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  1. Does Physical Self-Concept Mediate the Relationship between Motor Abilities and Physical Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults?

    PubMed

    Jekauc, Darko; Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Herrmann, Christian; Hegazy, Khaled; Woll, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the reciprocal relationship between motor abilities and physical activity and the mediation effects of physical self-concept in this relationship using longitudinal data. We expect that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity are rather indirect via physical self-concept and that the effects of physical activity on motor abilities are rather direct without involvement of the motor ability self-concept. Data was obtained from the Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study in which 335 boys and 363 girls aged 11-17 years old at Baseline were examined twice in a period of six years. Physical activity was assessed by the MoMo Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents, physical self-concept by Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and motor abilities by MoMo Motor Test which comprised of the dimensions strength, endurance, coordination and flexibility. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the direct and indirect effects. The results of the multiple regression analyses show that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity were only indirect for the dimensions strength, coordination, and flexibility. For the dimension endurance, neither direct nor indirect effects were significant. In the opposite direction, the effects of physical activity on motor abilities were partially mediated by the self-concept of strength. For the dimensions endurance, coordination and flexibility, only indirect were significant. The results of this study support the assumption that the relationship between motor abilities and physical activity is mediated by physical self-concept in both directions. Physical self-concept seems to be an important determinant of adolescents´ physical activity.

  2. Does Physical Self-Concept Mediate the Relationship between Motor Abilities and Physical Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Jekauc, Darko; Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Herrmann, Christian; Hegazy, Khaled; Woll, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the reciprocal relationship between motor abilities and physical activity and the mediation effects of physical self-concept in this relationship using longitudinal data. We expect that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity are rather indirect via physical self-concept and that the effects of physical activity on motor abilities are rather direct without involvement of the motor ability self-concept. Data was obtained from the Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study in which 335 boys and 363 girls aged 11–17 years old at Baseline were examined twice in a period of six years. Physical activity was assessed by the MoMo Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents, physical self-concept by Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and motor abilities by MoMo Motor Test which comprised of the dimensions strength, endurance, coordination and flexibility. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the direct and indirect effects. The results of the multiple regression analyses show that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity were only indirect for the dimensions strength, coordination, and flexibility. For the dimension endurance, neither direct nor indirect effects were significant. In the opposite direction, the effects of physical activity on motor abilities were partially mediated by the self-concept of strength. For the dimensions endurance, coordination and flexibility, only indirect were significant. The results of this study support the assumption that the relationship between motor abilities and physical activity is mediated by physical self-concept in both directions. Physical self-concept seems to be an important determinant of adolescents´ physical activity. PMID:28045914

  3. The Effect of Perceptually Oriented Physical Education on Perceptual Motor Ability and Academic Ability of Kindergarten and First Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert G.

    The effects of a perceptually oriented physical education program (PPE) on perceptual-motor ability and academic ability were studied using kindergarten and first-grade children. The four groups of kindergarten children varied the number of periods of PPE per week which then met--0, 1, 2, and 3 times per week. The four groups of first-grade…

  4. Is generic physical activity or specific exercise associated with motor abilities?

    PubMed

    Rinne, Marjo; Pasanen, Matti; Miilunpalo, Seppo; Mälkiä, Esko

    2010-09-01

    Evidence of the effect of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) modes on the motor abilities of a mature population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the motor abilities of physically active and inactive men and women and to examine the associations of different exercise modes and former and recent LTPA (R-LTPA) with motor ability and various physical tests. The LTPA of the participants (men n = 69, women n = 79; aged 41-47 yr) was ascertained by a modified Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, including questions on the frequency, duration, and intensity of R-LTPA and former LTPA and on exercise modes. Motor abilities in terms of balance, agility, and coordination were assessed with a battery of nine tests supplemented with five physical fitness tests. Multiple statistical methods were used in analyses that were conducted separately for men and women. The MET-hours per week of R-LTPA correlated statistically significantly with the tests of agility and static balance (rs = -0.28, P = 0.022; rs = -0.25, P = 0.043, respectively) among men and with the static balance (rs = 0.41), 2-km walking (rs = 0.36), step squat (rs = 0.36) (P < or = 0.001, respectively), and static back endurance (rs = 0.25, P = 0.024) among women. In the stepwise regression among men, the most frequent statistically significant predictor was the playing of several games. For women, a history of LTPA for more than 3 yr was the strongest predictor for good results in almost all tests. Participants with long-term and regular LTPA had better motor performance, and especially a variety of games improve components of motor ability. Diverse, regular, and long-term exercise including both specific training and general activity develops both motor abilities and physical fitness.

  5. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Folleto, Júlia C; Pereira, Keila RG; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. Aim: To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6–8-year-old children. Methods: The study included 16 children from the 1st grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each session. To assess children's performance, we used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - Second Edition, the flexibility test (sit and reach – Eurofit, 1988), the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and semi-structured interviews with children, parents, and classroom’ teacher. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon test and level of significance was 5%. Results: The yoga program was well accepted by children, children also demonstrated significant and positive changes in overall motor abilities scores (balance, strength, and flexibility). In addition, the interviews reported changing in social behavior and the use of the knowledge learned in the program in contexts outside of school. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the implementation of yoga practice in physical education lessons contributed to children's development. PMID:27512323

  6. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  7. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  8. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  9. Screening for motor coordination challenges in children using teacher ratings of physical ability and activity.

    PubMed

    Faught, Brent E; Cairney, John; Hay, John; Veldhuizen, Scott; Missiuna, Cheryl; Spironello, Cristina A

    2008-04-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a teacher-based rating scale called the teacher estimation of activity form (TEAF) to screen for developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in children. A random selection of 15 of 75 schools from the District School Board of Niagara in Ontario, Canada was chosen for this study. Every consented child in Grade 4 (n=502) was evaluated for probable DCD (pDCD) in school using the short form Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOTMP-SF). Each student also completed the children's self perceptions of adequacy in and predilection toward physical activity (CSAPPA) scale, participation questionnaire, and Léger 20-meter shuttle run, and had their height and weight measured. The 27 children (5.1%) who scored below the 5th percentile on BOTMP-SF were designated as pDCD cases and the 475 children who scored above the 5th percentile served as controls. Results showed that mean TEAF scores were significantly lower for pDCD children than controls (p<.001). Total TEAF scores ranging from 28 to 32 were preferred in maintaining good sensitivity (.74, 95% CI=.55-.87 to .85, 95% CI=.68-.94). The area under the ROC curve was .77 (95% CI, .68-.86) for the TEAF total score, and some individual items performed approximately as well as the full scale. The TEAF was positively correlated with measures of physical activity and fitness. The TEAF appears to be an effective tool in screening for DCD, particularly in a population setting. Considering the brevity of the TEAF and the discriminative power of individual items, this instrument would be effective in an abbreviated version.

  10. Differences Between Actual Motor Ability and Physical Self-Concept (Perceived Motor Performance/Body Image) of Fifth-Grade Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Robert; Kirk, Pamela

    Differences between high and low perceived physical self-concept and actual motor performance of 120 fifth grade boys were investigated. Self-concept was measured by the Physical Self-Concept Scale. Motor proficiency was measured by a four-item advanced agility/coordination test battery: hand-eye coordination; foot-eye coordination; whole body…

  11. Integrative Examination of Motor Abilities in Dialysis Patients and Selection of Tests for a Standardized Physical Function Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bučar Pajek, Maja; Leskošek, Bojan; Vivoda, Tjaša; Svilan, Katarina; Čuk, Ivan; Pajek, Jernej

    2016-06-01

    To reduce the need for a large number of executed physical function tests we examined inter-relations and determined predictive power for daily physical activity of the following tests: 6-min walk, 10 repetition sit-to-stand, time up-and-go, Storke balance, handgrip strength, upper limb tapping and sitting forward bend tests. In 90 dialysis and 140 healthy control subjects we found high correlations between all tests, especially those engaging lower extremities. Sit-to-stand, forward bend and handgrip strength were selected for the test battery and composite motor performance score. Sit-to-stand test was superior in terms of sensitivity to uremia effects and association with daily physical function in adjusted analyses. There was no incremental value in calculating the composite performance score. We propose to standardize the physical function assessment of dialysis patients for cross-sectional and longitudinal observations with three simple, cheap, well-accessible and easily performed test tools: sit-to-stand test, handgrip strength and Human Activity Profile questionnaire. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  12. Ability Grouping in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneer, Marian E.

    1982-01-01

    Psychomotor ability differences in students are a result of innate motor ability, fitness, neurologic development, psychology, experience, and students' interests and goals. Models and procedures for serving students with ability differences, in the areas of ability identification, curriculum development, and instruction, are described. (CJ)

  13. Improving Learning Ability Through Compensatory Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.

    This book presents a procedure for improving, through the medium of physical education activities, the learning ability of children. Rather than using systematic exercises for the correction of certain perceptual-motor deficiencies, learning ability can be enhanced through active games, rhythmic activities, and self-testing activities. Covering a…

  14. Improving Learning Ability Through Compensatory Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.

    This book presents a procedure for improving, through the medium of physical education activities, the learning ability of children. Rather than using systematic exercises for the correction of certain perceptual-motor deficiencies, learning ability can be enhanced through active games, rhythmic activities, and self-testing activities. Covering a…

  15. Temporal structure of motor variability is dynamically regulated and predicts motor learning ability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Howard G; Miyamoto, Yohsuke R; Gonzalez Castro, Luis Nicolas; Ölveczky, Bence P; Smith, Maurice A

    2014-02-01

    Individual differences in motor learning ability are widely acknowledged, yet little is known about the factors that underlie them. Here we explore whether movement-to-movement variability in motor output, a ubiquitous if often unwanted characteristic of motor performance, predicts motor learning ability. Surprisingly, we found that higher levels of task-relevant motor variability predicted faster learning both across individuals and across tasks in two different paradigms, one relying on reward-based learning to shape specific arm movement trajectories and the other relying on error-based learning to adapt movements in novel physical environments. We proceeded to show that training can reshape the temporal structure of motor variability, aligning it with the trained task to improve learning. These results provide experimental support for the importance of action exploration, a key idea from reinforcement learning theory, showing that motor variability facilitates motor learning in humans and that our nervous systems actively regulate it to improve learning.

  16. Temporal structure of motor variability is dynamically regulated and predicts motor learning ability

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Howard G; Miyamoto, Yohsuke R; Castro, Luis Nicolas Gonzalez; Ölveczky, Bence P; Smith, Maurice A

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in motor learning ability are widely acknowledged, yet little is known about the factors that underlie them. Here we explore whether movement-to-movement variability in motor output, a ubiquitous if often unwanted characteristic of motor performance, predicts motor learning ability. Surprisingly, we found that higher levels of task-relevant motor variability predicted faster learning both across individuals and across tasks in two different paradigms, one relying on reward-based learning to shape specific arm movement trajectories and the other relying on error-based learning to adapt movements in novel physical environments. We proceeded to show that training can reshape the temporal structure of motor variability, aligning it with the trained task to improve learning. These results provide experimental support for the importance of action exploration, a key idea from reinforcement learning theory, showing that motor variability facilitates motor learning in humans and that our nervous systems actively regulate it to improve learning. PMID:24413700

  17. Motor ability: protective or risk for school injuries?

    PubMed

    Gofin, Rosa; Donchin, Milka; Schulrof, Boaz

    2004-01-01

    The study aims were to assess the independent contribution of motor ability to the incidence of school injuries. The study included 2057 pupils in grades 3-6 of primary schools in a city in the north of Israel. A surveillance system gathered information about injuries that occurred on school premises or during school related activities and required medical treatment or caused limitation of usual activities. Children provided information on sensation seeking, self-appraisal of health, academic performance, physical activity, and dominant hand; anthropometric measurements and motor ability tests were performed. The incidence of injury events was 4% (95% CI=3.2-5.0). Injuries increased with increased balance and agility, but there were no differences according to reaction time. No other study variables were associated with the incidence of injuries. Our findings of an increase in the incidence of injuries with better motor ability may express differences in exposure to risk situations between children with better and poorer motor abilities.

  18. Infant motor and cognitive abilities and subsequent executive function.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Liang, Xi; Lu, Shan; Wang, Zhengyan

    2017-09-23

    Although executive function (EF) is widely considered crucial to several aspects of life, the mechanisms underlying EF development remain largely unexplored, especially for infants. From a behavioral or neurodevelopmental perspective, motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with EF. EF development is a multistage process that starts with sensorimotor interactive behaviors, which become basic cognitive abilities and, in turn, mature EF. This study aims to examine how infant motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with their EF at 3 years of age. This work also aims to explore the potential processes of EF development from early movement. A longitudinal study was conducted with 96 infants (55 girls and 41 boys). The infants' motor and general cognitive abilities were assessed at 1 and 2 years of age with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Second and Third Editions, respectively. Infants' EFs were assessed at 3 years of age with Working Memory Span task, Day-Night task, and Wrapped Gift task. Children with higher scores for cognitive ability at 2 years of age performed better in working memory, and children with higher scores for gross motor ability at 2 years performed better in cognitive inhibitory control (IC). Motor ability at 1year and fine/gross motor ability at 2 years indirectly affected cognitive IC via general cognitive ability at 2 years and working memory. EF development is a multistage process that originates from physical movement to simple cognitive function, and then to complex cognitive function. Infants and toddlers can undergo targeted motor training to promote EF development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a single test. A total of 72 native Chinese learners of age 5 participated in this study. The findings indicated that the Chinese learners scored much higher in the visual-motor integration tasks than in motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks. The results support the theory of autonomous systems of motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration and query current beliefs about the prior development of the former to the latter for the Chinese learners. To account for the Chinese participants' superior performance in visual-motor integration tasks over motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks, the visual-spatial properties of Chinese characters, general handwriting theories, the motor control theory and the psychogeometric theory of Chinese character-writing are referred to. The significance of the findings is then discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [The improvement of the abilities to maintain motor coordination and equilibrium in the students presenting with the functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system by introducing the elements of therapeutic physical training into the structure of academic schedule of physical education].

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, L V; Davlet'yarova, K V; Ovchinnikova, N A

    The problem of deterioration of the health status in the university students at present remains as topical as it was before being a major cause of impaired working capacity, disability and/or poor social adaptation of the large number of graduates. It has been proposed to introduce a class of therapeutic physical training (TPT) into the schedule of physical education for the students. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the formation of the skills needed to maintain motor coordination and equilibrium in the students presenting with the functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system (MSS) including scoliosis by the introduction of the elements of therapeutic physical training into their academic schedules. The main study group was comprised of 32 students (men) at the age of 18-19 years presenting with the disorders of the musculoskeletal system (type III scoliosis, osteochondropathy, and osteochondrosis). The students of this group received a curriculum aimed at improving their motor skills with the emphasis laid on the selected elements of therapeutic physical training. The control group was composed of 17 students without disorders of the musculoskeletal system who attended the physical education classes following the traditional program. The coordination abilities and balance skills were evaluated based on the analysis with the use of the Stabilan-1 stabilographic apparatus. In addition, the stability test and the Romberg test with open and closed eyes were performed. The results of the study give evidence that the introduction of the elements of therapeutic physical training into the structure of academic schedule of physical education for the students suffering from diseases of the musculoskeletal system has beneficial effect on the parameters of stability and the general ability to maintain the posture and balance. Specifically, in the beginning of the academic year, the students of the main study group presenting with

  1. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465].

  2. Brain Activation in Primary Motor and Somatosensory Cortices during Motor Imagery Correlates with Motor Imagery Ability in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Confalonieri, Linda; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Barsalou, Lawrence W.; Rajendra, Justin; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Butler, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. While studies on healthy subjects have shown a partial overlap between the motor execution and motor imagery neural circuits, few have investigated brain activity during motor imagery in stroke patients with hemiparesis. This work is aimed at examining similarities between motor imagery and execution in a group of stroke patients. Materials and Methods. Eleven patients were asked to perform a visuomotor tracking task by either physically or mentally tracking a sine wave force target using their thumb and index finger during fMRI scanning. MIQ-RS questionnaire has been administered. Results and Conclusion. Whole-brain analyses confirmed shared neural substrates between motor imagery and motor execution in bilateral premotor cortex, SMA, and in the contralesional inferior parietal lobule. Additional region of interest-based analyses revealed a negative correlation between kinaesthetic imagery ability and percentage BOLD change in areas 4p and 3a; higher imagery ability was associated with negative and lower percentage BOLD change in primary sensorimotor areas during motor imagery. PMID:23378930

  3. Disentangling the relationship between children's motor ability, executive function and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mirko; Egger, Fabienne; Benzing, Valentin; Jäger, Katja; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M; Pesce, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Even though positive relations between children's motor ability and their academic achievement are frequently reported, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Executive function has indeed been proposed, but hardly tested as a potential mediator. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the mediating role of executive function in the relationship between motor ability and academic achievement, also investigating the individual contribution of specific motor abilities to the hypothesized mediated linkage to academic achievement. At intervals of ten weeks, 236 children aged between 10 and 12 years were tested in terms of their motor ability (t1: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, motor coordination), core executive functions (t2: updating, inhibition, shifting), and academic achievement (t3: mathematics, reading, spelling). Structural equation modelling revealed executive function to be a mediator in the relation between motor ability and academic achievement, represented by a significant indirect effect. In separate analyses, each of the three motor abilities were positively related to children's academic achievement. However, only in the case of children's motor coordination, the mediation by executive function accounted for a significance percentage of variance of academic achievement data. The results provide evidence in support of models that conceive executive function as a mechanism explaining the relationship that links children's physical activity-related outcomes to academic achievement and strengthen the advocacy for quality physical activity not merely focused on health-related physical fitness outcomes, but also on motor skill development and learning.

  4. Disentangling the relationship between children’s motor ability, executive function and academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Fabienne; Benzing, Valentin; Jäger, Katja; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M.; Pesce, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Even though positive relations between children’s motor ability and their academic achievement are frequently reported, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Executive function has indeed been proposed, but hardly tested as a potential mediator. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the mediating role of executive function in the relationship between motor ability and academic achievement, also investigating the individual contribution of specific motor abilities to the hypothesized mediated linkage to academic achievement. At intervals of ten weeks, 236 children aged between 10 and 12 years were tested in terms of their motor ability (t1: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, motor coordination), core executive functions (t2: updating, inhibition, shifting), and academic achievement (t3: mathematics, reading, spelling). Structural equation modelling revealed executive function to be a mediator in the relation between motor ability and academic achievement, represented by a significant indirect effect. In separate analyses, each of the three motor abilities were positively related to children’s academic achievement. However, only in the case of children’s motor coordination, the mediation by executive function accounted for a significance percentage of variance of academic achievement data. The results provide evidence in support of models that conceive executive function as a mechanism explaining the relationship that links children’s physical activity-related outcomes to academic achievement and strengthen the advocacy for quality physical activity not merely focused on health-related physical fitness outcomes, but also on motor skill development and learning. PMID:28817625

  5. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  6. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  7. [Visual perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities--a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Werpup-Stüwe, Lina; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The results of many studies show visual perceptual deficits in children with low motor abilities. This study aims to indicate the correlation between visual-perceptual and motor abilities. The correlation of visual-perceptual and motor abilities of 41 children is measured by using the German versions of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception--Adolescent and Adult (DTVP-A) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (M-ABC-2). The visual-perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities (n=21) are also compared to the visual-perceptual abilities of children with normal motor abilities (the control group, n=20). High correlations between the visual-perceptual and motor abilities are found. The perceptual abilities of the groups differ significantly. Nearly half of the children with low motor abilities show visual-perceptual deficits. Visual perceptual abilities of children suffering coordination disorders should always be assessed. The DTVP-A is useful, because it provides the possibilities to compare motor-reduced visual-perceptual abilities and visualmotor integration abilities and to estimate the deficit's degree.

  8. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  9. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  10. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  11. Motor imagery in physical therapist practice.

    PubMed

    Dickstein, Ruth; Deutsch, Judith E

    2007-07-01

    Motor imagery is the mental representation of movement without any body movement. Abundant evidence on the positive effects of motor imagery practice on motor performance and learning in athletes, people who are healthy, and people with neurological conditions (eg, stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson disease) has been published. The purpose of this update is to synthesize the relevant literature about motor imagery in order to facilitate its integration into physical therapist practice. This update also will discuss visual and kinesthetic motor imagery, factors that modify motor imagery practice, the design of motor imagery protocols, and potential applications of motor imagery.

  12. Visual-Motor Abilities of Slow Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetrick, Ethel W.

    The Bender Gestalt protocols of 134 rural and 140 children (6-18 years old) found to have IQ scores in the slow learner range (IQ 70-84) were compared. The Bender Gestalt Test, used in psychoeducational evaluation to determine eligibility for special education placement, was administered to determine Ss' level of visual motor skills. Rural slow…

  13. Predicting School Adjustment from Motor Abilities in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Orit; Hajami, Dov; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2007-01-01

    The present study assessed the relations between basic motor abilities in kindergarten and scholastic, social, and emotional adaptation in the transition to formal schooling. Seventy-one five-year-old kindergarten children were administered a battery of standard assessments of basic motor functions. A year later, children's adjustment to school…

  14. Predicting School Adjustment from Motor Abilities in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Orit; Hajami, Dov; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2007-01-01

    The present study assessed the relations between basic motor abilities in kindergarten and scholastic, social, and emotional adaptation in the transition to formal schooling. Seventy-one five-year-old kindergarten children were administered a battery of standard assessments of basic motor functions. A year later, children's adjustment to school…

  15. Selective Effect of Physical Fatigue on Motor Imagery Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Di Rienzo, Franck; Collet, Christian; Hoyek, Nady; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-01-01

    While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution) during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years) conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, p<0.001) were observed during the posttest for internal visual imagery. A significant correlation (r = 0.64; p<0.05) was observed between motor imagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire) and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to temporary

  16. Daily update of motor predictions by physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Gueugneau, Nicolas; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2015-01-01

    Motor prediction, i.e., the ability to predict the sensory consequences of motor commands, is critical for adapted motor behavior. Like speed or force, the accuracy of motor prediction varies in a 24-hour basis. Although the prevailing view is that basic biological markers regulate this circadian modulation, behavioral factors such as physical activity, itself modulated by the alternation of night and day, can also regulate motor prediction. Here, we propose that physical activity updates motor prediction on a daily basis. We tested our hypothesis by up- and down-regulating physical activity via arm-immobilization and high-intensity training, respectively. Motor prediction was assessed by measuring the timing differences between actual and mental arm movements. Results show that although mental movement time was modulated during the day when the arm was unconstrained, it remained constant when the arm was immobilized. Additionally, increase of physical activity, via release from immobilization or intense bout of training, significantly reduced mental movement time. Finally, mental and actual times were similar in the afternoon in the unconstrained condition, indicating that predicted and actual movements match after sufficient amount of physical activity. Our study supports the view that physical activity calibrates motor predictions on a daily basis. PMID:26632341

  17. Daily update of motor predictions by physical activity.

    PubMed

    Gueugneau, Nicolas; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2015-12-03

    Motor prediction, i.e., the ability to predict the sensory consequences of motor commands, is critical for adapted motor behavior. Like speed or force, the accuracy of motor prediction varies in a 24-hour basis. Although the prevailing view is that basic biological markers regulate this circadian modulation, behavioral factors such as physical activity, itself modulated by the alternation of night and day, can also regulate motor prediction. Here, we propose that physical activity updates motor prediction on a daily basis. We tested our hypothesis by up- and down-regulating physical activity via arm-immobilization and high-intensity training, respectively. Motor prediction was assessed by measuring the timing differences between actual and mental arm movements. Results show that although mental movement time was modulated during the day when the arm was unconstrained, it remained constant when the arm was immobilized. Additionally, increase of physical activity, via release from immobilization or intense bout of training, significantly reduced mental movement time. Finally, mental and actual times were similar in the afternoon in the unconstrained condition, indicating that predicted and actual movements match after sufficient amount of physical activity. Our study supports the view that physical activity calibrates motor predictions on a daily basis.

  18. Early motor development and cognitive abilities among Mexican preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Valencia, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Schnaas, Lourdes

    2017-07-18

    Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale). 148 children whose motor performance was determined at age 3 and was evaluated later at age 5 to determine their cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative, and memory) measured by McCarthy Scales. Significant positive associations were observed between stationary balance at age 3 with verbal abilities (β = 0.67, p = .04) and memory (β = 0.81, p = .02) at 5 years. Grasping and visual-motor integration were significant and positively associated with quantitative abilities (β = 0.74, p = .005; β = 0.61, p = .01) and memory (β = 2.11, p = .001; β = 1.74, p = .004). The results suggest that early motor performance contributes to the establishment of cognitive abilities at 5 years. Evaluation and early motor stimulation before the child is faced with formal learning likely helps to create neuronal networks that facilitate the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  19. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  20. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  1. Cognitive, perceptual, and motor abilities in skilled basketball performance.

    PubMed

    Kioumourtzoglou, E; Derri, V; Tzetzis, G; Theodorakis, Y

    1998-06-01

    The differences among athletes of differing skill should assist successful identification and selection of the best athletes in a specific sport. For the purpose of this study, a laboratory study was conducted with a group of 13 men on the elite male national team of basketball players, 22 to 23 years of age, and a control group of 15 men of equal age (physical education class) to assess differences in their scores on cognitive skills (memory-retention, memory-grouping analytic ability), perceptual skills (speed of perception, prediction, selective attention, response selection), and motor skills (dynamic balance, whole body coordination, wrist-finger dexterity, rhythmic ability). Analysis showed that elite male basketball players scored higher on hand coordination and lower on dynamic balance given their anthropometric measurements. Elite players were better on memory-retention, selective attention, and on prediction measures than the control group. The above skills are important in basketball performance. Researchers may examine whether other factors contribute more in the development of perceptual and cognitive skills.

  2. Error Argumentation Enhance Adaptability in Adults With Low Motor Ability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Mei; Bo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The authors focused on young adults with varying degrees of motor difficulties and examined their adaptability in a visuomotor adaptation task where the visual feedback of participants' movement error was presented with either 1:1 ratio (i.e., regular feedback schedule) or 1:2 ratio (i.e., enhanced feedback schedule). Within-subject design was used with two feedback schedules counter-balanced and separated for 10 days. Results revealed that participants with greater motor difficulties showed less adaptability than those with normal motor abilities in the regular feedback schedule; however, all participants demonstrated similar level of adaptability in the enhanced feedback schedule. The results suggest that error argumentation enhances adaptability in adults with low motor ability.

