylized expected utility framework, the gain from reducing out-of-pocket expenditures accounts for only 18 percent of the social costs of financing Medicare. This calculation ignores any direct health benefits from Medicare or any indirect health effects due to reductions in financial stress. PMID:27928462
Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo
This study considers the effects of the 2008 global financial crisis on threshold networks of a local Korean financial market around the time of the crisis. Prices of individual stocks belonging to KOSPI 200 (Korea Composite Stock Price Index 200) are considered for three time periods, namely before, during, and after the crisis. Threshold networks are constructed from fully connected cross-correlation networks, and thresholds of cross-correlation coefficients are assigned to obtain threshold networks. At the high threshold, only one large cluster consisting of firms in the financial sector, heavy industry, and construction is observed during the crisis. However, before and after the crisis, there are several fragmented clusters belonging to various sectors. The power law of the degree distribution in threshold networks is observed within the limited range of thresholds. Threshold networks are fatter during the crisis than before or after the crisis. The clustering coefficient of the threshold network follows the power law in the scaling range.
Atkinson, John W.
Motivational psychology and test theory are compared in this discussion, which focuses on distinguishing the effects of motivation and of ability on test performance and educational achievement. Recent theory in achievement motivation considers the motivational significance of future goals as they affect present activities that are instrumental in…
Chang, Yu-Kai; Chen, Senlin; Tu, Kun-Wei; Chi, Li-Kang
Using the quasi-experimental design, this study examined the effect of autonomy support on self-determined motivation in elementary school physical education (PE) students. One hundred and twenty six participants were assigned to either the autonomy support group (n = 61) or the control group (n = 65) for a six-week intervention period. Perceived teacher autonomy, perceived autonomy in PE, and self-determined motivation in PE were pre- and post-tested using validated questionnaires. Significant increases in perceived teacher autonomy and perceived autonomy in PE were observed in the autonomy support group, but not in the control group. Intrinsic motivation was higher in the autonomy support group than that in the control group. From an experimental perspective, these findings suggest that the autonomy support was successfully manipulated in the PE classes, which in turn increased the students’ perceived autonomy and intrinsic motivation. Key points The SDT is a relevant theoretical framework for elementary school physical education. Using the quasi-experimental research design, this study is one of the earlies studies supporting that elementary school PE teachers can manipulate the instructional context using the SDT to increase students’ perceived autonomy and intrinsic motivation. Increasing students’ perceived autonomy may not lead to significant changes in other SDT constructs (i.e., amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, and identified regulation). PMID:27803624
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of financial aid policies on student persistence between the first and second year at a private four-year postsecondary institution in Taiwan. A two-phase sequential research design was employed with priority was given to the quantitative data-structural equation modeling (SEM). While the…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of financial aid policies on student persistence between the first and second year at a private four-year postsecondary institution in Taiwan. A two-phase sequential research design was employed with priority was given to the quantitative data--structural equation modeling (SEM). While the…
Ampaw, Frimpomaa D.
Forty-three percent of doctoral students never complete their degree. This dropout is the highest among graduate and professional degree programs. Previous cross sectional studies of doctoral students' retention show the importance of financial aid in predicting degree completion. The studies however, do not estimate the labor market's effect on…
Parker, Philip D.; Jerrim, John; Anders, Jake
Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the…
Chen, Jin; Hossler, Don
This study aims to understand the role of financial aid in college success of two-year beginning nontraditional students. By applying discrete time event history models with propensity score covariate adjustment to a nationally representative sample from BPS: 04/09, this study answers research questions centering around the effects of Pell Grants,…
National Commission on Student Financial Assistance, Washington, DC.
The need for efficient and effective systems to deliver financial assistance to students and to administer the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program is assessed, and recommendations for improving delivery systems are provided. Attention is directed to the delivery of Pell Grant and campus-based assistance, the provision of information to current…
Radzi, Norfariza Mohd; Ghani, Muhammad Faizal A.; Siraj, Saedah
The agenda for national development requires a persistent improvement in education as a tool for creating knowledgeable human capital, highly skilled labour, a high technology society and ultimately a highly civilized nation for the future challenging world. It requires considerable financial and technical investment as well as effective and…
This study researched the effects of participatory English classes on the motivation of university students of an engineering department who had failed in learning English in their junior-and senior high school days. As a participatory class is generally said to be able to make learners feel achievement and to raise their autonomy in learning, the author empirically gave the students English classes for 14-times in the form of a workshop for the first semester in 2009 and examined their changes in motivation and English reading abilities. As the results of a questionnaire and a test in the last class, it was found that the students attended all classes with strong motivation and improved their WPM and ability to comprehend in reading English.
Yoon, Joong-O; Kim, Minjeong
The authors examined the effects of captions on deaf students' content comprehension, cognitive load, and motivation in online learning. The participants in the study were 62 deaf adult students who had limited reading comprehension skills and used sign language as a first language. Participants were randomly assigned to either the control group or the experimental group. The independent variable was the presence of captions, and the dependent variables were content comprehension, cognitive load, and motivation. The study applied a posttest-only control group design. The results of the experiment indicated a significant difference (t = -2.16, p < .05) in content comprehension but no statistically significant difference in cognitive load and motivation between the two groups. These results led to suggestions for improvements in learning materials for deaf individuals.
To determine short-run effects of experimentally imposed leadership roles, a sample of 221 Boy Scouts (aged 10 to 17) was formed into (usually) 4-man teams that competed in 3 skill games. One member of each team was randomly designated as captain, with power to administer and reward. Captains who were leaders in their troops responded to becoming…
Webre, Elizabeth C.
Progress charts are an effective means of dramatizing student effort and improvement in reading and are especially important for remedial reading students, who need concrete evidence of progress. Remedial reading students often need extrinsic reward, and since reading is a complex act, progress charts lend themselves to the element of reward and…
Mace, F. Charles; Prager, Kevin L.; Thomas, Karen; Kochy, Jane; Dyer, Tim J.; Perry, Lora; Pritchard, Duncan
We evaluated the evocative effects of four conditions (high- and low-preference activities, low and divided attention) and stimulant medication on the behavior of a 16-year-old boy with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and moderate mental retardation. All behavior (activity engagement, activity changes, inappropriate touching, rude…
Purpose To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students’ learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. Methods The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training), 5th (before practical training at clinical sites), and 6th (after all practical training) years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. Results A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation), and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of ‘self-determination’ in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen’s d= 0.43). Conclusion Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on ‘self-determination’ among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation. PMID:28167812
Digelidis, Nikolaos; Karageorghis, Costas I.; Papapavlou, Anastasia; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of asynchronous (background) music on senior students' motivation and lesson satisfaction at the situational level. A counterbalanced mixed-model design was employed with two factors comprising condition (three levels) and gender (two levels). Two hundred students (82 boys, 118 girls; M [subscript…
Hemerick, Kari Ann
The purpose of this study was to determine if reading aloud to children regularly would have an effect on their motivation and desire to read independently. Subjects, 100 fourth and fifth grade students in Wayne, New Jersey, participated in the study. One fourth and one fifth grade class were read to on a daily basis for 30 minutes. The second…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of motivation to learn technology, as perceived by South Korean middle school students, on their attitudes toward engineering. Using the instruments of Glynn et al. (2011) and Lee (2008), the study focused on eighth and ninth grade students in four middle schools located in South Korea's…
Walters, Scott T.; Vader, Amanda M.; Nguyen, Norma; Harris, T. Robert; Eells, Jennifer
Motivational interviewing (MI) has been recommended as a supervision style in probation. This project examined the effectiveness of an MI training curriculum on probation officer MI skill and subsequent probationer outcome. Twenty probation officers were randomized to receive MI training, or to a waiting list control, while an additional group of…
van der Zwaal, Esther M; Janhunen, Sanna K; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Baclesanu, Roxana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H; La Fleur, Susanne E
Both olanzapine and sibutramine target serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission and influence body weight, but in opposite ways. The second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine, an antagonist at serotonergic and noradrenergic receptors, frequently induces weight gain as a side-effect, whereas sibutramine, a noradrenaline/serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is known as a weight-reducing agent. To investigate whether altered motivation for palatable food influences the effect of these drugs on body weight, we determined their effects on responding for sucrose pellets under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement in rats. We found that a low dose of olanzapine selectively increased responding to sucrose, without affecting free-feeding intake of sucrose. In contrast, sibutramine dose-dependently reduced responding to sucrose and similarly reduced free-feeding intake. Furthermore, coadministration of a dose of sibutramine that failed to affect responding to sucrose when administered alone prevented the increase in motivation by the effective dose of olanzapine. These data show that increased motivation for palatable food is likely to be a significant contributor to olanzapine-induced weight gain. Moreover, the ability of sibutramine to reduce this motivation for palatable food may play an important role in the efficacy of sibutramine as an add-on treatment to counteract olanzapine-induced weight gain.
This study examines the relationships between students' academic motivation, evidence of achievement as measured by assessments and the effects of feedback in mediating effort. Policy makers currently view student achievement is as synonymous with proficiency on standardized tests. Testing students as a means of determining educational…
Huang, Ching-Ting; Yang, Shu Ching
This study examines the effects of two types of online remedial reading interventions on the reading strategy and comprehension, motivational beliefs, and self-efficacy of 36 low-achieving students (explicit teaching before reciprocal teaching [ET-RT] vs. direct instruction [DI]). We designed a 10-unit online remedial English reading program based…
Yoon, Joong-O.; Kim, Minjeong
The authors examined the effects of captions on deaf students' content comprehension, cognitive load, and motivation in online learning. The participants in the study were 62 deaf adult students who had limited reading comprehension skills and used sign language as a first language. Participants were randomly assigned to either the control group…
Barak, Miri; Ashkar, Tamar; Dori, Yehudit J.
Some researchers claim that animations may hinder students' meaningful learning or evoke misunderstandings. In order to examine these assertions, our study investigated the effect of animated movies on students' learning outcomes and motivation to learn. Applying the quantitative methodology, two pre- and post-questionnaires were administered:…
Acee, Taylor W.; Weinstein, Claire Ellen
The authors investigated the effects of an exploratory value-reappraisal intervention on students' motivation and performance in an undergraduate introductory statistics course. They sampled 82 students from 2 instructors' sections during both the fall and spring semesters. Students were randomly assigned within each section to either the…
Weinberg, Andrea E.; Basile, Carole G.; Albright, Leonard
A mixed methods design was used to evaluate the effects of four experiential learning programs on the interest and motivation of middle school students toward mathematics and science. The Expectancy-Value model provided a theoretical framework for the exploration of 336 middle school student participants. Initially, participants were generally…
This study examined the effect of a hypermedia-enhanced problem-based learning environment in astronomy on sixth-graders' science knowledge, attitude toward learning science, and motivation toward learning. It was found that the students had significantly increased their science knowledge from pretest to post test and also retained much of what…
van der Weijden, Inge; Belder, Rosalie; van Arensbergen, Pleun; van den Besselaar, Peter
Do young tenured professors who receive mentorship differ from those without mentorship in terms of motivation, scholarly performance, and group management practice? We conducted a survey among research group leaders in the biomedical and health sciences in the Netherlands, to study the effects of mentorship. Our results show that mentorship…
It has been suggested that in science education the immediacy and pervasiveness of television and its ability to bring the world into the classroom could be effectively used by the teacher. The motivational uses of instructional television in a high school environmental science class were studied with 57 tenth graders at a suburban high school.…
Corbalan, Gemma; Paas, Fred; Cuypers, Hans
Two studies investigated the effects on students' perceptions (Study 1) and learning and motivation (Study 2) of different levels of feedback in mathematical problems. In these problems, an error made in one step of the problem-solving procedure will carry over to the following steps and consequently to the final solution. Providing immediate…
Packer, Doreen L.
To succeed in today's information-rich society, students must utilize technology effectively. Online tools present unique opportunities to create and share knowledge. It was unclear if the use of these tools impacted student motivation, since many teachers were not incorporating technology of interest into lessons. Another concern was the…
Xiang, Ping; Liu, Yuanlong; McBride, Ron E.; Bruene, April
In this study the authors examined longitudinal achievement goal patterns and their effects on students' motivation and performance from the 5th to 6th grade in physical education running programs. In their 5th and 6th grade, 412 participants completed questionnaires assessing their task and ego orientations, expectancy beliefs, task values, and…
Huang, Chester S. J.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Su, Addison Y. S.
This study developed a 5-step vocabulary learning (FSVL) strategy and a mobile learning tool in a situational English vocabulary learning environment and assessed their effects on the learning motivation and performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in a situational English vocabulary learning environment. Overall, 80 EFL…
Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif; Ahmed, Abdelrahman Mohammed
The study investigates the effect of Activity based Blended Learning strategy and Conventional Blended Learning strategy on students' achievement and motivation. Two groups namely, experimental and control group from Sultan Qaboos University were selected randomly for the study. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and…
Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man
We investigated the effect of participating in two domains of extracurricular activities (sports and performance arts/clubs) in Grades 7 and 8 on Grade 9 academic motivation and letter grades, above baseline performance. Participants were 483 students (55% male; 33% Euro-American, 25% African American, and 39% Latino). Propensity score weighting…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of webquest-based applications on the pre-service elementary school teachers' motivation in mathematics. There were a total of 202 pre-service elementary school teachers, 125 in a treatment group and 77 in a control group. The researcher used a Likert-type questionnaire consisting of 34 negative…
This study examines the three generations comprising today's IT organizations to determine whether the Situational Leadership approach is effective in motivating this diverse work force to perform project-related tasks. Baby Boomer employees, Generation X employees, and Generation Y employees are the three generations actively employed in IT…
Domene, Jose F.; Socholotiuk, Krista D.; Woitowicz, Lyndsay A.
Using a social cognitive theory framework, we examined the effects of career outcome expectations (COE) and aspiration to enter a science, technology, or math (STM) career on post-secondary academic motivation. Data were collected online from a sample of 380 post-secondary students in Canada and the United States. Analysis of covariance revealed…
Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Aylward, Brandon S.; Craig, James T.; Sorell, Danielle M.; Steele, Ric G.
Objective: This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change. Method: Literature searches of electronic databases were undertaken in addition to manual reference searches of identified review articles. Databases searched include…
Akin Kösterelioglu, Meltem; Kösterelioglu, Ilker
This study aims to identify the effects of high school students' perceptions of school life quality on their academic motivation levels. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students (n = 2371) in Amasya Province in the fall semester of 2013-2014 academic year. Study sample was selected with the help of cluster sampling method. Data…
Andrews, Judy A.; And Others
The inverse relation between academic motivation and substance use has been well established, but the direction of the influence remains to be specified; two possible influences are the mediating and moderating effects of family relationships and self-esteem. In this study, investigators used General Estimating Equation (GEE) models based on data…
Pan, Ching-Ying; Wu, Hui-Yi
This experimental study aims to investigate the effects of using cooperative learning to enhance the English reading comprehension and learning motivation of EFL freshmen by comparing the cooperative learning instruction and traditional lecture instruction. This experiment was implemented in a Freshman English Reading course, a two credit course,…
Bråten, Ivar; Johansen, Roy-Petter; Strømsø, Helge I.
This study compared the effects of two brief prereading instructional practices--hands-on activities and prior knowledge activation--on sixth-graders' intrinsic motivation for reading a text and reading comprehension. Both hands-on activities and prior knowledge activation substantially improved reading comprehension relative to a control…
Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Fahlman, Mariane
This study applied self-determination theory to investigate the effects of students' autonomous motivation and their perceptions of teacher autonomy support on need satisfaction adjustment, learning achievement, and cardiorespiratory fitness over a 4-month personal conditioning unit. Participants were 253 urban adolescents (121 girls and 132 boys,…
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on college students' conceptual learning, motivation, and self-efficacy in an algebra-based introductory physics course for nonmajors. Variables were studied via a quasi-experiment, Solomon four-group design on 123 students. Treatment groups were taught by peer instruction.…
Stoeckel, Bryan D.
This study examined the effects of music on the motivation of 22 female and 5 male swimmers ages 10-13 years. These age-group swimmers practiced 2.0-2.5 hours per day and had six training sessions per week. Using observation logs, surveys, and open-ended questions, the study analyzed swimmers' perceptions of, and behavior when, listening to music…
Aktas, Elif; Yurt, Serap Uzuner
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the learning environment where digital stories are used as a learning material on the motivation, academic success, retention, and students' opinions. The study was carried out with mixed method which is a combination of quantitative and qualitative research approach. The study was implemented…
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…
Yalcinkaya, Eylem; Boz, Yezdan; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning (CBL) over traditionally designed chemistry instruction (TDCI) on 10th grade students' perceived motivation about chemistry as a school subject. Two classes were randomly selected from a high school. One class was assigned to be an experimental group and the other…
Kirby, Stephanie; Byra, Mark; Readdy, Tucker; Wallhead, Tristan
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of two landmark spectrum styles, practice and inclusion, on students' basic psychological needs satisfaction and self-determined motivation. Twelve classes of college-aged students (n = 149) participated in two badminton lessons taught under the conditions of the practice and inclusion styles.…
Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria
The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…
The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback condition…
Carlson, Sibylle J.; Latta, R. Michael
One attributional model of achievement proposes that individuals attribute their own and others' performance outcomes to one or more of four causes, i.e., ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, and that such attributions have motivational significance for subsequent achievement-related behavior. The effects of gender, level of resultant…
Murayama, Kou; Matsumoto, Madoka; Izuma, Keise; Matsumoto, Kenji
Contrary to the widespread belief that people are positively motivated by reward incentives, some studies have shown that performance-based extrinsic reward can actually undermine a person's intrinsic motivation to engage in a task. This "undermining effect" has timely practical implications, given the burgeoning of performance-based incentive systems in contemporary society. It also presents a theoretical challenge for economic and reinforcement learning theories, which tend to assume that monetary incentives monotonically increase motivation. Despite the practical and theoretical importance of this provocative phenomenon, however, little is known about its neural basis. Herein we induced the behavioral undermining effect using a newly developed task, and we tracked its neural correlates using functional MRI. Our results show that performance-based monetary reward indeed undermines intrinsic motivation, as assessed by the number of voluntary engagements in the task. We found that activity in the anterior striatum and the prefrontal areas decreased along with this behavioral undermining effect. These findings suggest that the corticobasal ganglia valuation system underlies the undermining effect through the integration of extrinsic reward value and intrinsic task value.
Chiu, Shao-I; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Hu, Hsiu-yuan
This study proposed and tested a structural model of the effects of family cultural capital and reading motivation on reading behaviour in elementary school students. Participants were 467 fifth and sixth graders from elementary schools in Changhua County, Taiwan. The instruments employed in this study included the Family Cultural Capital Scale,…
Martin, Larry G.
A study was conducted to identify psychosocial needs of Adult Basic Education (ABE)/Adult Secondary Education (ASE) students by using the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ). A second purpose was to test effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training (AMT) as a technique to counterbalance the negative impact of these students' former…
The purpose of this study was to explore the self-evaluated effects of a web-based portfolio assessment system on various categories of students of motivation. The subjects for this study were the students of two computer classes in a Junior High School. The experimental group used the web-based portfolio assessment system whereas the control…
Vos, Nienke; van der Meijden, Henny; Denessen, Eddie
In this study the effects of two different interactive learning tasks, in which simple games were included were described with respect to student motivation and deep strategy use. The research involved 235 students from four elementary schools in The Netherlands. One group of students (N = 128) constructed their own memory "drag and…
Stroet, Kim; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander
In the present paper we systematically review the corpus of evidence on the effects of need supportive teaching on early adolescents' motivation and engagement for school. Based on Self-Determination Theory, we define need supportive teaching in terms of teachers' provision of autonomy support, structure, and involvement. The results of an…
Kelley, Carolyn; Odden, Allan; Milanowski, Anthony; Heneman, Herbert, III
From 1995-98, The Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) teacher compensation researchers conducted interviews and survey questionnaires of teachers and principals in three sites to measure the motivational effects of school-based performance award (SBPA) programs. When a school met preset educational objectives, the SBPA programs in…
Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.; Casillas, Alex; Oh, In-Sue
We studied the effects of academic performance, motivation, and social connectedness on third-year retention, transfer, and dropout behavior. To accommodate the three outcome categories and nesting of data within institutions, we fit a hierarchical multinomial logistic regression path model with first-year academic performance as a mediating…
Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Ennis, Robin Parks; McDaniel, Sara C.
