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Sample records for motor abilities physical

  1. Body image, perceived physical ability, and motor performance in nonoverweight and overweight Italian children.

    PubMed

    Colella, Dario; Morano, Milena; Robazza, Claudio; Bortoli, Laura

    2009-02-01

    The purpose was to examine body image, perceived physical ability, and motor performance in nonoverweight (n=105, 53 boys and 52 girls) and overweight (n=105, 52 boys and 53 girls) children, ranging in age from 8 to 10 years and attending elementary schools in southeastern Italy. Body image was measured on Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while self-efficacy was assessed by the Perceived Physical Ability Scale for Children. Age-appropriate field-based tests of standing long jump, 1-kg medicine-ball throw, basketball throw, and 10-m and 20-m sprint from a standing position were also administered to gauge motor performance. Univariate analyses of variance [2 (group) x 2 (sex) x 3 (8, 9, 10 yr.)] showed that overweight children reported larger body-dissatisfaction scores, lower self-efficacy scores, and poorer performance on weight-bearing tasks than nonoverweight peers. In addition, boys had higher mean scores on physical self-efficacy and better performance on all motor tests. The correlation between Body Mass Index and body dissatisfaction was positive for boys and girls.

  2. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Folleto, Júlia C; Pereira, Keila RG; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. Aim: To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6–8-year-old children. Methods: The study included 16 children from the 1st grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each session. To assess children's performance, we used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - Second Edition, the flexibility test (sit and reach – Eurofit, 1988), the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and semi-structured interviews with children, parents, and classroom’ teacher. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon test and level of significance was 5%. Results: The yoga program was well accepted by children, children also demonstrated significant and positive changes in overall motor abilities scores (balance, strength, and flexibility). In addition, the interviews reported changing in social behavior and the use of the knowledge learned in the program in contexts outside of school. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the implementation of yoga practice in physical education lessons contributed to children's development. PMID:27512323

  3. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  4. Differences Between Actual Motor Ability and Physical Self-Concept (Perceived Motor Performance/Body Image) of Fifth-Grade Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Robert; Kirk, Pamela

    Differences between high and low perceived physical self-concept and actual motor performance of 120 fifth grade boys were investigated. Self-concept was measured by the Physical Self-Concept Scale. Motor proficiency was measured by a four-item advanced agility/coordination test battery: hand-eye coordination; foot-eye coordination; whole body…

  5. Temporal structure of motor variability is dynamically regulated and predicts motor learning ability

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Howard G; Miyamoto, Yohsuke R; Castro, Luis Nicolas Gonzalez; Ölveczky, Bence P; Smith, Maurice A

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in motor learning ability are widely acknowledged, yet little is known about the factors that underlie them. Here we explore whether movement-to-movement variability in motor output, a ubiquitous if often unwanted characteristic of motor performance, predicts motor learning ability. Surprisingly, we found that higher levels of task-relevant motor variability predicted faster learning both across individuals and across tasks in two different paradigms, one relying on reward-based learning to shape specific arm movement trajectories and the other relying on error-based learning to adapt movements in novel physical environments. We proceeded to show that training can reshape the temporal structure of motor variability, aligning it with the trained task to improve learning. These results provide experimental support for the importance of action exploration, a key idea from reinforcement learning theory, showing that motor variability facilitates motor learning in humans and that our nervous systems actively regulate it to improve learning. PMID:24413700

  6. Temporal structure of motor variability is dynamically regulated and predicts motor learning ability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Howard G; Miyamoto, Yohsuke R; Gonzalez Castro, Luis Nicolas; Ölveczky, Bence P; Smith, Maurice A

    2014-02-01

    Individual differences in motor learning ability are widely acknowledged, yet little is known about the factors that underlie them. Here we explore whether movement-to-movement variability in motor output, a ubiquitous if often unwanted characteristic of motor performance, predicts motor learning ability. Surprisingly, we found that higher levels of task-relevant motor variability predicted faster learning both across individuals and across tasks in two different paradigms, one relying on reward-based learning to shape specific arm movement trajectories and the other relying on error-based learning to adapt movements in novel physical environments. We proceeded to show that training can reshape the temporal structure of motor variability, aligning it with the trained task to improve learning. These results provide experimental support for the importance of action exploration, a key idea from reinforcement learning theory, showing that motor variability facilitates motor learning in humans and that our nervous systems actively regulate it to improve learning.

  7. Exploring the general motor ability construct.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Halijah; Heard, N Paul; Blanksby, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Malaysian students ages 12 to 15 years (N = 330; 165 girls, 165 boys) took the Australian Institute of Sport Talent Identification Test (AIST) and the Balance and Movement Coordination Test (BMC), developed specifically to identify sport talent in Malaysian adolescents. To investigate evidence for general aptitude ("g") in motor ability, a higher-order factor analysis was applied to the motor skills subtests from the AIST and BMC. First-order principal components analysis indicated that scores for the adolescent boys and girls could be described by similar sets of specific motor abilities. In particular, sets of skills identified as Movement Coordination and Postural Control were found, with Balancing Ability also emerging. For the girls, a factor labeled Static Balance was indicated. However, for the boys a more general balance ability labeled Kinesthetic Integration was found, along with an ability labeled Explosive Power. These first-order analyses accounted for 45% to 60% of the variance in the scores on the motor skills tests for the boys and girls, respectively. Separate second-order factor analyses for the boys and girls extracted a single higher-order factor, which was consistent with the existence of a motoric "g". PMID:22185064

  8. Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a single test. A total of 72 native Chinese learners of age 5 participated in this study. The findings indicated that the Chinese learners scored much higher in the visual-motor integration tasks than in motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks. The results support the theory of autonomous systems of motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration and query current beliefs about the prior development of the former to the latter for the Chinese learners. To account for the Chinese participants' superior performance in visual-motor integration tasks over motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks, the visual-spatial properties of Chinese characters, general handwriting theories, the motor control theory and the psychogeometric theory of Chinese character-writing are referred to. The significance of the findings is then discussed. PMID:22663773

  9. Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a single test. A total of 72 native Chinese learners of age 5 participated in this study. The findings indicated that the Chinese learners scored much higher in the visual-motor integration tasks than in motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks. The results support the theory of autonomous systems of motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration and query current beliefs about the prior development of the former to the latter for the Chinese learners. To account for the Chinese participants' superior performance in visual-motor integration tasks over motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks, the visual-spatial properties of Chinese characters, general handwriting theories, the motor control theory and the psychogeometric theory of Chinese character-writing are referred to. The significance of the findings is then discussed.

  10. Does music instruction improve fine motor abilities?

    PubMed

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2005-12-01

    The fine motor abilities of children who participated in two years of piano instruction and those who had never received formal music training were compared before and after the instruction. A significant improvement in fine motor skills was found only for the children who received the lessons, and a significant difference in the speed of response was found between the two groups at the end of the two years of instruction. The innumerable opportunities to assess, refine, and time their motor responses to specific stimuli during musical practice and the availability of constant evaluative feedback (i.e., sound) may allow musicians to improve the accuracy and speed of perceiving and responding to relevant stimuli.

  11. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465]. PMID:15474175

  12. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465].

  13. The development of perceptual motor sequencing ability.

    PubMed

    Zaichkowsky, L D

    1974-12-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to investigate the possibility that short-term memory may be a limiting factor in the development of perceptual-motor sequencing ability, (b) to determine whether sex differences exist in sequencing ability, (c) to determine whether organized information facilitates serial recall, and (d) to ascertain whether the recall of serial perceptual-motor responses results in a bow-shaped serial-position curve. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design was used to analyze the independent variables of age, sex, and pattern organization. Further, an age × serial position ANOVA was performed to investigate the serial-position curve. Serial recall improved with age; however young children experienced difficulty in recalling a complex task. The poor recall performance of 5-yr.-old children was discussed in terms of the possibility that young children fail to use labeling strategies to facilitate recall. No sex differences were found. A primacy effect was obtained on the complex task.

  14. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  15. Motor abilities and aerobic fitness of obese children.

    PubMed

    Korsten-Reck, U; Kaspar, T; Korsten, K; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Bös, K; Berg, A; Dickhuth, H-H

    2007-09-01

    Obesity is considered to be epidemic worldwide. Stopping further progression interdisciplinary, outpatient intervention therapy programs for obese children have become increasingly important. FITOC (Freiburg Intervention Trial for Obese Children) consists of a combination of organized sports, behavioral therapy and nutritional advice. The effectiveness of the therapy is determined on the basis of anthropometrical and physical performance data. The purpose of this report is to give a differentiated view of the motor abilities of obese children and to describe changes in the course of the therapy program FITOC. Data were collected on n = 49 obese children (BMI > 97th percentile) aged 8 - 12 in a pretest at the beginning and posttest at the end of the intensive phase of the therapy. These data were compared with an age-matched German reference group. Besides the General Sports-Motor Test (Allgemeiner Sportmotorischer Test [AST]), the BMI-SDS values, the body fat mass (FM %) and the aerobic capacity (Watt/kg body weight) were recorded. In the pretest, the running exercise results and the aerobic capacity checked ranged significantly below the values of the reference group. The performance in the coordinative tests of the AST was differentiated. The medicine-ball toss was significantly above average of the reference group. In the posttest, the BMI-SDS values and the body fat mass (% FM) decreased (p < 0.001) and the aerobic capacity improved (p < 0.001). Performance in all motor abilities tests improved and the difference between the strength of the obese children and the strength of the reference group decreased. This study demonstrates that in obese children weight-bearing activities are below average but not all motor abilities.

  16. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  17. Predicting School Adjustment from Motor Abilities in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Orit; Hajami, Dov; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2007-01-01

    The present study assessed the relations between basic motor abilities in kindergarten and scholastic, social, and emotional adaptation in the transition to formal schooling. Seventy-one five-year-old kindergarten children were administered a battery of standard assessments of basic motor functions. A year later, children's adjustment to school…

  18. Selective Effect of Physical Fatigue on Motor Imagery Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Di Rienzo, Franck; Collet, Christian; Hoyek, Nady; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-01-01

    While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution) during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years) conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, p<0.001) were observed during the posttest for internal visual imagery. A significant correlation (r = 0.64; p<0.05) was observed between motor imagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire) and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to temporary

  19. Physical mechanisms of biological molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John H., Jr.; Vajrala, Vijayanand; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.; Palanisami, Akilan; Fang, Jie; Mercier, George T.

    2009-03-01

    Biological motors generally fall into two categories: (1) those that convert chemical into mechanical energy via hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate, usually adenosine triphosphate, regarded as life's chemical currency of energy and (2) membrane bound motors driven directly by an ion gradient and/or membrane potential. Here we argue that electrostatic interactions play a vital role for both types of motors and, therefore, the tools of physics can greatly contribute to understanding biological motors.

  20. Cognitive, perceptual, and motor abilities in skilled basketball performance.

    PubMed

    Kioumourtzoglou, E; Derri, V; Tzetzis, G; Theodorakis, Y

    1998-06-01

    The differences among athletes of differing skill should assist successful identification and selection of the best athletes in a specific sport. For the purpose of this study, a laboratory study was conducted with a group of 13 men on the elite male national team of basketball players, 22 to 23 years of age, and a control group of 15 men of equal age (physical education class) to assess differences in their scores on cognitive skills (memory-retention, memory-grouping analytic ability), perceptual skills (speed of perception, prediction, selective attention, response selection), and motor skills (dynamic balance, whole body coordination, wrist-finger dexterity, rhythmic ability). Analysis showed that elite male basketball players scored higher on hand coordination and lower on dynamic balance given their anthropometric measurements. Elite players were better on memory-retention, selective attention, and on prediction measures than the control group. The above skills are important in basketball performance. Researchers may examine whether other factors contribute more in the development of perceptual and cognitive skills.

  1. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  2. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Methods: Two hundred forty children ages 9–11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Results: Psychosocial, physical, and total health related qualities of life (all P< 0.05) were significantly lowered for obese when compared to normal weight participants. In contrast, the mean scores for each HRQOL domain in motor ability category were not significant. No significant interaction was apparent when examining HRQOL scores, BMAT variables and weight status. Conclusion: Regardless of motor ability levels, reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL. Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children. PMID:23113200

  3. Functional Abilities as a Predictor of Specific Motor Skills of Young Water Polo Players

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrović, Marko; Radovanović, Dragan; Okičić, Tomislav; Madić, Dejan; Georgiev, Georgi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of functional abilities on specificmotor skills. A total number of 92 male water polo players (age 12±0.5 years, body height 156.96±22.3 cm, body weight 51.02±33.18 kg) with at least two years’ experience, were enrolled in the study. The investigation protocol consisted of standardized anthropometric measurements, estimation of maximum oxygen uptake, determination of the lung function values, specific swim tests and swim tests with a ball. The factor analysis was used for the estimation of the structure of specific motor skills. The influence of functional abilities on specific motor skills was estimated by regression analysis. Out of 15 correlations in total between the variables of space of functional abilities of water polo players, 6 were significant at the level of 95% (between the variables of aerobic power and lung function) and all of the correlations (15) between the variables of specific motor skills in water polo players were significant at the 99% level. Only one principal component, the General factor of specific motor skills in water polo (GFSWP) was obtained by way of factorization of the tests of specific motor skills, so the GFSWP represents the latent space of specific motor skills as a criterion. The regression analysis showed that functional abilities (as group predictors) (p= 0.00) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (as a separate variable) have a significant influence on GFSWP (the criterion). The results of the study pointed out the impact of functional abilities on specific motor skills of selected young water polo players. This may be important for the selection and effective coaching in the early period of training and can affect the development of more appropriate and specific training programmes for optimal physical fitness preparation in young water polo players. PMID:23486729

  4. Motor abilities in dance structure performance in female students.

    PubMed

    Srhoj, Ljerka; Katić, Ratko; Kaliterna, Andreja

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the relation between motor abilities and performance in folk dances originating from the island of Hvar and modern social dances. Two groups of variables were used in a sample of 78 female students of the Teacher Training College from Split: 7 motor variables as a battery of predictors, and performance evaluation of 4 dances (2 folk dances, i.e. ciciliona and pasavijen, and 2 social dances, i.e. cha-cha-cha and rock-'n'-roll) as criterion variables. Canonical correlation analysis between the groups of variables yielded two canonical correlations of 0.94 and 0.73, with a level of significance of p<0.001. The first canonical correlation was based on marked determination of coordination and ciciliona dance, and the second one on explosive strength of the running type with below-average coordination and the cha-cha-cha, rock-'n'-roll and pasavijen dances. Regression analysis indicated the battery of motor variables used to be a good predictor of performance in all study dances, with multiple correlation of 0.93 in ciciliona, 0.84 in pasavijen, 0.75 in rock-'n'-roll and 0.73 in cha-cha-cha. In ciciliona and pasavijen, the latent dance structure is predominantly explained by coordination, in rock-'n'-roll by explosive strength, and in cha-cha-cha by explosive strength and speed. Discriminative analysis revealed the general dance performance to mostly depend on coordination, then on explosive strength, and to a lesser extent on speed (movement frequency). Dance is an irreplaceable educational tool in kinesiologic education of female students, among others for its considerable contribution to the development and maintenance of basic motor abilities. PMID:16848148

  5. Motor abilities in dance structure performance in female students.

    PubMed

    Srhoj, Ljerka; Katić, Ratko; Kaliterna, Andreja

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the relation between motor abilities and performance in folk dances originating from the island of Hvar and modern social dances. Two groups of variables were used in a sample of 78 female students of the Teacher Training College from Split: 7 motor variables as a battery of predictors, and performance evaluation of 4 dances (2 folk dances, i.e. ciciliona and pasavijen, and 2 social dances, i.e. cha-cha-cha and rock-'n'-roll) as criterion variables. Canonical correlation analysis between the groups of variables yielded two canonical correlations of 0.94 and 0.73, with a level of significance of p<0.001. The first canonical correlation was based on marked determination of coordination and ciciliona dance, and the second one on explosive strength of the running type with below-average coordination and the cha-cha-cha, rock-'n'-roll and pasavijen dances. Regression analysis indicated the battery of motor variables used to be a good predictor of performance in all study dances, with multiple correlation of 0.93 in ciciliona, 0.84 in pasavijen, 0.75 in rock-'n'-roll and 0.73 in cha-cha-cha. In ciciliona and pasavijen, the latent dance structure is predominantly explained by coordination, in rock-'n'-roll by explosive strength, and in cha-cha-cha by explosive strength and speed. Discriminative analysis revealed the general dance performance to mostly depend on coordination, then on explosive strength, and to a lesser extent on speed (movement frequency). Dance is an irreplaceable educational tool in kinesiologic education of female students, among others for its considerable contribution to the development and maintenance of basic motor abilities.

  6. Relationships between problematic behaviors and motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Nanba, Yosifumi; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi; Hujii, Shun

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine whether motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy are related to their problematic behaviors. [Subjects] The subjects were children with mental retardation who were undergoing physical therapy. [Methods] Twenty-one examiners, 13 physical therapists, and 8 occupational therapists treated and examined the subjects by using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores were compared between the Gross Motor Function Classification System I to III (12 subjects) and Gross Motor Function Classification System IV and V groups (17 subjects). [Results] Lethargy and stereotypy scores significantly differed between the groups, proving that patients with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV and V have more severe problematic behaviors. [Conclusion] In this study, only five types of problematic behaviors, namely irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and inappropriate speech, were examined. Despite this limitation, the study clarifies that problematic behaviors of children with cerebral palsy, except lethargy and stereotypy, have little relationship with their motor abilities.

  7. Relationships between problematic behaviors and motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Nanba, Yosifumi; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi; Hujii, Shun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine whether motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy are related to their problematic behaviors. [Subjects] The subjects were children with mental retardation who were undergoing physical therapy. [Methods] Twenty-one examiners, 13 physical therapists, and 8 occupational therapists treated and examined the subjects by using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores were compared between the Gross Motor Function Classification System I to III (12 subjects) and Gross Motor Function Classification System IV and V groups (17 subjects). [Results] Lethargy and stereotypy scores significantly differed between the groups, proving that patients with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV and V have more severe problematic behaviors. [Conclusion] In this study, only five types of problematic behaviors, namely irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and inappropriate speech, were examined. Despite this limitation, the study clarifies that problematic behaviors of children with cerebral palsy, except lethargy and stereotypy, have little relationship with their motor abilities. PMID:26504335

  8. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2013-09-01

    Motor proteins are enzymatic molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical motion and work. They are critically important for supporting various cellular activities and functions. In the last 15 years significant progress in understanding the functioning of motor proteins has been achieved due to revolutionary breakthroughs in single-molecule experimental techniques and strong advances in theoretical modelling. However, microscopic mechanisms of protein motility are still not well explained, and the collective efforts of many scientists are needed in order to solve these complex problems. In this special section the reader will find the latest advances on the difficult road to mapping motor proteins dynamics in various systems. Recent experimental developments have allowed researchers to monitor and to influence the activity of single motor proteins with a high spatial and temporal resolution. It has stimulated significant theoretical efforts to understand the non-equilibrium nature of protein motility phenomena. The latest results from all these advances are presented and discussed in this special section. We would like to thank the scientists from all over the world who have reported their latest research results for this special section. We are also grateful to the staff and editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their invaluable help in handling all the administrative and refereeing activities. The field of motor proteins and protein motility is fast moving, and we hope that this collection of articles will be a useful source of information in this highly interdisciplinary area. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins contents Physics of protein motility and motor proteinsAnatoly B Kolomeisky Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116 Yuan Zhang, Mirkó Palla, Andrew Sun and Jung-Chi Liao The load dependence of the physical properties of a molecular motor

  9. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  10. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys. PMID:24894129

  11. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys.

  12. Motor abilities at belly dance in elementary female schoolers.

    PubMed

    Mihaljević, Dodi; Srhoj, Ljerka; Katić, Ratko

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relation between motor abilities and belly dance performance in elementary school fifth- and sixth-grade female students. A battery of 19 motor tests was used in a sample of 96 students twice, i.e. at the beginning (initial measurement) and at the end (final measurement) of the academic year. On initial measurement, five factors were isolated by the motor space factor analysis: first factor of muscular-aerobic endurance; second factor integrating the strength of legs, coordination of foot and hand movement, and agility; third factor integrating explosive strength of the arms with speed and body coordination; fourth factor defined by flexibility (muscle tone regulation); and fifth factor integrating explosive strength of legs with equilibrium. On final measurement, five factors were isolated as well: first factor as a general one integrating coordination abilities, explosive strength of legs and flexibility; second factor defined by repetitive strength of the trunk and legs; third factor defined by rhythm coordination accompanied by flexibility; fourth factor predominantly defined by equilibrium (accompanied by explosive strength of throwing type and speed); and fifth factor predominantly defined by static strength of arms and legs (accompanied by arm movement frequency). On initial measurement, fourth factor responsible for muscle tone regulation and second factor integrating the strength of legs, coordination of movement frequency of arms and legs, and agility were found to be the best predictors of belly dance performance. In this setting, the tests of forward bow (flexibility) and sit-ups (repetitive strength of abdominal musculature) proved superior in differentiating high performance students and those less successful in belly dance. On final measurement, third factor named rhythm coordination (accompanied by muscle tone regulation) and second factor defined by repetitive strength of the trunk and legs were the best

  13. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  14. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  15. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    PubMed Central

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  16. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  17. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  18. What's Motor Development Got to Do with Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Through the study of motor development, the physically educated person will understand that individuals develop at their own rate and require both time and practice to acquire new motor skills. The physically educated person needs to know about motor development in order to monitor his or her own change and become an independent learner.…

  19. Early Childhood Special Education. "Can I Play Too?" Adapting Common Classroom Activities for Young Children with Limited Motor Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Kristyn

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that teachers are challenged with arranging the environment to allow physically impaired children to participate in classroom activities. Defines limited motor ability. Suggests ways to make minor modifications or adaptations to accommodate these children in common classroom activities, including circle time, art, sensory play, fine…

  20. Motor Ability and Weight Status Are Determinants of Out-of-School Activity Participation for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Chan, Nerita N. C.; Chan, Rachel S. H.; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with…

  1. Effects of A School-Based Intervention on BMI and Motor Abilities in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Christine; Koch, Benjamin; Falkowski, Gisa; Jouck, Stefanie; Christ, Hildegard; Stauenmaier, Kathrin; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Tokarski, Walter; Dordel, Sigrid; Predel, Hans-Georg

    2005-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is increasing worldwide. To combat overweight and obesity in childhood, the school-based Children’s Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT) project combines health education and physical activity. This paper examines the effect of intervention on the body mass index (BMI) and motor abilities after 20.8 ± 1.0 months in 12 randomly selected primary schools compared with 5 randomly selected control schools. The anthropometric data were assessed, BMI was calculated. Coordination was determined by lateral jumping and endurance performance by a 6-minute run. No difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found between the intervention (IS) and control schools (CS) either at baseline or following intervention (each p > 0.05). The increase in the number of lateral jumps was significantly higher in the IS than in the CS (p < 0.001). For the 6-minute run the increase in distance run was significantly improved in IS (p = 0.020). All variables were controlled for gender and age. Overweight and obese children in both IS and CS produced significantly lower scores in coordination and endurance tasks than normal and underweight children during both examinations (each p ≤ 0.001), adjusted for gender and age. Preventive intervention in primary schools offers an effective means to improve motor skills in childhood and to break through the vicious circle of physical inactivity - motor deficits - frustration - increasing inactivity possibly combined with an excess energy intake and weight gain. To prevent overweight and obesity these measures have to be intensified. Key Points School-based prevention improves motor abilities in primary school children. The incidence of obesity is not influenced by school-based intervention. To prevent obesity in early childhood the measures have to be intensified and parents should be included. PMID:24453534

  2. Is Mental Rotation Ability a Predictor of Success for Motor Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyek, Nady; Champely, Stéphane; Collet, Christian; Fargier, Patrick; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of a relationship between mental rotation (MR) and motor processes in children and adults. However, there is no direct evidence that MR ability is a reliable predictor of success for motor performance. After completion of a MR test, the motor performance of 7- to 8-year-old and 11- to 12-year-old children was…

  3. Current insights in the development of children’s motor imagery ability

    PubMed Central

    Spruijt, Steffie; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these studies to provide a more comprehensive insight in children’s motor imagery development and its age of onset. Motor imagery is a form of motor cognition and aligns with forward (or predictive) models of motor control. Studying age-related differences in motor imagery ability in children therefore provides insight in underlying processes of motor development during childhood. Another motivation for studying age-related differences in motor imagery is that in order to effectively apply motor imagery training in children (with motor impairments), it is pertinent to first establish the age at which children are actually able to perform motor imagery. Overall, performance in the imagery tasks develops between 5 and 12 years of age. The age of motor imagery onset, however, remains equivocal, as some studies indicate that children of 5 to 7 years old can already enlist motor imagery in an implicit motor imagery task, whereas other studies using explicit instructions revealed that children do not use motor imagery before the age of 10. From the findings of the current study, we can conclude that motor imagery training is potentially a feasible method for pediatric rehabilitation in children from 5 years on. We suggest that younger children are most likely to benefit from motor imagery training that is presented in an implicit way. Action observation training might be a beneficial adjunct to implicit motor imagery training. From 10 years of age, more explicit forms of motor imagery training can be effectively used. PMID:26113832

  4. Motor Abilities in Autism: A Review Using a Computational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, Emma; Hamilton, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Altered motor behaviour is commonly reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder, but the aetiology remains unclear. Here, we have taken a computational approach in order to break down motor control into different components and review the functioning of each process. Our findings suggest abnormalities in two areas--poor integration of information for…

  5. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  6. Motor abilities of children and adolescents with a psychiatric condition: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Damme, Tine Van; Simons, Johan; Sabbe, Bernard; van West, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To summarize research regarding the motor abilities of children and adolescents who suffer from a common psychiatric condition. METHODS: In order to outline the current knowledge regarding the motor abilities of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and depression, a comprehensive systematic literature search was carried out using PubMed, Medline and ERIC databases. The databases were searched for relevant English language articles published between January 1990 and April 2014. Only studies that conducted a quantitative evaluation of motor ability and concerned individuals aged 0-18 years were included. A separate search was conducted for each disorder (ASD, ADHD, DBD, depression) in conjunction with each of the following keywords: (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement skill(s), (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement abilities, (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement impairment, (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement problem(s), motor function, motor coordination, motor performance, motor deficit(s). To detect supplementary relevant literature, the reference lists of the retrieved articles were examined. RESULTS: The search strategy yielded 51 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In total, 28 studies were included that examined the motor abilities of children and adolescents with ASD. All studies indicated that they performed below average on various standardized motor assessment instruments. The overall prevalence rate for impairment in motor abilities ranged from 33% to 100%. Twenty-seven studies examined the motor abilities of children and adolescents with ADHD. Depending on the type of motor assessment tool and the cut-off points used by different researchers, prevalence rates of impairment in motor abilities are highly variable and ranged from 8% to 73%. Remarkably, there is a paucity of research addressing the motor abilities of individuals with DBD or depression

  7. Relations between basic and specific motor abilities and player quality of young basketball players.

    PubMed

    Marić, Kristijan; Katić, Ratko; Jelicić, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Subjects from 5 first league clubs from Herzegovina were tested with the purpose of determining the relations of basic and specific motor abilities, as well as the effect of specific abilities on player efficiency in young basketball players (cadets). A battery of 12 tests assessing basic motor abilities and 5 specific tests assessing basketball efficiency were used on a sample of 83 basketball players. Two significant canonical correlations, i.e. linear combinations explained the relation between the set of twelve variables of basic motor space and five variables of situational motor abilities. Underlying the first canonical linear combination is the positive effect of the general motor factor, predominantly defined by jumping explosive power, movement speed of the arms, static strength of the arms and coordination, on specific basketball abilities: movement efficiency, the power of the overarm throw, shooting and passing precision, and the skill of handling the ball. The impact of basic motor abilities of precision and balance on specific abilities of passing and shooting precision and ball handling is underlying the second linear combination. The results of regression correlation analysis between the variable set of specific motor abilities and game efficiency have shown that the ability of ball handling has the largest impact on player quality in basketball cadets, followed by shooting precision and passing precision, and the power of the overarm throw.

  8. Condition and Co-Ordination Abilities in Motor Performance of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzbarska, Ingrid; Piatkowska, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess motor performance of pre-school children and the hierarchy of motor and physical variables. Material and methods: A group of 64 boys and 60 girls aged 5-6 years were subjected to 7 motor tests measuring the condition and co-ordination features. The results were subjected to cluster analysis in order to establish the hierarchy…

  9. Physical activity and motor decline in older persons.

    PubMed

    Buchman, A S; Boyle, P A; Wilson, R S; Bienias, Julia L; Bennett, D A

    2007-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the course of age-related motor decline. More than 850 older participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project underwent baseline assessment of physical activity and annual motor testing for up to 8 years. Nine strength measures and nine motor performance measures were summarized into composite measures of motor function. In generalized estimating equation models, global motor function declined during follow-up (estimate, -0.072; SE, 0.008; P < 0.001). Each additional hour of physical activity at baseline was associated with about a 5% decrease in the rate of global motor function decline (estimate, 0.004; SE, 0.001; P = 0.007). Secondary analyses suggested that the association of physical activity with motor decline was mostly due to the effect of physical activity on the rate of motor performance decline. Thus, higher levels of physical activity are associated with a slower rate of motor decline in older persons.

  10. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores. PMID:25540495

  11. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  12. Motor Abilities of Children Diagnosed with Fragile X Syndrome with and without Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingerevich, C.; Greiss-Hess, L.; Lemons-Chitwood, K.; Harris, S. W.; Hessl, D.; Cook, K.; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggested that children diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (FXS) often meet criteria for autism or PDD. This study describes the fine motor abilities of children diagnosed with FXS with and without autism spectrum disorder, and compares the motor scores of those groups controlling for cognitive level. Method:…

  13. Police Officer's Physical Abilities Test compared to measures of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, E C; Farenholtz, D W

    1992-09-01

    This study compared the Police Officer's Physical Abilities Test (POPAT) with selected field and laboratory tests of physical fitness. Ninety-eight volunteer police officers (73 men, 25 women) completed all aspects of the testing. Fifty-five (55)% of the total group passed the POPAT by bettering the 4 min 15 sec "cut" point. Only 16% of the women and 68% of the men passed the overall test. Laboratory tests revealed a rather unfit sample of subjects (mean VO2 max = 42.6 ml.kg.min-1; % body fat = 22.9). Stepwise multiple regression indicated that 55% of the variance on the run component of the test was accounted for by maximal aerobic power and anaerobic capacity. The fight component of POPAT did not correlate highly with standard field tests of strength. Pass/fail aspects of the test were not clearly delineated by selected lab and field tests. It was concluded that POPAT, being a valid, task-specific, job related test, consists of motor abilities and technique as much as generalized fitness parameters.

  14. Does sleep promote motor learning? Implications for physical rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Siengsukon, Catherine F; Boyd, Lara A

    2009-04-01

    Sleep following motor skill practice has repeatedly been demonstrated to enhance motor skill learning off-line (continued overnight improvements in motor skill that are not associated with additional physical practice) for young people who are healthy. Mounting evidence suggests that older people who are healthy fail to demonstrate sleep-dependent off-line motor learning. However, little is known regarding the influence of sleep on motor skill enhancement following damage to the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that individuals with brain damage, particularly following stroke, do benefit from sleep to promote off-line motor skill learning. Because rehabilitation following stroke requires learning new, and re-learning old, motor skills, awareness that individuals with stroke benefit from a period of sleep following motor skill practice to enhance skill learning could affect physical therapist practice. The objective of this article is to present the evidence demonstrating sleep-dependent off-line motor learning in young people who are healthy and the variables that may influence this beneficial sleep-dependent skill enhancement. In young people who are healthy, these variables include the stages of memory formation, the type of memory, the type of instruction provided (implicit versus explicit learning), and the task utilized. The neural mechanisms thought to be associated with sleep-dependent off-line motor learning also are considered. Research examining whether older adults who are healthy show the same benefits of sleep as do younger adults is discussed. The data suggest that older adults who are healthy do not benefit from sleep to promote off-line skill enhancement. A possible explanation for the apparent lack of sleep-dependent off-line motor learning by older adults who are healthy is presented. Last, emerging evidence showing that individuals with chronic stroke demonstrate sleep-dependent off-line motor skill learning and some of the possible mechanisms

  15. The Relationship between Motor Abilities and Early Social Development in a Preschool Cohort of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Koa; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Boyd, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor ability and early social development in a cohort of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: Population-based cohort study. Methods: Participants were 122 children with CP assessed at 18, 24 and 30 months, corrected age (ca). Motor ability was measured by the Gross Motor Function…

  16. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  17. Nature's Nanomachines: The Physics of Biomolecular Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Shaevitz, Joshua W.

    2004-10-13

    Molecular motors are tiny protein engines that use the chemical energy stored in a molecular bond to produce a variety of complex movements within biological cells. I will present an overview of these fascinating machines as well as the current technologies used to study them. One specific motor, RNA polymerase, transcribes DNA into messenger RNA, using the energy from nucleotide polymerization to move along a DNA template. Optical traps have been used to visualize these motions with ever increasing precision. I will present optical trapping data that provide evidence of a proofreading mechanism, i.e. a molecular backspace key, used by RNA polymerase to correct mistakes made in the RNA.

  18. Physical context management for a motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Kevin R.; Forsythe, James C.; Lippitt, Carl E.; Lippitt, legal representative, Lois Diane

    2009-10-27

    Computer software for and a method of enhancing safety for an operator of a motor vehicle comprising employing a plurality of sensors of vehicle and operator conditions, matching collective output from the sensors against a plurality of known dangerous conditions, and preventing certain activity of the operator if a known dangerous condition is detected.

  19. A Physical Education Program for Preschoolers of All Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Julienne K.; Randall, Lynn M.

    2002-01-01

    Preschool physical education (PPE) that integrates developmentally appropriate activities can benefit children of all abilities. The paper presents a multi-task activity, Trails in the Jungle, that has been used successfully by children of varying abilities. Trails in the Jungle incorporates different types of movement as well as imagination and…

  20. Making a Difference? Education and "Ability" in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper brings a speculative, sociological perspective to the nature of "ability" in physical education (PE) and asks why this aspect of embodiment, with notable exceptions, has received so little critical attention in the professional discourse of PE and associated research in recent years. It is suggested that thinking about "ability" has…

  1. The Dynamic Association between Motor Skill Development and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2007-01-01

    Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE: The physics of biological molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, N.; Thornhill, R. A.

    1998-02-01

    Molecular motors are the fundamental agents of movement in living organisms. A prime example is the actomyosin motor that powers muscle contraction. We illustrate the remarkable physics of this motor using a simplified three-state model, in which a myosin cross-bridge attaches to an actin filament, tilts over and then detaches. This `cross-bridge cycle', driven by ATP hydrolysis, is similar to a thermodynamic cycle, except that the molecular system is stochastic. Random transitions in the cycle therefore produce tension fluctuations, which have recently been observed in single-molecule experiments. Furthermore, since the rate constants for attachment and tilting depend on the elastic energy in the cross-bridge spring, the molecular motor is a highly nonlinear mechanical system. A bias tension `stretch activates' the motor, and it then develops the remarkable property of `negative viscosity', which allows it to perform as a self-sustained mechanical oscillator. However, when a series of attachment sites is available, the motor operates instead as a ratchet, pulling the actin filament rapidly forwards against a light load, whilst a heavy load pulls the filament only very slowly in the opposite direction. Similar ideas may apply to the dynein-tubulin motor that powers cilia and flagella and the kinesin-tubulin motor used in intracellular transport.

  3. Autism Severity and Motor Abilities Correlates of Imitation Situations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Ilanit, Tzaig; Itzchak, Esther Ben

    2010-01-01

    Impaired performance in a range of imitation tasks has been described in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and several underlying mechanism have been suggested. This study examined whether imitation abilities are related to autism severity and to motor skills. Furthermore, the performance of children with ASD in four imitation…

  4. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    PubMed

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  5. Motor ability and inhibitory processes in children with ADHD: a neuroelectric study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chiao-Ling; Chang, Yu-Kai; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Shih, Chia-Hao; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between motor ability and response inhibition using behavioral and electrophysiological indices in children with ADHD. A total of 32 participants were recruited and underwent a motor ability assessment by administering the Basic Motor Ability Test-Revised (BMAT) as well as the Go/No-Go task and event-related potential (ERP) measurements at the same time. The results indicated that the BMAT scores were positively associated with the behavioral and ERP measures. Specifically, the BMAT average score was associated with a faster reaction time and higher accuracy, whereas higher BMAT subset scores predicted a shorter P3 latency in the Go condition. Although the association between the BMAT average score and the No-Go accuracy was limited, higher BMAT average and subset scores predicted a shorter N2 and P3 latency and a larger P3 amplitude in the No-Go condition. These findings suggest that motor abilities may play roles that benefit the cognitive performance of ADHD children.

  6. Obesity and Motor Coordination Ability in Taiwanese Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between obesity and motor coordination ability in Taiwanese children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). 2029 children (1078 boys, 951 girls) aged nine to ten years were chosen randomly from 14 elementary schools across Taiwan. We used bioelectrical impedance…

  7. Damage to Fronto-Parietal Networks Impairs Motor Imagery Ability after Stroke: A Voxel-Based Lesion Symptom Mapping Study

    PubMed Central

    Oostra, Kristine M.; Van Bladel, Anke; Vanhoonacker, Ann C. L.; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mental practice with motor imagery has been shown to promote motor skill acquisition in healthy subjects and patients. Although lesions of the common motor imagery and motor execution neural network are expected to impair motor imagery ability, functional equivalence appears to be at least partially preserved in stroke patients. Aim: To identify brain regions that are mandatory for preserved motor imagery ability after stroke. Method: Thirty-seven patients with hemiplegia after a first time stroke participated. Motor imagery ability was measured using a Motor Imagery questionnaire and temporal congruence test. A voxelwise lesion symptom mapping approach was used to identify neural correlates of motor imagery in this cohort within the first year post-stroke. Results: Poor motor imagery vividness was associated with lesions in the left putamen, left ventral premotor cortex and long association fibers linking parieto-occipital regions with the dorsolateral premotor and prefrontal areas. Poor temporal congruence was otherwise linked to lesions in the more rostrally located white matter of the superior corona radiata. Conclusion: This voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study confirms the association between white matter tract lesions and impaired motor imagery ability, thus emphasizing the importance of an intact fronto-parietal network for motor imagery. Our results further highlight the crucial role of the basal ganglia and premotor cortex when performing motor imagery tasks. PMID:26869894

  8. Does implicit motor imagery ability predict reaching correction efficiency? A test of recent models of human motor control.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Christian; Wilmut, Kate; Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Neurocomputational models of reaching indicate that efficient purposive correction of movement midflight (e.g., online control) depends on one's ability to generate and monitor an accurate internal (neural) movement representation. In the first study to test this empirically, the authors investigated the relationship between healthy young adults' implicit motor imagery performance and their capacity to correct their reaching trajectory. As expected, after controlling for general reaching speed, hierarchical regression demonstrated that imagery ability was a significant predictor of hand correction speed; that is, faster and more accurate imagery performance associated with faster corrections to reaching following target displacement at movement onset. They argue that these findings provide preliminary support for the view that a link exists between an individual's ability to represent movement mentally and correct movement online efficiently.

  9. Sleep and Motor Learning: Implications for Physical Rehabilitation After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Gudberg, Christel; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is essential for healthy brain function and plasticity underlying learning and memory. In the context of physical impairment such as following a stroke, sleep may be particularly important for supporting critical recovery of motor function through similar processes of reorganization in the brain. Despite a link between stroke and poor sleep, current approaches to rehabilitative care often neglect the importance of sleep in clinical assessment and treatment. This review assimilates current evidence on the role of sleep in motor learning, with a focus on the implications for physical rehabilitation after stroke. We further outline practical considerations for integrating sleep assessment as a vital part of clinical care.

  10. Sleep and Motor Learning: Implications for Physical Rehabilitation After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gudberg, Christel; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is essential for healthy brain function and plasticity underlying learning and memory. In the context of physical impairment such as following a stroke, sleep may be particularly important for supporting critical recovery of motor function through similar processes of reorganization in the brain. Despite a link between stroke and poor sleep, current approaches to rehabilitative care often neglect the importance of sleep in clinical assessment and treatment. This review assimilates current evidence on the role of sleep in motor learning, with a focus on the implications for physical rehabilitation after stroke. We further outline practical considerations for integrating sleep assessment as a vital part of clinical care. PMID:26635718

  11. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  12. Mapping the structure of perceptual and visual-motor abilities in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Krasich, Kristina; Bel-Bahar, Tarik; Hughes, Lauren; Mitroff, Stephen R; Appelbaum, L Gregory

    2015-05-01

    The ability to quickly detect and respond to visual stimuli in the environment is critical to many human activities. While such perceptual and visual-motor skills are important in a myriad of contexts, considerable variability exists between individuals in these abilities. To better understand the sources of this variability, we assessed perceptual and visual-motor skills in a large sample of 230 healthy individuals via the Nike SPARQ Sensory Station, and compared variability in their behavioral performance to demographic, state, sleep and consumption characteristics. Dimension reduction and regression analyses indicated three underlying factors: Visual-Motor Control, Visual Sensitivity, and Eye Quickness, which accounted for roughly half of the overall population variance in performance on this battery. Inter-individual variability in Visual-Motor Control was correlated with gender and circadian patters such that performance on this factor was better for males and for those who had been awake for a longer period of time before assessment. The current findings indicate that abilities involving coordinated hand movements in response to stimuli are subject to greater individual variability, while visual sensitivity and occulomotor control are largely stable across individuals. PMID:25747573

  13. Mapping the structure of perceptual and visual-motor abilities in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Krasich, Kristina; Bel-Bahar, Tarik; Hughes, Lauren; Mitroff, Stephen R; Appelbaum, L Gregory

    2015-05-01

    The ability to quickly detect and respond to visual stimuli in the environment is critical to many human activities. While such perceptual and visual-motor skills are important in a myriad of contexts, considerable variability exists between individuals in these abilities. To better understand the sources of this variability, we assessed perceptual and visual-motor skills in a large sample of 230 healthy individuals via the Nike SPARQ Sensory Station, and compared variability in their behavioral performance to demographic, state, sleep and consumption characteristics. Dimension reduction and regression analyses indicated three underlying factors: Visual-Motor Control, Visual Sensitivity, and Eye Quickness, which accounted for roughly half of the overall population variance in performance on this battery. Inter-individual variability in Visual-Motor Control was correlated with gender and circadian patters such that performance on this factor was better for males and for those who had been awake for a longer period of time before assessment. The current findings indicate that abilities involving coordinated hand movements in response to stimuli are subject to greater individual variability, while visual sensitivity and occulomotor control are largely stable across individuals.

  14. Effects of an additional basketball and volleyball program on motor abilities of fifth grade elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Selmanović, Aleksandar; Milanović, Dragan; Custonja, Zrinko

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the transformational effects of an additional weekly PE session based on team sports (basketball and volleyball) on students' motor status. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 eleven-year-old boys divided into three groups (two experimental and one control) which were examined by 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the 9-month period. The tests included evaluation of explosive power dynamic and static strength endurance, co-ordination, flexibility and hand frequency motion. Although all three treatments together, complemented by the natural growth and developmental factors, induced significant quantitative changes, the results showed the highest motor improvements in the basketball experimental group, followed by the volleyball experimental group. While explosive power mainly contributed toward significant difference between the control and experimental groups in the final measurement, univarate test results also showed distinctive improvements in dynamic strength, hand frequency motion and various factors of co-ordination within experimental groups. The general conclusion points to the fact that even one additional PE session per week of the given program is sufficient to produce significant changes in motor abilities of elementary school fifth graders. Therefore the authors' support the legal provisions of mandatory implementation of extra-curricular forms of physical activity in elementary schools.