  3. Effects of kindergarten period on school readiness and motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Bala, Gustav; Krneta, Zeljko; Katić, Ratko

    2010-03-01

    A battery of 4 school-readiness tests and 16 motor tests were administered in a sample of 660 preschool children (333 male and 327 female) just about to enroll in the first grade, in order to analyze the effects of kindergarten period on school readiness and motor abilities. The sample of children was divided into six groups according to sex and duration kindergarten attendance (kindergarten period of 5 years, 3 years and 8-9 months). Study results showed the entire education and motor activities in kindergarten to contribute significantly to school-readiness and motor abilities ofchildren. The highest school readiness was found in the children that attended kindergarten for the longest period, whereas lowest school readiness was recorded in children that attended kindergarten for only one academic year or less before enrolling in the first grade.

  4. Motor imagery ability in stroke patients: the relationship between implicit and explicit motor imagery measures

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sjoerd; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Oosterveld, Hanneke; Boonstra, Anne M.; Otten, Bert

    2013-01-01

    There is little consensus on how motor imagery ability should be measured in stroke patients. In particular it is unclear how two methods tapping different aspects of the motor imagery process relate to each other. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between implicit and explicit motor imagery ability by comparing performance of stroke patients and controls on a motor imagery questionnaire and a hand laterality judgment task (HLJT). Sixteen ischemic stroke patients (36 ± 13 weeks post-stroke) and 16 controls, matched by age (51 ± 10 years), gender (7 females) and handedness (3 left-handed), performed a HLJT and completed a motor imagery questionnaire. Our study shows that neither in the healthy controls nor in patients, a correlation is found between the HLJT and the motor imagery questionnaire. Although the patient group scored significantly lower than the control group on the visual motor imagery component (U = 60; p = 0.010) and the kinesthetic motor imagery component (U = 63.5; p = 0.015) of the questionnaire, there were no significant differences between patients and controls on accuracy scores of the HLJT. Analyses of the reaction time profiles of patients and controls showed that patient were still able to use an implicit motor imagery strategy in the HLJT task. Our results show that after stroke performance on tests that measure two different aspects of motor imagery ability, e.g., implicit and explicit motor imagery, can be differently affected. These results articulate the complex relation phenomenological experience and the different components of motor imagery have and caution the use of one tool as an instrument for use in screening, selecting and monitoring stroke patients in rehabilitation settings. PMID:24312044

  5. Motor imagery ability in stroke patients: the relationship between implicit and explicit motor imagery measures.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sjoerd; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Oosterveld, Hanneke; Boonstra, Anne M; Otten, Bert

    2013-01-01

    There is little consensus on how motor imagery ability should be measured in stroke patients. In particular it is unclear how two methods tapping different aspects of the motor imagery process relate to each other. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between implicit and explicit motor imagery ability by comparing performance of stroke patients and controls on a motor imagery questionnaire and a hand laterality judgment task (HLJT). Sixteen ischemic stroke patients (36 ± 13 weeks post-stroke) and 16 controls, matched by age (51 ± 10 years), gender (7 females) and handedness (3 left-handed), performed a HLJT and completed a motor imagery questionnaire. Our study shows that neither in the healthy controls nor in patients, a correlation is found between the HLJT and the motor imagery questionnaire. Although the patient group scored significantly lower than the control group on the visual motor imagery component (U = 60; p = 0.010) and the kinesthetic motor imagery component (U = 63.5; p = 0.015) of the questionnaire, there were no significant differences between patients and controls on accuracy scores of the HLJT. Analyses of the reaction time profiles of patients and controls showed that patient were still able to use an implicit motor imagery strategy in the HLJT task. Our results show that after stroke performance on tests that measure two different aspects of motor imagery ability, e.g., implicit and explicit motor imagery, can be differently affected. These results articulate the complex relation phenomenological experience and the different components of motor imagery have and caution the use of one tool as an instrument for use in screening, selecting and monitoring stroke patients in rehabilitation settings.

  6. Rhythm and Motor Ability in Developmentally Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a developmentally disabled child's ability to perform (a) a simple rhythmic task, and (b) a series of gross and fine motor tasks. The subjects of this study were 77 boys aged 65 months (5.416 years) to 174 months (14.5 years). All were classified as educable mentally retarded,…

  7. Optimization of a motor learning attention-directing strategy based on an individual's motor imagery ability.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Hirai, Masahiro; Watanabe, Eiju

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning performance has been shown to be affected by various cognitive factors such as the focus of attention and motor imagery ability. Most previous studies on motor learning have shown that directing the attention of participants externally, such as on the outcome of an assigned body movement, can be more effective than directing their attention internally, such as on body movement itself. However, to the best of our knowledge, no findings have been reported on the effect of the focus of attention selected according to the motor imagery ability of an individual on motor learning performance. We measured individual motor imagery ability assessed by the Movement Imagery Questionnaire and classified the participants into kinesthetic-dominant (n = 12) and visual-dominant (n = 8) groups based on the questionnaire score. Subsequently, the participants performed a motor learning task such as tracing a trajectory using visuomotor rotation. When the participants were required to direct their attention internally, the after-effects of the learning task in the kinesthetic-dominant group were significantly greater than those in the visual-dominant group. Conversely, when the participants were required to direct their attention externally, the after-effects of the visual-dominant group were significantly greater than those of the kinesthetic-dominant group. Furthermore, we found a significant positive correlation between the size of after-effects and the modality-dominance of motor imagery. These results suggest that a suitable attention strategy based on the intrinsic motor imagery ability of an individual can improve performance during motor learning tasks.

  8. A crossover randomised and controlled trial of the impact of active video games on motor coordination and perceptions of physical ability in children at risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    PubMed

    Straker, L; Howie, E; Smith, A; Jensen, L; Piek, J; Campbell, A

    2015-08-01

    Impaired motor development can significantly affect a child's life and may result in an increased risk of a range of physical and psychological disorders. Active video game (AVG) interventions have been demonstrated to enhance motor skills in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD); however a home-based intervention has not been assessed. The primary aim of this study was to compare the changes in motor coordination between a 16 week period of AVG use, with 16 weeks of normal activities (NAG). The secondary aim was to compare the child and parent perceptions of their physical performance between the AVG and NAG conditions. Twenty-one 9-12 year olds (10 males) were confirmed to be at risk of DCD (⩽ 16th percentile Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) and ⩽ 15th percentile Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ)) and participated in this crossover randomised and controlled trial. Data was collected at study entry, after the first 16 week condition and following the final 16 week condition, including; (1) the MABC-2, (2) three-dimensional motion analysis of single leg balance and finger-nose tasks, and (3) parent perception of physical skills. Participant perception of physical skills was collected only after the first and second conditions. There was no significant difference between AVG and NAG for any of the primary variables including the MABC-2, balance centre-of-mass path distance and finger-nose path distance. There was no significant intervention effect for secondary measures of motor coordination; however the children perceived their motor skills to be significantly enhanced as a result of the AVG intervention in comparison to the period of no intervention. A 16 week home based AVG intervention did not enhance motor skills in children with DCD, although they perceived their physical skills to be significantly improved. Australia and New Zealand Clinical trials Registry (ACTRN 12611000400965

  9. Comparing self-report and mental chronometry measures of motor imagery ability.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah E; Guillot, Aymeric; Di Rienzo, Franck; Cumming, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between two of the most common measures of motor imagery ability, self-report ratings, and chronometric assessment. This was done for three types of imagery modalities: external visual imagery (EVI), internal visual imagery (IVI), and kinesthetic imagery (KI). Measures of imagery ability (i.e. self-report and mental chronometry) were also compared across skill levels. Participants (N = 198) completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3) to generate self-report ratings. Chronometric assessment was obtained by recording the duration of each MIQ-3 movement imaged and physically performed and then calculating a discrepancy score. There were no significant correlations between self-report and mental chronometry for any of the three motor imagery types (p > .05). When assessing the different types of motor imagery ability using self-report ratings, elite athletes had significantly higher KI than IVI, which was in turn significantly higher than EVI (p < .05). When assessing motor imagery ability using mental chronometry, there were no significant differences in imagery type (p > .05). Findings suggest both measures address different components of MI quality and should be used together to obtain a more comprehensive assessment of motor imagery ability.

  10. Functional Abilities as a Predictor of Specific Motor Skills of Young Water Polo Players

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrović, Marko; Radovanović, Dragan; Okičić, Tomislav; Madić, Dejan; Georgiev, Georgi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of functional abilities on specificmotor skills. A total number of 92 male water polo players (age 12±0.5 years, body height 156.96±22.3 cm, body weight 51.02±33.18 kg) with at least two years’ experience, were enrolled in the study. The investigation protocol consisted of standardized anthropometric measurements, estimation of maximum oxygen uptake, determination of the lung function values, specific swim tests and swim tests with a ball. The factor analysis was used for the estimation of the structure of specific motor skills. The influence of functional abilities on specific motor skills was estimated by regression analysis. Out of 15 correlations in total between the variables of space of functional abilities of water polo players, 6 were significant at the level of 95% (between the variables of aerobic power and lung function) and all of the correlations (15) between the variables of specific motor skills in water polo players were significant at the 99% level. Only one principal component, the General factor of specific motor skills in water polo (GFSWP) was obtained by way of factorization of the tests of specific motor skills, so the GFSWP represents the latent space of specific motor skills as a criterion. The regression analysis showed that functional abilities (as group predictors) (p= 0.00) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (as a separate variable) have a significant influence on GFSWP (the criterion). The results of the study pointed out the impact of functional abilities on specific motor skills of selected young water polo players. This may be important for the selection and effective coaching in the early period of training and can affect the development of more appropriate and specific training programmes for optimal physical fitness preparation in young water polo players. PMID:23486729

  11. Functional abilities as a predictor of specific motor skills of young water polo players.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrović, Marko; Radovanović, Dragan; Okičić, Tomislav; Madić, Dejan; Georgiev, Georgi

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of functional abilities on specificmotor skills. A total number of 92 male water polo players (age 12±0.5 years, body height 156.96±22.3 cm, body weight 51.02±33.18 kg) with at least two years' experience, were enrolled in the study. The investigation protocol consisted of standardized anthropometric measurements, estimation of maximum oxygen uptake, determination of the lung function values, specific swim tests and swim tests with a ball. The factor analysis was used for the estimation of the structure of specific motor skills. The influence of functional abilities on specific motor skills was estimated by regression analysis. Out of 15 correlations in total between the variables of space of functional abilities of water polo players, 6 were significant at the level of 95% (between the variables of aerobic power and lung function) and all of the correlations (15) between the variables of specific motor skills in water polo players were significant at the 99% level. Only one principal component, the General factor of specific motor skills in water polo (GFSWP) was obtained by way of factorization of the tests of specific motor skills, so the GFSWP represents the latent space of specific motor skills as a criterion. The regression analysis showed that functional abilities (as group predictors) (p= 0.00) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (as a separate variable) have a significant influence on GFSWP (the criterion). The results of the study pointed out the impact of functional abilities on specific motor skills of selected young water polo players. This may be important for the selection and effective coaching in the early period of training and can affect the development of more appropriate and specific training programmes for optimal physical fitness preparation in young water polo players.

  12. Intentional Movement Performance Ability (IMPA): a method for robot-aided quantitative assessment of motor function.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung Yul; Kim, Jung Yoon; Lee, Sanghyeop; Lee, Junwon; Kim, Seung-Jong; Kim, ChangHwan

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new assessment method for evaluating motor function of the patients who are suffering from physical weakness after stroke, incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) or other diseases. In this work, we use a robotic device to obtain the information of interaction occur between patient and robot, and use it as a measure for assessing the patients. The Intentional Movement Performance Ability (IMPA) is defined by the root mean square of the interactive torque, while the subject performs given periodic movement with the robot. IMPA is proposed to quantitatively determine the level of subject's impaired motor function. The method is indirectly tested by asking the healthy subjects to lift a barbell to disturb their motor function. The experimental result shows that the IMPA has a potential for providing a proper information of the subject's motor function level.

  13. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2013-09-01

    Motor proteins are enzymatic molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical motion and work. They are critically important for supporting various cellular activities and functions. In the last 15 years significant progress in understanding the functioning of motor proteins has been achieved due to revolutionary breakthroughs in single-molecule experimental techniques and strong advances in theoretical modelling. However, microscopic mechanisms of protein motility are still not well explained, and the collective efforts of many scientists are needed in order to solve these complex problems. In this special section the reader will find the latest advances on the difficult road to mapping motor proteins dynamics in various systems. Recent experimental developments have allowed researchers to monitor and to influence the activity of single motor proteins with a high spatial and temporal resolution. It has stimulated significant theoretical efforts to understand the non-equilibrium nature of protein motility phenomena. The latest results from all these advances are presented and discussed in this special section. We would like to thank the scientists from all over the world who have reported their latest research results for this special section. We are also grateful to the staff and editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their invaluable help in handling all the administrative and refereeing activities. The field of motor proteins and protein motility is fast moving, and we hope that this collection of articles will be a useful source of information in this highly interdisciplinary area. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins contents Physics of protein motility and motor proteinsAnatoly B Kolomeisky Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116 Yuan Zhang, Mirkó Palla, Andrew Sun and Jung-Chi Liao The load dependence of the physical properties of a molecular motor

  14. Relationships between problematic behaviors and motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Nanba, Yosifumi; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi; Hujii, Shun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine whether motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy are related to their problematic behaviors. [Subjects] The subjects were children with mental retardation who were undergoing physical therapy. [Methods] Twenty-one examiners, 13 physical therapists, and 8 occupational therapists treated and examined the subjects by using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores were compared between the Gross Motor Function Classification System I to III (12 subjects) and Gross Motor Function Classification System IV and V groups (17 subjects). [Results] Lethargy and stereotypy scores significantly differed between the groups, proving that patients with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV and V have more severe problematic behaviors. [Conclusion] In this study, only five types of problematic behaviors, namely irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and inappropriate speech, were examined. Despite this limitation, the study clarifies that problematic behaviors of children with cerebral palsy, except lethargy and stereotypy, have little relationship with their motor abilities. PMID:26504335

  15. Motor abilities in dance structure performance in female students.

    PubMed

    Srhoj, Ljerka; Katić, Ratko; Kaliterna, Andreja

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the relation between motor abilities and performance in folk dances originating from the island of Hvar and modern social dances. Two groups of variables were used in a sample of 78 female students of the Teacher Training College from Split: 7 motor variables as a battery of predictors, and performance evaluation of 4 dances (2 folk dances, i.e. ciciliona and pasavijen, and 2 social dances, i.e. cha-cha-cha and rock-'n'-roll) as criterion variables. Canonical correlation analysis between the groups of variables yielded two canonical correlations of 0.94 and 0.73, with a level of significance of p<0.001. The first canonical correlation was based on marked determination of coordination and ciciliona dance, and the second one on explosive strength of the running type with below-average coordination and the cha-cha-cha, rock-'n'-roll and pasavijen dances. Regression analysis indicated the battery of motor variables used to be a good predictor of performance in all study dances, with multiple correlation of 0.93 in ciciliona, 0.84 in pasavijen, 0.75 in rock-'n'-roll and 0.73 in cha-cha-cha. In ciciliona and pasavijen, the latent dance structure is predominantly explained by coordination, in rock-'n'-roll by explosive strength, and in cha-cha-cha by explosive strength and speed. Discriminative analysis revealed the general dance performance to mostly depend on coordination, then on explosive strength, and to a lesser extent on speed (movement frequency). Dance is an irreplaceable educational tool in kinesiologic education of female students, among others for its considerable contribution to the development and maintenance of basic motor abilities.

  16. Motor Imagery Ability in Children with Congenital Hemiplegia: Effect of Lesion Side and Functional Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline; Reid, Susan M.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Anderson, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    In addition to motor execution problems, children with hemiplegia have motor planning deficits, which may stem from poor motor imagery ability. This study aimed to provide a greater understanding of motor imagery ability in children with hemiplegia using the hand rotation task. Three groups of children, aged 8-12 years, participated: right…

  17. Motor Imagery Ability in Children with Congenital Hemiplegia: Effect of Lesion Side and Functional Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline; Reid, Susan M.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Anderson, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    In addition to motor execution problems, children with hemiplegia have motor planning deficits, which may stem from poor motor imagery ability. This study aimed to provide a greater understanding of motor imagery ability in children with hemiplegia using the hand rotation task. Three groups of children, aged 8-12 years, participated: right…

  18. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  19. The role of early fine and gross motor development on later motor and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Piek, Jan P; Dawson, Lisa; Smith, Leigh M; Gasson, Natalie

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether information obtained from measures of motor performance taken from birth to 4 years of age predicted motor and cognitive performance of children once they reached school age. Participants included 33 children aged from 6 years to 11 years and 6 months who had been assessed at ages 4 months to 4 years using the ages and stages questionnaires (ASQ: [Squires, J. K., Potter, L., & Bricker, D. (1995). The ages and stages questionnaire users guide. Baltimore: Brookes]). These scores were used to obtain trajectory information consisting of the age of asymptote, maximum or minimum score, and the variance of ASQ scores. At school age, both motor and cognitive ability were assessed using the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND: [McCarron, L. (1997). McCarron assessment of neuromuscular development: Fine and gross motor abilities (revised ed.). Dallas, TX: Common Market Press.]), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Version IV (WISC-IV: [Wechsler, D. (2004). WISC-IV integrated technical and interpretive manual. San Antonio, Texas: Harcourt Assessment]). In contrast to previous research, results demonstrated that, although socio-economic status (SES) predicted fine motor performance and three of four cognitive domains at school age, gestational age was not a significant predictor of later development. This may have been due to the low-risk nature of the sample. After controlling for SES, fine motor trajectory information did not account for a significant proportion of the variance in school aged fine motor performance or cognitive performance. The ASQ gross motor trajectory set of predictors accounted for a significant proportion of the variance for cognitive performance once SES was controlled for. Further analysis showed a significant predictive relationship for gross motor trajectory information and the subtests of working memory and processing speed. These results provide evidence for detecting

  20. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys.

  1. CONTRIBUTION OF AXIAL MOTOR IMPAIRMENT TO PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Mon S; Hou, Jyhgong Gabriel; Collins, Robert L; Protas, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationships between motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and activity limitations in persons with PD. Design/Methods Cross-sectional study of persons with mild to moderate PD (N=90). Associations among axial motor features, limb motor signs, the Physical Activity Scale for Elders (PASE), the ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and level of ADL dependency were studied. A composite score of axial motor features included the following UPDRS items: speech, rigidity of the neck, arising from chair, posture, gait and postural stability. A composite score of limb motor signs included the following UPDRS items: tremor at rest of all extremities, action tremor, rigidity of all extremities, finger taps, hand movement, rapid alternating hand movements and foot tapping. Results Axial motor features of PD were significantly correlated with physical inactivity (p<.001), decreased ADL (p<.001) and increase in ADL dependency (p<.001). Limb motor signs significantly correlated with decreased ADL (p<.001) and level of ADL dependency (p=.035), but was not correlated with physical inactivity. After controlling for age, gender, disease duration and comorbidity, axial motor features contributed significantly to physical inactivity, decreased ADL and increase in ADL dependency, whereas the limb motor signs did not. Conclusions Axial motor impairment contributed to physical inactivity and decreased ability to perform ADLs in persons with PD. PMID:26368837

  2. Motor abilities at belly dance in elementary female schoolers.

    PubMed

    Mihaljević, Dodi; Srhoj, Ljerka; Katić, Ratko

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relation between motor abilities and belly dance performance in elementary school fifth- and sixth-grade female students. A battery of 19 motor tests was used in a sample of 96 students twice, i.e. at the beginning (initial measurement) and at the end (final measurement) of the academic year. On initial measurement, five factors were isolated by the motor space factor analysis: first factor of muscular-aerobic endurance; second factor integrating the strength of legs, coordination of foot and hand movement, and agility; third factor integrating explosive strength of the arms with speed and body coordination; fourth factor defined by flexibility (muscle tone regulation); and fifth factor integrating explosive strength of legs with equilibrium. On final measurement, five factors were isolated as well: first factor as a general one integrating coordination abilities, explosive strength of legs and flexibility; second factor defined by repetitive strength of the trunk and legs; third factor defined by rhythm coordination accompanied by flexibility; fourth factor predominantly defined by equilibrium (accompanied by explosive strength of throwing type and speed); and fifth factor predominantly defined by static strength of arms and legs (accompanied by arm movement frequency). On initial measurement, fourth factor responsible for muscle tone regulation and second factor integrating the strength of legs, coordination of movement frequency of arms and legs, and agility were found to be the best predictors of belly dance performance. In this setting, the tests of forward bow (flexibility) and sit-ups (repetitive strength of abdominal musculature) proved superior in differentiating high performance students and those less successful in belly dance. On final measurement, third factor named rhythm coordination (accompanied by muscle tone regulation) and second factor defined by repetitive strength of the trunk and legs were the best

  3. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  4. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    PubMed Central

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  5. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  6. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  7. A psychometric evaluation of the Arm Motor Ability Test.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Rivera, Lisa; Fieo, Robert; Christos, Paul; Polistena, Caitlin; Fitzgerald, Kerri; Gorga, Delia

    2013-06-01

    To further examine the psychometric properties of a 9-item version of the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT-9) in persons with stroke. Thirty-two community-dwelling persons > 6 months post-stroke undergoing robotics treatment (mean age = 56.0 years, time post-stroke = 4.1 years, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score = 4.1, and AMAT-9 score = 1.22). Construct validity (including Rasch analyses) used baseline data prior to treatment (n = 32). Standardized response mean was calculated for subjects completing the protocol (n = 29). The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) were also administered. Spearman-rank correlation coefficients between AMAT-9 and the WMFT, FMA, and ARAT were strong (0.78-0.79, all p < 0.001). The correlation between the AMAT-9 and SIS Hand Function sub-score was stronger than that between the AMAT-9 and the Communication sub-score (0.40, p = 0.025 and -0.16, p = 0.39, respectively). Rasch analyses provided evidence for an appropriate hierarchical structure of item difficulties, unidimensionality, and good reliability. The AMAT demonstrated a comparable standardized response mean of 0.98. The AMAT-9 is valid and responsive among subjects scoring in the lower range of the scale. It has the advantage of assessing function and by eliminating the standing item from the previous iteration, it may be more easily used with severely impaired patients.

  8. [Physique and motor ability of school children in Republic of Honduras].

    PubMed

    Sekiya, T

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the physique and motor ability of elementary school children in the Republic of Honduras in comparison with those of Japanese children. Honduran children of 6 to 15 years old, and a total of 29,602, were examined on the following 10 items: body height, body weight, chest girth, 50 m dash, standing long jump, softball throwing. Burpee test, sitting trunk flexion, zigzag running with holding softball, and foot-balance with closed-eye. The physique of Honduran children was smaller than that of Japanese, but the value of chest girth/body height was not smaller. Among Honduran children of 10 to 15 years old, the girls were heavier and thicker in the chest girth than the boys. The adolescent growth spurt of the physique was observed in boys of 13-14 years old and in girls of 9-10. Furthermore, in almost all the items of motor ability, Honduran children were inferior to Japanese. One of the presumable reasons is the imbalance of nutrition (low level protein and high level fat), which may cause the delay of physical matureness in boys and increase obesity in girls. Another is a lack of proper exercise opportunity to develop their motor ability.

  9. Review of Motor Development, Perceptual-Motor and Physical Fitness Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundschuh, Ernest; And Others

    Tests of motor development, perceptual-motor coordination, and physical fitness, for the retarded and non-retarded, are reviewed regarding their usage and administration. The tests reviewed are the: Denver Developmental Screening Test, Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Dayton Sensory Motor Awareness Survey, Minnetonka Physical Performance…

  10. Review of Motor Development, Perceptual-Motor and Physical Fitness Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundschuh, Ernest; And Others

    Tests of motor development, perceptual-motor coordination, and physical fitness, for the retarded and non-retarded, are reviewed regarding their usage and administration. The tests reviewed are the: Denver Developmental Screening Test, Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Dayton Sensory Motor Awareness Survey, Minnetonka Physical Performance…

  11. Motor planning ability is not related to lesion side or functional manual ability in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, E.V.; Pearse, J.E.; Eyre, J.A.; Basu, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal task performance requires anticipatory planning to select the most appropriate movement strategy. There is conflicting evidence for hemispheric specialisation of motor planning, with some suggesting left hemisphere dominance, claiming that children with right hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) are therefore disproportionally affected. An alternative view is that there is a positive relationship between functional ability (rather than side of lesion) and motor planning skill. We aimed to compare children with right and left HCP on motor planning ability and to explore its relationship with functional manual ability. Participants were 76 children with HCP (40 left HCP; 30 female), aged 4-15y (Mean 9.09, SD 2.94). Motor planning was assessed using a measure of end-state comfort, which involved turning a hexagonal handle 180° without readjusting grasp. This is difficult, or in some cases impossible, to achieve unless an appropriate initial grasp is adopted. Children completed 24 turns (12 clockwise), which were video recorded for offline scoring. Functional manual ability was assessed with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire, completed by parents. Contrary to the existing literature, no differences were observed between right and left HCP. However, a significant interaction between direction of turn and side of hemiplegia indicated a preferential bias for turns in the medial direction, consistent with the “medial over lateral advantage”. There was no relationship between functional ability and motor planning. Therefore, motor planning may not be a priority for therapeutic intervention to improve functional ability in HCP. PMID:23995565

  12. Motor Ability and Weight Status Are Determinants of Out-of-School Activity Participation for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Chan, Nerita N. C.; Chan, Rachel S. H.; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with…

  13. Motor Ability and Weight Status Are Determinants of Out-of-School Activity Participation for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Chan, Nerita N. C.; Chan, Rachel S. H.; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with…

  14. Effects of A School-Based Intervention on BMI and Motor Abilities in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Christine; Koch, Benjamin; Falkowski, Gisa; Jouck, Stefanie; Christ, Hildegard; Stauenmaier, Kathrin; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Tokarski, Walter; Dordel, Sigrid; Predel, Hans-Georg

    2005-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is increasing worldwide. To combat overweight and obesity in childhood, the school-based Children’s Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT) project combines health education and physical activity. This paper examines the effect of intervention on the body mass index (BMI) and motor abilities after 20.8 ± 1.0 months in 12 randomly selected primary schools compared with 5 randomly selected control schools. The anthropometric data were assessed, BMI was calculated. Coordination was determined by lateral jumping and endurance performance by a 6-minute run. No difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found between the intervention (IS) and control schools (CS) either at baseline or following intervention (each p > 0.05). The increase in the number of lateral jumps was significantly higher in the IS than in the CS (p < 0.001). For the 6-minute run the increase in distance run was significantly improved in IS (p = 0.020). All variables were controlled for gender and age. Overweight and obese children in both IS and CS produced significantly lower scores in coordination and endurance tasks than normal and underweight children during both examinations (each p ≤ 0.001), adjusted for gender and age. Preventive intervention in primary schools offers an effective means to improve motor skills in childhood and to break through the vicious circle of physical inactivity - motor deficits - frustration - increasing inactivity possibly combined with an excess energy intake and weight gain. To prevent overweight and obesity these measures have to be intensified. Key Points School-based prevention improves motor abilities in primary school children. The incidence of obesity is not influenced by school-based intervention. To prevent obesity in early childhood the measures have to be intensified and parents should be included. PMID:24453534

  15. Physical and motor fitness are both related to cognition in old age.

    PubMed

    Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Godde, Ben; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of fitness for cognitive performance in healthy older adults have repeatedly been demonstrated. Animal studies, however, have revealed differential relationships between physical and motor fitness and brain metabolism. We therefore investigated whether for older humans different dimensions of fitness are differentially associated with cognitive performance and brain activation patterns. Seventy-two participants (mean age 68.99 years, SD = 3.66; 52 females) completed four psychometric tests reflecting two primary abilities of higher cognitive functioning (executive control, perceptual speed) and a battery of fitness tests comprising two fitness dimensions (physical and motor fitness). We found that not only physical fitness indexed by cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength, but also motor fitness including movement speed, balance, motor coordination and flexibility showed a strong association with cognitive functioning. Additionally, functional brain imaging data revealed that physical and motor fitness were differentially related to cognitive processes. Results are discussed with regard to the compensation hypothesis and potential consequences for intervention work.