This article explores the benefits of incorporating student self-graphing into various academic and behavioral tasks to enhance the effects of an intervention and to heighten student motivation. It offers examples to demonstrate how student self-graphing might be observed in a school setting. A list of considerations and tips to ensure successful…
Wehner, Amy K.; Gump, Andrew W.; Downey, Steve
Virtual worlds are an emerging technology in computer-assisted learning. Due to the novelty of these new learning spaces, little research has been done on the use or the effects on students learning foreign languages. This research looks at how the use of the virtual world Second Life affects the motivation of students in an undergraduate Spanish…
Király, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Ágoston, Csilla; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi
Background The rapid expansion of online video gaming as a leisure time activity has led to the appearance of problematic online gaming (POG). According to the literature, POG is associated with different psychiatric symptoms (eg, depression, anxiety) and with specific gaming motives (ie, escape, achievement). Based on studies of alcohol use that suggest a mediator role of drinking motives between distal influences (eg, trauma symptoms) and drinking problems, this study examined the assumption that there is an indirect link between psychiatric distress and POG via the mediation of gaming motives. Furthermore, it was also assumed that there was a moderator effect of gender and game type preference based on the important role gender plays in POG and the structural differences between different game types. Objective This study had two aims. The first aim was to test the mediating role of online gaming motives between psychiatric symptoms and problematic use of online games. The second aim was to test the moderator effect of gender and game type preference in this mediation model. Methods An online survey was conducted on a sample of online gamers (N=3186; age: mean 21.1, SD 5.9 years; male: 2859/3186, 89.74%). The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (MOGQ), and the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) were administered to assess general psychiatric distress, online gaming motives, and problematic online game use, respectively. Structural regression analyses within structural equation modeling were used to test the proposed mediation models and multigroup analyses were used to test gender and game type differences to determine possible moderating effects. Results The mediation models fitted the data adequately. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the BSI indicated that the level of psychiatric distress had a significant positive direct effect (standardized effect=.35, P<.001) and a significant indirect (mediating) effect
This study examines the effect of health maintenance organization (HMO) mergers and acquisitions on financial performance, as indicated by cash flow returns, profitability ratios, and efficiency indicators. Pooled, cross-sectional files of financial performance data were created for HMO mergers occurring in the period of 1988 to 1994. The study uses a time-series design involving the analysis of pre- and post-acquisition financial performance measured over a period of four years. Change scores for the industry-adjusted financial performance measures were calculated and then evaluated using t-tests. The study showed that HMO mergers had a positive effect on financial performance and efficiency. This effect disappeared, however, after adjusting for HMO industry returns. Potential synergies arising from HMO mergers have been largely illusory. Mergers may have been a result of non-value enhancing motives or management overconfidence.
Roh, Young Sook; Kim, Sang Suk
Previous research has suggested that a teaching strategy integrating problem-based learning and simulation may be superior to traditional lecture. The purpose of this study was to assess learner motivation and life skills before and after taking a course involving problem-based learning and simulation. The design used repeated measures with a convenience sample of 83 second-year nursing students who completed the integrated course. Data from a self-administered questionnaire measuring learner motivation and life skills were collected at pretest, post-problem-based learning, and post-simulation time points. Repeated-measures analysis of variance determined that the mean scores for total learner motivation (F=6.62, P=.003), communication (F=8.27, P<.001), problem solving (F=6.91, P=.001), and self-directed learning (F=4.45, P=.016) differed significantly between time points. Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction revealed that total learner motivation and total life skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation and from post-problem-based learning test to postsimulation test. Subscales of learner motivation and life skills, intrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem-solving skills, and self-directed learning skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation test and from post-problem-based learning test to post-simulation test. The results demonstrate that an integrating problem-based learning and simulation course elicits significant improvement in learner motivation and life skills. Simulation plus problem-based learning is more effective than problem-based learning alone at increasing intrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem solving, and self-directed learning.
Bouchaud, J P; Matacz, A; Potters, M
We investigate quantitatively the so-called "leverage effect," which corresponds to a negative correlation between past returns and future volatility. For individual stocks this correlation is moderate and decays over 50 days, while for stock indices it is much stronger but decays faster. For individual stocks the magnitude of this correlation has a universal value that can be rationalized in terms of a new "retarded" model which interpolates between a purely additive and a purely multiplicative stochastic process. For stock indices a specific amplification phenomenon seems to be necessary to account for the observed amplitude of the effect.
Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Matacz, Andrew; Potters, Marc
We investigate quantitatively the so-called ``leverage effect,'' which corresponds to a negative correlation between past returns and future volatility. For individual stocks this correlation is moderate and decays over 50 days, while for stock indices it is much stronger but decays faster. For individual stocks the magnitude of this correlation has a universal value that can be rationalized in terms of a new ``retarded'' model which interpolates between a purely additive and a purely multiplicative stochastic process. For stock indices a specific amplification phenomenon seems to be necessary to account for the observed amplitude of the effect.
Hepler, Justin; Wang, Wei; Albarracin, Dolores
Although exercise is recognized as a powerful tool to combat obesity, remarkably few US adults pursue adequate amounts of exercise, with one major impediment being a lack of motivation for active behaviors. Recent empirical work has demonstrated that behavior can be guided by goals to be generally active or inactive. In the present paper, an experiment is presented in which participants played or observed a video game, were primed with action or inaction goals, and practiced a stretching exercise for as long as desired. Exposure to environmental action cues led to increased time spent exercising. This effect was moderated by past behavior, such that individuals who had just engaged in an active task (played a videogame) were insensitive to attempts to motivate general action. This suggests that the effectiveness of attempts to motivate activity ("just do it", "be active") hinges on the recent past-behavior of the targeted individuals. An implication of this work is that participation in certain leisure activities, such as playing videogames, may be causally related to a lack of motivation for exercise.
Hepler, Justin; Wang, Wei; Albarracin, Dolores
Although exercise is recognized as a powerful tool to combat obesity, remarkably few US adults pursue adequate amounts of exercise, with one major impediment being a lack of motivation for active behaviors. Recent empirical work has demonstrated that behavior can be guided by goals to be generally active or inactive. In the present paper, an experiment is presented in which participants played or observed a video game, were primed with action or inaction goals, and practiced a stretching exercise for as long as desired. Exposure to environmental action cues led to increased time spent exercising. This effect was moderated by past behavior, such that individuals who had just engaged in an active task (played a videogame) were insensitive to attempts to motivate general action. This suggests that the effectiveness of attempts to motivate activity (“just do it”, “be active”) hinges on the recent past-behavior of the targeted individuals. An implication of this work is that participation in certain leisure activities, such as playing videogames, may be causally related to a lack of motivation for exercise. PMID:23606776
Vogenberg, F Randy; Young, Coleen
Biotechnology-derived injectable medications raise complex issues with respect to access and administration for both manufacturers and payers. In addition, biotech injectables rarely fit within traditional prescription drug benefit design structures, thereby creating inequities in reimbursement and access that can undermine a health benefit plan's goals.Benefit-design changes focusing on short-term solutions can exacerbate such situations. Employers, insurers, and managed care organizations need to consider innovative benefit-plan designs to effectively address issues that are associated with biotech medications.Actuarial models, such as the Reimbursement model described in this article, can help to provide the options analyses and decision-making support that are required.
Propero, Moises; Russell, Amy Catherine; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal
This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation).…
Li, Xing; Qiu, Tian; Chen, Guang; Zhong, Li-Xin; Jiang, Xiong-Fei
Geography effect is investigated for the Chinese stock market including the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets, based on the daily data of individual stocks. The stocks in the Shanghai city and the Guangdong province are found to greatly contribute to the Shanghai and Shenzhen markets in the geographical sector, respectively. By investigating a geographical correlation on a geographical parameter, the stock location is found to have an impact on the financial dynamics, except for the financial crisis time of the Shenzhen market. Stock distance effect is further studied, with the probability of the short distance observed to be much greater than that of the long distance. The distance is found to only affect the stock correlation of the Shanghai stock market, but has no effect on the Shenzhen stock market.
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.
Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James
Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol.
Tjew-A-Sin, Mandy; Tops, Mattie; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Koole, Sander L
The error-related negativity (ERN or Ne) is a negative event-related brain potential that peaks about 20-100 ms after people perform an incorrect response in choice reaction time tasks. Prior research has shown that the ERN may be enhanced by situational and dispositional factors that promote intrinsic motivation. Building on and extending this work the authors hypothesized that simulated interpersonal touch may increase task engagement and thereby increase ERN amplitude. To test this notion, 20 participants performed a Go/No-Go task while holding a teddy bear or a same-sized cardboard box. As expected, the ERN was significantly larger when participants held a teddy bear rather than a cardboard box. This effect was most pronounced for people high (rather than low) in trait intrinsic motivation, who may depend more on intrinsically motivating task cues to maintain task engagement. These findings highlight the potential benefits of simulated interpersonal touch in stimulating attention to errors, especially among people who are intrinsically motivated.
Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun
The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students'situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve students in grades 7-9 participated in three activities (cardiovascular fitness, ultimate football, and Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) in physical education. ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers were used to measure students' PA levels for three classes for each activity. Students also completed a Situational Motivation Scale (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) at the end of each class. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that students spent significantly higher percentages of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in fitness and football classes than they did in DDR class. Students reported higher lM and IR toward fitness than DDR They also scored higher in IR toward fitness than football. In contrast, students displayed significantly lower AM toward fitness than football and DDR Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that IM was the only positive predictor for time in MVPA (p = .02), whereas AM was the negative predictor (p < .01). The findings are discussed in regard to the implications for educational practice.
Ntoumanis, N; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Quested, E; Hancox, J
Drawing from self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002), we developed and tested an intervention to train fitness instructors to adopt a motivationally adaptive communication style when interacting with exercisers. This was a parallel group, two-arm quasi-experimental design. Participants in the intervention arm were 29 indoor cycling instructors (n = 10 for the control arm) and 246 class members (n = 75 for the control arm). The intervention consisted of face-to-face workshops, education/information video clips, group discussions and activities, brainstorming, individual planning, and practical tasks in the cycling studio. Instructors and exercisers responded to validated questionnaires about instructors' use of motivational strategies and other motivation-related variables before the first workshop and at the end of the third and final workshop (4 months later). Time × arm interactions revealed no significant effects, possibly due to the large attrition of instructors and exercisers in the control arm. Within-group analyses in the intervention arm showed that exercisers' perceptions of instructor motivationally adaptive strategies, psychological need satisfaction, and intentions to remain in the class increased over time. Similarly, instructors in the intervention arm reported being less controlling and experiencing more need satisfaction over time. These results offer initial promising evidence for the positive impact of the training.
Zhu, Ze; Li, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Li, Ye; Zhang, Houcan
In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate whether motivation and positive affect can alleviate ego depletion and to elucidate their possible mechanisms. In Experiment 1, a crossing-out-letter task was adapted to reach an ego depletion state for Chinese participants. Participants were then randomly assigned to the extrinsic motivation group, the positive affect group or the depletion control group. After the experimental treatment, a dumbbell task was used to measure participants' remaining self-regulatory resources. The results showed that participants in the motivation and positive affect groups performed better on the dumbbell task than participants in the depletion control group. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants were asked to perform an additional unexpected dumbbell task after a neutral video following the above procedure. The results of Experiment 1 were replicated; however, participants' performance on the additional dumbbell task differed. The positive affect group performed better than the depletion control group, indicating an increase in self-regulatory resources and thus supporting the replenishment effect of positive affect. No significant difference was found between the motivation group and the depletion control group.
Chelonis, John J; Johnson, Teresa A; Ferguson, Sherry A; Berry, Kimberly J; Kubacak, Brian; Edwards, Mark C; Paule, Merle G
The effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on motivation were examined using a progressive ratio (PR) task in children who were prescribed MPH for the treatment of ADHD. Twenty-one children, 7 to 12 years of age, completed two test sessions, one under the effects of medication and one not. During each session, children pressed a lever to earn nickel reinforcers, where the first press resulted in a reinforcer and 10 additional presses were required for each subsequent reinforcer. Children on MPH had a significantly higher breakpoint than when off medication. This MPH-associated increase in the breakpoint manifested as a significant decrease in the interresponse times (IRT). Further, MPH administration resulted in a significant decrease in IRT variability. In contrast, MPH administration had no significant effects on the means and variability of postreinforcement pause duration. These results suggest that MPH increased motivation in children being treated for ADHD. Further, the inability of MPH to significantly reduce postreinforcement pause duration while simultaneously decreasing IRTs suggests that while MPH may increase motivation to perform an ongoing task, it may have little effect on the initiation of that task.
Brabant, Christian; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Quertemont, Etienne
In several animal species including humans, the acute administration of low doses of alcohol increases motor activity. Different theories have postulated that alcohol-induced hyperactivity is causally related to alcoholism. Moreover, a common biological mechanism in the mesolimbic dopamine system has been proposed to mediate the stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol. Numerous studies have examined whether alcohol-induced hyperactivity is related to alcoholism using a great variety of animal models and several animal species. However, there is no review that has summarized this extensive literature. In this article, we present the various experimental models that have been used to study the relationship between the stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol in rodents and primates. Furthermore, we discuss whether the theories hypothesizing a causal link between alcohol-induced hyperactivity and alcoholism are supported by published results. The reviewed findings indicate that animal species that are stimulated by alcohol also exhibit alcohol preference. Additionally, the role of dopamine in alcohol-induced hyperactivity is well established since blocking dopaminergic activity suppresses the stimulant effects of alcohol. However, dopamine transmission plays a much more complex function in the motivational properties of alcohol and the neuronal mechanisms involved in alcohol stimulation and reward are distinct. Overall, the current review provides mixed support for theories suggesting that the stimulant effects of alcohol are related to alcoholism and highlights the importance of animal models as a way to gain insight into alcoholism.
Behrens, Robert F.
This study examines the relative effects of motivational orientation, ability, social class, sex, and instructions to employ verbal mediation on a paired-associates (PA) learning task. One hundred ninety-two seventh and eighth grade students were categorized according to degree of Intrinsic Task Motivation (IM), ability, and social class (SES).…
The main aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the effect of intrinsic motivation on affect, subjective evaluation, and the creative process of young artists. Relations between motivation, affect, and evaluation were treated as a dynamic process and measured several times. The unique contribution of this study is that it…
Albrecht, Konstanze; Abeler, Johannes; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin
Apart from everyday duties, such as doing the laundry or cleaning the house, there are tasks we do for pleasure and enjoyment. We do such tasks, like solving crossword puzzles or reading novels, without any external pressure or force; instead, we are intrinsically motivated: we do the tasks because we enjoy doing them. Previous studies suggest that external rewards, i.e., rewards from the outside, affect the intrinsic motivation to engage in a task: while performance-based monetary rewards are perceived as controlling and induce a business-contract framing, verbal rewards praising one's competence can enhance the perceived self-determination. Accordingly, the former have been shown to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas the latter have been shown to increase intrinsic motivation. The present study investigated the neural processes underlying the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation in a group of 64 subjects applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that, when participants received positive performance feedback, activation in the anterior striatum and midbrain was affected by the nature of the reward; compared to a non-rewarded control group, activation was higher while monetary rewards were administered. However, we did not find a decrease in activation after reward withdrawal. In contrast, we found an increase in activation for verbal rewards: after verbal rewards had been withdrawn, participants showed a higher activation in the aforementioned brain areas when they received success compared to failure feedback. We further found that, while participants worked on the task, activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex was enhanced after the verbal rewards were administered and withdrawn. PMID:25278834
Albrecht, Konstanze; Abeler, Johannes; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin
Apart from everyday duties, such as doing the laundry or cleaning the house, there are tasks we do for pleasure and enjoyment. We do such tasks, like solving crossword puzzles or reading novels, without any external pressure or force; instead, we are intrinsically motivated: we do the tasks because we enjoy doing them. Previous studies suggest that external rewards, i.e., rewards from the outside, affect the intrinsic motivation to engage in a task: while performance-based monetary rewards are perceived as controlling and induce a business-contract framing, verbal rewards praising one's competence can enhance the perceived self-determination. Accordingly, the former have been shown to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas the latter have been shown to increase intrinsic motivation. The present study investigated the neural processes underlying the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation in a group of 64 subjects applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that, when participants received positive performance feedback, activation in the anterior striatum and midbrain was affected by the nature of the reward; compared to a non-rewarded control group, activation was higher while monetary rewards were administered. However, we did not find a decrease in activation after reward withdrawal. In contrast, we found an increase in activation for verbal rewards: after verbal rewards had been withdrawn, participants showed a higher activation in the aforementioned brain areas when they received success compared to failure feedback. We further found that, while participants worked on the task, activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex was enhanced after the verbal rewards were administered and withdrawn.
Mullen, Elizabeth; Skitka, Linda J
When people have strong moral convictions about outcomes, their judgments of both outcome and procedural fairness become driven more by whether outcomes support or oppose their moral mandates than by whether procedures are proper or improper (the moral mandate effect). Two studies tested 3 explanations for the moral mandate effect. In particular, people with moral mandates may (a) have a greater motivation to seek out procedural flaws when outcomes fail to support their moral point of view (the motivated reasoning hypothesis), (b) be influenced by in-group distributive biases as a result of identifying with parties that share rather than oppose their moral point of view (the group differentiation hypothesis), or (c) react with anger when outcomes are inconsistent with their moral point of view, which, in turn, colors perceptions of both outcomes and procedures (the anger hypothesis). Results support the anger hypothesis.
Naar-King, Sylvie; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Murphy, Debra; Kolmodin, Karen; Harris, D. Robert
Purpose Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors are needed for youth living with HIV (YLH). A randomized clinical trial compared Healthy Choices, a 4 session motivational intervention targeting two of three risk behaviors (HIV medication adherence, sexual risk behavior and substance use) to multidisciplinary specialty care alone. This paper presents intermediary outcomes available at 3-month follow-up, variables proposed to be precursors to behavior change (motivation, self-efficacy and depression). Methods YLH (N = 186) with at least one of the three problem behaviors were recruited from four sites in the Adolescent Trials Network (ATN) and one non-ATN site and were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Results Of the 94 youth randomly assigned to the treatment condition, 84% received at least one session, 67% received at least two sessions, 56% received at least 3 sessions, and 49% completed all four sessions. In intent-to-treat analysis, only depression was significantly improved in the treatment group compared to controls. However, in per-protocol analysis, youth receiving at least two sessions of the intervention also showed significant improvements in motivational readiness to change compared to youth in the control condition. Conclusion Results suggest the potential benefits of clinic-based motivational interventions for YLH who access these interventions. Delivering interventions in the community using an outreach model may improve access. Analysis of subsequent time points will determine effects on actual behavior change. PMID:20413077
Sorrentino, Richard M.; Sheppard, Blair H.
The present investigation used 76 experienced varsity swimmers from three universities to test a conceptualization of affiliation motivation that parallels theoretical notions concerning achievement motivation. (Author/MP)
van Evera, William C.
Formative assessment feedback is increasingly viewed as essential to learning. Yet, existing studies on feedback have focused heavily on knowledge of results (KR) feedback rather than information-rich formative assessment feedback that is more commonly used to encourage and guide learning. This study was designed to investigate the effects of information-rich formative assessment feedback on performance and motivation of middle school science students. Using a within subjects crossover design, treatment students received written formative assessment feedback on all homework and class-work assignments. Control students received completion scores for their work but no feedback. Dependent measures included two multiple-choice unit tests and a multipart motivation survey which assessed self-efficacy, goal orientation, affective responses, and preferences regarding feedback. Results indicated effects sizes of .7 for low achievers and .4 for middle level achievers on the performance measure as a result of the feedback intervention. These students also experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy. High achievers experienced reduced performance following the feedback intervention with an effect size of -.7. Survey analysis revealed no improvement in motivation-related variables for high achievers.
Magaraggia, Christian; Dimmock, James; Jackson, Ben
Using a scrambled sentence priming protocol, the first aim of this study was to investigate whether differences in novel exercise-related goals existed between participants primed with motivational or non-motivational material (i.e. autonomous, controlled or neutral primes). The second aim was to explore whether an indirect effect was present between priming condition and the goal-related exercise sessions that individuals performed over the week following administration of the prime. No effects were observed across priming conditions with respect to subjective vitality, goal concordance and the frequency with which participants planned to exercise. However, autonomy-primed individuals set goals for their exercise sessions that were significantly longer in intended duration (M = 57.72 min, SD = 37.42) than those set by their counterparts in both the controlled-prime condition (M = 44.12 min, SD = 27.78) and the neutral-prime condition (M = 37.10 min, SD = 20.47). Bootstrapped analyses also revealed a significant indirect relationship between prime and exercise behaviour, with the autonomy prime predicting longer goal-based exercise sessions, via the effect on the duration of participants' intended exercise sessions. These findings highlight the potential influence that priming autonomous motivation may have on individuals' exercise aspirations, as well as the way in which primes may indirectly shape exercise engagement.
Cservenák, Melinda; Szabó, Éva R; Bodnár, Ibolya; Lékó, András; Palkovits, Miklós; Nagy, György M; Usdin, Ted B; Dobolyi, Arpád
Nursing has important physiological and psychological consequences on mothers during the postpartum period. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) may contribute to its effects on prolactin release and maternal motivation. Since TIP39-containing fibers and the receptor for TIP39, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2 receptor) are abundant in the arcuate nucleus and the medial preoptic area, we antagonized TIP39 action locally to reveal its actions. Mediobasal hypothalamic injection of a virus encoding an antagonist of the PTH2 receptor markedly decreased basal serum prolactin levels and the suckling-induced prolactin release. In contrast, injecting this virus into the preoptic area had no effect on prolactin levels, but did dampen maternal motivation, judged by reduced time in a pup-associated cage during a place preference test. In support of an effect of TIP39 on maternal motivation, we observed that TIP39 containing fibers and terminals had the same distribution within the preoptic area as neurons expressing Fos in response to suckling. Furthermore, TIP39 terminals closely apposed the plasma membrane of 82% of Fos-ir neurons. Retrograde tracer injected into the arcuate nucleus and the medial preoptic area labeled TIP39 neurons in the posterior intralaminar complex of the thalamus (PIL), indicating that these cells but not other groups of TIP39 neurons project to these hypothalamic regions. We also found that TIP39 mRNA levels in the PIL markedly increased around parturition and remained elevated throughout the lactation period, demonstrating the availability of the peptide in postpartum mothers. Furthermore, suckling, but not pup exposure without physical contact, increased Fos expression by PIL TIP39 neurons. These results indicate that suckling activates TIP39 neurons in the PIL that affect prolactin release and maternal motivation via projections to the arcuate nucleus and the preoptic area, respectively.
Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Fahlman, Mariane
This study applied self-determination theory to investigate the effects of students' autonomous motivation and their perceptions of teacher autonomy support on need satisfaction adjustment, learning achievement, and cardiorespiratory fitness over a 4-month personal conditioning unit. Participants were 253 urban adolescents (121 girls and 132 boys, ages = 12-14 years). Based on a series of multiple regression analyses, perceived autonomy support by teachers significantly predicted students'need satisfaction adjustment and led to learning achievement, especially for students who were not autonomously motivated to learn in physical education. In turn, being more autonomous was directly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness enhancement. The findings suggest that shifts in teaching approaches toward providing more support for students' autonomy and active involvement hold promise for enhancing learning.
Fonseca, Ricardo; Blascovich, James; Garcia-Marques, Teresa
This paper integrates the motivational states of challenge and threat within a dual processing perspective. Previous research has demonstrated that individuals experience a challenge state when individuals have sufficient resources to cope with the demands of a task (Blascovich et al., 1993). Because the experience of resource availability has been shown to be associated with superficial processing (Garcia-Marques and Mackie, 2007), we tested the hypothesis that challenge is associated with superficial processing in two persuasion experiments. Experiment 1 revealed that inducing attitudes of participants in a challenge state was not sensitive to the quality of arguments presented. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the effect occurs even when task engagement, manipulated by the presence (vs. the absence) of a task observer (Blascovich et al., 1993), is high. The implications of these results for the biopsychosocial model model and the cognitive and motivational literature are discussed. PMID:25352823
Deci, E L; Koestner, R; Ryan, R M
A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as did all tangible rewards and all expected rewards. Positive feedback enhanced both free-choice behavior (d = 0.33) and self-reported interest (d = 0.31). Tangible rewards tended to be more detrimental for children than college students, and verbal rewards tended to be less enhancing for children than college students. The authors review 4 previous meta-analyses of this literature and detail how this study's methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones.
Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee
This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students' motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained=177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted=384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West & Im, 2014). This model consists of a General factor (student's overall motivation for educational attainment), and three specific factors: student perceived Teacher Educational Expectations, Peer Educational Aspirations, and Value of Education. Measurement invariance between retained and promoted groups was established. Retained students scored significantly higher than promoted students on each specific factor but not on the General factor. Results showed that the retained and promoted students did not significantly differ on the General factor. The retained students had significantly higher scores on each specific factor than those of the promoted students. The results suggested that grade retention may not have the negative effects so widely assumed in the published literature; it is an expensive intervention with minimal evidence of benefits to the retained student.
Bush, Sarah B.; McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.
The current state of the economy elevates the need to build awareness of financial markets and personal finance among the nation's young people through implementing a financial literacy curriculum in schools. A limited amount of time spent on financial literacy can have a positive effect on students' budgeting skills. This knowledge will only add…
Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.
Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)
Reinkensmeyer, David J.
It is unclear how the variability of kinematic errors experienced during motor training affects skill retention and motivation. We used force fields produced by a haptic robot to modulate the kinematic errors of 30 healthy adults during a period of practice in a virtual simulation of golf putting. On day 1, participants became relatively skilled at putting to a near and far target by first practicing without force fields. On day 2, they warmed up at the task without force fields, then practiced with force fields that either reduced or augmented their kinematic errors and were finally assessed without the force fields active. On day 3, they returned for a long-term assessment, again without force fields. A control group practiced without force fields. We quantified motor skill as the variability in impact velocity at which participants putted the ball. We quantified motivation using a self-reported, standardized scale. Only individuals who were initially less skilled benefited from training; for these people, practicing with reduced kinematic variability improved skill more than practicing in the control condition. This reduced kinematic variability also improved self-reports of competence and satisfaction. Practice with increased kinematic variability worsened these self-reports as well as enjoyment. These negative motivational effects persisted on day 3 in a way that was uncorrelated with actual skill. In summary, robotically reducing kinematic errors in a golf putting training session improved putting skill more for less skilled putters. Robotically increasing kinematic errors had no performance effect, but decreased motivation in a persistent way. PMID:25673732
Eliakim, Michal; Bodner, Ehud; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Meckel, Yoav
The effects of music played during an exercise task on athletic performance have been previously studied. Yet, these results are not applicable for competitive athletes, who can use music only during warm-up or recovery from exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of motivational music (music that stimulates or inspires physical activity) during recovery from intense exercise, on activity pattern, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration. Twenty young, active men (mean age 26.2 ± 2.1 years) performed a 6-minute run at peak oxygen consumption speed (predetermined from the VO(2) max test). The mean heart rate (HR), RPE, number of steps (determined by step counter), and blood lactate concentrations were determined at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 minutes during the recovery from the exercise, with and without motivational music (2 separate sessions, at random order). There was no difference in the mean HR during the recovery with and without music. Listening to motivational music during the recovery was associated with increased voluntary activity of the participants, determined by increased number of steps (499.4 ± 220.1 vs. 413.2 ± 150.6 steps, with and without music, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). The increased number of steps during the recovery was accompanied by a significantly greater decrease in blood lactate concentration percentage (28.1 ± 12.2 vs. 22.8 ± 10.9%, with and without music, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). This was associated with a greater decrease in RPE (77.7 ± 14.4 vs. 73.1 ± 14.7% with and without music, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). Our results suggest that listening to motivational music during nonstructured recovery from intense exercise leads to increased activity, faster lactate clearance, and reduced RPE and therefore may be used by athletes in their effort to enhance recovery.
Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Hart, Evan E; Freeland, Charlotte; Yohn, Samantha E; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; López-Cruz, Laura; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D
Motivated behaviors are often characterized by a high degree of behavioral activation, and work output and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon cost/benefit analyses. Moreover, people with major depression and other disorders often show effort-related motivational symptoms such as anergia, psychomotor retardation, and fatigue. It has been suggested that tasks measuring effort-related choice behavior could be used as animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT) inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine produces depressive symptoms in humans and, because of its selective inhibition of VMAT-2, it preferentially depletes dopamine (DA). Rats were assessed using a concurrent fixed-ratio 5/chow feeding choice task that is known to be sensitive to dopaminergic manipulations. Tetrabenazine shifted response choice in rats, producing a dose-related decrease in lever pressing and a concomitant increase in chow intake. However, it did not alter food intake or preference in parallel free-feeding choice studies. The effects of tetrabenazine on effort-related choice were reversed by the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the antidepressant bupropion. A behaviorally active dose of tetrabenazine decreased extracellular DA in nucleus accumbens and increased expression of DARPP-32 in accumbens medium spiny neurons in a pattern indicative of reduced transmission at both D1 and D2 DA receptors. These experiments demonstrate that tetrabenazine, which is used in animal models to produce depression-like effects, can alter effort-related choice behavior. These studies have implications for the development of animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression and related disorders.
Nunes, Eric J.; Randall, Patrick A.; Hart, Evan E.; Freeland, Charlotte; Yohn, Samantha E.; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; López-Cruz, Laura; Correa, Mercè
Motivated behaviors are often characterized by a high degree of behavioral activation, and work output and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon cost/benefit analyses. Moreover, people with major depression and other disorders often show effort-related motivational symptoms such as anergia, psychomotor retardation, and fatigue. It has been suggested that tasks measuring effort-related choice behavior could be used as animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT) inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine produces depressive symptoms in humans and, because of its selective inhibition of VMAT-2, it preferentially depletes dopamine (DA). Rats were assessed using a concurrent fixed-ratio 5/chow feeding choice task that is known to be sensitive to dopaminergic manipulations. Tetrabenazine shifted response choice in rats, producing a dose-related decrease in lever pressing and a concomitant increase in chow intake. However, it did not alter food intake or preference in parallel free-feeding choice studies. The effects of tetrabenazine on effort-related choice were reversed by the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the antidepressant bupropion. A behaviorally active dose of tetrabenazine decreased extracellular DA in nucleus accumbens and increased expression of DARPP-32 in accumbens medium spiny neurons in a pattern indicative of reduced transmission at both D1 and D2 DA receptors. These experiments demonstrate that tetrabenazine, which is used in animal models to produce depression-like effects, can alter effort-related choice behavior. These studies have implications for the development of animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression and related disorders. PMID:24305809
Lee, Eun-Ju; Lee, Lu; Jang, Jeongwoo
Drawing upon the uses and gratifications approach, the current study examined how international students' Internet use motivations affect their academic, social, and emotional adjustments in the new environment. A total of 166 Chinese students studying in Korea participated in a web-based survey. First, a factor analysis identified four distinct motivations for Internet use: homeland orientation (to stay connected to the home country), local information seeking (to learn about the host society), local social interaction (to form interpersonal relationships locally), and entertainment. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic variables (i.e., gender, year at school, length of residence, Korean language proficiency) and personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness to experience, neuroticism), Internet use motivations were found to be significant predictors of international students' social and emotional adjustments. Specifically, those seeking to build a local social network through the Internet reported greater satisfaction with their social life, whereas homeland orientation was associated with poorer emotional adaptation. Various Internet activities, such as e-mail, blogging, and instant messaging, were not significantly related to college adjustments, suggesting the multi-functionality of Internet-based communication channels.
Koene, Joris M; Ter Maat, Andries
Background The simultaneously hermaphroditic pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, can mate in the male and female role, but within one copulation only one sexual role is performed at a time. Previous work has shown that male motivation is determined by the availability of seminal fluid in the prostate gland, which is detected via a nervous connection by the brain area controlling male behaviour. Based on this knowledge, patterns of sexual role alternations within mating pairs can be explained. Results The data presented here reveal that these snails can donate and receive sperm several times within 24 hours, and that they have increased mating rates in larger groups (i.e. more mating opportunities). For mating pairs we show, by introducing novel mating partners after copulation, that animals do inseminate new partners, while they are no longer motivated to inseminate their original partners. Conclusion Our findings provide the first direct evidence for higher motivation in a hermaphrodite to copulate when a new partner is encountered. This Coolidge effect seems to be attenuated when mucus trails are excluded, which suggests that a chemical or textural cue may be responsible for mediating this response to sperm competition. PMID:17986351
Quevedo, Karina; Benning, Stephen D; Gunnar, Megan R; Dahl, Ronald E
We examined puberty-specific effects on affect-related behavior and on the psychophysiology of defensive and appetitive motivation while controlling for age. Adolescents (N=94, ages=12 and 13 years), viewed 75 pictures (IAPS: pleasant, neutral and aversive) while listening to auditory probes. Startle response and postauricular (PA) reflex were collected as measures of defensive and appetitive motivation respectively. Pubertal status and measures of anxiety/stress reaction and sensation/thrill seeking were obtained. Mid/late pubertal adolescents showed enhanced startle amplitude across all picture valences. A puberty by valence interaction revealed that mid/late pubertal adolescents showed appetitive potentiation of the PA, while pre/early pubertal adolescents showed no modulation of the PA reflex. Mid/late pubertal adolescents also scored significantly higher on measures of sensation/thrill seeking than did their pre/early pubertal peers and puberty moderated the association between psychophysiology and behavioral measures, suggesting that it plays a role in reorganizing defensive and appetitive motivational systems. PMID:19144221
Yamaguchi, Takumi; Akiyama, Shinji; Sagara, Hidenori; Tanaka, Akihiro; Miyauchi, Yoshirou; Araki, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Izushi, Fumio; Namba, Hiroyuki
Under the six-year pharmaceutical education system that was initiated in April 2006, students who had completed the course in March 2012 became the first graduates. The six-year system encourages students to develop a well-rounded personality, a deep sense of ethics, knowledge required for health care professionals, abilities to identify and solve problems, and practical skills required in clinical settings, as well as basic knowledge and skills. Under the new education system based on the "pharmaceutical education model core curriculums" and "practical training model core curriculums", general pharmaceutical education is implemented in each college, and five-month practical training is conducted in clinical settings. Clinical tasks experienced by students for the first time are expected to significantly influence their motivation to learn and future prospects. In the present survey research, students who had completed practical training evaluated the training program, and correspondence and logistic regression analyses of the results were conducted to examine the future effects and influences of the training on the students. The results suggest that the students viewed the practical training program positively. In addition, clinical experience during the training sessions not only influenced their decisions on future careers, but also significantly increased their motivation to learn. Furthermore, their motivation for learning was increased most by the enthusiasm of pharmacists who advised them in clinical settings, rather than the training program itself. To improve pharmaceutical clinical learning, it is important to develop teaching and working environments for pharmacists in charge of advising students in clinical training.
Background One of the main goals of Human Resource Management (HRM) is to increase the performance of organizations. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the multidimensional character of performance and linked HR practices to various outcome dimensions. This study therefore adds to the literature by relating HR practices to three outcome dimensions: financial, organizational and employee (HR) outcomes. Furthermore, we will analyze how HR practices influence these outcome dimensions, focusing on the mediating role of job satisfaction. Methods This study uses a unique dataset, based on the ‘ActiZ Benchmark in Healthcare’, a benchmark study conducted in Dutch home care, nursing care and care homes. Data from autumn 2010 to autumn 2011 were analyzed. In total, 162 organizations participated during this period (approximately 35% of all Dutch care organizations). Employee data were collected using a questionnaire (61,061 individuals, response rate 42%). Clients were surveyed using the Client Quality Index for long-term care, via stratified sampling. Financial outcomes were collected using annual reports. SEM analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Results It was found that HR practices are - directly or indirectly - linked to all three outcomes. The use of HR practices is related to improved financial outcomes (measure: net margin), organizational outcomes (measure: client satisfaction) and HR outcomes (measure: sickness absence). The impact of HR practices on HR outcomes and organizational outcomes proved substantially larger than their impact on financial outcomes. Furthermore, with respect to HR and organizational outcomes, the hypotheses concerning the full mediating effect of job satisfaction are confirmed. This is in line with the view that employee attitudes are an important element in the ‘black box’ between HRM and performance. Conclusion The results underscore the importance of HRM in the health care sector, especially for HR and
Parker, Philip D; Jerrim, John; Anders, Jake
Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the impact of the GFC on 1 general and 11 domain specific measures of wellbeing at age 19 and 22. Significant differences in wellbeing in most life domains were found, suggesting that wellbeing is susceptible to economic shocks. Given that the GFC in Australia was relatively mild, the finding of clear negative effects across 2 ages is of international concern.
Hofer, Jan; Busch, Holger; Schneider, Carolin
Research provided evidence that personality traits influence the realization of implicit motives: Extraversion supported the successful realization of the implicit motives for affiliation and power, whereas introversion deflected implicit motives away from significant goals and created difficulties in goal attainment. Based on those findings on motive-trait interaction, we tested whether the traits of Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Extraversion affect the satisfaction of the implicit affiliation motive (i.e., the need for establishing and maintaining close relationships with other people) approximately 18 months later. Data on personality traits, the implicit affiliation motive, and need satisfaction were assessed from 244 Cameroonian and German adults. As expected, across cultural groups, Neuroticism constrains but Agreeableness supports the realization of the implicit affiliation motive. No significant results could be found for Extraversion, even if the effect was in the assumed direction. The findings support the argument that different significant personality components ought to be taken into account in research on implicit motives and their psychological and behavioral correlates.
Neighbors, Charles J.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Monti, Peter M.
Objective: Brief interventions in the emergency department targeting risk-taking youth show promise to reduce alcohol-related injury. This study models the cost-effectiveness of a motivational interviewing—based intervention relative to brief advice to stop alcohol-related risk behaviors (standard care). Average cost-effectiveness ratios were compared between conditions. In addition, a cost-utility analysis examined the incremental cost of motivational interviewing per quality-adjusted life year gained. Method: Microcosting methods were used to estimate marginal costs of motivational interviewing and standard care as well as two methods of patient screening: standard emergency-department staff questioning and proactive outreach by counseling staff. Average cost-effectiveness ratios were computed for drinking and driving, injuries, vehicular citations, and negative social consequences. Using estimates of the marginal effect of motivational interviewing in reducing drinking and driving, estimates of traffic fatality risk from drinking-and-driving youth, and national life tables, the societal costs per quality-adjusted life year saved by motivational interviewing relative to standard care were also estimated. Alcohol-attributable traffic fatality risks were estimated using national databases. Results: Intervention costs per participant were $81 for standard care, $170 for motivational interviewing with standard screening, and $173 for motivational interviewing with proactive screening. The cost-effectiveness ratios for motivational interviewing were more favorable than standard care across all study outcomes and better for men than women. The societal cost per quality-adjusted life year of motivational interviewing was $8,795. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results were robust in terms of variability in parameter estimates. Conclusions: This brief intervention represents a good societal investment compared with other commonly adopted medical interventions. PMID
Groom, Madeleine J.; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.; Batty, Martin J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Roberts, Katherine L.; Cahill, John D.; Liotti, Mario; Hollis, Chris
Background Theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) posit either executive deficits and/or alterations in motivational style and reward processing as core to the disorder. Effects of motivational incentives on electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and relationships between motivation and stimulant medication have not been explicitly tested. Methods Children (9–15 years) with combined-type ADHD (n = 28) and matched typically developing children (CTRL) (n = 28) performed a go/no-go task. Electroencephalogram data were recorded. Amplitude of two event-related potentials, the N2 and P3 (markers of response conflict and attention), were measured. The ADHD children were all stimulant responders tested on and off their usual dose of methylphenidate; CTRLs were never medicated. All children performed the task under three motivational conditions: reward; response cost; and baseline, in which points awarded/deducted for inhibitory performance varied. Results There were effects of diagnosis (CTRL > ADHD unmedicated), medication (on > off), and motivation (reward and/or response cost > baseline) on N2 and P3 amplitude, although the N2 diagnosis effect did not reach statistical significance (p = .1). Interactions between motivation and diagnosis/medication were nonsignificant (p > .1). Conclusions Motivational incentives increased amplitudes of electrophysiological correlates of response conflict and attention in children with ADHD, towards the baseline (low motivation) amplitudes of control subjects. These results suggest that, on these measures, motivational incentives have similar effects in children with ADHD as typically developing CTRLs and have additive effects with stimulant medication, enhancing stimulus salience and allocation of attentional resources during response inhibition. PMID:19914599
Messé, Lawrence A; Hertel, Guido; Kerr, Norbert L; Lount, Robert B; Park, Ernest S
O. Köhler (1926, 1927) found that less able performers tried harder as team members under conjunctive task demands (Kohler motivation gain effect) and that the greatest gain occurred with moderately discrepant coworker abilities (Köhler discrepancy effect). Recent investigations have reproduced Köhler's overall motivation gain but not the discrepancy effect. The present research examined whether workers' foreknowledge of task abilities--present in Kohler's research, absent in contemporary studies--moderates the discrepancy effect. Participants worked alone or in 2-person teams under conjunctive task demands. Experiment 1 manipulated foreknowledge of ability. Experiment 2 manipulated discrepancy: a (confederate) teammate performed slightly, moderately, or substantially better. Both experiments found (a) overall motivation gains and (b) discrepancy moderation under foreknowledge conditions. Implications for understanding group motivation gains are discussed.
what ignites your passion and the passion of those around you” (p. 109). Public Service Motivation Theory (Crewson, 1997; Houston, 2000; Perry... Public Service Motivation “The theory of public service motivation (PSM) suggests public employees are more likely than private sector employees to...Prentice-Hall. Houston, D. J. (2000). Public - service motivation : Building empirical evidence of incidence and effect. Journal of Public Administration
Koka, Andre; Hein, Vello
Relative change or stability of perceived positive general feedback and perceived informational feedback and their influence on students' intrinsic motivation in physical education over two years were examined. 302 students, ages 11 to 15 years, responded to the Perception of Teacher's Feedback questionnaire. Two years later, these students filled out the questionnaire again, along with a modified version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Analysis showed that both types of perceived feedback exhibited moderate stability over the two years. Perceived positive general feedback demonstrated a significant direct effect on students' intrinsic motivation measured concurrently in physical education. Further, fixing to zero the effect of perceived positive general feedback on intrinsic motivation measured concurrently, an effect emerged over the two years.
Ferguson, S A; Paule, M G
The effects of chlorpromazine and diazepam on performance of two operant tasks, one modelling time estimation and the other motivation to work for food reinforcers, were investigated in rats. These same tasks had been used previously in rhesus monkeys to assess the effects of chlorpromazine and diazepam. Rat performance of the time estimation task [temporal response differentiation (TRD)] was nearly identical to that previously described in monkeys. This performance similarity across these two species occurred despite slightly different methodologies. Performance of the motivation task [progressive ratio (PR)] was clearly different between rats and adult monkeys in that rats exhibited lower values on all PR endpoints. Acute administration of chlorpromazine [0.03-5.6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (IP)] caused decrements in rat TRD and PR performance at doses > or = 1.0 mg/kg. Acute administration of diazepam (0.25-4.0 mg/kg, IP) altered TRD performance only. The effects of chlorpromazine and diazepam in rats were similar to those previously noted in the monkey, indicating the potential utility of rat performance in these operant tasks to predict drug effects in the rhesus monkey.
Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland
Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.
Fachrudin, K. A.; Fachrudin, H. T.
A green home focuses on the efficient usage of resources. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of green homes, green behavior, and livability on financial incentives. The population of this study is a largest and oldest housing in Medan City and sample is 100 houses. The method that used is path analysis. The findings show that the application of the green concept according to the residents have positive and significant impact on livability within alpha 5 percent, but livability has positive and unsignificant impact on the financial incentive. The application of green concept have no significant effect either directly or through livability to the financial incentive. Factor affecting the financial incentive is green behavior. It is expected that residents can increase the awareness about environment and have green behavior.