  15. Effects of a trampoline exercise intervention on motor performance and balance ability of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Patsiaouras, Asterios; Karra, Chrisanthi; Neofotistou, Konstantina

    2013-09-01

    Balance and motor impairments are most evident among inactive individuals with ID that might be particularly susceptible to a loss of basic functioning and further limit the person's autonomy in activities of daily living. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a 12-week trampoline exercise intervention program on motor and balance ability of school aged children with intellectual disability (ID). Eighteen healthy schools aged children (mean age=10.3 ± 1.6 years) with moderate ID were assigned either to an experimental group (n=9) or a control group (n=9). The experiment group attended a 12 weeks trampoline training intervention program consisting of daily individualized 20-min sessions, while the control group followed the regular school schedule. Balance was assessed using three tasks of increased difficulty (double-leg stance with eyes opened or closed, and one-leg stance with eyes opened) performed while standing on an electronic pressure platform (EPS). Motor performance of all participants was tested using sit and reach test and long and vertical jump tests all derived from the Eurofit Test Battery of physical fitness. Trampoline intervention resulted in significant improvements of participants' performance in all motor and balance tests. In conclusion, trampoline training can be an effective intervention for improving functional outcomes and can be recommended as an alternative mode of physical activity programming for improving balance and motor performance. Furthermore, it also supports the idea that individuals with ID require enjoyable and interesting intervention programs such as the trampoline program used in this study so as to remain active and consequently to facilitate their overall development and promote a more active and healthier way of life. PMID:23770889

  16. What is Recognised as Ability in Physical Education? A Systematic Appraisal of How Ability and Ability Differences Are Socially Constructed within Mainstream Secondary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shaun; Littlefair, David; Barlow-Meade, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In sport, schools and physical education (PE) ability has invariably been understood as an inherent and relatively immutable capacity, amendable to varying degrees by interventions such as training regimes and education. Differences in achievement are assumed to be an inevitable consequence of natural variations in ability and an indication of…

  17. Evidence for the Social Construction of Ability in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Peter J.; Macdonald, Doune

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study investigating the empirical substance of Evans' proposed social construction of ability. Data were collected through text analysis of a Senior physical education (PE) syllabus, semi-structured interviews and participant observations of students and teachers in two senior secondary school contexts (one school situated…

  18. Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Patterns of Performance on IQ and Visual Motor Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopera-Frye, Karen; Zielinski, Sharon

    This study explored relationships between intelligence and visual motor ability and patterns of impairment of visual motor ability in children prenatally affected by alcohol. Fourteen children (mean age 8.2 years) diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and 50 children with possible fetal alcohol effects (FAE) were assessed with the Bender…

  19. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults.

  20. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities

    PubMed Central

    Spann, Marisa N.; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through two years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first two years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. PMID:24615961

  1. Comorbidity of Physical and Motor Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Michael L.; Matson, Johnny L.; Beighley, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Autism and the related pervasive developmental disorders are a heavily researched group of neurodevelopmental conditions. In addition to core symptoms, there are a number of other physical and motor conditions that co-occur at high rates. This paper provides a review of factors and behaviors that correlate highly with disorders on the autism…

  2. Motor Development and Elementary Physical Education Are Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Williams, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    In aligning the curriculum for the preparation of future teachers, it is essential to teach knowledge and application of the interactions among content knowledge (about motor skills and fitness principles), procedural knowledge (how to teach skills and promote fitness), and the teaching of physical activity (how to execute a lesson). This article…

  3. Conceptual and Physical Object Qualities Contribute Differently to Motor Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vingerhoets, G.; Vandamme, K.; Vercammen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Priming studies have demonstrated that an object's intrinsic and extrinsic qualities (size, orientation) influence subsequent motor behavior thus suggesting that these object qualities "afford" actions that are congruent with the prime. We present four experiments that aim to evaluate the relative effect of conceptual and physical object qualities…

  4. The role of rotational hand movements and general motor ability in children’s mental rotation performance

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Petra; Kellner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mental rotation of visual images of body parts and abstract shapes can be influenced by simultaneous motor activity. Children in particular have a strong coupling between motor and cognitive processes. We investigated the influence of a rotational hand movement performed by rotating a knob on mental rotation performance in primary school-age children (N = 83; age range: 7.0–8.3 and 9.0–10.11 years). In addition, we assessed the role of motor ability in this relationship. Boys in the 7- to 8-year-old group were faster when mentally and manually rotating in the same direction than in the opposite direction. For girls and older children this effect was not found. A positive relationship was found between motor ability and accuracy on the mental rotation task: stronger motor ability related to improved mental rotation performance. In both age groups, children with more advanced motor abilities were more likely to adopt motor processes to solve mental rotation tasks if the mental rotation task was primed by a motor task. Our evidence supports the idea that an overlap between motor and visual cognitive processes in children is influenced by motor ability. PMID:26236262

  5. Deficits in motor abilities for multi-finger force control in hemiparetic stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yushin; Kim, Woo-Sub; Koh, Kyung; Yoon, BumChul; Damiano, Diane L; Shim, Jae Kun

    2016-08-01

    The ability to control redundant motor effectors is one of hallmarks in human motor control, and the topic has been studied extensively over several decades since the initial inquiries proposed by Nicholi Bernstein. However, our understanding of the influence of stroke on the control of redundant motor systems is very limited. This study aimed to investigate the effect of stroke-related constraints on multi-finger force control abilities in a visuomotor task. Impaired (IH) and less-impaired hands (LH) of 19 hemiparetic stroke survivors and 19 age-matched control subjects were examined. Each hand repeatedly produced isometric forces to match a target force of 5 N shown on a computer screen using all four fingers. The hierarchical variability decomposition (HVD) model was used to separate force-matching errors (motor performance) into task-relevant measures (accuracy, steadiness, and reproducibility). Task-irrelevant sources of variability in individual finger force profiles within and between trials (flexibility and multiformity) were also quantified. The IH in the stroke survivors showed deficits in motor performance attributed mainly to lower accuracy and reproducibility as compared to control hands (p < 0.05). The LH in stroke survivors showed lower reproducibility and both hands in stroke also had higher multiformity than the control hands (p < 0.05). The findings from our HVD model suggest that accuracy, reproducibility, and multiformity were mainly impaired during force-matching task in the stroke survivors. The specific motor deficits identified through the HVD model with the new conceptual framework may be considered as critical factors for scientific investigation on stroke and evidence-based rehabilitation of this population.

  6. An exploratory study of perceptual-motor abilities of women: novice and skilled players of team handball.

    PubMed

    Lidor, R; Argov, E; Daniel, S

    1998-02-01

    Comparisons of ability between skilled performers and novices have been made for activities such as basketball, volleyball, tennis, squash, and badminton, but there is little work on team-handball which is not a well-recognized sport in North America. To examine a variety of perceptual, e.g., anticipation time, reaction time, and motor, e.g., throwing tasks, abilities of skilled and novice female team-handball players 13 First Division (skilled) and 10 recreational (novice) players (M age = 25.3 yr.) performed 2 laboratory activities (for measurement of anticipation time, reaction time and movement time) and 3 field tasks (for measurement of accuracy and speed of throwing abilities) in random order. Reaction time and movement time were collected during a unique team-handball motor activity. Analyses of variance with repeated measures on trial blocks indicated high mean proficiency for the skilled participants in reaction time and all field-throwing tests compared with the novice participants. These reliable differences in team-handball activities further support superiority in sport settings gained by physical achievements and psychomotor excellence. In other words, skilled female team-handball players threw faster and more accurately and responded more rapidly than novice players.

  7. Gross motor development and physical activity in kindergarten age children.

    PubMed

    Colella, Dario; Morano, Milena

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity in kindergarten is a fundamental part of the child's educational process. Body experience and physical activity contribute to the development of self-awareness and the learning of different modes of expression, as well as encouraging the acquisition of physically active lifestyles. Recent scientific evidence has confirmed the role of physical activity in disease prevention and quality of life improvement, and stressed the importance of integrated educational programmes promoting physical activity and healthy eating habits. A key priority of scientific research is to identify the opportunities and methods of motor learning and to increase the daily physical activity levels of children by reducing sedentary time and promoting active play and transport (i.e. walking, cycling). Family, school and community involvement are all needed to assure adherence to the official guidelines on how much physical activity children need to boost their health and stave off obesity.

  8. Comorbidity of physical and motor problems in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Matson, Michael L; Matson, Johnny L; Beighley, Jennifer S

    2011-01-01

    Autism and the related pervasive developmental disorders are a heavily researched group of neurodevelopmental conditions. In addition to core symptoms, there are a number of other physical and motor conditions that co-occur at high rates. This paper provides a review of factors and behaviors that correlate highly with disorders on the autism spectrum. Among these conditions are premature birth, birth defects, gross and fine motor skills, and obesity. Each of these topics is addressed, and what researchers have found are presented. These data have important implications for the types of collateral behaviors that should be assessed and treated, along with the core symptoms of autism.

  9. Biochemical physics modeling of biological nano-motors

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaría-Holek, I.; López-Alamilla, N. J.

    2014-01-14

    We present a biochemical physics model accounting for the dynamics and energetics of both translational and rotational protein motors. A modified version of the hand-over-hand mechanism considering competitive inhibition by ADP is presented. Transition state-like theory is used to reconstruct the time dependent free-energy landscape of the cycle catalyst process that allows to predicting the number of steps or rotations that a single motor can perform. In addition, following the usual approach of chemical kinetics, we calculate the average translational velocity and also the stopping time of processes involving a collectivity of motors, such as exocytosis and endocytosis processes. Finally, we formulate a stochastic model reproducing very well single realizations of kinesin and rotary ATPases.

  10. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Modelling of a DNA packaging motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Xie, Ping; Xue, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2009-11-01

    During the assembly of many viruses, a powerful molecular motor packages the genome into a preassembled capsid. The Bacillus subtilis phage phi29 is an excellent model system to investigate the DNA packaging mechanism because of its highly efficient in vitro DNA packaging activity and the development of a single-molecule packaging assay. Here we make use of structural and biochemical experimental data to build a physical model of DNA packaging by the phi29 DNA packaging motor. Based on the model, various dynamic behaviours such as the packaging rate, pause frequency and slip frequency under different ATP concentrations, ADP concentrations, external loads as well as capsid fillings are studied by using Monte Carlo simulation. Good agreement is obtained between the simulated and available experimental results. Moreover, we make testable predictions that should guide future experiments related to motor function.

  11. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Roccella, Michele; Testa, Davide; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Background This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family) in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years) and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years). Results Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:24672238

  12. Physical activity, physical fitness, gross motor coordination, and metabolic syndrome: focus of twin research in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, José António Ribeiro; Santos, Daniel; de Freitas, Duarte Luis; Thomis, Martine

    2013-02-01

    A very brief history of Portuguese twin research in sport and human movement sciences is presented. Recruitment procedures, zygosity determination, and phenotypes are given for twins and their parents from the mainland, and Azores and Madeira archipelagos. Preliminary findings are mostly related to physical activity, health-related physical fitness, gross motor coordination, neuromotor development, and metabolic syndrome traits.

  13. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  14. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  15. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  16. Did tool-use evolve with enhanced physical cognitive abilities?

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, I.; Wascher, C. A. F.; Scriba, M. F.; von Bayern, A. M. P.; Huml, V.; Siemers, B.; Tebbich, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use and manufacture of tools have been considered to be cognitively demanding and thus a possible driving factor in the evolution of intelligence. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced physical cognitive abilities evolved in conjunction with the use of tools, by comparing the performance of naturally tool-using and non-tool-using species in a suite of physical and general learning tasks. We predicted that the habitually tool-using species, New Caledonian crows and Galápagos woodpecker finches, should outperform their non-tool-using relatives, the small tree finches and the carrion crows in a physical problem but not in general learning tasks. We only found a divergence in the predicted direction for corvids. That only one of our comparisons supports the predictions under this hypothesis might be attributable to different complexities of tool-use in the two tool-using species. A critical evaluation is offered of the conceptual and methodological problems inherent in comparative studies on tool-related cognitive abilities. PMID:24101628

  17. Relationships between visual-motor and cognitive abilities in intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Di Blasi, Francesco D; Elia, Flaviana; Buono, Serafino; Ramakers, Ger J A; Di Nuovo, Santo F

    2007-06-01

    The neurobiological hypothesis supports the relevance of studying visual-perceptual and visual-motor skills in relation to cognitive abilities in intellectual disabilities because the defective intellectual functioning in intellectual disabilities is not restricted to higher cognitive functions but also to more basic functions. The sample was 102 children 6 to 16 years old and with different severities of intellectual disabilities. Children were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception, and data were also analysed according to the presence or absence of organic anomalies, which are etiologically relevant for mental disabilities. Children with intellectual disabilities had deficits in perceptual organisation which correlated with the severity of intellectual disabilities. Higher correlations between the spatial subtests of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception and the Performance subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children suggested that the spatial skills and cognitive performance may have a similar basis in information processing. Need to differentiate protocols for rehabilitation and intervention for recovery of perceptual abilities from general programs of cognitive stimulations is suggested. PMID:17688131

  18. Effect of kinesio tape application on hemiplegic shoulder pain and motor ability: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Frenkel-Toledo, Silvi; Vered, Elisha; Sender, Iris; Galinka, Tal; Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Ratmansky, Motti; Treger, Iuly

    2016-09-01

    The aim of our single-group pre-post design pilot study was to evaluate the short-term effect of kinesio taping (KT) application on pain and motor ability of hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) patients. Eleven poststroke patients with HSP hospitalized in the Department of Neurology C, Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital, Raanana, Israel, received a KT application in addition to their usual rehabilitation protocol. KT, consisting of one to three strips according to a predefined algorithm, was applied to the painful shoulder region. A 10 cm Visual Analog Scale of shoulder pain at rest and at arm movement, active and passive pain-free abduction range of motion, Box & Blocks, and Fugl-Meyer upper extremity motor assessment were performed before treatment and 24 h after wearing the KT. After applying the KT, there was no significant change in any variables. Short-term KT application, used in our study, produced no change in shoulder pain, range of motion, or ability of upper limb in HSP patients. Additional studies should evaluate the effect of long-term application and different types of KT applications on HSP.

  19. Bimanual simultaneous motor performance and impaired ability to shift attention in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Horstink, M W; Berger, H J; van Spaendonck, K P; van den Bercken, J H; Cools, A R

    1990-01-01

    The ability to share time and to shift attention between bimanual simultaneous motor tasks were studied in 18 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 19 age- and intelligence-matched controls. The task consisted of drawing triangles with the dominant hand and squeezing a rubber bulb with the nondominant hand. Motor performance was measured using the variables: amplitude of squeezing, frequency of squeezing and velocity of drawing triangles. After eliminating variance due to baseline differences in single-handed performance, the bimanual simultaneous performance of PD and controls turned out to be similar to the frequency of squeezing and the velocity of drawing triangles. The amplitude of squeezing, however, differed between the two groups: it was significantly reduced in PD. Arguably the disturbance in the bimanual performance of PD patients was not due to a disorder of time sharing, but to a decreased ability to shift attention from the visually cued task to the non visually cued task. The results agree with current evidence that PD patients are more impaired when they have to rely upon internal control for the regulation of shifting attention than when external cues are available. Images PMID:2213046

  20. Relationships between task-oriented postural control and motor ability in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Long, I-Man; Liu, Mei-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have been characterized by greater postural sway in quiet stance and insufficient motor ability. However, there is a lack of studies to explore the properties of dynamic postural sway, especially under conditions of task-oriented movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between task-oriented postural control and motor ability in children and adolescents with DS. The participants were 23 children and adolescents with DS (DS group, M±SD age, 14.4±2.8 years) and 18 age- and gender-matched peers (M±SD age, 13.8±3.6 years). A force plate was used to collect postural data represented by center of pressure (COP) parameters. Postural measurements were conducted for both groups in quiet standing with eyes open and with eyes closed, and also while throwing a ball at erect standing. Assessments of motor ability were only applied to the DS group by using two dimensions of the original version of Gross Motor Function Measure and 4 subtests of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition. The results showed that while the participants with DS showed greater displacement and higher velocity of COP sways at quiet standing, they exhibited smaller COP displacement in anterior/posterior direction during throwing the ball. Three areas of motor ability, including standing motor skills, walk/run/jump motor skills and muscle strength, were found to make a significant contribution to the displacement and velocity of postural sway during the voluntary movement. It is suggested that future research should focus on investigating the definite underlying mechanism of postural sway during movement and the influence of increasing motor ability on the reactive postural sway in this population.

  1. Olivocerebellar modulation of motor cortex ability to generate vibrissal movements in rat.

    PubMed

    Lang, Eric J; Sugihara, Izumi; Llinás, Rodolfo

    2006-02-15

    The vibrissal movements known as whisking are generated in a pulsatile, or non-continuous, fashion and comprise sequences of brief regularly spaced movements. These rhythmic timing sequences imply the existence of periodically issued motor commands. As inferior olivary (IO) neurones generate periodic synchronous discharges that could provide the underlying timing signal, this possibility was tested by determining whether the olivocerebellar system modulates motor cortex (MCtx)-triggered whisker movements in rats. Trains of current pulses were applied to MCtx, and the resulting whisker movements were recorded using a high speed video camera. The evoked movement patterns demonstrated properties consistent with the existence of an oscillatory motor driving rhythm. In particular, movement amplitude showed a bell-shaped dependence on stimulus frequency, with a peak at 11.5+/-2.3 Hz. Moreover, movement trajectories showed harmonic and subharmonic entrainment patterns within specific stimulus frequency ranges. By contrast, movements evoked by facial nerve stimulation showed no such frequency-dependent properties. To test whether the IO was the oscillator in question, IO neuronal properties were modified in vivo by intra-IO picrotoxin injection, which enhances synchronous oscillatory IO activity and reduces its natural frequency. The ensuing changes in the evoked whisker patterns were consistent with these pharmacological effects. Furthermore, in cerebellectomized rats, oscillatory modulation of MCtx-evoked movements was greatly reduced, and intra-IO picrotoxin injections did not affect the evoked movement patterns. Additionally, multielectrode recording of Purkinje cell complex spikes showed a temporal correlation of olivocerebellar activity during MCtx stimulus trains to evoked movement patterns. In sum, the results indicate that MCtx's ability to generate movements is modulated by an oscillatory signal arising in the olivocerebellar system. PMID:16357010

  2. Processing of visual information compromises the ability of older adults to control novel fine motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Harsimran S; Kwon, MinHyuk; Onushko, Tanya; Wright, David L; Corcos, Daniel M; Christou, Evangelos A

    2015-12-01

    We performed two experiments to determine whether amplified motor output variability and compromised processing of visual information in older adults impair short-term adaptations when learning novel fine motor tasks. In Experiment 1, 12 young and 12 older adults underwent training to learn how to accurately trace a sinusoidal position target with abduction-adduction of their index finger. They performed 48 trials, which included 8 blocks of 6 trials (the last trial of each block was performed without visual feedback). Afterward, subjects received an interference task (watched a movie) for 60 min. We tested retention by asking subjects to perform the sinusoidal task (5 trials) with and without visual feedback. In Experiment 2, 12 young and 10 older adults traced the same sinusoidal position target with their index finger and ankle at three distinct visual angles (0.25°, 1° and 5.4°). In Experiment 1, the movement error and variability were greater for older adults during the visual feedback trials when compared with young adults. In contrast, during the no-vision trials, age-associated differences in movement error and variability were ameliorated. Short-term adaptations in learning the sinusoidal task were similar for young and older adults. In Experiment 2, lower amount of visual feedback minimized the age-associated differences in movement variability for both the index finger and ankle movements. We demonstrate that although short-term adaptations are similar for young and older adults, older adults do not process visual information as well as young adults and that compromises their ability to control novel fine motor tasks during acquisition, which could influence long-term retention and transfer.

  3. Towards Cognitive Coherence In Physics Learning: Image-ability Of Undergraduate Solid State Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2010-07-01

    Based on the famous work of K. Lynch [7] on image-ability of a cityscape, recently a city of physics analogy has been proposed by A.E. Tabor et al.[8] to enhance the cognitive coherence of physics as a subject. The idea of both Lynch and A. abor. et al. is being extended in this paper to image-ability of an undergraduate Solid State Physics course to bring forth cognitive coherence of the subject in a global manner. In this paper an image-ability map of the course is presented both in a pictorial and tabular format with recognition of sections of the syllabus as districts and sub districts. Further in each district and sub district, key concepts as land marks, variables involved as nodes, key physical equations as paths and limits on variables as edges or boundaries are identified through peer discussion among a group of teachers who are teaching this course for the last couple of years. This exercise has helped not only in mental mapping of the subject but focusing on hitherto isolated and advanced topics provided in the syllabus as leading to a very different mental recreational spots in the cityscape of undergraduate Solid State Physics.

  4. Sensory Motor Inhibition as a Prerequisite for Theory-of-Mind: A Comparison of Clinical and Normal Preschoolers Differing in Sensory Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasiotis, Athanasios; Kiessling, Florian; Winter, Vera; Hofer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    After distinguishing between neocortical abilities for executive control and subcortical sensory motor skills for proprioceptive and vestibular integration, we compare a sample of 116 normal preschoolers with a sample of 31 preschoolers receiving occupational therapeutical treatment. This is done in an experimental design controlled for age (mean:…

  5. Training cognitive control in older adults with the space fortress game: the role of training instructions and basic motor ability.

    PubMed

    Blumen, Helena M; Gopher, Daniel; Steinerman, Joshua R; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    This study examined if and how cognitively healthy older adults can learn to play a complex computer-based action game called the Space Fortress (SF) as a function of training instructions [Standard vs. Emphasis Change (EC); e.g., Gopher et al., 1989] and basic motor ability. A total of 35 cognitively healthy older adults completed a 3-month SF training program with three SF sessions weekly. Twelve 3-min games were played during each session. Basic motor ability was assessed with an aiming task, which required rapidly rotating a spaceship to shoot targets. Older adults showed improved performance on the SF task over time, but did not perform at the same level as younger adults. Unlike studies of younger adults, overall SF performance in older adults was greater following standard instructions than following EC instructions. However, this advantage was primarily due to collecting more bonus points and not - the primary goal of the game - shooting and destroying the fortress, which in contrast benefited from EC instructions. Basic motor ability was low and influenced many different aspects of SF game learning, often interacted with learning rate, and influenced overall SF performance. These findings show that older adults can be trained to deal with the complexity of the SF task but that overall SF performance, and the ability to capitalize on EC instructions, differs when a basic ability such as motor control is low. Hence, the development of this training program as a cognitive intervention that can potentially compensate for age-related cognitive decline should consider that basic motor ability can interact with the efficiency of training instructions that promote the use of cognitive control (e.g., EC instructions) - and the confluence between such basic abilities and higher-level cognitive control abilities should be further examined.

  6. The relative age effect in the German Football TID Programme: biases in motor performance diagnostics and effects on single motor abilities and skills in groups of selected players.

    PubMed

    Votteler, Andreas; Höner, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the disturbing effects of relative age on the talent identification process in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. The bias in the selection rate was examined via the extent of relative age effects. The bias in motor performance diagnostics was analysed by comparing the motor performance of selected players with normal motor development. The mechanisms underlying the relative age biases in motor performance were examined by modelling the direct and indirect effects of relative age on single motor performance tests for sprint, running agility, dribbling and ball passing and control. Data from 10,130 selected football players from the U12 to U15 age groups were collected in autumn 2010. The birth distribution differed significantly from the reference population with approximately 61% of the players born in the first half of the year. The selection probability was approximately two times higher for players born in the first quarter of the year than for players born in the last quarter. Revised motor performance diagnostics showed better results on average for relatively younger players. Path analysis revealed significant direct and indirect relative age effects for physiologically demanding tests and almost no effects for technically demanding tests. Large sample sizes allowed high resolution in relative age with additional informational content and multivariate modelling of the complex relationships among relative age, physical development and motor performance. The results are discussed on how relative age affects the effectiveness and fairness of talent identification and development processes.

  7. Body image, perceived and actual physical abilities in normal-weight and overweight boys involved in individual and team sports.

    PubMed

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Capranica, Laura

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while individuals' perceptions of strength, speed, and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Fitness tests of the standing long jump, 20 m sprint, and 10 × 5 m shuttle-run were also administered. Overweight boys showed greater body dissatisfaction and lower actual physical abilities than normal-weight peers. Participants involved in team sports reported lower body dissatisfaction and better performances in the shuttle-run compared with those involved in individual sports. For boys participating in team sports, body dissatisfaction was a significant mediator of the effect of body mass index on perceived physical ability. Results may influence intervention efforts, suggesting that targeting personal, psychological, and physical factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations and weight groups. PMID:21184344

  8. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, G.; Takagi, A.; Osu, R.; Yoshioka, T.; Kawato, M.; Burdet, E.

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner. Furthermore, the benefits are determined by both the interacting partner's performance and similarity of the partner's behavior to one's own. Our results demonstrate the fundamental neural processes underlying human physical interactions and suggest advantages of interactive paradigms for sport-training and physical rehabilitation.

  9. Are there pre-existing neural, cognitive, or motoric markers for musical ability?

    PubMed

    Norton, Andrea; Winner, Ellen; Cronin, Karl; Overy, Katie; Lee, Dennis J; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2005-11-01

    Adult musician's brains show structural enlargements, but it is not known whether these are inborn or a consequence of long-term training. In addition, music training in childhood has been shown to have positive effects on visual-spatial and verbal outcomes. However, it is not known whether pre-existing advantages in these skills are found in children who choose to study a musical instrument nor is it known whether there are pre-existing associations between music and any of these outcome measures that could help explain the training effects. To answer these questions, we compared 5- to 7-year-olds beginning piano or string lessons (n=39) with 5- to 7-year-olds not beginning instrumental training (n=31). All children received a series of tests (visual-spatial, non-verbal reasoning, verbal, motor, and musical) and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. We found no pre-existing neural, cognitive, motor, or musical differences between groups and no correlations (after correction for multiple analyses) between music perceptual skills and any brain or visual-spatial measures. However, correlations were found between music perceptual skills and both non-verbal reasoning and phonemic awareness. Such pre-existing correlations suggest similarities in auditory and visual pattern recognition as well a sharing of the neural substrates for language and music processing, most likely due to innate abilities or implicit learning during early development. This baseline study lays the groundwork for an ongoing longitudinal study addressing the effects of intensive musical training on brain and cognitive development, and making it possible to look retroactively at the brain and cognitive development of those children who emerge showing exceptional musical talent. PMID:16054741

  10. The resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 boosts motor coordination and physical strength

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hea-Jong; Sharma, Satya Priya; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Baek, So-Hyeon; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of current genetic modifications in crops is to boost agricultural production or to develop GM crops with an improved nutrient profile by introducing a new trait to the plants. A GM crop surpassing the ability of the introduced genetic characteristics has not been developed yet. Here, we show that the resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526, a GM crop, has unexpectedly high beneficial health effects surpassing the introduced genetic characteristic of resveratrol synthetic ability. The synergistic effect of its innate and transgenic properties not only ameliorates age-related deterioration but also boosts motor coordination and physical strength during the aging process. The gene expression profiling analyses by DNA chip showed that the gene expression pattern of mice fed resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 was very different from mice fed either resveratrol or Dongjin rice alone, respectively, modifying expression of genes related to aging regulation, cell differentiation, extracellular matrix, neurogenesis, or secretion. PMID:27044601

  11. The resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 boosts motor coordination and physical strength.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hea-Jong; Sharma, Satya Priya; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Baek, So-Hyeon; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of current genetic modifications in crops is to boost agricultural production or to develop GM crops with an improved nutrient profile by introducing a new trait to the plants. A GM crop surpassing the ability of the introduced genetic characteristics has not been developed yet. Here, we show that the resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526, a GM crop, has unexpectedly high beneficial health effects surpassing the introduced genetic characteristic of resveratrol synthetic ability. The synergistic effect of its innate and transgenic properties not only ameliorates age-related deterioration but also boosts motor coordination and physical strength during the aging process. The gene expression profiling analyses by DNA chip showed that the gene expression pattern of mice fed resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 was very different from mice fed either resveratrol or Dongjin rice alone, respectively, modifying expression of genes related to aging regulation, cell differentiation, extracellular matrix, neurogenesis, or secretion. PMID:27044601

  12. Physiological determinants of the candidate physical ability test in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Sheaff, Andrew K; Bennett, Angela; Hanson, Erik D; Kim, You-Sin; Hsu, Jeffrey; Shim, Jae K; Edwards, Steven T; Hurley, Ben F

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative importance of physiological characteristics during firefighting performance, as assessed by the Candidate Physical Ability Test (CPAT). Subjects included career and volunteer firefighters aged 18-39 (N = 33). Upper- and lower-body strength, muscle endurance, lower body muscle power, body composition analysis, aerobic capacity, anaerobic fitness, and the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure response to stair climbing were assessed to determine the physiological characteristics of the subjects. To quantify firefighting performance, the CPAT was administered by members of the fire service. Absolute and relative mean power during the Wingate anaerobic cycling test (WAnT), relative peak power during the WAnT, and absolute maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were significantly higher in those who passed the CPAT (N = 18), compared to those who failed (N = 15; p < 0.01). Mean power during the WAnT, fatigue index during WAnT, absolute VO2max, upper body strength, grip strength, and the HR response to stair climbing were significantly related to CPAT performance time (p < 0.01). Absolute VO2max and anaerobic fatigue resistance during WAnT best predicted CPAT performance (Adj. R2 = 0.817; p < 0.001). Performance on the ceiling breach and pull was the only CPAT task that was not significantly related to the physiological characteristics assessed. Measures of anaerobic and cardiovascular fitness best predict overall CPAT performance, and individual task performance. Remedial programs aimed at improving firefighting performance should target anaerobic and aerobic fitness qualities.

  13. When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-06-01

    When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed.

  14. Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood.

    PubMed

    Lopes, V P; Rodrigues, L P; Maia, J A R; Malina, R M

    2011-10-01

    This study considers relationships among motor coordination (MC), physical fitness (PF) and physical activity (PA) in children followed longitudinally from 6 to 10 years. It is hypothesized that MC is a significant and primary predictor of PA in children. Subjects were 142 girls and 143 boys. Height, weight and skinfolds; PA (Godin-Shephard questionnaire); MC (Körperkoordination Test für Kinder); and PF (five fitness items) were measured. Hierarchical linear modeling with MC and PF as predictors of PA was used. The retained model indicated that PA at baseline differed significantly between boys (48.3 MET/week) and girls (40.0 MET/week). The interaction of MC and 1 mile run/walk had a positive influence on level of PA. The general trend for a decrease in PA level across years was attenuated or amplified depending on initial level of MC. The estimated rate of decline in PA was negligible for children with higher levels of MC at 6 years, but was augmented by 2.58 and 2.47 units each year, respectively, for children with low and average levels of initial MC. In conclusion MC is an important predictor of PA in children 6-10 years of age.

  15. Motor Development and the Mind: The Potential Role of Motor Abilities as a Determinant of Aspects of Perceptual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Emily W.; Boudreau, J. Paul

    1993-01-01

    Emphasizes the role that motor development may play in determining developmental sequences in other domains, such as haptic or tactile perception and depth perception. Maintains that there is a high degree of fit between the developmental sequence in which certain perceptual sensitivities unfold and the ages at which the corresponding motor…

  16. Preschool motor skills following physical and occupational therapy services among non-disabled very low birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Stephanie; Jonsson-Funk, Michele; Brookhart, M Alan; Rosenberg, Steven A; O'Shea, T Michael; Daniels, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at an increased risk of delayed development of motor skills. Physical and occupational therapy services may reduce this risk. Among VLBW children, we evaluated whether receipt of physical or occupational therapy services between 9 months and 2 years of age is associated with improved preschool age motor ability. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort we estimated the association between receipt of therapy and the following preschool motor milestones: skipping eight consecutive steps, hopping five times, standing on one leg for 10 seconds, walking backwards six steps on a line, and jumping distance. We used propensity score methods to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics between children who did and did not receive physical or occupational therapy, since children receiving therapy may be at higher risk of impairment. We applied propensity score weights and modeled the estimated effect of therapy on the distance that the child jumped using linear regression. We modeled all other end points using logistic regression. Treated VLBW children were 1.70 times as likely to skip eight steps (RR 1.70, 95 % CI 0.84, 3.44) compared to the untreated group and 30 % more likely to walk six steps backwards (RR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63, 2.71), although these differences were not statistically significant. We found little effect of therapy on other endpoints. Providing therapy to VLBW children during early childhood may improve select preschool motor skills involving complex motor planning.

  17. Relationships between Task-Oriented Postural Control and Motor Ability in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Long, I-Man; Liu, Mei-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have been characterized by greater postural sway in quiet stance and insufficient motor ability. However, there is a lack of studies to explore the properties of dynamic postural sway, especially under conditions of task-oriented movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between…

  18. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  19. Integrating Motor-Learning Concepts into Physical Education: Using Guided Discovery to Address NASPE Standard 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rukavina, Paul B.; Jeansonne, Jennifer J.

    2009-01-01

    K-12 students enter physical education with many naive conceptions or misconceptions of how motor skills are acquired. One goal of physical education is to teach concepts that will help students learn and perform motor skills, but many practitioners don't know how to provide experiences that will teach students to apply their knowledge…

  20. Relationship of Physical Fitness Measures vs. Occupational Physical Ability in Campus Law Enforcement Officers.

    PubMed

    Beck, Annie Q; Clasey, Jody L; Yates, James W; Koebke, Nicole C; Palmer, Thomas G; Abel, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Law enforcement officers (LEOs) on university campuses are required to perform a variety of physical occupational tasks. Identifying which physical fitness characteristics are associated with these occupational tasks will assist in the development of appropriate exercise programs and physical fitness assessments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify physical fitness and demographic characteristics that were correlated with occupational tasks commonly performed by campus LEOs. The occupational assessment was conducted using an Officer Physical Ability Test (OPAT), which simulated a foot chase of a suspect. Sixteen male LEOs (age: 33.1 ± 8.7 years; body mass: 87.2 ± 11.2 kg; height: 179.0 ± 7.9 cm) performed the OPAT. A battery of physical fitness tests were used to assess aerobic capacity, muscular endurance, strength, power, flexibility, agility, and body composition. Bivariate correlations were performed to identify significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations between physical fitness characteristics and OPAT time. The officers' age was significantly correlated to the majority of OPAT tasks, physical fitness, and anthropometric assessments. Therefore, partial correlations were used to control for the confounding effects of age. After controlling for the officers' age, the overall OPAT time was significantly correlated with agility (r = 0.57) and aerobic endurance (r = -0.65). Furthermore, push-up, curl-up, body mass, waist circumference, and abdominal circumference were significantly correlated to individual OPAT tasks. In conclusion, exercise programs and fitness assessments should be used for campus LEOs that address a variety of physical fitness characteristics associated with occupational performance. In addition, exercise programs should focus on body composition management and fitness for older LEOs.

  1. Generalized Motor Abilities and Timing Behavior in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Method: Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing…

  2. How Fine Motor Skills Influence the Assessment of High Abilities and Underachievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2010-01-01

    Previously, fine motor skills have been of little or no interest to giftedness research. New lines of thought have been advanced that imply that fine motor skills can be of significance in the identification of gifted persons as well as gifted underachievers. This would also have consequences for the diagnostic process underlying identification.…

  3. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  4. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  5. Systematic review of the relationship between habitual physical activity and motor capacity in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Keawutan, Piyapa; Bell, Kristie; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2014-06-01

    Habitual physical activity (HPA) has many benefits for general health. Motor capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) can impact on their HPA. This study aimed to systematically review the available literature on the relationship between HPA and motor capacity in children with CP aged 3-12 years for all gross motor functional abilities (GMFCS I-V) compared to typically developing children. Five electronic databases (Pubmed, Cochrane, Embase, Cinahl and Web of Science from 1989 to November, 2013) were searched using keywords "children with cerebral palsy", "physical activity", "motor capacity" and "motor function" including their synonyms and MesH terms. Studies were included if they (i) were conducted in children with CP aged between 3 and 12 years, (ii) assessed HPA or time spent sedentary, (iii) assessed motor capacity in order to evaluate the relationship between HPA and motor capacity. All articles retrieved were reviewed by two independent reviewers and discussed until they reached consensus. Study quality of reporting was evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Search results identified 864 articles but after review of the title and abstract only 21 articles warranted closer consideration. Ten articles met the strict inclusion criteria as nine articles did not assess HPA and two were conference abstracts. Study quality assessment (STROBE) found nine articles were good quality (≥ 60%) and one was poor quality (55.9%). Participants were mean age 8.4 (SD=2.1) years (range 2-17 years) and included children at all GMFCS levels (3 studies), while seven studies only recruited GMFCS level I-III. HPA measurements were either subjective (Activity Scale for Kids, Dutch Questionnaire of Participation in physical activity and assessment of participation in physical education at school and regular physical activity in leisure time) or objective (StepWatch(®) and ActiGraph(®)7164). Nine studies

  6. Systematic review of the relationship between habitual physical activity and motor capacity in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Keawutan, Piyapa; Bell, Kristie; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2014-06-01

    Habitual physical activity (HPA) has many benefits for general health. Motor capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) can impact on their HPA. This study aimed to systematically review the available literature on the relationship between HPA and motor capacity in children with CP aged 3-12 years for all gross motor functional abilities (GMFCS I-V) compared to typically developing children. Five electronic databases (Pubmed, Cochrane, Embase, Cinahl and Web of Science from 1989 to November, 2013) were searched using keywords "children with cerebral palsy", "physical activity", "motor capacity" and "motor function" including their synonyms and MesH terms. Studies were included if they (i) were conducted in children with CP aged between 3 and 12 years, (ii) assessed HPA or time spent sedentary, (iii) assessed motor capacity in order to evaluate the relationship between HPA and motor capacity. All articles retrieved were reviewed by two independent reviewers and discussed until they reached consensus. Study quality of reporting was evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Search results identified 864 articles but after review of the title and abstract only 21 articles warranted closer consideration. Ten articles met the strict inclusion criteria as nine articles did not assess HPA and two were conference abstracts. Study quality assessment (STROBE) found nine articles were good quality (≥ 60%) and one was poor quality (55.9%). Participants were mean age 8.4 (SD=2.1) years (range 2-17 years) and included children at all GMFCS levels (3 studies), while seven studies only recruited GMFCS level I-III. HPA measurements were either subjective (Activity Scale for Kids, Dutch Questionnaire of Participation in physical activity and assessment of participation in physical education at school and regular physical activity in leisure time) or objective (StepWatch(®) and ActiGraph(®)7164). Nine studies

  7. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    PubMed

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  8. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  9. Motor Development and Skill Analysis. Connections to Elementary Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan; Morrison, Craig

    1985-01-01

    Drawing upon stages of motor development and elements of biomechanics, the authors used anatomical planes as a frame of reference to determine movement patterns and assess readiness to perform movement skills. The combination of determining readiness and analyzing skill enables the teacher to plan proper motor skill activities. (MT)

  10. Measurement of talent in team handball: the questionable use of motor and physical tests.

    PubMed

    Lidor, Ronnie; Falk, Bareket; Arnon, Michal; Cohen, Yoram; Segal, Gil; Lander, Yael

    2005-05-01

    Testing for selection is one of the most important fundamentals in any multistep sport program. In most ball games, coaches assess motor, physical, and technical skills on a regular basis in early stages of talent identification and development. However, selection processes are complex, are often unstructured, and lack clear-cut theory-based knowledge. For example, little is known about the relevance of the testing process to the final selection of the young prospects. The purpose of this study was to identify motor, physical, and skill variables that could provide coaches with relevant information in the selection process of young team handball players. In total, 405 players (12-13 years of age at the beginning of the testing period) were recommended by their coaches to undergo a battery of tests prior to selection to the Junior National Team. This number is the sum of all players participating in the different phases of the program. However, not all of them took part in each testing phase. The battery included physical measurements (height and weight), a 4 x 10-m running test, explosive power tests (medicine ball throw and standing long jump), speed tests (a 20-m sprint from a standing position and a 20-m sprint with a flying start), and a slalom dribbling test. Comparisons between those players eventually selected to the Junior National Team 2-3 years later with those not selected demonstrated that only the skill test served as a good indicator. In all other measurements, a wide overlap could be seen between the results of the selected and nonselected players. It is suggested that future studies investigate the usefulness of tests reflecting more specific physical ability and cognitive characteristics.

  11. A Comparison of the Motor Ability of 8 and 9 Year Old Primary School Children in Hamburg, Melbourne and Cape Town--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Jurgen; Saunders, John; Bressan, Liz; Erhorn, Jan; Wirszing, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An increasing worldwide concern about a decline in the quality of the motor ability of children was the motivation for this exploratory comparative study. It involves a comparison of the motor ability of children aged 8 and 9 years from Hamburg (n = 774), Melbourne (n = 141) and Cape Town (n = 81). Since each of these global cities represents a…

  12. Visual-motor coordination and intelligence as predictors of reading, mathematics, and written language ability.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, D J; Britt, T W

    1994-06-01

    Previous research on the relationship between visual-motor coordination and academic achievement has been equivocal and has frequently not included controls for the effect of intelligence on achievement. In the present study, scores on three tests of children's visual-motor coordination correlated moderately to highly with scores on a test of reading, mathematics, and written language for a sample of 44 elementary school children referred for learning difficulties. Multiple regression analyses indicated that visual-motor coordination scores accounted for little unique achievement test score variance when IQs were included in the equations.

  13. Assessment of the relationship between physical working conditions and different levels of work ability.

    PubMed

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-04-20

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, there may be a correlation between physical working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability.

  14. Assessment of the relationship between physical working conditions and different levels of work ability.

    PubMed

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-07-01

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, there may be a correlation between physical working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability. PMID:24999133

  15. Chronic α-Tocopherol Increases Central Monoamines Synthesis and Improves Cognitive and Motor Abilities in Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramis, Margarita R; Sarubbo, Fiorella; Terrasa, Juan L; Moranta, David; Aparicio, Sara; Miralles, Antonio; Esteban, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Limiting enzymes in the synthesis of brain monoamines seems to be susceptible to oxidative damage, one of the most important factors in aging. It has been suggested that the use of anti-oxidants can reduce the rate of free radical production related with aging and the associated damage. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of the chronic treatments with the anti-oxidant α-tocopherol (vitamin E) on central monoamines (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] analysis) mediating cognitive functions, as well as on the evaluation of memory and motor abilities in old rats measured by radial maze, Barnes maze, novel object recognition test, and rotarod test. Results show that α-tocopherol significantly increased in a dose- and/or time-dependent manner the synthesis rate and the levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline) in the hippocampus and striatum, brain regions involved in memory processing and motor coordination. These positive neurochemical effects, largely due to an increased activity of the limiting enzymes in monoamines synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, were accompanied by an improvement in cognitive and motor abilities in old rats. Altogether these findings suggest that α-tocopherol exhibits neuroprotective actions in old rats; thus, diets with α-tocopherol might represent a promising strategy to mitigate or delay the cognitive and motor decline associate with aging and related-diseases.