  16. Is Mental Rotation Ability a Predictor of Success for Motor Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyek, Nady; Champely, Stéphane; Collet, Christian; Fargier, Patrick; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of a relationship between mental rotation (MR) and motor processes in children and adults. However, there is no direct evidence that MR ability is a reliable predictor of success for motor performance. After completion of a MR test, the motor performance of 7- to 8-year-old and 11- to 12-year-old children was…

  17. Is Mental Rotation Ability a Predictor of Success for Motor Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyek, Nady; Champely, Stéphane; Collet, Christian; Fargier, Patrick; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of a relationship between mental rotation (MR) and motor processes in children and adults. However, there is no direct evidence that MR ability is a reliable predictor of success for motor performance. After completion of a MR test, the motor performance of 7- to 8-year-old and 11- to 12-year-old children was…

  18. Current insights in the development of children’s motor imagery ability

    PubMed Central

    Spruijt, Steffie; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these studies to provide a more comprehensive insight in children’s motor imagery development and its age of onset. Motor imagery is a form of motor cognition and aligns with forward (or predictive) models of motor control. Studying age-related differences in motor imagery ability in children therefore provides insight in underlying processes of motor development during childhood. Another motivation for studying age-related differences in motor imagery is that in order to effectively apply motor imagery training in children (with motor impairments), it is pertinent to first establish the age at which children are actually able to perform motor imagery. Overall, performance in the imagery tasks develops between 5 and 12 years of age. The age of motor imagery onset, however, remains equivocal, as some studies indicate that children of 5 to 7 years old can already enlist motor imagery in an implicit motor imagery task, whereas other studies using explicit instructions revealed that children do not use motor imagery before the age of 10. From the findings of the current study, we can conclude that motor imagery training is potentially a feasible method for pediatric rehabilitation in children from 5 years on. We suggest that younger children are most likely to benefit from motor imagery training that is presented in an implicit way. Action observation training might be a beneficial adjunct to implicit motor imagery training. From 10 years of age, more explicit forms of motor imagery training can be effectively used. PMID:26113832

  19. Motor Abilities in Autism: A Review Using a Computational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, Emma; Hamilton, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Altered motor behaviour is commonly reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder, but the aetiology remains unclear. Here, we have taken a computational approach in order to break down motor control into different components and review the functioning of each process. Our findings suggest abnormalities in two areas--poor integration of information for…

  20. Motor Abilities in Autism: A Review Using a Computational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, Emma; Hamilton, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Altered motor behaviour is commonly reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder, but the aetiology remains unclear. Here, we have taken a computational approach in order to break down motor control into different components and review the functioning of each process. Our findings suggest abnormalities in two areas--poor integration of information for…

  1. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  2. Motor abilities of children and adolescents with a psychiatric condition: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Damme, Tine Van; Simons, Johan; Sabbe, Bernard; van West, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To summarize research regarding the motor abilities of children and adolescents who suffer from a common psychiatric condition. METHODS: In order to outline the current knowledge regarding the motor abilities of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and depression, a comprehensive systematic literature search was carried out using PubMed, Medline and ERIC databases. The databases were searched for relevant English language articles published between January 1990 and April 2014. Only studies that conducted a quantitative evaluation of motor ability and concerned individuals aged 0-18 years were included. A separate search was conducted for each disorder (ASD, ADHD, DBD, depression) in conjunction with each of the following keywords: (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement skill(s), (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement abilities, (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement impairment, (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement problem(s), motor function, motor coordination, motor performance, motor deficit(s). To detect supplementary relevant literature, the reference lists of the retrieved articles were examined. RESULTS: The search strategy yielded 51 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In total, 28 studies were included that examined the motor abilities of children and adolescents with ASD. All studies indicated that they performed below average on various standardized motor assessment instruments. The overall prevalence rate for impairment in motor abilities ranged from 33% to 100%. Twenty-seven studies examined the motor abilities of children and adolescents with ADHD. Depending on the type of motor assessment tool and the cut-off points used by different researchers, prevalence rates of impairment in motor abilities are highly variable and ranged from 8% to 73%. Remarkably, there is a paucity of research addressing the motor abilities of individuals with DBD or depression

  3. Re-Conceiving Ability in Physical Education: A Social Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jan; Burrows, Lisette

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we explore how "ability" is currently conceptualised in physical education and with what effects for different groups of young people. We interrogate approaches to theorising ability in physical education that draw on sociological and phenomenological "foundations" together with notions of ability as…

  4. Trend of relations between morphological characteristics and motor abilities in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bala, Gustav; Jalsić, Damjan; Katić, Ratko

    2009-06-01

    Measurements of eight anthropometric characteristics and a battery of seven motor tests were applied in a large sample of 1170 children, 565 boys and 605 girls aged 4 to 7.5 decimal years from preschool institutions in three towns in Vojvodina (Novi Sad, Sombor, and Bacha Palanka). Children were selected according to 0.5 decimal years in the mentioned age range. The status of boys and girls according to seven age categories, age-related differences between boys and girls, as well as the relations between anthropometric characteristics and motor abilities were analyzed by use of intercorrelation matrices and canonical correlation analysis. Generally, significant sex differences were found in anthropometric characteristics, i.e., the values of bone growth in length were higher in boys, while the values of voluminosity and subcutaneous adipose tissue were higher in girls. Concerning the space of motor variables, there were significant differences in functioning of the mechanism of movement structuring, the mechanism of synergetic regulation, and the mechanism of excitation duration control, which reached higher values in boys, whereas the functioning of the mechanism of tonus regulation showed higher values in girls. These differences generated morphological and motor structures in boys and girls according to age groups analyzed whose relations showed variable level of statistical significance. The youngest and oldest ages showed generalness of the canonical factor structure, as well as the highest significance of participation in the common variance of the two spaces of the variables applied. Between the above ages, i.e., between 4 and 7 years, the relation between morphological characteristics and motor abilities in children decreased, followed by gradual increase. It was monitored by the coefficient of determination between the first pairs of canonical factors in each age category, in boys and girls alike. This relation tended to be higher in boys in all analyzed

  5. Condition and Co-Ordination Abilities in Motor Performance of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzbarska, Ingrid; Piatkowska, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess motor performance of pre-school children and the hierarchy of motor and physical variables. Material and methods: A group of 64 boys and 60 girls aged 5-6 years were subjected to 7 motor tests measuring the condition and co-ordination features. The results were subjected to cluster analysis in order to establish the hierarchy…

  6. Condition and Co-Ordination Abilities in Motor Performance of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzbarska, Ingrid; Piatkowska, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess motor performance of pre-school children and the hierarchy of motor and physical variables. Material and methods: A group of 64 boys and 60 girls aged 5-6 years were subjected to 7 motor tests measuring the condition and co-ordination features. The results were subjected to cluster analysis in order to establish the hierarchy…

  7. Relations between basic and specific motor abilities and player quality of young basketball players.

    PubMed

    Marić, Kristijan; Katić, Ratko; Jelicić, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Subjects from 5 first league clubs from Herzegovina were tested with the purpose of determining the relations of basic and specific motor abilities, as well as the effect of specific abilities on player efficiency in young basketball players (cadets). A battery of 12 tests assessing basic motor abilities and 5 specific tests assessing basketball efficiency were used on a sample of 83 basketball players. Two significant canonical correlations, i.e. linear combinations explained the relation between the set of twelve variables of basic motor space and five variables of situational motor abilities. Underlying the first canonical linear combination is the positive effect of the general motor factor, predominantly defined by jumping explosive power, movement speed of the arms, static strength of the arms and coordination, on specific basketball abilities: movement efficiency, the power of the overarm throw, shooting and passing precision, and the skill of handling the ball. The impact of basic motor abilities of precision and balance on specific abilities of passing and shooting precision and ball handling is underlying the second linear combination. The results of regression correlation analysis between the variable set of specific motor abilities and game efficiency have shown that the ability of ball handling has the largest impact on player quality in basketball cadets, followed by shooting precision and passing precision, and the power of the overarm throw.

  8. Interaction between motor ability and skill learning in children: Application of implicit and explicit approaches.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Jon P; Capio, Catherine M; Masters, Rich S W

    2017-05-01

    The benefits of implicit and explicit motor learning approaches in young adults have been studied extensively, but much less in children. This study investigated the relationship between fundamental motor ability and implicit/explicit learning in children using the errorless learning paradigm. First, the motor ability of 261 children (142 boys, 119 girls) aged 9-12 years (M = 9.74, SD = 0.67) was measured. Second, children with motor ability scores in the upper and lower quartile learned a golf-putting skill in either an errorless (implicit) or errorful (explicit) learning condition. Four groups were formed: Errorless High-Ability (n = 13), Errorless Low-Ability (n = 11), Errorful High-Ability (n = 10), and Errorful Low-Ability (n = 11). Learning consisted of 300 practice trials, while testing included a 50-trial retention test, followed by a 50-trial secondary task transfer test, and another 50-trial retention test. The results showed that for high- and low-ability errorless learners, motor performance was unaffected by the secondary task, as was the case for high-ability errorful learners. Low-ability errorful learners performed worse with a secondary task and were significantly poorer than the corresponding high-ability group. These results suggest that implicit motor learning (errorless) may be beneficial for children with low motor ability. The findings also show a trend that children of high motor ability might benefit from learning explicitly (errorful). Further research is recommended to examine the compatibility of implicit and explicit approaches for children of different abilities.

  9. Oxidative Stress, Motor Abilities, and Behavioral Adjustment in Children Treated for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Krull, Kevin R; Insel, Kathleen C; Harris, Lynnette L; Gundy, Patricia M; Adkins, Kristin B; Pasvogel, Alice E; Taylor, Olga A; Koerner, Kari M; Montgomery, David W; Ross, Adam K; Hill, Adam; Moore, Ida M

    2015-09-01

    To examine associations among oxidative stress, fine and visual-motor abilities, and behavioral adjustment in children receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
. A prospective, repeated-measures design
. Two pediatric oncology settings in the southwestern United States. 89 children with ALL were followed from diagnosis to the end of chemotherapy. Serial cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected during scheduled lumbar punctures and analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers. Children completed fine motor dexterity, visual processing speed, and visual-motor integration measures at three time points. Parents completed child behavior ratings at the same times. Oxidative stress, fine motor dexterity, visual processing, visual-motor integration, and behavioral adjustment
. Children with ALL had below-average fine motor dexterity, visual processing speed, and visual-motor integration following the induction phase of ALL therapy. By end of therapy, visual processing speed normalized, and fine motor dexterity and visual-motor integration remained below average. Oxidative stress measures correlated with fine motor dexterity and visual-motor integration. Decreased motor functioning was associated with increased hyperactivity and anxiety
. Oxidative stress occurs following chemo-therapy for childhood ALL and is related to impaired fine motor skills and visual symptoms
. Early intervention should be considered to prevent fine motor and visual-spatial deficits, as well as behavioral problems.

  10. Using the Rasch Measurement Model To Investigate the Construct of Motor Ability in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Larkin, Dawne

    2001-01-01

    Used the Rasch measurement model to explore the construct of a general motor ability in 332 5- and 6-year-old Australian children performing 24 motor skills. After categorizing data, two different, unidimensional scales were created, one for boys and one for girls. (SLD)

  11. The role of hearing ability and speech distortion in the facilitation of articulatory motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Helen E; Kennedy-Higgins, Daniel; Devlin, Joseph T; Adank, Patti

    2017-01-08

    Excitability of articulatory motor cortex is facilitated when listening to speech in challenging conditions. Beyond this, however, we have little knowledge of what listener-specific and speech-specific factors engage articulatory facilitation during speech perception. For example, it is unknown whether speech motor activity is independent or dependent on the form of distortion in the speech signal. It is also unknown if speech motor facilitation is moderated by hearing ability. We investigated these questions in two experiments. We applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the lip area of primary motor cortex (M1) in young, normally hearing participants to test if lip M1 is sensitive to the quality (Experiment 1) or quantity (Experiment 2) of distortion in the speech signal, and if lip M1 facilitation relates to the hearing ability of the listener. Experiment 1 found that lip motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were larger during perception of motor-distorted speech that had been produced using a tongue depressor, and during perception of speech presented in background noise, relative to natural speech in quiet. Experiment 2 did not find evidence of motor system facilitation when speech was presented in noise at signal-to-noise ratios where speech intelligibility was at 50% or 75%, which were significantly less severe noise levels than used in Experiment 1. However, there was a significant interaction between noise condition and hearing ability, which indicated that when speech stimuli were correctly classified at 50%, speech motor facilitation was observed in individuals with better hearing, whereas individuals with relatively worse but still normal hearing showed more activation during perception of clear speech. These findings indicate that the motor system may be sensitive to the quantity, but not quality, of degradation in the speech signal. Data support the notion that motor cortex complements auditory cortex during speech perception, and point to a role

  12. Activities of daily living in children with hemiparesis: influence of cognitive abilities and motor competence.

    PubMed

    Adler, Caroline; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Staudt, Martin; Berweck, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate whether motor competence and cognitive abilities influence the quality of performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in children with hemiparesis. Patients and A total of 20 children with hemiparesis (age, 6-12 years; 11 congenital, 9 acquired during childhood) were studied. Motor competence was assessed with the Assisting Hand Assessment, cognitive abilities with the German version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV, and the quality of ADL performance with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). The motor skills scale of the AMPS correlated with motor competence, and the process skills scale of the AMPS correlated with cognitive abilities. The quality of ADL performance is influenced not only by motor competence but also by the cognitive abilities of a hemiparetic child. This suggests that, in addition to motor-oriented training programs, an optimal therapy for hemiparetic children should also consider cognitive approaches. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Looking ahead: anticipatory gaze and motor ability in infancy.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Ettore; Reddy, Vasudevi; de Looper, Annette; Costantini, Marcello; Lopez, Beatriz; Sinigaglia, C

    2013-01-01

    The present study asks when infants are able to selectively anticipate the goals of observed actions, and how this ability relates to infants' own abilities to produce those specific actions. Using eye-tracking technology to measure on-line anticipation, 6-, 8- and 10-month-old infants and a control group of adults were tested while observing an adult reach with a whole hand grasp, a precision grasp or a closed fist towards one of two different sized objects. The same infants were also given a comparable action production task. All infants showed proactive gaze to the whole hand grasps, with increased degrees of proactivity in the older groups. Gaze proactivity to the precision grasps, however, was present from 8 months of age. Moreover, the infants' ability in performing precision grasping strongly predicted their ability in using the actor's hand shape cues to differentially anticipate the goal of the observed action, even when age was partialled out. The results are discussed in terms of the specificity of action anticipation, and the fine-grained relationship between action production and action perception.

  14. Looking Ahead: Anticipatory Gaze and Motor Ability in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Ettore; Reddy, Vasudevi; de Looper, Annette; Costantini, Marcello; Lopez, Beatriz; Sinigaglia, C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study asks when infants are able to selectively anticipate the goals of observed actions, and how this ability relates to infants’ own abilities to produce those specific actions. Using eye-tracking technology to measure on-line anticipation, 6-, 8- and 10-month-old infants and a control group of adults were tested while observing an adult reach with a whole hand grasp, a precision grasp or a closed fist towards one of two different sized objects. The same infants were also given a comparable action production task. All infants showed proactive gaze to the whole hand grasps, with increased degrees of proactivity in the older groups. Gaze proactivity to the precision grasps, however, was present from 8 months of age. Moreover, the infants’ ability in performing precision grasping strongly predicted their ability in using the actor’s hand shape cues to differentially anticipate the goal of the observed action, even when age was partialled out. The results are discussed in terms of the specificity of action anticipation, and the fine-grained relationship between action production and action perception. PMID:23861832

  15. Effect of 6-month athletic training on motor abilities in seven-year-old schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Katić, R; Males, B; Miletić, D

    2002-12-01

    The effects of six-month athletic training on improving motor abilities in 7-year-old schoolgirls were assessed. Analysis of the results of 12 motor tests showed significant improvement in the study group (n = 38) in comparison with control group (n = 140) subjected to conventional physical education classes only. The improvement referred to the variables of aerobic endurance (3-min run), flexibility (forward bow), explosive strength (ball throwing and 20-m run), keeping balance (bench standing), static strength (bent arm hang), and repetitive strength (sit-ups). These are probably adaptive changes brought up by discriminant functions. The varimax factor and discriminative function correlations indicated that all four factors of changes contributed significantly to the explanation of discriminative function. An almost equally high correlation of varimax factors and discriminative function was obtained on the basis of differences in the third factor responsible for changes in the frequency of movements and in the explosive strength of the jump type; in the second factor responsible for changes in coordination with changes in the repetitive strength of the body; and in the fourth factor responsible for changes in the explosive strength of the throw and sprint types with changes and endurance.

  16. Motor abilities of children diagnosed with fragile X syndrome with and without autism.

    PubMed

    Zingerevich, C; Greiss-Hess, L; Lemons-Chitwood, K; Harris, S W; Hessl, D; Cook, K; Hagerman, R J

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that children diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (FXS) often meet criteria for autism or PDD. This study describes the fine motor abilities of children diagnosed with FXS with and without autism spectrum disorder, and compares the motor scores of those groups controlling for cognitive level. Forty-eight children, ages 12-76 months (SD = 16) diagnosed with FXS were assessed with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Their parents were interviewed with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. We used a one-way analysis of variance to determine if the fine motor scale of the Mullen would show group differences based on autism classifications for the sample. In addition, we used Pearson correlation coefficient to examine the relationship between the cognitive level, the autism severity and the motor abilities. Lastly, we conducted a one-way analysis of covariance to determine the difference between the motor abilities of the Autism Spectrum Disorder groups controlling for cognitive level. We found that 60% of the children with FXS met criteria for autism or Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Children with FXS with autism and PDD-NOS had lower fine motor scores than those without. However, there was no significant association between degree of motor impairment and communication and social impairments after controlling for cognitive level, indicating that cognitive level contributes to impaired motor abilities of children diagnosed with FXS and autism, more than the severity of autism symptoms. children with FXS and autism are at risk for impaired motor abilities. Implications for development and intervention are discussed.

  17. Motor Skill Competence and Physical Activity in Preschoolers: A Review.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Roger; An, Ruopeng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Preschoolers 3-5 years of age are in a crucial stage of motor skill competence. While preschoolers develop their motor skill competence through engagement in physical activity, a majority of them fail to meet guideline-recommended physical activity level. This study reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers. Methods This systematic review followed the PRISMA framework. Keyword and reference search were conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria included-age: 3-5 years of age; setting: preschool environment (e.g., preschool, childcare, head start); main outcomes: motor skill competence and physical activity; study design: cross-sectional study, case-control study, retrospective cohort study, prospective cohort study, or randomized controlled trial; language: English; and article type: peer-reviewed publication. Results Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including 6 randomized controlled trials and 5 cross-sectional studies. Studies were conducted in 5 countries: United States (5), United Kingdom (2), Australia (2), Switzerland (1), and Finland (1). Eight out of the 11 studies included in the review reported a significant relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity. The specific pattern and strength of the relationship tend to differ by gender, physical activity intensity, motor skill type, and day of the week (weekdays versus weekends). Conclusions An association has been consistently documented between motor skill competence and physical activity. Future research is warranted to elucidate the underlining causal link, examine potential heterogeneity, and determine the role of environment in the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers.

  18. Motor cortex plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation is enhanced in physically active individuals.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, John; Lavender, Andrew P; Ridding, Michael C; Semmler, John G

    2009-12-15

    Recent evidence indicates that regular physical activity enhances brain plasticity (i.e. the ability to reorganise neural connections) and improves neurocognitive function. However, the effect of regular physical activity on human motor cortex function is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine motor cortex plasticity for a small hand muscle in highly active and sedentary individuals. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the left abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle of 14 active and 14 sedentary subjects (aged 18-38 yrs). The extent of physical activity was assessed by questionnaire, where the physically active subjects performed >150 min per day moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity on at least 5 days per week, whereas the sedentary group performed <20 min per day of physical activity on no more than 3 days per week. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the right hemisphere was used to assess changes in APB motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), input-output curve (IO curve), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and cortical silent period (CSP). Neuroplastic changes were induced using paired-associative stimulation (PAS), which consisted of 90 paired stimuli (0.05 Hz for 30 min) of median nerve electrical stimulation at the wrist followed 25 ms later by TMS to the hand area of motor cortex. The IO curve slope was 35% steeper in individuals with increased physical activity (combined before and after PAS, P < 0.05), suggesting increased motor cortex excitability, although there was no difference in SICI or CSP between groups. PAS induced an increase in MEP amplitude in the physically active subjects (54% increase compared with before, P < 0.01), but no significant facilitation in the sedentary subjects. We conclude that participation in regular physical activity may offer global benefits to motor cortex function that enhances neuroplasticity, which could improve motor learning and neurorehabilitation in physically active individuals.

  19. Ability Conceptions in Physical Education: Some Measurement Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Xiang, Ping

    2007-01-01

    The construct of ability conceptions plays a critical role in children's motivation and achievement behaviors in education, including physical education. Valid and reliable measures of this construct are essential to advance our knowledge of children's ability conceptions and related cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. From a…

  20. A Physical Education Program for Preschoolers of All Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Julienne K.; Randall, Lynn M.

    2002-01-01

    Preschool physical education (PPE) that integrates developmentally appropriate activities can benefit children of all abilities. The paper presents a multi-task activity, Trails in the Jungle, that has been used successfully by children of varying abilities. Trails in the Jungle incorporates different types of movement as well as imagination and…

  1. Does sleep promote motor learning? Implications for physical rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Siengsukon, Catherine F; Boyd, Lara A

    2009-04-01

    Sleep following motor skill practice has repeatedly been demonstrated to enhance motor skill learning off-line (continued overnight improvements in motor skill that are not associated with additional physical practice) for young people who are healthy. Mounting evidence suggests that older people who are healthy fail to demonstrate sleep-dependent off-line motor learning. However, little is known regarding the influence of sleep on motor skill enhancement following damage to the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that individuals with brain damage, particularly following stroke, do benefit from sleep to promote off-line motor skill learning. Because rehabilitation following stroke requires learning new, and re-learning old, motor skills, awareness that individuals with stroke benefit from a period of sleep following motor skill practice to enhance skill learning could affect physical therapist practice. The objective of this article is to present the evidence demonstrating sleep-dependent off-line motor learning in young people who are healthy and the variables that may influence this beneficial sleep-dependent skill enhancement. In young people who are healthy, these variables include the stages of memory formation, the type of memory, the type of instruction provided (implicit versus explicit learning), and the task utilized. The neural mechanisms thought to be associated with sleep-dependent off-line motor learning also are considered. Research examining whether older adults who are healthy show the same benefits of sleep as do younger adults is discussed. The data suggest that older adults who are healthy do not benefit from sleep to promote off-line skill enhancement. A possible explanation for the apparent lack of sleep-dependent off-line motor learning by older adults who are healthy is presented. Last, emerging evidence showing that individuals with chronic stroke demonstrate sleep-dependent off-line motor skill learning and some of the possible mechanisms

  2. Motor ability and weight status are determinants of out-of-school activity participation for children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Lee, Velma Y L; Chan, Nerita N C; Chan, Rachel S H; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y C

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study aimed to (1) compare motor performance, weight status and pattern of out-of-school activity participation between children with DCD and those without; and (2) identify whether motor ability and weight status were determinants of participation patterns among children with DCD. We enrolled 81 children with DCD (boys, n = 63; girls, n = 18; mean age, 8.07 ± 1.5 years) and 67 typically developing children (boys, n = 48; girls, n = 19; mean age, 8.25 ± 1.6 years). Participation patterns (diversity, intensity, companionship, location, and enjoyment) were evaluated with the Children Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Motor ability was evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2). Other factors that may influence participation such as age, gender, and body weight were also recorded. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcome variables of the two groups, and significant determinants of activity participation were identified by multiple regression analysis. Children with DCD participated in fewer activities (i.e., limited participation diversity) and participated less frequently (i.e., limited participation intensity) than their typically developing peers; however, companionship, location of participation, and enjoyment level did not differ between the two groups. Children in the DCD group demonstrated significantly worse motor ability as assessed by the MABC-2. Further, a greater proportion of children in the DCD group were in the overweight/obese category compared with their typically developing peers. After accounting for the

  3. Physical context management for a motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Kevin R.; Forsythe, James C.; Lippitt, Carl E.; Lippitt, legal representative, Lois Diane

    2009-10-27

    Computer software for and a method of enhancing safety for an operator of a motor vehicle comprising employing a plurality of sensors of vehicle and operator conditions, matching collective output from the sensors against a plurality of known dangerous conditions, and preventing certain activity of the operator if a known dangerous condition is detected.