Sherman, Brian J; Baker, Nathaniel L; McRae-Clark, Aimee L
Motivational enhancement therapy (MET) is efficacious in reducing cannabis use, yet benefits are generally short-lived. Oxytocin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that promotes prosocial behaviors and plays a role in drug-related neuroadaptations; as such, oxytocin may enhance the effect of MET on cannabis outcomes. Cannabis dependent adults were randomized to receive MET plus oxytocin (n =8) or placebo (n =8). Participants receiving oxytocin showed reductions in amount of cannabis used daily and number of sessions per day. Participants receiving placebo did not evidence significant reductions. Powered clinical trials of oxytocin-enhanced MET for cannabis use disorder are warranted.
Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Gasiorowska, Agata; Stasiuk, Katarzyna; Maksymiuk, Renata; Bar-Tal, Yoram
The goal of this experimental project was to investigate lay peoples' perceptions of epistemic authority (EA) in the field of finance. EA is defined as the extent to which a source of information is treated as evidence for judgments independently of its objective expertise and based on subjective beliefs. Previous research suggested that EA evaluations are biased and that lay people tend to ascribe higher EA to experts who advise action (in the case of medical experts) or confirm clients' expectations (in the case of politicians). However, there has been no research into biases in lay evaluations of financial experts and this project is aimed to fill this gap. Experiment 1 showed that lay people tended to ascribe greater authority to financial consultants who gave more active advice to clients considering taking out a mortgage. Experiment 2 confirmed the action advice effect found in Experiment 1. However, the outcomes of Experiments 2 and - particularly - 3 suggested that this bias might also be due to clients' desire to confirm their own opinions. Experiment 2 showed that the action advice effect was moderated by clients' own opinions on taking loans. Lay people ascribed the greatest EA to the advisor in the scenario in which he advised taking action and where this coincided with the client's positive opinion on the advisability of taking out a loan. In Experiment 3 only participants with a positive opinion on the financial product ascribed greater authority to experts who recommended it; participants whose opinion was negative tended to rate consultants who advised rejecting the product more highly. To conclude, these three experiments revealed that lay people ascribe higher EA to financial consultants who advise action rather than maintenance of the status quo, but this effect is limited by confirmation bias: when the client's a priori opinion is salient, greater authority is ascribed to experts whose advice confirms it. In this sense, results presented in the
September 2002 · NREL/SR-620-32819 Case Studies on the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy S. Gouchoe, V. Everette, and R. Haynes North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute · Battelle · Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 September 2002 · NREL/SR-620-32819Case Studies on the Effecti
Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Gasiorowska, Agata; Stasiuk, Katarzyna; Maksymiuk, Renata; Bar-Tal, Yoram
The goal of this experimental project was to investigate lay peoples’ perceptions of epistemic authority (EA) in the field of finance. EA is defined as the extent to which a source of information is treated as evidence for judgments independently of its objective expertise and based on subjective beliefs. Previous research suggested that EA evaluations are biased and that lay people tend to ascribe higher EA to experts who advise action (in the case of medical experts) or confirm clients’ expectations (in the case of politicians). However, there has been no research into biases in lay evaluations of financial experts and this project is aimed to fill this gap. Experiment 1 showed that lay people tended to ascribe greater authority to financial consultants who gave more active advice to clients considering taking out a mortgage. Experiment 2 confirmed the action advice effect found in Experiment 1. However, the outcomes of Experiments 2 and – particularly – 3 suggested that this bias might also be due to clients’ desire to confirm their own opinions. Experiment 2 showed that the action advice effect was moderated by clients’ own opinions on taking loans. Lay people ascribed the greatest EA to the advisor in the scenario in which he advised taking action and where this coincided with the client’s positive opinion on the advisability of taking out a loan. In Experiment 3 only participants with a positive opinion on the financial product ascribed greater authority to experts who recommended it; participants whose opinion was negative tended to rate consultants who advised rejecting the product more highly. To conclude, these three experiments revealed that lay people ascribe higher EA to financial consultants who advise action rather than maintenance of the status quo, but this effect is limited by confirmation bias: when the client’s a priori opinion is salient, greater authority is ascribed to experts whose advice confirms it. In this sense, results
Bernet, Patrick Michael; Getzen, Thomas E
Investor trust is valuable to health care organizations. Without it, they may face higher capital costs. This study explores recent cases of fraud and the appearance of impropriety by health care organizations, focusing on the manners in which trust was violated, the systems that allowed those violations, and the effects on financial markets. Increases in the incidence and scale of such transgressions may be harbingers of worse times ahead. This article examines how recent events have affected the cost of capital, and what health care organizations can do to avoid being judged by the company they keep.
Horns, K; Seeger, K; Heinmüller, M; Limm, H; Waldhoff, H-P; Salman, R; Gündel, H; Angerer, P
Among the long-term unemployed ill health is often a hindrance to successful reintegration in the job market. In a quasi-experimental controlled study we examined the effects of a health promotion intervention program tailored to the specific needs of the long-term unemployed combining individual sessions based on motivational interviewing and participatory group sessions including physical activity. Over a period of 3 months the participants of the intervention group (n = 179) showed more improvement compared to the control group (n = 108) in terms of motivation for lifestyle changes towards more physical activity and healthier nutrition. Participants of the intervention group developed an intention to act significantly more often (active lifestyle: odds ratio 4.44; 95% CI: 2.00-9.83; healthy nutrition: odds ratio 3.94; 95% CI: 1.55-10.00) and actually implemented a behavior change significantly more often (active lifestyle: odds ratio 2.77; 95% CI: 1.35-5.71; healthy nutrition: odds ratio 4.34; 95% CI: 1.92-9.78). In terms of smoking and alcohol consumption no significant intervention effects were detected. The results of the study show the effectiveness of the described health promotion program regarding a lifestyle change towards more healthy nutrition and more physical activity.
A problem facing science educators is determining the most effective means of science instruction so that students will meet or exceed the new rigorous standards. The theoretical framework for this study was based on reform and research efforts that have informed science teachers that using constructivism is the best method of science instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the constructivist method of science instruction affected student achievement and student motivation in a sixth grade science classroom. The guiding research question involved understanding which method of science instruction would be most effective at improving student achievement in science. Other sub-questions included the factors that contribute to student motivation in science and the method of science instruction students receive that affects motivation to learn science. Quantitative data were collected using a pre-test and post-test single group design. T-test and ANCOVA were used to test quantitative hypotheses. Qualitative data were collected using student reflective journals and classroom discussions. Students' perspectives were transcribed, coded and used to further inform quantitative findings. The findings of this study supported the recommendations made by science reformists that the best method of science instruction was a constructivist method. This study also found that participant comments favored constructivist taught classes. The implications for social change at the local level included potential increases in student achievement in science and possibly increased understanding that can facilitate similar changes at other schools. From a global perspective, constructivist-oriented methods might result in students becoming more interested in majoring in science at the college level and in becoming part of a scientifically literate work force.
Kannappan, Aarthy; Yip, Dana T; Lodhia, Nayna A; Morton, John; Lau, James N
There is considerable effort and time invested in providing feedback to medical students and residents during their time in training. However, little effort has been made to measure the effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on skills performance and motivation to learn and practice. To probe these questions, first-year medical students (n = 25) were recruited to perform a peg transfer task on Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery box trainers. Time to completion and number of errors were recorded. The students were then randomized to receive either positive or negative verbal feedback from an expert in the field of laparoscopic surgery. After this delivery of feedback, the students repeated the peg transfer task. Differences in performance pre- and post-feedback and also between the groups who received positive feedback (PF) vs negative feedback (NF) were analyzed. A survey was then completed by all the participants. Baseline task times were similar between groups (PF 209.3 seconds; NF 203 seconds, p = 0.58). The PF group averaged 1.83 first-time errors while the NF group 1 (p = 0.84). Post-feedback task times were significantly decreased for both groups (PF 159.75 seconds, p = 0.05; NF 132.08 seconds, p = 0.002). While the NF group demonstrated a greater improvement in mean time than the PF group, this was not statistically significant. Both groups also made fewer errors (PF 0.33 errors, p = 0.04; NF 0.38 errors, p = 0.23). When surveyed about their responses to standardized feedback scenarios, the students stated that both positive and negative verbal feedback could be potent stimulants for improved performance and motivation. Further research is required to better understand the effects of feedback on learner motivation and the interpersonal dynamic between mentors and their trainees.
Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay
In April 2009, the G20 countries committed US $750 billion to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which has assumed a central role in global economic management. The IMF provides loans to financially ailing countries, but with strict conditions, typically involving a mix of privatization, liberalization, and fiscal austerity programs. These loan conditions have been extremely controversial. In principle, they are designed to help countries balance their books. In practice, they often translate into reductions in social spending, including spending on public health and health care delivery. As more countries are being exposed to IMF policies, there is a need to establish what we know and do not know about the IMF's effects on global health. This article introduces a series in which contributors review the evidence on the relationship between the IMF and public health and discuss potential ways to improve the Fund's effects on health. While more evidence is needed for some regions, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that IMF programs have been significantly associated with weakened health care systems, reduced effectiveness of health-focused development aid, and impeded efforts to control tobacco, infectious diseases, and child and maternal mortality. Reforms are urgently needed to prevent the current wave of IMF programs from further undermining public health in financially ailing countries and limiting progress toward the health Millennium Development Goals.
Morgan, George, Ed.; Jacobs, Sue, Ed.
The presentations and tables in this document deal with the development of mastery motivation from infancy to early preschool years. Discussion was focused on three questions: (1) whether mastery motivation can be measured in infants and young children; (2) whether it is possible to distinguish mastery motivation from cognitive functioning; and…
McClelland, David C.; Scioli, Anthony; Weaver, Suzanne
Sixty-eight elderly subjects and 77 young adults were compared on implicit and explicit motive levels and on recall of introductions and working memory. Significantly fewer of the elderly scored high in the implicit motives. The elderly participants showed major recall deficits on both tasks but the implicit motives studied enhanced recall for the…
Bozack, Amanda R.; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole
This study explores the relationship between academic achievement and reading motivation among adolescent boys. We seek to understand (1) if motivational construct scores change meaningfully over time, (2) what relationship exists between the achievement scores and reported reading motivation, and (3) if students who report higher reading…
Olmstead, Todd; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve
Objective To evaluate the cost and cost-effectiveness of three strategies for teaching community program clinicians motivational interviewing (MI): self-study (SS), expert-led (EX), and train-the-trainer (TT). Methods This economic analysis was conducted as part of a three-arm clinician training trial comprising 12 community treatment programs randomly assigned to the three conditions (n = 92 clinician participants). EX and TT conditions used skill-building workshops and three monthly supervision sessions. SS provided clinicians MI training materials only. The primary outcome measure was the number of clinicians meeting MI performance standards at 12-week follow-up. Unit costs were obtained via surveys administered at the 12 participating programs. Resource utilizations and clinician outcomes were obtained from the training trial. Costs and outcomes were normalized to account for differing numbers of clinicians across programs and conditions. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were used to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of the three training strategies. Results SS is likely to be the most cost-effective training strategy if the threshold value to decision makers of an additional clinician meeting MI performance standards at 12-week follow-up is less than approximately $2,870, and EX is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy when the threshold value is greater than approximately $2,870. Conclusions This study provides accurate estimates of the economic costs and relative cost-effectiveness of three different strategies for training community program clinicians in motivational interviewing and should be of interest to decision makers seeking to implement empirically supported addiction treatments with scarce resources. PMID:21277713
Siokis, Fotios M.
We analyze the complexity of rare economic events in troubled European economies. The economic crisis initiated at the end of 2009, forced a number of European economies to request financial assistance from world organizations. By employing the stock market index as a leading indicator of the economic activity, we test whether the financial assistance programs altered the statistical properties of the index. The effects of major financial program agreements on the economies can be best illustrated by the comparison of the multifractal spectra of the time series before and after the agreement. We reveal that the returns of the time series exhibit strong multifractal properties for all periods under investigation. In two of the three investigated economies, financial assistance along with governments’ initiatives appear to have altered the statistical properties of the stock market indexes increasing the width of the multifractal spectra and thus the complexity of the market.
Anand, Deepika; Oehlberg, Katherine A; Treadway, Michael T; Nusslock, Robin
While motivation to pursue goals is often assumed to be a trait-like characteristic, it is influenced by a variety of situational factors. In particular, recent experiences of success or failure, as well as cognitive responses to these outcomes, may shape subsequent willingness to expend effort for future rewards. To date, however, these effects have not been explicitly tested. In the present study, 131 healthy individuals received either failure or success feedback on a cognitive task. They were then instructed to either ruminate or distract themselves from their emotions. Finally, they completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task, a laboratory measure of reward motivation. Results indicate that participants who received failure feedback relied more strongly on the reward magnitude when choosing whether to exert greater effort to obtain larger rewards, though this effect only held under conditions of significant uncertainty about whether the effort would be rewarded. Further, participants with high levels of trait inhibition were less responsive to reward value and probability when choosing whether to expend greater effort, results that echo past studies of effort-based decision-making in psychological disorders.
Ovalle, N.K. II.
The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.
Webster, Lee Ann H
Medical practice leadership teams, often consisting primarily of physicians with limited financial backgrounds, must make important business decisions and continuously monitor practice operations. In order to competently perform this duty, they need financial reports that are relevant and easy to understand. This article explores financial reporting and decision-making in a physician practice. It discusses reports and tools, such as ratios, graphs, and comparisons, that practices typically include in their reports. Because profitability and cash flow are often the most important financial considerations for physician practices, reports should generally focus on the impact of various activities and potential decisions upon these concerns. This article also provides communication tips for both those presenting practice financial information and those making the decisions. By communicating effectively, these leaders can best use financial information to improve decision-making and maximize financial performance.
Dzhebrailova, T D; Korobeĭnikova, I I; Rudneva, L P
EEG spectral power was calculated in 24 students (18-21 years) with different levels of motivation and anxiety (tested by Spielberger) in two experimental conditions: during the common educational process and the examination stress. Before examination tests, in subjects with high motivation and anxiety level the relative delta activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. In students with medium motivation immediately before an examination the relative beta2-activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. It is suggested that delta oscillati- ons reflect activity of the defensive motivational system, whereas beta2 oscillations may be associated with the achievement motivation.
Toprac, Paul K.
multiple regression analysis but based on students' interviews, continuing interest to learn is influenced by all the components of Eccles' expectancy-value model. Response effects may have confounded quantitative results. Discussion includes challenges of researching in classrooms, CM, and Eccles' motivational model, and the tension between PBL and game based approaches. Future design recommendations and research directions are provided.
Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores
This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.
Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores
This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423
Kim, Young Shin
Employees work attitudes are key determinants to organizational performance. This article proposes a model integrating servant leadership, prosocial motivation, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in order to explain a mechanism through which prosocial motivation plays a central role in enhanding physicians' work attitudes. A cross sectional survey from a sample of physicians indicates that (1) prosocial motivation can be shaped from servant leadership when physicians perceive high value fit with their supervisors, (2) prosocial motivation improves physicians' job satisfaction. Its effects is strengthened when physicians perceive high CSR, and (3) job satisfaction improves organizational commitment. The results provide meaningful insights that a triple synergy of prosocial orientation among physicians, supervisors and organization enhances physicians' work attitudes.
Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D J; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171 men and women from a small Northeastern college exposed to a stimulus in which a rapist's motivation was varied as either sexual or violent. Participants were more certain that the stimulus described a rape, recommended a longer prison sentence for the offender, and assigned less blame to the victim when exposed to an offender motivated by violence as opposed to an offender motivated by sex. Offender motivation also interacted with participant gender and victim gender on participants' perceptions of victim blame and offender responsibility. The results suggest that an offender's motivation for rape can influence perceptions of the offender's and victim's responsibility for the assault.
Sagara, Hidenori; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Sendo, Toshiaki; Araki, Hiroaki; Gomita, Yutaka
Priming stimulation is known to promote the motivational effects of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) behavior. The runway method using priming stimulation can experimentally distinguish the reward and motivational effects of ICSS behavior. In this study, we examined the motivational effect of a drug as determined by the runway method using priming stimulation of ICSS behavior. Electrodes were implanted chronically into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) of the rats. A lever for stimulation of the MFB was set on the opposite side of the start box in the apparatus. The rats were trained to obtain a reward stimulation (50-200 muA, 0.2 ms, 60 Hz) of the MFB by pressing the goal lever, and then priming stimulation of the MFB was applied. After priming stimulation, rats were placed in the start box of the runway apparatus and the time taken by the rat to press the lever was recorded. Priming stimulation frequency was significantly correlated with running speed (r=0.897, p<0.05). Methamphetamine (1, 3 mg/kg) induced an increase in running speed (F(3, 20)=16.257, p<0.01), and was further increased with increase in priming stimulation frequency. In addition, methamphetamine significantly enhanced the motivational effect. These results suggest that the runway method using priming stimulation of ICSS behavior may be an effective way to evaluate the enhancing effect of a drug on motivation.
Amado, Diana; Del Villar, Fernando; Leo, Francisco Miguel; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio; García-Calvo, Tomás
This research study purports to verify the effect produced on the motivation of physical education students of a multi-dimensional programme in dance teaching sessions. This programme incorporates the application of teaching skills directed towards supporting the needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with two natural groups of 4(th) year Secondary Education students--control and experimental -, delivering 12 dance teaching sessions. A prior training programme was carried out with the teacher in the experimental group to support these needs. An initial and final measurement was taken in both groups and the results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed an increase of the perception of autonomy and, in general, of the level of self-determination towards the curricular content of corporal expression focused on dance in physical education. To this end, we highlight the programme's usefulness in increasing the students' motivation towards this content, which is so complicated for teachers of this area to develop.
In this dissertation, I study a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of data from the LHC. I will consider three models that exhibit so-called 'mirage mediation'. I first consider the Binetruy-Gaillard-Wu (BGW) model, a model arising from heterotic string theory in which the dilaton is stabilized via non-perturbative corrections to the Kahler metric. I then consider the Kachru-Kallosh-Linde-Trivedi (KKLT) model, a model of Type-IIB string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold, and an extension known as deflected mirage mediation (DMM) where contributions from gauge mediation are added to those arising from gravity mediation and anomaly mediation. The sequence of these three models allows an exploration in which the three dominant methods of communicating SUSY breaking appear in differing ratios. For each model, I outline the extent to which the phenomenologically-motived parameter space can be ruled out by existing experimental data before discussing how the remaining parameter space may be probed by continuing studies at the LHC and dark matter direct detection experiments.
Hanlon, Erin C; Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Harder, Bridgette K; Kelley, Ann E; Benca, Ruth M
Prolonged sleep deprivation in rats produces a characteristic syndrome consisting of an increase in food intake yet a decrease in weight. Moreover, the increase in food intake generally precedes the weight loss, suggesting that sleep deprivation may affect appetitive behaviors. Using the multiple platform method to produce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation, we investigated the effect of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) on motivation for food reward utilizing food-reinforced operant tasks. In acquisition or maintenance of an operant task, REM sleep-deprived rats, with or without simultaneous food restriction, decreased responding for sucrose pellet reward in comparison to controls, despite the fact that all REM sleep-deprived rats lost weight. Furthermore, the overall response deficit of the REM sleep-deprived rats was due to a within-session decline in responding. REM sleep-deprived rats showed evidence of understanding the contingency of the task comparable to controls throughout deprivation period, suggesting that the decrements in responding were not primarily related to deficits in learning or memory. Rather, REM sleep deprivation appears to alter systems involved in motivational processes, reward, and/or attention.
Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the impact of the GFC on 1 general and 11 domain specific measures of wellbeing at age 19 and 22. Significant differences in wellbeing in most life domains were found, suggesting that wellbeing is susceptible to economic shocks. Given that the GFC in Australia was relatively mild, the finding of clear negative effects across 2 ages is of international concern. PMID:26854968
Jones, Kevin T.; Gözenman, Filiz; Berryhill, Marian E.