  16. Chronic α-Tocopherol Increases Central Monoamines Synthesis and Improves Cognitive and Motor Abilities in Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramis, Margarita R; Sarubbo, Fiorella; Terrasa, Juan L; Moranta, David; Aparicio, Sara; Miralles, Antonio; Esteban, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Limiting enzymes in the synthesis of brain monoamines seems to be susceptible to oxidative damage, one of the most important factors in aging. It has been suggested that the use of anti-oxidants can reduce the rate of free radical production related with aging and the associated damage. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of the chronic treatments with the anti-oxidant α-tocopherol (vitamin E) on central monoamines (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] analysis) mediating cognitive functions, as well as on the evaluation of memory and motor abilities in old rats measured by radial maze, Barnes maze, novel object recognition test, and rotarod test. Results show that α-tocopherol significantly increased in a dose- and/or time-dependent manner the synthesis rate and the levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline) in the hippocampus and striatum, brain regions involved in memory processing and motor coordination. These positive neurochemical effects, largely due to an increased activity of the limiting enzymes in monoamines synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, were accompanied by an improvement in cognitive and motor abilities in old rats. Altogether these findings suggest that α-tocopherol exhibits neuroprotective actions in old rats; thus, diets with α-tocopherol might represent a promising strategy to mitigate or delay the cognitive and motor decline associate with aging and related-diseases. PMID:26414867

  17. Modular deconstruction reveals the dynamical and physical building blocks of a locomotion motor program.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Angela M; Frost, William N; Humphries, Mark D

    2015-04-01

    The neural substrates of motor programs are only well understood for small, dedicated circuits. Here we investigate how a motor program is constructed within a large network. We imaged populations of neurons in the Aplysia pedal ganglion during execution of a locomotion motor program. We found that the program was built from a very small number of dynamical building blocks, including both neural ensembles and low-dimensional rotational dynamics. These map onto physically discrete regions of the ganglion, so that the motor program has a corresponding modular organization in both dynamical and physical space. Using this dynamic map, we identify the population potentially implementing the rhythmic pattern generator and find that its activity physically traces a looped trajectory, recapitulating its low-dimensional rotational dynamics. Our results suggest that, even in simple invertebrates, neural motor programs are implemented by large, distributed networks containing multiple dynamical systems. PMID:25819612

  18. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  19. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  20. Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

  1. The Association between Motor Skill Competence and Physical Fitness in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David; Langendorfer, Stephen; Roberton, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between competence in three fundamental motor skills (throwing, kicking, and jumping) and six measures of health-related physical fitness in young adults (ages 18-25). We assessed motor skill competence using product scores of maximum kicking and throwing speed and maximum jumping distance. A factor analysis indicated…

  2. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: Evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4–5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. Educational objectives The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence

  3. Motor Competence Is Associated with Physical Fitness in Four- to Six-Year-Old Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of a physical active lifestyle and physical fitness from a young age are widely recognized as beneficial. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged four- to six-years-old. A sample of 42 children (mean age 5.15 years, SD 0.56 year) participated in the study. To assess…

  4. Stability of Caregiver-Reported Manual Ability and Gross Motor Function Classifications of Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imms, Christine; Carlin, John; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the stability of caregiver-reported classifications of function of children with cerebral palsy (CP) measured 12 months apart. Method: Participants were 86 children (50 males, 36 females) with CP of all motor types and severities who were recruited into a population-based longitudinal study. Children were aged 11 years 8 months (SD…

  5. Exercise can improve physical self perceptions in adolescents with low motor competence.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Fleur; Chivers, Paola; Larkin, Dawne; Rose, Elizabeth; Hands, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents with low motor competence have diminished perceptions of their physical self and tend to avoid physical activities. This study examined the outcomes of an exercise intervention that focused on improving aerobic fitness, strength, and self-perceptions in the physical domain in adolescents with poor motor coordination. The sample included 35 adolescents with low motor competence, comprising boys (n = 25) and girls (n = 10) ranging in age from 13 to 17 years, who attended two sessions per week in the 13 week exercise intervention study (AMP it up). Physical self-perceptions were measured before and after the intervention using the Physical Self Perception Profile and Perceived Importance Profile. Significant improvements in perceived Physical Condition, Attractive Body and Physical Strength sub domain scores were identified between pre and post-test. Adjusting for age, gender, BMI and attendance, regression analyses revealed that Attractive Body was the strongest predictor of Physical Self Worth at pre-test, joined by Physical Condition at post-test. This exercise intervention had a positive impact on adolescent physical self-perceptions, in particular males, with improvements in those sub domains specifically related to the exercise program. Changes in specific aspects of Physical Self Worth can be facilitated by exercise interventions, after a relatively short period of time, in adolescents with poor motor coordination.

  6. Physical Properties Determining Self-Organization of Motors and Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrey, Thomas; Nédélec, François; Leibler, Stanislas; Karsenti, Eric

    2001-05-01

    In eukaryotic cells, microtubules and their associated motor proteins can be organized into various large-scale patterns. Using a simplified experimental system combined with computer simulations, we examined how the concentrations and kinetic parameters of the motors contribute to their collective behavior. We observed self-organization of generic steady-state structures such as asters, vortices, and a network of interconnected poles. We identified parameter combinations that determine the generation of each of these structures. In general, this approach may become useful for correlating the morphogenetic phenomena taking place in a biological system with the biophysical characteristics of its constituents.

  7. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR).

    PubMed

    Hammer, Eva M; Kaufmann, Tobias; Kleih, Sonja C; Blankertz, Benjamin; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80-100%) performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning.Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1) a measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e., a trade for a person's visuo-motor control ability; and (2) subject's "attentional impulsivity". In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1) failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject) the present predictors.

  8. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR)

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Eva M.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Kleih, Sonja C.; Blankertz, Benjamin; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80–100%) performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning.Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1) a measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e., a trade for a person’s visuo-motor control ability; and (2) subject’s “attentional impulsivity”. In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1) failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject) the present predictors. PMID:25147518

  9. Algorithm for selecting appropriate transfer support equipment and a robot based on user physical ability.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, S; Fujie, M G

    2013-01-01

    In this present paper, we propose an algorithm for selecting appropriate transfer support equipment and robot based on the physical ability of the user. In addition, we describe the relationship between physical human features and the burden during standing when using a standing support robot. Although a number of care support devices have been developed, assistive robots are not yet popular because users do not know which devices are appropriate for their needs or physical abilities. In this study, we focus on a transfer support device and propose an algorithm for selecting transfer support equipment and a robot that suits the user's physical ability. We investigated the relationship between standing support equipment including a robot and the physical burden during standing, which is a basic transfer motion. Experimentally, we analyzed and calculated the knee and ankle joint moments and discussed the relationship between standing support equipment and knee and ankle joint moments during standing; we also investigated and the relationship between physical human features and the knee joint moment during standing. Our results identified standing support equipment that was appropriate to the user's physical ability. We found that it was effective to provide an up/down seat to persons having low residual ability; a standing support robot is appropriate for people having less residual ability in the knees, and a railing is suitable for people having low residual ability in the ankles.

  10. Principles of Motor Development for Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katherine Thomas; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2008-01-01

    Four principles are drawn from approximately 100 years of research in the area of motor development. The principles are (1) children are not miniature adults, (2) boys and girls (children) are more alike than different, (3) good things are earned, and (4) no body (nobody) is perfect. Five sections of this article introduce some of the major…

  11. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  12. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.; Fu, Yang-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA) during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA. PMID:26844157

  13. Physical Fitness Differences in Children with and without Motor Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Larkin, Dawne

    2006-01-01

    Children with motor learning difficulties (MLD) tend to be less physically active than their coordinated peers and one likely consequence is a reduced level of physical fitness. In this study, 52 children with MLD, aged 5 to 8 years, were compared to 52 age- and gender-matched control children across a range of health and skill related fitness…

  14. I Have Students with Physical and Motor Problems: How Can an APE, OT, or PT Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman-French, Lisa; Candler, Catherine; French, Ron; Hamilton, Merry Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Majority of students with mental and/or motor impairments are frequently placed in general physical education classes. However, these students often are unable to attain the expected outcomes in these general settings. Based on the experience of the authors, general physical educators often attempt to modify their goals, objectives, teaching…

  15. A Developmental Perspective on the Role of Motor Skill Competence in Physical Activity: An Emergent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Roberton, Mary Ann; Rudisill, Mary E.; Garcia, Clersida; Garcia, Luis E.

    2008-01-01

    Although significant attention has been paid to promoting the importance of physical activity in children, adolescents, and adults, we do not currently understand how to promote sustained physical activity levels throughout the lifespan. We contend that previous research has failed to consider the dynamic and synergistic role that motor skill…

  16. Setting and Within-Class Ability Grouping: A Survey of Practices in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shaun; Penney, Dawn; Allin, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom and internationally, the practice of separating pupils by ability endures as a characteristic feature of mathematics and science classrooms. Although there is extensive international research literature on ability grouping within classroom-based subjects, limited research exists in the context of physical education (PE).…

  17. Have infant gross motor abilities changed in 20 years? A re-evaluation of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale normative values

    PubMed Central

    Darrah, Johanna; Bartlett, Doreen; Maguire, Thomas O; Avison, William R; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Aim To compare the original normative data of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) (n=2202) collected 20 years ago with a contemporary sample of Canadian infants. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study of 650 Canadian infants (338 males, 312 females; mean age 30.9wks [SD 15.5], range 2wks–18mo) assessed once on the AIMS. Assessments were stratified by age, and infants proportionally represented the ethnic diversity of Canada. Logistic regression was used to place AIMS items on an age scale representing the age at which 50% of the infants passed an item on the contemporary data set and the original data set. Forty-three items met the criterion for stable regression results in both data sets. Results The correlation coefficient between the age locations of items on the original and contemporary data sets was 0.99. The mean age difference between item locations was 0.7 weeks. Age values from the original data set when converted to the contemporary scale differed by less than 1 week. Interpretation The sequence and age at emergence of AIMS items has remained similar over 20 years and current normative values remain valid. Concern that the ‘back to sleep’ campaign has influenced the age at emergence of gross motor abilities is not supported. PMID:24684556

  18. Development of Polytechnic Knowledge and Abilities in the Course of Studying Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imashev, Gizatulla; Abykanova, Bakytgul T.; Rakhmetova, Mairagul T.; Tumysheva, Anar A.; Moldasheva, Raushan N.; Ilyasova, Sandugash S.; Shahimova, Aliya A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article one of aspects of physics course studying improvement at high schools--the problem of the development of polytechnic knowledge and abilities in modern conditions--is revealed. In this research, the role and place of polytechnic education in the improvement of teaching physics at high schools are revealed, the main pedagogical…

  19. Enhancing Direct Instruction on Introductory Physics for Supporting Students' Mental-Modeling Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansyur, Jusman; Darsikin

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an instructional design for introductory physics that integrates previous research results of physics problem-solving and the use of external representation into direct instruction (DI). The research is a part of research in obtaining an established instructional design to support mental-modeling ability. By integrating with…

  20. Changes in Strength Abilities of Adolescent Girls: The Effect of a 3-Year Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate changes in strength abilities of adolescent girls that underwent a 3-year physical education curriculum. Material and methods: The research participants comprised 141 girls aged 13.3 plus or minus 0.35 years who participated in a 3-year physical education curriculum (PEC). Evaluation was based on the following EUROFIT…

  1. A Daily Process Analysis of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Perceived Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Patrick T.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Elavsky, Steriani; Rebar, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the role of both physical activity and sedentary behavior in daily perceptions of cognitive abilities and whether these relations exist within-person, between-person, or both. Design Non-experimental, intensive longitudinal research using ecological momentary assessments. Method College students wore accelerometers and provided end-of-day reports on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and perceived cognitive abilities for 14 days. Results Across self-reports and objective measures of behavior, daily deviations in physical activity were positively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Daily deviations in self-reported, but not objectively-assessed, sedentary behavior also were negatively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Contrary to previous research, overall levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were not associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Conclusions These findings indicate that physical activity has a within- rather than between-person association with perceived cognitive abilities although between-person associations effects may require longer monitoring periods to manifest. Further research is needed to establish the direction of causality and resolve whether the nature (rather than quantity) of sedentary activities influences cognition. PMID:25419176

  2. The Impact of Physical Activity on Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cusso, Melanie E; Donald, Kenneth J; Khoo, Tien K

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss, and Scopus using the MeSH search terms "Parkinson's," "Parkinson," and "Parkinsonism" in conjunction with "exercise," "physical activity," "physiotherapy," "occupational therapy," "physical therapy," "rehabilitation," "dance," and "martial arts." Twenty studies matched inclusion criteria of having 10 or more participants with diagnosed idiopathic PD participating in the intervention as well as having to evaluate the effects of physical activity on NMS in PD as controlled, randomized intervention studies. The outcomes of interest were NMS, including depression, cognition, fatigue, apathy, anxiety, and sleep. Risk of bias in the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Comparability of the various intervention methods, however, was challenging due to demographic variability and methodological differences. Nevertheless, physical activity can positively impact the global NMS burden including depression, apathy, fatigue, day time sleepiness, sleep, and cognition, thus supporting its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions such as PD. It is recommended that further adequately powered studies are conducted to assess the therapeutic role of physical activity on both motor and non-motor aspects of PD. These studies should be optimally designed to assess non-motor elements of disease using instruments validated in PD. PMID:27583249

  3. Association between physical and motor development in childhood: a longitudinal study of Japanese twins.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Latvala, Antti; Kaprio, Jaakko; Yokoyama, Yoshie

    2014-06-01

    Length and weight in infancy are associated with neurodevelopment, but less is known about growth in other anthropometric measures. In this study we analyzed how the development in length, weight, head circumference, and chest circumference over infancy is associated with motor development in early childhood, using a twin study design. Information on physical development over infancy and the age at achievement of eight developmental milestones over early childhood was collected for 370 Japanese twin pairs. Linear mixed models were used to analyze how physical development is associated with motor development between individual twins, as well as within twin pairs, adjusting the results for shared maternal and postnatal environmental factors. Delayed motor development was associated with smaller body size over infancy, and we also found some suggestive evidence that it was associated with catch-up growth as well. When studying the associations within twin pairs discordant for motor development, similar associations were found. However, chest circumference showed the most robust association within discordant twin pairs. Smaller body size and rapid catch-up growth are associated with delayed motor development. When studying these associations within twin pairs and thus adjusting the results for gestational age as well as many other maternal and postnatal environmental factors, chest circumference showed the most robust association. Chest circumference, rarely used in developed countries, can offer additional information on prenatal conditions relevant for further motor development not achieved by more traditional anthropometric measures.

  4. Repeated-sprint and change-of-direction abilities in physically active individuals and soccer players: training and testing implications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Chan, Gar Sun; Smith, Andrew W

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated change-of-direction (RCOD) matched on intervals and distances was investigated in this study. The discrimination abilities of the tests were also examined. Using a within-subject repeated measures design, 25 physically active individuals (ACTs), 16 college soccer players (COL), and 18 professional soccer players (PRO) performed the RSA and RCOD tests during which the fastest time (FT), average time (AT), total time (TT), and percentage decrement score (%Dec) were recorded. We concluded that RSA and RCOD tested separate motor abilities because the shared variance between them in the FT, AT, and TT was ≤50%. Both RSA and RCOD tests were reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient ranged 0.79-0.90) and valid performance assessments in terms of construct in that they discriminated between ACT and soccer players (irrespective of the soccer skill level in this study). Specifically, the FT, AT, and TT (but not %Dec) of RSA and RCOD were significantly higher in ACT as compared with that in both COL and PRO (p < 0.05). Most values of the RSA/RCOD index in COL and PRO were 0.59, which were significantly higher than those of ACT (0.53, p < 0.05). We proposed the use of the RSA/RCOD index with a target value of 0.59 to prioritize and quantify the training needs of RSA and RCOD for soccer players.

  5. Non-exercise physical activity attenuates motor symptoms in Parkinson disease independent from nigrostriatal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jon; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J.H.; Frey, Kirk A; Albin, Roger L.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between time spent in non-exercise and exercise physical activity and severity of motor functions in Parkinson disease (PD). Background Increasing motor impairments of PD incline many patients to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the relationship between duration of both non-exercise and exercise physical activity over a 4-week period using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and severity of clinical motor symptoms in PD. We accounted for the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Methods Cross-sectional study. PD subjects, n=48 (40M); 69.4±7.4 (56–84) years old; 8.4±4.2 (2.5–20) years motor disease duration, mean UPDRS motor score 27.5 ± 10.3 (7–53) and mean MMSE score 28.4 ± 1.9 (22–30) underwent [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation and completed the CHAMPS questionnaire and clinical assessment. Results Bivariate correlations showed an inverse relationship between motor UPDRS severity scores and duration of non-exercise physical activity (R= −0.37, P=0.0099) but not with duration of exercise physical activity (R= −0.05, P= 0.76) over 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis using UPDRS motor score as outcome variable demonstrated a significant regressor effect for duration of non-exercise physical activity (F=6.15, P=0.017) while accounting for effects of nigrostriatal degeneration (F=4.93, P=0.032), levodopa-equivalent dose (LED; F=1.07, P=0.31), age (F=4.37, P=0.043) and duration of disease (F=1.46, P=0.23; total model (F=5.76, P=0.0004). Conclusions Non-exercise physical activity is a correlate of motor symptom severity in PD independent of the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Non-exercise physical activity may have positive effects on functional performance in PD. PMID:26330028

  6. A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability

    PubMed Central

    Oftedal, Stina; Bell, Kristie L.; Mitchell, Louise E.; Davies, Peter S. W.; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA) measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC). Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group. PMID:22927865

  7. [Effect of physical activity on age involution of functional abilities of humans].

    PubMed

    Miskotnykh, V V; Khodasevich, L S; Mel'tser, V L

    2012-01-01

    A survey of 433 healthy, mature- and middle-aged men with different modes of habitual daily physical activity was made. Depending on the modes of motor activity all the surveyed were divided into 4 groups, each of which has been ranked by the ten-year age interval. The assessment of functional status using automated hardware-software complex "AMSAT-Covert" to determine the level of maximum oxygen consumption, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant defense system was performed. Results of the study enabled the authors to formulate a provision under which to extend the period of active, creative longevity and increased life expectancy we need to review the approaches to the regulation of physical activity by rationally constructed motor mode as part of a comprehensive system of health protection. Exercises, not increasing the requirements to the functionality involved and not causing physiological changes should be included in the recommended motor mode, which are incomparably less than officially accepted in modern practice fitness training.

  8. Poststroke motor dysfunction and spasticity: novel pharmacological and physical treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Stefan; Werner, Cordula

    2003-01-01

    Following stroke, approximately 90% of patients experience persistent neurological motor deficits that lead to disability and handicap. Both pharmacological and physical treatment strategies for motor rehabilitation may be considered. In terms of pharmacological treatment, drugs that may potentially promote motor recovery when added to a regimen of physical therapy include the stimulants amphetamine and methylphenidate, as well as levodopa and fluoxetine. Botulinum toxin A has proven effective and well tolerated in several placebo-controlled trials for the treatment of focal upper and lower limb spasticity, although it has not been shown to improve motor function. The focal injection of botulinum toxin A inhibits the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, resulting in a reversible paresis of the muscles relevant for the spastic deformity. Other drugs, such as benzodiazepines, antiepileptic drugs and antipsychotics, may have detrimental effects on motor function and should be avoided, if possible. With respect to physical strategies, modern concepts of motor learning favour a task-specific repetitive approach that induces skill-acquisition relevant to the patient's daily life. Constrained-induced movement therapy based on the concept of learned non-use, electromyography-triggered electrical stimulation of the wrist muscles, robot-assisted motor rehabilitation to increase therapy intensity and bilateral practice to facilitate the movement of the paretic extremity are examples in upper limb rehabilitation. Lower limb rehabilitation has been enriched by treadmill training with partial bodyweight support, enabling the practice of up to 1000 steps per session; automated gait rehabilitation to relieve the strenuous effort required of the therapist; and rhythmic auditory stimulation, applying individually adjusted music to improve walking speed and symmetry. PMID:14661987

  9. Physical exercise prevents motor disorders and striatal oxidative imbalance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Sosa, P M; Schimidt, H L; Altermann, C; Vieira, A S; Cibin, F W S; Carpes, F P; Mello-Carpes, P B

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide, and most stroke survivors present some functional impairment. We assessed the striatal oxidative balance and motor alterations resulting from stroke in a rat model to investigate the neuroprotective role of physical exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: a) control, b) ischemia, c) physical exercise, and d) physical exercise and ischemia. Physical exercise was conducted using a treadmill for 8 weeks. Ischemia-reperfusion surgery involved transient bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 30 min. Neuromotor performance (open-field and rotarod performance tests) and pain sensitivity were evaluated beginning at 24 h after the surgery. Rats were euthanized and the corpora striata was removed for assay of reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation activity, and antioxidant markers. Ischemia-reperfusion caused changes in motor activity. The ischemia-induced alterations observed in the open-field test were fully reversed, and those observed in the rotarod test were partially reversed, by physical exercise. Pain sensitivity was similar among all groups. Levels of reactive oxygen species and lipoperoxidation increased after ischemia; physical exercise decreased reactive oxygen species levels. None of the treatments altered the levels of antioxidant markers. In summary, ischemia-reperfusion resulted in motor impairment and altered striatal oxidative balance in this animal model, but those changes were moderated by physical exercise. PMID:26222650

  10. Physical exercise prevents motor disorders and striatal oxidative imbalance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, P.M.; Schimidt, H.L.; Altermann, C.; Vieira, A.S.; Cibin, F.W.S.; Carpes, F.P.; Mello-Carpes, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide, and most stroke survivors present some functional impairment. We assessed the striatal oxidative balance and motor alterations resulting from stroke in a rat model to investigate the neuroprotective role of physical exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: a) control, b) ischemia, c) physical exercise, and d) physical exercise and ischemia. Physical exercise was conducted using a treadmill for 8 weeks. Ischemia-reperfusion surgery involved transient bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 30 min. Neuromotor performance (open-field and rotarod performance tests) and pain sensitivity were evaluated beginning at 24 h after the surgery. Rats were euthanized and the corpora striata was removed for assay of reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation activity, and antioxidant markers. Ischemia-reperfusion caused changes in motor activity. The ischemia-induced alterations observed in the open-field test were fully reversed, and those observed in the rotarod test were partially reversed, by physical exercise. Pain sensitivity was similar among all groups. Levels of reactive oxygen species and lipoperoxidation increased after ischemia; physical exercise decreased reactive oxygen species levels. None of the treatments altered the levels of antioxidant markers. In summary, ischemia-reperfusion resulted in motor impairment and altered striatal oxidative balance in this animal model, but those changes were moderated by physical exercise. PMID:26222650

  11. THE EFFECT OF MENTAL AND PHYSICAL PRACTICE ON THE LEARNING OF GROSS MOTOR SKILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OXENDINE, JOSEPH B.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SCHEDULES OF MENTAL AND PHYSICAL PRACTICE ON THE LEARNING AND RETENTION OF THREE MOTOR TASKS--USING THE PURSUIT ROTOR AND LEARNING THE SOCCER KICK, AND JUMP SHOT. THREE SEPARATE EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED IN THREE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS USING 80, 72, AND 60 SEVENTH GRADE BOYS AS…

  12. Does (Non-)Meaningful Sensori-Motor Engagement Promote Learning with Animated Physical Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; Eielts, Charly; Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that sensori-motor experience with physical systems can have a positive effect on learning. However, it is not clear whether this effect is caused by mere bodily engagement or the intrinsically meaningful information that such interaction affords in performing the learning task. We investigated (N = 74), through the use…

  13. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  14. Modified Delphi Investigation of Motor Development and Learning in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Susan; Metcalf, Amanda; Bulger, Sean M.; Housner, Lynn D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: As the scope of motor development and learning knowledge has successfully broadened over the years, there is an increased need to identify the content and learning experiences that are essential in preparing preservice physical educators. The purpose of this study was to generate expert consensus regarding the most critical motor…

  15. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASSOW, RUTH B.; AND OTHERS

    CHILDREN IN THE FIRST, THIRD, AND FIFTH GRADES IN A SELECTED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL WERE EXPOSED TO AN EXPERIMENTALLY DEVELOPED PROGRAM OF MOTOR ACTIVITIES AS PART OF A PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM DESIGNED TO CHALLENGE A CHILD. PERFORMANCE MEASURES IN THE STANDING BROAD JUMP, THE 30-YARD DASH, THE OVER ARM THROW, THE PULL-UP, AND SHUTTLE RUN WERE…

  17. Screening and Assessment for Physical and Mental Health Issues That Impact TANF Recipients' Ability To Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Fredrica D.

    2001-01-01

    This document examines screening and assessment for physical and mental health conditions that impact Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients' ability to work. The document begins by defining screening and assessment and discussing their relevance for agencies serving TANF recipients. The next section answers policy questions…

  18. Inclusion and Participation in Everyday School Life: Experiences of Children with Physical (Dis)Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbjørnslett, Mona; Engelsrud, Gunn Helene; Helseth, Sølvi

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the school experiences of children with physical (dis)abilities. Based on 39 interviews with 15 Norwegian children, participation in everyday school life is introduced as a central theme and divided into three sub-themes: community and independence; adequate help and influence in the classroom; and influence in planning and…

  19. Design and Reflection Help Students Develop Scientific Abilities: Learning in Introductory Physics Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etkina, Eugenia; Karelina, Anna; Ruibal-Villasenor, Maria; Rosengrant, David; Jordan, Rebecca; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2010-01-01

    Design activities, when embedded in an inquiry cycle and appropriately scaffolded and supplemented with reflection, can promote the development of the habits of mind (scientific abilities) that are an important part of scientific practice. Through the Investigative Science Learning Environment ("ISLE"), students construct physics knowledge by…

  20. Trick or treat? Showing patients with functional (psychogenic) motor symptoms their physical signs.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jon; Edwards, Mark

    2012-07-17

    Functional (psychogenic) motor symptoms are diagnosed on the basis of positive signs of inconsistency or incongruity with known neurologic disease. These signs, such as Hoover sign or tremor entrainment, are often regarded by neurologists as 'tricks of the trade,' to 'catch the patient out, ' and certainly not to be shared with them. In this reflective article, the authors suggest that showing the patient with functional motor symptoms their physical signs, if done in the right way, is actually one of the most useful things a neurologist can do for these patients in persuading them of the accuracy of their diagnosis and the potential reversibility of their symptoms.

  1. Robust, superamphiphobic fabric with multiple self-healing ability against both physical and chemical damages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxia; Zhou, Hua; Gestos, Adrian; Fang, Jian; Lin, Tong

    2013-10-23

    Superamphiphobic coatings with excellent repellency to low surface tension liquids and multiple self-healing abilities are very useful for practical applications, but remain challenging to realize. Previous papers on self-healing superamphiphobic coatings have demonstrated limited liquid repellency with single self-healing ability against either physical or chemical damage. Herein, we describe a superamphiphobic fabric that has remarkable multi-self-healing ability against both physical and chemical damages. The superamphiphobicity was prepared by a two-step surface coating technique. Fabric after coating treatment showed exceptional liquid-repellency to low surface tension liquids including ethanol. The fabric coating was also durable to withstand 200 cycles of laundries and 5000 cycles of Martindale abrasion without apparently changing the superamphiphobicity. This highly robust, superamphiphobic fabric may find applications for the development of "smart" functional textiles for various applications.

  2. Robust, superamphiphobic fabric with multiple self-healing ability against both physical and chemical damages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxia; Zhou, Hua; Gestos, Adrian; Fang, Jian; Lin, Tong

    2013-10-23

    Superamphiphobic coatings with excellent repellency to low surface tension liquids and multiple self-healing abilities are very useful for practical applications, but remain challenging to realize. Previous papers on self-healing superamphiphobic coatings have demonstrated limited liquid repellency with single self-healing ability against either physical or chemical damage. Herein, we describe a superamphiphobic fabric that has remarkable multi-self-healing ability against both physical and chemical damages. The superamphiphobicity was prepared by a two-step surface coating technique. Fabric after coating treatment showed exceptional liquid-repellency to low surface tension liquids including ethanol. The fabric coating was also durable to withstand 200 cycles of laundries and 5000 cycles of Martindale abrasion without apparently changing the superamphiphobicity. This highly robust, superamphiphobic fabric may find applications for the development of "smart" functional textiles for various applications. PMID:24073919

  3. Associations among Elementary School Children’s Actual Motor Competence, Perceived Motor Competence, Physical Activity and BMI: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Stodden, David; Brian, Ali; True, Larissa; Cardon, Greet; Tallir, Isabel; Haerens, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Background Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Materials and Methods Children’s (N = 361; 180 boys = 50%; Mage = 9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor competence was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and their perceived motor competence via the Self Perception Profile for Children. We assessed physical activity via accelerometers; height through stadiometers, and weight through scales. Cluster analyses (aim 1) and MANCOVAs (aim 2 & 3) were used to analyze the data. Results The analysis generated two predictable groups: one group displaying relatively high levels of both actual (M TGMD-2 percentile = 42.54, SD = 2.33) and perceived motor competence (M = 3.42, SD = .37; high-high), and one group with relatively low levels of both (M percentile = 9.71, SD = 3.21; M PMC = 2.52, SD = .35; low-low). One additional group was also identified as having relatively low levels of actual motor competence (M percentile = 4.22, SD = 2.85) but relatively high levels of perceived motor competence (M = 3.52, SD = .30; low-high). The high-high group demonstrated higher daily physical activity (M = 48.39±2.03) and lower BMI (M = 18.13±.43) than the low-low group (MMVPA = 37.93±2.01; MBMI = 20.22±.42). The low-high group had similar physical activity-levels as the low-low group (M = 36.21±2.18) and did not significantly differ in BMI (M = 19.49±.46) from the other two groups. Conclusions A combination of high actual and perceived motor competence is related to higher physical activity and lower weight status. It is thus

  4. Physical activity-associated gene expression signature in nonhuman primate motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Amanda C; Leak, Rehana K; Garbett, Krassimira; Zigmond, Michael J; Cameron, Judy L; Mirnics, Károly

    2012-03-01

    It has been established that weight gain and weight loss are heavily influenced by activity level. In this study, we hypothesized that the motor cortex exhibits a distinct physical activity-associated gene expression profile, which may underlie changes in weight associated with movement. Using DNA microarrays we profiled gene expression in the motor cortex of a group of 14 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with a wide range of stable physical activity levels. We found that neuronal growth factor signaling and nutrient sensing transcripts in the brain were highly correlated with physical activity. A follow-up of AKT3 expression changes (a gene at the apex of neuronal survival and nutrient sensing) revealed increased protein levels of total AKT, phosphorylated AKT, and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3), one of AKT's main downstream effectors. In addition, we successfully validated three other genes via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (cereblon (CRBN), origin recognition complex subunit 4-like, and pyruvate dehydrogenase 4 (PDK4)). We conclude that these genes are important in the physical activity-associated pathway in the motor cortex, and may be critical for physical activity-associated changes in body weight and neuroprotection.

  5. Development of physical ability tests for police officers: a construct validation approach.

    PubMed

    Arvey, R D; Landon, T E; Nutting, S M; Maxwell, S E

    1992-12-01

    A construct validation approach was followed to affirm that 8 physical ability test events were significantly related to two important constructs underlying the job performance of police officers: strength and endurance. A sample of 115 incumbent police officers took 8 physical ability tests and were rated by supervisors on their physical performances in their job. LISREL methods were used to test the model specified, and a reasonable fit was achieved. Portions of the model were tested on an independent sample of 161 applicants; the fit of the model was again acceptable. A nomological network of relationships, in which strength and endurance factors correlated in expected directions with other physiological and demographic variables, was hypothesized and tested. Finally, the data were examined for potential gender differences and bias. Considerable differences were shown between men and women on both test and performance variables, and women would be overpredicted if a common regression line were used for selection purposes.

  6. Comparative Study of Motor Performance of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Reaction Time, Visual-Motor Control and Upper Limb Speed and Dexterity Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gkouvatzi, Anastasia N.; Mantis, Konstantinos; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    Using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test the motor performance of 34 deaf--hard-of-hearing pupils, 6-14 year, was evaluated in reaction time, visual-motor control and upper limb speed and dexterity. The two-way ANOVA variance analysis for two independent variables, group, age, and the Post Hoc (Scheffe test) for multiple comparisons were used. The…

  7. "Are the Good Beautiful or the Beautiful Good?" The Relationship between Children's Perceptions of Ability and Perceptions of Physical Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.; Bohrnstedt, George W.

    1979-01-01

    Children's ratings were obtained, examining reciprocal feedback between perceptions of physical attractiveness and ability. Data supported the conclusion that perceptions of ability affect those of physical attractiveness but not vice versa. The role of the relative ambiguity of stimuli associated with physical attractiveness may explain the…

  8. The ability of 6- to 8-year-old children to use motor imagery in a goal-directed pointing task.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Steffie; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert

    2015-11-01

    It has been suggested that motor imagery ability develops gradually between 5 and 12 years of age, but ambiguity remains over the precise developmental course before 9 years. Hence, we determined the age-related differences in the use of motor imagery by children on the mental chronometry paradigm. In addition, we examined whether the use of motor imagery is related to cognitive and hand abilities. To this end, we compared duration of actual pointing and imagined pointing on a radial Fitts' task in 82 children (three age groups; 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds). In line with previous studies, we found an age-related increase in temporal congruence between actual and imagined pointing and compliance with Fitts' law. Importantly, however, we showed that only a limited number of 7- and 8-year-olds were actually using motor imagery to perform the imagined pointing task, whereas the 6-year-olds did not employ motor imagery to perform the task. The current results extend previous research by establishing that the age of onset to use motor imagery in the mental chronometry paradigm is not prior to 7 years. PMID:26163179

  9. Preschool motor development predicting high school health-related physical fitness: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, Eric; Baghurst, Timothy M; Mwavita, Mwarumba

    2014-08-01

    To address the obesity epidemic there is an increasing effort to emphasize physical activity and fitness in adolescence as opposed to fundamental motor skills. However, what effect this might have on health-related fitness is unclear. This study sought to determine the degree to which motor development competencies in preschool could predict high school fitness. In the initial study, participants were 143 male and 139 female preschoolers (M age = 4.8 yr., SD = 0.7) from four preschool programs in suburban area of a Southern state who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development. Eleven years later, 75 boys and 65 girls (M age = 15.8 yr., SD = 0.7) from the original sample were located and completed the AAHPERD Health Related Fitness Test (1.5 mile run, sit-up, sit-and-reach, body fat percentage). Test of Gross Motor Development scores were found to be strong predictors for all measures of fitness, but object control skills were more predictive of overall physical fitness than locomotor skills. Therefore, educators should consider teaching sport skill development in early childhood over general activity to improve long-term fitness.

  10. Motor ability of forelimb both on- and off-riding during walk and trot cadence of horse

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the motor ability of forelimb according to on- or off-riding during cadences (walk and trot) of horse. Horses and rider selected as subject consisted of total 37 heads of Jeju native horse and 1 female rider. The variables analyzed composed of 1 stride length, 1 step length, elapsed time of stance, elapsed time of swing, elapsed time of 1 step, and forward velocity (x-axis). Two-way analysis of variance of variables was employed for the statistical analysis with the level of significance set at 5% (P<0.05). Trot cadence showed significant difference with the faster and shorter during trot than that of walk in velocity and elapsed time. When analyzed interaction effect in stance and swing phase, the locomotion showed the shorter elapsed time in trot than that of walk, but more delayed in case of on-riding during stance phase, whereas the case of on-riding showed with the shorter during swing phase than that of the case of off-riding These result of horse’s analysis meant that there was very close relation among variables of rider’s weight-velocity-stride length-stride elapsed time. Next study will be necessary to analyze cadence variables added both stride length and rider’s weight for riding activity and rehabilitation during horse riding using Jeju native horse. PMID:26933662

  11. Inter-Relationships of Functional Status in Cerebral Palsy: Analyzing Gross Motor Function, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification Systems in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Ho, Nhan Thi; Dodge, Nancy; Hurvitz, Edward A.; Slaughter, Jaime; Workinger, Marilyn Seif; Kent, Ray D.; Rosenbaum, Peter; Lenski, Madeleine; Messaros, Bridget M.; Vanderbeek, Suzette B.; Deroos, Steven; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationships among the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Using questionnaires describing each scale, mothers reported GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS levels in 222…

  12. The Effects of Basic Gymnastics Training Integrated with Physical Education Courses on Selected Motor Performance Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpkaya, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of gymnastics training integrated with physical education courses on selected motor performance variables in seven year old girls. Subjects were divided into two groups: (1) control group (N=15, X=7.56 plus or minus 0.46 year old); (2) gymnastics group (N=16, X=7.60 plus or minus 0.50 year…

  13. Grounding Early Intervention: Physical Therapy Cannot Just Be About Motor Skills Anymore

    PubMed Central

    Harbourne, Regina T.; Dusing, Stacey C.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article provides support for 4 interrelated tenets: grounded perceptual-motor experience within cultural and social contexts forms cognition; exploration through early behaviors, such as object interaction, sitting, and locomotion, broadly facilitates development; infants and children with limited exploration are at risk for global developmental impairments; and early interventions targeting exploratory behaviors may be feasible and effective at advancing a range of abilities across developmental domains and time. These tenets emphasize that through the promotion of early perceptual-motor behaviors, broader, more global developmental advancements can be facilitated and future delays can be minimized across domains for infants and children with special needs. Researchers, educators, and clinicians should build on these tenets to further demonstrate the effectiveness of targeted early interventions. The goals of these interventions should be not only to advance targeted perceptual-motor skills in the moment but also to more broadly advance future abilities and meet the early intervention goal of maximizing children's learning potential. PMID:23001524

  14. Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Valley, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy influences individual behaviors, such as physical activity engagement patterns, and as a result influences the physical and cognitive benefits that are outcomes from engagement. Children with higher self-efficacy are more likely to participate in physical activity than those with lower…

  15. Skills needed for reading comprehension of physics texts and their relation to problem-solving ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Adina; Eckstein, Shulamith G.

    This article reports an investigation of some of the skills needed for the critical reading of physics texts. To assess these skills a reading comprehension test was developed that combines features of errordetection and true-false-unreported tests. This test was administered to college students of physics, and the results were analyzed statistically to determine the separability of the skills and their hierarchical ranking. It was found that the skill required to comprehend texts in continuous format is of a higher level than and separable from the skill required to comprehend texts in the form of a separated list of statements. The skill required to discriminate unreported statements from the others (true and false) was found to be of a higher level than and separable from the skills required to make the other discriminations. The relation between the students' reading comprehension skills and their problem-solving ability was also investigated. Students' scores on reading comprehension of texts that require a very low problem-solving ability were found to be uncorrelated to their grades on solving problems that require a very low decoding ability. This implies that the two abilities are independent.Received: 31 August 1993; Revised: 27 July 1994;

  16. Changes In Actual And Perceived Physical Abilities In Clinically Obese Children: A 9-Month Multi-Component Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Rutigliano, Irene; Fiore, Pietro; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Campanozzi, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives (1) To examine relationships among changes in physical activity, physical fitness and some psychosocial determinants of activity behavior in a clinical sample of obese children involved in a multi-component program; (2) to investigate the causal relationship over time between physical activity and one of its strongest correlates (i.e. perceived physical ability). Methods Self-reported physical activity and health-related fitness tests were administered before and after a 9-month intervention in 24 boys and 20 girls aged 8 to 11 years. Individuals’ perceptions of strength, speed and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale, while body image was measured using Collins’ Child Figure Drawings. Results Findings showed that body mass index, physical activity, performances on throwing and weight-bearing tasks, perceived physical ability and body image significantly improved after treatment among obese children. Gender differences were found in the correlational analyses, showing a link between actual and perceived physical abilities in boys, but not in girls. For the specific measurement interval of this study, perception of physical ability was an antecedent and not a potential consequence of physical activity. Conclusions Results indicate that a multi-component activity program not based merely on a dose-effect approach enhances adherence of the participants and has the potential to increase the lifelong exercise skills of obese children. Rather than focusing entirely on diet and weight loss, findings support the inclusion of interventions directed toward improving perceived physical ability that is predictive of subsequent physical activity. PMID:23239985

  17. Effects of Increased Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Marks in Physical Education: An Intervention Study in School Years 1 through 9 in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Ingegerd

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that some children do not participate in sport or exercise because they did not establish early coordination and basic motor skills while at school. Basic motor skills form significant parts of the goals for students to achieve in the Swedish school subject Physical Education and Health (PEH). Aims: The aim was to…

  18. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start" guidelines…

  19. Beyond age and gender: Relationships between cortical and subcortical brain volume and cognitive-motor abilities in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Pangelinan, Melissa M.; Zhang, Guangyu; VanMeter, John W.; Clark, Jane E.; Hatfield, Bradley D.; Haufler, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cognitive and motor functions are interrelated and may rely on the development of the same cortical and subcortical neural structures. However, no study to date has examined the relationships between brain volume, cognitive ability, and motor ability in typically developing children. The NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development consists of a large, longitudinal database of structural MRI and performance measures from a battery of neuropsychological assessments from typically developing children. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to examine relationships between the brain and cognitive-motor abilities. A secondary analysis was conducted on data from 172 children between the ages of 6 to 13 years with up to 2 measurement occasions (initial testing and 2-year follow-up). Linear mixed effects modeling was employed to account for age and gender effects on the development of specific cortical and subcortical volumes as well as behavioral performance measures of interest. Above and beyond the effects of age and gender, significant relationships were found between general cognitive ability (IQ) and the volume of subcortical brain structures (cerebellum and caudate) as well as spatial working memory and the putamen. In addition, IQ was found to be related to global and frontal gray matter volume as well as parietal gray and white matter. At the behavioral level, general cognitive ability was also found to be related to visuomotor ability (pegboard) and executive function (spatial working memory). These results support the notion that cognition and motor skills may be fundamentally interrelated at both the levels of behavior and brain structure. PMID:21078402

  20. Language and Motor Abilities of Preschool Children Who Stutter: Evidence from Behavioral and Kinematic Indices of Nonword Repetition Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and…

  1. Friction drive of an SAW motor. Part IV: physics of contact.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi

    2008-10-01

    A procedure for modeling the frictional heating and electricity of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) motor is proposed. The frictional heat is developed during friction drive when sliding occurs at the frictional interface; the heat is conducted into the solids, resulting in an increase in temperature. The spatial distribution of the heat source was associated with the contact pressure distribution, and the heat conduction from the heat source was formulated. Owing to the piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity of the stator used in the present study, the elastic deformation and temperature increase produce the electric fields. The electric fields in the stator were determined with respect to each cause. Electric discontinuity at the boundary between the stator and the slider, moreover, produces electrostatic force, which was calculated using a Maxwell stress tensor. All the analyses revealed the underlying physical fields in addition to the mechanical fields of the SAW motor. By the use of those analytical methods, the frictional properties of the SAW motor were discussed. We pointed out that another physical phenomenoniquestcontact electrificationiquestcould arise at the contact interface. The electrostatic force due to contact electrification had sufficient strength to change the friction property, which corresponded to the variation of the friction coefficient from 0.1 to 1.