  4. The Relationship between Motor Abilities and Early Social Development in a Preschool Cohort of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Koa; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Boyd, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor ability and early social development in a cohort of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: Population-based cohort study. Methods: Participants were 122 children with CP assessed at 18, 24 and 30 months, corrected age (ca). Motor ability was measured by the Gross Motor Function…

  5. The Relationship between Motor Abilities and Early Social Development in a Preschool Cohort of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Koa; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Boyd, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor ability and early social development in a cohort of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: Population-based cohort study. Methods: Participants were 122 children with CP assessed at 18, 24 and 30 months, corrected age (ca). Motor ability was measured by the Gross Motor Function…

  6. The effect of cerebellar transplantation and enforced physical activity on motor skills and spatial learning in adult Lurcher mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Cendelín, Jan; Korelusová, Ivana; Vozeh, Frantisek

    2009-03-01

    Lurcher mutant mice represent a model of olivocerebellar degeneration. They are used to investigate cerebellar functions, consequences of cerebellar degeneration and methods of therapy influencing them. The aim of the work was to assess the effect of foetal cerebellar graft transplantation, repeated enforced physical activity and the combination of both these types of treatment on motor skills, spontaneous motor activity and spatial learning ability in adult B6CBA Lurcher mice. Foetal cerebellar grafts were applied into the cerebellum of Lurchers in the form of solid tissue pieces. Enforced motor activity was realised through rotarod training. Motor functions were examined using bar, ladder and rotarod tests. Spatial learning was tested in the Morris water maze. Spontaneous motor activity in the open field was observed. The presence of the graft was examined histologically. Enforced physical activity led to moderate improvement of some motor skills and to a significant amelioration of spatial learning ability in Lurchers. The transplantation of cerebellar tissue did not influence motor functions significantly but led to an improvement of spatial learning ability. Mutual advancement of the effects of both types of treatment was not observed. Spontaneous motor activity was influenced neither by physical activity nor by the transplantation. Physical activity did not influence the graft survival and development. Because nerve sprouting and cell migration from the graft to the host cerebellum was poor, the functional effects of the graft should be explained with regard to its trophic influence rather than with any involvement of the grafted cells into neural circuitries.

  7. The Dynamic Association between Motor Skill Development and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2007-01-01

    Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…

  8. Motor disabilities in the Rett syndrome and physical therapy strategies.

    PubMed

    Hanks, S B

    1990-01-01

    A chart review of 23 girls diagnosed with the Rett syndrome (RS), seen at Oregon Health Sciences University-Child Development and Rehabilitation Center was conducted to identify specific motor problems. Hypotonia, loss of transitional movements, ataxia, motor apraxia, spasticity, kyphoscoliosis, and foot deformities proved to be characteristics of this syndrome. Clinical experience of the author and other therapists involved in the treatment of girls with RS suggests that physical therapy is useful in the management of these patients to maintain or increase motor skills and control deformities. Therapy techniques the author has found useful are presented and responses unique to RS patients are described.

  9. Motor ability and adaptive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Huang, Tzu-Hsiu; Lo, Sing-Kai

    2011-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder. Previous studies have reported that children with ADHD exhibit deficits of adaptive function and insufficient motor ability. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adaptive function and motor ability in children with ADHD compared with a group of normal children. The study group included 25 children with ADHD (19 boys and 6 girls), aged from 4.6 years to 8.6 years (mean±standard deviation, 6.5±1.2). A group of 24 children without ADHD (normal children) were selected to match the children with ADHD on age and gender. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children, which includes three subtests, was used to assess the motor ability of the children of both groups. The Chinese version of Adaptive Behavior Scales, which consists of 12 life domains, was used to assess adaptive function of the children with ADHD. Compared with the normal children, children with ADHD exhibited poorer motor ability on all the three subtests of motor assessment. In the ADHD group, nine (36%) children had significant motor impairments and seven (28%) were borderline cases. A total of 10 (40%) children with ADHD had definite adaptive problems in one or more adaptive domains. With statistically controlling of IQ for the ADHD group, those children with impaired motor ability had significantly poorer behaviors in the adaptive domain of home living (p=0.035). Moreover, children with ADHD who had severely impaired manual dexterity performed worse than the control group in the adaptive domains of home living (r=-0.47, p=0.018), socialization (r=-0.49, p=0.013), and self-direction (r=-0.41, p=0.040). In addition, children with poorer ball skills had worse home living behavior (r=-0.56, p=0.003). Children who had more impaired balance exhibited poorer performance in social behavior (r=-0.41, p=0.040). This study found significant correlation between motor ability and adaptive

  10. Cognitive ability predicts motor learning on a virtual reality game in patients with TBI.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Rochelle L; Skeel, Reid L; Ustinova, Ksenia I

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality games and simulations have been utilized successfully for motor rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Little is known, however, how TBI-related cognitive decline affects learning of motor tasks in virtual environments. To fill this gap, we examined learning within a virtual reality game involving various reaching motions in 14 patients with TBI and 15 healthy individuals with different cognitive abilities. All participants practiced ten 90-second gaming trials to assess various aspects of motor learning. Cognitive abilities were assessed with a battery of tests including measures of memory, executive functioning, and visuospatial ability. Overall, participants with TBI showed both reduced performance and a slower learning rate in the virtual reality game compared to healthy individuals. Numerous correlations between overall performance and several of the cognitive ability domains were revealed for both the patient and control groups, with the best predictor being overall cognitive ability. The results may provide a starting point for rehabilitation programs regarding which cognitive domains interact with motor learning.

  11. Sleep and Motor Learning: Implications for Physical Rehabilitation After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gudberg, Christel; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is essential for healthy brain function and plasticity underlying learning and memory. In the context of physical impairment such as following a stroke, sleep may be particularly important for supporting critical recovery of motor function through similar processes of reorganization in the brain. Despite a link between stroke and poor sleep, current approaches to rehabilitative care often neglect the importance of sleep in clinical assessment and treatment. This review assimilates current evidence on the role of sleep in motor learning, with a focus on the implications for physical rehabilitation after stroke. We further outline practical considerations for integrating sleep assessment as a vital part of clinical care. PMID:26635718

  12. What is Recognised as Ability in Physical Education? A Systematic Appraisal of How Ability and Ability Differences Are Socially Constructed within Mainstream Secondary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shaun; Littlefair, David; Barlow-Meade, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In sport, schools and physical education (PE) ability has invariably been understood as an inherent and relatively immutable capacity, amendable to varying degrees by interventions such as training regimes and education. Differences in achievement are assumed to be an inevitable consequence of natural variations in ability and an indication of…

  13. What is Recognised as Ability in Physical Education? A Systematic Appraisal of How Ability and Ability Differences Are Socially Constructed within Mainstream Secondary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shaun; Littlefair, David; Barlow-Meade, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In sport, schools and physical education (PE) ability has invariably been understood as an inherent and relatively immutable capacity, amendable to varying degrees by interventions such as training regimes and education. Differences in achievement are assumed to be an inevitable consequence of natural variations in ability and an indication of…

  14. Lead exposure and visual-motor abilities in children from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Kavitha; Roy, Ananya; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Gopalakrishnan, Lakshmi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hu, Howard; Bellinger, David C

    2011-08-01

    Lead exposure poses a major environmental hazard in India, but little information is available on the impact of lead exposure on visuo-motor development in Indian children. We hypothesize that higher blood lead levels are associated with poorer visual-motor, visual-spatial and fine motor functioning among children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 814 school children, aged 3-7 years. Lead in whole blood was measured using the LeadCare Analyzer. The Wide Range of Visual Motor Abilities Test (WRAVMA) was administered to each child by trained examiners. The mean blood lead level was 11.4±5.3 μg/dL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for mother's education level, father's education level, average monthly income, hemoglobin and sex, WRAVMA scores were inversely related to blood lead level. An increase of 10 μg/dL was associated with a decrease of 2.6 points (95% CI: -4.5 to -0.7, P=0.006) in the Visual Motor Composite score and a decrease of 2.9 points (95% CI: -5.1 to -0.7, P=0.011) in the Drawing subtest. Exploration of the shape of the dose-effect relationships using spline functions indicated some non-linearities, with the steepest declines in visual-motor skills occurring at higher blood lead levels. Among urban Indian children, higher blood lead levels are associated with decreased visual-motor abilities, particularly visual-motor integration.

  15. Patterned-String Tasks: Relation between Fine Motor Skills and Visual-Spatial Abilities in Parrots

    PubMed Central

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals. PMID:24376885

  16. Executive Functions and Motor Ability Contribute to Children's Participation in Daily Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Limor; Jacobi, Shani; Bart, Orit

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are crucial for efficient daily functioning. However, the contribution of executive functions to the participation in daily life activities of children, have been inadequately studied. The study aimed to examine the unique contribution of executive functions, beyond motor ability, to the diversity and independence of children's…

  17. Obesity and Motor Coordination Ability in Taiwanese Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between obesity and motor coordination ability in Taiwanese children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). 2029 children (1078 boys, 951 girls) aged nine to ten years were chosen randomly from 14 elementary schools across Taiwan. We used bioelectrical impedance…

  18. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    PubMed

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  19. Obesity and Motor Coordination Ability in Taiwanese Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between obesity and motor coordination ability in Taiwanese children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). 2029 children (1078 boys, 951 girls) aged nine to ten years were chosen randomly from 14 elementary schools across Taiwan. We used bioelectrical impedance…

  20. Gender Differences in Musical Aptitude, Rhythmic Ability and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollatou, Elisana; Karadimou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vasilios

    2005-01-01

    Most of the preschool curricula involve integrated movement activities that combine music, rhythm and locomotor skills. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether there are any differences between boys and girls at the age of five concerning their musical aptitude, rhythmic ability and performance in gross motor skills. Ninety-five…

  1. Beliefs about Gender Appropriateness, Ability, and Competence in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solmon, Melinda A.; Lee, Amelia M.; Belcher, Doland; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Wells, Lori

    2003-01-01

    Used self-efficacy theory as a framework to investigate the interaction of beliefs about gender appropriateness and conceptions of ability on competence beliefs in physical activity. College students completed surveys about the sport of hockey, watched a video of a specific hockey skill, and responded to questions about the skill. Results support…

  2. Beliefs about Gender Appropriateness, Ability, and Competence in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solmon, Melinda A.; Lee, Amelia M.; Belcher, Doland; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Wells, Lori

    2003-01-01

    Used self-efficacy theory as a framework to investigate the interaction of beliefs about gender appropriateness and conceptions of ability on competence beliefs in physical activity. College students completed surveys about the sport of hockey, watched a video of a specific hockey skill, and responded to questions about the skill. Results support…

  3. Evidence for the Social Construction of Ability in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Peter J.; Macdonald, Doune

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study investigating the empirical substance of Evans' proposed social construction of ability. Data were collected through text analysis of a Senior physical education (PE) syllabus, semi-structured interviews and participant observations of students and teachers in two senior secondary school contexts (one school situated…

  4. Damage to Fronto-Parietal Networks Impairs Motor Imagery Ability after Stroke: A Voxel-Based Lesion Symptom Mapping Study

    PubMed Central

    Oostra, Kristine M.; Van Bladel, Anke; Vanhoonacker, Ann C. L.; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mental practice with motor imagery has been shown to promote motor skill acquisition in healthy subjects and patients. Although lesions of the common motor imagery and motor execution neural network are expected to impair motor imagery ability, functional equivalence appears to be at least partially preserved in stroke patients. Aim: To identify brain regions that are mandatory for preserved motor imagery ability after stroke. Method: Thirty-seven patients with hemiplegia after a first time stroke participated. Motor imagery ability was measured using a Motor Imagery questionnaire and temporal congruence test. A voxelwise lesion symptom mapping approach was used to identify neural correlates of motor imagery in this cohort within the first year post-stroke. Results: Poor motor imagery vividness was associated with lesions in the left putamen, left ventral premotor cortex and long association fibers linking parieto-occipital regions with the dorsolateral premotor and prefrontal areas. Poor temporal congruence was otherwise linked to lesions in the more rostrally located white matter of the superior corona radiata. Conclusion: This voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study confirms the association between white matter tract lesions and impaired motor imagery ability, thus emphasizing the importance of an intact fronto-parietal network for motor imagery. Our results further highlight the crucial role of the basal ganglia and premotor cortex when performing motor imagery tasks. PMID:26869894

  5. Visuo-motor learning with combination of different rates of motor imagery and physical practice.

    PubMed

    Allami, Nadia; Paulignan, Yves; Brovelli, Andrea; Boussaoud, Driss

    2008-01-01

    Sports psychology suggests that mental rehearsal facilitates physical practice in athletes and clinical rehabilitation attempts to use mental rehearsal to restore motor function in hemiplegic patients. Our aim was to examine whether mental rehearsal is equivalent to physical learning, and to determine the optimal proportions of real execution and rehearsal. Subjects were asked to grasp an object and insert it into an adapted slot. One group (G0) practiced the task only by physical execution (240 trials); three groups imagined performing the task in different rates of trials (25%, G25; 50%, G50; 75%, G75), and physically executed movements for the remaining trials; a fourth, control group imagined a visual rotation task in 75% of the trials and then performed the same motor task as the others groups. Movement time (MT) was compared for the first and last physical trials, together with other key trials, across groups. All groups learned, suggesting that mental rehearsal is equivalent to physical motor learning. More importantly, when subjects rehearsed the task for large numbers of trials (G50 and G75), the MT of the first executed trial was significantly shorter than the first executed trial in the physical group (G0), indicating that mental practice is better than no practice at all. Comparison of the first executed trial in G25, G50 and G75 with the corresponding trials in G0 (61, 121 and 181 trials), showed equivalence between mental and physical practice. At the end of training, the performance was much better with high rates of mental practice (G50/G75) compared to physical practice alone (G0), especially when the task was difficult. These findings confirm that mental rehearsal can be beneficial for motor learning and suggest that imagery might be used to supplement or partly replace physical practice in clinical rehabilitation.

  6. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  7. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  8. PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY OF ION MOTORS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Surface ion source phenomena and technology -I, by G. kuskevics, J. M. Teem; Surface ion source phenomena and technology -II, by J. M. Teem...colloidal particles and the technology of their production, by C. D. Hendricks; Physical phenomena in bombardment ion source, by I. Kohlberg, S. Nablo; An...experimental bombardment ion source, by P. C. McNeill; Technology and Development of the Contact ion engine, by G. R. Brewer; Technology and

  9. Effect of the Level of Coordinated Motor Abilities on Performance in Junior Judokas

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Grzegorz; Jaworski, Janusz; Lyakh, Vladimir; Krawczyk, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify coordinated motor abilities that affect fighting methods and performance in junior judokas. Subjects were selected for the study in consideration of their age, competition experience, body mass and prior sports level. Subjects’ competition history was taken into consideration when analysing the effectiveness of current fight actions, and individual sports level was determined with consideration to rank in the analysed competitions. The study sought to determine the level of coordinated motor abilities of competitors. The scope of this analysis covered the following aspects: kinaesthetic differentiation, movement frequency, simple and selective reaction time (evoked by a visual or auditory stimulus), spatial orientation, visual-motor coordination, rhythmization, speed, accuracy and precision of movements and the ability to adapt movements and balance. A set of computer tests was employed for the analysis of all of the coordination abilities, while balance examinations were based on the Flamingo Balance Test. Finally, all relationships were determined based on the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. It was observed that the activity of the contestants during the fight correlated with the ability to differentiate movements and speed, accuracy and precision of movement, whereas the achievement level during competition was connected with reaction time. PMID:23486723

  10. Baby swimming: exploring the effects of early intervention on subsequent motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Sigmundsson, H; Hopkins, B

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of baby swimming on subsequent motor abilities. A range of motor abilities was examined in 4-year-old children who had previously participated in a programme of baby swimming (n= 19) and compared with a matched group of coevals who had not had this experience (n= 19). As predicted from the nature of the exercises that comprise the programme, the effects of baby swimming were restricted to abilities associated with prehension and balance. Suggestions are made as to how the theme of this hypothesis-generating, demonstration study can be pursued in the future with more rigorous experimental controls and applications to children with disabilities and impairments.

  11. Comorbidity of Physical and Motor Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Michael L.; Matson, Johnny L.; Beighley, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Autism and the related pervasive developmental disorders are a heavily researched group of neurodevelopmental conditions. In addition to core symptoms, there are a number of other physical and motor conditions that co-occur at high rates. This paper provides a review of factors and behaviors that correlate highly with disorders on the autism…

  12. Comorbidity of Physical and Motor Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Michael L.; Matson, Johnny L.; Beighley, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Autism and the related pervasive developmental disorders are a heavily researched group of neurodevelopmental conditions. In addition to core symptoms, there are a number of other physical and motor conditions that co-occur at high rates. This paper provides a review of factors and behaviors that correlate highly with disorders on the autism…

  13. Effects of an additional basketball and volleyball program on motor abilities of fifth grade elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Selmanović, Aleksandar; Milanović, Dragan; Custonja, Zrinko

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the transformational effects of an additional weekly PE session based on team sports (basketball and volleyball) on students' motor status. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 eleven-year-old boys divided into three groups (two experimental and one control) which were examined by 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the 9-month period. The tests included evaluation of explosive power dynamic and static strength endurance, co-ordination, flexibility and hand frequency motion. Although all three treatments together, complemented by the natural growth and developmental factors, induced significant quantitative changes, the results showed the highest motor improvements in the basketball experimental group, followed by the volleyball experimental group. While explosive power mainly contributed toward significant difference between the control and experimental groups in the final measurement, univarate test results also showed distinctive improvements in dynamic strength, hand frequency motion and various factors of co-ordination within experimental groups. The general conclusion points to the fact that even one additional PE session per week of the given program is sufficient to produce significant changes in motor abilities of elementary school fifth graders. Therefore the authors' support the legal provisions of mandatory implementation of extra-curricular forms of physical activity in elementary schools.

  14. Lead Exposure and Visual-Motor Abilities in Children from Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Kavitha; Roy, Ananya; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Krishnan, Lakshmi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hu, Howard; Bellinger, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Lead exposure poses a major environmental hazard in India, but little information is available on the impact of lead exposure on neurobehavioral development in Indian children. We hypothesize that higher blood lead levels are associated with poorer visual-motor, visual-spatial and fine motor functioning among children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 814 school children, aged 3–7 years. Lead in whole blood was measured using the LeadCare Analyzer. The Wide Range of Visual Motor Abilities Test (WRAVMA) was administered to each child by trained examiners. The mean blood lead level was 11.4 ± 5.3 μg//dL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for mother’s education level, fathers education level, average monthly income, hemoglobin and sex, WRAVMA scores were inversely related to blood lead level. An increase of 10 μg/dL was associated with a decrease of 2.6 points (95% CI: −4.5 to −0.7, P=0.006) in the Visual Motor Composite score and a decrease of 2.9 points (95% CI: −5.1 to −0.7, P=0.011) in the Drawing subtest. Exploration of the shape of the dose-effect relationships using spline functions indicated some non-linearities, with the steepest declines in visual-motor skills occurring at higher blood lead levels. Among urban Indian children, higher blood lead levels are associated with decreased visual-motor abilities, particularly visual-motor integration. PMID:21510976

  15. The relationship of morphology and motor abilities to specific table tennis tasks in youngsters.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Ivana; Nikolić, Ivana; Furjan-Mandić, Gordana; Kondric, Miran

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this research was to establish the relationship of certain basic motor abilities and morphological characteristics and efficacy in specific table tennis tasks. The research sample consisted of cadet category table tennis players (N = 101; aged 10.52 +/- 0.78 years, training experience 2.8 +/- 0.93 years). The participants were measured as they performed 24 motor tasks, along with 15 anthropometric measures and 3 specific table tennis tests. Indicators of the relationship between morphological characteristics and motor abilities, coupled with the results of the specific table tennis tests indicate that: a) subcutaneous fatty tissue on the lower extremities significantly limits the test results where movements involving fast changes in direction are required; b) subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues have a positive influence on tasks demanding controlled and precise alternate bouncing of the ball; c) in general, a positive influence can be seen in the results of specific tests concerning the following motor abilities: arm coordination, agility, explosive arm power, movement frequency speed and repetitive leg power. The test used for a coordination assessment of the whole body revealed a negative influence on the success of performing specific tasks.

  16. Motor ability in children treated for idiopathic clubfoot. A controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Andriesse, Hanneke; Westbom, Lena; Hägglund, Gunnar

    2009-12-15

    To study motor ability at seven years of age in children treated for idiopathic clubfoot and its relation to clubfoot laterality, foot status and the amount of surgery performed. Twenty children (mean age 7.5 years, SD 3.2 months) from a consecutive birth cohort from our hospital catchments area (300.000 inhabitants from southern Sweden) were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). Compared to typically developing children an increased prevalence of motor impairment was found regarding both the total score for MABC (p < 0.05) and the subtest ABC-Ball skills (p < 0.05). No relationship was found between the child's actual foot status, laterality or the extent of foot surgery with the motor ability as measured with MABC. Only the CAP item "one-leg stand" correlated significantly with the MABC (rs = -0.53, p = 0.02). Children with idiopathic clubfoot appear to have an increased risk of motor activity limitations and it is possible that other factors, independent of the clinical status, might be involved. The ability to keep balance on one leg may be a sufficient tool for determining which children in the orthopedic setting should be more thoroughly evaluated regarding their neuromotor functioning.

  17. Motor ability in children treated for idiopathic clubfoot. A controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background To study motor ability at seven years of age in children treated for idiopathic clubfoot and its relation to clubfoot laterality, foot status and the amount of surgery performed. Methods Twenty children (mean age 7.5 years, SD 3.2 months) from a consecutive birth cohort from our hospital catchments area (300.000 inhabitants from southern Sweden) were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). Results Compared to typically developing children an increased prevalence of motor impairment was found regarding both the total score for MABC (p < 0.05) and the subtest ABC-Ball skills (p < 0.05). No relationship was found between the child's actual foot status, laterality or the extent of foot surgery with the motor ability as measured with MABC. Only the CAP item "one-leg stand" correlated significantly with the MABC (rs = -0.53, p = 0.02). Conclusions Children with idiopathic clubfoot appear to have an increased risk of motor activity limitations and it is possible that other factors, independent of the clinical status, might be involved. The ability to keep balance on one leg may be a sufficient tool for determining which children in the orthopedic setting should be more thoroughly evaluated regarding their neuromotor functioning. PMID:20003483

  18. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    GAJEWSKA, Ewa; SOBIESKA, Magdalena; SAMBORSKI, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate gross motor function and hand function in children with cerebral palsy to explore their association with epilepsy and mental capacity. Material & Methods The research investigating the association between gross and fine motor function and the presence of epilepsy and/or mental impairment was conducted on a group of 83 children (45 girls, 38 boys). Among them, 41 were diagnosed with quadriplegia, 14 hemiplegia, 18 diplegia, 7 mixed form, and 3 athetosis. A neurologist assessed each child in terms of possible epilepsy and confirmed diagnosis in 35 children. A psychologist assessed the mental level (according to Wechsler) and found 13 children within intellectual norm, 3 children with mild mental impairment, 18 with moderate, 27 with severe, and 22 with profound. Children were then classified based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale. Results The gross motor function and manual performance were analysed in relation to mental impairment and the presence of epilepsy. Epilepsy was found to disturb conscious motor functions, but also higher degree of mental impairment was observed in children with epilepsy. Conclusion The occurrence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy is associated with worse manual function. The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with limitations in conscious motor functions. There is an association between epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy and the degree of mental impairment. The occurrence of epilepsy, mainly in children with hemiplegia and diplegia is associated with worse mental capacities. PMID:24949051

  19. Specificity of jumping, sprinting, and quick change-of-direction motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Salaj, Sanja; Markovic, Goran

    2011-05-01

    Despite being addressed in a number of previous studies, the controversy regarding the generality vs. specificity of jumping, sprinting, and change-of-direction speed (CODS) abilities still remains unresolved. Here, we tested the hypotheses that jumping, sprinting, and CODS represent separate and specific motor abilities, and that the jumping ability based on concentric and slow stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) is relatively independent of the same ability based on fast SSC. Eighty-seven male college athletes performed 3 concentric/slow SSC and 3 fast SSC jump tests, 4 sprint tests, and 3 CODS tests. The hypotheses were tested by means of the principal component factor analysis (PCA). The applied procedure reduced the greater number of manifest variables to a smaller number of independent latent dimensions or factors and, thereafter, assessed the relationships among them. The PCA revealed a relatively simple and consistent structure consisting of 4 separate factors that explained nearly 80% of variance of the applied tests. The factors appeared to correspond to the sprinting ability, concentric/slow SSC jumping ability, fast SSC jumping ability, and CODS ability. Further analyses revealed that the extracted factors were mainly independent, because they shared only between 6 and 23% of the common variance. These results supported our hypotheses regarding the specificity of jumping, sprinting, and CODS abilities, and specificity of the concentric/slow SSC and fast SSC jumping abilities. Coaches and strength and conditioning professionals should, therefore, use separate performance tests for the assessment of the studied abilities.