Working memory (WM) capacity falls along a spectrum with some people demonstrating higher and others lower WM capacity. Efforts to improve WM include applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in which small amounts of current modulate the activity of underlying neurons and enhance cognitive function. However, not everyone benefits equally from a given tDCS protocol. Recent findings revealed tDCS-related WM benefits for individuals with higher working memory (WM) capacity. Here, we test two hypotheses regarding those with low WM capacity to see if they too would benefit under more optimal conditions. We tested whether supplying a WM strategy (Experiment 1) or providing greater extrinsic motivation through incentives (Experiment 2) would restore tDCS benefit to the low WM capacity group. We also employed functional near infrared spectroscopy to monitor tDCS-induced changes in neural activity. Experiment 1 demonstrated that supplying a WM strategy improved the high WM capacity participants’ accuracy and the amount of oxygenated blood levels following anodal tDCS, but it did not restore tDCS-linked WM benefits to the low WM capacity group. Experiment 2 demonstrated that financial motivation enhanced performance in both low and high WM capacity groups, especially after anodal tDCS. Here, only the low WM capacity participants showed a generalized increase in oxygenated blood flow across both low and high motivation conditions. These results indicate that ensuring that participants’ incentives are high may expand cognitive benefits associated with tDCS. This finding is relevant for translational work using tDCS in clinical populations, in which motivation can be a concern. PMID:25462798
Bjork, James M; Grant, Steven J; Chen, Gang; Hommer, Daniel W
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission is critical for motivational processing. We assessed whether disruption of DA synthesis in healthy controls using an amino-acid beverage devoid of catecholamine precursors (tyrosine–phenylalanine depletion (TPD)) would blunt recruitment of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) by rewards. Sixteen controls ingested each of a tyr/phe-depleting beverage (DEP) or a tyr/phe-balanced (BAL) control beverage in two laboratory visits. Five hours after consumption of each drink, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed anticipatory cues to respond to a target to either win money or avoid losing money. TPD did not exert main effects on mood or on task behavior, but affected brain activation. In right NAcc, TPD blunted activation by anticipation of high rewards. In left NAcc, recruitment anticipating high rewards was modulated by individual differences in mood change across the DEP drink day, where subjects whose mood worsened following TPD (relative to within-day mood change under BAL conditions) also showed lower activation under DEP conditions relative to BAL conditions. Exploratory analysis indicated that TPD qualitatively blunted the voxel-wise spatial extent of suprathreshold activation by reward anticipation. Finally, loss outcomes activated anterior insula under DEP conditions but not under BAL conditions. These data indicate that: (1) dietary depletion of catacholamine precursors will blunt dopaminergic mesolimbic activity, and (2) in controls, synthetic pathways of this neurocircuitry maintain sufficient buffering capacity to resist an effect on motivated behavior. Additional studies are needed to determine if clinical populations would show similar resistance to behavioral effects of TPD. PMID:23995581
Hartzler, Bryan; Rabun, Carl
Treatment community reluctance toward contingency management (CM) may be better understood by eliciting views of its feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability when social versus financial incentives are utilized. This mixed method study involved individual staff interviews representing three personnel tiers (an executive, clinical supervisor, and two front-line clinicians) at 16 opiate treatment programs. Interviews included Likert ratings of feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability of each incentive type, and content analysis of corresponding interviewee narrative. Multi-level modeling analyses indicated that social incentives were perceived more feasible, more effective, and more transportable than financial incentives, with results pervading personnel tier. Content analysis suggested that the more positive perception of social incentives was most often due to expected logistical advantages, positive impacts on patient quality-of-life, and philosophical congruence among staff. Weaker perception of financial incentives was most often influenced by concerns about costs, patient dissatisfaction, and staff philosophical incongruence. Implications for CM dissemination are discussed.
Haesevoets, Tessa; Reinders Folmer, Chris; Van Hiel, Alain
Despite the popularity of financial compensation as a means for addressing trust violations, the question whether (more) money can indeed buy trust back remains largely unexplored. In the present research, we focus on the role of violation type and compensation size. The results of a scenario study and a laboratory experiment show that financial compensation can effectively promote the restoration of trust for transgressions that indicate a lack of competence. Conversely, for transgressions which signal a lack of integrity, financial compensation is not an effective tool to repair trust. Moreover, our findings indicate that for both violation types, overcompensation has no positive effects on top of the impact of equal compensation. These findings therefore show that when it comes to trust, money cannot buy everything. PMID:26714025
Haesevoets, Tessa; Reinders Folmer, Chris; Van Hiel, Alain
Despite the popularity of financial compensation as a means for addressing trust violations, the question whether (more) money can indeed buy trust back remains largely unexplored. In the present research, we focus on the role of violation type and compensation size. The results of a scenario study and a laboratory experiment show that financial compensation can effectively promote the restoration of trust for transgressions that indicate a lack of competence. Conversely, for transgressions which signal a lack of integrity, financial compensation is not an effective tool to repair trust. Moreover, our findings indicate that for both violation types, overcompensation has no positive effects on top of the impact of equal compensation. These findings therefore show that when it comes to trust, money cannot buy everything.
Hartzler, Bryan; Rabun, Carl
Treatment community reluctance toward contingency management (CM) may be better understood by eliciting views of its feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability when social vs. financial incentives are utilized. This mixed method study involved individual staff interviews representing three personnel tiers (an executive, clinical supervisor, and two front-line clinicians) at 16 opiate treatment programs. Interviews included Likert ratings of feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability of each incentive type, and content analysis of corresponding interviewee narrative. Multi-level modeling analyses indicated that social incentives were perceived more feasible, more effective, and more transportable than financial incentives, with results pervading personnel tier. Content analysis suggested the more positive perception of social incentives was most often due to expected logistical advantages, positive impacts on patient quality-of-life, and philosophical congruence among staff. Weaker perception of financial incentives was most often influenced by concerns about costs, patient dissatisfaction, and staff philosophical incongruence. Implications for CM dissemination are discussed. PMID:23506780
Stephenson, Beth A.
Climate change is a well-documented phenomenon. If left unchecked greenhouse gas emissions will continue global surface warming, likely leading to severe and irreversible impacts. Generating renewable energy has become an increasingly salient topic in energy policy as it may mitigate the impact of climate change. State renewable energy financial incentives have been in place since the mid-1970s in some states and over 40 states have adopted one or more incentives at some point since then. Using multivariate linear and fixed effects regression for the years 2002 through 2012, I estimate the relationship between state renewable energy financial incentives and residential electricity consumption, along with the associated policy implications. My hypothesis is that a renewable energy rebound effect is present; therefore, states with renewable energy financial incentives have a higher rate of residential electricity consumption. I find a renewable energy rebound effect is present in varying degrees for each model, but the results do not definitively indicate how particular incentives influence consumer behavior. States should use caution when adopting and keeping renewable energy financial incentives as this may increase consumption in the short-term. The long-term impact is unclear, making it worthwhile for policymakers to continue studying the potential for renewable energy financial incentives to alter consumer behavior.
Sabina, Asiago Lenah; Okibo, Walter; Nyang'au, Andrew; Ondima, Cleophas
Job satisfaction is a major challenge among employees in many organizations. The purpose of this research project is to assess the effect of non-financial incentives on job satisfaction of teachers in public secondary schools of Kisii Sub County in the Republic of Kenya. The specific objectives for the study include: to assess the effect of…
Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina
This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders' targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates.
Butterworth, Susan; Linden, Ariel; McClay, Wende; Leo, Michael C
Motivational Interviewing (MI) based health coaching is a relatively new behavioral intervention that has gained popularity in public health because of its ability to address multiple behaviors, health risks, and illness self-management. In this study, 276 employees at a medical center self-selected to participate in either a 3-month health coaching intervention or control group. The treatment group showed significant improvement in both SF-12 physical (p = .035) and mental (p = .0001) health status compared to controls. Because of concerns of selection bias, a matched case-control analysis was also performed, eliciting similar results. These findings suggest that MI-based health coaching is effective in improving both physical and mental health status in an occupational setting.
Gore, Jonathan S; Rogers, Mary Jill
Past research has shown the importance of considering close others' interests when pursuing goals, but no research has examined potential moderators of this effect. Two studies examined how attachment style moderates the association between reasons for studying and academic outcomes. In Study 1, 119 participants reported their attachment style, the reasons why they study, and their study habits. As predicted, the association between relational reasons and studying was positive for secure individuals and negative for avoidant individuals. In Study 2, 195 participants reported their attachment style and reasons for studying, as well as their GPA and academic well-being. As predicted, the association between relational reasons and GPA was positive for secure individuals, whereas the associations between personal reasons for studying and academic well-being were positive for avoidant individuals. These results indicate the importance of considering individual differences as moderators of the association between goal motives and outcomes.
Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben
With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis.
Parrott, Dominic J; Peterson, John L
The aim of this study was to examine the role of anger in response to gay men within three theoretical models of antigay aggression. Participants were 135 exclusively heterosexual men who completed a structured interview designed to assess sexual prejudice, anger in response to a vignette depicting a nonerotic male-male intimate relationship (i.e. partners saying "I love you", holding hands, kissing), and past perpetration of antigay aggression. Among identified antigay assailants, motivations for one earlier assault (i.e. sexual prejudice, peer dynamics, thrill seeking) were also assessed. Results indicated that anger fully mediated the relationship between sexual prejudice and antigay aggression, partially mediated the effect of peer dynamics on antigay aggression, and did not account for the relationship between thrill seeking and antigay aggression. These findings indicate that anger in response to gay men facilitates antigay aggression among some, but not all, antigay perpetrators.
Komaki, Judith L
To ensure safety in the workplace, it is necessary to galvanize all managers to work together in concert. Unfortunately, such alignment is notoriously difficult. A Task Force member analyzing Texaco's lackluster results in reducing discrimination pointed out: "The need was obvious to senior executives but was not apparent among the lower management ranks." But we already know from the Operant Model of Effective Supervision that exemplary leaders motivate by monitoring and providing consequences (1). This information only goes so far, however, when myriad managers are doing myriad, often unseen tasks. So what should a CEO do? Regretfully, I do not have a quick fix. But for a similarly daunting area, I created a performance matrix, reflecting the weighting and progress toward a variety of managerial tasks that a CEO can use as a basis for reinforcement (2). I recommend developing a comparable index to build a community of reinforcement for safety.
Kim, Sook-Jung; Cho, Bok-Hee
The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of exercise adherence when exercise motivation was empowered. It was planned as a pretest-posttest nonequivalent quasi-experimental design. The study subjects were female college students who wanted exercise and agreed to participate in the Jane Fonda Workout Program (1982) for a period of six months. The subject sample was divided into an experimental group and a control group by college department to prevent contamination of the intervention, which promotes long-term exercise-program adherence through the EMPOWER Step Program. All subjects’ body composition and physical fitness were measured using the Inbody (520) Body Composition Analyzer and Helmas (Korea) measuring equipment. Cronbach’s α, t-test, odds ratio and analysis of covariance were used to analyze the data using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program. According to the results the experimental group showed a 66.66% exercise adherence success rate and the control group showed only a 26.31% success rate (OR= 5.60, P= 0.01; t= 2.932, P= 0.006). Skeletal muscle mass was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (F= 8.45, P= 0.006). Body fat mass decreased significantly more in the experimental group than in the control group (F= 6.08 P= 0.01). Empowered motivation has positive effects on adherence to exercise regimes and physical fitness in female college students. Therefore it is suggested to actively utilize the EMPOWER Step Program to foster long-term exercise. PMID:24278872
Goodyear, Finis Herbert
To determine the effect of motivation on listening comprehension, this study investigated the effects of two levels of reward and two levels of punishment on immediate recall and reflective listening. The reward was three or 10 points added to the subject's semester grade in a speech class for performance above 85%, and the punishment was three or…
Wilde, Matthias; Hubmann, Jona Samuel; Lorenzen, Simone; Meyer, Annika; Randler, Christoph
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of living animals on pupils' intrinsic motivation and knowledge. Various studies from the late 1970s and 1980s stress the high effectiveness of authentic learning experiences in pupils' knowledge acquisition. However, there are only few current empirical studies on this topic. The research question…
I N T E G R I T Y E F F I C I E N C Y A C C O U N TA B I L I T Y E XC E L L E N C E Inspector General U.S. Department of Defense Report...No. DODIG-2014-056 A P R I L 8 , 2 0 1 4 Army Financial Improvement Plans Generally Managed Effectively, but Better Contract Management Needed...protection, please see the inside back cover. I N T E G R I T Y E F F I C I E N C Y A C C O U N TA B I L I T Y E XC E L L E N
Ferranti, Jeffrey M; Langman, Matthew K; Tanaka, David; McCall, Jonathan; Ahmad, Asif
Healthcare is increasingly dependent upon information technology (IT), but the accumulation of data has outpaced our capacity to use it to improve operating efficiency, clinical quality, and financial effectiveness. Moreover, hospitals have lagged in adopting thoughtful analytic approaches that would allow operational leaders and providers to capitalize upon existing data stores. In this manuscript, we propose a fundamental re-evaluation of strategic IT investments in healthcare, with the goal of increasing efficiency, reducing costs, and improving outcomes through the targeted application of health analytics. We also present three case studies that illustrate the use of health analytics to leverage pre-existing data resources to support improvements in patient safety and quality of care, to increase the accuracy of billing and collection, and support emerging health issues. We believe that such active investment in health analytics will prove essential to realizing the full promise of investments in electronic clinical systems.
Langman, Matthew K; Tanaka, David; McCall, Jonathan; Ahmad, Asif
Healthcare is increasingly dependent upon information technology (IT), but the accumulation of data has outpaced our capacity to use it to improve operating efficiency, clinical quality, and financial effectiveness. Moreover, hospitals have lagged in adopting thoughtful analytic approaches that would allow operational leaders and providers to capitalize upon existing data stores. In this manuscript, we propose a fundamental re-evaluation of strategic IT investments in healthcare, with the goal of increasing efficiency, reducing costs, and improving outcomes through the targeted application of health analytics. We also present three case studies that illustrate the use of health analytics to leverage pre-existing data resources to support improvements in patient safety and quality of care, to increase the accuracy of billing and collection, and support emerging health issues. We believe that such active investment in health analytics will prove essential to realizing the full promise of investments in electronic clinical systems. PMID:20190055
HURD, MICHAEL; MICHAUD, PIERRE-CARL; ROHWEDDER, SUSANN
The generosity of public pensions may depress private savings and provide incentives to retire early. While there is plenty of evidence supporting the latter effect, there remains considerable controversy whether public pensions crowd out private savings. This paper uses international micro-datasets collected over recent years to investigate whether public pensions displace private savings. The identification strategy relies not only on cross-country differences in generosity but also on differences in the progressivity or non-linearity of pension formulas across countries. We estimate that an extra dollar of pension wealth depresses accumulated financial assets around the time of retirement by 22 cents. An extra ten thousand dollars in public pension wealth reduces the average retirement age by roughly one month which implies an elasticity of retirement years with respect to pension wealth of −0.15. PMID:23606775
Li, Li; Hu, Hongyan; Zhou, Hao; He, Changzhi; Fan, Lihua; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Heng; Sun, Tao
Objective It is well documented that both work stress and work motivation are key determinants of job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine levels of work stress and motivation and their contribution to job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Heilongjiang Province, China. Participants The participants were 930 community health workers from six cities in Heilongjiang Province. Primary and secondary outcome measures Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, work stress, work motivation and job satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of job satisfaction. Results There were significant differences in some subscales of work stress and work motivation by some of the socioeconomic characteristics. Levels of overall stress perception and scores on all five work stress subscales were higher in dissatisfied workers relative to satisfied workers. However, levels of overall motivation perception and scores on the career development, responsibility and recognition motivation subscales were higher in satisfied respondents relative to dissatisfied respondents. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation; age; title; income; the career development, and wages and benefits subscales of work stress; and the recognition, responsibility and financial subscales of work motivation. Conclusions The findings indicated considerable room for improvement in job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province in China. Healthcare managers and policymakers should take both work stress and motivation into consideration, as two subscales of work stress and one subscale of work motivation negatively influenced job satisfaction and two subscales of work motivation positively influenced job satisfaction. PMID:24902730
Although ability partly explains why some students are eager to learn in school whereas others are disinterested, motivation is another significant factor. This newsletter discusses factors that affect students' motivation to learn, considers techniques that can increase motivation, and identifies schools that have developed activities to enhance…
Chatzikonstantinou, A; Förster, A; Hennerici, M G; Bäzner, H
The introduction of the diagnosis related groups (DRG) system in Germany has radically influenced the organization of in-hospital patient treatment. Case-mix-index and duration of treatment in a stroke unit (SU) play a central role. Our SU started in 1998 and was gradually extended to the current "Stroke Competence Center" (SCC), with a total capacity of 29 patients. The SCC combines acute treatment, work-up and post-stroke management by the same specialized team. We aimed primarily at demonstrating the financial effects of this concept. Data from stroke patients treated in our SU/SCC between 2004 and 2009 were analyzed. We analyzed the number of treated stroke patients, number of thrombolytic treatments, the number of cases coded with procedure codes OPS 8-981.x and the ratio of OPS 8-981.0 (24-72 h on SU) to the higher remunerated OPS 8-981.1 (>72 h on SU). The number of treated patients increased by 118.3% (from 469 in 2004 to 1024 in 2009). The number of thrombolyses per year has more than quadrupled (2004: 46, 2009: 253, i.e. 25% of SU patients). The introduction of the stroke center concept lead to a great increase in the ratio of the higher rewarded OPS 8-981.1 to OPS 8-981.0 (from 1.5 in 2005 to 5.21 in 2009). Our data demonstrates that the SCC concept leads to a greater financial potential, while offering considerable medical advantages concerning more effective stroke treatment and work-up as well as improved flow of information and enhanced individual patient-physician relationship.
Thase, Michael E; Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Kramer, Kenneth; Sambunaris, Angelo
The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to investigate the relationship between motivation/energy and functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were taken from a phase 3 trial of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) in adults with MDD (NCT01034462; N=429) that used the 18-item Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) to assess motivation/energy. Two subgroups with lower and higher motivation/energy were defined using baseline MEI total scores (≤28 and >28, respectively). Change from baseline in the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) total score was analyzed in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and both subgroups. Path analyses were carried out in the ITT population and a lower MEI subgroup to assess the direct and indirect effects of levomilnacipran ER on SDS total score change. In the ITT population and the lower MEI subgroup, significant differences were found between levomilnacipran ER and placebo for changes in the SDS total score (-2.6 and -3.9, both P<0.01), but not in the higher MEI subgroup. The indirect effect of levomilnacipran ER on SDS total score improvement, as mediated by MEI total score change, was 79.9% in the lower MEI subgroup and 67.2% in the ITT population. Levomilnacipran ER was previously shown to improve motivation/energy in adults with MDD. The current analysis indicates that improvements in functional impairment were considerably mediated by improvements in motivation/energy, particularly in patients with lower motivation/energy at baseline.
Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Kramer, Kenneth; Sambunaris, Angelo
The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to investigate the relationship between motivation/energy and functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were taken from a phase 3 trial of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) in adults with MDD (NCT01034462; N=429) that used the 18-item Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) to assess motivation/energy. Two subgroups with lower and higher motivation/energy were defined using baseline MEI total scores (≤28 and >28, respectively). Change from baseline in the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) total score was analyzed in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and both subgroups. Path analyses were carried out in the ITT population and a lower MEI subgroup to assess the direct and indirect effects of levomilnacipran ER on SDS total score change. In the ITT population and the lower MEI subgroup, significant differences were found between levomilnacipran ER and placebo for changes in the SDS total score (−2.6 and −3.9, both P<0.01), but not in the higher MEI subgroup. The indirect effect of levomilnacipran ER on SDS total score improvement, as mediated by MEI total score change, was 79.9% in the lower MEI subgroup and 67.2% in the ITT population. Levomilnacipran ER was previously shown to improve motivation/energy in adults with MDD. The current analysis indicates that improvements in functional impairment were considerably mediated by improvements in motivation/energy, particularly in patients with lower motivation/energy at baseline. PMID:27455513
Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Clark, Valerie Lyn; Barros, Aluísio J D
OBJECTIVE To analyze the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) at improving oral health behaviors (oral hygiene habits, sugar consumption, dental services utilization or use of fluoride) and dental clinical outcomes (dental plaque, dental caries and periodontal status). METHODS A systematic search of PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, PsyINFO, Cochrane and Google Scholar bibliographic databases was conducted looking for intervention studies that investigated MI as the main approach to improving the oral health outcomes investigated. RESULTS Of the 78 articles found, ten met the inclusion criteria, all based on randomized controlled trials. Most studies (n = 8) assessed multiple outcomes. Five interventions assessed the impact of MI on oral health behaviors and nine on clinical outcomes (three on dental caries, six on dental plaque, four on gingivitis and three on periodontal pockets). Better quality of evidence was provided by studies that investigated dental caries, which also had the largest population samples. The evidence of the effect of MI on improving oral health outcomes is conflicting. Four studies reported positive effects of MI on oral health outcomes whereas another four showed null effect. In two interventions, the actual difference between groups was not reported or able to be recalculated. CONCLUSIONS We found inconclusive effectiveness for most oral health outcomes. We need more and better designed and reported interventions to fully assess the impact of MI on oral health and understand the appropriate dosage for the counseling interventions. PMID:24789647
Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Felice Reddy, L; Fiszdon, Joanna M
Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies.
Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Melissa A
We investigated the effects of gain-framed versus loss-framed messages and motivational orientation on calcium consumption. After completing a motivational orientation scale (behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system), undergraduate women (N = 141) were randomly assigned to read a gain-framed or loss-framed pamphlet promoting calcium consumption. Calcium consumption was assessed 1 month later. For calcium supplement behavior, a gain-framed advantage was observed for behavioral activation system-oriented individuals, whereas a loss-framed advantage was observed for behavioral inhibition system-oriented individuals. For dietary calcium intake, a gain-framed advantage was observed among behavioral activation system-oriented individuals; however, no framing effect emerged for behavioral inhibition system-oriented individuals. The success of framed messages depends on the message recipient's motivational orientation.
Halliwell, Emma; Dittmar, Helga; Orsborn, Amber
This study examines the effects of exposure to the muscular male body ideal on body-focused negative affect among male gym users and non-exercisers. As hypothesized, the impact of media exposure depended on men's exercise status. Non-exercisers (n = 58) reported greater body-focused negative affect after exposure to images of muscular male models than after neutral images (no model controls), whereas gym users (n = 58) showed a tendency for less body-focused negative affect after the model images than after the control images. Furthermore, the extent to which gym users were motivated to increase strength and muscularity moderated these exposure effects; men who reported stronger strength and muscularity exercise motivation reported a greater degree of self-enhancement after exposure to the muscular ideal. The findings are interpreted with respect to likely differences in motives for social comparisons.