  2. Friction drive of an SAW motor. Part IV: physics of contact.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi

    2008-10-01

    A procedure for modeling the frictional heating and electricity of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) motor is proposed. The frictional heat is developed during friction drive when sliding occurs at the frictional interface; the heat is conducted into the solids, resulting in an increase in temperature. The spatial distribution of the heat source was associated with the contact pressure distribution, and the heat conduction from the heat source was formulated. Owing to the piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity of the stator used in the present study, the elastic deformation and temperature increase produce the electric fields. The electric fields in the stator were determined with respect to each cause. Electric discontinuity at the boundary between the stator and the slider, moreover, produces electrostatic force, which was calculated using a Maxwell stress tensor. All the analyses revealed the underlying physical fields in addition to the mechanical fields of the SAW motor. By the use of those analytical methods, the frictional properties of the SAW motor were discussed. We pointed out that another physical phenomenoniquestcontact electrificationiquestcould arise at the contact interface. The electrostatic force due to contact electrification had sufficient strength to change the friction property, which corresponded to the variation of the friction coefficient from 0.1 to 1. PMID:18986875

  3. Applying Motor-Control Theory to Physical Therapy Practice: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Blackinton, Mary T.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This case report describes the application of an integrated, systems-based theory of motor control to physical therapy practice. Client Description: The patient was a 5-year-old boy with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy who was entering kindergarten. Parent concerns related to the child's safety in playground activities such as playing on the slide. Interventions: Motor-control theory, including factors related to the task, the environment, and the individual, was used to guide and direct physical therapy management related to the patient goal of safely and effectively climbing the ladder to the playground slide. Patient Outcomes: When the child entered kindergarten, he was able to safely ascend the ladder to the playground slide, using a modified movement pattern, when distractions were minimized. However, attentional issues continued to affect task execution when other children were present. Implications: This case report demonstrates a means by which current knowledge and theory can be integrated into clinical practice. Future Directions: Applying motor-control theory to this case led to the development of clinical questions for future research. PMID:22654241

  4. A model of motor performance during surface penetration: From physics to voluntary control

    PubMed Central

    Klatzky, Roberta L.; Gershon, Pnina; Shivaprabhu, Vikas; Lee, Randy; Wu, Bing; Stetten, George; Swendsen, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The act of puncturing a surface with a hand-held tool is a ubiquitous but complex motor behavior that requires precise force control to avoid potentially severe consequences. We present a detailed model of puncture over a time-course of approximately 1000 ms, which is fit to kinematic data from individual punctures, obtained via a simulation with high-fidelity force feedback. The model describes puncture as proceeding from purely physically determined interactions between the surface and tool, through decline of force due to biomechanical viscosity, to cortically mediated voluntary control. When fit to the data, it yields parameters for the inertial mass of the tool/person coupling, time-characteristic of force decline, onset of active braking, stopping time and distance, and late oscillatory behavior, all of which the analysis relates to physical variables manipulated in the simulation. While the present data characterize distinct phases of motor performance in a group of healthy young adults, the approach could potentially be extended to quantify the performance of individuals from other populations, e.g., with sensory-motor impairments. Applications to surgical force-control devices are also considered. PMID:23873494

  5. The addition of functional task-oriented mental practice to conventional physical therapy improves motor skills in daily functions after stroke*

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C.; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Tierra-Criollo, Carlos J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental practice (MP) is a cognitive strategy which may improve the acquisition of motor skills and functional performance of athletes and individuals with neurological injuries. Objective To determine whether an individualized, specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional physical therapy (PT), promoted better learning of motor skills in daily functions in individuals with chronic stroke (13±6.5 months post-stroke). Method Nine individuals with stable mild and moderate upper limb impairments participated, by employing an A1-B-A2 single-case design. Phases A1 and A2 included one month of conventional PT, and phase B the addition of MP training to PT. The motor activity log (MAL-Brazil) was used to assess the amount of use (AOU) and quality of movement (QOM) of the paretic upper limb; the revised motor imagery questionnaire (MIQ-RS) to assess the abilities in kinesthetic and visual motor imagery; the Minnesota manual dexterity test to assess manual dexterity; and gait speed to assess mobility. Results After phase A1, no significant changes were observed for any of the outcome measures. However, after phase B, significant improvements were observed for the MAL, AOU and QOM scores (p<0.0001), and MIQ-RS kinesthetic and visual scores (p=0.003; p=0.007, respectively). The significant gains in manual dexterity (p=0.002) and gait speed (p=0.019) were maintained after phase A2. Conclusions Specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional PT, led to improvements in motor imagery abilities combined with increases in the AOU and QOM in daily functions, manual dexterity, and gait speed. PMID:24271094

  6. Neurophysiological correlates of visuo-motor learning through mental and physical practice.

    PubMed

    Allami, Nadia; Brovelli, Andrea; Hamzaoui, El Mehdi; Regragui, Fakhita; Paulignan, Yves; Boussaoud, Driss

    2014-03-01

    We have previously shown that mental rehearsal can replace up to 75% of physical practice for learning a visuomotor task (Allami, Paulignan, Brovelli, & Boussaoud, (2008). Experimental Brain Research, 184, 105-113). Presumably, mental rehearsal must induce brain changes that facilitate motor learning. We tested this hypothesis by recording scalp electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in two groups of subjects. In one group, subjects executed a reach to grasp task for 240 trials. In the second group, subjects learned the task through a combination of mental rehearsal for the initial 180 trials followed by the execution of 60 trials. Thus, one group physically executed the task for 240 trials, the other only for 60 trials. Amplitudes and latencies of event-related potentials (ERPs) were compared across groups at different stages during learning. We found that ERP activity increases dramatically with training and reaches the same amplitude over the premotor regions in the two groups, despite large differences in physically executed trials. These findings suggest that during mental rehearsal, neuronal changes occur in the motor networks that make physical practice after mental rehearsal more effective in configuring functional networks for skilful behaviour. PMID:24388796

  7. Disrupting the supplementary motor area makes physical effort appear less effortful.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2015-06-10

    The perception of physical effort is relatively unaffected by the suppression of sensory afferences, indicating that this function relies mostly on the processing of the central motor command. Neural signals in the supplementary motor area (SMA) correlate with the intensity of effort, suggesting that the motor signal involved in effort perception could originate from this area, but experimental evidence supporting this view is still lacking. Here, we tested this hypothesis by disrupting neural activity in SMA, in primary motor cortex (M1), or in a control site by means of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, while measuring effort perception during grip forces of different intensities. After each grip force exertion, participants had the opportunity to either accept or refuse to replicate the same effort for varying amounts of reward. In addition to the subjective rating of perceived exertion, effort perception was estimated on the basis of the acceptance rate, the effort replication accuracy, the influence of the effort exerted in trial t on trial t+1, and pupil dilation. We found that disruption of SMA activity, but not of M1, led to a consistent decrease in effort perception, whatever the measure used to assess it. Accordingly, we modeled effort perception in a structural equation model and found that only SMA disruption led to a significant alteration of effort perception. These findings indicate that effort perception relies on the processing of a signal originating from motor-related neural circuits upstream of M1 and that SMA is a key node of this network. PMID:26063908

  8. Physical aspects of the structure and function of helicases as rotary molecular motors

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A.

    2009-11-15

    Helicases were shown to have common physical properties with rotary molecular motors, such as F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATP synthase and type I restriction-modification (RM) enzymes. The necessary conditions for action of molecular motors are chirality, the presence of the C{sub 2} (or lower) symmetry axis within rather large atomic groups, and polarization properties. The estimates were made for the material parameters of helicases, which translocate DNA due to moving chiral kinks without DNA cleavage and are characterized by higher viscosity, low mobility, and smaller chiral kinetic coefficients than type II RM enzymes. This paper discusses the efficiency of helicases with opposite polarities that drive DNA translocation in opposite directions.

  9. The impact of aesthetic evaluation and physical ability on dance perception.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Kirsch, Louise; Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The field of neuroaesthetics attracts attention from neuroscientists and artists interested in the neural underpinnings of esthetic experience. Though less studied than the neuroaesthetics of visual art, dance neuroaesthetics is a particularly rich subfield to explore, as it is informed not only by research on the neurobiology of aesthetics, but also by an extensive literature on how action experience shapes perception. Moreover, it is ideally suited to explore the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience, which posits that activation within sensorimotor areas of the brain, known as the action observation network (AON), is a critical element of the esthetic response. In the present study, we address how observers' esthetic evaluation of dance is related to their perceived physical ability to reproduce the movements they watch. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating how much they liked and how well they thought they could physically replicate a range of dance movements performed by professional ballet dancers. We used parametric analyses to evaluate brain regions that tracked with degree of liking and perceived physical ability. The findings reveal strongest activation of occipitotemporal and parietal portions of the AON when participants view movements they rate as both esthetically pleasing and difficult to reproduce. As such, these findings begin to illuminate how the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience might apply to watching dance, and provide preliminary evidence as to why some people find enjoyment in an evening at the ballet. PMID:21960969

  10. The Impact of Aesthetic Evaluation and Physical Ability on Dance Perception

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Emily S.; Kirsch, Louise; Ticini, Luca F.; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The field of neuroaesthetics attracts attention from neuroscientists and artists interested in the neural underpinnings of esthetic experience. Though less studied than the neuroaesthetics of visual art, dance neuroaesthetics is a particularly rich subfield to explore, as it is informed not only by research on the neurobiology of aesthetics, but also by an extensive literature on how action experience shapes perception. Moreover, it is ideally suited to explore the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience, which posits that activation within sensorimotor areas of the brain, known as the action observation network (AON), is a critical element of the esthetic response. In the present study, we address how observers’ esthetic evaluation of dance is related to their perceived physical ability to reproduce the movements they watch. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating how much they liked and how well they thought they could physically replicate a range of dance movements performed by professional ballet dancers. We used parametric analyses to evaluate brain regions that tracked with degree of liking and perceived physical ability. The findings reveal strongest activation of occipitotemporal and parietal portions of the AON when participants view movements they rate as both esthetically pleasing and difficult to reproduce. As such, these findings begin to illuminate how the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience might apply to watching dance, and provide preliminary evidence as to why some people find enjoyment in an evening at the ballet. PMID:21960969

  11. Physics in cell biology: on the physics of biopolymers and molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Frey, Erwin

    2002-03-12

    "What is Life?" is the title of a book by Erwin Schrödinger, first published in 1944. This book is a bold attempt to try to understand some of the wonders of life in terms of physics, in particular statistical mechanics. Since the publication of this visionary book, we have seen a revolution in molecular biology complemented by the development of new physical tools like single-molecule spectroscopy. The goal of this article is to highlight some examples where physics can contribute to questions in cell biology. One might hope that through interdisciplinary research one can get closer to answering Schrödinger's fundamental question.

  12. Investigating the Spatial Abilities of Students Taking Physics in Community College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossu, M. R.; Cid, X.; Lopez, R.

    2010-10-01

    Two independent tests that involve spatial visualization abilities, the PFT (Paper Folding Test) and the MRT (Mental Rotation Test) were given to different sections of introductory level physics students. The results show a strong correlation between the results of the two tests regardless of the different level of mathematics used in instruction (algebra or calculus). A statistically significant difference was found for both tests between the summer semester students (mostly 4-year university students) and the fall semester students (mostly community college students). No correlation was found between the PFT or MRT and FCI (Force Concept Inventory).

  13. Effectiveness of motor practice in lucid dreams: a comparison with physical and mental practice.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Motor practice in lucid dreams is a form of mental rehearsal where the dreamer can consciously rehearse motor skills in the dream state while being physically asleep. A previous pilot study showed that practice in lucid dreams can improve subsequent performance. This study aimed to replicate those findings with a different task (finger-tapping) and compare the effectiveness of lucid dream practice (LDP) not only to physical but also to mental practice (MP) in wakefulness. An online experiment was completed by 68 participants within four groups: LDP group, MP group, physical practice (PP) group and control (no practice) group. Pre-test was accomplished in the evening, post-test in the next morning, while the practice was done during the night. All three practice groups significantly improved their performance from pre-test to post-test, but no significant improvements were observed for the control group. Subjective sleep quality was not affected by night practice. This study thus corroborates the previous findings that practice in lucid dreams is effective in improving performance. Its effects seem to be similar to actual PP and MP in wakefulness. Future studies should establish reliable techniques for lucid dream induction and verify the effects of LDP in sleep laboratory conditions.

  14. Effectiveness of motor practice in lucid dreams: a comparison with physical and mental practice.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Motor practice in lucid dreams is a form of mental rehearsal where the dreamer can consciously rehearse motor skills in the dream state while being physically asleep. A previous pilot study showed that practice in lucid dreams can improve subsequent performance. This study aimed to replicate those findings with a different task (finger-tapping) and compare the effectiveness of lucid dream practice (LDP) not only to physical but also to mental practice (MP) in wakefulness. An online experiment was completed by 68 participants within four groups: LDP group, MP group, physical practice (PP) group and control (no practice) group. Pre-test was accomplished in the evening, post-test in the next morning, while the practice was done during the night. All three practice groups significantly improved their performance from pre-test to post-test, but no significant improvements were observed for the control group. Subjective sleep quality was not affected by night practice. This study thus corroborates the previous findings that practice in lucid dreams is effective in improving performance. Its effects seem to be similar to actual PP and MP in wakefulness. Future studies should establish reliable techniques for lucid dream induction and verify the effects of LDP in sleep laboratory conditions. PMID:25846062

  15. The influence of physical activity, body composition, and lower extremity strength on walking ability.

    PubMed

    Marques, Elisa; Carvalho, Joana; Pizarro, Andreia; Wanderlay, Flávia; Mota, Jorge

    2011-10-01

    We examined the relationship among objective measures of body composition, lower extremity strength, physical activity, and walking performance and determined whether this interaction differed according to walking ability. Participants were 126 adults ages 60-91 yr. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the 30-s chair stand test (30sCST), appendicular lean mass index (aLMI), body mass index, and age were independent contributors to walking performance, explaining 44.3% of the variance. For slower walkers, appendicular fat mass index (aFMI), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), 30sCST, and aLMI (r2 = .49, p < .001) largely explained variance in walking performance. For faster walkers, aFMI and aLMI explained 31.4% (p < .001) of the variance. These data suggest that both fat and lean mass are associated with walking performance in higher- and lower-functioning older adults, whereas MPVA and muscle strength influence walking ability only among lower-functioning older adults. PMID:22113093

  16. A multigenerational family study of oral and hand motor sequencing ability provides evidence for a familial speech sound disorder subtype

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Beate; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate phenotypic expressions of speech sound disorder (SSD) in multigenerational families with evidence of familial forms of SSD. Method Members of five multigenerational families (N = 36) produced rapid sequences of monosyllables and disyllables and tapped computer keys with repetitive and alternating movements. Results Measures of repetitive and alternating motor speed were correlated within and between the two motor systems. Repetitive and alternating motor speeds increased in children and decreased in adults as a function of age. In two families with children who had severe speech deficits consistent with disrupted praxis, slowed alternating, but not repetitive, oral movements characterized most of the affected children and adults with a history of SSD, and slowed alternating hand movements were seen in some of the biologically related participants as well. Conclusion Results are consistent with a familial motor-based SSD subtype with incomplete penetrance, motivating new clinical questions about motor-based intervention not only in the oral but also the limb system. PMID:21909176

  17. The Use of Health Related Physical Fitness Tests to Achieve Sex Fair Ability Grouping of Students in Junior and Senior High School Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    The use of health-related physical fitness tests for sex-fair ability grouping in physical education classes requires the verification of two assumptions: (1) that there exists a direct positive relationship between health-related physical fitness and development and/or improvement of various sport skills; and (2) that there is a physiological…

  18. Practical Management Concerns regarding the Use of Health-Related, Motor and Skill Tests to Achieve Sex-Fair Ability Groupings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Janet

    There are many advantages and disadvantages of ability tests for sex-fairness. Several types of assessment criteria for sex-fair ability grouping could be used in fitness-related activities in the curriculum. Health-related physical fitness tests, designed to measure an individual's health fitness and provide for individual improvement, are not…

  19. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified according to…

  20. Effect of Locomotor Training on Motor Recovery and Walking Ability in Patients with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Equebal, Ameed; Palekar, Tushar J; Nezamuddin, M; Neyaz, Osama; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to describe the effect of locomotor training on a treadmill for three individuals who have an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). [Subjects and Methods] Three indivduals (2 males, 1 female) with incomplete paraplegia participated in this prospective case series. All subjects participated in locomotor training for a maximum of 20 minutes on a motorized treadmill without elevation at a comfortable walking speed three days a week for four weeks as an adjunct to a conventional physiotherapy program. The lower extremity strength and walking capabilities were used as the outcome measures of this study. Lower extremity strength was measured by lower extremity motor score (LEMS). Walking capability was assessed using the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II). [Results] An increase in lower extremity motor score and walking capabilities at the end of training program was found. [Conclusion] Gait training on a treadmill can enhance motor recovery and walking capabilities in subjects with incomplete SCI. Further research is needed to generalize these findings and to identify which patients might benefit from locomotor training. PMID:25013303

  1. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelopmental therapy was applied. The Pediatric Balance Scale test and standing and gait items of the Gross Motor Function Measure were evaluated before and after intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale scores statistically significantly increased after the intervention. The control group showed no statistically significant difference in either score after the intervention. [Conclusion] Concentric and eccentric control exercise therapy in children with spastic hemiplegia can be effective in improving gross motor function and balance ability, and can be used to solve functional problems in a paretic leg. PMID:27512281

  2. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelopmental therapy was applied. The Pediatric Balance Scale test and standing and gait items of the Gross Motor Function Measure were evaluated before and after intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale scores statistically significantly increased after the intervention. The control group showed no statistically significant difference in either score after the intervention. [Conclusion] Concentric and eccentric control exercise therapy in children with spastic hemiplegia can be effective in improving gross motor function and balance ability, and can be used to solve functional problems in a paretic leg. PMID:27512281

  3. The Relationship between Chinese High School Students' Implicit Theories of Ability in Sports and Perceived Enjoyment in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    According to theory, students' implicit theories of ability can affect their motivation and engagement in physical education (PE). Limited research has been conducted to examine the relationships between implicit theories of ability and motivation and engagement among K-12 students in PE. Our study examined the relationship between implicit…

  4. The influence of a physical ability intervention program on improved running time and increased sport motivation among Jerusalem schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S T; Bronner, S

    1988-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between physical activity and coronary heart disease (CHD). Other studies have reported a negative correlation between aerobic capacity and obesity and CHD risk factors among adolescents. In this study, the possibility of modifying physical ability in adolescents aged 13 has been examined through a physical ability intervention program. During 1984-1985, all eligible eighth graders from five Jerusalem public schools participated in the program. Physical ability was defined in the biological dimension by the running time for 1000 meters, and in the psychological dimension by sport motivation. The intervention program involved a periodic and progressive increase of physical effort of children in 16 gym lessons during the regular curriculum. The major findings were that the test group improved their running time and had better sport motivation than did the control group, and there were differences between boys and girls and an influence of sexual maturation on running time in girls.

  5. Effectiveness of a training program with physical education students and experienced physical education teachers in scoring the Test of Gross Motor Development.

    PubMed

    Suomi, R; Suomi, J

    1997-06-01

    Recently there has been an increase in the need for instruction and assessment of motor skills of students with disabilities for the regular physical education teacher; however, research has indicated that training of physical educators in assessment of motor skills for students with disabilities is often inadequate. Models of teaching preparation such as the infusion approach stress the need to integrate teaching and assessment techniques applicable to students with and without disabilities. In this study, the effectiveness of assessment training on the accuracy of scoring the Test of Gross Motor Development was investigated. Two students (one special education, one nonspecial education) were filmed and evaluated by three experts in the field of adapted physical education. The expert raters' scores were then compared to scores obtained by 26 physical education students and 26 experienced physical education teachers. Results of the study indicate that the instruction received in an assessment course enables undergraduate physical education students to assess accurately the motor skill performance of students with and without disabilities.

  6. The Impact of Physical Activity on Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cusso, Melanie E.; Donald, Kenneth J.; Khoo, Tien K.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss, and Scopus using the MeSH search terms “Parkinson’s,” “Parkinson,” and “Parkinsonism” in conjunction with “exercise,” “physical activity,” “physiotherapy,” “occupational therapy,” “physical therapy,” “rehabilitation,” “dance,” and “martial arts.” Twenty studies matched inclusion criteria of having 10 or more participants with diagnosed idiopathic PD participating in the intervention as well as having to evaluate the effects of physical activity on NMS in PD as controlled, randomized intervention studies. The outcomes of interest were NMS, including depression, cognition, fatigue, apathy, anxiety, and sleep. Risk of bias in the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias. Comparability of the various intervention methods, however, was challenging due to demographic variability and methodological differences. Nevertheless, physical activity can positively impact the global NMS burden including depression, apathy, fatigue, day time sleepiness, sleep, and cognition, thus supporting its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions such as PD. It is recommended that further adequately powered studies are conducted to assess the therapeutic role of physical activity on both motor and non-motor aspects of PD. These studies should be optimally designed to assess non-motor elements of disease using instruments validated

  7. Investigation of Problem Solving Ability of Students in School of Physical Education and Sports (Kafkas University Sample)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the problem solving abilities of School of Physical Education and Sports students. To achieve this aim, in the academic year 2013-2014, a research group did a study of 433 students of the School of Physical Education and Sports, Kafkas University. This sample consisted of 184 female and 249 male students.…

  8. The Influence of Friendships and Friendship-Making Ability in Physical Activity Participation in Chiang Mai, Thailand High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Taylor, Jerry; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Novilla, Lelinneth M.

    2005-01-01

    Unfortunately, the influence of friendships is a neglected area of investigation in studies of youth physical activity. This study investigated the degree to which three friendship variables (ability to make friends, level of involvement with friends, perceived friends' involvement in exercise/physical activity) was associated with physical…

  9. Motor and language abilities from early to late toddlerhood: using formalized assessments to capture continuity and discontinuity in development.

    PubMed

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Gill, Simone V

    2014-07-01

    Developmental tests reflect the premise that decreases in skills over time should be a sign of atypical development. In contrast, from a psychological perspective, discontinuity may be viewed as a normal part of typical development. This study sought to describe the variability in patterns of continuity and discontinuity in developmental scores over time. Seventy-six toddlers (55% boys) from a larger screening study were evaluated at 13 and 30 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Development (MSEL) in five areas: gross motor, fine motor, visual perception, receptive language, and expressive language. Parents completed the First Year Inventory (FYI) at 12 months as well. At 30 months, 23.68% of the sample received a clinical diagnosis (e.g., developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder [ASD]). Toddlers were classified as stable, increasing, or decreasing by at least 1.5 standard deviations (SD) on their scores in each of the five MSEL areas from 13 to 30 months. Between 3.9% and 51.3% of the sample was classified as increasing and 0-23.7% as decreasing across areas. Decreases in motor areas were associated with increases in language areas. None of the toddlers showed decreases greater than 1.5 SD on their MSEL composite scores. There was no single pattern that characterized a certain diagnosis. Higher FYI sensory-regulatory risk was associated with decreases in gross motor. Lower FYI risk was linked with increases in receptive language. Developmental discontinuity in specific developmental areas was the rule rather than the exception. Interpretations of decreases in developmental levels must consider concurrent increases in skill during this emerging period.

  10. Motor and language abilities from early to late toddlerhood: using formalized assessments to capture continuity and discontinuity in development.

    PubMed

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Gill, Simone V

    2014-07-01

    Developmental tests reflect the premise that decreases in skills over time should be a sign of atypical development. In contrast, from a psychological perspective, discontinuity may be viewed as a normal part of typical development. This study sought to describe the variability in patterns of continuity and discontinuity in developmental scores over time. Seventy-six toddlers (55% boys) from a larger screening study were evaluated at 13 and 30 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Development (MSEL) in five areas: gross motor, fine motor, visual perception, receptive language, and expressive language. Parents completed the First Year Inventory (FYI) at 12 months as well. At 30 months, 23.68% of the sample received a clinical diagnosis (e.g., developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder [ASD]). Toddlers were classified as stable, increasing, or decreasing by at least 1.5 standard deviations (SD) on their scores in each of the five MSEL areas from 13 to 30 months. Between 3.9% and 51.3% of the sample was classified as increasing and 0-23.7% as decreasing across areas. Decreases in motor areas were associated with increases in language areas. None of the toddlers showed decreases greater than 1.5 SD on their MSEL composite scores. There was no single pattern that characterized a certain diagnosis. Higher FYI sensory-regulatory risk was associated with decreases in gross motor. Lower FYI risk was linked with increases in receptive language. Developmental discontinuity in specific developmental areas was the rule rather than the exception. Interpretations of decreases in developmental levels must consider concurrent increases in skill during this emerging period. PMID:24751905

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Description of Oral Motor, Articulatory, Short-Term Memory, Grammatical, and Semantic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Marianne; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The communication skills of 8 children (ages 4 to 9) with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS) were assessed and compared with non-FAS children matched for ethnic background, living situation, and nonverbal cognitive ability. FAS children showed abnormalities of the speech mechanism and inconsistent articulation, comprehension, and grammatical abilities.…

  12. Nitric Oxide and the Biological Cascades Underlying Increased Neurogenesis, Enhanced Learning Ability, and Academic Ability as an Effect of Increased Bouts of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    HUNT, SAMUEL J.; NAVALTA, JAMES W.

    2012-01-01

    The consummate principle underlying all physiological research is corporeal adaptation at every level of the organism observed. With respect to humans, the body learns to function based on the external stimuli from the environment, beginning in the womb, throughout the developmental stages of life. Nitric Oxide (NO) appears to be the governor of the plasticity of several systems in mammals implicit in their proper development. It is the purpose of this review to describe the physiological pathways that lead to plasticity of not only the vasculature but also of the brain and how physical activity plays a key role in those alterations by initiating the mechanism that triggers NO production. Further, this review hopes to show a connection between these changes and learning, comprising both motor learning and cognitive learning. This review will show how NO plays a significant role in vascularization and neurogenesis, necessary to enhance the mind-body connection and comprehensive physical performance and adaptation. It is our belief that this review effectively demonstrates, using a multidisciplinary approach, the causal mechanisms underlying the increases in neurogenesis as related to improved learning and academic performance as a result of adequate bouts of physical activity of a vigorous nature. PMID:27182387

  13. Feedback schedules for motor-skill learning: the similarities and differences between physical and observational practice.

    PubMed

    Badets, Arnaud; Blandin, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors assessed different knowledge of results (KR) schedules for observational and physical practice. In Experiment 1, participants had to learn a sequence timing task under either a bandwidth (KR being delivered when participants’ performance was outside a predefined bandwidth or range) or yoked (same number of KRs provided as the bandwidth group) KR procedure. The results show that for both practice conditions the bandwidth KR schedule was more effective in promoting learning than the yoked schedule. During Experiment 2, a KR frequency was controlled (100% or 33% KR) and the data indicate that a reduced KR frequency only enhanced the learning of observers. Because a low KR frequency improves the sensory process controlling motor learning, the authors propose that action observation may be perceptual in nature.

  14. The development of self-perceptions of ability and achievement goals and their relations in physical education.

    PubMed

    Xiang, P; Lee, A

    1998-09-01

    This study examined the development of self-perceptions of ability and achievement goals and their relationships in physical education. Three hundred and eight students in 4th, 8th, and 11th grades completed questionnaires assessing their goal orientations, conceptions of ability, and perceived competence in physical education. Analyses assessing grade-related changes in conceptions of ability and achievement goals showed that as the students progressed from grades 4 through 11, they were more likely to: (a) interpret ability as a stable capacity that may limit or increase the effect of effort on performance and (b) become ego-oriented. Analyses assessing relationships between variables of interest across grade level revealed that achievement goals were related to different conceptions of ability, students' self-ratings were significantly positively correlated to their teachers' ratings of their competence, and no consistent relationships emerged between achievement goals and perceived competence.

  15. One-dimensional chain of quantum molecule motors as a mathematical physics model for muscle fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Tie-Yan

    2015-12-01

    A quantum chain model of multiple molecule motors is proposed as a mathematical physics theory for the microscopic modeling of classical force-velocity relation and tension transients in muscle fibers. The proposed model was a quantum many-particle Hamiltonian to predict the force-velocity relation for the slow release of muscle fibers, which has not yet been empirically defined and was much more complicated than the hyperbolic relationships. Using the same Hamiltonian model, a mathematical force-velocity relationship was proposed to explain the tension observed when the muscle was stimulated with an alternative electric current. The discrepancy between input electric frequency and the muscle oscillation frequency could be explained physically by the Doppler effect in this quantum chain model. Further more, quantum physics phenomena were applied to explore the tension time course of cardiac muscle and insect flight muscle. Most of the experimental tension transient curves were found to correspond to the theoretical output of quantum two- and three-level models. Mathematical modeling electric stimulus as photons exciting a quantum three-level particle reproduced most of the tension transient curves of water bug Lethocerus maximus. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Foundation for the Central Universities of China.

  16. Early physical and motor development of mouse offspring exposed to valproic acid throughout intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Podgorac, Jelena; Pešić, Vesna; Pavković, Željko; Martać, Ljiljana; Kanazir, Selma; Filipović, Ljupka; Sekulić, Slobodan

    2016-09-15

    Clinical research has identified developmental delay and physical malformations in children prenatally exposed to the antiepileptic drug (AED) valproic acid (VPA). However, the early signs of neurodevelopmental deficits, their evolution during postnatal development and growth, and the dose effects of VPA are not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the influence of maternal exposure to a wide dose range (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg/day) of VPA during breeding and gestation on early physical and neuromotor development in mice offspring. Body weight gain, eye opening, the surface righting reflex (SRR) and tail suspension test (TST) were examined in the offspring at postnatal days 5, 10 and 15. We observed that: (1) all tested doses of VPA reduced the body weight of the offspring and the timing of eye opening; (2) offspring exposed to VPA displayed immature forms of righting and required more time to complete the SRR; (3) latency for the first immobilization in the TST is shorter in offspring exposed to higher doses of VPA; however, mice in all groups exposed to VPA exhibited atypical changes in this parameter during the examined period of maturation; (4) irregularities in swinging and curling activities were observed in animals exposed to higher doses of VPA. This study points to delayed somatic development and postponed maturation of the motor system in all of the offspring prenatally exposed to VPA, with stronger effects observed at higher doses. The results implicate that the strategy of continuous monitoring of general health and achievements in motor milestones during the early postnatal development in prenatally VPA-exposed offspring, irrespectively of the dose applied, could help to recognize early developmental irregularities.

  17. Can Quantitative Muscle Strength and Functional Motor Ability Differentiate the Influence of Age and Corticosteroids in Ambulatory Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Buckon, Cathleen; Sienko, Susan; Bagley, Anita; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Fowler, Eileen; Staudt, Loretta; Heberer, Kent; McDonald, Craig M.; Sussman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    motor skill ability seen in the older age group regardless of treatment group. Interaction effects were seen for the walking, running, and jumping dimension of the GMFM with the naïve boys scoring higher in the younger group and boys on corticosteroid therapy scoring higher in the older group. The TMT of climb 4-stairs demonstrated a significant treatment effect with the boys on corticosteroid therapy climbing stairs faster than those who were naïve, regardless of age. Examination of individual items within the upper level GMFM dimensions revealed select motor skills are more informative of disease progression than others; indicating their potential to be sensitive indicators of alterations in disease progression and intervention efficacy. Analysis of the relationship between muscle group strength and motor skill performance revealed differences in use patterns in the corticosteroid versus naïve boys. Conclusion: Significant muscle weakness is apparent in young boys with DMD regardless of corticosteroid treatment; however, older boys on corticosteroid therapy tend to have greater retention of muscle strength and motor skill ability than those who are naive. Quantification of muscle strength via isokinetic dynamometry is feasible and sensitive to the variable rates of disease progression in lower extremity muscle groups, but possibly most informative are the subtle changes in the performance characteristics of select motor skills. Further analysis of longitudinal data from this study will explore the influence of corticosteroid therapy on muscle strength and further clarify its impact on motor performance. PMID:27500011

  18. Physical Exercise as a Diagnostic, Rehabilitation, and Preventive Tool: Influence on Neuroplasticity and Motor Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pin-Barre, Caroline; Laurin, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of adult motor disabilities in the world and accounts for the greatest number of hospitalizations for neurological disease. Stroke treatments/therapies need to promote neuroplasticity to improve motor function. Physical exercise is considered as a major candidate for ultimately promoting neural plasticity and could be used for different purposes in human and animal experiments. First, acute exercise could be used as a diagnostic tool to understand new neural mechanisms underlying stroke physiopathology. Indeed, better knowledge of stroke mechanisms that affect movements is crucial for enhancing treatment/rehabilitation effectiveness. Secondly, it is well established that physical exercise training is advised as an effective rehabilitation tool. Indeed, it reduces inflammatory processes and apoptotic marker expression, promotes brain angiogenesis and expression of some growth factors, and improves the activation of affected muscles during exercise. Nevertheless, exercise training might also aggravate sensorimotor deficits and brain injury depending on the chosen exercise parameters. For the last few years, physical training has been combined with pharmacological treatments to accentuate and/or accelerate beneficial neural and motor effects. Finally, physical exercise might also be considered as a major nonpharmacological preventive strategy that provides neuroprotective effects reducing adverse effects of brain ischemia. Therefore, prestroke regular physical activity may also decrease the motor outcome severity of stroke. PMID:26682073

  19. Providing Interactive Access to Cave Geology for All Students, Regardless of Physical Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, C. `; Stredney, D.; Hittle, B.; Irving, K.; Toomey, R. S., III; Lemon, N. N.; Price, A.; Kerwin, T.

    2013-12-01

    Based on an identified need to accommodate students with mobility impairments in field-based instructional experiences, this presentation will discuss current efforts to promote participation, broaden diversity, and impart a historical perspective in the geosciences through the use of an interactive virtual environment. Developed through the integration of emerging simulation technologies, this prototypical virtual environment is created from LIDAR data of the Historic Tour route of Mammoth Cave National Park. The educational objectives of the simulation focus on four primary locations within the tour route that provide evidence of the hydrologic impact on the cave and karst formation. The overall objective is to provide a rich experience of a geological field-based learning for all students, regardless of their physical abilities. Employing a virtual environment that interchangeably uses two and three-dimensional representation of geoscience content, this synthetic field-based cave and karst module will provide an opportunity to assess the effectiveness in engaging the student community, and its efficacy in the curriculum when used as an alternative representation of a traditional field experience. The expected outcome is that based on the level of interactivity, the simulated environment will provide adequate pedagogical representation for content transfer without the need for physical experience in the uncontrolled field environment. Additionally, creating such an environment will impact all able-bodied students by providing supplemental resources that can both precede a traditional field experience and allow for students to re-examine a field site long after a the field experience, in both current formal and informal educational settings.

  20. Physical capacity and functional abilities improve in young adults with intellectual disabilities after functional training.

    PubMed

    Barwick, Ryan B; Tillman, Mark D; Stopka, Christine B; Dipnarine, Krishna; Delisle, Anthony; Sayedul Huq, Mona

    2012-06-01

    Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have higher rates of obesity, lower rates of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular endurance than do typically developed individuals (TDI) and are twice as likely to develop chronic disease, living half as long as TDIs do. The purpose of this study was to examine the improvements in physical capacity and functional ability in Special Olympic Athletes (SOAs) aged 19-22 years after participating in a functional training (FT) program and compare these scores with those of the SOAs in a resistance weight training (WT) program. Twenty SOAs (13 men, 7 women with mild to moderate ID) participated in a 1-hour FT program, twice a week, for 10 weeks, compared with 22 same-aged SOAs (14 men, 8 women) participating in a 1-hour WT program (2× week for 8 weeks). Prefitness and postfitness tests consisting of heart rate (HR) for the 3-minute step test, static plank, body weight squats, static bar hang, and knee push-ups were conducted. Two-tailed, paired sample t-tests (p < 0.05) were used to evaluate the differences in the FT group. Change scores were used to compare FTG with the WT group. The HR decreased by 31.8 b·min⁻¹ pre-post in the FTG (p < 0.001). Static plank duration improved by 22.4 seconds in the FTG (p = 0.016); static plank change scores improved (p = 0.037) for the FTG (26.5 ± 32.1 seconds compared with that for the WT group (4.6 ± 22 seconds). Height and weight values were unchanged in both the groups. The results of this study demonstrate the value of FT programs for this population, because weight equipment is not always available in many settings.

  1. Motor skills and school performance in children with daily physical education in school--a 9-year intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, I; Karlsson, M K

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P < 0.001), 96% of the pupils in the intervention group compared to 89% in the control group (P < 0.05) qualified for upper secondary school. The sum of evaluated marks was higher among boys in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The sum of marks was also higher in pupils with no motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P < 0.01), as was the proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school (97% vs 81%, P < 0.001). Daily PE and adapted motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school.

  2. Translating good intentions into physical activity: older adults with low prospective memory ability profit from planning.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an intended action in the future and is necessary for regular physical activity (PA). For older adults with declining PM, planning strategies may help them to act upon their intentions. This study investigates PM as a moderator in a mediation process: intention predicting PA via planning. A mediated moderation was estimated with longitudinal data of older adults (M = 70 years). Intentions (T1) predicted PA (T3) via action and coping planning (T2). PM was included as moderator on the planning-PA association. Both planning strategies were significant partial mediators (action planning: b = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.10, 0.29]; coping planning: b = 0.08, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.18]). For individuals with lower PM, the indirect effect via coping planning was stronger than with higher PM (b = 0.06, 95 % CI [0.01, 0.16]). Action planning is important for PA in old age regardless of PM performance, whereas older adults with lower PM benefitted most from coping planning. Intervention studies for older adults should consider training PM and promote planning skills.

  3. A meta-analysis of sex differences in physical ability: revised estimates and strategies for reducing differences in selection contexts.

    PubMed

    Courtright, Stephen H; McCormick, Brian W; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Reeves, Cody J; Mount, Michael K

    2013-07-01

    Despite the wide use of physical ability tests for selection and placement decisions in physically demanding occupations, research has suggested that there are substantial male-female differences on the scores of such tests, contributing to adverse impact. In this study, we present updated, revised meta-analytic estimates of sex differences in physical abilities and test 3 moderators of these differences-selection system design, specificity of measurement, and training-in order to provide insight into possible methods of reducing sex differences on physical ability test scores. Findings revealed that males score substantially better on muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance tests but that there are no meaningful sex differences on movement quality tests. These estimates differ in several ways from past estimates. Results showed that sex differences are similar across selection systems that emphasize basic ability tests versus job simulations. Results also showed that sex differences are smaller for narrow dimensions of muscular strength and that there is substantial variance in the sex differences in muscular strength across different body regions. Finally, we found that training led to greater increases in performance for women than for men on both muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance tests. However, training reduced the male-female differences on muscular strengths tests only modestly and actually increased male-female differences on cardiovascular endurance. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on physical ability testing and adverse impact, as well as the practical implications of the results. PMID:23731029

  4. Sex differences in motor and cognitive abilities predicted from human evolutionary history with some implications for models of the visual system.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article expands the knowledge base available to sex researchers by reviewing recent evidence for sex differences in coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT), motor control with the hand and arm, and visual processing of stimuli in near and far space. In CAT, the differences are between sex and, therefore, typical of other widely reported sex differences. Men perform CAT tasks with greater accuracy and precision than women, who tend to underestimate time to arrival. Null findings arise because significant sex differences are found with easy but not with difficult tasks. The differences in motor control and visual processing are within sex, and they underlie reciprocal patterns of performance in women and men. Motor control is exerted better by women with the hand than the arm. In contrast, men showed the reverse pattern. Visual processing is performed better by women with stimuli within hand reach (near space) as opposed to beyond hand reach (far space); men showed the reverse pattern. The sex differences seen in each of these three abilities are consistent with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting-related skills and women for gathering-related skills. The implications of the sex differences in visual processing for two visual system models of human vision are discussed.

  5. Directly Observed Physical Activity and Fundamental Motor Skills in Four-Year-Old Children in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, S.; Sääkslahti, A. K.; Mehtälä, A.; Villberg, J. J.; Soini, A.; Poskiparta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), its location, social interactions and fundamental motor skills (FMS) were investigated in four-year-old Finnish children in day care. Six skills in the stability, locomotor and manipulative domains were assessed in 53 children (24 boys, 29 girls, normal anthropometry) with the APM-Inventory manual for assessing children's…

  6. An Exciting Experiment for Pre-Engineering and Introductory Physics Students: Creating a DC Motor Using the Lorentz Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq N.; Boehm, Manfred H.; Bushey, Ryan K.

    2008-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have been demonstrated in some instances to be difficult or uninteresting to students at the collegiate level. We have developed a laboratory that introduces the concept of the Lorentz force and allows students to build a non-traditional DC motor out of easily acquired materials. Basic electricity and magnetism…

  7. The Relationship among Motor Proficiency, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition in Children with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the motor skills and physical fitness of school-age children (6-12 years) with visual impairments (VI; n = 60) and sighted children (n = 60). The relationships between the performance parameters and the children's body composition are investigated as well as the role of the severity of the impairment. The degree of VI did not…

  8. The Effects of an Assessment-Based Physical Education Program on Motor Skill Development in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study with 21 preschool children found that children receiving a 12-week assessment-based instructional physical education program made significant gains on 6 fundamental motor skills when compared to a control group who received only supervised recess. (Author/DB)

  9. Physics of transport and traffic phenomena in biology: from molecular motors and cells to organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2005-12-01

    Traffic-like collective movements are observed at almost all levels of biological systems. Molecular motor proteins like, for example, kinesin and dynein, which are the vehicles of almost all intra-cellular transport in eukaryotic cells, sometimes encounter traffic jam that manifests as a disease of the organism. Similarly, traffic jam of collagenase MMP-1, which moves on the collagen fibrils of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, has also been observed in recent experiments. Novel efforts have been made to utilize some uni-cellular organisms as “micro-transporters”. Traffic-like movements of social insects like ants and termites on trails are, perhaps, more familiar in our everyday life. Experimental, theoretical and computational investigations in the last few years have led to a deeper understanding of the generic or common physical principles involved in these phenomena. In this review we critically examine the current status of our understanding, expose the limitations of the existing methods, mention open challenging questions and speculate on the possible future directions of research in this interdisciplinary area where physics meets not only chemistry and biology but also (nano-)technology.

  10. Impact on quality of life and physical ability of pregnancy-related back pain in the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Coban, Ayden; Arslan, Gülsah Gürol; Colakfakioglu, Arzu; Sirlan, Aygül

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of pregnancy-related back pain on quality of life and physical ability in the third trimester of pregnancy. One hundred women in the 28th-40th week of pregnancy were asked to fill out questionnaires including: general questions about background factors, the Katz's Activity's Daily Living Index (ADL), and Short Form of WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF). Back pain intensity was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and functional limitation was measured by Oswestry Low Back Disability Questionnaire (OSW). It was found that, in the third trimester, pregnant women with back pain (PBP) with low pain intensity and moderate functional limitation did not have an impact on quality of life but decreased physical ability when compared to pregnant women with no back pain (NBP). As the back pain intensity of pregnant women increases, physical ability decreases.

  11. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  12. Primary motor cortex changes after amputation correlate with phantom limb pain and the ability to move the phantom limb.

    PubMed

    Raffin, Estelle; Richard, Nathalie; Giraux, Pascal; Reilly, Karen T

    2016-04-15

    A substantial body of evidence documents massive reorganization of primary sensory and motor cortices following hand amputation, the extent of which is correlated with phantom limb pain. Many therapies for phantom limb pain are based upon the idea that plastic changes after amputation are maladaptive and attempt to normalize representations of cortical areas adjacent to the hand area. Recent data suggest, however, that higher levels of phantom pain are associated with stronger local activity and more structural integrity in the missing hand area rather than with reorganization of neighbouring body parts. While these models appear to be mutually exclusive they could co-exist, and one reason for the apparent discrepancy between them might be that no single study has examined the organisation of lip, elbow, and hand movements in the same participants. In this study we thoroughly examined the 3D anatomy of the central sulcus and BOLD responses during movements of the hand, elbow, and lips using MRI techniques in 11 upper-limb amputees and 17 healthy control subjects. We observed different reorganizational patterns for all three body parts as the former hand area showed few signs of reorganization, but the lip and elbow representations reorganized and shifted towards the hand area. We also found that poorer voluntary control and higher levels of pain in the phantom limb were powerful drivers of the lip and elbow topological changes. In addition to providing further support for the maladaptative plasticity model, we demonstrate for the first time that motor capacities of the phantom limb correlate with post-amputation reorganization, and that this reorganization is not limited to the face and hand representations but also includes the proximal upper-limb. PMID:26854561

  13. Primary motor cortex changes after amputation correlate with phantom limb pain and the ability to move the phantom limb.

    PubMed

    Raffin, Estelle; Richard, Nathalie; Giraux, Pascal; Reilly, Karen T

    2016-04-15

    A substantial body of evidence documents massive reorganization of primary sensory and motor cortices following hand amputation, the extent of which is correlated with phantom limb pain. Many therapies for phantom limb pain are based upon the idea that plastic changes after amputation are maladaptive and attempt to normalize representations of cortical areas adjacent to the hand area. Recent data suggest, however, that higher levels of phantom pain are associated with stronger local activity and more structural integrity in the missing hand area rather than with reorganization of neighbouring body parts. While these models appear to be mutually exclusive they could co-exist, and one reason for the apparent discrepancy between them might be that no single study has examined the organisation of lip, elbow, and hand movements in the same participants. In this study we thoroughly examined the 3D anatomy of the central sulcus and BOLD responses during movements of the hand, elbow, and lips using MRI techniques in 11 upper-limb amputees and 17 healthy control subjects. We observed different reorganizational patterns for all three body parts as the former hand area showed few signs of reorganization, but the lip and elbow representations reorganized and shifted towards the hand area. We also found that poorer voluntary control and higher levels of pain in the phantom limb were powerful drivers of the lip and elbow topological changes. In addition to providing further support for the maladaptative plasticity model, we demonstrate for the first time that motor capacities of the phantom limb correlate with post-amputation reorganization, and that this reorganization is not limited to the face and hand representations but also includes the proximal upper-limb.

  14. Non-physical practice improves task performance in an unstable, perturbed environment: motor imagery and observational balance training

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Wolfgang; Lorch, Michael; Zeiter, Sibylle; Keller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    For consciously performed motor tasks executed in a defined and constant way, both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have been shown to promote motor learning. It is not known whether these forms of non-physical training also improve motor actions when these actions have to be variably applied in an unstable and unpredictable environment. The present study therefore investigated the influence of MI balance training (MI_BT) and a balance training combining AO and MI (AO+MI_BT) on postural control of undisturbed and disturbed upright stance on unstable ground. As spinal reflex excitability after classical (i.e., physical) balance training (BT) is generally decreased, we tested whether non-physical BT also has an impact on spinal reflex circuits. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated into an MI_BT group, in which participants imagined postural exercises, an AO+MI_BT group, in which participants observed videos of other people performing balance exercises and imagined being the person in the video, and a non-active control group (CON). Before and after 4 weeks of non-physical training, balance performance was assessed on a free-moving platform during stance without perturbation and during perturbed stance. Soleus H-reflexes were recorded during stable and unstable stance. The post-measurement revealed significantly decreased postural sway during undisturbed and disturbed stance after both MI_BT and AO+MI_BT. Spinal reflex excitability remained unchanged. This is the first study showing that non-physical training (MI_BT and AO+MI_BT) not only promotes motor learning of “rigid” postural tasks but also improves performance of highly variable and unpredictable balance actions. These findings may be relevant to improve postural control and thus reduce the risk of falls in temporarily immobilized patients. PMID:25538598

  15. Effect of hyperhydration on bone mineralization in physically healthy subjects after prolonged restriction of motor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Naexu, Konstantin A.