  20. Layered stimulus response training improves motor imagery ability and movement execution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah E; Cooley, Sam J; Cumming, Jennifer

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to test Lang's bioinformational theory by comparing the effects of layered stimulus and response training (LSRT) with imagery practice on improvements in imagery ability and performance of a motor skill (golf putting) in 24 novices (age, M = 20.13 years; SD = 1.65; 12 female) low in imagery ability. Participants were randomly assigned to a LSRT (introducing stimulus and response propositions to an image in a layered approach), motor imagery (MI) practice, or visual imagery (VI) practice group. Following baseline measures of MI ability and golf putting performance, the LSRT and MI practice groups imaged successfully performing the golf putting task 5 times each day for 4 days whereas the VI practice group imaged the ball rolling into the hole. Only the LSRT group experienced an improvement in kinesthetic MI ability, MI ability of more complex skills, and actual golf putting performance. Results support bioinformational theory by demonstrating that LSRT can facilitate visual and kinesthetic MI ability and reiterate the importance of imagery ability to ensure MI is an effective prime for movement execution.

  1. Development of motor and specific motor abilities for athletics in elementary school male and female first-graders.

    PubMed

    Katić, Ratko; Retelj, Edvard; Milat, Sanja; Ivanisević, Snjezana; Gudelj, Ines

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine canonic relations between the set of basic motor variables and the set of athletic variables assessing the abilities of sprint, throw and long-distance run adjusted for children aged seven years. Study sample consisted of 635 first-graders from Split elementary schools, divided into groups of 325 male and 310 female subjects. The set of nine variables of the basic motor space and three variables of situation motoricity in athletics were applied at the beginning and at the end of the academic year. Association between the sets of variables was determined by canonic correlation analysis. In male subjects, association between the sets of variables revealed a predominant effect of explosive strength on the sprint and throw ability on initial measurement. On final measurement, association in the first pair of canonic dimensions was underlain by the favorable impact of all strength factors with a predominance of explosive strength, which was accompanied by the development of flexibility and coordination, influencing performance in sprint and throwing; the second canonic variable was bipolar, differentiating aerobic endurance ability determined by above-average flexibility, frequency of lower extremity movements and static strength, and throwing ability determined by above-average equilibrium, explosive strength, coordination and repetitive strength. In female subjects, on initial measurement association in the first pair of canonic dimensions was mostly determined by the effect of explosive strength, repetitive strength of the trunk and movement frequency on general ability in athletics defined by the abilities of sprint, throw and long-distance run. Association in the second pair of canonic dimensions was determined by the impact of explosive strength and flexibility on sprint performance on the one hand, and by the effect of movement frequency and repetitive strength of the trunk on long-distance run performance on the other hand

  2. Gross motor ability predicts response to upper extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    George, Sarah Hulbert; Rafiei, Mohammad Hossein; Borstad, Alexandra; Adeli, Hojjat; Gauthier, Lynne V

    2017-08-30

    The majority of rehabilitation research focuses on the comparative effectiveness of different interventions in groups of patients, while much less is currently known regarding individual factors that predict response to rehabilitation. In a recent article, the authors presented a prognostic model to identify the sensorimotor characteristics predictive of the extent of motor recovery after Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy amongst individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate motor deficit using the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN). This follow-up paper examines which participant characteristics are robust predictors of rehabilitation response irrespective of the training modality. To accomplish this, EPNN was first applied to predict treatment response amongst individuals who received a virtual-reality gaming intervention (utilizing the same enrollment criteria as the prior study). The combinations of predictors that yield high predictive validity for both therapies, using their respective datasets, were then identified. High predictive classification accuracy was achieved for both the gaming (94.7%) and combined datasets (94.5%). Though CI therapy employed primarily fine-motor training tasks and the gaming intervention emphasized gross-motor practice, larger improvements in gross motor function were observed within both datasets. Poorer gross motor ability at pre-treatment predicted better rehabilitation response in both the gaming and combined datasets. The conclusion of this research is that for individuals with chronic mild-to-moderate upper extremity hemiparesis, residual deficits in gross motor function are highly responsive to motor restorative interventions, irrespective of the modality of training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  4. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Patterns of Performance on IQ and Visual Motor Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopera-Frye, Karen; Zielinski, Sharon

    This study explored relationships between intelligence and visual motor ability and patterns of impairment of visual motor ability in children prenatally affected by alcohol. Fourteen children (mean age 8.2 years) diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and 50 children with possible fetal alcohol effects (FAE) were assessed with the Bender…

  6. The role of rotational hand movements and general motor ability in children’s mental rotation performance

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Petra; Kellner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mental rotation of visual images of body parts and abstract shapes can be influenced by simultaneous motor activity. Children in particular have a strong coupling between motor and cognitive processes. We investigated the influence of a rotational hand movement performed by rotating a knob on mental rotation performance in primary school-age children (N = 83; age range: 7.0–8.3 and 9.0–10.11 years). In addition, we assessed the role of motor ability in this relationship. Boys in the 7- to 8-year-old group were faster when mentally and manually rotating in the same direction than in the opposite direction. For girls and older children this effect was not found. A positive relationship was found between motor ability and accuracy on the mental rotation task: stronger motor ability related to improved mental rotation performance. In both age groups, children with more advanced motor abilities were more likely to adopt motor processes to solve mental rotation tasks if the mental rotation task was primed by a motor task. Our evidence supports the idea that an overlap between motor and visual cognitive processes in children is influenced by motor ability. PMID:26236262

  7. Changes of motor abilities during ontogenetic development in Lurcher mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Markvartová, V; Cendelín, J; Vozeh, F

    2010-07-14

    Lurcher mutant mice represent a natural model of olivocerebellar degeneration. This degeneration is caused by a mutation of the gene for the delta2 glutamate receptor. Lurcher mutants suffer from cerebellar ataxia and cognitive functions deficiency as a consequence of excitotoxic apoptosis of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex and a secondary decrease of granule cells and inferior olive neurons. This process finishes by the 90th day of postnatal life, but already by 14 days, the Purkinje cells are damaged and the ataxia is fully developed. Purkinje cells die by apoptosis within the first 3 weeks of life. The aim of our work was to study the development of motor functions in the course of the ontogenetic development in Lurcher mutant mice of the B6CBA strain and to compare it with wild type mice of the same strain. Mice aged 2, 3, 6, 9, and 22 weeks were used in our experiment. Motor skills were examined using four standard tests: the horizontal wire, rotating cylinder, footbridge and slanting ladder. Our findings in Lurcher mutant mice show a significant increase of motor abilities up to the sixth postnatal week and selective decrease early after this period. This improvement of motor skills is caused by the physiological development of musculature and the nervous system, probably with some contribution of plasticity of the maturing brain. The cause of the decline of these abilities immediately after the completion of the development is unknown.

  8. Two-year-old phonology: impact of input, motor and cognitive abilities on development.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Barbara; McIntosh, Beth

    2010-11-01

    Previous research has rarely compared the contributions of different underlying abilities to phonological acquisition. In this study, the auditory-visual speech perception, oro-motor and rule abstraction skills of 62 typically developing two-year olds were assessed and contrasted with the accuracy of their spoken phonology. Measures included auditory-visual speech perception, production of isolated and sequenced oro-motor movements, and verbal and non-verbal rule abstraction. Abilities in all three domains contributed to phonological acquisition. However, the use of atypical phonological rules was associated with lower levels of phonological accuracy and a linear regression indicated that this measure of rule abstraction had greater explanatory power than the measures of input processing and output skill.

  9. Biochemical physics modeling of biological nano-motors

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaría-Holek, I.; López-Alamilla, N. J.

    2014-01-14

    We present a biochemical physics model accounting for the dynamics and energetics of both translational and rotational protein motors. A modified version of the hand-over-hand mechanism considering competitive inhibition by ADP is presented. Transition state-like theory is used to reconstruct the time dependent free-energy landscape of the cycle catalyst process that allows to predicting the number of steps or rotations that a single motor can perform. In addition, following the usual approach of chemical kinetics, we calculate the average translational velocity and also the stopping time of processes involving a collectivity of motors, such as exocytosis and endocytosis processes. Finally, we formulate a stochastic model reproducing very well single realizations of kinesin and rotary ATPases.

  10. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Modelling of a DNA packaging motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Xie, Ping; Xue, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2009-11-01

    During the assembly of many viruses, a powerful molecular motor packages the genome into a preassembled capsid. The Bacillus subtilis phage phi29 is an excellent model system to investigate the DNA packaging mechanism because of its highly efficient in vitro DNA packaging activity and the development of a single-molecule packaging assay. Here we make use of structural and biochemical experimental data to build a physical model of DNA packaging by the phi29 DNA packaging motor. Based on the model, various dynamic behaviours such as the packaging rate, pause frequency and slip frequency under different ATP concentrations, ADP concentrations, external loads as well as capsid fillings are studied by using Monte Carlo simulation. Good agreement is obtained between the simulated and available experimental results. Moreover, we make testable predictions that should guide future experiments related to motor function.

  11. Playfulness in Children with Limited Motor Abilities When Using a Robot.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Rincón, Adriana M; Adams, Kim; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Cook, Al

    2016-08-01

    Children with limited gross motor and manual abilities have fewer opportunities to engage in free play. We investigated the effect of a robotic intervention on the playfulness of children with cerebral palsy (CP). We used a partially nonconcurrent multiple baseline design with four children and their mothers. Children were classified in level IV or V on the Gross Motor Function and Manual Ability Classification Systems. The intervention was the availability of an adapted Lego robot during a 15-min free play session between the child and mother. There were two sessions per week for about 14 weeks. Playfulness was measured using the Test of Playfulness. Statistical comparisons using the 2 SD band and X-moving range chart methods revealed that all the children's levels of playfulness increased significantly while they played with the robot. Comparison of baseline and follow-up phase indicated that three children had retention of improved level of playfulness. Play with adapted Lego robots increased the level of playfulness in all four children during free play with their mothers. The findings have implications for providing children with limitations in motor abilities opportunities for free play with family and friends.

  12. The relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Oskoui, Maryam; Majnemer, Annette; Dagenais, Lynn; Shevell, Michael I

    2013-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to describe the relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in children with cerebral palsy and explore differences between cerebral palsy subtypes and associated comorbidities. Children with cerebral palsy born between 1999 and 2008 were included from the Registre de la Paralyse Cérébrale de Québec identifying 332 children. The overall agreement between Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale Levels was moderate (kappa 0.457, standard error 0.034) with a strong positive correlation (Spearman rho of 0.820, standard error 0.023). This agreement was moderate among children with spastic quadriparesis and dysketic cerebral palsy, fair in children with spastic diplegia, and poor in children with spastic hemiplegia. Children with cognitive impairment showed a higher correlation than those without cognitive impairment. The correlation between gross motor function and manual ability in children with CP varies based on neurologic subtype and cognitive level.

  13. Virtual Normalization of Physical Impairment: A Pilot Study to Evaluate Motor Learning in Presence of Physical Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Christopher; McDaid, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Motor learning is a critical component of the rehabilitation process; however, it can be difficult to separate the fundamental causes of a learning deficit when physical impairment is a confounding factor. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to augment the residual ability of physically impaired patients with a robotic rehabilitation exoskeleton, such that motor learning can be studied independently of physical impairment. The proposed technique augments the velocity of an on-screen cursor relative to the restricted physical motion. Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) are used to both model velocity and derive a function to scale velocity as a function of workspace position. Two variations of the algorithm are presented for comparison. In a cross-over pilot study, healthy participants were recruited and subjected to a simulated impairment to constrain their motion, imposed by the cable-driven wrist exoskeleton. Participants then completed a sinusoidal tracking task, in which the algorithms were statistically shown to augment the cursor velocity in the constrained state such that it matched position-dependent velocities recorded in the healthy state. A kinematic task was then designed as a motor-learning case study where the algorithms were statistically shown to allow participants to achieve the same performance when their motion was constrained as when unconstrained. The results of the pilot study provide motivation for further research into the use of this technique, thus providing a tool with which motor-learning can be studied in neurologically impaired populations. This could be used to give physiotherapists greater insight into underlying causes of motor learning deficits, consequently facilitating and enhancing subject-specific therapy regimes. PMID:28381985

  14. The level of selected coordinative motor abilities of basketball players aged 16-18.

    PubMed

    Popowczak, M; Struzik, A; Rokita, A; Pietraszewski, B

    2015-10-01

    Coordinative abilities play a very important role in sport. Unfortunately, researchers do not confine appropriate attention to this issue. Therefore, the aim of this study was an attempt at analysing results of the selected coordinative motor abilities: kinesthetic differentiation, quick reaction and spatial orientation. It was intended to find out whether the results of trials determining manifestations of the particular coordinative abilities exhibit any mutual relationships. Forasmuch as a static torque is a parameter determining the level of force components of the ability of kinaesthetic differentiation, it would like to find out whether its maximum level influences the final result. Research was carried out on 20 young basketball players with the use of a torque meter and Fusion Smart Speed System. It was noticed a lack of statistically significant relationships between the results of trials assessing manifestations of the ability of kinaesthetic differentiation, quick reaction and spatial orientation. However, it was noted statistically significant correlation between the maximum static torque and the accuracy of releasing a particular value of a static torque. The accuracy of releasing a particular value of a static torque ought to be classified as a comprehensive ability that comprises manifestations of strength abilities and kinaesthetic differentiation. Presented trials to evaluation manifestations of the selected coordinative abilities could be used by coaches during a training process. Coaches should also focus on the development of muscle strength of the upper body and upper limbs of basketball players.

  15. Did tool-use evolve with enhanced physical cognitive abilities?

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, I.; Wascher, C. A. F.; Scriba, M. F.; von Bayern, A. M. P.; Huml, V.; Siemers, B.; Tebbich, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use and manufacture of tools have been considered to be cognitively demanding and thus a possible driving factor in the evolution of intelligence. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced physical cognitive abilities evolved in conjunction with the use of tools, by comparing the performance of naturally tool-using and non-tool-using species in a suite of physical and general learning tasks. We predicted that the habitually tool-using species, New Caledonian crows and Galápagos woodpecker finches, should outperform their non-tool-using relatives, the small tree finches and the carrion crows in a physical problem but not in general learning tasks. We only found a divergence in the predicted direction for corvids. That only one of our comparisons supports the predictions under this hypothesis might be attributable to different complexities of tool-use in the two tool-using species. A critical evaluation is offered of the conceptual and methodological problems inherent in comparative studies on tool-related cognitive abilities. PMID:24101628

  16. Did tool-use evolve with enhanced physical cognitive abilities?

    PubMed

    Teschke, I; Wascher, C A F; Scriba, M F; von Bayern, A M P; Huml, V; Siemers, B; Tebbich, S

    2013-11-19

    The use and manufacture of tools have been considered to be cognitively demanding and thus a possible driving factor in the evolution of intelligence. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced physical cognitive abilities evolved in conjunction with the use of tools, by comparing the performance of naturally tool-using and non-tool-using species in a suite of physical and general learning tasks. We predicted that the habitually tool-using species, New Caledonian crows and Galápagos woodpecker finches, should outperform their non-tool-using relatives, the small tree finches and the carrion crows in a physical problem but not in general learning tasks. We only found a divergence in the predicted direction for corvids. That only one of our comparisons supports the predictions under this hypothesis might be attributable to different complexities of tool-use in the two tool-using species. A critical evaluation is offered of the conceptual and methodological problems inherent in comparative studies on tool-related cognitive abilities.

  17. Assessing motor imagery ability in younger and older adults by combining measures of vividness, controllability and timing of motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Saimpont, Arnaud; Malouin, Francine; Tousignant, Béatrice; Jackson, Philip L

    2015-02-09

    With the population aging, a large number of patients undergoing rehabilitation are older than 60 years. Also, since the use of motor imagery (MI) training in rehabilitation is becoming more popular, it is important to gain a better knowledge about the age-related changes in MI ability. The main goal of this study was to compare MI ability in younger and older adults as well as to propose a new procedure for testing this ability. Thirty healthy young subjects (mean age: 22.9±2.7 years) and 28 healthy elderly subjects (mean age: 72.4±5.5 years) participated in the experiment. They were administered three tests aimed at assessing three dimensions of MI: (1) the kinesthetic and visual imagery questionnaire (KVIQ) to assess MI vividness; (2) a finger-thumb opposition task to assess MI controllability; and (3) a chronometric task to assess the timing of MI. On average, the younger and older groups showed similar results on the KVIQ and the chronometric task, but the younger group was more accurate at the finger-thumb opposition task. Interestingly, there was a large variability in the performance within both groups, emphasizing the importance of considering each person individually regarding MI ability, whatever his age. Finally, we propose two indexes of MI ability to identify the potential of persons to engage in MI training programs. Future studies are needed to confirm the predictive value of these MI indexes and define inclusion/exclusion thresholds for their use as a screening tool in both younger and older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quiet eye distinguishes children of high and low motor coordination abilities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark R; Miles, Charlotte A L; Vine, Samuel J; Vickers, Joan N

    2013-06-01

    This is the first study to use the quiet eye (QE) as an objective measure of visuomotor control underpinning proficiency differences in children's motor coordination. Fifty-seven, year 5 primary school children (9-10 yr old) completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (MABC-2), while wearing a gaze registration system. Participants were subsequently divided into one of three ability groups: high motor coordination (HMC), median motor coordination (MMC), and low motor coordination (LMC) based on these MABC-2 scores (mean % rank: HMC = 84%, MMC = 51%, LMC = 19%). QE analyses were performed for the fourth task of the MABC-2, which involved throwing a tennis ball against a wall and catching it on the return. The HMC group was more successful in the catching task than both other groups (catching percentage: HMC = 92%, MMC = 62%, LMC = 35%) and demonstrated superior visuomotor control throughout the throwing and catching phases of the task. Compared with the other groups, the HMC group demonstrated longer targeting QE fixations before the release of the ball (HMC = 500 ms, MMC = 410 ms, LMC = 260 ms) and longer tracking QE durations before catching (HMC = 260 ms, MMC = 200 ms, LMC = 150 ms). There were no significant differences in ball flight time between the groups. Mediation analyses revealed that only the duration of the tracking QE predicted group differences in catching ability. Findings suggest that the ability to predict and calibrate movements based on sensory feedback may be impaired in children with movement coordination difficulties and have implications for how they are taught fundamental movement skills.

  19. Levels on the Playing Field: The Social Construction of Physical "Ability" in the Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Penney, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Background: This paper develops an analysis of how "educability" and "physical ability" are socially configured through the practices of physical education (PE) in schools. We pursue this interest as part of a broader project, shared by many in the wider community of social science researchers in PE, to better understand how…

  20. Levels on the Playing Field: The Social Construction of Physical "Ability" in the Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Penney, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Background: This paper develops an analysis of how "educability" and "physical ability" are socially configured through the practices of physical education (PE) in schools. We pursue this interest as part of a broader project, shared by many in the wider community of social science researchers in PE, to better understand how…

  1. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Roccella, Michele; Testa, Davide; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Background This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family) in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years) and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years). Results Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:24672238

  2. The influence of task paradigm on motor imagery ability in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, G D; Wilson, P H; Smits-Engelsman, B C M

    2015-12-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have difficulty imagining movements such that they conform to the customary temporal constraints of real performance. We examined whether this ability is influenced by the choice of task used to elicit motor imagery (MI). Performance of typically developing (TD) (n=30) and children with DCD (n=30) was compared on two tasks: the Visually Guided Pointing Task (VGPT) and the Computerized Virtual Radial Fitts Task (C-VRFT). Since the VGPT places higher demands on executive functions like working memory but requires less spatial planning, we reasoned that the C-VRFT would provide a purer measure of motor imagery (or simulation). Based on our earlier work, we predicted that imagery deficits in DCD would more likely manifest on the C-VRFT. Results showed high correlations between tasks in terms of executed and imagined movement time suggest that both tasks measure MI ability. However, group differences were more pronounced in the imagined condition of the radial Fitts' task. Taken together, the more spatially complex C-VRFT appears to be a more sensitive measure of motor imagery, better discriminating between DCD and TD. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between fine and gross motor ability, self-perceptions and self-worth in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piek, Jan P; Baynam, Grant B; Barrett, Nicholas C

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the impact of fine and gross motor ability on self-perceptions of male and female children and adolescents. Participants were compared across age group, sex, and level of motor ability. When intercorrelations between self-perceptions were taken into account, the level of movement ability was found to impact upon perceived athletic competence and scholastic competence. When movement was considered in terms of fine and gross motor ability, it was found that those with higher perceived scholastic competence were in the younger group and had better fine motor skills. Furthermore, those with greater perceived athletic competence were also in the younger group, were predominantly male and had better gross motor skills. The types of self-perceptions that influenced self-worth were dependent on the level of motor ability of the participants and varied according to their sex. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the necessity to assess specific types of motor deficit when tailoring intervention strategies for children with motor disorders, particularly within the academic setting.

  4. [Effect of the sharply strengthened motor activity on heart pumping ability of rats and mechanisms of its regulation].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, A S; Abzalov, R A; Abzalov, N I; Vafina, E Z

    2013-08-01

    The indicators of heart pumping ability of rats at a muscular loading of the maximum power and also in the conditions of transition from sharply strengthened motor activity regime on a strengthened motor activity regime at adrenergic influence stimulation and blockade were investigated. At rats of 100-daily age at the strengthened motor activity heart rate is less, and blood stroke volume is more, than in the rats, subject to muscular loading of the maximum power. The adrenergic influence on the heart's pumping ability of sharply strengthened motor activity rats is much more, than of unlimited motor activity rats. At the α1-adrenoreceptors blockade at 100-daily rats the decreasing in intensity of muscular loading causes increased in adrenergic influence on heart pumping ability.

  5. Interrater reliability of the Wolf Motor Function Test-Functional Ability Scale: why it matters.

    PubMed

    Duff, Susan V; He, Jiaxiu; Nelsen, Monica A; Lane, Christianne J; Rowe, Veronica T; Wolf, Steve L; Dromerick, Alexander W; Winstein, Carolee J

    2015-06-01

    One important objective for clinical trialists in rehabilitation is determining efficacy of interventions to enhance motor behavior. In part, limitation in the precision of measurement presents a challenge. The few valid, low-cost observational tools available to assess motor behavior cannot escape the variability inherent in test administration and scoring. This is especially true when there are multiple evaluators and raters, as in the case of multisite randomized controlled trials (RCTs). One way to enhance reliability and reduce variability is to implement rigorous quality control (QC) procedures. This article describes a systematic QC process used to refine the administration and scoring procedures for the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT)-Functional Ability Scale (FAS). The QC process, a systematic focus-group collaboration, was developed and used for a phase III RCT, which enlisted multiple evaluators and an experienced WMFT-FAS rater panel. After 3 staged refinements to the administration and scoring instructions, we achieved a sufficiently high interrater reliability (weighted κ = 0.8). A systematic focus-group process was shown to be an effective method to improve reliability of observational assessment tools for motor behavior in neurorehabilitation. A reduction in noise-related variability in performance assessments will increase power and potentially lower the number needed to treat. Improved precision of measurement can lead to more cost-effective and efficient clinical trials. Finally, we suggest that improved precision in measures of motor behavior may provide more insight into recovery mechanisms than a single measure of movement time alone. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  7. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  8. Oral motor patterns during feeding in severely physically disabled children.

    PubMed

    Yokochi, K

    1997-12-01

    Oral motor patterns during feeding were investigated in 58 patients with severe physical disability. Five patients showed a pattern resembling sucking. Twenty-nine exhibited an up-and-down movement of the jaw and protrusion of the tongue. Among these, the mouth opened when the food entered and the lips closed before swallowing in 20 patients; the mouth was constantly open in nine. Eight had an up-and-down movement of the jaw without protrusion of the tongue. These patterns were frequently seen in patients with spastic tetraplegia caused by neonatal asphyxia and compensated for oral motor impairment. Sixteen patients showed lateral movement of the jaw at some time during feeding; in these patients the texture of the food was more coarse than in those with other patterns.

  9. [The functional ability and efficiency of motor skills evaluation of individuals admitted into nursing homes in Poland].

    PubMed

    Pruszyński, Jacek J; Cicha-Mikołajczyk, Alicja; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the functional ability and efficiency of motor skills of Individuals admitted into nursing homes. The study took place between the years of 1997-2004 in a group of 122 individuals. The evaluation was based on two scales: ADL and IADL. The fall-related injury scale was used to evaluate the functionality ability and efficiency of motor skills. The Tinneti Scale of fall-related accident risk assessment was used to evaluate the functional ability and efficiency of motor skills. The study concluded that a majority of the individuals revealed a decrease in their functional ability and efficiency of motor skills. This is most relevant to individuals admitted directly from hospitals. The organization and development of new nursing home facilities must meet the needs of the individuals. The individuals admitted directly from the hospital require the best care due to their critical health status.

  10. Physical abilities after head injury. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Talmage, E W; Collins, G A

    1983-12-01

    A two-year retrospective study of head-injured patients was done to determine physical abilities of these patients at the time of discharge from an inpatient rehabilitation service. The relationship of nine specific activities of daily living to cognitive level, discharge placement status, medical or trauma complications, and other injuries was studied. The modal patient is described. At time of discharge, most patients were able to move in bed, achieve and maintain sitting balance, transfer, achieve and maintain standing, and walk on level surfaces. Additionally, fewer than half of the patients studied were independent in stair climbing. Wheelchair management was considered a new activity for a majority of patients; only 56 percent of the patients achieved independence in this activity.

  11. Reinstating the ability of the motor cortex to modulate cutaneomuscular reflexes in hemicerebellectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Oulad Ben Taib, Nordeyn; Manto, Mario

    2008-04-14

    The pathways passing through the cerebellum calibrate cutaneomuscular responses. Indeed, the enhancement of cutaneomuscular responses associated with subthreshold high-frequency trains of stimulation applied on motor cortex following a period of peripheral repetitive stimulation (PRS) is prevented by hemicerebellectomy. We analysed the effects of low-frequency repetitive stimulation of motor cortex (LFRSM1) on interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) and on the modulation of cutaneomuscular reflexes in rats with left hemicerebellar ablation. IHI was assessed by paired-pulse method with a conditioning stimulus (CS) to M1 followed by a test stimulus (TS) to the opposite M1. LFRSM1 reduced IHI. Combination of LFRSM1 with PRS increased significantly the magnitudes of cutaneomuscular responses evoked ipsilaterally to the hemicerebellar ablation. The increase of the intensity of cutaneomuscular responses was correlated with the reduction of IHI. Excitability of anterior horn motoneurons pool, assessed by F-wave, remained unchanged. Conjunction of LFRSM1 with PRS can be used to restore the ability of the motor cortex to modulate the intensity of cutaneomuscular responses in case of extensive unilateral cerebellar lesion. This study underlines for the first time the potential role of callosal pathways in the deficits of corticomotor tuning of cutaneomuscular responses contralaterally to acute extensive cerebellar lesion.