Chen, Wang; Wei, Yu; Zhang, Bangzheng; Yu, Jiang
In this paper, we study the quantitative measurement of contagion effect between US and Chinese stock market during the financial crisis by combining multifractal volatility (MFV) with the copula method. At first, we employ MFV to filter volatility of the two markets due to the existence of heteroskedasticity. Then we use an improved time-varying Clayton copula to estimate the dynamic lower tail dependence (lower Kendall's τ). After determining crisis and non-crisis periods by Markov regime switching model, we find that the statistical characteristics of lower Kendall's τ during crisis and non-crisis periods are obviously different. Time-varying lower Kendall's τ of the crisis period is about 1.87 times that of in non-crisis period on average, indicating that the contagion effect increased about 87% during the crisis period. It is very drastic that the fluctuations of lower tail dependence during crisis period, so the static measurement of contagion effect may not provide effective suggestions for investors. Thus, we propose a dynamic method to measure the strength of contagion effect.
Wilde, Matthias; Hußmann, Jona Samuel; Lorenzen, Simone; Meyer, Annika; Randler, Christoph
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of living animals on pupils' intrinsic motivation and knowledge. Various studies from the late 1970s and 1980s stress the high effectiveness of authentic learning experiences in pupils' knowledge acquisition. However, there are only few current empirical studies on this topic. The research question of our study is to assess whether the use of living animals in the biology classroom supports intrinsic motivation and knowledge acquisition. In a pre-/post-test design, 185 fifth graders received two different treatments: the experimental group (N = 74) was taught with living harvest mice (Micromys minutus) and the control group (N = 111) received lessons with the same content which was presented in short film clips on laptop computers. Knowledge acquisition was assessed with open-ended and closed questions, while intrinsic motivation was tested with an adapted version of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). There were no differences in knowledge acquisition between the treatments. However, the results of the IMI showed significant differences in favour of the experimental group in interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy. Thus, living animals exert a positive influence on motivation.
Morton, Katie; Beauchamp, Mark; Prothero, Anna; Joyce, Lauren; Saunders, Laura; Spencer-Bowdage, Sarah; Dancy, Bernadette; Pedlar, Charles
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centred approach to behaviour change that was originally developed in the addiction field but has increasingly been applied to public health settings with a focus on health promotion. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence base for MI interventions in primary care settings with non-clinical populations to achieve behaviour change for physical activity, dietary behaviours and/or alcohol intake. We also sought to explore the specific behaviour change techniques included in MI interventions within primary care. Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles and 33 papers met inclusion criteria and were included. Approximately 50% of the included studies (n = 18) demonstrated positive effects in relation to health behaviour change. The efficacy of MI approaches is unclear given the inconsistency of MI descriptions and intervention components. Furthermore, research designs that do not isolate the effects of MI make it difficult to determine the effectiveness of such approaches. We offer a number of recommendations for researchers and practitioners seeking to include MI within behaviour change interventions to help improve the quality of the research and the effectiveness of MI-based interventions within primary care settings.
Carroll, Kathleen M.; Martino, Steve; Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami; Anez, Luis M; Paris, Manuel; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Szapocznik, José; Miller, William R.; Rosa, Carmen; Matthews, Julie; Farentinos, Chris
Hispanic individuals are underrepresented in clinical and research populations and often excluded from clinical trials in the US. Hence, there are few data on the effectiveness of most empirically validated therapies for Hispanic substance users. We conducted a multisite randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of three individual sessions of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) to three individual sessions of counseling as usual (CAU) on treatment retention and frequency of substance use, with all assessment and treatment sessions conducted in Spanish among 405 individuals seeking treatment for any type of current substance use. Treatment exposure was good, with 66% of participants completing all three protocol sessions. Although both interventions resulted in reductions in substance use during the 4-week therapy phase, there were no significant treatment condition by time interactions nor site by treatment condition interactions. Results suggest that the individual treatments delivered in Spanish were both attractive to and effective with this heterogeneous group of Hispanic adults, but the differential effectiveness of MET may be limited to those whose primary substance use problem is alcohol and may be fairly modest in magnitude. PMID:19803579
Background Motivation and job satisfaction have been identified as key factors for health worker retention and turnover in low- and middle-income countries. District health managers in decentralized health systems usually have a broadened ‘decision space’ that enables them to positively influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction, which in turn impacts on retention and performance at district-level. The study explored the effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention and how motivation and satisfaction can be improved by district health managers in order to increase retention of health workers. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three districts of the Eastern Region in Ghana and interviewed 256 health workers from several staff categories (doctors, nursing professionals, allied health workers and pharmacists) on their intentions to leave their current health facilities as well as their perceptions on various aspects of motivation and job satisfaction. The effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention were explored through logistic regression analysis. Results Overall, 69% of the respondents reported to have turnover intentions. Motivation (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.92) and job satisfaction (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.96) were significantly associated with turnover intention and higher levels of both reduced the risk of health workers having this intention. The dimensions of motivation and job satisfaction significantly associated with turnover intention included career development (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.86), workload (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.99), management (OR = 0.51. 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.84), organizational commitment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.66), and burnout (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.91). Conclusions Our findings indicate that effective human resource management practices at district level influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction
VanDeusen Gaddis, Linda Marie
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how a curricular choice majors program influenced teacher motivation and student performance at a charter high school in Pennsylvania from the perception of the administration and teachers. The theoretical foundation for this study was the attribution motivation theory. This theory…
In order to depict a better picture of teacher motivation, the researcher developed the theoretical framework based on Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory (SDT) and examined factors affecting teachers' autonomous motivation at both the personal and school level. Several multilevel structural equation models (ML-SEM) were…
Matera, Bryan D.
Past research has shown that rewards and punishments imposed on elementary school students may contribute to increases in student motivation and academic achievement. However, alternative research findings indicate that students may exhibit temporary compliance with such external stimuli and may not develop intrinsic motivation to perform well…
Studies have shown an association between argumentative discourse in science class, better understanding of science concepts, and improved academic performance. However, there is lack of research on how argumentation can increase student motivation. This mixed methods concurrent nested study uses Bandura's construct of motivation and concepts of…
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz
We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students' informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for…
Habgood, M. P. Jacob; Ainsworth, Shaaron E.
The concept of "intrinsic motivation" lies at the heart of the user engagement created by digital games. Yet despite this, educational software has traditionally attempted to harness games as extrinsic motivation by using them as a sugar coating for learning content. This article tests the concept of "intrinsic integration" as…
Massenberg, Ann-Christine; Spurk, Daniel; Kauffeld, Simone
Supervisor support, peer support and transfer motivation have been identified as important predictors of training transfer. Transfer motivation is thought to mediate the support-training transfer relationship. Especially after team training interventions that include all team members (i.e. whole-team training), individual perception of these…
Motivation is one of the most important factors which influences second language learning (Dörnyei, 1998; Gardner & Lambert, 1972). A support mechanism which reinforces student motivation through encouragement, social interaction, feedback, sound learning environments and good teaching is crucial for ensuring successful learning. This is…
Graphic novels use visual literacy and multimodal learning two methods of teaching. Graphic novels also have a history of being motivating to students. This study aims to quantify the degree of influence graphic novels have on secondary student comprehension and motivation. Students were recruited from two classrooms taught by one twelfth-grade…
Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David
Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…
Hirschi, Andreas; Lee, Bora; Porfeli, Erik J.; Vondracek, Fred W.
Proactive career behaviors become increasingly important in today's career environment, but little is known about how and when motivational patterns affect individual differences. In a six-month longitudinal study among German university students (Study 1; N = 289) it was demonstrated that motivation in terms of "can do" (self-efficacy…
Troia, Gary A.; Harbaugh, Allen G.; Shankland, Rebecca K.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Lawrence, Ann M.
A convenience sample of 618 children and adolescents in grades 4 through 10, excluding grade 8, were asked to complete a writing motivation and activity scale and to provide a timed narrative writing sample to permit an examination of the relationships between writing motivation, writing activity, writing performance, and the student…
Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D. J.; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171…
This study investigated whether girls' and boys' perceptions of their teacher may explain gender-related difference in academic motivation. One hundred and twenty-nine ninth-grade Israeli students (67 males and 62 females) completed a questionnaire designed to assess their motivation to learn, their affect while studying in school, and their…
Jones, Brett D.; Tendhar, Chosang; Paretti, Marie C.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether students' perceptions in a first-year university engineering course affected their engineering identification, motivational beliefs, and engineering major and career goals. Based on current motivation models and theories, we hypothesized that students' perceptions of the components of the MUSIC…
Schehl, Jeanne M.
Research about motivation indicates that a student's attention must be gained and sustained for learning to occur. As a result, motivational tactics, including adding interesting words, sounds and visuals to instructional materials, are commonly used by designers of instruction to trigger and sustain learners' interest and engagement…
De Naeghel, Jessie; Van Keer, Hilde; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Haerens, Leen; Aelterman, Nathalie
Responding to the declining trend in reading motivation in and beyond the elementary school years, the authors aimed to enhance late-elementary school students' autonomous reading motivation. Toward this end, the authors evaluated the influence of a teacher professional development grounded in self-determination theory on fifth-grade students' (n…
Fan, Weihua; Williams, Cathy M.
This research examined whether various dimensions of parental involvement predicted 10th-grade students' motivation (engagement, self-efficacy towards maths and English, intrinsic motivation towards maths and English) using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS 2002). Results showed that both parents' educational aspiration for…
Sterling, Lorelei Rose
Although there is a healthy amount in the literature about the importance of motivating student library employees in an academic setting, very little of it discusses the practical aspects of how to motivate students. A supervisor must often use ideas from other disciplines, including the business world and academia. In this article, the author…
Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent
Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…
DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian P.
This study investigates the impact that different financial aid packages have on student stopout, reenrollment, and graduation probabilities. The authors simulate how various financial aid packaging regimes affect the occurrence and timing of these events. Their findings indicate that the number and duration of enrollment and stopout spells affect…
Robb, Cliff A.; Sharpe, Deanna L.
Analysis of survey data collected from 6,520 students at a large Midwestern University affirmed that financial knowledge is a significant factor in the credit card decisions of college students but not entirely in expected ways. Results of a double hurdle analysis indicated that students with relatively higher levels of financial knowledge were…
McCormick, Martha Henn
In the current financial crisis, children and youth are uniquely impacted by household finance complexities. Moments of financial trouble are teachable opportunities for children and youth to learn about personal finance and to improve their own money management skills. However, comprehensive strategies for educating them about personal finance…
Capa, Rémi L; Audiffren, Michel; Ragot, Stéphanie
The purpose of the study was to present experimental arguments evaluating the Humphreys and Revelle's model of effort. Two important factors were tested: achievement motivation and difficulty. Heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, facial electromyographic reactivity, and reaction time were measured as an index of effort expenditure. A 2x2x2 factorial design was used with two levels of resultant achievement motivation, two levels of task difficulty, and two levels of goal difficulty. As expected, the 16 participants high in resultant achievement motivation showed a better performance and had a larger decrease of the midfrequency band than the 16 participants low in resultant achievement motivation, especially during the difficult task. Results lend some support for the impact of resultant achievement motivation, task difficulty, and goal difficulty on effort mobilization.
Tetsunaga, Tomoko; Tetsunaga, Tomonori; Tanaka, Masato; Nishida, Keiichiro; Takei, Yoshitaka; Ozaki, Toshifumi
Background. The contribution of apathy, frequently recognized in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases, to chronic low back pain (LBP) remains unclear. Objectives. To investigate levels of apathy and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic LBP treated with tramadol-acetaminophen. Methods. A retrospective case-control study involving 73 patients with chronic LBP (23 male, 50 female; mean age 71 years) treated with tramadol-acetaminophen (n = 36) and celecoxib (n = 37) was performed. All patients were assessed using the self-reported questionnaires. A mediation model was constructed using a bootstrapping method to evaluate the mediating effects of pain relief after treatment. Results. A total of 35 (55.6%) patients met the criteria for apathy. A four-week treatment regimen in the tramadol group conferred significant improvements in the Apathy scale and numerical rating scale but not in the Rolland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Pain Disability Assessment Scale, or Pain Catastrophizing Scale. The depression component of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was lower in the tramadol group than in the celecoxib group. The mediation analysis found that the impact of tramadol-acetaminophen on the change in apathy was not mediated by the pain relief. Conclusions. Tramadol-acetaminophen was effective at reducing chronic LBP and conferred a prophylactic motivational effect in patients with chronic LBP.
Shigemune, Yayoi; Abe, Nobuhito; Suzuki, Maki; Ueno, Aya; Mori, Etsuro; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fujii, Toshikatsu
It is known that emotion and reward motivation promote long-term memory formation. It remains unclear, however, how and where emotion and reward are integrated during episodic memory encoding. In the present study, subjects were engaged in intentional encoding of photographs under four different conditions that were made by combining two factors (emotional valence, negative or neutral; and monetary reward value, high or low for subsequent successful recognition) during H2 15O positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. As for recognition performance, we found significant main effects of emotional valence (negative>neutral) and reward value (high value>low value), without an interaction between the two factors. Imaging data showed that the left amygdala was activated during the encoding conditions of negative pictures relative to neutral pictures, and the left orbitofrontal cortex was activated during the encoding conditions of high reward pictures relative to low reward pictures. In addition, conjunction analysis of these two main effects detected right hippocampal activation. Although we could not find correlations between recognition performance and activity of these three regions, we speculate that the right hippocampus may integrate the effects of emotion (processed in the amygdala) and monetary reward (processed in the orbitofrontal cortex) on episodic memory encoding.
Miller, Blake W; Roberts, Glyn C; Ommundsen, Yngvar
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of perceived motivational climate and gender on sportspersonship behavior of competitive youth football players. Participants were 512 boy and 202 girl Norwegian youth football players (12-14 years old) competing in an international football tournament. A 2 x 2 x 2 (gender, mastery climate high and low, performance climate high and low) MANOVA produced no multivariate or interaction effects, but main effects for gender, performance climate, and mastery climate did emerge. Post hoc analyses of the simple main effects found that boys and girls were different in sportspersonship, but only in that boys were more sportspersonlike than girls on one of the four sportspersonship dimensions. Players perceiving a high mastery climate endorsed sportspersonship more than those players perceiving a low mastery climate, and players perceiving a high performance climate were less likely to endorse sportspersonship than players perceiving a low performance climate. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that a strong mastery climate was positively associated with commitment, respect for social conventions, and respect for rules and officials. A strong performance climate was negatively associated with respect and concern for social conventions and respect for rules and officials, while a positive association emerged for respect and concern for the opponent. The results of our study suggest that both boys and girls may well perceive the coach emphasizing similar criteria of success and failure and thereby a similar culture of sportspersonship, while in general a strong mastery climate leads to a higher sportspersonship orientation.
Bartlett, J. E.; Margolis, R. M.; Jennings, C. E.
To examine how the financial crisis has impacted expectations of photovoltaic production, demand and pricing over the next several years, we surveyed the market forecasts of industry analysts that had issued projections in 2008 and 2009. We find that the financial crisis has had a significant impact on the PV industry, primarily through increasing the cost and reducing the availability of investment into the sector. These effects have been more immediately experienced by PV installations than by production facilities, due to the different types and duration of investments, and thus PV demand has been reduced by a greater proportion than PV production. By reducing demand more than production, the financial crisis has accelerated previously expected PV overcapacity and resulting price declines.
Trexler, Grant Lewis
This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of…
Adams, Ruth L.
Higher education administrators know it is more cost-effective to keep students than to recruit them. Understanding financial literacy--and how it impacts student retention and persistence on the campuses--is an important concept for administrators to comprehend. Most students are not financially literate when they enter the world of higher…
Mauk, Warren Stewart
The study, prompted by a concern for the ineffectiveness of prison education programs to improve the educational level of inmates, was conducted for the purpose of investigating the effects of short term or extended tasks and financial incentives on the educational activity and achievement of the young prison inmates. The sample consisted of…
Armeli, Stephen; Dranoff, Erik; Tennen, Howard; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Carolyn R; Raskin, Sarah; Wood, Rebecca; Pearlson, Godfrey
We examined among college students the interactive effects of drinking to cope (DTC) motivation, anxiety and depression symptoms, and drinking level in predicting drinking-related problems (DRPs). Using an Internet-based survey, participants (N = 844, 53% women) first reported on their drinking motives and monthly for up to three months, they reported on their drinking level, anxiety, depression, and DRPs. We found a three-way interaction between DTC motivation and average levels of drinking and anxiety (but not depression) in predicting DRPs. Specifically, among individuals with stronger DTC motives, higher mean levels of anxiety were associated with a stronger positive association between mean drinking levels and DRPs. We did not find three-way interactions in the models examining monthly changes in anxiety, depression, and drinking in predicting monthly DRPs. However, individuals high in DTC motivation showed a stronger positive association between changes in drinking level and DRPs. The results are discussed in terms of mechanisms related to attention-allocation and self-control resource depletion.
Armeli, Stephen; Dranoff, Erik; Tennen, Howard; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Raskin, Sarah; Wood, Rebecca; Pearlson, Godfrey
We examined among college students the interactive effects of drinking to cope motivation, anxiety and depression symptoms, and drinking level in predicting drinking-related problems. Using an Internet-based survey, participants (N = 844, 53% women) first reported on their drinking motives and monthly for up to 3 months, they reported on their drinking level, anxiety, depression and DRPs. We found a 3-way interaction between drinking to cope motivation and average levels of drinking and anxiety (but not depression) in predicting drinking-related problems. Specifically, among individuals with stronger drinking to cope motives, higher mean levels of anxiety were associated with a stronger positive association between mean drinking levels and drinking-related problems. We did not find 3-way interactions in the models examining monthly changes in anxiety, depression and drinking in predicting monthly drinking-related problems. However, individuals high in drinking to cope motivation showed a stronger positive association between changes in drinking level and drinking-related problems. The results are discussed in terms of mechanisms related to attention-allocation and self-control resource depletion. PMID:24552203
Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T.; Barbey, Aron K.
Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking,” its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166
Mun, Eun-Young; Atkins, David C.; Walters, Scott T.
Foxcroft, Coombes, Wood, Allen, and Almeida Santimano (2014) recently conducted a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in reducing alcohol misuse for youth up to age 25. They concluded that the overall effect sizes of MI in this population were too small to be clinically meaningful. The present paper critically reviews the Foxcroft et al. meta-analysis, highlighting weaknesses, such as problems with search strategies, flawed screening and reviews of full-text articles, incorrect data abstraction and coding, and, accordingly, improper effect size estimation. In addition, between-study heterogeneity and complex data structures were not thoughtfully considered or handled using best practices for meta-analysis. These limitations undermine the reported estimates and broad conclusion made by Foxcroft et al. about the lack of MI effectiveness for youth. We call for new evidence on this question from better-executed studies by independent researchers. Meta-analysis has many important utilities for translational research. When implemented well, the overall effectiveness as well as different effectiveness for different populations can be examined via meta-analysis. Emerging methods utilizing individual participant-level data, such as integrative data analysis, may be particularly helpful for identifying the sources of clinical and methodological heterogeneity that matter. The need to better understand the mechanisms of alcohol interventions has never been louder in the addiction field. Through more concerted efforts throughout all phases of generating evidence, we may achieve large-scale evidence that is efficient and robust and provides critical answers for the field. PMID:26237287
This study investigated the relationship between self-consciousness and conforming behavior, with conformity motives and task-interest as their moderator variables. One hundred fifty-six (156) participants were asked to imagine themselves in a hypothetical conforming situation, and estimate the probability of their conforming behavior and various conformity motives behind it, as well as their interest in the task. They also completed Self-Consciousness Scale. Among low task-interest participants, those high on private self-consciousness conformed more than the low if either motive for avoidance of isolation or motive for fairness was high, while those high on public self-consciousness conformed more than the low if motive for avoidance of isolation was high. Among high task-interest participants, those high on private self-consciousness conformed less than the low, while those high on public self-consciousness conformed more than the low if motive for fairness was high. The relationship between conformity motives and standards of behavior was discussed.
Studies have shown an association between argumentative discourse in science class, better understanding of science concepts, and improved academic performance. However, there is lack of research on how argumentation can increase student motivation. This mixed methods concurrent nested study uses Bandura's construct of motivation and concepts of argumentation and formative feedback to understand how teachers orchestrate argumentation in science class and how it affects motivation. Qualitative data was collected through interviews of 4 grade-9 science teachers and through observing teacher-directed classroom discourse. Classroom observations allowed the researcher to record the rhythm of discourse by characterizing teacher and student speech as teacher presentation (TP), teacher guided authoritative discussion (AD), teacher guided dialogic discussion (DD), and student initiation (SI). The Student Motivation Towards Science Learning survey was administered to 67 students before and after a class in which argumentation was used. Analysis of interviews showed teachers collaborated to plan argumentation. Analysis of discourse identified the characteristics of argumentation and provided evidence of students' engagement in argumentation in a range of contexts. Student motivation scores were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests, which showed no significant change. However, one construct of motivation---active learning strategy---significantly increased. Quantitative findings also indicate that teachers' use of multiple methods in teaching science can affect various constructs of students' motivation. This study promotes social change by providing teachers with insight about how to engage all students in argumentation.