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a daily intake of fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) on bone mineralization in physically healthy male volunteers after exposure to hypokinesia (decreased number of steps taken/day) over a period of 364 days. The studies were performed after exposure to 364 days of hypokinesia (HK) on 18 physically healthy male volunteers who had an average VO2max of 65 ml/kg/min and were aged between 19 and 24 years. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect the volunteers were kept under an average of 1000 steps/day. The subjects were divided into three equal groups of 6: 6 underwent a normal ambulatory life (control group), 6 were placed under HK (hypokinetic group) and the remaining 6 were subjected to HK and consumed a daily FSS (water 26 ml/kg body wt and NaCl 0.10 mg/kg body wt) (hyperhydrated group). The density of the ulnar, radius, tibia, fibular, lumbar vertebrae and calcenous was measured. Calcium and phosphorus changes, plasma volume, blood pressure and body weight were determined. Calcium content in the examined skeletal bones decreased more in the hypokinetic subjects than in the hyperhydrated subjects. Urinary calcium and phosphorus losses were more pronounced in hypokinetic than hyperhydrated subjects. Plasma volume and body weight increased in hyperhydrated subjects, while it decreased in hypokinetic subjects. It was concluded that a daily intake of FSS may be used to neutralize bone demineralization in physically healthy subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity.

  16. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), a pretest was done in all groups. Afterwards, SPARK and Gym PE programs were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions each week. The third group used to do the routine physical education program in their daycare. After 8 weeks (24 sessions), the post tests were done for all groups with the same scoring system as the pretest. Findings The results showed that the SPARK program had a higher efficacy on the promotion of the fundamental motor skills comparing to the routine physical education programs or gymnastics PE group. Conclusion SPARK can be used as an appropriate alternative in order to promote the children's motor skills. PMID:23724186

  17. [Diagnosis and certification of the ability of epileptic patients to drive motor vehicles: cases consulted by the author].

    PubMed

    Sińczuk-Walczak, Halina; Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent diagnostic problem. It is also difficult to certify whether an epileptic patient is able to drive a motor vehicle. With the advent of efficient anti-epileptic treatment, a general practice of refusing epileptic patients driving license should be seriously reconsidered. However, the matter should be given careful consideration not to jeopardize public safety and patients' rights. The aim of the study was to highlight the problems encountered in rediagnosing and certifying people with diagnosed epilepsy or pseudoepileptic seizures. The authors discuss the diagnosis and certification procedures in persons with epileptic seizures after severe craniocerebral trauma. They also analyze a case of diagnosed epilepsy suggesting the syncope in a patient with cardiac defect; a case of psychogenous pseudoepileptic seizures and the course of the disease in a patient with febrile convulsions in childhood. The problems result from the fact that reliable medical histories are not available and thus the retroassessment of the clinical picture of epileptic seizures is not possible. Missing results of timely laboratory tests (EEG, ECG) and diagnostic errors concerning earlier episodes, especially epilepsy diagnosed inconsiderately, are additional obstacles.

  18. Plant-derived nanoparticle treatment with cocc 30c ameliorates attention and motor abilities in sleep-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Zubedat, S; Freed, Y; Eshed, Y; Cymerblit-Sabba, A; Ritter, A; Nachmani, M; Harush, R; Aga-Mizrachi, S; Avital, A

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is an essential physiological process that underlies crucial cognitive functions as well as emotional reactivity. Thus, sleep deprivation (SD) may exert various deleterious effects. In this study, we aimed to examine the adverse behavioral and hormonal effects of SD and a potential treatment with Plant-derived nanoparticle treatment - cocc 30c. The study was a 4-arm trial with randomization and double-blinding of verum and placebo treatments. SD was induced by using the Multiple Platform Method for 48 h. The effects of SD were evaluated behaviorally (pre-pulse inhibition (PPI), startle response and rotor-rod) at baseline as well as at 6, 12, 24h, and 14 days post deprivation. cocc 30c treatment was administrated Per Os every three hours starting immediately after baseline tests and for a period of 24h. On day 14, blood samples were taken and serum levels of corticosterone, testosterone, serotonin and leptin were tested. We found that cocc 30c improved PPI 12 and 24h post deprivation, likewise, cocc 30c improved motor learning. On day 14 SD led to increased startle response that was ameliorated by cocc 30c. Likewise, SD led to increased levels of corticosterone and serotonin while decreasing testosterone and leptin. Interestingly, cocc 30c treatment has moderated these hormonal alterations. We conclude that the treatment with cocc 30c recovers both short-term behavioral and the long-term hormonal modulations following SD.

  19. Improvement of Spatial Ability Using Innovative Tools: Alternative View Screen and Physical Model Rotator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Brad L.; Towle, Erick; Onyancha, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial ability, which is positively correlated with retention and achievement in engineering, mathematics, and science disciplines, has been shown to improve over the course of a Computer-Aided Design course or through targeted training. However, which type of training provides the most beneficial improvements to spatial ability and whether other…

  20. Data on amyloid precursor protein accumulation, spontaneous physical activity, and motor learning after traumatic brain injury in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Shishido, Hajime; Sawanishi, Mayumi; Toyota, Yasunori; Ueno, Masaki; Kubota, Takashi; Kirino, Yutaka; Tamiya, Takashi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled "Traumatic brain injury accelerates amyloid-β deposition and impairs spatial learning in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease" (H. Shishido, Y. Kishimoto, N. Kawai, Y. Toyota, M. Ueno, T. Kubota, Y. Kirino, T. Tamiya, 2016) [1]. Triple-transgenic (3×Tg)-Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) model mice exhibited significantly poorer spatial learning than sham-treated 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Correspondingly, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition within the hippocampus was significantly greater in 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after TBI. However, data regarding the short-term and long-term influences of TBI on amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation in AD model mice remain limited. Furthermore, there is little data showing whether physical activity and motor learning are affected by TBI in AD model mice. Here, we provide immunocytochemistry data confirming that TBI induces significant increases in APP accumulation in 3×Tg-AD mice at both 7 days and 28 days after TBI. Furthermore, 3×Tg-AD model mice exhibit a reduced ability to acquire conditioned responses (CRs) during delay eyeblink conditioning compared to sham-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice 28 days after TBI. However, physical activity and motor performance are not significantly changed in TBI-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice. PMID:27656663

  1. Data on amyloid precursor protein accumulation, spontaneous physical activity, and motor learning after traumatic brain injury in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Shishido, Hajime; Sawanishi, Mayumi; Toyota, Yasunori; Ueno, Masaki; Kubota, Takashi; Kirino, Yutaka; Tamiya, Takashi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled "Traumatic brain injury accelerates amyloid-β deposition and impairs spatial learning in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease" (H. Shishido, Y. Kishimoto, N. Kawai, Y. Toyota, M. Ueno, T. Kubota, Y. Kirino, T. Tamiya, 2016) [1]. Triple-transgenic (3×Tg)-Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) model mice exhibited significantly poorer spatial learning than sham-treated 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Correspondingly, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition within the hippocampus was significantly greater in 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after TBI. However, data regarding the short-term and long-term influences of TBI on amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation in AD model mice remain limited. Furthermore, there is little data showing whether physical activity and motor learning are affected by TBI in AD model mice. Here, we provide immunocytochemistry data confirming that TBI induces significant increases in APP accumulation in 3×Tg-AD mice at both 7 days and 28 days after TBI. Furthermore, 3×Tg-AD model mice exhibit a reduced ability to acquire conditioned responses (CRs) during delay eyeblink conditioning compared to sham-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice 28 days after TBI. However, physical activity and motor performance are not significantly changed in TBI-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice.

  2. Relationship Between the Cognitive Abilities of a Group of Tertiary Physics Students and the Cognitive Requirements of their Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationship between cognitive requirements of two chapters of a physics textbook for biology/pre-med students and their ability to use prerequisite reasoning skills required for its understanding. An average of 42 percent of students tested did not consistently use reasoning skills required to understand text concepts. Discusses tests…

  3. Effects of sleep deprivation and time-of-day on selected physical abilities in off-road motorcycle riders.

    PubMed

    Bougard, Clément; Davenne, Damien

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe how the combined effects of time-of-day and sleep deprivation impact motocross riders' physical abilities. Balance, flexibility and maximal anaerobic alactic power were tested across laboratory tests that required only one ability (stork stand test, sit-and-reach test, Abalakov test) or across field tests that concentrated on a particular ability (narrow board riding test, riding under a rod test, long jump riding test) to maximise the sensitivity of the assessments and the interpretability of findings. Eight motocross riders of confirmed level took part in test sessions set up at 0600 and 1800 hours following a normal night's sleep and a night of sleep deprivation, i.e. after 1, 13, 23 and 35 waking hours. On the one hand, the results confirmed the influence of time-of-day on riders' physical abilities, performances being better at 1800 hours than at 0600 hours after the normal night's sleep. On the other hand, as far as sleep deprivation effects are concerned, the results seemed to differ on the basis of the ability under consideration and the type of test that had been set up. Performance in the field tests still presented a diurnal fluctuation, whereas this improvement over the day did not occur for the performance in the laboratory tests. It seems that compensation mechanisms between the various abilities brought into play are set up in order to moderate the effects of the lack of sleep when riding.

  4. Increased resting state connectivity between ipsilesional motor cortex and contralesional premotor cortex after transcranial direct current stimulation with physical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joyce L; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive stimulation of the brain using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during motor rehabilitation can improve the recovery of movements in individuals with stroke. However, the neural substrates that underlie the clinical improvements are not well understood. In this proof-of-principle open-label pilot study, five individuals with stroke received 10 sessions of tDCS while undergoing usual care physical/occupational therapy for the arm and hand. Motor impairment as indexed by the Upper Extremity Fugl Meyer assessment was significantly reduced after the intervention. Resting state fMRI connectivity increased between ipsilesional motor cortex and contralesional premotor cortex after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the neural underpinnings of tDCS coupled with rehabilitation exercises, may be mediated by interactions between motor and premotor cortex. The latter, of which has been shown to play an important role in the recovery of movements post-stroke. Our data suggest premotor cortex could be tested as a target region for non-invasive brain-stimulation to enhance connectivity between regions that might be beneficial for stroke motor recovery. PMID:26980052

  5. A Strategy for Embedding Functional Motor and Early Numeracy Skill Instruction into Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.; Eddins, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges educators face when attempting to find a balance between both functional and academic skill instruction for students with severe, multiple disabilities including motor impairments. The authors describe a strategy that employs embedded instruction of early numeracy and functional motor skills during physical…

  6. Motor Coordination Difficulties and Physical Fitness of Extremely-Low-Birthweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Yvonne R.; Danks, Marcella; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.; Cooper, David; Poulsen, Leith; Watter, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    Motor coordination difficulties and poor fitness exist in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) population. This study investigated the relative impact of motor coordination on the fitness of ELBW children aged 11 to 13 years. One hundred and nine children were recruited to the study: 54 ELBW participants (mean age at assessment 12y 6mo; 31 male,…

  7. Macro-regional differences in motor abilities among the 5th grade primary school pupils in the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, Dario; Neljak, Boris; Prot, Franjo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the differences in kinanthropological characteristics of elementary school pupils in relation to macro-regional characteristics of the Republic of Croatia. The research included 2358 subjects (1089 boys--average age 10.4 ± 0.6; height 150.27 ± 7.32; body mass 44.06 ± 9.74; and 1269 girls--average age 10.6 ± 0.5; height 152.02 ± 7.74; body mass 45.12 ± 10.39)--fifth grade elementary school pupils. Analyzed kinanthropological characteristics refer to statistically significant differences in the results based on the macro-region criterion (p < 0.05). It is possible to assume that climatic and temperature differences as well as gene frequency differences to a certain extent incite differences in the level of participating in physical activities, and with it the differences in kinanthropological characteristics of subjects.

  8. A Kinect-based system for physical rehabilitation: a pilot study for young adults with motor disabilities.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Huang, Jun-Da

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the possibility of rehabilitating two young adults with motor impairments using a Kinect-based system in a public school setting. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants significantly increased their motivation for physical rehabilitation, thus improving exercise performance during the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21784612

  9. Effects of Munari Powder on Physical and Sensory-motor Parameters: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Sarabon, Nejc

    2015-09-11

    Munari powder is broadly used in physical medicine and rehabilitation to decrease pain and help normalize sensory-motor function. It operates as TPRV1 agonist and "stops" generation of action potentials in pain nerve fibers. This is a short report of a pilot study on 20 subjects. Every subject underwent four visits to our laboratory, where the Munari applications and related measurements of its effects took place. Each of the healthy adults received the following applications: (1) placebo, i.e. 0% cayenne pepper mixture, consisting only of water and kaolin, (2) weak, i.e. 2.5% cayenne pepper mixture, (3) medium, i.e. 5.0% cayenne pepper mixture, and (4) strong, i.e. 10% cayenne pepper mixture. The assessments were carried out before the Munari powder patch application, right after the application, and 15 and 30 min after the termination of the 20-minute Munari powder patch application. We measured subjective cold/hot feeling on visual analogue scale, blood pressure, body temperature, skin light touch sensations, sense for two-point discrimination, and pain threshold to the mechanical stimulus. Besides these tests, maximal voluntary force during isometric trunk extension and the sitting balance test were performed. The preliminary results indicate that the 5% concentration of cayenne pepper mixture is the best choice because no additional effects were observed with the 10% concentration and the effects are higher than with 2.5% concentration. Whether this will be also thrue for the patients suffering pain ought to be determined. PMID:26913157

  10. Investigation of student ability to relate measurements of physical quantities made in different inertial reference frames*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreaux, Andrew

    1999-05-01

    The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington has been examining student understanding of relative motion in one and two dimensions. We have found that many students in introductory physics treat some vector quantities as being frame-independent or have difficulty in transforming these quantities from one frame to another. Evidence will be presented from results of interviews and written questions. * This work has been funded in part by NSF Grants DUE 9354501 and DUE 9727648, which include support from other Divisions of EHR and the Physics Division of MPS.

  11. "A Clear and Obvious "Ability" to "Perform Physical Activity"": Revisiting Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Talent in PE and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croston, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper examines physical education (PE) teachers' perceptions of talent in PE and sport within the context of English policy, where the process of identifying talent has been formalised and supported through specific resources (YST 2009). English policy has merged educational and sporting targets, which has resulted in a shift in…

  12. Automatically Characterizing Sensory-Motor Patterns Underlying Reach-to-Grasp Movements on a Physical Depth Inversion Illusion.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jillian; Majmudar, Ushma V; Ravaliya, Jay H; Papathomas, Thomas V; Torres, Elizabeth B

    2015-01-01

    Recently, movement variability has been of great interest to motor control physiologists as it constitutes a physical, quantifiable form of sensory feedback to aid in planning, updating, and executing complex actions. In marked contrast, the psychological and psychiatric arenas mainly rely on verbal descriptions and interpretations of behavior via observation. Consequently, a large gap exists between the body's manifestations of mental states and their descriptions, creating a disembodied approach in the psychological and neural sciences: contributions of the peripheral nervous system to central control, executive functions, and decision-making processes are poorly understood. How do we shift from a psychological, theorizing approach to characterize complex behaviors more objectively? We introduce a novel, objective, statistical framework, and visuomotor control paradigm to help characterize the stochastic signatures of minute fluctuations in overt movements during a visuomotor task. We also quantify a new class of covert movements that spontaneously occur without instruction. These are largely beneath awareness, but inevitably present in all behaviors. The inclusion of these motions in our analyses introduces a new paradigm in sensory-motor integration. As it turns out, these movements, often overlooked as motor noise, contain valuable information that contributes to the emergence of different kinesthetic percepts. We apply these new methods to help better understand perception-action loops. To investigate how perceptual inputs affect reach behavior, we use a depth inversion illusion (DII): the same physical stimulus produces two distinct depth percepts that are nearly orthogonal, enabling a robust comparison of competing percepts. We find that the moment-by-moment empirically estimated motor output variability can inform us of the participants' perceptual states, detecting physiologically relevant signals from the peripheral nervous system that reveal internal

  13. Automatically Characterizing Sensory-Motor Patterns Underlying Reach-to-Grasp Movements on a Physical Depth Inversion Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jillian; Majmudar, Ushma V.; Ravaliya, Jay H.; Papathomas, Thomas V.; Torres, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, movement variability has been of great interest to motor control physiologists as it constitutes a physical, quantifiable form of sensory feedback to aid in planning, updating, and executing complex actions. In marked contrast, the psychological and psychiatric arenas mainly rely on verbal descriptions and interpretations of behavior via observation. Consequently, a large gap exists between the body's manifestations of mental states and their descriptions, creating a disembodied approach in the psychological and neural sciences: contributions of the peripheral nervous system to central control, executive functions, and decision-making processes are poorly understood. How do we shift from a psychological, theorizing approach to characterize complex behaviors more objectively? We introduce a novel, objective, statistical framework, and visuomotor control paradigm to help characterize the stochastic signatures of minute fluctuations in overt movements during a visuomotor task. We also quantify a new class of covert movements that spontaneously occur without instruction. These are largely beneath awareness, but inevitably present in all behaviors. The inclusion of these motions in our analyses introduces a new paradigm in sensory-motor integration. As it turns out, these movements, often overlooked as motor noise, contain valuable information that contributes to the emergence of different kinesthetic percepts. We apply these new methods to help better understand perception-action loops. To investigate how perceptual inputs affect reach behavior, we use a depth inversion illusion (DII): the same physical stimulus produces two distinct depth percepts that are nearly orthogonal, enabling a robust comparison of competing percepts. We find that the moment-by-moment empirically estimated motor output variability can inform us of the participants' perceptual states, detecting physiologically relevant signals from the peripheral nervous system that reveal internal

  14. Fluid electrolyte changes in physically healthy subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity and daily hyperhydration.

    PubMed

    Zorbas, Y G; Ichinose, M N; Sakagamis, M B

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this report was to present some of our results, in a compressed form, obtained from our previous studies on the effect of 364-d hypokinesia (decreased number of steps taken per day by the volunteers) on the following: (1) regulation of fluid volume and osmosis, (2) regulation of electrolytes, and (3) functional condition of the kidneys and its role in the fluid-electrolyte homeostasis on 30 physically healthy male volunteers aged 22-26 years. Prior to their exposure to hypokinesia all subjects were on 13.8 km/day (10,000 running steps/day) and were all well conditioned, with (oxygen uptake capacities (VO2 max 68 ml/kg-min). During the hypokinetic period of 364 days, the 1st group was subjected to pure hypokinesia (HK), that is without the use of physical exercise (PE), the 2nd group was subjected to a set of intensive PE (energy expenditure of 700 kcal/h) and the 3rd group submitted to a set of moderate PE (energy expenditure of 400 kcal/h). All volunteers consumed daily fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) aimed at increasing body hydration level during the hypokinetic period. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect all volunteers were kept on 2.7 km/day (3000 walking steps per day). All volunteers were on a diet of freshly prepared food, with a daily intake of 2500-2700 kcal, 3340 ml water, 1500 mgs calcium, 500 mgs magnesium, 1200 mgs potassium, 1500 mgs phosphorus, 8.5 gms sodium and 9.8 gms chloride. The amount of fluid and electrolytes consumed and eliminated in urine, as well as their concentrations in the urine and blood plasma were determined. There were also measured urinary volume, osmolality, creatine, and urea changes in urine. During HK the amount of fluid and electrolytes consumed daily decreased while the rate of excretion increased significantly. During post HK the fluid and electrolytes concentrations in urine decreased significantly. The urinary urea, osmolality and creatinine increased significantly during HK. It was concluded

  15. What Physical Attributes Underlie Self-Reported vs. Observed Ability to Walk 400 m in Later Life?

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Marla K.; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Patel, Kushang V.; Kiely, Dan K.; Phillips, Caroline L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack; Bean, Jonathan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate and contrast the physical attributes that are associated with self-reported vs. observed ability to walk 400 m among older adults. Design Analysis of baseline and 3-yr data from 1026 participants 65 yrs or older in the InCHIANTI (Invecchiare in Chianti) study was conducted. Observed and self-reported ability to walk 400 m at baseline and at 3 yrs were primary outcomes. Predictors included leg speed, leg strength, leg strength symmetry, range of motion, balance, and kyphosis. Results Balance, leg speed, leg strength, kyphosis, leg strength symmetry, and knee range of motion were associated with self-reported ability to walk 400 m at baseline (P < 0.001, c = 0.85). Balance, leg speed, and knee range of motion were associated with observed 400-m walk (P < 0.001, c = 0.85) at baseline. Prospectively, baseline leg speed and leg strength were predictive of both self-reported (P < 0.001, c = 0.79) and observed (P < 0.001, c = 0.72) ability to walk 400 m at 3 yrs. Conclusions The profiles of attributes that are associated with self-reported vs. observed walking ability differ. The factor most consistently associated with current and future walking ability is leg speed. These results draw attention to important foci for rehabilitation. PMID:24322434

  16. A diagnosis of the mathematical and scientific reasoning ability of first-year physics undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saayman, Rikus

    1991-12-01

    The structure and results of a university physics entry test with 75 multiple-choice items are discussed. It measures students expertise with mathematical tools and formal logical cognitive operations required for the study of physics, and serves as a useful aid to evaluating the academic potential of a particular class, points out specific shortcomings to be rectified and advises individual students on their study choice.

  17. Teaching and Assessing Manipulative Motor Skills in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This article provides new ways to teach and assess motor skills in various lifetime sports such as tennis, golf, badminton, and other sports that students are likely to play as adults by focusing on five basic biomechanical principles.

  18. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  19. Team-Teaching in Physical Education for Promoting Coordinative Motor Skills in Children: The More You Invest the More You Get

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardaglio, Giulia; Marasso, Danilo; Magno, Francesca; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Ciairano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard physical education (PE) programs and the team-teaching methodology have rarely been evaluated to investigate their real efficacy in changing children's motor skills. Aims: The aims of this study are two-fold: The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a PE program for improving coordinative motor skills in the team…

  20. The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking

  1. Age-related physical fitness and the predictive values of fitness tests for work ability in home care work.

    PubMed

    Pohjonen, T

    2001-08-01

    Despite the widespread assessment of physical fitness in occupational medicine and health services, only a few validity studies have been made of the fitness tests used in relation to job demands. The purpose of this study was to assess the physical fitness of female home care workers (n = 132) in relation to age and to evaluate whether the fitness tests used predict work ability over a 5-year period of follow-up. Muscle endurance declined by 18% to 37%, and isometric muscle strength by 10% to 18%, from the youngest (21 to 35 years) to the oldest (45 to 59 years) age group. The proportion of those subjects who could be classified below the average age-related fitness categories according to the maximal oxygen consumption was highest (50%) for the 21-to-35 age group. The logistic regression model showed that obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 7.51) and poor results on the sit-up (OR, 8.9), balance (OR, 6.5), and weight-lifting (OR, 4.6) tests predicted the highest risk for reduced work ability, according to the work ability index used in the 5-year follow-up. Moreover, average results for the trunk side-bending test (OR, 4.6), poor results for the squatting test (OR, 3.8), poor knee extension strength (OR, 4.2), and the average maximal oxygen consumption (l.min-1) (OR, 3.1) indicated a high risk for reduction in work ability. The physical fitness tests were strongly associated with the physical demands of home care work and were relevant for the evaluation of work-related fitness among home care workers.

  2. How Physically Active Are People with Stroke in Physiotherapy Sessions Aimed at Improving Motor Function? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurpreet; English, Coralie; Hillier, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Targeted physical activity drives functional recovery after stroke. This review aimed to determine the amount of time stroke survivors spend physically active during physiotherapy sessions. Summary of Review. A systematic search was conducted to identify published studies that investigated the use of time by people with stroke during physiotherapy sessions. Seven studies were included; six observational and one randomised controlled trial. People with stroke were found to be physically active for an average of 60 percent of their physiotherapy session duration. The most common activities practiced in a physiotherapy session were walking, sitting, and standing with a mean (SD) practice time of 8.7 (4.3), 4.5 (4.0), and 8.3 (2.6) minutes, respectively. Conclusion. People with stroke were found to spend less than two-thirds of their physiotherapy sessions duration engaged in physical activity. In light of dosage studies, practice time may be insufficient to drive optimal motor recovery. PMID:22567542

  3. Investigating Middle School Students' Ability to Develop Energy as a Framework for Analyzing Simple Physical Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadouris, Nicos; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether it is possible for 12-year-old students to develop a qualitative conceptualization of energy and four associate features (forms of energy, transfer processes, conservation, and degradation) as a framework for constructing interpretive accounts for the operation of physical phenomena (specifically, for changes taking place…

  4. Scientific Reasoning Abilities of Nonscience Majors in Physics-Based Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. Christopher; Rubbo, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on…

  5. Validating Functional Measures of Physical Ability for Aging People with Intellectual Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maring, Joyce R.; Costello, Ellen; Birkmeier, Marisa C.; Richards, Maggie; Alexander, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike the aging population without intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), few standardized performance measures exist to assess physical function and risk for adverse outcomes such as nonfatal, unintentional injuries. We modified 3 selected standardized performance tools in the areas of general fitness (2-Minute Walk Test), balance…

  6. Predicting Motor Skills from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Scores, Language Ability, and Other Features of New Zealand Children Entering Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; Powell, Cheniel; Stanley, Peter; de Candole, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    The motor and language skills, emotional and behavioural problems of 245 children were measured at school entry. Fine motor scores were significantly predicted by hyperactivity, phonetic awareness, prosocial behaviour, and the presence of medical problems. Gross motor scores were significantly predicted by the presence of medical problems. The…

  7. The relationship among motor proficiency, physical fitness, and body composition in children with and without visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2010-09-01

    This study compares the motor skills and physical fitness of school-age children (6-12 years) with visual impairments (VI; n = 60) and sighted children (n = 60). The relationships between the performance parameters and the children's body composition are investigated as well as the role of the severity of the impairment. The degree of VI did not differentially affect the outcomes. Compared to their sighted peers, the children with VI scored lower on the locomotor and object control skills as assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and the physical fitness (Eurofit) parameters of plate tapping, the standing broad jump, the modified 5 x 10-m shuttle run, and 20-m multistage shuttle run (20-MST). Their body mass and body fat indexes were inversely correlated with the standing broad jump and the 20-MST but positively correlated with handgrip strength. Moreover significant inverse correlations were found between their locomotor and object control skills on the one hand and plate tapping and the 5 x 10-m shuttle run on the other hand. Given the relatively high proportion (25%) of overweight/obese children within the VI sample, educators are recommended to promote health-related activities and help enhance motor skills in this population.

  8. Masseter muscle tension, chewing ability, and selected parameters of physical fitness in elderly care home residents in Lodz, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gaszynska, Ewelina; Godala, Malgorzata; Szatko, Franciszek; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Background Maintaining good physical fitness and oral function in old age is an important element of good quality of life. Disability-related impairment of oral function contributes to a deterioration of the diet of older people and to the reduction of their social activity. Objectives Investigate the association between masseter muscle tension, dental status, and physical fitness parameters. Materials and methods Two hundred fifty-nine elderly care home residents (97 men, 162 women; mean age, 75.3±8.9 years) were involved in this cross-sectional study. Their chewing ability was evaluated by masseter muscle tension palpation, differences of masseter muscle thickness, self-reported chewing ability, number of present and functional teeth, and number of posterior tooth pairs. Masseter muscle thickness was measured by ultrasonography. To assess physical fitness, hand grip strength and the timed up-and-go test were performed. Nutritional status was assessed using body mass index and body cell mass index (BCMI), calculated on the basis of electrical bioimpedance measurements. Medical records were used to collect information on systemic diseases and the number of prescribed medications. Subjects were also evaluated for their ability to perform ten activities of daily living. Results Ninety-seven percent of the subjects suffered from systemic diseases. The three most prevalent illnesses were cardiac/circulatory 64.5%, musculoskeletal 37.3%, and endocrine/metabolic/nutritional 29.3%. Of the participants, 1.5% were underweight and more than one third (34.4%) were overweight. Malnutrition (BCMI below normal) was found in almost half (45.2%) of the subjects. Only 5.8% had a sufficient number of functional natural teeth. Statistically significant correlations were found between palpation of masseter muscle tension and perceived chewing ability, number of present teeth, number of functional teeth, number of posterior tooth pairs, timed up-and-go, hand grip strength, body mass

  9. A central back-coupling hypothesis on the organization of motor synergies: a physical metaphor and a neural model

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.; Shim, Jae Kun; Smilga, Andrei V.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    We offer a hypothesis on the organization of multi-effector motor synergies and illustrate it with the task of force production with a set of fingers. A physical metaphor, a leaking bucket, is analyzed to demonstrate that an inanimate structure can show apparent error compensation among its elements. A neural model is developed using tunable back-coupling loops as means of assuring error compensation in a task-specific way. The model demonstrates non-trivial features of multi-finger interaction such as delayed emergence of force stabilizing synergies and simultaneous stabilization of the total force and total moment produced by the fingers. The hypothesis suggests that neurophysiological structures involving short-latency feedback may play a central role in the formation of motor synergies. PMID:15739110

  10. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  11. Effects of physical exertion on trans-tibial prosthesis users' ability to accommodate alignment perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Goeran; Slavens, Brooke A; O'Connor, Kristian M; Smith, Roger O; Hafner, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Background It has long been reported that a range of prosthesis alignments is acceptable in trans-tibial prosthetics. This range was shown to be smaller when walking on uneven surfaces. It has also been argued that findings on gait with prostheses that were obtained under laboratory conditions are limited in their applicability to real-life environments. Objectives This study investigated the hypothesis that efforts to compensate for suboptimal alignments by active users of trans-tibial prostheses become less effective when levels of physical exertion increase. Study design A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare the effects of physical exertion and subtle alignment perturbations on gait with trans-tibial prostheses. Methods The gait of eight subjects with trans-tibial amputation was analyzed when walking with two different prosthesis alignments and two different physical exertion levels. The main and interaction effects were statistically evaluated. Results Bilateral step length symmetry and measures of step variability within the same leg were found to be affected by the intervention. There was no significant effect on index variables that combined kinematic or kinetic measures. Conclusion Findings showed that persons with trans-tibial prostheses responded heterogeneously to the interventions. For most variables, the research hypothesis could not be confirmed. PMID:25138114

  12. The Dynamics of Microtubule/Motor-Protein Assemblies in Biology and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Many important processes in the cell are mediated by stiff microtubule polymers and the active motor proteins moving on them. This includes the transport of subcellular structures (nuclei, chromosomes, organelles) and the self-assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle. Little is understood of these processes, but they present fascinating problems in fluid-structure interactions. Microtubules and motor proteins are also the building blocks of new biosynthetic active suspensions driven by motor-protein activity. These reduced systems can be probed—and modeled—more easily than can the fully biological ones and demonstrate their own aspects of self-assembly and complex dynamics. I review recent work modeling such systems as fluid-structure interaction problems and as multiscale complex fluids.

  13. Physical stability of drugs after storage above and below the glass transition temperature: Relationship to glass-forming ability.

    PubMed

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Alzghoul, Ahmad; Mahlin, Denny; Bergström, Christel A S

    2015-11-10

    Amorphous materials are inherently unstable and tend to crystallize upon storage. In this study, we investigated the extent to which the physical stability and inherent crystallization tendency of drugs are related to their glass-forming ability (GFA), the glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermodynamic factors. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to produce the amorphous state of 52 drugs [18 compounds crystallized upon heating (Class II) and 34 remained in the amorphous state (Class III)] and to perform in situ storage for the amorphous material for 12h at temperatures 20°C above or below the Tg. A computational model based on the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was developed to predict the structure-property relationships. All drugs maintained their Class when stored at 20°C below the Tg. Fourteen of the Class II compounds crystallized when stored above the Tg whereas all except one of the Class III compounds remained amorphous. These results were only related to the glass-forming ability and no relationship to e.g. thermodynamic factors was found. The experimental data were used for computational modeling and a classification model was developed that correctly predicted the physical stability above the Tg. The use of a large dataset revealed that molecular features related to aromaticity and π-π interactions reduce the inherent physical stability of amorphous drugs.

  14. Physical stability of drugs after storage above and below the glass transition temperature: Relationship to glass-forming ability

    PubMed Central

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Alzghoul, Ahmad; Mahlin, Denny; Bergström, Christel A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous materials are inherently unstable and tend to crystallize upon storage. In this study, we investigated the extent to which the physical stability and inherent crystallization tendency of drugs are related to their glass-forming ability (GFA), the glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermodynamic factors. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to produce the amorphous state of 52 drugs [18 compounds crystallized upon heating (Class II) and 34 remained in the amorphous state (Class III)] and to perform in situ storage for the amorphous material for 12 h at temperatures 20 °C above or below the Tg. A computational model based on the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was developed to predict the structure-property relationships. All drugs maintained their Class when stored at 20 °C below the Tg. Fourteen of the Class II compounds crystallized when stored above the Tg whereas all except one of the Class III compounds remained amorphous. These results were only related to the glass-forming ability and no relationship to e.g. thermodynamic factors was found. The experimental data were used for computational modeling and a classification model was developed that correctly predicted the physical stability above the Tg. The use of a large dataset revealed that molecular features related to aromaticity and π–π interactions reduce the inherent physical stability of amorphous drugs. PMID:26341321

  15. Using an Extended Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program to Assist People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Control to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Ability through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Software technology is adopted by the current research to improve the Drag-and-Drop abilities of two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor control. This goal was realized through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP) in which the complex dragging process is replaced by simply poking the mouse wheel and clicking. However,…

  16. Scientific reasoning abilities of nonscience majors in physics-based courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. Christopher; Rubbo, Louis J.

    2012-06-01

    We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on LCTSR score, the majority of non-STEM students can be classified as either concrete operational or transitional reasoners in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, whereas in the STEM population formal operational reasoners are far more prevalent. In particular, non-STEM students demonstrate significant difficulty with proportional and hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Prescores on the LCTSR are correlated with normalized learning gains on various concept inventories. The correlation is strongest for content that can be categorized as mostly theoretical, meaning a lack of directly observable exemplars, and weakest for content categorized as mostly descriptive, where directly observable exemplars are abundant. Although the implementation of research-verified, interactive engagement pedagogy can lead to gains in content knowledge, significant gains in theoretical content (such as force and energy) are more difficult with non-STEM students. We also observe no significant gains on the LCTSR without explicit instruction in scientific reasoning patterns. These results further demonstrate that differences in student populations are important when comparing normalized gains on concept inventories, and the achievement of significant gains in scientific reasoning requires a reevaluation of the traditional approach to physics for non-STEM students.

  17. String and Sticky Tape Experiments: Simple Self-Lubricated Electric Motor for Elementary Physics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entrikin, Jerry; Griffiths, David

    1983-01-01

    The main problem in constructing functioning electric motors from simple parts is the mounting of the axle (which is too flimsy to maintain good electrical contacts or too tight, imposing excessive friction at the supports). This problem is solved by using a pencil sharpened at both ends as the axle. (JN)

  18. Search for Autonomy in Motor Task Learning in Physical Education University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio; Lacarcel, Jose Antonio Vera; Del Villar Alvarez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The study focused on discovering the influence that an autonomous motor task learning programme had on the improvement of perceived competence, intrinsic regulation, incremental belief and motivational orientations. The study was performed with two groups of participants (n = 22 and n = 20) aged between 19 and 35 years. The instruments used were…

  19. Physically scarce (vs. enriched) environments decrease the ability to tell lies successfully.

    PubMed

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Khambatta, Poruz; Carney, Dana R

    2015-10-01

    The successful detection of deception is of critical importance to adaptive social relationships and organizations, and perhaps even national security. However, research in forensic, legal, and social psychology demonstrates that people are generally very successful deceivers. The goal of the current research was to test an intervention with the potential to decrease the likelihood of successful deception. We applied findings in the architectural, engineering, and environmental sciences that has demonstrated that enriched environments (vs. scarce ones) promote the experience of comfort, positive emotion, feelings of power and control, and increase productivity. We hypothesized that sparse, impoverished, scarcely endowed environments (vs. enriched ones) would decrease the ability to lie successfully by making liars feel uncomfortable and powerless. Study 1 examined archival footage of an international sample of criminal suspects (N = 59), including innocent relatives (n = 33) and convicted murderers (n = 26) emotionally pleading to the public for the return of a missing person. Liars in scarce environments (vs. enriched) were significantly more likely to reveal their lies through behavioral cues to deception. Study 2 (N = 79) demonstrated that the discomfort and subsequent powerlessness caused by scarce (vs. enriched) environments lead people to reveal behavioral cues to deception. Liars in scarce environments also experienced greater neuroendocrine stress reactivity and were more accurately detected by a sample of 66 naïve observers (Study 3). Taken together, data suggest that scarce environments increase difficulty, and decrease success, of deception. Further, we make available videotaped stimuli of Study 2 liars and truth-tellers. PMID:26301794

  20. Physically scarce (vs. enriched) environments decrease the ability to tell lies successfully.

    PubMed

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Khambatta, Poruz; Carney, Dana R

    2015-10-01

    The successful detection of deception is of critical importance to adaptive social relationships and organizations, and perhaps even national security. However, research in forensic, legal, and social psychology demonstrates that people are generally very successful deceivers. The goal of the current research was to test an intervention with the potential to decrease the likelihood of successful deception. We applied findings in the architectural, engineering, and environmental sciences that has demonstrated that enriched environments (vs. scarce ones) promote the experience of comfort, positive emotion, feelings of power and control, and increase productivity. We hypothesized that sparse, impoverished, scarcely endowed environments (vs. enriched ones) would decrease the ability to lie successfully by making liars feel uncomfortable and powerless. Study 1 examined archival footage of an international sample of criminal suspects (N = 59), including innocent relatives (n = 33) and convicted murderers (n = 26) emotionally pleading to the public for the return of a missing person. Liars in scarce environments (vs. enriched) were significantly more likely to reveal their lies through behavioral cues to deception. Study 2 (N = 79) demonstrated that the discomfort and subsequent powerlessness caused by scarce (vs. enriched) environments lead people to reveal behavioral cues to deception. Liars in scarce environments also experienced greater neuroendocrine stress reactivity and were more accurately detected by a sample of 66 naïve observers (Study 3). Taken together, data suggest that scarce environments increase difficulty, and decrease success, of deception. Further, we make available videotaped stimuli of Study 2 liars and truth-tellers.

  1. Effect of Visuo-Motor Co-location on 3D Fitts' Task Performance in Physical and Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Michael J.; Hershberger, Andrew D.; Sano, Kumiko; Çavuşoğlu, M. Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Given the ease that humans have with using a keyboard and mouse in typical, non-colocated computer interaction, many studies have investigated the value of co-locating the visual field and motor workspaces using immersive display modalities. Significant understanding has been gained by previous work comparing physical tasks against virtual tasks, visuo-motor co-location versus non-colocation, and even visuo-motor rotational misalignments in virtual environments (VEs). However, few studies have explored all of these paradigms in context with each other and it is difficult to perform inter-study comparisons because of the variation in tested motor tasks. Therefore, using a stereoscopic fish tank display setup, the goal for the current study was to characterize human performance of a 3D Fitts' point-to-point reaching task using a stylus-based haptic interface in the physical, co-located/non-colocated, and rotated VE visualization conditions.Five performance measures – throughput, initial movement error, corrective movements, and peak velocity – were measured and used to evaluate task performance. These measures were studied in 22 subjects (11 male, 11 female, ages 20–32) performing a 3D variant of Fitts' serial task under 10 task conditions: physical, co-located VE, non-colocated VE, and rotated VEs from 45–315° in 45° increments. Hypotheses All performance measures in the co-located VE were expected to reflect significantly reduced task performance over the real condition, but also reflect increased performance over the non-colocated VE condition. For rotational misalignments, all performance measures were expected to reflect highest performance at 0°, reduce to lowest performance at 90° and rise again to a local maximum at 180° (symmetric about 0°). Results All performance measures showed that the co-located VE condition resulted in significantly lower task performance than the physical condition and higher mean performance than the non-colocated VE

  2. Assessment of physical fitness aspects and their relationship to firefighters' job abilities.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Marcos A; Parpa, Koulla M; Henry, Leah J; Thompson, Gerald B; Brown, Barry S

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters and firefighting performance on an "Ability Test" (AT) that included a set of 6 simulated firefighting tasks. The relationships between each fitness parameter and each task of the AT were determined. Ninety firefighters participated in this study (age 33 ± 7 years). The AT completion time was associated with abdominal strength (r = -0.53, p < 0.01), relative power (r = -0.44, p < 0.01), upper-body muscular endurance (push-ups, r = -0.27, p < 0.05) (sit-ups, r = -0.41, p < 0.01), and upper-body strength (1 repetition maximum bench press, r = -0.41, p < 0.01). In addition, poor performance on the AT was associated with high resting heart rate (r = 0.36, p < 0.01), high body mass index (r = 0.34, p < 0.01), high body fat (BF)% (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), increasing age (r = 0.42, p < 0.01), and large waist size (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). Multiple regression analyses indicated that a significant (F[5, 53] = 14.02, p < 0.01) proportion (60%) of the variation observed in the AT was explained by the variation of the fitness parameters used in the model. This study demonstrated that fitness variables, such as abdominal strength, power (step test), push-ups, resting Hr, and BF%, contributed significantly to the predictive power of firefighters' AT performance. The findings of this study may be useful to fire department instructors and trainers in the design and implementation of training programs that are more specifically tailored to improving both individual firefighting skills and general fire suppression performance.

  3. An Analysis of the Changes in Ability and Knowledge of Students Taking A-Level Physics and Mathematics over a 35 Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barham, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming…

  4. Motor Physical Therapy Affects Muscle Collagen Type I and Decreases Gait Speed in Dystrophin-Deficient Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gaiad, Thaís P.; Araujo, Karla P. C.; Serrão, Júlio C.; Miglino, Maria A.; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) is a dystrophin-deficient canine model genetically homologous to Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in humans. Muscular fibrosis secondary to cycles of degeneration/regeneration of dystrophic muscle tissue and muscular weakness leads to biomechanical adaptation that impairs the quality of gait. Physical therapy (PT) is one of the supportive therapies available for DMD, however, motor PT approaches have controversial recommendations and there is no consensus regarding the type and intensity of physical therapy. In this study we investigated the effect of physical therapy on gait biomechanics and muscular collagen deposition types I and III in dystrophin-deficient dogs. Two dystrophic dogs (treated dogs-TD) underwent a PT protocol of active walking exercise, 3×/week, 40 minutes/day, 12 weeks. Two dystrophic control dogs (CD) maintained their routine of activities of daily living. At t0 (pre) and t1 (post-physical therapy), collagen type I and III were assessed by immunohistochemistry and gait biomechanics were analyzed. Angular displacement of shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle and tarsal joint and vertical (Fy), mediolateral (Fz) and craniocaudal (Fx) ground reaction forces (GRF) were assessed. Wilcoxon test was used to verify the difference of biomechanical variables between t0 and t1, considering p<.05. Type I collagen of endomysium suffered the influence of PT, as well as gait speed that had decreased from t0 to t1 (p<.000). The PT protocol employed accelerates morphological alterations on dystrophic muscle and promotes a slower velocity of gait. Control dogs which maintained their routine of activities of daily living seem to have found a better balance between movement and preservation of motor function. PMID:24713872

  5. Measuring the Ability to Tolerate Activity-Related Discomfort: Initial Validation of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ)

    PubMed Central

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Arigo, Danielle R.; Raggio, Greer A.; Kaufman, Alison I.; Kerrigan, Stephanie G.; Forman, Evan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is essential for health, but many adults find PA adherence challenging. Acceptance of discomfort related to PA may influence an individual's ability to begin and sustain a program of exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ). Method The PAAQ was administered to three distinct samples (N = 418). Each sample completed additional self-report measures; one sample also wore accelerometers for seven days (at baseline and six months later). Results The PAAQ demonstrated high internal validity for its total score (α = 0.89) and two subscales (Cognitive Acceptance α = 0.86, Behavioral Commitment α = 0.85). The PAAQ also showed convergent validity with measures of mindfulness, self-reported physical activity levels, and accelerometer-verified levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA; ps < 0.05). The Cognitive Acceptance subscale showed predictive validity for objectively-verified PA levels among individuals attempting to increase PA over six months (p = 0.05). Test-retest reliability for a subset of participants (n = 46) demonstrated high consistency over one week (p < 0.0001). Conclusions The PAAQ demonstrates sound psychometric properties, and shows promise for improving the current understanding of PA facilitators and barriers among adults. PMID:25106049

  6. Does Relative Age Influence Motor Test Performance of Fourth Grade Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattie, Nick; Tietjens, Maike; Schorer, Jörg; Ghanbari, Marie-Christine; Strauss, Bernd; Seidel, Ilka; Baker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore relative age's influence on physical and motor tests among fourth grade children (9 to 10 years) from Germany. Data from 1218 children (49% female) who had performed the German Motor Ability Test (Bös et al., 2009) were analysed. The test battery, which was comprised of physical and motor tests,…

  7. A Development of a Collaborative Blended Learning Model to Enhance Learning Achievement and Thinking Ability of Undergraduate Students at the Institute of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingpum, Peerasak; Ruangsuwan, Chaiyot; Chaicharoen, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop a model of a collaborative blended learning (CoBl) to develop learning achievement and thinking ability of undergraduate students in the Institute of Physical Education. The research is divided into three phases using the blended learning model via collaborative learning with thinking abilities approach as follows:…

  8. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    PubMed

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, p<0.001) and for the GMFCS-E&R and the CFCS (rs=0.61, p=0.001). The correlations between the IQ and the global functional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, p<0.001), the CFCS (Chi-square=12.87, df=2, p=0.002), and the MACS Level (Chi-square=13.96, df=2, p<0.001) but no significant differences emerged for the SES (Chi-square=1.19, df=2, p=0.554). This study shows how the three functional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles.