  12. Effect of kinesio tape application on hemiplegic shoulder pain and motor ability: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Frenkel-Toledo, Silvi; Vered, Elisha; Sender, Iris; Galinka, Tal; Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Ratmansky, Motti; Treger, Iuly

    2016-09-01

    The aim of our single-group pre-post design pilot study was to evaluate the short-term effect of kinesio taping (KT) application on pain and motor ability of hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) patients. Eleven poststroke patients with HSP hospitalized in the Department of Neurology C, Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital, Raanana, Israel, received a KT application in addition to their usual rehabilitation protocol. KT, consisting of one to three strips according to a predefined algorithm, was applied to the painful shoulder region. A 10 cm Visual Analog Scale of shoulder pain at rest and at arm movement, active and passive pain-free abduction range of motion, Box & Blocks, and Fugl-Meyer upper extremity motor assessment were performed before treatment and 24 h after wearing the KT. After applying the KT, there was no significant change in any variables. Short-term KT application, used in our study, produced no change in shoulder pain, range of motion, or ability of upper limb in HSP patients. Additional studies should evaluate the effect of long-term application and different types of KT applications on HSP.

  13. Bilateral deficits in fine motor control ability and manual dexterity in women with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, Marta; Martínez-Piédrola, Rosa M; Cigarán-Méndez, Margarita; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate fine motor control ability and manual dexterity women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) without symptoms in the upper extremity compared to healthy women. Subtests of the Purdue Pegboard Test (one-hand, bilateral and assembly) and of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test (writing, turning cards, picking up small, light and large heavy objects, simulated feeding and stacking checkers) were evaluated bilaterally in 20 women with FMS (aged 35-55 years) without symptoms in the upper limb and 20 age- and hand dominance-matched healthy women. Differences between sides and groups were analysed with several analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA revealed significant differences between groups (P < 0.001) and sides (P = 0.007) for one-hand pin placement subtest: women with FMS showed bilateral worse scores than controls. Patients also exhibited significantly lower scores in bilateral pin placement and assembly subtests when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). The ANOVA also revealed significant differences between groups for writing, turning over cards, picking up small objects, stacking checkers, picking up large light objects and picking up large heavy objects (all, P < 0.001): women with FMS needed more time for these subtests than healthy women with both hands. No difference for simulated feeding was found between groups. Our findings revealed bilateral deficits in fine motor control ability and manual dexterity in patients with FMS without symptoms in the upper extremity. These deficits are not related to the clinical features of the symptoms supporting an underlying central mechanism of altered motor control.

  14. Motor imagery modulation of body sway is task-dependent and relies on imagery ability

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Thiago; Souza, Nélio S.; Horsczaruk, Carlos H. R.; Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A.; de Oliveira, Laura A. S.; Vargas, Claudia D.; Rodrigues, Erika C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate to what extent the effects of motor imagery on postural sway are constrained by movement features and the subject's imagery ability. Twenty-three subjects were asked to imagine three movements using the kinesthetic modality: rising on tiptoes, whole-body forward reaching, and whole-body lateral reaching. After each task, subjects reported the level of imagery vividness and were subsequently grouped into a HIGH group (scores ≥3, “moderately intense” imagery) or a LOW group (scores ≤2, “mildly intense” imagery). An eyes closed trial was used as a control task. Center of gravity (COG) coordinates were collected, along with surface EMG of the deltoid (medial and anterior portion) and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. COG variability was quantified as the amount of fluctuations in position and velocity in the forward-backward and lateral directions. Changes in COG variability during motor imagery were observed only for the HIGH group. COG variability in the forward-backward direction was increased during the rising on tiptoes imagery, compared with the control task (p = 0.01) and the lateral reaching imagery (p = 0.02). Conversely, COG variability in the lateral direction was higher in rising on tiptoes and lateral reaching imagery than during the control task (p < 0.01); in addition, COG variability was higher during the lateral reaching imagery than in the forward reaching imagery (p = 0.02). EMG analysis revealed no effects of group (p > 0.08) or task (p > 0.46) for any of the tested muscles. In summary, motor imagery influences body sway dynamics in a task-dependent manner, and relies on the subject' imagery ability. PMID:24847241

  15. Motor imagery modulation of body sway is task-dependent and relies on imagery ability.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Thiago; Souza, Nélio S; Horsczaruk, Carlos H R; Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A; de Oliveira, Laura A S; Vargas, Claudia D; Rodrigues, Erika C

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate to what extent the effects of motor imagery on postural sway are constrained by movement features and the subject's imagery ability. Twenty-three subjects were asked to imagine three movements using the kinesthetic modality: rising on tiptoes, whole-body forward reaching, and whole-body lateral reaching. After each task, subjects reported the level of imagery vividness and were subsequently grouped into a HIGH group (scores ≥3, "moderately intense" imagery) or a LOW group (scores ≤2, "mildly intense" imagery). An eyes closed trial was used as a control task. Center of gravity (COG) coordinates were collected, along with surface EMG of the deltoid (medial and anterior portion) and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. COG variability was quantified as the amount of fluctuations in position and velocity in the forward-backward and lateral directions. Changes in COG variability during motor imagery were observed only for the HIGH group. COG variability in the forward-backward direction was increased during the rising on tiptoes imagery, compared with the control task (p = 0.01) and the lateral reaching imagery (p = 0.02). Conversely, COG variability in the lateral direction was higher in rising on tiptoes and lateral reaching imagery than during the control task (p < 0.01); in addition, COG variability was higher during the lateral reaching imagery than in the forward reaching imagery (p = 0.02). EMG analysis revealed no effects of group (p > 0.08) or task (p > 0.46) for any of the tested muscles. In summary, motor imagery influences body sway dynamics in a task-dependent manner, and relies on the subject' imagery ability.

  16. Specific Brain Lesions Impair Explicit Motor Imagery Ability: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Kerry; Friesen, Christopher; Boe, Shaun

    2016-03-01

    To determine which neurologic disorders/lesions impair or restrict motor imagery (MI) ability. CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsychINFO, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and Grey Literature were searched between May 8 and May 14, 2014. Keywords and Medical Subject Headings from 2 concepts (MI and lesion) were exploded to include related search terms (eg, mental practice/mental imagery, neurologic damage/lesion). Two independent reviewers assessed the 3861 studies that resulted from the database search. The studies were assessed for relevancy using the following inclusion criteria: use of explicit kinesthetic MI; neurologic lesion location identified; and use of an MI ability assessment tool. Twenty-three studies encompassing 196 participants were included. The 23 studies used 8 different methods for assessing MI ability. MI assessment scores were then normalized to facilitate comparison across studies. Lesion locations comprised many brain areas, including cortical (eg, parietal and frontal lobes), subcortical (eg, basal ganglia, thalamus), and cerebellum. Lesion etiology primarily was comprised of stroke and Parkinson disease. Several participants presented with lesions resulting from other pathologies. Subjects with parietal lobe damage were most impaired on their ability to perform MI. Subjects with frontal lobe and basal ganglia damage also consistently showed impairment in MI ability. Subjects with damage to specific brain structures, including the parietal and frontal lobes, showed impaired MI ability. As such, MI-based neurorehabilitation may not be efficacious in all patient populations. Therefore, decisions related to the use of MI in neurorehabilitation should, in part, be based on the patient's underlying pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of physical growth in cerebral palsied children and its possible relationship with gross motor development.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Alaa I; Hawamdeh, Ziad M

    2007-03-01

    The object of this study was to detect any possible relation between the current gross motor function score for cerebral palsy children and their physical growth parameters. We measured 71 children with spastic cerebral palsy (35 diplegic, 25 quadriplegic and 11 hemiplegic) and a control group of 80 normal children. Measures taken for cerebral palsy and normal children included stature, weight, head circumference and mid upper-arm circumference, and, additionally for the cerebral palsied children, duration of the disease, birth weight, presence or absence of orofacial dysfunction, distribution of paralysis and degree of spasticity. Motor abilities were measured using the Gross Motor Function Measure. Results showed a significant decrease in the stature, current weight, head circumference and mid upper-arm circumference of both sexes of the quadriplegic children, and significant decreases in the current weight of the diplegic girls and the head circumference of the hemiplegic girls. There were also significant decreases in all scores of the quadriplegic children compared to the diplegic and hemiplegic children. Diplegic children had significantly decreased standing, walking and running, and total scores, compared to the hemiplegic children. Total score at age of testing was independently predicted by the duration of the disease, distribution of paralysis, presence or absence of orofacial dysfunction, spasticity index and the current body weight. Our findings indicate that in spastic cerebral palsy the physical growth parameters were markedly decreased in the quadriplegic form compared to other forms. Only current body weight, from the growth parameters, in addition to other relevant clinical data, can be considered predictors of the current gross motor abilities of those children.

  18. The role of perceptual, cognitive, and motor abilities in street-crossing decisions of young and older pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola

    2011-05-01

    The present experiment investigated the role of perceptual, cognitive, and motor abilities in street-crossing behaviour with ageing. Previous research has shown that older pedestrians make many unsafe crossing decisions when cars are approaching at high speeds, and miss many crossing opportunities when car speeds are low. The older subjects seem to ignore information about the speed of the approaching cars and to preferentially use simplifying heuristics based on vehicle distance. The objective of the present study was to better understand the underlying age-related changes that lead to these behaviours, with a specific focus on perceptual factors. Twenty young (age 20-30), 21 younger-old (age 61-71), and 19 older-old (age 72-83) participants took part in the experiment. All participants individually carried out a simulated street-crossing task and took a battery of functional tests assessing perceptual, cognitive, and motor abilities. In line with earlier findings, the seniors made a greater number of incorrect crossing decisions, with many risky decisions when the vehicle was approaching at a high speed and many missed opportunities at a low speed. Correlation and regression analyses pointed out several functional performance measures as predictors of the way the pedestrians took or did not take information about vehicle speed into account in their decisions. Processing speed and visual attention abilities were shown to play the most important role in explaining the variance in incorrect decisions: these abilities allowed participants to focus their attention on the relevant speed information and to make timely, correct decisions. Time-to-arrival estimates, which informed the pedestrians about the time available for crossing, were found to be the second most predictive factor. Walking speed, by way of which the pedestrians adapted their crossing pace to the perceived available time, also came into play. Inhibition abilities ended up as the last functional

  19. Developing Motor and Tactical Skills in K-2 Physical Education: Let the Games Begin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslin, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Most motor development experts, teacher educators, and physical educators agree that the development of fundamental motor skills ought to be the focus of primary level (K-2nd grade) physical education. Given the limited number of days allocated for physical education in most elementary schools, ensuring that all students learn 200 or more…

  20. Olivocerebellar modulation of motor cortex ability to generate vibrissal movements in rat

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Eric J; Sugihara, Izumi; Llinás, Rodolfo

    2006-01-01

    The vibrissal movements known as whisking are generated in a pulsatile, or non-continuous, fashion and comprise sequences of brief regularly spaced movements. These rhythmic timing sequences imply the existence of periodically issued motor commands. As inferior olivary (IO) neurones generate periodic synchronous discharges that could provide the underlying timing signal, this possibility was tested by determining whether the olivocerebellar system modulates motor cortex (MCtx)-triggered whisker movements in rats. Trains of current pulses were applied to MCtx, and the resulting whisker movements were recorded using a high speed video camera. The evoked movement patterns demonstrated properties consistent with the existence of an oscillatory motor driving rhythm. In particular, movement amplitude showed a bell-shaped dependence on stimulus frequency, with a peak at 11.5 ± 2.3 Hz. Moreover, movement trajectories showed harmonic and subharmonic entrainment patterns within specific stimulus frequency ranges. By contrast, movements evoked by facial nerve stimulation showed no such frequency-dependent properties. To test whether the IO was the oscillator in question, IO neuronal properties were modified in vivo by intra-IO picrotoxin injection, which enhances synchronous oscillatory IO activity and reduces its natural frequency. The ensuing changes in the evoked whisker patterns were consistent with these pharmacological effects. Furthermore, in cerebellectomized rats, oscillatory modulation of MCtx-evoked movements was greatly reduced, and intra-IO picrotoxin injections did not affect the evoked movement patterns. Additionally, multielectrode recording of Purkinje cell complex spikes showed a temporal correlation of olivocerebellar activity during MCtx stimulus trains to evoked movement patterns. In sum, the results indicate that MCtx's ability to generate movements is modulated by an oscillatory signal arising in the olivocerebellar system. PMID:16357010

  1. Processing of visual information compromises the ability of older adults to control novel fine motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Harsimran S; Kwon, MinHyuk; Onushko, Tanya; Wright, David L; Corcos, Daniel M; Christou, Evangelos A

    2015-12-01

    We performed two experiments to determine whether amplified motor output variability and compromised processing of visual information in older adults impair short-term adaptations when learning novel fine motor tasks. In Experiment 1, 12 young and 12 older adults underwent training to learn how to accurately trace a sinusoidal position target with abduction-adduction of their index finger. They performed 48 trials, which included 8 blocks of 6 trials (the last trial of each block was performed without visual feedback). Afterward, subjects received an interference task (watched a movie) for 60 min. We tested retention by asking subjects to perform the sinusoidal task (5 trials) with and without visual feedback. In Experiment 2, 12 young and 10 older adults traced the same sinusoidal position target with their index finger and ankle at three distinct visual angles (0.25°, 1° and 5.4°). In Experiment 1, the movement error and variability were greater for older adults during the visual feedback trials when compared with young adults. In contrast, during the no-vision trials, age-associated differences in movement error and variability were ameliorated. Short-term adaptations in learning the sinusoidal task were similar for young and older adults. In Experiment 2, lower amount of visual feedback minimized the age-associated differences in movement variability for both the index finger and ankle movements. We demonstrate that although short-term adaptations are similar for young and older adults, older adults do not process visual information as well as young adults and that compromises their ability to control novel fine motor tasks during acquisition, which could influence long-term retention and transfer.

  2. Using Lego robots to estimate cognitive ability in children who have severe physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Cook, Albert M; Adams, Kim; Volden, Joanne; Harbottle, Norma; Harbottle, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether low-cost robots provide a means by which children with severe disabilities can demonstrate understanding of cognitive concepts. Ten children, ages 4 to 10, diagnosed with cerebral palsy and related motor conditions, participated. Participants had widely variable motor, cognitive and receptive language skills, but all were non-speaking. A Lego Invention 'roverbot' was used to carry out a range of functional tasks from single-switch replay of pre-stored movements to total control of the movement in two dimensions. The level of sophistication achieved on hierarchically arranged play tasks was used to estimate cognitive skills. The 10 children performed at one of the six hierarchically arranged levels from 'no interaction' through 'simple cause and effect' to 'development and execution of a plan'. Teacher interviews revealed that children were interested in the robot, enjoyed interacting with it and demonstrated changes in behaviour and social and language skills following interaction. Children with severe physical disabilities can control a Lego robot to perform un-structured play tasks. In some cases, they were able to display more sophisticated cognitive skills through manipulating the robot than in traditional standardised tests. Success with the robot could be a proxy measure for children who have cognitive abilities but cannot demonstrate them in standard testing.

  3. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, G.; Takagi, A.; Osu, R.; Yoshioka, T.; Kawato, M.; Burdet, E.

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner. Furthermore, the benefits are determined by both the interacting partner's performance and similarity of the partner's behavior to one's own. Our results demonstrate the fundamental neural processes underlying human physical interactions and suggest advantages of interactive paradigms for sport-training and physical rehabilitation.

  4. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, G.; Takagi, A.; Osu, R.; Yoshioka, T.; Kawato, M.; Burdet, E.

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner. Furthermore, the benefits are determined by both the interacting partner's performance and similarity of the partner's behavior to one's own. Our results demonstrate the fundamental neural processes underlying human physical interactions and suggest advantages of interactive paradigms for sport-training and physical rehabilitation. PMID:24452767

  5. The Associations among Motor Ability, Social-Communication Skills, and Participation in Daily Life Activities in Children with Low-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Limor; Moran, Adva; Bart, Orit

    2017-01-01

    Decreased motor ability is a common feature in autism, leading to the proposal of a motor-social link in autism. The purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of motor abilities and social-communication skills to children's participation in daily activities, among children with low-functioning autism spectrum disorder (LFASD).…

  6. Does early communication mediate the relationship between motor ability and social function in children with cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Lipscombe, Belinda; Boyd, Roslyn N; Coleman, Andrea; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Whittingham, Koa

    2016-01-01

    Children diagnosed with neurodevelopmental conditions such as cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk of experiencing restrictions in social activities negatively impacting their subsequent social functioning. Research has identified motor and communication ability as being unique determinants of social function capabilities in children with CP, to date, no research has investigated whether communication is a mediator of the relationship between motor ability and social functioning. To investigate whether early communication ability at 24 months corrected age (ca.) mediates the relationship between early motor ability at 24 months ca. and later social development at 60 months ca. in a cohort of children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). A cohort of 71 children (43 male) diagnosed with CP (GMFCS I=24, 33.8%, II=9, 12.7%, III=12, 16.9%, IV=10, 14.1%, V=16, 22.5%) were assessed at 24 and 60 months ca. Assessments included the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Communication and Symbolic Behaviour Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist and the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). A mediation model was examined using bootstrapping. Early communication skills mediated the relationship between early motor abilities and later social functioning, b=0.24 (95% CI=0.08-0.43 and the mediation model was significant, F (2, 68)=32.77, p<0.001, R(2)=0.49. Early communication ability partially mediates the relationship between early motor ability and later social function in children with CP. This demonstrates the important role of early communication in ongoing social development. Early identification of communication delay and enriched language exposure is crucial in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations among Elementary School Children's Actual Motor Competence, Perceived Motor Competence, Physical Activity and BMI: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    De Meester, An; Stodden, David; Brian, Ali; True, Larissa; Cardon, Greet; Tallir, Isabel; Haerens, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Children's (N = 361; 180 boys = 50%; Mage = 9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor competence was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and their perceived motor competence via the Self Perception Profile for Children. We assessed physical activity via accelerometers; height through stadiometers, and weight through scales. Cluster analyses (aim 1) and MANCOVAs (aim 2 & 3) were used to analyze the data. The analysis generated two predictable groups: one group displaying relatively high levels of both actual (M TGMD-2 percentile = 42.54, SD = 2.33) and perceived motor competence (M = 3.42, SD = .37; high-high), and one group with relatively low levels of both (M percentile = 9.71, SD = 3.21; M PMC = 2.52, SD = .35; low-low). One additional group was also identified as having relatively low levels of actual motor competence (M percentile = 4.22, SD = 2.85) but relatively high levels of perceived motor competence (M = 3.52, SD = .30; low-high). The high-high group demonstrated higher daily physical activity (M = 48.39±2.03) and lower BMI (M = 18.13±.43) than the low-low group (MMVPA = 37.93±2.01; MBMI = 20.22±.42). The low-high group had similar physical activity-levels as the low-low group (M = 36.21±2.18) and did not significantly differ in BMI (M = 19.49±.46) from the other two groups. A combination of high actual and perceived motor competence is related to higher physical activity and lower weight status. It is thus recommended to expand health interventions in children

  8. Sensory Motor Inhibition as a Prerequisite for Theory-of-Mind: A Comparison of Clinical and Normal Preschoolers Differing in Sensory Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasiotis, Athanasios; Kiessling, Florian; Winter, Vera; Hofer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    After distinguishing between neocortical abilities for executive control and subcortical sensory motor skills for proprioceptive and vestibular integration, we compare a sample of 116 normal preschoolers with a sample of 31 preschoolers receiving occupational therapeutical treatment. This is done in an experimental design controlled for age (mean:…

  9. Sensory Motor Inhibition as a Prerequisite for Theory-of-Mind: A Comparison of Clinical and Normal Preschoolers Differing in Sensory Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasiotis, Athanasios; Kiessling, Florian; Winter, Vera; Hofer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    After distinguishing between neocortical abilities for executive control and subcortical sensory motor skills for proprioceptive and vestibular integration, we compare a sample of 116 normal preschoolers with a sample of 31 preschoolers receiving occupational therapeutical treatment. This is done in an experimental design controlled for age (mean:…

  10. Comparing a parent-report and a performance-based measure of children's motor skill abilities: are they associated?

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted; Lane, Haylee

    2014-10-01

    Both parent-report and performance-based assessment approaches are used in occupational therapy practice to gather information about children's motor skill abilities. This study investigated whether an association existed between the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency- 2(nd) edition (BOT-2), a performance-based motor-skill assessment and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2(nd) edition (MABC-2) Checklist, a parent-report scale of children's motor abilities. A convenience sample of 50 typically developing children aged 7-16 years were recruited. Scores from the BOT-2 and MABC-2 Checklist were analyzed using Spearman's rho correlations and linear regression analyses with several significant correlations found. The following BOT-2 derived scores were correlated with the MABC-2 Checklist: (1) BOT-2 subscales of Fine Motor Precision (rho = .33, p < .05), Manual Dexterity (rho = .28, p < .05), and Upper-Limb Coordination (rho = .39, p < .05); (2) the BOT-2 motor composite areas of Fine Motor Control (rho = .30, p < .05), and Manual Coordination (rho = .33, p < .05); and (3) the BOT-2 Short Form total score (rho = .28, p < .05). Regression analysis indicated that the MABC-2 Checklist was significantly associated with the BOT-2 Fine Manual Control and Manual Coordination composite area scores.

  11. Training cognitive control in older adults with the space fortress game: the role of training instructions and basic motor ability.

    PubMed

    Blumen, Helena M; Gopher, Daniel; Steinerman, Joshua R; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    This study examined if and how cognitively healthy older adults can learn to play a complex computer-based action game called the Space Fortress (SF) as a function of training instructions [Standard vs. Emphasis Change (EC); e.g., Gopher et al., 1989] and basic motor ability. A total of 35 cognitively healthy older adults completed a 3-month SF training program with three SF sessions weekly. Twelve 3-min games were played during each session. Basic motor ability was assessed with an aiming task, which required rapidly rotating a spaceship to shoot targets. Older adults showed improved performance on the SF task over time, but did not perform at the same level as younger adults. Unlike studies of younger adults, overall SF performance in older adults was greater following standard instructions than following EC instructions. However, this advantage was primarily due to collecting more bonus points and not - the primary goal of the game - shooting and destroying the fortress, which in contrast benefited from EC instructions. Basic motor ability was low and influenced many different aspects of SF game learning, often interacted with learning rate, and influenced overall SF performance. These findings show that older adults can be trained to deal with the complexity of the SF task but that overall SF performance, and the ability to capitalize on EC instructions, differs when a basic ability such as motor control is low. Hence, the development of this training program as a cognitive intervention that can potentially compensate for age-related cognitive decline should consider that basic motor ability can interact with the efficiency of training instructions that promote the use of cognitive control (e.g., EC instructions) - and the confluence between such basic abilities and higher-level cognitive control abilities should be further examined.

  12. Training Cognitive Control in Older Adults with the Space Fortress Game: The Role of Training Instructions and Basic Motor Ability

    PubMed Central

    Blumen, Helena M.; Gopher, Daniel; Steinerman, Joshua R.; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    This study examined if and how cognitively healthy older adults can learn to play a complex computer-based action game called the Space Fortress (SF) as a function of training instructions [Standard vs. Emphasis Change (EC); e.g., Gopher et al., 1989] and basic motor ability. A total of 35 cognitively healthy older adults completed a 3-month SF training program with three SF sessions weekly. Twelve 3-min games were played during each session. Basic motor ability was assessed with an aiming task, which required rapidly rotating a spaceship to shoot targets. Older adults showed improved performance on the SF task over time, but did not perform at the same level as younger adults. Unlike studies of younger adults, overall SF performance in older adults was greater following standard instructions than following EC instructions. However, this advantage was primarily due to collecting more bonus points and not – the primary goal of the game – shooting and destroying the fortress, which in contrast benefited from EC instructions. Basic motor ability was low and influenced many different aspects of SF game learning, often interacted with learning rate, and influenced overall SF performance. These findings show that older adults can be trained to deal with the complexity of the SF task but that overall SF performance, and the ability to capitalize on EC instructions, differs when a basic ability such as motor control is low. Hence, the development of this training program as a cognitive intervention that can potentially compensate for age-related cognitive decline should consider that basic motor ability can interact with the efficiency of training instructions that promote the use of cognitive control (e.g., EC instructions) – and the confluence between such basic abilities and higher-level cognitive control abilities should be further examined. PMID:21120135

  13. Construct validity and responsiveness of Movakic: An instrument for the evaluation of motor abilities in children with severe multiple disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mensch, Sonja M; Echteld, Michael A; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Rameckers, Eugène A A

    2016-12-01

    Movakic is a newly developed instrument for measurement of motor abilities in children with severe multiple disabilities, with a satisfactory feasibility and content validity and good inter-observer and test-retest reliability. The objective of this study was to investigate its construct validity and responsiveness to change. Sixty children with severe multiple disabilities (mean age 7.7 years, range 2-16) were measured using Movakic six times during 18 months. Construct validity was assessed by correlating Movakic scores with expert judgment. In order to assess responsiveness, scores during 3-months intervals were compared (mean score-changes and intraclass correlations) during which some children experienced meaningful events influencing motor abilities and during which others experienced no such event. Forty-five percent of children had a lower cognitive development level than 6-month, 52% had Gross Motor Function Classification System level V and 37% had level IV. For 27 children all measurements were completed, six children dropped out. Construct validity was good (r=0.50-0.71). Responsiveness was demonstrated by significantly larger score changes after events than when such events did not occur. Movakic is a valid instrument for measuring motor abilities in children with severe multiple disabilities. Results suggest responsiveness to change in motor abilities after meaningful events.