Chen, Wang; Wei, Yu; Lang, Qiaoqi; Lin, Yu; Liu, Maojuan
In this paper, we propose a new approach based on the multifractal volatility method (MFV) to study the contagion effect between the U.S. and Chinese stock markets. From recent studies, which reveal that multifractal characteristics exist in both developed and emerging financial markets, according to the econophysics literature we could draw conclusions as follows: Firstly, we estimate volatility using the multifractal volatility method, and find out that the MFV method performs best among other volatility models, such as GARCH-type and realized volatility models. Secondly, we analyze the tail dependence structure between the U.S. and Chinese stock market. The estimated static copula results for the entire period show that the SJC copula performs best, indicating asymmetric characteristics of the tail dependence structure. The estimated dynamic copula results show that the time-varying t copula achieves the best performance, which means the symmetry dynamic t copula is also a good choice, for it is easy to estimate and is able to depict both the upper and lower tail dependence structure. Finally, with the results of the previous two steps, we analyze the contagion effect between the U.S. and Chinese stock markets during the subprime mortgage crisis. The empirical results show that the subprime mortgage crisis started in the U.S. and that its stock market has had an obvious contagion effect on the Chinese stock market. Our empirical results should/might be useful for investors allocating their portfolios.
Keatley, David A.; Clarke, David D.; Ferguson, Eamonn; Hagger, Martin S.
Research into individuals’ intended behavior and performance has traditionally adopted explicitly measured, self-report constructs, and outcomes. More recently, research has shown that completing explicit self-report measures of constructs may effect subsequent behavior, termed the “mere measurement” effect. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether implicit measures of motivation showed a similar mere measurement effect on subsequent behavior. It may be the case that measuring the implicit systems affects subsequent implicit interventions (e.g., priming), observable on subsequent behavior. Priming manipulations were also given to participants in order to investigate the interaction between measurement and priming of motivation. Initially, a 2 [implicit association test (IAT: present vs. absent) ×2 (Prime: autonomous vs. absent) and a 2 (IAT: present vs. absent) × 2 (Prime: controlled vs. absent)] between participants designs were conducted, these were them combined into a 2 (IAT: present vs. absent) ×3 (Prime: autonomous vs. controlled vs. absent) between participants design, with attempts at a novel task taken as the outcome measure. Implicit measure completion significantly decreased behavioral engagement. Priming autonomous motivation significantly facilitated, and controlled motivation significantly inhibited performance. Finally, there was a significant implicit measurement × priming interaction, such that priming autonomous motivation only improved performance in the absence of the implicit measure. Overall, this research provides an insight into the effects of implicit measurement and priming of motivation and the combined effect of completing both tasks on behavior. PMID:24592249
This study investigated the effects of the Jigsaw II cooperative learning (CL) model and whole class instruction in improving learners' reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and motivation to read. Forty-four grade five English as a foreign language learners participated in the study, and a posttest-only control group experimental design…
Nissim, Yonit; Weissblueth, Eyal; Scott-Webber, Lennie; Amar, Shimon
We investigated the effect of an innovative technology-supported learning environment on pre-service student teachers' motivation and 21st century skills. Students and instructors filled-in the Active Learning Post Occupancy Evaluation (AL-POE) questionnaire. Analysis included tests for individual items and a comparison of the overall mean,…
Hudon, Sister Mary Oliver
This study assessed the effectiveness of two motivational techniques for promoting interest in reading by using two criteria: the number of books withdrawn from the classroom library and the scores obtained on the Primary Pupil Reading Attitude Inventory (PPRAI). Thirty second-grade classes were randomly assigned to one of three experimental…
Cuevas, Joshua A.; Russell, Roxanne L.; Irving, Miles A.
This research sought to add to a body of knowledge that is severely underrepresented in the scientific literature, the effects of technological tools on reading comprehension and reading motivation in diverse secondary students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The study implemented an independent silent reading (ISR) program across a 5-month…
The mixed-method explanatory research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the Accelerated Reader (AR) program on middle school students' reading achievement and motivation. A total of 211 sixth to eighth-grade students provided quantitative data by completing an AR Survey. Thirty of the 211 students were randomly selected to…
Son, Chanhee; Park, Sanghoon; Kim, Minjeong
This study compared linear text-based and non-linear hypertext-based instruction in a handheld computer regarding effects on two different levels of knowledge (declarative and structural knowledge) and learner motivation. Forty four participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: linear text, hierarchical hypertext,…
Nadrah; Tolla, Ismail; Ali, Muhammad Sidin; Muris
This research aims at describing the effect of cooperative learning model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and motivation toward physics learning outcome. This research was a quasi-experimental research with a factorial design conducted at SMAN 2 Makassar. Independent variables were learning models. They were cooperative learning model of TGT and…
Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.
We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…
Yancy, Yuri G.
This study was conducted in a middle school math class and investigated the effects of project-based activities on the middle school math students' skill acquisition and intrinsic motivation. After math-related project activities were implemented and completed, an analysis of how the students were affected in the areas of math skills and…
Wallhead, Tristan L.; Garn, Alex C.; Vidoni, Carla
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a high school sport education curriculum program on students' motivation for physical education and leisure-time physical activity. Method: Participants were 568 high school students enrolled in the required physical education programs at 2 schools, 1 taught using sport education and…
Harter, Susan; And Others
Two studies involving 801 middle school students examined the effects of changing educational environments on children's academic self-concepts and motivation. Overall, the findings suggest that changing emphases in the educational environment have complicated academic outcomes that depend on the individual resources that children bring to the…
Rahimi, Mehrak; Karkami, Fatemeh Hosseini
This study investigated the role of EFL teachers' classroom discipline strategies in their teaching effectiveness and their students' motivation and achievement in learning English as a foreign language. 1408 junior high-school students expressed their perceptions of the strategies their English teachers used (punishment, recognition/reward,…
Prior meta analyses by J. Cameron and other researchers suggested that the negative effects of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation were limited and avoidable. E. Deci and others (2001) suggested that the analyses were flawed. This commentary makes the case that there is no inherent negative property of reward. (SLD)
Johnson, Tyler G.; Prusak, Keven A.; Pennington, Todd; Wilkinson, Carol
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of (a) skill test type, (b) choices, and (c) gender on the situational motivation profiles of adolescents during skill testing in physical education. Participants were 507 students (53% male) aged 12-16 years (M = 13.87; SD = 0.94) attending a suburban junior high school in a western state in…
Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kelly, Kevin R.
This study explored the effects of optimism, intrinsic motivation, and family relations on vocational identity in college students in the United States and South Korea. The results yielded support for the hypothesized multivariate model. Across both cultures, optimism was an important contributing factor to vocational identity, and intrinsic…
Objective: assess the effect of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and their energy intake. Methods Participants (n¼103; M age¼13.6 years) were either ostracized or included when playing a computer game, Cyberball. Next, they wrote about their friend...
Ozdemir, Muzaffer; Izmirli, Serkan; Sahin-Izmirli, Ozden
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of captioned vs. non-captioned instructional videos on the motivation and achievement. To this end, a pre-test and post-test experimental design was used on 109 sophomores from a Turkish state university. Videos with and without captions of the unit in question were prepared by the…
Duijnhouwer, Hendrien; Prins, Frans J.; Stokking, Karel M.
This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students' writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the control feedback condition (n = 41) received…
Amis, Sarah Anne
This research project sought to determine the effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support program (SWPBIS) on the intrinsic motivation of third grade students in regard to student achievement, student behavior, and teacher perception. Students of two intermediate schools served as the treatment group and control group, and were…
O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Chan, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Langthorne, Paul
We examined the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation on challenging behavior during leisure activities for three individuals with severe disabilities. Prior functional analyses indicated that challenging behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention or tangible items for all participants. During leisure…
Mirkarimi, Kamal; Kabir, Mohammad Javad; Honarvar, Mohammad Reza; Ozouni-Davaji, Rahman Berdi; Eri, Maryam
Obesity and overweight have become increasingly a major public health problem across the world. This study aimed at exploring the effects of motivational interviewing on weight efficacy lifestyle among women with obesity and overweight. A single-blind randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 100 overweight and obese women who attended a nutrition clinic. The samples were selected based on the clinical records and assigned into two groups, namely motivational interviewing arm (50 samples) and nutrition education arm (50 samples). Data were collected using a standard validated questionnaire entitled “weight efficacy lifestyle”. The intervention was designed according to five motivation sessions and four nutrition education programs, such that the participants of the nutrition education arm were also provided with the nutrition pamphlets related to weight control. Data were finally analyzed using the SPSS statistical software by performing the independent t-test, chi-square, LSD and repeated measures ANOVA tests. P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean age of women was 39.9±9.1 and 36.3±8.9 years in the control and motivational interviewing arms, respectively. Compared with the control group, the score of the motivational interviewing group was statistically significant in terms of weight efficacy lifestyle P=0.0001) and all subscales including social pressure (P=0.0001), physical discomfort (P=0.005), food accessibility (P=0.0001), positive and entertainment activities (P=0.0001), as well as negative emotions (P=0.003). Motivational interviewing appeared to be effective in increasing weight efficacy lifestyle among women with overweight and obesity. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014051817736N1 PMID:28360445
Yeeles, Ksenija; Bremner, Stephen; Lauber, Christoph; Eldridge, Sandra; Ashby, Deborah; David, Anthony S; O’Connell, Nicola; Forrest, Alexandra; Burns, Tom
Objective To test whether offering financial incentives to patients with psychotic disorders is effective in improving adherence to maintenance treatment with antipsychotics. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Community mental health teams in secondary psychiatric care in the United Kingdom. Participants Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder, who were prescribed long acting antipsychotic (depot) injections but had received 75% or less of the prescribed injections. We randomly allocated 73 teams with a total of 141 patients. Primary outcome data were available for 35 intervention teams with 75 patients (96% of randomised) and for 31 control teams with 56 patients (89% of randomised). Interventions Participants in the intervention group were offered £15 (€17; $22) for each depot injection over a 12 month period. Participants in the control condition received treatment as usual. Main outcome measure The primary outcome was the percentage of prescribed depot injections given during the 12 month intervention period. Results 73 teams with 141 consenting patients were randomised, and outcomes were assessed for 131 patients (93%). Average baseline adherence was 69% in the intervention group and 67% in the control group. During the 12 month trial period adherence was 85% in the intervention group and 71% in the control group. The adjusted effect estimate was 11.5% (95% confidence interval 3.9% to 19.0%, P=0.003). A secondary outcome was an adherence of ≥95%, which was achieved in 28% of the intervention group and 5% of the control group (adjusted odds ratio 8.21, 95% confidence interval 2.00 to 33.67, P=0.003). Although differences in clinician rated clinical improvement between the groups failed to reach statistical significance, patients in the intervention group had more favourable subjective quality of life ratings (β=0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.26 to 1.15, P=0.002). The number of admissions
Hustad, John T. P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Kong, Lan; Urwin, Rachel; Zeman, Suzanne; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian
Individual brief motivational intervention (iBMI) is an efficacious strategy to reduce heavy drinking by students who are mandated to receive an alcohol intervention following an alcohol-related event. However, despite the strong empirical support for iBMI, it is unknown if the results from rigorously controlled research on iBMI translate to real-world settings. Furthermore, many colleges lack the resources to provide iBMI to mandated students. Therefore, group-delivered BMI (gBMI) might be a cost-effective alternative that can be delivered to a large number of individuals. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative effectiveness evaluation of iBMI and gBMI as delivered by staff at a university health services center. Participants (N = 278) were college students who were mandated to receive an alcohol intervention following an alcohol-related incident. Participants were randomized to receive an individual (iBMI; n = 133) or a Group BMI (gBMI; n = 145). Results indicated that both iBMI and gBMI participants reduced their peak estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and the number of negative alcohol-related consequences at 1-, 3-, and 6-months postintervention. The iBMI and gBMI conditions were not significantly different at follow-up. These findings provide preliminary support for the use of iBMI and gBMIs for college students in real-world settings. PMID:24731111
Fockler, S K; Vavrik, J; Kristiansen, L
Three types of driver educational strategies were tested to determine the most effective approach for motivating drivers to adjust their head restraints to the correct vertical position: (1) a human interactive personal contact with a member of an ICBC-trained head restraint adjustment team, (2) a passive video presentation of the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment, and (3) an interactive three-dimensional kinetic model showing the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment. An experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. A different educational treatment was used in each of three lanes of a vehicle emissions testing facility, with a fourth lane with no intervention serving as a control group. Observational and self-reported data were obtained from a total of 1,974 vehicles entering and exiting the facility. The human intervention led to significantly more drivers actually adjusting their head restraints immediately after the intervention than the passive video or interactive kinetic model approaches, which were both no different from the control group. The human intervention was recommended as the most effective and was implemented successfully on a limited basis during 3 months of 1995 and again during 3 months of 1996.
Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H. )
Adverse demonstrable health effects linked to the individual's smoking were shown to 2,689 American workers to motivate cessation during routine examinations to detect asbestosis. This intervention was evaluated six to 25 months later by a mailed questionnaire and by telephone to non-responders. Results were compared to yearly quit rates of 2.5 percent to 5 percent for 736 workers who were ex-smokers at the initial examination. Of the 504 men who responded by mail, 29.8 percent had quit smoking, 35.9 percent had cut down from a mean of 28 to 13 cigarettes per day, and 34.3 percent were smoking as before. Subsequent follow-up at one year showed that 25.6 percent remained quit, and that 23 percent of those who cut down had quit, for an overall quit rate of 34 percent. Of 101 non-responders contacted by telephone, 17 percent had quit and 53 percent had reduced smoking. In both samples, those who quit were more likely to have had lower alveolar carbon monoxide (COa) levels, to be older, and to have had asbestosis. Responders by mail were the same age as non-responders but had smoked longer, had higher prevalences of asbestosis, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and higher COa. Demonstration of the adverse personal effects of smoking appear to have contributed to the quit rates or reduced smoking rates in 65 percent of the responding workers.
Waters, T. R.
Maslow's Hierarchial Theory, Mcgregor's X & Y Theory, and Hertsberg's Hygiene Theory all based on motivation, are examined as to their effectiveness to increase worker production. The author feels management should not concentrate on motivation and offers his own theory, Spiral Web Theory, to help increase employee productiveness. (RB)
Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…
Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Swanson, Todd; Kim, Jooyun
We investigated the distribution functions of Korea's top-rated companies during two financial crises. A power-law scaling for rank distribution, as well as cumulative probability distribution, was found and observed as a general pattern. Similar distributions can be shown in other studies of wealth and income distributions. In our study, the Pareto exponents designating the distribution differed before and after the crisis. The companies covered in this research are divided into two subgroups during a period when the subprime mortgage crisis occurred. Various industrial sectors of Korea's companies were found to respond differently during the two financial crises, especially the construction sector, financial sectors, and insurance groups.
Cochran, John K
Recently, Robert Agnew introduced a new general theory of crime and delinquency in which he attempted to corral the vast array of theoretical "causes" of criminal conduct into a more parsimonious statement organized into one of five life domains: self, family, peers, school, and work as well as constraints against crime and motivation for it. These domains are depicted as the source of constraints and motivations and whose effects are, in part, mediated by these constraints and motivations. Based on self-report data on academic dishonesty from a sample of college students, the present study attempts to test this general theory. While several of the life domain variables had significant effects of cheating in the baseline model, all of these effects were fully mediated by constraints and motivations. In the final model, academic dishonesty was observed to be most significantly affected by the perceived severity of formal sanction threats, the number of credit hours enrolled, the frequency of skipping classes, and pressure from friends.
McClelland, David C.
Author reviews studies to date and concludes achievement motivation training courses improve school learning by improving classroom and life management skills rather than by changing n Achievement levels directly.'' (Author/SP)
Prawitz, Aimee D.; Cohart, Judith
Based on the life-cycle theory of consumption, this quasi-experimental study of 995 employees examined changes in financial behaviors following employee-needs-driven workplace financial education. Repeated-measures ANOVA compared participants and non-participants on perceived financial wellness and savings ratios; main effects indicated that both…
Britt, Sonya L.; Canale, Anthony; Fernatt, Fred; Stutz, Kristen; Tibbetts, Racquel
This study had two distinct purposes. First, to determine the predictors of financial stress among college students who sought free peer-based financial counseling from a large Midwestern university (N = 675). Secondly, to determine the effectiveness of the particular financial counseling center from a subsample of those who sought help (N = 97).…
Integrating Financial Education into School Curricula: Giving America's Youth the Educational Foundation for Making Effective Financial Decisions throughout Their Lives by Teaching Financial Concepts as Part of Math and Reading Curricula in Elementary, Middle, and High Schools. A White Paper.
Office of Financial Education (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.
This report presents a distinguished panel's findings on financial education in the U.S. In May 2002, the Secretaries of the Departments of Treasury and Education invited representatives from national youth education groups to consider the opportunities and challenges that arise when financial education is integrated into core curricula.…
Bolderdijk, J. W.; Steg, L.; Geller, E. S.; Lehman, P. K.; Postmes, T.
Environmental campaigns often promote energy conservation by appealing to economic (for example, lower electricity bills) rather than biospheric concerns (for example, reduced carbon emissions), assuming that people are primarily motivated by economic self-interest. However, people also care about maintaining a favourable view of themselves (they want to maintain a `positive self-concept'), and may prefer to see themselves as `green' rather than `greedy'. Consequently, people may find economic appeals less attractive than biospheric appeals. Across two studies, participants indicated feeling better about biospheric (`Want to protect the environment? Check your car's tire pressure') than economic (`Want to save money? Check your car's tire pressure') tyre-check appeals. In a field experiment, we found that an economic tyre-check appeal (`Do you care about your finances? Get a free tire check') elicited significantly less compliance than parallel biospheric and neutral appeals. Together, these studies discredit the conventional wisdom that appealing to economic self-interest is the best way to secure behaviour change. At least in some cases, our studies suggest, this strategy is not effective.
Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina
This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders’ targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates. PMID:23160813
Murgatroyd, Darnel F; Casey, Petrina P; Cameron, Ian D; Harris, Ian A
The effect of financial compensation on health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury requires further exploration because results to date are varied and controversial. This systematic review identifies compensation related factors associated with poorer health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury. Searches were conducted using electronic medical journal databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Informit, Web of Science) for prospective studies published up to October 2012. Selection criteria included: prognostic factors associated with validated health outcomes; six or more months follow up; and multivariate statistical analysis. Studies solely measuring return to work outcomes were excluded. Twenty nine articles were synthesised and then assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology to determine evidence levels. The results were mixed. There was strong evidence of an association between compensation status and poorer psychological function; and legal representation and poorer physical function. There was moderate evidence of an association between compensation status and poorer physical function; and legal representation and poorer psychological function. There was limited evidence of an association between compensation status and increased pain. In seven studies the association depended on the outcome measured. No studies reported an association between compensation related factors and improved health outcomes. Further research is needed to find plausible reasons why compensation related factors are associated with poorer health following musculoskeletal injury.
Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; Ren, Fei; Shi, Yong-Dong
By incorporating market impact and asymmetric sensitivity into the evolutionary minority game, we study the coevolutionary dynamics of stock prices and investment strategies in financial markets. Both the stock price movement and the investors’ global behavior are found to be closely related to the phase region they fall into. Within the region where the market impact is small, investors’ asymmetric response to gains and losses leads to the occurrence of herd behavior, when all the investors are prone to behave similarly in an extreme way and large price fluctuations occur. A linear relation between the standard deviation of stock price changes and the mean value of strategies is found. With full market impact, the investors tend to self-segregate into opposing groups and the introduction of asymmetric sensitivity leads to the disappearance of dominant strategies. Compared with the situations in the stock market with little market impact, the stock price fluctuations are suppressed and an efficient market occurs. Theoretical analyses indicate that the mechanism of phase transition from clustering to self-segregation in the present model is similar to that in the majority-minority game and the occurrence and disappearance of efficient markets are related to the competition between the trend-following and the trend-aversion forces. The clustering of the strategies in the present model results from the majority-wins effect and the wealth-driven mechanism makes the market become predictable.
Behkami, Nima A; Dorr, David A; Morrice, Stuart
The goal of this study is to describe a framework that allows decision makers to efficiently evaluate factors that affect Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption and test suitable interventions; specifically financial incentives. The United States healthcare delivery system is experiencing a transformation to improve population health. There is strong agreement that "meaningful use" of Health Information Technology (HIT) is a major enabler in this effort. However it's also understood that the high cost of implementing an EHR is an obstacle for adoption. To help understand these complexities we developed a simulation model designed to capture the dynamic nature of policy interventions that affect the adoption of EHR. We found that "Effective" use of HIT approaches break-even-point and larger clinic revenue many times faster that "average" or "poor" use of HIT. This study uses a systems perspective to the evaluate EHR adoption process through the "meaningful use" redesign as proposed in the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act 2009 in the United States healthcare industry by utilizing the System Dynamics methodology and Scenario Analysis.
Murgatroyd, Darnel F.; Casey, Petrina P.; Cameron, Ian D.; Harris, Ian A.
The effect of financial compensation on health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury requires further exploration because results to date are varied and controversial. This systematic review identifies compensation related factors associated with poorer health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury. Searches were conducted using electronic medical journal databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Informit, Web of Science) for prospective studies published up to October 2012. Selection criteria included: prognostic factors associated with validated health outcomes; six or more months follow up; and multivariate statistical analysis. Studies solely measuring return to work outcomes were excluded. Twenty nine articles were synthesised and then assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology to determine evidence levels. The results were mixed. There was strong evidence of an association between compensation status and poorer psychological function; and legal representation and poorer physical function. There was moderate evidence of an association between compensation status and poorer physical function; and legal representation and poorer psychological function. There was limited evidence of an association between compensation status and increased pain. In seven studies the association depended on the outcome measured. No studies reported an association between compensation related factors and improved health outcomes. Further research is needed to find plausible reasons why compensation related factors are associated with poorer health following musculoskeletal injury. PMID:25680118
Conneely, James F.