  9. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kyle M; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Eisenmann, Joey C; Froberg, Karsten; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing accuracy test was used to assess MP. PA was not correlated with %BF, but was significantly correlated with MP. The strongest correlations existed between %BF and MP. Low %BF/High PA had higher MP scores compared with High %BF/Low PA, and within the High %BF groups MP was higher in the High PA versus Low PA group. When comparing PA by %BF and MP groups, boys in the Low %BF/High MP had higher PA than both the Low %BF/Low MP and High %BF/Low MP groups. In girls, PA was highest in the High %BF/High MP group. This study highlights the complex interrelationships among PA, %BF, and MP in children and the need to develop fundamental motor skills during childhood.

  10. Analysis of the comprehensive physical field for a new flywheel energy storage motor/generator on ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yali; Wang, Yuanxi; Zhang, Guosheng; Sun, Feng

    2012-03-01

    A novel flywheel energy storage (FES) motor/generator (M/G) was proposed for marine systems. The purpose was to improve the power quality of a marine power system (MPS) and strengthen the energy recycle. Two structures including the magnetic or non-magnetic inner-rotor were contrasted in the magnetostatic field by using finite element analysis (FEA). By optimally designing the size parameters, the average speed of FEA results of was 17 200 r/m, and the current was controlled between 62 and 68 A in the transient field. The electrical machine electromagnetism design was further optimized by the FEA in the temperature field, to find the local overheating point under the normal operation condition and provide guidance for the cooling system. Finally, it can be concluded from the comprehensive physical field analysis that the novel redundant structure M/G can improve the efficiency of the M/G and maintain the stability of the MPS.

  11. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Monte—Carlo Simulation of Multiple-Molecular-Motor Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Qing; Wang, Guo-Dong; Shen, Wei-Bo

    2010-10-01

    Multimotor transport is studied by Monte-Carlo simulation with consideration of motor detachment from the filament. Our work shows, in the case of low load, the velocity of multi-motor system can decrease or increase with increasing motor numbers depending on the single motor force-velocity curve. The stall force and run-length reduced greatly compared to other models. Especially in the case of low ATP concentrations, the stall force of multi motor transport even smaller than the single motor's stall force.

  12. Increased Intensity of Physical Therapy for a Child with Gross Motor Developmental Delay: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The intensity of physical therapy provided for children in early intervention (EI) programs may be influenced by a number of factors. In an individualized program, however, some children and families may benefit from an increased frequency of services. The purpose of this case report was to systematically document and…

  13. Health Awareness, Motor Performance and Physical Activity of Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konczos, Csaba; Bognar, Jozsef; Szakaly, Zsolt; Barthalos, Istvan; Simon, Istvan; Olah, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body composition, health awareness and cardiorespiratory fitness in female university students differing in volume of obligatory physical activity classes. Material and methods: 109 female students of the University of West Hungary volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects were divided into two groups according to…

  14. Learning Introductory Quantum Physics: Sensori-Motor Experiences and Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Jiun-Liang; Monk, Martin; Duschl, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a cross-sectional study of Taiwanese physics students' understanding of subatomic phenomena that are explained by quantum mechanics. The study uses students' explanations of their answers to items in a questionnaire as a proxy for students' thinking. The variation in students' explanations is discussed as is the development in…

  15. The effect of motor imagery with specific implement in expert badminton player.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Wang, S; Shi, F-Y; Guan, Y; Wu, Y; Zhang, L-L; Shen, C; Zeng, Y-W; Wang, D-H; Zhang, J

    2014-09-01

    Motor skill can be improved with mental simulation. Implements are widely used in daily life and in various sports. However, it is unclear whether the utilization of implements enhances the effect of mental simulation. The present study was designed to investigate the different effects of motor imagery in athletes and novices when they handled a specific implement. We hypothesize that athletes have better motor imagery ability than novices when they hold a specific implement for the sport. This is manifested as higher motor cortical excitability in athletes than novices during motor imagery with the specific implement. Sixteen expert badminton players and 16 novices were compared when they held a specific implement such as a badminton racket and a non-specific implement such as a a plastic bar. Motor imagery ability was measured with a self-evaluation questionnaire. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to test the motor cortical excitability during motor imagery. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor carpi radialis muscles were recorded. Athletes reported better motor imagery than novices when they held a specific implement. Athletes exhibited more MEP facilitation than novices in the FDI muscle with the specific implement applied during motor imagery. The MEP facilitation is correlated with motor imagery ability in athletes. We conclude that the effects of motor imagery with a specific implement are enhanced in athletes compared to novices and the difference between two groups is caused by long-term physical training of athletes with the specific implement.

  16. The effect of physical parameters of inertial stabilization platform on disturbance rejection ability and its improvement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yao; Deng, Chao; Gan, Xun; Tian, Jing

    2015-10-01

    The development of space optical communication requires arcsecond precision or even higher precision of the tracking performance of ATP(Acquisition, Tracking and Pointing) system under the condition of base disturbance. ATP system supported by stabilized reference beam which is provided by inertial stabilization platform with high precision and high bandwidth, can effectively restrain the influence of base angular disturbance on the line of sight. To get better disturbance rejection ability, this paper analyzes the influence of transfer characteristics and physical parameters of stabilization platform on disturbance stabilization performance, the result shows that the stabilization characteristics of inertial stabilization platform equals to the product of rejection characteristics of control loop and disturbance transfer characteristics of the platform, and improving isolation characteristics of the platform or extending control bandwidth can both achieve the result of getting a better rejection ability. Limited by factors such as mechanical characteristics of stabilization platform, bandwidth/noise of the sensor, and so on, as the control bandwidth of the LOS stabilization platform is limited, and high frequency disturbance can not be effectively rejected, so the rejection of high frequency disturbance mainly depends on the isolation characteristics of the platform itself. This paper puts forward three methods of improving the isolation characteristics of the platform itself, which includes 1) changing mechanical structure, such as reducing elastic coefficient, increasing moment of inertia of the platform, and so on; 2) changing electrical structure of the platform, such as increasing resistance, adding current loop, and so on; 3)adding a passive vibration isolator between the inertial stabilization platform and the base. The result of the experiment shows that adding current loop or adding a passive vibration isolator can effectively reject high frequency

  17. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  18. A comparative study of the physical development and motor performance of mentally non-handicapped children and children with intellectual and development disabilities.

    PubMed

    Szabó, E; Erdei, N; Bene, Sz

    2015-09-01

    Several studies state that there might be a difference in the physical development and the motor performance of the mentally non-handicapped children and those with intellectual and development disabilities. The aim of our research was to compare the two groups from these aspects. The study included the assessment of the physical development and motor performance of altogether 225 primary school pupils (mentally non-handicapped and with intellectual and development disabilities) aged 8-11. The following indicators of physical development and build were examined: body height, body weight and body mass index (BMI), musculoskeletal plasticity index, biceps and triceps skinfold thickness. The motor tests included: 20 m dash, standing long jump, medicine-ball throwing, six minutes continuous running, obstacle race-test and a match test. We also examined the children's chronological (decimal) and morphological age. Data were analysed with SPSS programme. The differences between the averages were calculated with ANOVA and Fisher's LSD tests. The results show that the children with intellectual and development disabilities are in general less developed physically than non-handicapped children of the same age and sex. It is also concluded that in most motor tests the children with intellectual and development disabilities fall behind the non-handicapped ones.

  19. The Development of Fundamental Motor Skills of Four- to Five-Year-Old Preschool Children and the Effects of a Preschool Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, S.; Saakslahti, A.; Nissinen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Altogether 38 girls and 46 boys aged four to five years were studied to analyse the linear and non-linear development of fundamental motor skills. The children were grouped into one experimental and one control group to study the effects of an eight-month preschool physical education curriculum. In the course of one year, the balance skills of the…

  20. A comparative study of the physical development and motor performance of mentally non-handicapped children and children with intellectual and development disabilities.

    PubMed

    Szabó, E; Erdei, N; Bene, Sz

    2015-09-01

    Several studies state that there might be a difference in the physical development and the motor performance of the mentally non-handicapped children and those with intellectual and development disabilities. The aim of our research was to compare the two groups from these aspects. The study included the assessment of the physical development and motor performance of altogether 225 primary school pupils (mentally non-handicapped and with intellectual and development disabilities) aged 8-11. The following indicators of physical development and build were examined: body height, body weight and body mass index (BMI), musculoskeletal plasticity index, biceps and triceps skinfold thickness. The motor tests included: 20 m dash, standing long jump, medicine-ball throwing, six minutes continuous running, obstacle race-test and a match test. We also examined the children's chronological (decimal) and morphological age. Data were analysed with SPSS programme. The differences between the averages were calculated with ANOVA and Fisher's LSD tests. The results show that the children with intellectual and development disabilities are in general less developed physically than non-handicapped children of the same age and sex. It is also concluded that in most motor tests the children with intellectual and development disabilities fall behind the non-handicapped ones. PMID:26551747

  1. The Power of Selected Cognitive, Social/Emotional, Physical Motor, and Language Tests in Predicting Development Levels of Mentally Handicapped Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBay, Michael J.; Anderson, Nels M.

    Results of the research reported in this paper suggest that the development of mentally handicapped preschool children may not be measurable in distinct cognitive, social/emotional, physical motor, and language areas. This research further indicates that a testing instrument designed to measure the generalized factors of intelligence and social…

  2. The association of physical activity, cognitive processes and automobile driving ability in older adults: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sally M; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Insel, Kathleen C

    2016-01-01

    As the number of older adults in the United States grows, the number of automobile drivers over the age of 65 will also increase. Several cognitive processes necessary for automobile driving are vulnerable to age-related decline. These include declines in executive function, working memory, attention, and speed of information processing. The benefits of physical activity on physical, psychological and particular cognitive processes are well-documented; however few studies have explored the relationship between physical activity and driving ability in older adults or examined if cognitive processes mediate (or moderate) the effect of physical activity on driving ability. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature regarding physical activity, cognition and automobile driving. Recommendations for further research and utility of the findings to nursing and the health care team are provided. PMID:27260109

  3. The association of physical activity, cognitive processes and automobile driving ability in older adults: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sally M; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Insel, Kathleen C

    2016-01-01

    As the number of older adults in the United States grows, the number of automobile drivers over the age of 65 will also increase. Several cognitive processes necessary for automobile driving are vulnerable to age-related decline. These include declines in executive function, working memory, attention, and speed of information processing. The benefits of physical activity on physical, psychological and particular cognitive processes are well-documented; however few studies have explored the relationship between physical activity and driving ability in older adults or examined if cognitive processes mediate (or moderate) the effect of physical activity on driving ability. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature regarding physical activity, cognition and automobile driving. Recommendations for further research and utility of the findings to nursing and the health care team are provided.

  4. Motor and functional recovery after neck dissection: comparison of two early physical rehabilitation programmes.

    PubMed

    Baggi, F; Santoro, L; Grosso, E; Zanetti, C; Bonacossa, E; Sandrin, F; Massaro, M A; Tradati, N; Simoncini, M C

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this prospective, single-centre, non-randomized explorative study is to comparatively assess two-month results of two early rehabilitation programmes in patients receiving neck dissection for head and neck cancer, with the hypothesis that those not receiving therapist-assisted physiotherapy would take an active role in their own rehabilitation to enhance outcomes. At the European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy), 97 patients were registered during the pre-hospitalization period and divided into an Autonomous group (living distant from the hospital) and a Physio group (living near). As expected, only 50 patients (25 per group) completed the study. Both groups received a Physical Therapy Brochure with instructions on to how to perform exercises at home. Home physical exercises started five days after surgery and continued for two months. The Autonomous group received a pre-surgery instruction session; the Physio group attended four once-weekly therapist-guided physiotherapy sessions. Two months after surgery, arm mobility and pain had recovered to pre-operative levels. Most endpoints, including the main composite, did not differ between groups. Although longer-follow-up is necessary, early physiotherapy seems to be effective in maintaining arm mobility and reducing pain, even in patients empowered to do exercises autonomously.

  5. Effect of a governmentally-led physical activity program on motor skills in young children attending child care centers: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a governmentally-led center based child care physical activity program (Youp’là Bouge) on child motor skills. Patients and methods We conducted a single blinded cluster randomized controlled trial in 58 Swiss child care centers. Centers were randomly selected and 1:1 assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention lasted from September 2009 to June 2010 and included training of the educators, adaptation of the child care built environment, parental involvement and daily physical activity. Motor skill was the primary outcome and body mass index (BMI), physical activity and quality of life secondary outcomes. The intervention implementation was also assessed. Results At baseline, 648 children present on the motor test day were included (age 3.3 ± 0.6, BMI 16.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2, 13.2% overweight, 49% girls) and 313 received the intervention. Relative to children in the control group (n = 201), children in the intervention group (n = 187) showed no significant increase in motor skills (delta of mean change (95% confidence interval: -0.2 (−0.8 to 0.3), p = 0.43) or in any of the secondary outcomes. Not all child care centers implemented all the intervention components. Within the intervention group, several predictors were positively associated with trial outcomes: 1) free-access to a movement space and parental information session for motor skills 2) highly motivated and trained educators for BMI 3) free-access to a movement space and purchase of mobile equipment for physical activity (all p < 0.05). Conclusion This “real-life” physical activity program in child care centers confirms the complexity of implementing an intervention outside a study setting and identified potentially relevant predictors that could improve future programs. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00967460 PMID:23835207

  6. Deliberate Laterality Practice Facilitates Sensory-Motor Processing in Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The innate ability for typically developing children to attain developmental motor milestones early in life has been a thoroughly researched area of inquiry. Nonetheless, as children grow and are required to perform more complex motor skills in order to experience success in physical activity and sport pursuits, the range of…

  7. Restoration of physical performance capacity of athletes after prolonged restriction of their motor activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soldatov, A. D.; Finogeyev, V. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of different regimens of treatment following prolonged hypokinesia were studied in order to determine the most effective program. The types of programs considered were passive means, consisting of physical therapy; active means, consisting of athletic training; and a combined program. In the first stage of the experiment, the effects of a 10 day period of hypokinesia were studied. It was determined that the restoration programs must address the problems of: (1) increasing defense function and general tone of the body; (2) restore orthostatic stability; and (3) increase general endurance. In later stages, groups of athletes and nonathletes underwent 30 day periods of hypokinesia. Restoration was carefully monitored for groups treated with the various regimens. It was determined that the most effective treatment was a comprehensive program of passive and active therapy.

  8. Ability of Preseason Body Composition and Physical Fitness to Predict the Risk of Injury in Male Collegiate Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Grant, John A.; Bedi, Asheesh; Kurz, Jennifer; Bancroft, Richard; Gagnier, Joel J.; Miller, Bruce S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Injuries in collegiate ice hockey can result in significant time lost from play. The identification of modifiable risk factors relating to a player’s physical fitness allows the development of focused training and injury prevention programs targeted at reducing these risks. Purpose: To determine the ability of preseason fitness outcomes to predict in-season on-ice injury in male collegiate ice hockey players. Study Design: Prognostic cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Athlete demographics, percentage body fat, aerobic capacity (300-m shuttle run; 1-, 1.5-, 5-mile run), and strength assessment (sit-ups, push-ups, grip strength, bench press, Olympic cleans, squats) data were collected at the beginning of 8 successive seasons for 1 male collegiate ice hockey team. Hockey-related injury data and player-level practice/game athlete exposure (AE) data were also prospectively collected. Seventy-nine players participated (203 player-years). Injury was defined as any event that resulted in the athlete being unable to participate in 1 or more practices or games following the event. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the ability of the independent variables to predict the occurrence of on-ice injury. Results: There were 132 injuries (mean, 16.5 per year) in 55 athletes. The overall injury rate was 4.4 injuries per 1000 AEs. Forwards suffered 68% of the injuries. Seventy percent of injuries occurred during games with equal distribution between the 3 periods. The mean number of days lost due to injury was 7.8 ± 13.8 (range, 1-127 days). The most common mechanism of injury was contact with another player (54%). The odds of injury in a forward was 1.9 times (95% CI, 1.1-3.4) that of a defenseman and 3 times (95% CI, 1.2-7.7) that of a goalie. The odds of injury if the player’s body mass index (BMI) was ≥25 kg/m2 was 2.1 times (95% CI, 1.1-3.8) that of a player with a BMI <25 kg/m2. The odds ratios for bench press

  9. Effects of two different short-term training programs on the physical and technical abilities of adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Ziagos, Vaghelis; Anastasiadis, Michalis; Maridaki, Maria

    2007-04-01

    This study evaluated and compared the effectiveness of two different off-season, short-term basketball training programs on physical and technical abilities of young basketball players. Twenty-seven adolescent basketball players (14.7+/-0.5 years; Tanner stage: 3.5+/-0.5) were randomly divided into a specialized basketball training group (SP, n=10), a mixed basketball plus conditioning training group (MX, n=10) and a control group (n=7). Training included five sessions per week (100-120 min each) and was performed for 4 weeks. Maximal oxygen uptake was similarly improved after SP (4.9+/-1.8%) and MX (4.9+/-1.4%), but there was no effect on ventilatory threshold. Peak and mean power output measured during the Wingate test were also improved by a similar magnitude after SP (21+/-5%) and MX (15+/-6%). Trunk muscle endurance was equally increased (SP: 23+/-4%, MX: 25+/-5%), but arms endurance was improved significantly more after MX (50+/-11%) compared to SP (11+/-14%, p<0.05). Performance in four basketball technical skills was similarly increased (by 17-27%) in both groups, with a tendency for greater improvement of the SP groups in the technical skills of shooting and passing. These results indicate that a SP basketball training program, performed exclusively on-court was as effective as a MX training program in terms of aerobic and anaerobic fitness improvement. Furthermore, the decrease of the total on-court training time in the MX group resulted in a tendency for a smaller improvement of basketball technical skills. In conclusion, both SP and MX training are equally effective in order to limit and/or reverse the detraining effects that occur during the off-season in basketball. PMID:16824797

  10. Effects of two different short-term training programs on the physical and technical abilities of adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Ziagos, Vaghelis; Anastasiadis, Michalis; Maridaki, Maria

    2007-04-01

    This study evaluated and compared the effectiveness of two different off-season, short-term basketball training programs on physical and technical abilities of young basketball players. Twenty-seven adolescent basketball players (14.7+/-0.5 years; Tanner stage: 3.5+/-0.5) were randomly divided into a specialized basketball training group (SP, n=10), a mixed basketball plus conditioning training group (MX, n=10) and a control group (n=7). Training included five sessions per week (100-120 min each) and was performed for 4 weeks. Maximal oxygen uptake was similarly improved after SP (4.9+/-1.8%) and MX (4.9+/-1.4%), but there was no effect on ventilatory threshold. Peak and mean power output measured during the Wingate test were also improved by a similar magnitude after SP (21+/-5%) and MX (15+/-6%). Trunk muscle endurance was equally increased (SP: 23+/-4%, MX: 25+/-5%), but arms endurance was improved significantly more after MX (50+/-11%) compared to SP (11+/-14%, p<0.05). Performance in four basketball technical skills was similarly increased (by 17-27%) in both groups, with a tendency for greater improvement of the SP groups in the technical skills of shooting and passing. These results indicate that a SP basketball training program, performed exclusively on-court was as effective as a MX training program in terms of aerobic and anaerobic fitness improvement. Furthermore, the decrease of the total on-court training time in the MX group resulted in a tendency for a smaller improvement of basketball technical skills. In conclusion, both SP and MX training are equally effective in order to limit and/or reverse the detraining effects that occur during the off-season in basketball.

  11. The movement assessment battery in Greek preschoolers: the impact of age, gender, birth order, and physical activity on motor outcome.

    PubMed

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of differences in motor performance with regards to age, gender, participation in sports and order of birth in the family. Performance profiles on the movement ABC were used to classify 412 Greek children aged 4-6 years old. It appears from the results that the occurrence rate of probable developmental coordination disorders (DCD) was 5.4%. Significant differences were observed in all independent variables except the order of birth in the family. The findings reinforce the need for the evaluation of motor performance in preschool-aged children, in order specific individual motor profiles to be established for optimizing and adapting early intervention programs.

  12. The Infant Motor Profile: A Standardized and Qualitative Method to Assess Motor Behaviour in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineman, Kirsten R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    A reliable and valid instrument to assess neuromotor condition in infancy is a prerequisite for early detection of developmental motor disorders. We developed a video-based assessment of motor behaviour, the Infant Motor Profile (IMP), to evaluate motor abilities, movement variability, ability to select motor strategies, movement symmetry, and…

  13. Representational difference analysis, high-resolution physical mapping, and transcript identification of the zebrafish genomic region for a motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomomi; Mishina, Masayoshi

    2003-08-01

    Zebrafish is one of the best model organisms for investigating gene functions in vertebrates. By 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen mutagenesis, we isolated a zebrafish mutant, vibrato, with defects in the spontaneous contraction and touch response. Whole genome subtraction between the wild-type and the mutant genomes by representational difference analysis yielded polymorphic markers tightly linked to the vibrato locus. Using these markers, we constructed a high-resolution physical map and localized the vibrato locus within a genomic region of 720 kb. Direct cDNA selection with the contig led to the identification of a novel gene, solo, encoding a protein with SEC14 and spectrin repeat domains. These domains of Solo shared significant amino acid sequence identities with those of mammalian Trio and Karilin. In addition, we found the zebrafish orthologs for mammalian TTN, COL5A2, and CED-6 in the vibrato region. Mapping of these genes localized human chromosomal regions possibly involved in motor disorders. Our results suggest that representational difference analysis provides an efficient way to isolate mutated genomic regions in zebrafish. PMID:12837271

  14. The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Sexual Self-Concept in People With Physical-Motor Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Kharaz Tavakol, Hooman; Shabani, Maede; Ziaei, Tayebe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is the value that the individuals give themselves, and sexual self-concept is also a part of individuality or sexual-self. Impairment or disability exists not only in the physical body of disabled people but also in their attitudes. Negative attitudes affect the mental health of disabled people, causing them to have lower self-esteem. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-esteem and sexual self-concept in people with physical-motor disabilities. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 random samples with physical-motor disabilities covered by Isfahan Welfare Organization in 2013. Data collection instruments were the Persian Eysenck self-esteem questionnaire, and five domains (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression) of the Persian multidimensional sexual self-concept questionnaire. Because of incomplete filling of the questionnaires, the data of 183 people were analyzed by the SPSS 16.0 software. Data were analyzed using the t-test, Man-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: The mean age was 36.88 ± 8.94 years for women and 37.80 ± 10.13 for men. The mean scores of self-esteem among women and men were 15.80 ± 3.08 and 16.2 ± 2.90, respectively and there was no statistically significance difference. Comparison of the mean scores of sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression among men and women showed that women scored higher than men in all domains. This difference was statistically significant in other domains except the sexual self-esteem (14.92 ± 3.61 vs. 13.56 ± 4.52) (P < 0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that except for sexual anxiety and sexual self-esteem, there was a statistical difference between other domains of people’s sexual self-concept and degree of disability (P < 0.05). Moreover, Spearman coefficient showed that

  15. Effects of different exercise interventions on risk of falls, gait ability, and balance in physically frail older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Sinclair, Alan; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this review was to recommend training strategies that improve the functional capacity in physically frail older adults based on scientific literature, focusing specially in supervised exercise programs that improved muscle strength, fall risk, balance, and gait ability. Scielo, Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, Scopus, Sport Discus, and ScienceDirect databases were searched from 1990 to 2012. Studies must have mentioned the effects of exercise training on at least one of the following four parameters: Incidence of falls, gait, balance, and lower-body strength. Twenty studies that investigated the effects of multi-component exercise training (10), resistance training (6), endurance training (1), and balance training (3) were included in the present revision. Ten trials investigated the effects of exercise on the incidence of falls in elderly with physical frailty. Seven of them have found a fewer falls incidence after physical training when compared with the control group. Eleven trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on the gait ability. Six of them showed enhancements in the gait ability. Ten trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on the balance performance and seven of them demonstrated enhanced balance. Thirteen trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on the muscle strength and nine of them showed increases in the muscle strength. The multi-component exercise intervention composed by strength, endurance and balance training seems to be the best strategy to improve rate of falls, gait ability, balance, and strength performance in physically frail older adults.

  16. Development of Body Composition, Hormone Profile, Physical Fitness, General Perceptual Motor Skills, Soccer Skills and On-The-Ball Performance in Soccer-Specific Laboratory Test Among Adolescent Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group). The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy) in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (λ = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01) of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01) in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01), counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01), dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05) in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05) in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific

  17. Perceptual-Cognitive Changes During Motor Learning: The Influence of Mental and Physical Practice on Mental Representation, Gaze Behavior, and Performance of a Complex Action

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M.; Schack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one’s mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45) were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, combined physical plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of 3 days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning. PMID:26779089

  18. Perceptual-Cognitive Changes During Motor Learning: The Influence of Mental and Physical Practice on Mental Representation, Gaze Behavior, and Performance of a Complex Action.

    PubMed

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one's mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45) were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, combined physical plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of 3 days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning. PMID:26779089

  19. Still Feeling like a Spare Piece of Luggage? Embodied Experiences of (Dis)Ability in Physical Education and School Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses an increasing concern within physical education and sports research to engage with young people to find out more about their experiences of physical education and school sport. In particular, I centre my concerns on the experiences of five young disabled pupils. I use the conceptual tools offered by Bourdieu to extend…

  20. "An Affirmation of the Abilities of Woman": Women's Contributions to the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Roberta J.

    2006-01-01

    Women attained leadership roles within the American Physical Education Association much earlier than in organizations like the American Medical Association and the American Physiological Society. Women also were members of the American Academy of Physical Education before its official founding in 1930. Archival records and responses by current…

  1. Using voluntary motor commands to inhibit involuntary arm movements.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arko; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    A hallmark of voluntary motor control is the ability to stop an ongoing movement. Is voluntary motor inhibition a general neural mechanism that can be focused on any movement, including involuntary movements, or is it mere termination of a positive voluntary motor command? The involuntary arm lift, or 'floating arm trick', is a distinctive long-lasting reflex of the deltoid muscle. We investigated how a voluntary motor network inhibits this form of involuntary motor control. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex during the floating arm trick produced a silent period in the reflexively contracting deltoid muscle, followed by a rebound of muscle activity. This pattern suggests a persistent generator of involuntary motor commands. Instructions to bring the arm down voluntarily reduced activity of deltoid muscle. When this voluntary effort was withdrawn, the involuntary arm lift resumed. Further, voluntary motor inhibition produced a strange illusion of physical resistance to bringing the arm down, as if ongoing involuntarily generated commands were located in a 'sensory blind-spot', inaccessible to conscious perception. Our results suggest that voluntary motor inhibition may be a specific neural function, distinct from absence of positive voluntary motor commands. PMID:25253453

  2. What kind of math matters? A study of the relationship between mathematical ability and success in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torigoe, Eugene

    While mathematics is widely believed to be important for success in introductory physics there has been little research to distinguish the importance of different mathematical skills. Even though most math diagnostic tests focus on algorithmic manipulation and computation, we argue that algebraic representation is as, if not more, important a skill for physics expertise. The primary focus of this dissertation is the study of symbolic physics questions. A comfort with both constructing and interpreting symbolic equations is important for physics expertise because symbolic mathematics is the foremost language of physics. Even so, students in introductory physics often express a strong preference for numeric questions. I will describe the results of studies that show that differences in score as high as 50% can be achieved between numeric and symbolic versions of the same question. I will also describe careful studies involving the analysis of both student written work and video from student interviews that revealed why students find symbolic questions difficult. We find that the main cause of students' poor performance on symbolic questions is due to confusion about the meaning of symbols and symbolic equations. Symbolic solutions require a greater attention to meaning than do numeric solutions. When solving a symbolic question students must actively identify known quantities while reading the question, keep track of symbol states, and keep track of the relationships between symbols. I will present data that show that the difficulties associated with symbolic physics questions are the most pronounced for the students most likely to fail physics. Further, a math diagnostic exam we have created indicates that word problems that stress mathematical representation are better predictors of success than algorithmic manipulation questions.

  3. How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

  4. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A healthy start to life requires adequate motor development and physical activity participation. Currently 5-15% of children have impaired motor development without any obvious disorder. These children are at greater risk of obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, low social confidence and poor mental health. Traditional electronic game use may impact on motor development and physical activity creating a vicious cycle. However new virtual reality (VR) game interfaces may provide motor experiences that enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination and better physical activity and mental health outcomes. VR games are beginning to be used for rehabilitation, however there is no reported trial of the impact of these games on motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Methods This cross-over randomised and controlled trial will examine whether motor coordination is enhanced by access to active electronic games and whether daily activity, attitudes to physical activity and mental health are also enhanced. Thirty children aged 10-12 years with poor motor coordination (≤ 15th percentile) will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no active electronic games' and 'active electronic games'. Each child will participate in both conditions for 16 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is motor coordination, assessed by kinematic and kinetic motion analysis laboratory measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed by accelerometry, coordination in daily life by parent report questionnaire and attitudes to physical activity, self-confidence, anxiety and depressed mood will be assessed by self report questionnaire. A sample of 30 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 5 point difference in motor coordination on the MABC-2 TIS scale (mean 17, sd = 5). Discussion This is the first trial to examine the impact of new

  5. Activities for a Perceptual Motor Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinning, Dorothy; And Others

    Perceptual motor activities for physically handicapped children are presented in the areas of fine and gross motor skills. Also detailed are activities to develop body image, visual motor skills, and tactile and auditory perception. (JD)

  6. Evaluation of muscle strength and motor abilities in children with type II and III spinal muscle atrophy treated with valproic acid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects the motoneurons of the spinal anterior horn, resulting in hypotonia and muscle weakness. The disease is caused by deletion or mutation in the telomeric copy of SMN gene (SMN1) and clinical severity is in part determined by the copy number of the centromeric copy of the SMN gene (SMN2). The SMN2 mRNA lacks exon 7, resulting in a production of lower amounts of the full-length SMN protein. Knowledge of the molecular mechanism of diseases has led to the discovery of drugs capable of increasing SMN protein level through activation of SMN2 gene. One of these drugs is the valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Methods Twenty-two patients with type II and III SMA, aged between 2 and 18 years, were treated with VPA and were evaluated five times during a one-year period using the Manual Muscle Test (Medical Research Council scale-MRC), the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMS), and the Barthel Index. Results After 12 months of therapy, the patients did not gain muscle strength. The group of children with SMA type II presented a significant gain in HFMS scores during the treatment. This improvement was not observed in the group of type III patients. The analysis of the HFMS scores during the treatment period in the groups of patients younger and older than 6 years of age did not show any significant result. There was an improvement of the daily activities at the end of the VPA treatment period. Conclusion Treatment of SMA patients with VPA may be a potential alternative to alleviate the progression of the disease. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01033331 PMID:21435220

  7. Evaluating the ability of novices to identify and quantify physical demand elements following an introductory education session: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Brendan; VanderGriendt, Curtis; Fischer, Steven L

    2016-05-01

    A Physical Demands Description (PDD) is a resource that describes the physical demands of a job in a systematic way. PDD data are commonly used to make legal, medical, and monetary decisions related to work. Despite the fundamental importance of a PDD, data are often gathered by novice or early career ergonomists, where we have limited knowledge regarding their proficiency in performing PDDs. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate novices' proficiency in identifying and quantifying physical demands elements embedded within three job simulations, following a formal PDD education session. The education session was based on the revised Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers (OHCOW, 2014) PDD Handbook. Participants were able to identify physical demands elements with an average success rate of 80%, but were often unable to accurately quantify measures related to each element within a prescribed error threshold of 10%. These data suggest that practitioners should exercise caution when sending novice ergonomists out on their own to complete PDDs. PMID:26851462

  8. Effect of Physical Attractiveness, Sex, and Intelligence on Expectations for Students' Academic Ability and Personality: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of third grade students' physical attractiveness, IQ scores, and sex on raters' expectations for the students' personality and academic performance. Subjects were 120 undergraduate and graduate students who were either teachers or teacher trainees. A fictitious school transcript and student essay were randomly…

  9. Puberty and Physical Self-Perceptions of Competitive Female Figure Skaters II: Maturational Timing, Skating Context, and Ability Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsma, Eva V.

    2008-01-01

    One study of figure skaters found that menarcheal status was a stronger predictor than age in explaining the variance in their self-perceptions. Postmenarcheal skaters had significantly lower self-esteem and physical self-concept and were less satisfied with their appearance than premenarcheal skaters. Surprisingly, skating context (i.e., skating…

  10. Survey Development to Assess Parental Satisfaction with Adapted Physical Education Teachers' Abilities Working with Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columna, Luis; Cook, Allison; Foley, John T.; Bailey, JoEllen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically develop and validate an instrument to assess parental perceptions toward adapted physical education (APE) teachers, who work with children with autism. Methods: Participants included two expert panels and parents of children and youth with autism. The survey used a Likert-scale design where…

  11. An analysis of the changes in ability and knowledge of students taking A-level physics and mathematics over a 35 year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barham, Peter J.

    2012-03-01

    New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming students to answer these questions declined significantly in the 1990s with average scores falling from around 75% up to 1990 to below 50% after 2000 against a background of increasing A-level grades of the entrants to the programme. It is suggested that changes in teaching and examination methods have caused students to be less able to carry out multi-stage calculations and that the introduction of modular examinations may have encouraged a culture where students tend to forget material learnt in previous modules.

  12. A Kinect-Based System for Physical Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study for Young Adults with Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Huang, Jun-Da

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the possibility of rehabilitating two young adults with motor impairments using a Kinect-based system in a public school setting. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants significantly increased their…

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    PubMed

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  14. [Degree and dynamics of changes in physical work capacity of children and adolescents in relation to somatic development and motor activity].

    PubMed

    Woynarowska, B

    1984-01-01

    The author presents and discusses the problems of work physiology in the age of development and changes of physical performance during the second decade of life on the basis of the results of her own cross-sectional and two series of longitudinal studies. The main considered problems are as follows: Morphological, physiological and psychological determination of adaptation of children and adolescents to physical exercises. The level of aerobic and anaerobic capacity of Warsaw children aged 9-15 years. Cross-sectional study (n = 667); measurements: PWC170 using bicycle ergometer and step test, anaerobic capacity using Wingate Anaerobic Test according to Bar-Or (1978). Dynamics of changes of physical work capacity (PWC170) in children and adolescents 11-17 years old in relation to their physical activity, chronological and biological age--longitudinal studies (n = 112). Dynamics of changes of aerobic capacity (VO2 max--directly measured) in children aged 11-14 years in relation to their chronological, biological age and sport disciplines--longitudinal studies (n = 94). Motor development and reaction to different types of exercises in obese 7-15 years old children. Cross-sectional studies (n = 257); measurements: physical fitness using Denisiuk's, Chromiński's, Ozjerecki's tests; tapping test; some indices of respiratory function; PWC170; haemodynamic reaction on isometric exercise; physical activity and work load during physical education lessons. In conclusion about every above mentioned chapter practical indications for physical education, sports and health care are recommended. The elaborated norms for some indices of aerobic and anaerobic capacity may be useful in individual diagnosis of physical work capacity of healthy and sick children, monitoring its changes during growth as well as in observation of secular changes of physical performance in the future.

  15. Association of cigarette smoking with Chinese ankylosing spondylitis patients in Taiwan: a poor disease outcome in systemic inflammation, functional ability, and physical mobility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hsiung; Chen, Hung-An; Lu, Chin-Li; Liao, Hsien-Tzung; Liu, Chin-Hsiu; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Chou, Chung-Tei

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the association between smoking and the disease activity, functional ability, physical mobility, and systemic inflammation in Chinese ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Seventy five male Chinese AS patients in Taiwan were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. These patients fulfilled the 1984 modified New York criteria. Patients completed the questionnaires, containing the demographic data, disease activity, functional ability (BASFI), and patient's global assessment. Meanwhile, physical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical mobility. Acute-phase reactants, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein levels were also measured in the AS patients. Smoking habits with smoking duration and smoking intensity (pack-years of smoking) were recorded. Among these physical mobility parameters, modified Schober's index (p < 0.001), cervical rotation (p = 0.034), later lumbar flexion (p = 0.002), chest expansion (p = 0.016), and occiput-to-wall distances (p = 0.003) were significantly impaired in smoking AS patients (n = 35) as compared to non-smoking (n = 40). Systemic inflammation parameter, ESR was significantly higher in smoking AS patients than non-smoking (p = 0.03). The odds ratio of advanced modified Schober's index, lateral lumbar flexion, fingertip-to-floor distance, chest expansion, and occiput-to-wall were significantly elevated in smoking AS patients as compared to non-smoking. Moreover, the smoking intensity correlated significantly with BASFI (r = 0.481, p = 0.005), cervical rotation (r = -0.401, p = 0.031), fingertip-to-floor distance (r = 0.485, p = 0.004), and occiput-to-wall distance (r = 0.473, p = 0.005) in the 35 smoking AS patients. The cigarette smokers in the Chinese AS patients have increased systemic inflammation and poor physical mobility. In addition, the higher smoking intensity in the AS smokers is associated with poor disease outcome, including functional ability and physical mobility

  16. Students' confidence in the ability to transfer basic math skills in introductory physics and chemistry courses at a community college

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Reginald

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the confidence levels that community college students have in transferring basic math skills to science classes, as well as any factors that influence their confidence levels. This study was conducted with 196 students at a community college in central Mississippi. The study was conducted during the month of November after all of the students had taken their midterm exams and received midterm grades. The instrument used in this survey was developed and validated by the researcher. The instrument asks the students to rate how confident they were in working out specific math problems and how confident they were in working problems using those specific math skills in physics and chemistry. The instrument also provided an example problem for every confidence item. Results revealed that students' demographics were significant predictors in confidence scores. Students in the 18-22 year old range were less confident in solving math problems than others. Students who had retaken a math course were less confident than those who had not. Chemistry students were less confident in solving math problems than those in physics courses. Chemistry II students were less confident than those in Chemistry I and Principals of Chemistry. Students were least confident in solving problems involving logarithms and the most confident in solving algebra problems. In general, students felt that their math courses did not prepare them for the math problems encountered in science courses. There was no significant difference in confidence between students who had completed their math homework online and those who had completed their homework on paper. The researcher recommends that chemistry educators find ways of incorporating more mathematics in their courses especially logarithms and slope. Furthermore, math educators should incorporate more chemistry related applications to math class. Results of hypotheses testing, conclusions, discussions, and

  17. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Shoykhet, B.; Schiferl, R.; Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    2008-05-01

    . Between the HTS field winding and the physical air gap is a series of concentric cylinders that act as vacuum insulation space walls as well as conducting paths for induced currents to flow in order to shield the HTS winding and the rotor cold space from time dependent fields. These time dependent fields may be caused by rotor hunting, during a change in motor load, or by non-fundamental component voltages and currents applied by the inverter. These motors are variable speed controlled by the inverter. Common large motor utility and industrial applications are pump and fan drives that are best suited by a variable speed motor. Inverter control of the HTS motor eliminates the need to design the rotor for line starting, which would dump a large amount of heat into the rotor that would then heavily tax the cryogenic cooling system. The field winding is fed by a brushless exciter that provides DC current to the HTS rotor winding. The stator winding is air or water cooled. Technical and commercial hurdles to industrial HTS motor product introduction and customer acceptance include (1) the high cost of HTS wire and the cryogenic cooling system components, (2) customer concerns about reliability of HTS motors, and (3) the ability to attain the loss reduction potential of large HTS motors. Reliance Electric has demonstrated a number of HTS based electric motors up to a 1000 hp, variable speed synchronous motor with an HTS field winding in the year 2000. In 2001 this motor was tested to 1600 hp with a sinusoidal (constant frequency) supply. Figure 1-2 shows the HTS motor on the dynamometer test stand in the Reliance Electric test lab. The extensive test program of the 1000 hp motor successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of large HTS motors and the basic technologies involved, however the test results did indicate the need for design refinements. In addition, test results served to identify other more fundamental critical technology issues, and revealed the need to

  18. Delays in Motor Development in Children with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Malak, Roksana; Kostiukow, Anna; Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Agnieszka; Mojs, Ewa; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with Down syndrome (DS) present with delays in motor development. The reduced size of the cerebrum, brain maturation disorders, and pathophysiological processes lead to motor development delay. The aim of this study was to examine the gross motor function and estimate what motor abilities are significantly delayed in children with Down syndrome even if they attend physical therapy sessions. Another purpose of the study was to assess the functional balance. Material/Methods The study group consisted of 79 children with DS (42 boys, 37 girls), average age 6 years and 3 months ±4 years and 6 months. Participants were divided into 3 groups according to (i) age: <3 years old, 3–6 years old, and >6 years old; and (ii) motor impairment scale: mild (SNR 1), moderate (SNR 2), and severe (SNR 3). Children were assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Results None of the assessed children developed all the functions included in GMFM-88. The standing position was achieved at the specified age by 10% of children in the first age group (<3 years old) and 95% of children aged 3–6 years. Similarly, the walking ability was performed by 10% of children under 3 years old and by 95% of children aged 3–6 years. The median score of PBS was 50 points (min. 34 p. – max. 56 p.). There was a statistically significant correlation between PBS scores and GMFM-88 scores, r=0.7; p<0.0001, and between balance scores and GMFM – 88 E (walking, running, jumping) (r=0.64; p<0.0001). Conclusions Motor development, especially standing position and walking ability, is delayed in children with Down syndrome. Balance and motor functions are correlated with each other, so both aspects of development should be consider together in physical therapy of children with Down syndrome. PMID:26132100

  19. Brain effective connectivity during motor-imagery and execution following stroke and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Sahil; Butler, Andrew J; Drake, Daniel; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Brain areas within the motor system interact directly or indirectly during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks. These interactions and their functionality can change following stroke and recovery. How brain network interactions reorganize and recover their functionality during recovery and treatment following stroke are not well understood. To contribute to answering these questions, we recorded blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals from 10 stroke survivors and evaluated dynamical causal modeling (DCM)-based effective connectivity among three motor areas: primary motor cortex (M1), pre-motor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA), during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks. We compared the connectivity between affected and unaffected hemispheres before and after mental practice and combined mental practice and physical therapy as treatments. The treatment (intervention) period varied in length between 14 to 51 days but all patients received the same dose of 60 h of treatment. Using Bayesian model selection (BMS) approach in the DCM approach, we found that, after intervention, the same network dominated during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks but modulatory parameters suggested a suppressive influence of SM A on M1 during the motor-imagery task whereas the influence of SM A on M1 was unrestricted during the motor-execution task. We found that the intervention caused a reorganization of the network during both tasks for unaffected as well as for the affected hemisphere. Using Bayesian model averaging (BMA) approach, we found that the intervention improved the regional connectivity among the motor areas during both the tasks. The connectivity between PMC and M1 was stronger in motor-imagery tasks whereas the connectivity from PMC to M1, SM A to M1 dominated in motor-execution tasks. There was significant behavioral improvement (p = 0.001) in sensation and motor movements because of the

  20. Brain effective connectivity during motor-imagery and execution following stroke and rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Sahil; Butler, Andrew J.; Drake, Daniel; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Brain areas within the motor system interact directly or indirectly during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks. These interactions and their functionality can change following stroke and recovery. How brain network interactions reorganize and recover their functionality during recovery and treatment following stroke are not well understood. To contribute to answering these questions, we recorded blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals from 10 stroke survivors and evaluated dynamical causal modeling (DCM)-based effective connectivity among three motor areas: primary motor cortex (M1), pre-motor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA), during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks. We compared the connectivity between affected and unaffected hemispheres before and after mental practice and combined mental practice and physical therapy as treatments. The treatment (intervention) period varied in length between 14 to 51 days but all patients received the same dose of 60 h of treatment. Using Bayesian model selection (BMS) approach in the DCM approach, we found that, after intervention, the same network dominated during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks but modulatory parameters suggested a suppressive influence of SM A on M1 during the motor-imagery task whereas the influence of SM A on M1 was unrestricted during the motor-execution task. We found that the intervention caused a reorganization of the network during both tasks for unaffected as well as for the affected hemisphere. Using Bayesian model averaging (BMA) approach, we found that the intervention improved the regional connectivity among the motor areas during both the tasks. The connectivity between PMC and M1 was stronger in motor-imagery tasks whereas the connectivity from PMC to M1, SM A to M1 dominated in motor-execution tasks. There was significant behavioral improvement (p = 0.001) in sensation and motor movements because of the

  1. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  2. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a “natural and enjoyable tool” to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  3. Improving fundamental abilities of atomic force microscopy for investigating quantitative nanoscale physical properties of complex biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X.