  14. Kinesin Motor Enzymology: Chemistry, Structure, and Physics of Nanoscale Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Cochran, J C

    2015-09-01

    Molecular motors are enzymes that convert chemical potential energy into controlled kinetic energy for mechanical work inside cells. Understanding the biophysics of these motors is essential for appreciating life as well as apprehending diseases that arise from motor malfunction. This review focuses on kinesin motor enzymology with special emphasis on the literature that reports the chemistry, structure and physics of several different kinesin superfamily members.

  15. When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-06-01

    When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical fitness, motor skill, and physical activity relationships in grade 4 to 6 children.

    PubMed

    Larouche, Richard; Boyer, Charles; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Longmuir, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    The present study sought to quantify the relationships among physical activity (PA), health-related fitness, and motor skill in children (grades 4 to 6), and to determine whether specific tests of fitness or motor skill are independently associated with objectively measured PA level. Four hundred and ninety-one students (56.4% female) wore a Digi-Walker pedometer for 7 consecutive days. Standardized protocols were used to assess health-related fitness (body mass index percentile, waist circumference, 20-m shuttle run, plank, handgrip, and trunk flexibility). Motor skill was evaluated using a validated obstacle course. Pearson correlations (with Holm adjustments for multiple comparisons) initially assessed associations among PA, health-related fitness, and motor skill. Multi-variable linear regression was used to determine which factors were significantly associated with daily step counts, while adjusting for gender, age, testing season, and socioeconomic status. Step counts were significantly correlated with predicted aerobic power (r = 0.30), obstacle course time (r = -0.27), obstacle course score (r = 0.20), plank isometric torso endurance (r = 0.16), and handgrip strength (r = 0.12), but not with waist circumference (r = -0.10), trunk flexibility (r = 0.10), or overweight status (ρ = -0.06). In the multi-variable model, predicted aerobic power, obstacle course time, testing season, gender, and the predicted aerobic power by gender interaction were significantly associated with step counts, explaining 16.4% of the variance. Specifically, the relationship between predicted aerobic power and step counts was stronger in girls. These findings suggest that aerobic fitness and motor skill are independently associated with children's PA. Future longitudinal studies should evaluate whether interventions to enhance aerobic fitness and motor skill could enhance daily PA among children of this age.

  17. Are there pre-existing neural, cognitive, or motoric markers for musical ability?

    PubMed

    Norton, Andrea; Winner, Ellen; Cronin, Karl; Overy, Katie; Lee, Dennis J; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2005-11-01

    Adult musician's brains show structural enlargements, but it is not known whether these are inborn or a consequence of long-term training. In addition, music training in childhood has been shown to have positive effects on visual-spatial and verbal outcomes. However, it is not known whether pre-existing advantages in these skills are found in children who choose to study a musical instrument nor is it known whether there are pre-existing associations between music and any of these outcome measures that could help explain the training effects. To answer these questions, we compared 5- to 7-year-olds beginning piano or string lessons (n=39) with 5- to 7-year-olds not beginning instrumental training (n=31). All children received a series of tests (visual-spatial, non-verbal reasoning, verbal, motor, and musical) and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. We found no pre-existing neural, cognitive, motor, or musical differences between groups and no correlations (after correction for multiple analyses) between music perceptual skills and any brain or visual-spatial measures. However, correlations were found between music perceptual skills and both non-verbal reasoning and phonemic awareness. Such pre-existing correlations suggest similarities in auditory and visual pattern recognition as well a sharing of the neural substrates for language and music processing, most likely due to innate abilities or implicit learning during early development. This baseline study lays the groundwork for an ongoing longitudinal study addressing the effects of intensive musical training on brain and cognitive development, and making it possible to look retroactively at the brain and cognitive development of those children who emerge showing exceptional musical talent.

  18. Preschool motor skills following physical and occupational therapy services among non-disabled very low birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Stephanie; Jonsson-Funk, Michele; Brookhart, M Alan; Rosenberg, Steven A; O'Shea, T Michael; Daniels, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at an increased risk of delayed development of motor skills. Physical and occupational therapy services may reduce this risk. Among VLBW children, we evaluated whether receipt of physical or occupational therapy services between 9 months and 2 years of age is associated with improved preschool age motor ability. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort we estimated the association between receipt of therapy and the following preschool motor milestones: skipping eight consecutive steps, hopping five times, standing on one leg for 10 seconds, walking backwards six steps on a line, and jumping distance. We used propensity score methods to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics between children who did and did not receive physical or occupational therapy, since children receiving therapy may be at higher risk of impairment. We applied propensity score weights and modeled the estimated effect of therapy on the distance that the child jumped using linear regression. We modeled all other end points using logistic regression. Treated VLBW children were 1.70 times as likely to skip eight steps (RR 1.70, 95 % CI 0.84, 3.44) compared to the untreated group and 30 % more likely to walk six steps backwards (RR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63, 2.71), although these differences were not statistically significant. We found little effect of therapy on other endpoints. Providing therapy to VLBW children during early childhood may improve select preschool motor skills involving complex motor planning.

  19. Modified Delphi investigation of motor development and learning in physical education teacher education.

    PubMed

    Ross, Susan; Metcalf, Amanda; Bulger, Sean M; Housner, Lynn D

    2014-09-01

    As the scope of motor development and learning knowledge has successfully broadened over the years, there is an increased need to identify the content and learning experiences that are essential in preparing preservice physical educators. The purpose of this study was to generate expert consensus regarding the most critical motor development and learning competencies that prospective physical educators need to learn within the physical education teacher education (PETE) curriculum and to identify learning environments and instructional methods for delivering core knowledge. The study employed a 2-round, modified Delphi procedure involving the repeated circulation of a questionnaire to a panel of motor development specialists, motor learning specialists, teacher educators, and K-12 physical education teachers. Panel members rated an initial list of theoretical and applied motor development and learning competencies derived from various curricular guidelines and textbook sources. An open-response question was incorporated into the 2nd round asking panel members to recommend specific instructional methods and settings for delivering core motor development and learning content to prospective physical educators within the PETE curriculum. Expert consensus determined that 64 out of the initial 159 motor development and learning competencies were critical in preparing preservice physical educators. Early field experiences and peer practice in a variety of settings were recommended by panelists for delivering the identified competencies. The Discussion section represents an important link between the motor development and learning body of knowledge and physical education teachers' role in promoting skillful movement, physical activity, and fitness among youth in the school setting.

  20. Integrating Motor-Learning Concepts into Physical Education: Using Guided Discovery to Address NASPE Standard 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rukavina, Paul B.; Jeansonne, Jennifer J.

    2009-01-01

    K-12 students enter physical education with many naive conceptions or misconceptions of how motor skills are acquired. One goal of physical education is to teach concepts that will help students learn and perform motor skills, but many practitioners don't know how to provide experiences that will teach students to apply their knowledge…

  1. Physical activity, motor function, and white matter hyperintensity burden in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingyun; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E.; Turner, Arlener D.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.; Buchman, Aron S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and motor function in healthy older persons without dementia. Methods: Total daily activity (exercise and nonexercise physical activity) was measured for up to 11 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Respironics, Bend, OR) in 167 older adults without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Eleven motor performances were summarized into a previously described global motor score. WMH volume was expressed as percent of intracranial volume. Linear regression models, adjusted for age, education, and sex, were performed with total WMH volume as the predictor and global motor score as the outcome. Terms for total daily physical activity and its interaction with WMH volume were then added to the model. Results: Higher WMH burden was associated with lower motor function (p = 0.006), and total daily activity was positively associated with motor function (p = 0.002). Total daily activity modified the association between WMH and motor function (p = 0.007). WMH burden was not associated with motor function in persons with high activity (90th percentile). By contrast, higher WMH burden remained associated with lower motor function in persons with average (50th percentile; estimate = −0.304, slope = −0.133) and low (10th percentile; estimate = −1.793, slope = −0.241) activity. Conclusions: Higher levels of physical activity may reduce the effect of WMH burden on motor function in healthy older adults. PMID:25762710

  2. Physical activity, motor function, and white matter hyperintensity burden in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Debra A; Yang, Jingyun; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E; Turner, Arlener D; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Buchman, Aron S

    2015-03-31

    To test the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and motor function in healthy older persons without dementia. Total daily activity (exercise and nonexercise physical activity) was measured for up to 11 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Respironics, Bend, OR) in 167 older adults without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Eleven motor performances were summarized into a previously described global motor score. WMH volume was expressed as percent of intracranial volume. Linear regression models, adjusted for age, education, and sex, were performed with total WMH volume as the predictor and global motor score as the outcome. Terms for total daily physical activity and its interaction with WMH volume were then added to the model. Higher WMH burden was associated with lower motor function (p = 0.006), and total daily activity was positively associated with motor function (p = 0.002). Total daily activity modified the association between WMH and motor function (p = 0.007). WMH burden was not associated with motor function in persons with high activity (90th percentile). By contrast, higher WMH burden remained associated with lower motor function in persons with average (50th percentile; estimate = -0.304, slope = -0.133) and low (10th percentile; estimate = -1.793, slope = -0.241) activity. Higher levels of physical activity may reduce the effect of WMH burden on motor function in healthy older adults. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Effects of Plymetrics Training and Weight Training on selected Motor Ability Components among University Male Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Alauddin; Mallick, Nazrul Islam

    2012-11-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to find out the effects of plyometrics training and weight training among university male students.Procedure: 60 male students from the different colleges of the Burdwan University were randomly selected as subjects and their age were 19-25 years served as Weight training Group (WTG), second group served as Plyometric Training Group (PTG) and the third group served as Control Group (CT). Eight weeks weight training and six weeks plyometric training were given for experiment accordingly. The control group was not given any training except of their routine. The selected subjects were measured of their motor ability components, speed, endurance, explosive power and agility. ANCOVA was calculation for statistical treatment.Finding: Plyometric training and weight training groups significantly increase speed, endurance, explosive power and agility.Conclusion: The plyometric training has significantly improved speed, explosive power, muscular endurance and agility. The weight training programme has significantly improved agility, muscular endurance, and explosive power. The plometric training is superior to weight training in improving explosive power, agility and muscular endurance.

  4. Relationships between Task-Oriented Postural Control and Motor Ability in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Long, I-Man; Liu, Mei-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have been characterized by greater postural sway in quiet stance and insufficient motor ability. However, there is a lack of studies to explore the properties of dynamic postural sway, especially under conditions of task-oriented movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between…

  5. Relationships between Task-Oriented Postural Control and Motor Ability in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Long, I-Man; Liu, Mei-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have been characterized by greater postural sway in quiet stance and insufficient motor ability. However, there is a lack of studies to explore the properties of dynamic postural sway, especially under conditions of task-oriented movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between…

  6. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  7. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  8. Motor Development and the Mind: The Potential Role of Motor Abilities as a Determinant of Aspects of Perceptual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Emily W.; Boudreau, J. Paul

    1993-01-01

    Emphasizes the role that motor development may play in determining developmental sequences in other domains, such as haptic or tactile perception and depth perception. Maintains that there is a high degree of fit between the developmental sequence in which certain perceptual sensitivities unfold and the ages at which the corresponding motor…

  9. Motor Development and the Mind: The Potential Role of Motor Abilities as a Determinant of Aspects of Perceptual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Emily W.; Boudreau, J. Paul

    1993-01-01

    Emphasizes the role that motor development may play in determining developmental sequences in other domains, such as haptic or tactile perception and depth perception. Maintains that there is a high degree of fit between the developmental sequence in which certain perceptual sensitivities unfold and the ages at which the corresponding motor…

  10. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  11. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  12. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  13. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    PubMed

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  14. Systematic review of the relationship between habitual physical activity and motor capacity in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Keawutan, Piyapa; Bell, Kristie; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2014-06-01

    Habitual physical activity (HPA) has many benefits for general health. Motor capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) can impact on their HPA. This study aimed to systematically review the available literature on the relationship between HPA and motor capacity in children with CP aged 3-12 years for all gross motor functional abilities (GMFCS I-V) compared to typically developing children. Five electronic databases (Pubmed, Cochrane, Embase, Cinahl and Web of Science from 1989 to November, 2013) were searched using keywords "children with cerebral palsy", "physical activity", "motor capacity" and "motor function" including their synonyms and MesH terms. Studies were included if they (i) were conducted in children with CP aged between 3 and 12 years, (ii) assessed HPA or time spent sedentary, (iii) assessed motor capacity in order to evaluate the relationship between HPA and motor capacity. All articles retrieved were reviewed by two independent reviewers and discussed until they reached consensus. Study quality of reporting was evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Search results identified 864 articles but after review of the title and abstract only 21 articles warranted closer consideration. Ten articles met the strict inclusion criteria as nine articles did not assess HPA and two were conference abstracts. Study quality assessment (STROBE) found nine articles were good quality (≥ 60%) and one was poor quality (55.9%). Participants were mean age 8.4 (SD=2.1) years (range 2-17 years) and included children at all GMFCS levels (3 studies), while seven studies only recruited GMFCS level I-III. HPA measurements were either subjective (Activity Scale for Kids, Dutch Questionnaire of Participation in physical activity and assessment of participation in physical education at school and regular physical activity in leisure time) or objective (StepWatch(®) and ActiGraph(®)7164). Nine studies

  15. Assessment of the Relationship between Physical Working Conditions and Different Levels of Work Ability

    PubMed Central

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-01-01

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p<0.05). According to the results of this study, there may be a correlation between physical working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability. PMID:24999133

  16. Assessment of the relationship between physical working conditions and different levels of work ability.

    PubMed

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-04-20

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, there may be a correlation between physical working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability.

  17. Motor Development and Skill Analysis. Connections to Elementary Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan; Morrison, Craig

    1985-01-01

    Drawing upon stages of motor development and elements of biomechanics, the authors used anatomical planes as a frame of reference to determine movement patterns and assess readiness to perform movement skills. The combination of determining readiness and analyzing skill enables the teacher to plan proper motor skill activities. (MT)

  18. Motor Development and Skill Analysis. Connections to Elementary Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan; Morrison, Craig

    1985-01-01

    Drawing upon stages of motor development and elements of biomechanics, the authors used anatomical planes as a frame of reference to determine movement patterns and assess readiness to perform movement skills. The combination of determining readiness and analyzing skill enables the teacher to plan proper motor skill activities. (MT)

  19. Longitudinal Development of Manual Motor Ability in Autism Spectrum Disorder from Childhood to Mid-Adulthood Relates to Adaptive Daily Living Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Prigge, Molly D. B.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit motor difficulties, but it is unknown whether manual motor skills improve, plateau, or decline in ASD in the transition from childhood into adulthood. Atypical development of manual motor skills could impact the ability to learn and perform daily activities across the life span. This…

  20. The effects of pregabalin on psycho-motor abilities and cognitive processes in mice.

    PubMed

    Liliana, Mititelu-Tartau; Lacramioara, Ochiuz; Catalina Elena, Lupusoru; Andra Sabina, Neculai-Valeanu; Gabriela, Rusu; Gratiela, Popa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was the experimental research on the effects of pregabalin in two behavioural models in mice. The experiment was carried out with white Swiss mice treated intraperitoneally as follows: Group I (Control): distilled water 0.1 ml/10 g body weight; Group II (PGB 10): 10 mg/kbw pregabalin; Group III (PGB 20): 20 mg/kbw pregabalin. The psychomotor abilities of pregabalin were tested on a LE-8811 Actimeter device (Panlab), in order to investigate both global motor behaviour and number of escape attempts during an eight-minute interval session. The exploration of memory processes performance was assessed using the Y-maze model, based on the natural tendency of mice to explore new environment. Data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 for Windows software. The experimental protocols were implemented according the guidelines of "Grigore T. Popa" University Committee for Research and Ethical Issues. The administration of pregabalin resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of mice horizontal and vertical movements, statistically significant compared to the Control group. The administration of both PGB10 and PGB20 induced no modifications of the spontaneous alternation percent; also, it did not influence the arm entries number compared to Control group in Y-maze test. The results reflect a significant dose-dependent diminution of number of escape attempts, exploratory and self-maintenance spontaneous behavior after pregabalin treatment, which could be correlated with an anxiolytic effect. Moreover, the study proved that pregabalin did not modify the animal cognitive processes performance or influence short-term memory of mice in the Y-maze test.

  1. How Fine Motor Skills Influence the Assessment of High Abilities and Underachievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2010-01-01

    Previously, fine motor skills have been of little or no interest to giftedness research. New lines of thought have been advanced that imply that fine motor skills can be of significance in the identification of gifted persons as well as gifted underachievers. This would also have consequences for the diagnostic process underlying identification.…

  2. [Association between nutritional status and physical abilities in children aged 6 to 18 years in Medellin (Colombia)].

    PubMed

    García Cruz, A; Figueroa Suárez, J; Osorio Ciro, J; Rodríguez Chavarro, N; Gallo Villegas, J

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional disorders in childhood may cause a decline in motor abilities and increased morbidity and mortality in adulthood. To assess the association between nutritional status and motor abilities. A cross-sectional study was performed that included 12,872 children aged between 6 and 18 years who underwent a clinical evaluation and various physical tests. Among the children, 66% had a Tanner maturation stage 1 and 2, 6% were under-nourished, and 12.2% were at risk of overweight and obesity. The obese children had a decrease in aerobic power (in 2.72 mL O2 kg(-1)·min(-1); 95%CI: 1.89 to 3.56; P<.001), speed (0.14m·sec; 95%CI: 0.06 to 0.22; P<.001), explosive strength (0.10 m; 95%CI: 0.06 to 0.13; P<.001), agility, strength endurance and balance. Under-nourished children showed a decrease in speed (0.13 m·sec; 95%CI: 0.06 to 0.20; P<.001), explosive strength (0.04 m; 95%CI: 0.01 to 0 07; P<.004), and strength endurance. There was an association between nutritional status and motor abilities in the children included in this study. Obese children showed the worst results in physical tests, and the under-nourished ones showed a decrease in speed, explosive strength and strength endurance. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Recovery of Paretic Lower Extremity Loading Ability and Physical Function in the First Six Months after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Vicki Stemmons; Freburger, Janet Kues; Yin, Zhaoyu; Preisser, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate post-stroke recovery of paretic lower extremity loading, walking ability, and self-reported physical function, and to identify subject characteristics associated with recovery. Design Inception cohort study, with testing at monthly intervals from one to six months post stroke. Setting University medical center and research laboratory. Participants Volunteer sample of individuals with first-ever, unilateral, non-cerebellar stroke. A total of 78 individuals underwent screening, and 45 were found to be eligible. Of these, 8 declined participation, 2 were excluded because of deteriorating cognitive status, and 2 were lost to follow-up. The remaining 33 individuals enrolled in the study, and 30 (91%) completed the study. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes were loading of the paretic lower extremity when standing up from a chair (PLEL), self-selected gait speed (GS), and Physical Functioning Index (PFI). Results Data analyses using linear mixed models indicated that subjects improved over time for all outcomes. Baseline Fugl-Meyer lower extremity motor scale score was a predictor of immediate post-stroke performance for PLEL and GS, and of recovery rate for PLEL. Factors identified as having significant effects on performance at 6 months post stroke were baseline Fugl-Meyer lower extremity motor scale score for PLEL and GS, and baseline star cancellation score (from the Behavioral Inattention Test) for PLEL. Conclusion Individuals with better baseline paretic lower extremity motor function have better ability to load that extremity during functional activities and faster walking speeds, and these advantages are still present at 6 months post stroke. Individuals with severe visuospatial neglect demonstrate less ability to load the paretic leg during functional activities at 6 months post stroke. PMID:24755045

  4. The Challenges of Widening "Legitimate" Understandings of Ability within Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croston, Amanda; Hills, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the importance of critical discourse in physical education (PE) that focuses on how understandings of ability are defined, practised, and potentially altered. Research continues to indicate that physical educators continue to draw on narrow notions of ability which are influenced by the presence of a pervasive performative…

  5. Motor-Driven (Passive) Cycling: A Potential Physical Inactivity Countermeasure?

    PubMed

    Peterman, James E; Wright, Kenneth P; Melanson, Edward L; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C

    2016-09-01

    We have previously shown that motor-driven (passive) stationary cycling elevates energy expenditure (EE). This study aimed to quantify how acute passive cycling affects glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and basic cognition compared with sitting and moderate-intensity active cycling. Twenty-four physically inactive healthy males completed three trials in randomized order involving 30-min conditions of sitting, passive cycling, and moderate-intensity cycling. During each condition, EE was measured, and participants performed cognitive tests. After each condition, a 2-h OGTT was performed. EE was significantly higher during the cycling conditions compared with sitting (1.36 ± 0.58 and 6.50 ± 1.73 kcal·min greater than sitting for passive and moderate-intensity, respectively). A significant correlation was found between body fat percentage and postsitting OGTT 2-h postplasma glucose (r = 0.30, P < 0.05); thus, participants were divided into lean (n = 11) and nonlean (n = 13) groups. In the nonlean group, compared with sitting, passive cycling lowered 2-h postplasma glucose (7.7 ± 1.3 vs 6.9 ± 1.6 mmol·L, respectively, P < 0.05), and the Matsuda whole-body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) was higher (2.74 ± 0.86 vs 3.36 ± 1.08, P < 0.05). In addition, passive and moderate-intensity cycling had similar beneficial effects on 2-h postplasma glucose and WBISI. Cognitive performance did not significantly differ between the sitting and passive cycling conditions. Two-hour postplasma glucose was lower and WBISI after acute passive cycling was higher in nonlean participants. Given that and the increase in EE without changes in cognitive performance, we propose passive cycling as a promising intervention to counteract some of the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting in the workplace.

  6. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  7. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  8. A Comparison of the Motor Ability of 8 and 9 Year Old Primary School Children in Hamburg, Melbourne and Cape Town--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Jurgen; Saunders, John; Bressan, Liz; Erhorn, Jan; Wirszing, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An increasing worldwide concern about a decline in the quality of the motor ability of children was the motivation for this exploratory comparative study. It involves a comparison of the motor ability of children aged 8 and 9 years from Hamburg (n = 774), Melbourne (n = 141) and Cape Town (n = 81). Since each of these global cities represents a…

  9. The Association between Motor Skill Competence and Physical Fitness in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David; Langendorfer, Stephen; Roberton, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between competence in three fundamental motor skills (throwing, kicking, and jumping) and six measures of health-related physical fitness in young adults (ages 18-25). We assessed motor skill competence using product scores of maximum kicking and throwing speed and maximum jumping distance. A factor analysis indicated…

  10. Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

  11. The Association between Motor Skill Competence and Physical Fitness in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David; Langendorfer, Stephen; Roberton, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between competence in three fundamental motor skills (throwing, kicking, and jumping) and six measures of health-related physical fitness in young adults (ages 18-25). We assessed motor skill competence using product scores of maximum kicking and throwing speed and maximum jumping distance. A factor analysis indicated…

  12. Oral Motor Abilities Are Task Dependent: A Factor Analytic Approach to Performance Rate.

    PubMed

    Staiger, Anja; Schölderle, Theresa; Brendel, Bettina; Bötzel, Kai; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Measures of performance rates in speech-like or volitional nonspeech oral motor tasks are frequently used to draw inferences about articulation rate abnormalities in patients with neurologic movement disorders. The study objective was to investigate the structural relationship between rate measures of speech and of oral motor behaviors different from speech. A total of 130 patients with neurologic movement disorders and 130 healthy subjects participated in the study. Rate data was collected for oral reading (speech), rapid syllable repetition (speech-like), and rapid single articulator movements (nonspeech). The authors used factor analysis to determine whether the different rate variables reflect the same or distinct constructs. The behavioral data were most appropriately captured by a measurement model in which the different task types loaded onto separate latent variables. The data on oral motor performance rates show that speech tasks and oral motor tasks such as rapid syllable repetition or repetitive single articulator movements measure separate traits.

  13. Motor Competence Is Associated with Physical Fitness in Four- to Six-Year-Old Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of a physical active lifestyle and physical fitness from a young age are widely recognized as beneficial. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged four- to six-years-old. A sample of 42 children (mean age 5.15 years, SD 0.56 year) participated in the study. To assess…

  14. Motor Competence Is Associated with Physical Fitness in Four- to Six-Year-Old Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of a physical active lifestyle and physical fitness from a young age are widely recognized as beneficial. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged four- to six-years-old. A sample of 42 children (mean age 5.15 years, SD 0.56 year) participated in the study. To assess…

  15. Are behaviour problems in extremely low-birthweight children related to their motor ability?

    PubMed

    Danks, Marcella; Cherry, Kate; Burns, Yvonne R; Gray, Peter H

    2017-04-01

    To investigate whether behaviour problems are independently related to mild motor impairment in 11-13-year-old children born preterm with extremely low birthweight (ELBW). The cross-sectional study included 48 (27 males) non-disabled, otherwise healthy ELBW children (<1000 g) and 55 (28 males) term-born peers. Parents reported behaviour using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Children completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). Extremely low birthweight children had poorer behaviour scores (CBCL Total Problem T score: mean difference = 5.89, 95% confidence interval = 10.29, 1.49, p = 0.009) and Movement ABC Total Motor Impairment Scores (ELBW group median = 17.5, IQR = 12.3; term-born group median = 7.5, IQR = 9, p < 0.01) than term-born peers. Behaviour was related to motor score (regression coefficient 2.16; 95% confidence interval 0.34, 3.97, p = 0.02) independent of gender, socio-economic factors or birthweight. Motor score had the strongest association with attention (ρ = 0.51; p < 0.01) and social behaviours (ρ = 0.50; p < 0.01). Behaviour problems of otherwise healthy 11- to 13-year-old ELBW children are not related to prematurity independent of their motor difficulties. Supporting improved motor competence in ELBW preteen children may support improved behaviour, particularly attention and social behaviours. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Concurrent validity of the wide range assessment of visual motor abilities in typically developing children ages 4 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Obler, Doris R; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara

    2011-10-01

    Pediatric clinicians working with school-age children use the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) as a method for evaluating visual perception and motor skills in children despite limited information on concurrent validity. Whether it may be substituted for the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and has suitable estimates of concurrent validity were examined with a convenience sample of 91 typically developing children ages 4 to 11 years. No systematic concurrent validity between the WRAVMA and the VMI emerged. Only two subtests of the WRAVMA (Matching with Visual Perception, and Pegboard with Motor Coordination) gave scores statistically significantly correlated with those on the VMI, and these correlations were weak, accounting for very small amounts of the shared variance. As such, they have low clinical relevance. These findings do not provide evidence of concurrent validity to support the use of WRAVMA as an alternative method for the VMI for assessing children's visual perception and motor skills.