Strong financial management is a strategy for strategic planning success in student affairs. It is crucial that student affairs professionals understand the necessity of linking their strategic planning with their financial management processes. An effective strategic planner needs strong financial management skills to implement the plan over…
Brown, R; Ramsey, S; Strong, D; Myers, M; Kahler, C; Lejuez, C; Niaura, R; Pallonen, U; Kazura, A; Goldstein, M; Abrams, D
Objective:To test the hypothesis that among adolescent smokers hospitalised for psychiatric and substance use disorders, motivational interviewing (MI) would lead to more and longer quit attempts, reduced smoking, and more abstinence from smoking over a 12 month follow up. Design:Randomised control trial of MI versus brief advice (BA) for smoking cessation, with pre- and post-intervention assessment of self efficacy and intentions to change, and smoking outcome variables assessed at one, three, six, nine, and 12 month follow ups. Setting:A private, university affiliated psychiatric hospital in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Patients or other participants:Consecutive sample (n = 191) of 13–17 year olds, admitted for psychiatric hospitalisation, who smoked at least one cigarette per week for the past four weeks, had access to a telephone, and did not meet DSM-IV criteria for current psychotic disorder. Interventions:MI versus BA. MI consisted of two, 45 minute individual sessions, while BA consisted of 5–10 minutes of advice and information on how to quit smoking. Eligible participants in both conditions were offered an eight week regimen of transdermal nicotine patch upon hospital discharge. Main outcome measures:Point prevalence abstinence, quit attempts, changes in smoking rate and longest quit attempt. Proximal outcomes included intent to change smoking behaviour (upon hospital discharge), and self efficacy for smoking cessation. Results:MI did not lead to better smoking outcomes compared to BA. MI was more effective than BA for increasing self efficacy regarding ability to quit smoking. A significant interaction of treatment with baseline intention to quit smoking was also found. MI was more effective than BA for adolescents with little or no intention to change their smoking, but was actually less effective for adolescents with pre-existing intention to cut down or quit smoking. However, the effects on these variables were relatively modest and only
Camp directors can motivate staff by showing they are valued. Acknowledging positive actions, throwing a staff party, providing relief time, and being a good role model are all good motivators. Weekly staff meetings keep staff informed and provide time to air problems and get feedback. Keeping in touch with staff during the off-season is also…
Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.
This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…
Metsch, Lisa R.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Stitzer, Maxine; Das, Moupali; Jain, Mamta K.; Rodriguez, Allan E.; Armstrong, Wendy S.; Lucas, Gregory M.; Nijhawan, Ank E.; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Herrera, Patricia; Vergara-Rodriguez, Pamela; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Sullivan, Meg; Daar, Eric S.; McMahon, Deborah K.; Ferris, David C.; Lindblad, Robert; VanVeldhuisen, Paul; Oden, Neal; Castellón, Pedro C.; Tross, Susan; Haynes, Louise F.; Douaihy, Antoine; Sorensen, James L.; Metzger, David S.; Mandler, Raul N.; Colfax, Grant N.; del Rio, Carlos
IMPORTANCE Substance use is a major driver of the HIV epidemic and is associated with poor HIV care outcomes. Patient navigation (care coordination with case management) and the use of financial incentives for achieving predetermined outcomes are interventions increasingly promoted to engage patients in substance use disorders treatment and HIV care, but there is little evidence for their efficacy in improving HIV-1 viral suppression rates. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of a structured patient navigation intervention with or without financial incentives to improve HIV-1 viral suppression rates among patients with elevated HIV-1 viral loads and substance use recruited as hospital inpatients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS From July 2012 through January 2014, 801 patients with HIV infection and substance use from 11 hospitals across the United States were randomly assigned to receive patient navigation alone (n = 266), patient navigation plus financial incentives (n = 271), or treatment as usual (n = 264). HIV-1 plasma viral load was measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. INTERVENTIONS Patient navigation included up to 11 sessions of care coordination with case management and motivational interviewing techniques over 6 months. Financial incentives (up to $1160) were provided for achieving targeted behaviors aimed at reducing substance use, increasing engagement in HIV care, and improving HIV outcomes. Treatment as usual was the standard practice at each hospital for linking hospitalized patients to outpatient HIV care and substance use disorders treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was HIV viral suppression (≤200 copies/mL) relative to viral nonsuppression or death at the 12-month follow-up. RESULTS Of 801 patients randomized, 261 (32.6%) were women (mean [SD] age, 44.6 years [10.0 years]). There were no differences in rates of HIV viral suppression versus nonsuppression or death among the 3 groups at 12 months. Eighty-five of 249
Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.
In this article, we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…
Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Dabere, Sampath
The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of performance-based financial incentives on work performance. The study hypothesized that the design features of performance-based financial incentive schemes themselves may influence individuals' work performance. For the study, survey methodology was used and 93 technical-level employees…
In this introduction to the burgeoning field of econophysics, we review the application of self-organized criticality to economics, the Cont-Bouchaud percolation model, multiple-strategy agent-based models of financial markets, the minority game, and log-periodic precursors to financial crashes.
Yager, Lindsay M; Pitchers, Kyle K; Flagel, Shelly B; Robinson, Terry E
A discrete cue associated with intravenous injections of cocaine acquires greater control over motivated behavior in some rats ('sign-trackers', STs) than others ('goal-trackers', GTs). It is not known, however, if such variation generalizes to cues associated with other drugs. We asked, therefore, whether a discrete cue (a light) associated with the intravenous administration of an opioid drug (the short-acting mu receptor agonist, remifentanil) acquires incentive motivational properties differently in STs and GTs, as indicated by tests of Pavlovian conditioned approach and conditioned reinforcement. Consistent with studies using cocaine, STs approached a classically conditioned opioid cue more readily than GTs, and in a test of conditioned reinforcement worked more avidly to get it. Interestingly, STs and GTs did not differ in the acquisition of a conditioned orienting response. In addition, the performance of conditioned approach behavior, but not conditioned orientation, was attenuated by pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist, flupenthixol, into the core of the nucleus accumbens. Lastly, food and opioid cues engaged similar amygdalo-striatal-thalamic circuitry to a much greater extent in STs than GTs, as indicated by Fos expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate that, similar to food and cocaine cues: (1) a discrete opioid cue attains greater incentive motivational value in STs than GTs; (2) the attribution of incentive motivational properties to an opioid cue is dopamine dependent; and (3) an opioid cue engages the so-called 'motive circuit' only if it is imbued with incentive salience.
Shin, Myoungjin; Kim, Inwoo; Kwon, Sungho
Understanding the relationship between affect and exercise is helpful in predicting human behavior with respect to exercise participation. The goals of the present study were to investigate individual differences in affective response during and after exercise and to identify the role of intrinsic motivation in affective changes. 30 active male college students (M age = 21.4 yr.) who regularly participated in sports activities volunteered to answer a questionnaire measuring intrinsic motivation toward running activities and performed a 20-min. straight running protocol at heavy intensity (about 70% of VO2max). Participants' affective responses were measured every 5 min. from the beginning of the run to 10 min. after completing the run. Latent curve model analysis indicated that individuals experienced different changes in affective state during exercise, moderated by intrinsic motivation. Higher intrinsic motivation was associated with more positive affect during exercise. There were no significant individual differences in the positive tendency of the participants' affective responses after exercise over time. Intrinsic motivation seems to facilitate positive feelings during exercise and encourages participation in exercise.
Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S
The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
Personal motivation is critical to effective teaching. This article explores the complexity of motivation and its application to teaching. It also discusses the nine principles for sustaining motivation and preempting burnout: (1) Respond to the symptoms; (2) Know the critical distinction; (3) Do not treat your car better than yourself; (4) Have a…
Maltezou, Helena C; Lionis, Christos
Starting in 2008 several European countries experienced a financial crisis. Historically, diseases whose prevention and treatment depend highly on the continuity of healthcare re-emerge during political and financial crises. Evidence suggests that the current financial crisis has had an impact on the health and welfare of Europeans and that population health status and morbidity as well as mortality patterns may change in the coming years. At the same time decisions about expenditure for health services may impact the ability of public health providers to respond. It is expected that the current crisis will further exacerbate socioeconomic and health inequalities and novel vulnerable groups will emerge in addition to existing ones. We review the available evidence and discuss how the current crisis may have an impact on vaccine-preventable diseases and influence vaccination coverage rates in Europe.
Nozari, Ali Yazdanpanah; Siamian, Hasan
Background: Traditional education classes are no more effective because they are tied to a particular place and time. Podcast complete the defection of other educational resources. In this study we aimed to address whether utilizing podcast multimedia training system has an effect on the motivational achievement and students learning of the Arabic course in high school. Methods: In this practical-purposed, descriptive and quasi-experimental study, pre- and post-test method in control and experiment groups was used. Researchers used simple random sampling method to form the groups. Results: The results showed the normal distribution of data according to the value of z (0.09) in the pre- and post-tests in both control and experiment groups. Therefore, the data distribution was normal (P>0.925). Significant differences between experimental and control groups in terms of academic level were not observed in the pre-test. There was no significant difference between the motivational achievement of education in post-test of control and experiment group (p>0.89). Conclusion: The results showed that teaching with podcast multimedia systems significantly increased learning of Arabic in the high school level. But of motivation reinforcement between traditional method and system for multimedia podcasts, showed no significant differences. Each variety of multimedia techniques can be beneficial for a specific course. Therefore, more studies on the effectiveness of podcast method in different courses to determine its effects are necessary. PMID:25870488
Mazer, Joseph P.; Murphy, Richard E.; Simonds, Cheri J.
This experimental study examined the effects of teacher self-disclosure via Facebook on anticipated college student motivation, affective learning, and classroom climate. Participants who accessed the Facebook website of a teacher high in self-disclosure anticipated higher levels of motivation and affective learning and a more positive classroom…
Lay, Yoon Fah; Chandrasegaran, A. L.
TIMSS routinely presents very powerful evidence showing that students with more positive motivation toward learning science have substantially higher achievement. The results from TIMSS 2011 are consistent with previous assessments. This study explored the predictive effects of motivation toward learning science on science achievement among…
Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich; Ulferts, Hannah
This study examined the role of reading amount as a mediator of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on higher order reading comprehension (comprised of paragraph-and passage-level comprehension) in a sample of 159 fifth-grade elementary students. A positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading amount…
Dovis, Sebastiaan; van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W.; Prins, Pier J. M.
Visual-spatial "Working Memory" (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivation on the visual-spatial WM of children with-…
Sturm, Heike; Bogner, Franz X.
The study investigated cognitive and motivational effects of two educational interventions, a conventional versus a student-oriented approach. We monitored the impact on the cognitive achievement outcome and the motivation of students. Both approaches dealt with the subject of birds and bird flight; the student-oriented approach consisted of a…
Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as
This study examined developmental and gender differences in Grade 5 and 9 students' views of uncertainty in science and the effect of classroom instruction on attitudes towards science, and motivation. Study 1 examined views of uncertainty in science when students were taught science using constructivist pedagogy. A total of 33 Grade 5 (n = 17, 12 boys, 5 girls) and Grade 9 (n = 16, 8 boys, 8 girls) students were interviewed about the ideas they had about uncertainty in their own experiments (i.e., practical science) and in professional science activities (i.e., formal science). Analysis found an interaction between grade and gender in the number of categories of uncertainty identified for both practical and formal science. Additionally, in formal science, there was a developmental shift from dualism (i.e., science is a collection of basic facts that are the result of straightforward procedures) to multiplism (i.e., there is more than one answer or perspective on scientific knowledge) from Grade 5 to Grade 9. Finally, there was a positive correlation between the understanding uncertainty in practical and formal science. Study 2 compared the attitudes and motivation towards science and motivation of students in constructivist and traditional classrooms. Scores on the measures were also compared to students' views of uncertainty for constructivist-taught students. A total of 28 students in Grade 5 (n = 13, 11 boys, 2 girls) and Grade 9 (n = 15, 6 boys, 9 girls), from traditional science classrooms and the 33 constructivist students from Study 1 participated. Regardless of classroom instruction, fifth graders reported more positive attitudes towards science than ninth graders. Students from the constructivist classrooms reported more intrinsic motivation than students from the traditional classrooms. Constructivist students' views of uncertainty in formal and practical science did not correlate with their attitudes towards science and motivation.
Pedersen, M T; Vorup, J; Nistrup, A; Wikman, J M; Alstrøm, J M; Melcher, P S; Pfister, G U; Bangsbo, J
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited. Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm curls within 30 seconds (P<.05) and 30-seconds chair stand (P<.05) during the intervention. In TRG, participation in training led to higher (P<.05) scores in the subscales psychological well-being, general quality of life, and health-related quality of life, as well as decreased anxiety and depression levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants more by intrinsic factors than resistance training.
Rosso, Annalisa; De Vito, Corrado; Marzuillo, Carolina; Massimi, Azzurra; D’Andrea, Elvira
This study was aimed to assess the association between regional financial deficits and Recovery Plans and the quality of the 702 projects developed by the Italian Regions within the National Prevention Plan 2010–13. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between Recovery Plans and low quality of projects, possibly due to weak regional public health capacities. Regions with Recovery Plans are likely to focus mainly on short-term issues with a high impact on health care costs, leaving few resources available for prevention. A different approach to financial deficit focused on long-term strategies, including those for health promotion and disease prevention, is needed. PMID:25958239
Rosso, Annalisa; De Vito, Corrado; Marzuillo, Carolina; Massimi, Azzurra; D'Andrea, Elvira; Villari, Paolo
This study was aimed to assess the association between regional financial deficits and Recovery Plans and the quality of the 702 projects developed by the Italian Regions within the National Prevention Plan 2010-13. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between Recovery Plans and low quality of projects, possibly due to weak regional public health capacities. Regions with Recovery Plans are likely to focus mainly on short-term issues with a high impact on health care costs, leaving few resources available for prevention. A different approach to financial deficit focused on long-term strategies, including those for health promotion and disease prevention, is needed.
awareness of the effect of smoking among smokers who are asymptomatic or have few symptoms and make them decide to quit. Specifically, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease it might increase levels of motivation to quit smoking in early stages of the disease. If this strategy were to be effective, it could be included in the health promotion activities offered in primary care. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01821885 PMID:24308728
Abdullah, Mashita; Mohamed, Norita; Ismail, Zurida Hj
Microscale chemistry is an approach to conducting chemistry practicals which can help overcome increased concerns about environmental pollution problems as well as rising laboratory costs. It is accomplished by using miniature labware and significantly reduced amounts of chemicals. This paper reports on students' attitudes and motivation towards…
Jena, Ananta Kumar; Chakraborty, Piyali
The purpose of the study is to measure the motivation of the teachers of higher education towards students' feedback policy of National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) established by Internal Quality Assurance Cell (IQAC) for different Universities. By the help of questionnaires, the data were gathered, which were earlier sent to the…
Konig, Johannes; Rothland, Martin
The authors first ask to what extent future teachers in Germany endorse teaching motivations indicated by the FIT-Choice scale. This includes reporting on the confirmatory factor analysis they carried out to examine and to replicate the FIT-Choice scale structure in the specific cultural context of Germany with a sample of 1287 preservice…
Estapa, Anne; Nadolny, Larysa
The purpose of the study was to assess student achievement and motivation during a high school augmented reality mathematics activity focused on dimensional analysis. Included in this article is a review of the literature on the use of augmented reality in mathematics and the combination of print with augmented reality, also known as interactive…
Bone, Jonathan E; McAuliffe, Katherine; Raihani, Nichola J
Identifying the motives underpinning punishment is crucial for understanding its evolved function. In principle, punishment of distributional inequality could be motivated by the desire to reciprocate losses ('revenge') or by the desire to reduce payoff asymmetries between the punisher and the target ('inequality aversion'). By separating these two possible motivations, recent work suggests that punishment is more likely to be motivated by disadvantageous inequality aversion than by a desire for revenge. Nevertheless, these findings have not consistently replicated across different studies. Here, we suggest that considering country of origin-previously overlooked as a possible source of variation in responses-is important for understanding when and why individuals punish one another. We conducted a two-player stealing game with punishment, using data from 2,400 subjects recruited from the USA and India. US-based subjects punished in response to losses and disadvantageous inequality, but seldom invested in antisocial punishment (defined here as punishment of non-stealing partners). India-based subjects, on the other hand, punished at higher levels than US-based subjects and, so long as they did not experience disadvantageous inequality, punished stealing and non-stealing partners indiscriminately. Nevertheless, as in the USA, when stealing resulted in disadvantageous inequality, India-based subjects punished stealing partners more than non-stealing partners. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in punitive behavior varies across societies, and support the idea that punishment might sometimes function to improve relative status, rather than to enforce cooperation.
Jones, Adam C.
This investigation examined how out-of-class support (OCS) affects student satisfaction and motivation to learn. Students (N =594) were randomly assigned to experimental conditions manipulating a highly supportive, moderately supportive, or nonsupportive teacher following a hypothetically stressful situation. Significant and meaningful main…
Grant, Adam M.; Campbell, Elizabeth M.; Chen, Grace; Cottone, Keenan; Lapedis, David; Lee, Karen
We tested the hypothesis that employees are willing to maintain their motivation when their work is relationally designed to provide opportunities for respectful contact with the beneficiaries of their efforts. In Experiment 1, a longitudinal field experiment in a fundraising organization, callers in an intervention group briefly interacted with a…
Bai, Haiyan; Aman, Amjad; Xu, Yunjun; Orlovskaya, Nina; Zhou, Mingming
The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of a newly developed modules, Interactive Web-Based Visualization Tools for Gluing Undergraduate Fuel Cell Systems Courses system (IGLU), on learning motivations of engineering students using two samples (n[subscript 1] = 144 and n[subscript 2] = 135) from senior engineering classes. The…
Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; De Jong, Ton
This study examined how grouping arrangements affect students' achievement, social interaction, and motivation. Students of high, average and low ability were randomly assigned to homogeneous or heterogeneous ability groups. All groups attended the same plant biology course. The main results indicate that low-ability students achieve more and are…
Cole, Juanita McLean; Hilliard, Veleshia Rhonda
This study investigated the benefits of using a Web-based reading curriculum program featuring music and video, on struggling readers' performance and motivation. A sample of 36 third grade students from low socioeconomic backgrounds was randomly assigned to receive Web-based or traditional reading instruction. Analyses of performance indicated…
Garcia, Jesus-Nicasio; de Caso, Ana Maria
Given that affective and cognitive processes interact in writing, it is important that interventions for developing writing ability focus both on strategies for developing motivation and cognitive processes. This article provides evidence for the efficacy of an instructional program that combines training in composition processes with strategies…
As the Latino population increases nationally, educators must develop the work ethic among their Latino students to meet the requirements for student achievement. This case study examined if teachers' perceptions of the Latino population affected the academic motivation of their Latino students at a low-income, primarily Latino high school in…
Swanson, Kristen N.; Legutko, Robert S.
A Web 2.0 technology was implemented during reading instruction in one 3rd-grade classroom in suburban southeastern Pennsylvania. Trained preservice teachers provided feedback to students via the World Wide Web to enhance their performance and social connections. Motivation scores were measured before and after the intervention was implemented. A…
Apodaca, Timothy R.; Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard; Jackson, Kristina M.; Monti, Peter M.
Objective:To examine significant-other (SO) and therapist behaviors as predictors of client change language within motivational interviewing (MI) sessions. Method: Participants from an emergency department received a single session of MI that included SO participation (N = 157). Sessions were coded using therapy process coding systems. Sessions…
Ozerbas, Mehmet Arif
The purpose of this study is to determine how the use of smart board affects the motivation levels of students. This research was carried out with true experimental group and a control group. The sample of the study consists of 50 sophomore students, studying at the Department of Classroom Teaching of the Elementary Education Division at Gazi…
Van Meel, Catharina S.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Sergeant, Joseph A.
Objective: This study was designed to clarify whether poor performance of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on motor timing tasks reflects a true deficit in the temporal organization of motor output or is due to a lack of intrinsic motivation. Method: Eighteen children with ADHD (age 8-12) were compared with 18 age- and…
The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of E-readers during guided reading instruction would affect students' reading motivation, attitude toward reading, and reading comprehension. The study utilized on a quasi-experimental mixed methods research design that involved 35 fifth grade students in two fifth grade reading classes. For 10…
Meyer, Annika; Meyer-Ahrens, Inga; Wilde, Matthias
Previous research has found conflicting evidence in studies where students participate in the selection of their course topics in educational settings. Katz and Assor (2007), for example, have argued that the increase in student motivation is probably not due to the mere act of choosing, but to the value of the options with respect to personal…
Recent cognitive psychological research has argued that involuntary mental time travel is an important individual difference variable that has the potential to affect an individual's motivation. However, this issue has not been empirically investigated in educational settings such as teacher education. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the…
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…
Stearns, Susan A.
Sometimes we question whether students are incapable or capable and/or willing or unwilling in regards to their academics. This study determined where students lie in regards to these concepts and showed one example of motivating students to do their best via course design, in this particular case by the use of a writing process model.
Hong, Eunsook; Hartzell, Stephanie A.; Greene, Mary T.
The relationships of teachers' epistemological beliefs, motivation, and goal orientation to their instructional practices that foster student creativity were examined. Teachers' perceived instructional practices that facilitate the development of multiple perspectives in problem solving, transfer, task commitment, creative skill use, and…