    Measurements of local material properties of complex biological systems (e.g. live cells and viruses) in their respective physiological conditions are extremely important in the fields of biophysics, nanotechnology, material science, and nanomedicine. Yet, little is known about the structure-function-property relationship of live cells and viruses. In the case of live cells, the measurements of progressive variations in viscoelastic properties in vitro can provide insight to the mechanistic processes underpinning morphogenesis, mechano-transduction, motility, metastasis, and many more fundamental cellular processes. In the case of living viruses, the relationship between capsid structural framework and the role of the DNA molecule interaction within viruses influencing their stiffness, damping and electrostatic properties can shed light in virological processes like protein subunits assembly/dissassembly, maturation, and infection. The study of mechanics of live cells and viruses has been limited in part due to the lack of technology capable of acquiring high-resolution (nanoscale, subcellular) images of its heterogeneous material properties which vary widely depending on origin and physical interaction. The capabilities of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for measuring forces and topography with sub-nm precision have greatly contributed to research related to biophysics and biomechanics during the past two decades. AFM based biomechanical studies have the unique advantage of resolving/mapping spatially the local material properties over living cells and viruses. However, conventional AFM techniques such as force-volume and quasi-static force-distance curves are too low resolution and low speed to resolve interesting biophysical processes such as cytoskeletal dynamics for cells or assembly/dissasembly of viruses. To overcome this bottleneck, a novel atomic force microscopy mode is developed, that leads to sub-10-nm resolution and sub-15-minutes mapping of local

  4. Pre-service Elementary School Teachers' Ability to Account for the Operation of Simple Physical Systems Using the Energy Conservation Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadouris, Nicos; Hadjigeorgiou, Angela; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2014-12-01

    Energy is recognized as a core idea in science and, hence, a significant learning objective of science education. The effective promotion of this learning objective posits that teachers themselves possess sound conceptual understanding. This is needed for enabling them to organize effective learning environments for their students. In this study, we report on the results of an empirical investigation of teachers' understanding of energy. In particular, the focus is placed on pre-service teachers' ability to employ energy as a framework for analyzing the operation of physical systems. We have collected data from 198 pre-service teachers through three open-ended tasks that involved the application of the energy conservation principle to simple physical systems. The results corroborate the claim made in the literature that teachers typically do not possess functional, coherent understanding of this principle. Most importantly, the data serve to identify and document specific difficulties that hamper attempts to use energy for the analysis of the operation of physical systems. The difficulties we were able to document lend support to the idea that it is important to introduce the idea of energy degradation alongside the conservation of energy principle. The findings of this study have implications for the design of preparation programs for teachers, about energy. The findings also provide insights into the limitations of conventional teaching of energy, to which the participants had been exposed as students, in fostering coherent understanding of energy conservation.

  5. Effects of prenatal dexamethasone treatment on physical growth, pituitary-adrenal hormones, and performance of motor, motivational, and cognitive tasks in juvenile and adolescent common marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Jonas; Knapman, Alana; Zürcher, Nicole R; Pilloud, Sonia; Maier, Claudia; Diaz-Heijtz, Rochellys; Forssberg, Hans; Dettling, Andrea; Feldon, Joram; Pryce, Christopher R

    2008-12-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone (DEX) are commonly used to prevent respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants, but there is emerging evidence of subsequent neurobehavioral abnormalities (e.g. problems with inattention/hyperactivity). In the present study, we exposed pregnant common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, primates) to daily repeated DEX (5 mg/kg by mouth) during either early (d 42-48) or late (d 90-96) pregnancy (gestation period of 144 days). Relative to control, and with a longitudinal design, we investigated DEX effects in offspring in terms of physical growth, plasma ACTH and cortisol titers, social and maintenance behaviors, skilled motor reaching, motivation for palatable reward, and learning between infancy and adolescence. Early DEX resulted in reduced sociability in infants and increased motivation for palatable reward in adolescents. Late DEX resulted in a mild transient increase in knee-heel length in infants and enhanced reversal learning of stimulus-reward association in adolescents. There was no effect of either early or late DEX on basal plasma ACTH or cortisol titers. Both treatments resulted in impaired skilled motor reaching in juveniles, which attenuated in early DEX but persisted in late DEX across test sessions. The increased palatable-reward motivation and decreased social motivation observed in early DEX subjects provide experimental support for the clinical reports that prenatal glucocorticoid treatment impairs social development and predisposes to metabolic syndrome. These novel primate findings indicate that fetal glucocorticoid overexposure can lead to abnormal development of motor, affective, and cognitive behaviors. Importantly, the outcome is highly dependent upon the timing of glucocorticoid overexposure.

  6. Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports

    PubMed Central

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles in children with a different training volume were compared and possible differences in training hours per week between children from a low, moderate, and high level of physical fitness and motor coordination were investigated. Methods and Results Data of 620 children, 347 boys and 273 girls, who participated in the Flemish Sports Compass were used. Only the primary sport of each child was considered and six groups of sports (Ball sports, Dance, Gymnastics, Martial arts, Racquet sports and Swimming) were formed based on common characteristics. Measurements consisted of 17 tests. Independent T-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests revealed few differences between the groups of sports and the discriminant analyses with the moderate and low active group did not show any significant results (p > .05). However, when discriminating among the high active children, a 85.2 % correct classification between six groups of sports was found (Wilks’ Λ = .137 and p < .001). Finally, children performing under average on the tests spent significantly fewer hours in sport per week (2.50 ± 1.84 hours) compared to the children performing best (3.25 ± 2.60 hours) (p = .016) and the children performing above average (2.90 ± 1.96 hours) (p = .029) on physical fitness and motor coordination. Discussion The study showed that in general, children at a young age do not exhibit sport-specific characteristics, except in children with a high training volume. It is possible that on the one hand, children have not spent enough time yet in their sport to develop sport-specific qualities. On the other hand, it could be possible that they do not take individual qualities into account when choosing a sport

  7. Intensification of the Learning Process: Gross Motor Performance Scale. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    The Gross Motor Performance Screening Test was designed to aid the classroom teacher in obtaining specific information about the child's physical abilities. The test includes items which have been found to measure the various factors of physical fitness. It also includes items to measure skills important to the child and adult. Included also are…

  8. Critical review and analysis of the impact of the physical infrastructure on the driving ability, performance, and safety of older adults.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Paula Christine

    2008-01-01

    Literature on the impact of physical infrastructure on older adult safe driving performance was reviewed in 2005 as part of the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Literature Review Project. Existing guidelines for driving environments, related to changes in visual, cognitive, and psychomotor abilities associated with the aging process (as published in the Highway Design Handbook for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Federal Highway Administration, 2001), are exhaustive, but the authors made no attempt to critically assess the strength of the study design or level of evidence. In laboratory studies since 1999, the interventions lacked applicability to real-life driving environments. Further investigation of the effectiveness of best practice interventions and how the driving environment can better accommodate the needs of older drivers is needed. Occupational therapy interventions that focus on the occupation of driving and compensation and education strategies that allow older adults to drive safely as long as possible are included.

  9. Dissociating motor cortex from the motor

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Marc H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During closed-loop control of a brain–computer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement – including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual α-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to α-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling brain–computer interfaces. PMID:22005673

  10. Perceptions of competence, implicit theory of ability, perception of motivational climate, and achievement goals: a test of the trichotomous conceptualization of endorsement of achievement motivation in the physical education setting.

    PubMed

    Cury, F; Da Fonséca, D; Rufo, M; Sarrazin, P

    2002-08-01

    To test and extend the conceptualization of the endorsement of achievement goals in the physical education setting Mastery, Performance-approach, and Performance-approach goals, Perception of the physical education competence, Implicit theory about sport ability, and Perception of the motivational climate were assessed among 682 boys attending five French schools. Analysis indicated that (1) Performance-approach goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Entity beliefs about sport ability, the Performance dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability. (2) Mastery goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Incremental beliefs about sport ability, the Mastery dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with the Performance dimension of the motivational climate. Also, (3) Performance-avoidance goals were positively associated with Entity beliefs about sport ability and the Performance dimension of the motivational climate; these goals were negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability and perception of physical education Competence. These results clearly attested to the validity of the trichotomous model in the physical education setting.

  11. The St. Louis Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock…

  12. Participation in Physical Play and Leisure in Children With Motor Impairments: Mixed-Methods Study to Generate Evidence for Developing an Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Craig; McKee, Lorna; Missiuna, Cheryl; Owen, Christine; Francis, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in physical play/leisure (PPP) is an important therapy goal of children with motor impairments. Evidence for interventions promoting PPP in these children is scarce. The first step is to identify modifiable, clinically meaningful predictors of PPP for targeting by interventions. Objective The study objective was to identify, in children with motor impairments, body function and structure, activity, environmental, and personal factors related to PPP and modifiable by therapists. Design This was a mixed-methods, intervention development study. The World Health Organization framework International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used. Methods Participants were children (6–8 years old) with motor impairments, mobilizing independently with or without equipment and seen by physical therapists or occupational therapists in 6 regions in the United Kingdom, and their parents. Self-reported PPP was assessed with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Modifiable-factor data were collected with therapists' observations, parent questionnaires, and child-friendly interviews. The Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, therapist, and parent data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression. Interview data were analyzed for emerging themes. Results Children's (n=195) PPP (X=18 times per week, interquartile range=11–25) was mainly ‘recreational’ (eg, pretend play, playing with pets) rather than ‘active physical’ (eg, riding a bike/scooter). Parents (n=152) reported positive beliefs about children's PPP but various levels of family PPP. Therapists reported 23 unique impairments (eg, muscle tone), 16 activity limitations (eg, walking), and 3 personal factors (eg, child's PPP confidence). Children interviewed (n=17) reported a strong preference for active play but indicated that adults regulated their PPP. Family PPP and impairment in the child's movement-related body

  13. Association of the physical and chemical properties and the cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles: metal ion release, adsorption ability and specific surface area.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Fujita, Katsuhide; Kato, Haruhisa; Endoh, Shigehisa; Nishio, Keiko; Komaba, Lilian Kaede; Nakamura, Ayako; Miyauchi, Arisa; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Niki, Etsuo; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2012-04-01

    Association of cellular influences and physical and chemical properties were examined for 24 kinds of industrial metal oxide nanoparticles: ZnO, CuO, NiO, Sb(2)O(3), CoO, MoO(3), Y(2)O(3), MgO, Gd(2)O(3), SnO(2), WO(3), ZrO(2), Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2), CeO(2), Al(2)O(3), Bi(2)O(3), La(2)O(3), ITO, and cobalt blue pigments. We prepared a stable medium dispersion for each nanoparticle and examined the influence on cell viability and oxidative stress together with physical and chemical characterizations. ZnO, CuO, NiO, MgO, and WO(3) showed a large amount of metal ion release in the culture medium. The cellular influences of these soluble nanoparticles were larger than insoluble nanoparticles. TiO(2), SnO(2), and CeO(2) nanoparticles showed strong protein adsorption ability; however, cellular influences of these nanoparticles were small. The primary particle size and the specific surface area seemed unrelated to cellular influences. Cellular influences of metal oxide nanoparticles depended on the kind and concentrations of released metals in the solution. For insoluble nanoparticles, the adsorption property was involved in cellular influences. The primary particle size and specific surface area of metal oxide nanoparticles did not affect directly cellular influences. In conclusion the most important cytotoxic factor of metal oxide nanoparticles was metal ion release.

  14. Teaching Students with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments a Decoding Strategy Using Internal Speech and Motoric Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart-Jones, Dawn; Heller, Kathryn Wolff

    2009-01-01

    Children who have severe speech and physical impairments often have difficulty acquiring literacy skills. One critical area of literacy instruction involves promoting word identification though the development of decoding strategies that can be implemented by students independently. This study investigated teaching four students who have cerebral…

  15. COMPONENT, IMAGE, AND FACTOR ANALYSIS OF TESTS OF INTELLECT AND OF MOTOR PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARRIS, CHESTER W.; LIBA, MARIE R.

    AN ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF CERTAIN VARIATIONS IN METHODOLOGY ON THE ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SETS OF DATA IN THE AREAS OF ABILITY OR INTELLIGENCE AND MOTOR PERFORMANCE OR PHYSICAL FITNESS. USING CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THEORY AND METHODS OF FACTOR ANALYSIS DIFFERENT TREATMENTS OF VARIOUS SETS OF DATA, THREE RELATIVELY NEW MODELS…

  16. Motor Difficulties in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Linking Symptom Severity and Postural Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Brittany G.; Powell, Patrick S.; Klinger, Laura G.; Klinger, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Postural stability is a fundamental aspect of motor ability that allows individuals to sustain and maintain the desired physical position of one's body. The present study examined postural stability in average-IQ adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Twenty-six individuals with ASD and 26 age-and-IQ-matched individuals…

  17. Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.

    1998-11-04

    A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.

  18. Physical workload, perceived exertion, and output of cut wood as related to age in motor-manual cutting.

    PubMed

    Hagen, K B; Vik, T; Myhr, N E; Opsahl, P A; Harms-Ringdahl, K

    1993-05-01

    Physical workload, output of cut wood, and perceived exertion were studied among 15 younger (mean age 29 years) and 16 older (mean age 59 years) lumberjacks, using a chainsaw and paid on a piece-rate basis. Oxygen consumption was measured with portable equipment, while heart rate was measured telemetrically. The oxygen consumption for all working phases was 1.8 +/- 0.2 l/min (means +/- SD) (younger) and 1.5 +/- 0.2 l/min (older), which corresponded to 49 +/- 4% and 53 +/- 7% of maximal oxygen consumption estimated in ergometer bicycle exercise test. A negative relationship was found between relative oxygen consumption at work and maximal oxygen consumption (ml/kg/min). Mean heart rates for all working phases were 138 +/- 10 beats/min (younger) and 126 +/- 17 (older). The heart rate differed between the working phases, and was significantly higher for both groups during bunching than during the other operations. The output of cut wood did not differ significantly between the groups. Slight but significantly relationships were found between output of cut wood and maximal oxygen consumption (ml/kg/min) and oxygen consumption (ml/kg/min) during work. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and simultaneous heart rate recordings during cycle tests and field studies showed significant correlations between heart rate and RPE values during cycling in both groups. RPE values and heart rate in the field showed a slight correlation (younger) and not at all (older).

  19. Abilities Unlimited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sally; Smith, Mikki

    1976-01-01

    Along with attitudes that discriminate physically handicapped individuals as "second-class" citizens are the physical barriers of buildings too narrow to accomodate a wheelchair, water fountains placed too high, telephones placed out of reach. Outlines the obstacles the disabled person faces each day. (Author/RK)

  20. Motor Starters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) was invented by a NASA engineer. It matches voltage with a motor's actual need by sensing shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow. With the device, power can be trimmed as much as 65%. Intellinet adopted this technology and designed "soft start" and "load-responsive" control modes to start engines gradually and recycle voltage without reducing motor speed. Other features are lower motor heat and faster fault identification.

  1. Motors and Bulbs in Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    One of Paul Hewitt's "Figuring Physics" that appeared in this journal dealt with the heating of a motor. This phenomenon can be demonstrated with a miniature motor and a bulb as part of a series of activities with "batteries and bulbs." Students examine the effect on the brightness of a single bulb when a second, identical bulb is placed in series…

  2. The St. Louis Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-10-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock of them in the back room.

  3. Molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  4. When Being a Girl Matters Less: Accessibility of Gender-Related Self-Knowledge in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes and Its Impact on Students' Physics-Related Self-Concept of Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessels, Ursula; Hannover, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Background: Establishing or preserving single-sex schooling has been widely discussed as a way of bringing more girls into the natural sciences. Aims: We test the assumption that the beneficial effects of single-sex education on girls' self-concept of ability in masculine subjects such as physics are due to the lower accessibility of…

  5. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education.

    PubMed

    Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE.

  6. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education

    PubMed Central

    Whipp, Peter R.; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A.; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE. PMID:25741309

  7. Family-Based Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Enhancing Physical Activity and Motor Competence in 4–7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Laukkanen, Arto; Pesola, Arto Juhani; Heikkinen, Risto; Sääkslahti, Arja Kaarina; Finni, Taija

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of how to involve families in physical activity (PA) interventions for children. In this cluster randomized controlled trial, we recruited families with four- to seven-year-old children to participate in a year-long study where parents in the intervention group families (n = 46) received tailored counseling to increase children’s PA. Structured PA was not served. Control group families (n = 45) did not receive any counseling. PA in all children (n = 91; mean age 6.16 ± 1.13 years at the baseline) was measured by accelerometers at the baseline and after three, six, nine and 12 months. Motor competence (MC) (n = 89) was measured at the baseline and after six and 12 months by a KTK (KörperkoordinationsTest für Kinder) and throwing and catching a ball (TCB) protocols. The effect of parental counseling on study outcomes was analyzed by a linear mixed-effects model fit by REML and by a Mann-Whitney U test in the case of the TCB. As season was hypothesized to affect counseling effect, an interaction of season on the study outcomes was examined. The results show significant decrease of MVPA in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < .05). The TCB showed a nearly significant improvement at six months in the intervention group compared to the controls (p = .051), but not at 12 months. The intervention group had a steadier development of the KTK when the interaction of season was taken into account. In conclusion, more knowledge of family constructs associating with the effectiveness of counseling is needed for understanding how to enhance PA in children by parents. However, a hypothesis may be put forward that family-based counseling during an inactive season rather than an active season may provide a more lasting effect on the development of KTK in children. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN28668090 PMID:26502183

  8. Motor Simulation without Motor Expertise: Enhanced Corticospinal Excitability in Visually Experienced Dance Spectators

    PubMed Central

    Jola, Corinne; Abedian-Amiri, Ali; Kuppuswamy, Annapoorna; Pollick, Frank E.; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The human “mirror-system” is suggested to play a crucial role in action observation and execution, and is characterized by activity in the premotor and parietal cortices during the passive observation of movements. The previous motor experience of the observer has been shown to enhance the activity in this network. Yet visual experience could also have a determinant influence when watching more complex actions, as in dance performances. Here we tested the impact visual experience has on motor simulation when watching dance, by measuring changes in corticospinal excitability. We also tested the effects of empathic abilities. To fully match the participants' long-term visual experience with the present experimental setting, we used three live solo dance performances: ballet, Indian dance, and non-dance. Participants were either frequent dance spectators of ballet or Indian dance, or “novices” who never watched dance. None of the spectators had been physically trained in these dance styles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal excitability by means of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in both the hand and the arm, because the hand is specifically used in Indian dance and the arm is frequently engaged in ballet dance movements. We observed that frequent ballet spectators showed larger MEP amplitudes in the arm muscles when watching ballet compared to when they watched other performances. We also found that the higher Indian dance spectators scored on the fantasy subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the larger their MEPs were in the arms when watching Indian dance. Our results show that even without physical training, corticospinal excitability can be enhanced as a function of either visual experience or the tendency to imaginatively transpose oneself into fictional characters. We suggest that spectators covertly simulate the movements for which they have acquired visual experience, and that empathic abilities heighten

  9. Compromised Motor Planning and Motor Imagery in Right Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craje, Celine; van Elk, Michiel; Beeren, Manuela; van Schie, Hein T.; Bekkering, Harold; Steenbergen, Bert

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether motor planning problems in people with Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (HCP) are paralleled by impaired ability to use Motor Imagery (MI). While some studies have shown that individuals with HCP can solve a mental rotation task, it was not clear if they used MI or Visual Imagery (VI). In the present study, motor planning and MI…

  10. Physical Development: Indoor Motor Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author features creative ways to fit a lot of movement and fun inside the classroom when there is bad weather. He suggests that, to be creative in the classroom, one can create crawling tunnels for children by moving chairs away from tables and draping sheets or towels over their tops and sides. Or one can weave an obstacle…

  11. Using Self-Efficacy Theory to Facilitate Inclusion in General Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin; Taliaferro, Andrea; Harris, Natasha; Krause, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-efficacy, a situational form of self confidence, is critical in the success of all professionals, including physical education teachers. Most physical educators have confidence in their ability to teach fitness, motor skills, and sport and health concepts. However, their self-efficacy often declines when they face the need to include a…

  12. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  13. Motor Control Theories and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.; Levin, Mindy F.; Scholz, John P.; Schöner, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Summary We describe several influential hypotheses in the field of motor control including the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis, the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the idea of synergies based on the principle of motor abundance. The equilibrium-point hypothesis is based on the idea of control with thresholds for activation of neuronal pools; it provides a framework for analysis of both voluntary and involuntary movements. In particular, control of a single muscle can be adequately described with changes in the threshold of motor unit recruitment during slow muscle stretch (threshold of the tonic stretch reflex). Unlike the ideas of internal models, the equilibrium-point hypothesis does not assume neural computations of mechanical variables. The uncontrolled manifold hypothesis is based on the dynamic system approach to movements; it offers a toolbox to analyze synergic changes within redundant sets of elements related to stabilization of potentially important performance variables. The referent configuration hypothesis and the principle of abundance can be naturally combined into a single coherent scheme of control of multi-element systems. A body of experimental data on healthy persons and patients with movement disorders are reviewed in support of the mentioned hypotheses. In particular, movement disorders associated with spasticity are considered as consequences of an impaired ability to shift threshold of the tonic stretch reflex within the whole normal range. Technical details and applications of the mentioned hypotheses to studies of motor learning are described. We view the mentioned hypotheses as the most promising ones in the field of motor control, based on a solid physical and neurophysiological foundation. PMID:20944446

  14. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  15. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID.

  16. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID. PMID:26079525

  17. Early augmented language intervention for children with developmental delays: potential secondary motor outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Ani S; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose A

    2014-09-01

    This exploratory study examined the potential secondary outcome of an early augmented language intervention that incorporates speech-generating devices (SGD) on motor skill use for children with developmental delays. The data presented are from a longitudinal study by Romski and colleagues. Toddlers in the augmented language interventions were either required (Augmented Communication-Output; AC-O) or not required (Augmented Communication-Input; AC-I) to use the SGD to produce an augmented word. Three standardized assessments and five event-based coding schemes measured the participants' language abilities and motor skills. Toddlers in the AC-O intervention used more developmentally appropriate motor movements and became more accurate when using the SGD to communicate than toddlers in the AC-I intervention. AAC strategies, interventionist/parent support, motor learning opportunities, and physical feedback may all contribute to this secondary benefit of AAC interventions that use devices. PMID:25109299

  18. Sensory motor remapping of space in human–machine interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A.; Casadio, Maura; Danziger, Zachary C.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Scheidt, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of adaptation to patterns of deterministic forces have revealed the ability of the motor control system to form and use predictive representations of the environment. These studies have also pointed out that adaptation to novel dynamics is aimed at preserving the trajectories of a controlled endpoint, either the hand of a subject or a transported object. We review some of these experiments and present more recent studies aimed at understanding how the motor system forms representations of the physical space in which actions take place. An extensive line of investigations in visual information processing has dealt with the issue of how the Euclidean properties of space are recovered from visual signals that do not appear to possess these properties. The same question is addressed here in the context of motor behavior and motor learning by observing how people remap hand gestures and body motions that control the state of an external device. We present some theoretical considerations and experimental evidence about the ability of the nervous system to create novel patterns of coordination that are consistent with the representation of extrapersonal space. We also discuss the perspective of endowing human–machine interfaces with learning algorithms that, combined with human learning, may facilitate the control of powered wheelchairs and other assistive devices. PMID:21741543

  19. Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Norman Robert

    2013-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. The Propositions of Science: 1. The subject matter of science; 2. The nature of laws; 3. The nature of laws (contd); 4. The discovery and proof of laws; 5. The explanation of laws; 6. Theories; 7. Chance and probability; 8. The meaning of science; 9. Science and philosophy; Part II. Measurement: 10. Fundamental measurement; 11. Physical number; 12. Fractional and negative magnitudes; 13. Numerical laws and derived magnitudes; 14. Units and dimensions; 15. The uses of dimensions; 16. Errors of measurement; methodical errors; 17. Errors of measurement; errors of consistency and the adjustment of observations; 18. Mathematical physics; Appendix; Index.

  20. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J

    2012-12-14

    vProject Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, Motors and Generators for the 21st Century. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can

  1. Enhanced Multisensory Integration and Motor Reactivation after Active Motor Learning of Audiovisual Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Andrew J.; James, Thomas W.; James, Karin Harman

    2011-01-01

    Everyday experience affords us many opportunities to learn about objects through multiple senses using physical interaction. Previous work has shown that active motor learning of unisensory items enhances memory and leads to the involvement of motor systems during subsequent perception. However, the impact of active motor learning on subsequent…

  2. A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness, and motor coordination characteristics that influence dropout, contract status, and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players aged eight to eighteen years.

    PubMed

    Deprez, Dieter N; Fransen, Job; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Vaeyens, Roel

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this article was twofold, and a 2-study approach was conducted. The first study aimed to expose the anthropometrical, physical performance, and motor coordination characteristics that influence dropout from a high-level soccer training program in players aged 8-16 years. The mixed-longitudinal sample included 388 Belgian youth soccer players who were assigned to either a "club group" or a "dropout group." In the second study, cross-sectional data of anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination were retrospectively explored to investigate which characteristics influence future contract status (contract vs. no contract group) and first-team playing time for 72 high-level youth soccer players (mean age = 16.2 years). Generally, club players outperformed their dropout peers for motor coordination, soccer-specific aerobic endurance, and speed. Anthropometry and estimated maturity status did not discriminate between club and dropout players. Contract players jumped further (p = 0.011) and had faster times for a 5-m sprint (p = 0.041) than no contract players. The following prediction equation explains 16.7% of the variance in future playing minutes in adolescent youth male soccer players: -2,869.3 + 14.6 × standing broad jump. Practitioners should include the evaluation of motor coordination, aerobic endurance, and speed performances to distinguish high-level soccer players further succeeding a talent development program and future dropout players, between 8 and 16 years. From the age of 16 years, measures of explosivity are supportive when selecting players into a future professional soccer career.

  3. A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out, contract status and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players, aged 8 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Deprez, Dieter; Fransen, Job; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Vaeyens, Roel

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this manuscript was twofold and a two-study approach was conducted. The first study aimed to expose the anthropometrical, physical performance and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out from a high-level soccer training program in players aged 8-16 years. The mixed-longitudinal sample included 388 Belgian youth soccer players who were assigned to either a 'club group' or a 'drop out group'. In the second study, cross-sectional data of anthropometry, physical performance and motor coordination were retrospectively explored to investigate which characteristics influence future contract status (contract vs. no contract group) and first-team playing time for 72 high-level youth soccer players (mean age=16.2 y).Generally, club players outperformed their drop out peers for motor coordination, soccer-specific aerobic endurance and speed. Anthropometry and estimated maturity status did not discriminate between club and drop out players. Contract players jumped further (p=0.011) and had faster times for a 5m sprint (p=0.041) than no contract players. The following prediction equation explains 16.7% of the variance in future playing minutes in adolescent youth male soccer players: -2869.3 + 14.6 * standing broad jump.Practitioners should include the evaluation of motor coordination, aerobic endurance and speed performances to distinguish high-level soccer players further succeeding a talent development program and future drop out players, between 8 and 16 years. From the age of 16 years, measures of explosivity are supportive when selecting players into a future professional soccer career. PMID:25474335

  4. A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness, and motor coordination characteristics that influence dropout, contract status, and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players aged eight to eighteen years.

    PubMed

    Deprez, Dieter N; Fransen, Job; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Vaeyens, Roel

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this article was twofold, and a 2-study approach was conducted. The first study aimed to expose the anthropometrical, physical performance, and motor coordination characteristics that influence dropout from a high-level soccer training program in players aged 8-16 years. The mixed-longitudinal sample included 388 Belgian youth soccer players who were assigned to either a "club group" or a "dropout group." In the second study, cross-sectional data of anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination were retrospectively explored to investigate which characteristics influence future contract status (contract vs. no contract group) and first-team playing time for 72 high-level youth soccer players (mean age = 16.2 years). Generally, club players outperformed their dropout peers for motor coordination, soccer-specific aerobic endurance, and speed. Anthropometry and estimated maturity status did not discriminate between club and dropout players. Contract players jumped further (p = 0.011) and had faster times for a 5-m sprint (p = 0.041) than no contract players. The following prediction equation explains 16.7% of the variance in future playing minutes in adolescent youth male soccer players: -2,869.3 + 14.6 × standing broad jump. Practitioners should include the evaluation of motor coordination, aerobic endurance, and speed performances to distinguish high-level soccer players further succeeding a talent development program and future dropout players, between 8 and 16 years. From the age of 16 years, measures of explosivity are supportive when selecting players into a future professional soccer career. PMID:26010800

  5. Individual Differences in Language Development: Relationship with Motor Skill at 21 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Katherine J.; Krawczyk, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Language development has long been associated with motor development, particularly manual gesture. We examined a variety of motor abilities--manual gesture including symbolic, meaningless and sequential memory, oral motor control, gross and fine motor control--in 129 children aged 21 months. Language abilities were assessed and cognitive and…

  6. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components and with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives functionally-required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g. powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf life characteristics.

  7. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  8. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  9. Motor neglect.

    PubMed Central

    Laplane, D; Degos, J D

    1983-01-01

    Motor neglect is characterised by an underutilisation of one side, without defects of strength, reflexes or sensibility. Twenty cases of frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions causing motor neglect, but all without sensory neglect, are reported. It is proposed that the cerebral structures involved in motor neglect are the same as those for sensory neglect and for the preparation of movement. As in sensory neglect, the multiplicity of the structures concerned suggests that this interconnection is necessary to maintain a sufficient level of activity. Predominance of left sided neglect by right sided lesions suggests that the left hemisphere is dominant for deliberate activity; hemispheric dominance could be applied to sensory neglect where conscious awareness would play the role of deliberate activity. PMID:6842219

  10. Motor and cognitive development: the role of karate

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianha; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Vella, Francesco Paolo; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: regular physical activity has an effect on biological responses in both muscles and organs that, in turn, alter the structure and functions of the brain. Therefore, this study aims at comparing motor (sprint, coordination ability and explosive legs strength skills) and cognitive abilities (working memory, attention, executive functioning) in children. Methods: 39 children with average chronological age of 9 years were divided in: Karatekas (n=19) and Sedentary (n=20) groups. Their abilities were measured by motor and cognitive tests. Motor skills were assessed through a battery composed by the 20 mt Sprint test, the Agility test and the Standing board jump Test. Cognitive profile was assessed by a battery of tests derived from BVN 5–11, “Batteria di Valutazione Neuropsicologica per l’Et à Evolutiva”: Visual discrimination test, Reaction time test, Forwards and Backwards Digit Span Tests, Corsi Block-Tapping test and Tower of London. Results: our results reveal significant differences between two groups (p < 0.05). Karate children show better speed times, explosive legs strength and coordination skills. They scored better on working memory, visual selective attention and executive functions. Conclusion: karate exercise training shows global benefits resulting in physiological and psychological gains in children. PMID:25332920

  11. Mississippi Perceptual Motor Symposium Proceedings (Jackson, April 20-21, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert; And Others

    Presented are the proceedings of the Mississippi Perceptual-Motor Symposium, April 20-21, 1973. Included are papers on motor development, models for perceptual motor programming, children with minimal brain damage, effects of learning games or academic abilities, research on perceptual motor measures, and programs for motor development. (JB)

  12. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research. PMID:17937602

  13. Can Kinesiological Activities Change "Pure" Motor Development in Preschool Children during One School Year?

    PubMed

    Krneta, Željko; Casals, Cristina; Bala, Gustav; Madić, Dejan; Pavlović, Slobodan; Drid, Patrik

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an additional, organized, and more intensive kinesiological treatment on "pure" motor abilities in preschool children. In the present study an experimental treatment was carried out on a sample of 37 preschool boys by applying kinesiological activities. The 60 minute treatment was applied over a period of one school year (9 months), twice a week. A control group of 31 boys were trained according to the regular program for preschool institutions. Treatment effects were assessed by 8 motor ability tests and 5 anthropometric measures. The significant differences between the groups, which were observed after the final measurement and compared to the initial one, proved that the kinesiological treatment had a positive impact on the general development of "pure" motor abilities. The most significant effect of experimental kinesiological treatment was the improvement in whole body force, flexibility and coordination of preschool boys. These findings, obtained only in one school year, point to the importance of physical exercise and the application of additional kinesiological activities with various modalities, to improve motor development, even morphological growth and development in preschool children. The effects of the perennial application of kinesiological activities, under the supervision of kinesiological professionals, could be beneficial and could form the basis for a better biological and motor development in older age.

  14. Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

  15. Predictive Ability of Pender's Health Promotion Model for Physical Activity and Exercise in People with Spinal Cord Injuries: A Hierarchical Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, John P.; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to validate Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) as a motivational model for exercise/physical activity self-management for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Quantitative descriptive research design using hierarchical regression analysis (HRA) was used. A total of 126 individuals with SCI were recruited…

  16. Motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2010-06-01

    Although learning a motor skill, such as a tennis stroke, feels like a unitary experience, researchers who study motor control and learning break the processes involved into a number of interacting components. These components can be organized into four main groups. First, skilled performance requires the effective and efficient gathering of sensory information, such as deciding where and when to direct one's gaze around the court, and thus an important component of skill acquisition involves learning how best to extract task-relevant information. Second, the performer must learn key features of the task such as the geometry and mechanics of the tennis racket and ball, the properties of the court surface, and how the wind affects the ball's flight. Third, the player needs to set up different classes of control that include predictive and reactive control mechanisms that generate appropriate motor commands to achieve the task goals, as well as compliance control that specifies, for example, the stiffness with which the arm holds the racket. Finally, the successful performer can learn higher-level skills such as anticipating and countering the opponent's strategy and making effective decisions about shot selection. In this Primer we shall consider these components of motor learning using as an example how we learn to play tennis. PMID:20541489

  17. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  18. Motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2010-06-01

    Although learning a motor skill, such as a tennis stroke, feels like a unitary experience, researchers who study motor control and learning break the processes involved into a number of interacting components. These components can be organized into four main groups. First, skilled performance requires the effective and efficient gathering of sensory information, such as deciding where and when to direct one's gaze around the court, and thus an important component of skill acquisition involves learning how best to extract task-relevant information. Second, the performer must learn key features of the task such as the geometry and mechanics of the tennis racket and ball, the properties of the court surface, and how the wind affects the ball's flight. Third, the player needs to set up different classes of control that include predictive and reactive control mechanisms that generate appropriate motor commands to achieve the task goals, as well as compliance control that specifies, for example, the stiffness with which the arm holds the racket. Finally, the successful performer can learn higher-level skills such as anticipating and countering the opponent's strategy and making effective decisions about shot selection. In this Primer we shall consider these components of motor learning using as an example how we learn to play tennis.

  19. Therma motor

    DOEpatents

    Kandarian, R.

    The disclosure is directed to a thermal motor utilizing two tapered prestressed parallel adjacent cylinders lengthwise disposed about one third in a coolant. Heat is applied to contacting portions of the cylinders outside the coolant to cause them to deform and turn. Heat sources such as industrial waste heat, geothermal hot water, solar radiation, etc. can be used.

  20. Understanding social motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain.

  1. Measuring Motor Skill Learning--A Practical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of fundamental motor skills in early learners is critical to the overall well-being and physical development of the students within the physical education setting. Olrich (2002) has suggested that any physical education program must be designed to assess both measures of physical fitness and fundamental motor skills in all students.…

  2. Nonlinear rocket motor stability prediction: Limit amplitude, triggering, and mean pressure shifta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandro, Gary A.; Fischbach, Sean R.; Majdalani, Joseph

    2007-09-01

    High-amplitude pressure oscillations in solid propellant rocket motor combustion chambers display nonlinear effects including: (1) limit cycle behavior in which the fluctuations may dwell for a considerable period of time near their peak amplitude, (2) elevated mean chamber pressure (DC shift), and (3) a triggering amplitude above which pulsing will cause an apparently stable system to transition to violent oscillations. Along with the obvious undesirable vibrations, these features constitute the most damaging impact of combustion instability on system reliability and structural integrity. The physical mechanisms behind these phenomena and their relationship to motor geometry and physical parameters must, therefore, be fully understood if instability is to be avoided in the design process, or if effective corrective measures must be devised during system development. Predictive algorithms now in use have limited ability to characterize the actual time evolution of the oscillations, and they do not supply the motor designer with information regarding peak amplitudes or the associated critical triggering amplitudes. A pivotal missing element is the ability to predict the mean pressure shift; clearly, the designer requires information regarding the maximum chamber pressure that might be experienced during motor operation. In this paper, a comprehensive nonlinear combustion instability model is described that supplies vital information. The central role played by steep-fronted waves is emphasized. The resulting algorithm provides both detailed physical models of nonlinear instability phenomena and the critically needed predictive capability. In particular, the origin of the DC shift is revealed.

  3. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... called upper motor neurons ) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons ) and from them to particular muscles. Upper motor neurons direct the lower motor neurons ...

  4. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Information Page Condensed from Motor Neuron Diseases ... and Information Publicaciones en Español What are Motor Neuron Diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  5. Effect of the Children's Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Leah E; Palmer, Kara K; Bub, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children's Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p < 0.001). In regard to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < 0.05), but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < 0.001). Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time, while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < 0.05). CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool

  6. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Leah E.; Palmer, Kara K.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p < 0.001). In regard to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < 0.05), but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < 0.001). Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time, while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < 0.05). CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool

  7. Effect of the Children's Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Leah E; Palmer, Kara K; Bub, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children's Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p < 0.001). In regard to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < 0.05), but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < 0.001). Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time, while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < 0.05). CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool

  8. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Leah E.; Palmer, Kara K.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p < 0.001). In regard to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < 0.05), but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < 0.001). Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time, while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < 0.05). CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool

  9. Brushless dc motor uses electron beam switching tube as commutator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P.

    1965-01-01

    Electron beam switching tube eliminates physical contact between rotor and stator in brushless dc motor. The tube and associated circuitry control the output of a dc source to sequentially energize the motor stator windings.

  10. Physics.

    PubMed

    Bromley, D A

    1980-07-01

    From massive quarks deep in the hearts of atomic nuclei to the catastrophic collapse of giant stars in the farthest reaches of the universe, from the partial realization of Einstein's dream of a unified theory of the forces of nature to the most practical applications in technology, medicine, and throughout contemporary society, physics continues to have a profound impact on man's view of the universe and on the quality of life. The author argues that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, new insight-and the new questions-have been among the most productive in the history of the field and puts into context his selection of some of the most important new developments in this fundamental science.

  11. "The moving body": a sustainable project to improve children's physical activity at kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Serpentino, Carmela

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity promotes children's awareness of the body. Children, to experience and to learn, need to be physically active and their innate physical activity is playing. Playing together means building relationships with peers, means learning how to use tools and space, means addressing egocentric behaviour toward rules' respect; in summary, it means learning "social conviviality and respect". The aim of the project "The moving body" was to favour children's physical and cognitive development and their social relationships. Gross motor physical abilities were assessed in 270 children attending the kindergarten. The children were grouped according their level of motor abilities to promote learning through older children's imitation. Structured games and playing were alternated to free time, and words such as physical activity, movement, and so on, were never used. Every month the children were asked to draw their own body to assess their body shape perception and their ability in representing it. All the children improved their physical abilities as compared to the beginning of the project; they strengthened their creativity and fantasy, inventing new and imaginative games, became more confident in their own capacities, and they learned how to deal and overcome, with a greater autonomy, difficult tasks. The body shape perception, and its representation as drawing, showed, especially among children 3 years old, remarkable progress. The importance of physical activity and play in kindergarten activities was evidenced through the significant improvement of children's several specific motor and psychosocial competences.

  12. Functional neuroanatomical networks associated with expertise in motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Aymeric; Collet, Christian; Nguyen, Vo An; Malouin, Francine; Richards, Carol; Doyon, Julien

    2008-07-15

    Although numerous behavioural studies provide evidence that there exist wide differences within individual motor imagery (MI) abilities, little is known with regards to the functional neuroanatomical networks that dissociate someone with good versus poor MI capacities. For the first time, we thus compared, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the pattern of cerebral activations in 13 skilled and 15 unskilled imagers during both physical execution and MI of a sequence of finger movements. Differences in MI abilities were assessed using well-established questionnaire and chronometric measures, as well as a new index based upon the subject's peripheral responses from the autonomic nervous system. As expected, both good and poor imagers activated the inferior and superior parietal lobules, as well as motor-related regions including the lateral and medial premotor cortex, the cerebellum and putamen. Inter-group comparisons revealed that good imagers activated more the parietal and ventrolateral premotor regions, which are known to play a critical role in the generation of mental images. By contrast, poor imagers recruited the cerebellum, orbito-frontal and posterior cingulate cortices. Consistent with findings from the motor sequence learning literature and Doyon and Ungerleider's model of motor learning [Doyon, J., Ungerleider, L.G., 2002. Functional anatomy of motor skill learning. In: Squire, L.R., Schacter, D.L. (Eds.), Neuropsychology of memory, Guilford Press, pp. 225-238], our results demonstrate that compared to skilled imagers, poor imagers not only need to recruit the cortico-striatal system, but to compensate with the cortico-cerebellar system during MI of sequential movements.

  13. Modification of motor cortex excitability during muscle relaxation in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kenichi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Saitoh, Kei; Higashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We postulated that gradual muscle relaxation during motor learning would dynamically change activity in the primary motor cortex (M1) and modify short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI). Thus, we compared changes in M1 excitability both pre and post motor learning during gradual muscle relaxation. Thirteen healthy participants were asked to gradually relax their muscles from an isometric right wrist extension (30% maximum voluntary contraction; MVC) using a tracking task for motor learning. Single or paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied at either 20% or 80% of the downward force output during muscle release from 30% MVC, and we compared the effects of motor learning immediately after the 1st and 10th blocks. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the extensor and flexor carpi radialis (ECR and FCR) were then measured and compared to evaluate their relationship before and after motor learning. In both muscles and each downward force output, motor cortex excitability during muscle relaxation was significantly increased following motor learning. In the ECR, the SICI in the 10th block was significantly increased during the 80% waveform decline compared to the SICI in the 1st block. In the FCR, the SICI also exhibited a greater inhibitory effect when muscle relaxation was terminated following motor learning. During motor training, acquisition of the ability to control muscle relaxation increased the SICI in both the ECR and FCR during motor termination. This finding aids in our understanding of the cortical mechanisms that underlie muscle relaxation during motor learning.

  14. Locomotion of chemically powered autonomous nanowire motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Longqiu; Li, Tianlong; Zhang, Guangyu; Sun, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Physical insights on the hydrodynamics and locomotion of self-propelled nanowire motor under nonequilibrium steady state are investigated using finite element method in accordance with hybrid molecular dynamics/multiparticle collision dynamics and rigid body dynamics. Nanowire motor is discretized into finite segments, and forces of solvent molecule acting on the motor are assumed to be the sum of forces acting on all segments of the motor. We show that the locomotion of nanowire motor is mainly determined by the imbalance forces acting on the catalytic and noncatalytic segments. The average velocity along the axis increases significantly as a function of time prior to reaching equilibrium. The length of nanowire motor shows negligible effect on the velocity of the motor. Preliminary experimental results are provided to validate the current model.

  15. Perceptual-motor deficiency in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, S C; Freeman, W M

    1980-02-01

    15 autistic children were matched with normals on the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration. The two groups were subsequently compared on ability to (1) increase geometric figure-copying performance using additional information provided during subsequent trials, (2) make figure-ground resolutions, (3) perform a fine motor integration task, and (4) cope with background interference while responding on the Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration. The primary deficit observed in the autistic subjects appeared to be defective monitoring of the motor response.

  16. [Simple and useful evaluation of motor difficulty in childhood (9-12 years old children ) by interview score on motor skills and soft neurological signs--aim for the diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder].

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Shuhei

    2009-09-01

    Many children with developmental disorders are known to have motor impairment such as clumsiness and poor physical ability;however, the objective evaluation of such difficulties is not easy in routine clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to establish a simple method for evaluating motor difficulty of childhood. This method employs a scored interview and examination for detecting soft neurological signs (SNSs). After a preliminary survey with 22 normal children, we set the items and the cutoffs for the interview and SNSs. The interview consisted of questions pertaining to 12 items related to a child's motor skills in his/her past and current life, such as skipping, jumping a rope, ball sports, origami, and using chopsticks. The SNS evaluation included 5 tests, namely, standing on one leg with eyes closed, diadochokinesia, associated movements during diadochokinesia, finger opposition test, and laterally fixed gaze. We applied this method to 43 children, including 25 cases of developmental disorders. Children showing significantly high scores in both the interview and SNS were assigned to the "with motor difficulty" group, while those with low scores in both the tests were assigned to the "without motor difficulty" group. The remaining children were assigned to the "with suspicious motor difficulty" group. More than 90% of the children in the "with motor difficulty" group had high impairment scores in Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), a standardized motor test, whereas 82% of the children in the "without motor difficulty" group revealed no motor impairment. Thus, we conclude that our simple method and criteria would be useful for the evaluation of motor difficulty of childhood. Further, we have discussed the diagnostic process for developmental coordination disorder using our evaluation method.

  17. Physical Development: Thinking Physically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Children grow and develop physically according to their own experiences, characteristics, and abilities. Physical development is so important and the environment should allow each child to find her space in the sunshine. This can be done by: (1) creating the right outdoor environment; (2) allowing children time to use it; (3) encouraging movement…

  18. Urban Biometeorology: analysis of the air pollution and climate change on cognition and physical abilities of geriatric population of São Paulo City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio Luiz; Jacob, Wilson; Alucci, Marcia; Busse, Alexandre; Duarte, Denise; Monteiro, Leonardo; Trezza, Beatriz; Tribess, Arlindo; Batista, Rafael; Ambrizzi, Tercip

    2013-04-01

    This is a multidisciplinary Project, which emphasizes geriatric population impacts, i. e., over 65 years old, of meteorological variables and air pollutants (such as particulate matter) associated to human health, and concerning to the real climatology and climate change in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. This is a biometeorological study, human subdivision, based on ISB (International Society of Biometeorology). According to the society, the environmental effects are considered meteorotropics where one or more environmental variables (meteorological or climatic even air pollution) affect one or more individuals of a population. Atmospheric pollution will be analyzed using a personal particulate matter multi-collector, concerning the impact of unfavorable meteorological conditions where the impacts will be evaluated comparing the test results during dry season (high air pollutant concentrations) and wet season (low pollutant concentrations). Therefore, the aim of this study will be to evaluate the cognitive and physical performance of a geriatric population in a pre-selected group of aged people which are considered as capable (healthy). This performance is affected by environmental conditions which thermal comfort (where meteorological variables act together) and air pollution are the meteorotropic ones. Consequently, one of the aims of the study is to establish a human thermal comfort index for geriatric populations. Architectural premises (thermal performance and ergonomics) will be also developed. An acclimatized chamber will be used to simulate the extremes of São Paulo climate and to propose a thermal comfort index. Indoors (chamber) and outdoors will be used in order to compare the impact on the selected aged people. Finally, the climate change will be based on GCM's global models which show the meteorological variations in order to calculate their impact on a comfort index. The physical and cognitive performances and architectural premises (thermal

  19. Observation of microtubule-based motor protein activity.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Roger D

    2015-02-01

    It is possible to detect the presence of motor proteins that have the ability to translocate particles along microtubules. The two procedures described here were developed to detect microtubule-dependent motor protein activity in cell lysates or of purified proteins. In the first procedure, latex beads bound to the putative motor protein are assayed for their ability to translocate along microtubules in an ATP-dependent fashion. If motor protein activity is present, it will bind to the beads and translocate them unidirectionally along the microtubules. In the second procedure, motor proteins induce microtubule gliding over a glass coverslip surface that is coated with active motor protein. Because the mass of a microtubule is negligible compared to that of a coverslip or slide, the microtubule glides over the glass surface when the surface is coated with active motor protein. Also included here are descriptions of assays designed to determine the directionality of movement of microtubule-based motor proteins. PMID:25646501

  20. Siphon motor

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    A siphon motor comprises the combination of siphon means and generating means for generating electrical energy from a water source located below the generating means and a water discharge at a lower level than the water source. Water rises by siphonic action upward from the water source to a sealed working region maintained under partial vacuum, and descends to the water discharge. The working region contains the generating means. The system has particular utility as a source of power generation in remote locations having a water table within about 30 feet of the ground.

  1. Motor Coordination and Health-Related Physical Fitness of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Three-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yao-Chuen; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Hsieh, Chiu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease. While previous studies have identified children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) to be less physically fit than typically developing (TD) peers, there is limited longitudinal research in this area. This study was undertaken to evaluate concomitant…

  2. A Constraints-Led Perspective to Understanding Skill Acquisition and Game Play: A Basis for Integration of Motor Learning Theory and Physical Education Praxis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Ian; Chow, Jia Yi; Davids, Keith; Hammond, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: In order to design appropriate environments for performance and learning of movement skills, physical educators need a sound theoretical model of the learner and of processes of learning. In physical education, this type of modelling informs the organisation of learning environments and effective and efficient use of practice time. An…

  3. On the Problem of Motor Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    As a way to address the serious obesity epidemic in the United States, many physical education classes have become fitness centers designed to raise heart rates and burn calories. An unintended consequence of this emphasis on fitness, however, is the lack of attention to motor skill development. Motor skills do not develop miraculously from one…

  4. Early Childhood Motor Skills Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelsgaard, Cheri

    This activity book is designed to assist teachers in enhancing preschool children's motor skills, physical development, and social skills, and to build young children's self-esteem. The activities are designed for both disabled and nondisabled children. The first section of the book suggests specific activities in 13 categories of motor skills:…

  5. Observing motor learning produces somatosensory change.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Nicolò F; Darainy, Mohammad; Bricolo, Emanuela; Ostry, David J

    2013-10-01

    Observing the actions of others has been shown to affect motor learning, but does it have effects on sensory systems as well? It has been recently shown that motor learning that involves actual physical practice is also associated with plasticity in the somatosensory system. Here, we assessed the idea that observational learning likewise changes somatosensory function. We evaluated changes in somatosensory function after human subjects watched videos depicting motor learning. Subjects first observed video recordings of reaching movements either in a clockwise or counterclockwise force field. They were then trained in an actual force-field task that involved a counterclockwise load. Measures of somatosensory function were obtained before and after visual observation and also following force-field learning. Consistent with previous reports, video observation promoted motor learning. We also found that somatosensory function was altered following observational learning, both in direction and in magnitude, in a manner similar to that which occurs when motor learning is achieved through actual physical practice. Observation of the same sequence of movements in a randomized order did not result in somatosensory perceptual change. Observational learning and real physical practice appear to tap into the same capacity for sensory change in that subjects that showed a greater change following observational learning showed a reliably smaller change following physical motor learning. We conclude that effects of observing motor learning extend beyond the boundaries of traditional motor circuits, to include somatosensory representations.

  6. [Functional brain plasticity associated with motor learning].

    PubMed

    Doyon, Julien; Orban, Pierre; Barakat, Marc; Debas, Karen; Lungu, Ovidiu; Albouy, Geneviève; Fogel, Stuart; Proulx, Sébastien; Laventure, Samuel; Deslauriers, Jonathan; Duchesne, Catherine; Carrier, Julie; Benali, Habib

    2011-04-01

    This review presents the results of studies carried out in our laboratory that aim to investigate, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the brain plasticity associated with motor sequence learning, defined as our ability to integrate simple stereotyped movements into a single motor representation. Following a brief description of Doyon and colleagues' model (2002, 2005, 2009) of motor skill learning that has guided this work, we then describe the functional changes that occur at the different (rapid, slow, automatization) acquisition phases, and propose specific roles that the putamen, the cerebellum and their motor-related cortical areas, play in this form of motor behavior. Finally, we put forward evidence that post-training, non-REM sleep (and spindles in Stage 2 sleep, in particular) contributes to the consolidation of a motor sequence memory trace, and that increased activity within the striatum and/or the hippocampus mediates this mnemonic process.

  7. Bridging the gap between motor imagery and motor execution with a brain-robot interface.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Robert; Fels, Meike; Vukelić, Mathias; Ziemann, Ulf; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-03-01

    According to electrophysiological studies motor imagery and motor execution are associated with perturbations of brain oscillations over spatially similar cortical areas. By contrast, neuroimaging and lesion studies suggest that at least partially distinct cortical networks are involved in motor imagery and execution. We sought to further disentangle this relationship by studying the role of brain-robot interfaces in the context of motor imagery and motor execution networks. Twenty right-handed subjects performed several behavioral tasks as indicators for imagery and execution of movements of the left hand, i.e. kinesthetic imagery, visual imagery, visuomotor integration and tonic contraction. In addition, subjects performed motor imagery supported by haptic/proprioceptive feedback from a brain-robot-interface. Principal component analysis was applied to assess the relationship of these indicators. The respective cortical resting state networks in the α-range were investigated by electroencephalography using the phase slope index. We detected two distinct abilities and cortical networks underlying motor control: a motor imagery network connecting the left parietal and motor areas with the right prefrontal cortex and a motor execution network characterized by transmission from the left to right motor areas. We found that a brain-robot-interface might offer a way to bridge the gap between these networks, opening thereby a backdoor to the motor execution system. This knowledge might promote patient screening and may lead to novel treatment strategies, e.g. for the rehabilitation of hemiparesis after stroke.

  8. Building a motor simulation de novo: Observation of dance by dancers

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Emily S.; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    Research on action simulation identifies brain areas that are active while imagining or performing simple overlearned actions. Are areas engaged during imagined movement sensitive to the amount of actual physical practice? In the present study, participants were expert dancers who learned and rehearsed novel, complex whole-body dance sequences 5 h a week across 5 weeks. Brain activity was recorded weekly by fMRI as dancers observed and imagined performing different movement sequences. Half these sequences were rehearsed and half were unpracticed control movements. After each trial, participants rated how well they could perform the movement. We hypothesized that activity in premotor areas would increase as participants observed and simulated movements that they had learnt outside the scanner. Dancers’ ratings of their ability to perform rehearsed sequences, but not the control sequences, increased with training. When dancers observed and simulated another dancer’s movements, brain regions classically associated with both action simulation and action observation were active, including inferior parietal lobule, cingulate and supplementary motor areas, ventral premotor cortex, superior temporal sulcus and primary motor cortex. Critically, inferior parietal lobule and ventral premotor activity was modulated as a function of dancers’ ratings of their own ability to perform the observed movements and their motor experience. These data demonstrate that a complex motor resonance can be built de novo over 5 weeks of rehearsal. Furthermore, activity in premotor and parietal areas during action simulation is enhanced by the ability to execute a learned action irrespective of stimulus familiarity or semantic label. PMID:16530429

  9. Physical Education's Fourth Domain: Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudet, Bob; Acquaviva, John

    2005-01-01

    The Surgeon General's report discusses the importance of daily physical activity and addresses the role of schools' physical education programs in implementing activity into every child's life. Professionals in the physical education field have typically used three domains to address the physical education curriculum: motor, cognitive, and…

  10. Selective influence of circadian modulation and task characteristics on motor imagery time.

    PubMed

    Debarnot, Ursula; Sahraoui, Djafar; Champely, Stéphane; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of circadian modulation on motor imagery (MI) time while also considering the effects of task complexity and duration. The ability to imagine in real time was influenced by circadian modulation in a simple walking condition, with longer MI times in the morning and evening sessions. By contrast, there was no effect of circadian rhythm in the complex, short or long walking conditions. We concluded that motor imagery time is modulated during the course of the day, but the effect of task difficulty is stronger than circadian modulation in altering the temporal congruence between physical practice and MI performance. Practical applications in motor learning and rehabilitation are discussed.

  11. Relationship of anthropometrical, physiological and motor attributes to sport-specific skills.

    PubMed

    Angyán, L; Téczely, T; Zalay, Z; Karsai, I

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the importance of the athlete's motor capabilities in success in sport. More precisely, the association of anthropometrical and physiological attributes, as well as motor abilities of elite basketball players with play elements of basketball. The subjects were seven elite basketball players. At the end of the competitive season, the anthropometrical and physiological features were measured to establish the physical fitness of the subjects. Both general and sport-specific motor tests were done. The coach estimated the performance of each player during the games of the competitive season. The coach's data sheet incorporated 14 parameters of the game. Regression analyses indicated significant correlation between certain variables of the laboratory tests and the data of the coach's estimation statistics. Knowing these relationships provides us with valuable predictive information about player's capabilities in sport. PMID:14594193

  12. Relationship of anthropometrical, physiological and motor attributes to sport-specific skills.

    PubMed

    Angyán, L; Téczely, T; Zalay, Z; Karsai, I

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the importance of the athlete's motor capabilities in success in sport. More precisely, the association of anthropometrical and physiological attributes, as well as motor abilities of elite basketball players with play elements of basketball. The subjects were seven elite basketball players. At the end of the competitive season, the anthropometrical and physiological features were measured to establish the physical fitness of the subjects. Both general and sport-specific motor tests were done. The coach estimated the performance of each player during the games of the competitive season. The coach's data sheet incorporated 14 parameters of the game. Regression analyses indicated significant correlation between certain variables of the laboratory tests and the data of the coach's estimation statistics. Knowing these relationships provides us with valuable predictive information about player's capabilities in sport.

  13. Visual, Motor, and Visual-Motor Integration Difficulties in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect 1 in every 88 U.S. children. ASDs have been described as neurological and developmental disorders impacting visual, motor, and visual-motor integration (VMI) abilities that affect academic achievement (CDC, 2010). Forty-five participants (22 ASD and 23 Typically Developing [TD]) 8 to 14 years old completed…

  14. Physical Education Framework for California Public Schools Kindergarten through Grade Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This framework describes a developmental, sequential, age-appropriate physical education program designed to provide students of all ages with the knowledge and ability needed to maintain an active, healthy life-style. Three major goals of the curriculum are that students should: (1) develop effective motor skills and understand the fundamentals…

  15. Minimum Principles in Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Sascha E.

    2001-06-01

    Minimum (or minimal) principles are mathematical laws that were first used in physics: Hamilton's principle and Fermat's principle of least time are two famous example. In the past decade, a number of motor control theories have been proposed that are formally of the same kind as the minimum principles of physics, and some of these have been quite successful at predicting motor performance in a variety of tasks. The present paper provides a comprehensive review of this work. Particular attention is given to the relation between minimum theories in motor control and those used in other disciplines. Other issues around which the review is organized include: (1) the relation between minimum principles and structural models of motor planning and motor control, (2) the empirically-driven development of minimum principles and the danger of circular theorizing, and (3) the design of critical tests for minimum theories. Some perspectives for future research are discussed in the concluding section of the paper. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11401453

  16. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle disorder ...

  17. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... It’s About Hope AgrAbility on Twitter AgrAbility on Facebook AgrAbility on You Tube AgrAbility… It’s About Hope ... anniversary throughout 2016... AgrAbility Harvest Get a copy Facebook Posts National AgrAbility Project 5 days ago AgrAbility's ...

  18. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  19. Acquisition of Internal Models of Motor Tasks in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidley Larson, Jennifer C.; Bastian, Amy J.; Donchin, Opher; Shadmehr, Reza; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism exhibit a host of motor disorders including poor coordination, poor tool use and delayed learning of complex motor skills like riding a tricycle. Theory suggests that one of the crucial steps in motor learning is the ability to form internal models: to predict the sensory consequences of motor commands and learn from errors to…

  20. MOTOR SKILLS AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OUTCOMES FROM A PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTION IN SHORT BREAKS ON PRESCHOOL CHILDREN CONDUCTED BY THEIR EDUCATORS: A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Monsalves-Alvarez, Matias; Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Zapata-Lamana, Rafael; Rosales-Soto, Giovanni; Salazar, Gabriela

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la obesidad infantil es ya un problema de salud pública. Para su disminución, han sido planteadas diferentes estrategias con el fin de aumentar la actividad física y con ello reducir la ganancia de peso en niños; estas estrategias se han llevado a cabo con un éxito limitado. Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los resultados de una intervención piloto, la cual consiste en tres recreos de 15 minutos tres veces por semana conducidos por las educadoras y guiados por educadores físicos en los patrones motores y el estado nutricional de niños preescolares. Métodos: la muestra consta de 70 niños preescolares (32 niños y 38 niñas), edad 4 ± 0.6. Las clases de educación física fueron llevadas a cabo tres veces por semana en recreos de 15 minutos. Se plantearon circuitos, los cuales contenían saltos, gateo, galopes, carreras, carga y manipulación de balones medicinales. Las pruebas motoras evaluadas fueron el salto horizontal y la carrera de 12 metros. Resultados: con la intervención no se encontraron diferencias significativas en el estado nutricional (media Z score niños p = 0,49, media Z score niñas p = 0,77). Sí se encontró un aumento significativo en el peso (p < 0,0001) y la talla ( p < 0,0001) tanto en niños como en niñas al término de la intervención. En cuanto a las pruebas motoras, la carrera de 12 metros ajustada al peso tuvo cambios significativos en niños (p = 0,002) y en niñas ( p < 0,0001); mientras que el salto horizontal mejoró en ambos grupos tras la intervención (p < 0,0001). Cuando se ajustaron las pruebas motoras por estado nutricional, se encontraron cambios significativos tanto en la carrera de 12 metros en los niños con sobrepeso (p = 0,008) como en el salto horizontal/talla (p < 0,0001), lo que sugiere el incremento de la potencia independientemente del aumento de peso observado. Conclusión: este estudio piloto encontró que una intervención con actividades más intensas en peque

  1. Relationship between perceived and actual motor competence among college students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Bian, Wei

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between perceived and actual motor competence was examined among college students. Participants were 114 college students (55 men, 59 women; M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 3.9). All participants completed a short survey on perception of motor competence in basketball and took a Control Basketball Dribble Test to assess their actual motor skill. Perceived motor competence in basketball was significantly related to basketball dribbling performance. Given the positive relationship between actual motor competence and perceived competence, enhancing an individual's actual motor competence may contribute to their perceived competence, which may improve an individual's physical activity participation.

  2. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  3. Motor execution and motor imagery: a comparison of functional connectivity patterns based on graph theory.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Zhang, H; Hui, M; Long, Z; Jin, Z; Liu, Y; Yao, L

    2014-03-01

    Motor execution and imagery (ME and MI), as the basic abilities of human beings, have been considered to be effective strategies in motor skill learning and motor abilities rehabilitation. Neuroimaging studies have revealed several critical regions from functional activation for ME as well as MI. Recently, investigations have probed into functional connectivity of ME; however, few explorations compared the functional connectivity between the two tasks. With betweenness centrality (BC) of graph theory, we explored and compared the functional connectivity between two finger tapping tasks of ME and MI. Our results showed that using BC, the key node for the ME task mainly focused on the supplementary motor area, while the key node for the MI task mainly located in the right premotor area. These results characterized the connectivity patterns of ME and MI and may provide new insights into the neural mechanism underlying motor execution and imagination of movements.

  4. Physical Invariants of Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    A program of research is dedicated to development of a mathematical formalism that could provide, among other things, means by which living systems could be distinguished from non-living ones. A major issue that arises in this research is the following question: What invariants of mathematical models of the physics of systems are (1) characteristic of the behaviors of intelligent living systems and (2) do not depend on specific features of material compositions heretofore considered to be characteristic of life? This research at earlier stages has been reported, albeit from different perspectives, in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: One of the main underlying ideas is to extend the application of physical first principles to the behaviors of living systems. Mathematical models of motor dynamics are used to simulate the observable physical behaviors of systems or objects of interest, and models of mental dynamics are used to represent the evolution of the corresponding knowledge bases. For a given system, the knowledge base is modeled in the form of probability distributions and the mental dynamics is represented by models of the evolution of the probability densities or, equivalently, models of flows of information. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the focus of this research was upon the following aspects of the formalism: Intelligence is considered to be a means by which a living system preserves itself and improves its ability to survive and is further considered to manifest itself in feedback from the mental dynamics to the motor dynamics. Because of the feedback from the mental dynamics, the motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: The trajectory of the physical aspect of the system in the space of dynamical variables splits into a family of different trajectories, and each of those trajectories can be chosen with a probability prescribed by the mental dynamics. From a slightly different perspective

  5. Disentangling motor execution from motor imagery with the phantom limb.

    PubMed

    Raffin, Estelle; Mattout, Jérémie; Reilly, Karen T; Giraux, Pascal

    2012-02-01

    Amputees can move their phantom limb at will. These 'movements without movements' have generally been considered as motor imagery rather than motor execution, but amputees can in fact perform both executed and imagined movements with their phantom and they report distinct perceptions during each task. Behavioural evidence for this dual ability comes from the fact that executed movements are associated with stump muscle contractions whereas imagined movements are not, and that phantom executed movements are slower than intact hand executed movements whereas the speed of imagined movements is identical for both hands. Since neither execution nor imagination produces any visible movement, we hypothesized that the perceptual difference between these two motor tasks relies on the activation of distinct cerebral networks. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and changes in functional connectivity (dynamic causal modelling), we examined the activity associated with imagined and executed movements of the intact and phantom hands of 14 upper-limb amputees. Distinct but partially overlapping cerebral networks were active during both executed and imagined phantom limb movements (both performed at the same speed). A region of interest analysis revealed a 'switch' between execution and imagination; during execution there was more activity in the primary somatosensory cortex, the primary motor cortex and the anterior lobe of the cerebellum, while during imagination there was more activity in the parietal and occipital lobes, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. In overlapping areas, task-related differences were detected in the location of activation peaks. The dynamic causal modelling analysis further confirmed the presence of a clear neurophysiological distinction between imagination and execution, as motor imagery and motor execution had opposite effects on the supplementary motor area-primary motor cortex network. This is the first imaging evidence that the

  6. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ECKERT, HELEN M.; ESPENSCHADE, ANNA S.

    DESIGNED AS A TEXT FOR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS AND AS A SOURCEBOOK FOR MORE ADVANCED STUDENTS, THIS VOLUME TRACES THE OUTLINES OF PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DECLINE, DESCRIBES SOME OF THE METHODS AND PROBLEMS OF INVESTIGATORS, AND POINTS TO THE PAUCITY OF INFORMATION IN CERTAIN AREAS. THE MAJOR TOPICS ARE (1) HEREDITY, (2) PRENATAL MATERNAL INFLUENCES,…

  7. Physics Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Demonstrations, procedures, games, teaching suggestions and information on a variety of physics topics are presented, including hydraulic rams, units and formulae, static electric motors, a computer graphics program, diffraction, adaptation of a basic meter, photoelasticity, photo-diodes, radioactive decay, and analog-digital conversions. (DC)

  8. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  9. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  10. Chronometric comparisons of imagery to action: visualizing versus physically performing springboard dives.

    PubMed

    Reed, Catherine L

    2002-12-01

    Motor imagery research emphasizes similarities between the mental imagery of an action and its physical execution. In this study, temporal differences between motor imagery and its physical performance as a function of performer expertise, skill complexity, and spatial ability were investigated. Physical execution times for springboard dives were compared with visualized execution times. Results indicate that physical and visualized performance times were not identical: Their relation is a function of dive complexity and diver expertise, but not their interaction. Relative to physical time, visualization time increased with increased complexity, suggesting the involvement of capacity-limited working memory. A nonmonotonic relation was found for expertise: Unlike experts or novices, visualization time for intermediates was significantly slower than physical time. These temporal differences are most consistent with schematic differences in skill representation. Intermediates may be relatively slowed by greater amounts of nonautomatized knowledge, as compared with the automatized knowledge of experts or the sparse knowledge of novices.

  11. The Physics Plus Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, F. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Physics Plus Project is producing a series of pamphlets designed to supplement existing curricula with physics application topics (such as physics of sports, motor cars, weather, medical physics, energy). Discusses rationale for the projects, pamphlet production, distribution to schools, and use of pamphlet material on examinations. (JM)

  12. Comparing 9 to 10 Years Old Children's Performance in Tennis and Physical Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcucu, Burcin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the degree of performance-related physical coordination of elementary education children (male and female) that play tennis according to their age and gender and to investigate the relationship between their motor ability tests and performances. A total of 210 children tennis players (9 to 10 years; 105 males…

  13. Motor Learning as Young Gymnast's Talent Indicator.

    PubMed

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Battaglia, Claudia; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    Talent identification plans are designed to select young athletes with the ability to achieve future success in sports. The aim of the study was to verify the predictive value of coordination and precision in skill acquisition during motor learning, as indicators of talent. One hundred gymnasts, both cadets (aged 11.5 ± 0.5 yr.) and juniors (aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years), competing at the national level, were enrolled in the study. The assessment of motor coordination involved three tests of the validated Hirtz's battery (1985), and motor skill learning involved four technical tests, specific of rhythmic gymnastics. All the tests were correlated with ranking and performance scores reached by each gymnast in the 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Championships. Coordination tests were significantly correlated to 2013 Championships scores (p < 0.01) and ranking (p < 0.05) of elite cadet athletes. Precision, in skill acquisition test results, was positively and significantly associated with scores in 2013 (adj. R(2) = 0.26, p < 0.01). Gymnasts with the best results in coordination and motor learning tests went on to achieve better competition results in three- year time. Key pointsIn talent identification and selection procedures it is better to include the evaluation of coordination and motor learning ability.Motor learning assessment concerns performance improvement and the ability to develop it, rather than evaluating the athlete's current performance.In this manner talent identification processes should be focused on the future performance capabilities of athletes.

  14. The intensity of physical activity influences bone mineral accrual in childhood: the childhood health, activity and motor performance school (the CHAMPS) study, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies indicate genetic and lifestyle factors can contribute to optimal bone development. In particular, the intensity level of physical activity may have an impact on bone health. This study aims to assess the relationship between physical activity at different intensities and Bone Mineral Content (BMC), Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Area (BA) accretion. Methods This longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline and after two years follows up. BMC, BMD, and BA were measured. The total body less head (TBLH) values were used. Physical activity (PA) was recorded by accelerometers (ActiGraph, model GT3X). Percentages of different PA intensity levels were calculated and log odds of two intensity levels of activity relative to the third level were calculated. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the categories of physical activity and bone traits. Results Of 800 invited children, 742 (93%) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92%) participated at follow up. Complete datasets were obtained in 602/742 (81%) children. Mean (range) of age was 11.5 years (9.7-13.9). PA at different intensity levels was for boys and girls respectively, sedentary 62% and 64%, low 29% for both genders and moderate to high 9% and 7% of the total time. Mean (range) BMC, BMD, and BA was 1179 g (563–2326), 0.84 g/cm2 (0.64-1.15) and 1393 cm2 (851–2164), respectively. Valid accelerometer data were obtained for a mean of 6.1 days, 13 hours per day. Conclusions There 7was a positive relationship between the log odds of moderate to high-level PA versus low level activity and BMC, BMD and BA. Children with an increased proportion of time in moderate to high-level activity as opposed to sedentary and low-level activity achieved positive effects on BMC, BMD and BA. PMID:23452342

  15. Growth hormone combined with child-specific motor training improves motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reus, Linda; Pelzer, Ben J; Otten, Barto J; Siemensma, Elbrich P C; van Alfen-van der Velden, Janielle A A E M; Festen, Dederieke A M; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2013-10-01

    Although severe motor problems in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are striking, motor development has never been studied longitudinally and the results of growth hormone (GH) treatment on motor development are contradictory. The authors studied whether GH treatment can enhance the effect of physical training on motor development in infants with PWS. Twenty-two infants were followed for two years during a randomized controlled trial. The treatment and control groups began GH after baseline or following a control period, respectively. Both groups followed a child-specific physical training program. Motor performance was measured every three months. Multi-level regression analysis revealed that motor development differed significantly between infants (p<.001), and this could be partially explained by baseline motor developmental level (p<.01). GH treatment enhanced the effects of child-specific physical training on both motor developmental rate and motor developmental potential. Moreover, this effect was more pronounced when GH treatment was initiated at a younger age.

  16. Eye-tracking and EMG supported 3D Virtual Reality - an integrated tool for perceptual and motor development of children with severe physical disabilities: a research concept.

    PubMed

    Pulay, Márk Ágoston

    2015-01-01

    Letting children with severe physical disabilities (like Tetraparesis spastica) to get relevant motional experiences of appropriate quality and quantity is now the greatest challenge for us in the field of neurorehabilitation. These motional experiences may establish many cognitive processes, but may also cause additional secondary cognitive dysfunctions such as disorders in body image, figure invariance, visual perception, auditory differentiation, concentration, analytic and synthetic ways of thinking, visual memory etc. Virtual Reality is a technology that provides a sense of presence in a real environment with the help of 3D pictures and animations formed in a computer environment and enable the person to interact with the objects in that environment. One of our biggest challenges is to find a well suited input device (hardware) to let the children with severe physical disabilities to interact with the computer. Based on our own experiences and a thorough literature review we have come to the conclusion that an effective combination of eye-tracking and EMG devices should work well.

  17. Collaborative Teaching of Motor Skills for Preschoolers with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murata, Nathan M.; Tan, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe collaborative teaching between preschool teachers, adapted physical educators, physical therapists, and occupational therapists of motor skills for preschoolers with developmental delays. The motor domain is typically taught by the classroom teacher who may have little to no knowledge of how to initiate a…

  18. Motor Development: A Guide for Learning Assistance Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Rose B.; Slansky, Nancy

    This guide was prepared to include motor development activities that supplement the regular physical education curriculum; it was written primarily for teachers of children with learning problems, but may also offer ideas to any teacher wishing to broaden the motor development experiences in the regular physical education program. The guide is…

  19. Handbook of Remedial or Developmental Activities to Accompany the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Drucilla, Comp.

    This handbook, intended to accompany the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, describes numerous remedial and developmental activities for perceptual motor and psychomotor skills. Observable classroom behaviors associated with various perceptual motor and psychomotor disabilities (visual-motor channel disability, auditory-vocal channel…

  20. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  1. Auditory-Perceptual Learning Improves Speech Motor Adaptation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shiller, Douglas M.; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2015-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children’s speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback, however it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5–7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children’s ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation. PMID:24842067

  2. Auditory-perceptual learning improves speech motor adaptation in children.

    PubMed

    Shiller, Douglas M; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2014-08-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children's speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback; however, it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5- to 7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children's ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation.

  3. Oral-Motor Function and Feeding Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, June

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Oral Motor Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence based as well as infant driven and family focused. In the context of anticipated maturation of…

  4. Assessing the feasibility of time-resolved fNIRS to detect brain activity during motor imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalmalak, Androu; Milej, Daniel; Diop, Mamadou; Naci, Lorina; Owen, Adrian M.; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2016-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive optical technique for detecting brain activity, which has been previously used during motor and motor executive tasks. There is an increasing interest in using fNIRS as a brain computer interface (BCI) for patients who lack the physical, but not the mental, ability to respond to commands. The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of time-resolved fNIRS to detect brain activity during motor imagery. Stability tests were conducted to ensure the temporal stability of the signal, and motor imagery data were acquired on healthy subjects. The NIRS probes were placed on the scalp over the premotor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA), as these areas are responsible for motion planning. To confirm the fNIRS results, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the same task. Seven subjects have participated to date, and significant activation in the SMA and/or the PMC during motor imagery was detected by both fMRI and fNIRS in 4 of the 7 subjects. No activation was detected by either technique in the remaining three participants, which was not unexpected due to the nature of the task. The agreement between the two imaging modalities highlights the potential of fNIRS as a BCI, which could be adapted for bedside studies of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  5. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  6. Developmental omega-3 supplementation improves motor skills in juvenile-adult rats.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, Addolorata; Borracci, Pietro; Renna, Giuseppe; Giustino, Arcangela; Latronico, Tiziana; Riccio, Paolo; Carratù, Maria Rosaria

    2009-10-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are critical for brain growth spurt during both foetal and postnatal period. They play important roles in the expression of genes regulating cell differentiation and neuronal growth, as well as in the development of synaptic processing of neural cell interaction. Foetus and placenta are dependent on maternal supply for their growth and development, and supplemented infants show significantly greater mental and psychomotor scores. In particular, it has been shown that if mothers take omega-3 supplements, their babies are smarter and better physically coordinated. On these grounds, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in the Sprague-Dawley rat, the effects of perinatal treatment with omega-3 on motor activity, motor coordination, motor learning and memory. From gestational day 8 throughout the lactation period, dams received either an emulsion of 0.05g/kg body weight omega-3 in fruit juice, or an emulsion of 1g/kg body weight omega-3 in fruit juice or just the fruit juice (control). Omega-3 formula was made of 27% docosahexaenoic acid and 53% eicosapentaenoic acid. On the day of birth (postnatal day 1), all pups were weighed, and then randomly culled to eight pups per litter. Pups were weaned at 21 days of age. One male pup per litter from each litter (control, n=6; omega-3 0.05g/kg, n=5; omega-3 1g/kg, n=6) was used. Both control and treated rats were tested for (i) locomotor activity using the open field paradigm, (ii) motor coordination and motor learning using the rotarod/accelerod task and (iii) memory using the passive avoidance paradigm. Rats were tested on postnatal day 21 and re-tested on postnatal day 90. As a result, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation significantly improved motor coordination. In particular, the latency to fall at the first speed was significantly increased in the treated rats as compared to the control animals. This benefit was observed with both doses at each

  7. Electrifying the motor engram: effects of tDCS on motor learning and control

    PubMed Central

    de Xivry, Jean-Jacques Orban; Shadmehr, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Learning to control our movements accompanies neuroplasticity of motor areas of the brain. The mechanisms of neuroplasticity are diverse and produce what is referred to as the motor engram, i.e. the neural trace of the motor memory. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) alters the neural and behavioral correlates of motor learning, but its precise influence on the motor engram is unknown. In this review, we summarize the effects of tDCS on neural activity and suggest a few key principles: 1) firing rates are increased by anodal polarization and decreased by cathodal polarization, 2) anodal polarization strengthens newly formed associations, and 3) polarization modulates the memory of new/preferred firing patterns. With these principles in mind, we review the effects of tDCS on motor control, motor learning, and clinical applications. The increased spontaneous and evoked firing rates may account for the modulation of dexterity in non-learning tasks by tDCS. The facilitation of new association may account for the effect of tDCS on learning in sequence tasks while the ability of tDCS to strengthen memories of new firing patterns may underlie the effect of tDCS on consolidation of skills. We then describe the mechanisms of neuroplasticity of motor cortical areas and how they might be influenced by tDCS. We end with current challenges for the fields of brain stimulation and motor learning. PMID:25200178

  8. The Relationship between Manual Ability and Ambulation in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Poulin, Chantal; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in 120 adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) (15.2, SD 2.1 years, 59.8% male). Adolescents were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS). A neurologist classified CP subtype. Most…

  9. FlagHouse Forum: Ability Switches--The Nuts and Bolts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    An ability switch, in simple terms, is an alternative to a button that requires fine dexterity to push. Many toys and appliances operate because of fine motor stimulation, prohibiting many people with fine motor challenges from finding independence with daily tasks. Ability switches offer the option to make things work with a simple gesture that…

  10. Synthesis of Intervention Trials To Improve Motor Recovery following Stroke.

    PubMed

    Duncan, P W

    1997-01-01

    Therapists have used multiple interventions to improve motor recovery following stroke. However, the clinical research studies to support efficacy of the interventions are few. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the results of the clinical trials that have assessed therapeutic interventions to enhance motor recovery. The results of the current research provide some evidence that physical interventions may improve intrinsic motor recovery. The interventions that have been shown to be effective require active participation of the patient and repetitive training. The improvements in motor control have been limited to select patients with volitional motor control. PMID:27620372

  11. Improved motor sequence retention by motionless listening.

    PubMed

    Lahav, Amir; Katz, Tal; Chess, Roxanne; Saltzman, Elliot

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of listening to a newly learned musical piece on subsequent motor retention of the piece. Thirty-six non-musicians were trained to play an unfamiliar melody on a piano keyboard. Next, they were randomly assigned to participate in three follow-up listening sessions over 1 week. Subjects who, during their listening sessions, listened to the same initial piece showed significant improvements in motor memory and retention of the piece despite the absence of physical practice. These improvements included increased pitch accuracy, time accuracy, and dynamic intensity of key pressing. Similar improvements, though to a lesser degree, were observed in subjects who, during their listening sessions, were distracted by another task. Control subjects, who after learning the piece had listened to nonmusical sounds, showed impaired motoric retention of the piece at 1 week from the initial acquisition day. These results imply that motor sequences can be established in motor memory without direct access to motor-related information. In addition, the study revealed that the listening-induced improvements did not generalize to the learning of a new musical piece composed of the same notes as the initial piece learned, limiting the effects to musical motor sequences that are already part of the individual's motor repertoire. PMID:22434336

  12. A Review of the Non-Motoric Visual Gestalt Test and a Comparison with the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elovitz, Gerald P.

    1979-01-01

    Measures of visual perception, such as the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BVMGT) usually require motoric responding, i.e., drawing of figures. An alternative test, the Non-Motoric Visual Gestalt Test (NVGT), is compared with the BVMGT and shown to be superior in measuring visual-perceptual abilities that can discriminate poor and average…

  13. Motor and cognitive performance of overweight preschool children.

    PubMed

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2013-02-01

    Gross and fine motor skills and cognitive performance in obese and overweight children were compared to healthy weight children. Participants were 1,543 children (797 boys and 746 girls) ages 43 to 84 months, attending childcare centers in Munich, Germany. According to German Body Mass Index (BMI) standards for age and sex, 4.6% of the children were classified as obese (percentile greater or equal 97), 6.8% as overweight (percentile greater or equal 90 and less than 97), 5.9% as underweight (percentile less than 10), and 83.1% as being of healthy weight. Dependent variables were physical characteristics (height, weight, skinfold thickness), physical fitness (standing broad jump, shuttle run, hanging), body coordination (balancing forward, balancing backward, lateral jump, hopping), manual dexterity (right and left hand), and cognitive performance (intelligence, verbal ability, concentration). Higher proportions of children from lower socioeconomic and immigrant backgrounds were overweight. There was no association between weight and sex. Overweight children showed lower performance on gross motor skills (coordination and fitness), manual dexterity, and intelligence compared to healthy weight children, even after controlling for the effects of social class and immigration status.

  14. Monitoring pump and compressor performance using motor data

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Mechanical condition diagnostics have historically relied upon both human perceptions (sound, sight, smell) and mechanical measurements, such as vibration. In recent years, the ability to extract useful information about certain conditions of mechanical equipment driven by motors from motor energy transfer components (current, power, etc.) has been recognized. This paper discusses the use of motor data to assist in the understanding of certain fluid and mechanical conditions of compressors and pumps.

  15. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Trecroci, Athos; Cavaggioni, Luca; Caccia, Riccardo; Alberti, Giampietro

    2015-12-01

    General physical practice and multidimensional exercises are essential elements that allow young athletes to enhance their coordinative traits, balance, and strength and power levels, which are linked to the learning soccer-specific skills. Jumping rope is a widely-used and non-specific practical method for the development of athletic conditioning, balance and coordination in several disciplines. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term training protocol including jumping rope (JR) exercises on motor abilities and body balance in young soccer players. Twenty-four preadolescent soccer players were recruited and placed in two different groups. In the Experimental group (EG), children performed JR training at the beginning of the training session. The control group (CG), executed soccer specific drills. Harre circuit test (HCT) and Lower Quarter Y balance test (YBT-LQ) were selected to evaluate participant's motor ability (e.g. ability to perform rapidly a course with different physical tasks such as somersault and passages above/below obstacles ) and to assess unilateral dynamic lower limb balance after 8 weeks of training. Statistical analysis consisted of paired t-test and mixed analysis of variance scores to determine any significant interactions. Children who performed jumping rope exercises showed a significant decrease of 9% (p < 0.01, ES = 0.50-0.80) in the performance time of HCT. With regard to the CG, no differences were highlighted (p > 0.05, ES = 0.05-0.2) from pre- to post-training. A training-by-group interaction was found for the composite score in both legs (p < 0.05, Part η(2) > 0.14). Our findings demonstrated that JR practice within regular soccer training enhanced general motor coordination and balance in preadolescent soccer players. Therefore, the inclusion of JR practice within regular soccer training session should encouraged to improve children's motor skills. Key pointsPerforming jumping rope exercises

  16. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Trecroci, Athos; Cavaggioni, Luca; Caccia, Riccardo; Alberti, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    General physical practice and multidimensional exercises are essential elements that allow young athletes to enhance their coordinative traits, balance, and strength and power levels, which are linked to the learning soccer-specific skills. Jumping rope is a widely-used and non-specific practical method for the development of athletic conditioning, balance and coordination in several disciplines. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term training protocol including jumping rope (JR) exercises on motor abilities and body balance in young soccer players. Twenty-four preadolescent soccer players were recruited and placed in two different groups. In the Experimental group (EG), children performed JR training at the beginning of the training session. The control group (CG), executed soccer specific drills. Harre circuit test (HCT) and Lower Quarter Y balance test (YBT-LQ) were selected to evaluate participant’s motor ability (e.g. ability to perform rapidly a course with different physical tasks such as somersault and passages above/below obstacles ) and to assess unilateral dynamic lower limb balance after 8 weeks of training. Statistical analysis consisted of paired t-test and mixed analysis of variance scores to determine any significant interactions. Children who performed jumping rope exercises showed a significant decrease of 9% (p < 0.01, ES = 0.50-0.80) in the performance time of HCT. With regard to the CG, no differences were highlighted (p > 0.05, ES = 0.05-0.2) from pre- to post-training. A training-by-group interaction was found for the composite score in both legs (p < 0.05, Part η2 > 0.14). Our findings demonstrated that JR practice within regular soccer training enhanced general motor coordination and balance in preadolescent soccer players. Therefore, the inclusion of JR practice within regular soccer training session should encouraged to improve children’s motor skills. Key points Performing jumping rope exercises

  17. Spinal metaplasticity in respiratory motor control

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Daryl P.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark feature of the neural system controlling breathing is its ability to exhibit plasticity. Less appreciated is the ability to exhibit metaplasticity, a change in the capacity to express plasticity (i.e., “plastic plasticity”). Recent advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms giving rise to respiratory motor plasticity lay the groundwork for (ongoing) investigations of metaplasticity. This detailed understanding of respiratory metaplasticity will be essential as we harness metaplasticity to restore breathing capacity in clinical disorders that compromise breathing, such as cervical spinal injury, motor neuron disease and other neuromuscular diseases. In this brief review, we discuss key examples of metaplasticity in respiratory motor control, and our current understanding of mechanisms giving rise to spinal plasticity and metaplasticity in phrenic motor output; particularly after pre-conditioning with intermittent hypoxia. Progress in this area has led to the realization that similar mechanisms are operative in other spinal motor networks, including those governing limb movement. Further, these mechanisms can be harnessed to restore respiratory and non-respiratory motor function after spinal injury. PMID:25717292

  18. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  19. Introduction to ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Sashida, Toshiiku; Kenjo, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic motor, invented in 1980, utilizes the piezoelectric effect in the ultrasonic frequency range to provide the motive force. (In conventional electric motors the motive force is electromagnetic.) The result is a motor with unusually good low-speed high-torque and power-to-weight characteristics. It has already found applications in camera autofocus mechanisms, medical equipment subject to high magnetic fields, and motorized car accessories. Its applications will increase as designers become more familiar with its unique characteristics. This book is the result of a collaboration between the inventor and an expert in conventional electric motors: the result is an introduction to the general theory presented in a way that links it to conventional motor theory. It will be invaluable both to motor designers and to those who design with and use electric motors as an introduction to this important new invention.

  20. Fine motor control

    MedlinePlus

    ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination Muscle ...