  17. Motor-Driven (Passive) Cycling: A Potential Physical Inactivity Countermeasure?

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, James E.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Melanson, Edward L.; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that motor-driven (passive) stationary cycling elevates energy expenditure (EE). Purpose To quantify how acute passive cycling affects glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and basic cognition compared to sitting and moderate-intensity active cycling. Methods Twenty-four physically inactive healthy males completed three trials in randomized order involving 30-minute conditions of sitting, passive cycling and moderate-intensity cycling. During each condition, EE was measured and participants performed cognitive tests. Following each condition, a 2-hour OGTT was performed. Results EE was significantly higher during the cycling conditions compared to sitting (1.36±0.58 and 6.50±1.73 kcal·min−1 greater than sitting for passive and moderate-intensity, respectively). A significant correlation was found between body fat percentage and post-sitting OGTT 2-h post plasma glucose (r2=0.30, p<0.05) so participants were divided into lean (n=11) and non-lean (n=13) groups. In the non-lean group, compared to sitting, passive cycling lowered 2-h post plasma glucose (7.7±1.3 vs. 6.9±1.6mmol·L−1, respectively, p<0.05) and Matsuda whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) was higher (2.74±0.86 vs. 3.36±1.08, p<0.05). Additionally, passive and moderate-intensity cycling had similar beneficial effects on 2-h post plasma glucose and WBISI. Cognitive performance did not significantly differ between the sitting and passive cycling conditions. Conclusion 2-h post plasma glucose was lower and WBISI following acute passive cycling was higher in non-lean participants. Given that and the increase in EE without changes in cognitive performance, we propose passive cycling as a promising intervention to counteract some of the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting in the workplace. PMID:27054677

  18. The effects of protein energy malnutrition in early childhood on intellectual and motor abilities in later childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hoorweg, J; Stanfield, J P

    1976-06-01

    Three groups of Ugandan children (20 in each group) and one comparison group of 20 children were examined between 11 and 17 years of age. The first three groups had been admitted to hospital for treatment of protein energy malnutrition between the ages of eight to 15, 16 to 21 and 22 to 27 months, respectively. The comparison group had not been clinically malnourished throughout the whole period up to 27 months of age. All the children came from one tribe and were individually matched for sex, age, education and home environment. It was found that the three malnourished groups fell significantly below the comparison group in anthropometric measurements and in tests of intellectual and motor abilities. No evidence was found for a relationship between the deficit and age at admission. Further analysis among the 60 malnourished children revealed that anthropometry and intellectual and motor abilities are the more affected the greater the degree of 'chronic undernutrition' at admission, but no correlation was found with the severity of the 'acute malnutrition'. The results show a general impairment of intellectual abilities, with reasoning and spatial abilities most affected, memory and rote learning intermediately and language ability least, if at all, affected. These findings are discussed in the context of a comprehensive and critical appraisal of the existing literature.

  19. Does physical activity benefit motor performance and learning of upper extremity tasks in older adults? - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Lena; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Upper extremity motor performance declines with increasing age. However, older adults need to maintain, learn new and relearn known motor tasks. Research with young adults indicated that regular and acute physical activity might facilitate motor performance and motor learning processes. Therefore, this review aimed to examine the association between chronic physical activity and acute bouts of exercise on motor performance and motor learning in upper extremity motor tasks in older adults. Literature was searched via Cochrane library, PubMED, PsycINFO and Scopus and 27 studies met all inclusion criteria. All studies dealt with the influence of chronic physical activity on motor performance or motor learning, no appropriate study examining the influence of an acute bout of exercise in older adults was found. Results concerning the association of chronic physical activity and motor performance are mixed and seem to be influenced by the study design, kind of exercise, motor task, and exercise intensity. Regarding motor learning, a high physical activity or cardiovascular fitness level seems to boost the initial phase of motor learning; results differ with respect to motor retention. Overall, (motor-coordinative) intervention studies seem to be more promising than cross-sectional studies.

  20. Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation on Motor Functions and Self-Care Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bei; Zhu, Yulan; Jiang, Congyu; Li, Ce; Li, Yingying; Bai, Yulong; Wu, Yi

    2017-08-02

    To observe the effects of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) in improving motor functions and self-care abilities in children with cerebral palsy in their early childhood. A preliminary, prospective, cohort study. Multicenter. Children aged 2-6 years old. Twenty-three children were included in the study and randomly assigned to a control group ([CG] N = 11) or a therapeutic group ([TG] N = 12). In the TG, children were treated with TEAS (Shousanli [LI10] and Waiguan [SJ5]) plus the exercise therapy, while in the control group, they were treated with sham TEAS plus exercise therapy. Therapies were performed five days per week for eight weeks. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Functional Independent Measurement for children (WeeFIM) were used to evaluate motor functions and self-care abilities before and after the therapies. Greater improvements were observed in the TG concerning all the measurements, although without statistical differences. The increments of the GMFM score and the WeeFIM motor, self-care and total scores were 36.08 ± 18.34 (26%), 16.17 ± 8.21 (33%), 7.67 ± 3.42 (40%) and 20.33 ± 10.08 (28%) in the TG, while 22.73 ± 16.54 (17%), 9.09 ± 9.43 (19%), 5.64 ± 6.73 (29%) and 12.82 ± 11.77 (18%) in the CG, respectively. No statistically significant correlations were shown between functional improvements and the demographics in the TG or the CG. The GMFM improvement was not statistically correlated with the improvements of the WeeFIM motor, self-care or total scores. However, the WeeFIM motor, self-care and total score were significantly positively correlated with one another in both groups (P < 0.01). No adverse effect was recorded during the study. TEAS may be effective in improving motor functions and self-care abilities in children with cerebral palsy, in addition to conventional exercise therapy. Larger samples are required to confirm the efficacies.

  1. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: Evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4–5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. Educational objectives The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence

  2. Effects of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on motor performance ability in 3- to 6-year-old children: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Julia; Geyer, Christine; Kirchberg, Franca; Manios, Yannis; Koletzko, Berthold

    2017-02-01

    This study targeted to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention, a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention, aiming to improve preschooler's energy-related behaviours (e.g., physical activity) on motor performance ability. Physical activity sessions, classroom activities, environmental changes and tools for parents were the components of the 1-year intervention. The intervention and control were cluster-randomised, and children's anthropometry and two motor test items (jumping from side to side, JSS and standing long jump, SLJ) were assessed. A total of 1293 (4.6 ± 0.69 years; 52% boys) from 45 kindergartens in Germany were included (intervention, n = 863; control, n = 430). The effect was assessed using generalised estimating equation. The intervention group showed a better improvement in JSS (Estimate 2.19 jumps, P = 0.01) and tended to improve better in SLJ (Estimate 2.73 cm, P = 0.08). The intervention was more effective in boys with respect to SLJ (P of interaction effect = 0.01). Children aged <4.5 years did not show a significant benefit while older children improved (JSS, Estimate 3.38 jumps, P = 0.004; SLJ, Estimate 4.18 cm, P = 0.04). Children with low socio-economic status improved in JSS (Estimate 5.98 jumps, P = 0.0001). The ToyBox-intervention offers an effective strategy to improve specific components of motor performance ability in early childhood. Future programmes should consider additional strategies specifically targeting girls and younger aged children.

  3. Resting-state Functional Connectivity is an Age-dependent Predictor of Motor Learning Abilities.

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Leproult, Rachel; De Tiège, Xavier; Peigneux, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    This magnetoencephalography study investigates how ageing modulates the relationship between pre-learning resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and subsequent learning. Neuromagnetic resting-state activity was recorded 5 min before motor sequence learning in 14 young (19-30 years) and 14 old (66-70 years) participants. We used a seed-based beta-band power envelope correlation approach to estimate rsFC maps, with the seed located in the right primary sensorimotor cortex. In each age group, the relation between individual rsFC and learning performance was investigated using Pearson's correlation analyses. Our results show that rsFC is predictive of subsequent motor sequence learning but involves different cross-network interactions in the two age groups. In young adults, decreased coupling between the sensorimotor network and the cortico-striato-cerebellar network is associated with better motor learning, whereas a similar relation is found in old adults between the sensorimotor, the dorsal-attentional and the DMNs. Additionally, age-related correlational differences were found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, known to subtend attentional and controlled processes. These findings suggest that motor skill learning depends-in an age-dependent manner-on subtle interactions between resting-state networks subtending motor activity on the one hand, and controlled and attentional processes on the other hand. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Physical fitness and functional ability of children with intellectual disability: effects of a short-term daily treadmill intervention.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Meir; Isakov, Eli; Kessel, Shlomo; Merrick, Joav

    2004-06-14

    Persons with intellectual disability (ID) and associated multiple disabilities have been found by many researchers to be a population with deficient physical fitness measures, which can be explained by an inactive lifestyle, a result of lack of awareness of the positive physical effects of physical exercise, or lack of motivation for any motor activity. Various plans for physical exercise have been put forward, but many are found impractical in nonresearch-based intervention. In this study, 15 children with ID on a motor functioning level of 7-14 months used a treadmill daily for 2 months. Our findings indicated a most significant improvement in the level of physical fitness of the participants (p < 0.005), as measured by pulse at rest and during effort. The improvement in physical fitness modestly (r = 0.5), but significantly (p < 0.05), correlated with a significant (p < 0.0007) improvement in functional ability of the participating children. Further examination a year after intervention terminated showed a return to preintervention pulse-at-rest values. The research examined the treadmill training method and found that it can be operated with the support of an unskilled staff person under the supervision of a physiotherapist. The research was performed under real-life conditions, enabling relatively easy implementation in the existing conditions of special education centers. This method is a type of exercise that is easy to operate without entailing long-term budgetary expenses and might improve the health status of children with ID, who are a population at risk for developing heart-related diseases at a young age.

  5. Physical properties determining self-organization of motors and microtubules.

    PubMed

    Surrey, T; Nedelec, F; Leibler, S; Karsenti, E

    2001-05-11

    In eukaryotic cells, microtubules and their associated motor proteins can be organized into various large-scale patterns. Using a simplified experimental system combined with computer simulations, we examined how the concentrations and kinetic parameters of the motors contribute to their collective behavior. We observed self-organization of generic steady-state structures such as asters, vortices, and a network of interconnected poles. We identified parameter combinations that determine the generation of each of these structures. In general, this approach may become useful for correlating the morphogenetic phenomena taking place in a biological system with the biophysical characteristics of its constituents.

  6. Physical Properties Determining Self-Organization of Motors and Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrey, Thomas; Nédélec, François; Leibler, Stanislas; Karsenti, Eric

    2001-05-01

    In eukaryotic cells, microtubules and their associated motor proteins can be organized into various large-scale patterns. Using a simplified experimental system combined with computer simulations, we examined how the concentrations and kinetic parameters of the motors contribute to their collective behavior. We observed self-organization of generic steady-state structures such as asters, vortices, and a network of interconnected poles. We identified parameter combinations that determine the generation of each of these structures. In general, this approach may become useful for correlating the morphogenetic phenomena taking place in a biological system with the biophysical characteristics of its constituents.

  7. Implicit motor learning in patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease: differences in learning abilities?

    PubMed

    van Tilborg, Ilse; Hulstijn, Wouter

    2010-07-01

    Experimental studies show intact implicit motor learning in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the results for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are inconclusive. This study tests implicit sequence learning in AD and PD patients, and healthy controls, using the classical Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT), and a somewhat similar Pattern Learning Task (PLT), which involves stylus movements in different directions, and which allows detailed movement analysis. As expected, the time measures showed less implicit motor learning in the PD patients relative to the other groups in both tasks, but their error percentages increased when the sequence changed from a fixed to a random order, which is indicative of implicit learning. The AD patients showed a reversed pattern of results. Arguably, errors and time measures may reflect the involvement of separate processes, e.g., spatial and motor components, which could be differently affected in AD and PD.

  8. Promoting gross motor skills and physical activity in childcare: A translational randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Hinkley, Trina; Batterham, Marijka; Burke, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Educator-led programs for physical activity and motor skill development show potential but few have been implemented and evaluated using a randomized controlled design. Furthermore, few educator-led programs have evaluated both gross motor skills and physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a gross motor skill and physical activity program for preschool children which was facilitated solely by childcare educators. A six-month 2-arm randomized controlled trial was implemented between April and September 2012 in four early childhood centers in Tasmania, Australia. Educators participated in ongoing professional development sessions and children participated in structured physical activity lessons and unstructured physical activity sessions. In total, 150 children were recruited from four centers which were randomized to intervention or wait-list control group. Six early childhood educators from the intervention centers were trained to deliver the intervention. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd edition) and physical activity was measured objectively using GT3X+ Actigraph accelerometers. No statistically significant differences were identified. However, small to medium effect sizes, in favor of the intervention group, were evident for four of the five gross motor skills and the total gross motor skill score and small to medium effect sizes were reported for all physical activity outcomes. This study highlights the potential of educator-led physical activity interventions and supports the need for further translational trials within the early childhood sector. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Study of the Effect Introductory Physical Science Produces in Students' Abilities in Selected Areas of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Harold Frederick, Jr.

    This study, conducted at Northeast Catholic High School for Boys in Philadelphia, was designed to determine if a significant difference existed between ninth-grade students experienced in Introductory Physical Science and ninth-grade students experienced in conventional General Science in ability to manipulate basic physics laboratory equipment,…

  10. Tactile localization performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) corresponds to their motor skill and not their cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Joanne S; Begum Ali, Jannath; Hill, Elisabeth L; Bremner, Andrew J

    2017-01-18

    When localizing touches to the hands, typically developing children and adults show a "crossed hands effect" whereby identifying which hand received a tactile stimulus is less accurate when the hands are crossed than uncrossed. This demonstrates the use of an external frame of reference for locating touches to one's own body. Given that studies indicate that developmental vision plays a role in the emergence of external representations of touch, and reliance on vision for representing the body during action is atypical in developmental coordination disorder (DCD), we investigated external spatial representations of touch in children with DCD using the "crossed hands effect". Nineteen children with DCD aged 7-11years completed a tactile localization task in which posture (uncrossed, crossed) and view (hands seen, unseen) were varied systematically. Their performance was compared to that of 35 typically developing controls (19 of a similar age and cognitive ability, and 16 of a younger age but similar fine motor ability). Like controls, the DCD group exhibited a crossed hands effect, whilst their overall tactile localization performance was weaker than their peers of similar age and cognitive ability, but in line with younger controls of similar motor ability. For children with movement difficulties, these findings indicate tactile localization impairments in relation to age expectations, but apparently typical use of an external reference frame for localizing touch.

  11. Protective Service Physical Ability Tests: Establishing Pass/Fail, Ranking, and Banding Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Dan; Sill, Nikki Shepherd

    1999-01-01

    Setting pass/fail cutoffs that accurately reflect physical ability required for job performance is a key consideration for public-sector employment testing. Top-down ranking is less appropriate than job-performance expectancy banding. (SK)

  12. Stability of Caregiver-Reported Manual Ability and Gross Motor Function Classifications of Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imms, Christine; Carlin, John; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the stability of caregiver-reported classifications of function of children with cerebral palsy (CP) measured 12 months apart. Method: Participants were 86 children (50 males, 36 females) with CP of all motor types and severities who were recruited into a population-based longitudinal study. Children were aged 11 years 8 months (SD…

  13. Stability of Caregiver-Reported Manual Ability and Gross Motor Function Classifications of Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imms, Christine; Carlin, John; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the stability of caregiver-reported classifications of function of children with cerebral palsy (CP) measured 12 months apart. Method: Participants were 86 children (50 males, 36 females) with CP of all motor types and severities who were recruited into a population-based longitudinal study. Children were aged 11 years 8 months (SD…

  14. Motor training and physical activity among preschoolers with cerebral palsy: a survey of parents' experiences.

    PubMed

    Myrhaug, Hilde Tinderholt; Østensjø, Sigrid

    2014-05-01

    To describe motor training and physical activity among preschoolers with cerebral palsy (CP) in Norway, and assess associations between child, parent, and motor intervention characteristics, and parent-reported child benefits from interventions. Survey of 360 parents and data from the Norwegian CP follow-up program. The response rate was 34%. During the six months preceding the time of the survey, 75% of the children performed gross-motor training, 73% fine-motor training, 80% manual stretching, and 67% participated regularly in physical activities. The training was highly goal-directed, intensive, frequently incorporated in daily routines, and often with a high level of parental involvement. The use of goals was associated with higher parent-reported child benefits for all types of interventions. Moreover, the positive relationship, which was indicated between frequency of training, parent education, and parent-reported child benefits of gross-motor training, was not seen for fine-motor training. Parent-reported child benefits support goal-directed motor interventions, and the use of everyday activities to increase practice of motor skills.

  15. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.; Fu, Yang-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA) during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA. PMID:26844157

  16. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Traveling by Private Motorized Vehicle and Physical Fitness in Taiwanese Adults.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yung; Tsai, Hsiu-Hua; Wang, Ho-Seng; Lin, Ching-Ping; Wu, Min-Chen; Chen, Jui-Fu

    2016-08-01

    Although the time spent sitting in motorized vehicles has been determined to be adversely associated with cardiometabolic health, its association with other health indicators remains unclear. This study examined associations between traveling by private motorized vehicle and 4 indicators of physical fitness in adults. Data from 52,114 Taiwanese adults aged 20 to 65 years who participated in the 2013 National Adults Fitness Survey were used. The examined variables were height, body mass, and performance in modified sit-and-reach (flexibility), bent-leg sit-up (abdominal muscular strength and endurance), and a 3-min step test (cardiorespiratory endurance). Participants were asked on how many days they had used a private car or motorcycle for traveling from place to place and categorized as non-, occasional, and daily private motorized vehicle travelers. Logistic and linear regression models were used to examine associations between the categories of using private motorized vehicles to travel and physical fitness performance. After an adjustment for potential demographic and behavioral confounders, daily traveling by private motorized vehicle was associated with a higher probability of overweight (odds ratio = 1.18), lower performance of abdominal muscular strength and endurance (-0.37 times/min), and lower cardiorespiratory fitness (-0.60 physical fitness index) than was traveling that did not involve private motorized vehicles. The results suggest that in addition to unfavorable cardiorespiratory fitness and a risk of overweight, daily traveling by private motorized vehicle is associated with poor performance in abdominal muscular strength and endurance.

  18. Relationship between time use in physical activity and gross motor performance of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung

    2017-02-01

    Participation in physical activity is an important health concern for children in most Western communities, but little is known about Asian children's participation. The purpose of this study was to extend the current knowledge on how much time preschool children in Taiwan spend on physical activity, to examine its relationship with gross motor performance and to provide information on the establishment of physical activity guidelines for preschool children in Taiwan. Two hundred and sixty-four children between 36 and 71 months old were recruited from a university medical centre and from preschools in Taiwan. The primary outcomes were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition and the modified Preschool-aged Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. 89.8% of our participants did not meet the recommendations from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education for time spent in physical activities. Participants spent an average of 155 minutes/week in low intensity physical activity. Children with motor difficulties tended to spend less time on physical activity than did typically developing children. The mother's level of education and whether the child was overweight or obese correlated with how much time the children spent on physical activity. We conclude that paediatric occupational therapists should explain to parents the relationship between physical activity and motor development and advocate for developmentally positive physical activities for preschool children. Physical activity guidelines for Taiwanese preschoolers should be established immediately. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  19. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR).

    PubMed

    Hammer, Eva M; Kaufmann, Tobias; Kleih, Sonja C; Blankertz, Benjamin; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80-100%) performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning.Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1) a measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e., a trade for a person's visuo-motor control ability; and (2) subject's "attentional impulsivity". In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1) failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject) the present predictors.

  20. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR)

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Eva M.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Kleih, Sonja C.; Blankertz, Benjamin; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80–100%) performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning.Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1) a measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e., a trade for a person’s visuo-motor control ability; and (2) subject’s “attentional impulsivity”. In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1) failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject) the present predictors. PMID:25147518

  1. The interaction of spatial ability and motor learning in the transfer of training from a simulator to a real task.

    PubMed

    Tracey, M R; Lathan, C E

    2001-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) based simulators have been used as a training tool in many settings, although very few studies examine transfer of training from simulators to a real world task, particularly for manipulation tasks. Simulators could play a key role as an enabling technology for manipulation tasks related to teleoperation, and medical procedure training. We investigated the relationship between motor tasks and participants' spatial abilities. This relationship was further examined with respect to learning in a simulator and to transfer of training from the simulator to the real world on a pick-and-place task. Spatial abilities were characterized using a battery of recognition and manipulation figural tests. Subjects with lower spatial abilities demonstrated significant positive transfer from a simulator based training task to a similar real world robotic operation task. Subjects with higher spatial skills did not respond as positively from training in a simulated environment.

  2. Algorithm for selecting appropriate transfer support equipment based on the physical ability of the user.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, S; Nakashima, Y; Fujie, M G

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose an algorithm for selecting appropriate transfer support equipment based on the physical ability of the user. In addition, we describe the relationship between features of the human body and the physical burdens during standing. Although several care support devices have been developed, assistive robots are not yet popular because users do not know which devices are suitable for their needs or appropriate for their physical abilities. In the present study, we focus on a transfer support device and propose an algorithm for selecting transfer support equipment that will be suitable to the physical ability of the user. We investigated the relationship between standing support equipment and physical burdens during standing, which is one of transfer motions. In an experiment, we calculated and analyzed the knee and ankle joint moments and discussed the relationship between standing support equipment and the knee and ankle joint moments during standing. The results indicated a difference in the relation of standing support equipments appropriate to the user's physical ability. It was found effective to provide a railing to persons having low residual ability in the ankle joints and an up/down seat to persons having low residual ability in the knee joints.

  3. Setting and Within-Class Ability Grouping: A Survey of Practices in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shaun; Penney, Dawn; Allin, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom and internationally, the practice of separating pupils by ability endures as a characteristic feature of mathematics and science classrooms. Although there is extensive international research literature on ability grouping within classroom-based subjects, limited research exists in the context of physical education (PE).…

  4. Setting and Within-Class Ability Grouping: A Survey of Practices in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shaun; Penney, Dawn; Allin, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom and internationally, the practice of separating pupils by ability endures as a characteristic feature of mathematics and science classrooms. Although there is extensive international research literature on ability grouping within classroom-based subjects, limited research exists in the context of physical education (PE).…

  5. A Developmental Perspective on the Role of Motor Skill Competence in Physical Activity: An Emergent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Roberton, Mary Ann; Rudisill, Mary E.; Garcia, Clersida; Garcia, Luis E.

    2008-01-01

    Although significant attention has been paid to promoting the importance of physical activity in children, adolescents, and adults, we do not currently understand how to promote sustained physical activity levels throughout the lifespan. We contend that previous research has failed to consider the dynamic and synergistic role that motor skill…

  6. Functional Assessment of the Brain Damaged Physically Handicapped Child: Cognitive, Communication, and Motor Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Beth

    Existing instruments for assessing brain damaged physically handicapped children are examined, and research on test modifications in the cognitive, communication, and motor performance domains is reviewed. Noted is the lack of tests standardized on a physically handicapped population. Cautions and criticisms are cited for modifications which have…

  7. I Have Students with Physical and Motor Problems: How Can an APE, OT, or PT Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman-French, Lisa; Candler, Catherine; French, Ron; Hamilton, Merry Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Majority of students with mental and/or motor impairments are frequently placed in general physical education classes. However, these students often are unable to attain the expected outcomes in these general settings. Based on the experience of the authors, general physical educators often attempt to modify their goals, objectives, teaching…

  8. Effectiveness of Physical Education to Promote Motor Competence in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Vítor P.; Stodden, David F.; Rodrigues, Luis P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Motor skill (MS) competence is an important contributing factor for healthy development. Purpose: The goal was to test the effectiveness of primary school physical education (PE) on MS and physical fitness (PF) development. Methods: Three classes (n = 60, aged 9.0 ± 0.9) were randomly assigned to three diverse conditions during a…

  9. Changes in Strength Abilities of Adolescent Girls: The Effect of a 3-Year Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate changes in strength abilities of adolescent girls that underwent a 3-year physical education curriculum. Material and methods: The research participants comprised 141 girls aged 13.3 plus or minus 0.35 years who participated in a 3-year physical education curriculum (PEC). Evaluation was based on the following EUROFIT…

  10. Tips and Techniques: Ability Grouping and Performance Evaluation in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Equal Educational Opportunity Section.

    This monograph presents a discussion of the problems involved in implementing sex-fair coeducational classes in physical education. Suggestions, which grew out of a symposium on coeducational physical education, are offered on procedures that may be used for ability grouping, such as what type of test(s) are appropriate and when to use single or…

  11. Tips and Techniques: Ability Grouping and Performance Evaluation in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Equal Educational Opportunity Section.

    This monograph presents a discussion of the problems involved in implementing sex-fair coeducational classes in physical education. Suggestions, which grew out of a symposium on coeducational physical education, are offered on procedures that may be used for ability grouping, such as what type of test(s) are appropriate and when to use single or…

  12. Development of Polytechnic Knowledge and Abilities in the Course of Studying Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imashev, Gizatulla; Abykanova, Bakytgul T.; Rakhmetova, Mairagul T.; Tumysheva, Anar A.; Moldasheva, Raushan N.; Ilyasova, Sandugash S.; Shahimova, Aliya A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article one of aspects of physics course studying improvement at high schools--the problem of the development of polytechnic knowledge and abilities in modern conditions--is revealed. In this research, the role and place of polytechnic education in the improvement of teaching physics at high schools are revealed, the main pedagogical…

  13. Enhancing Direct Instruction on Introductory Physics for Supporting Students' Mental-Modeling Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansyur, Jusman; Darsikin

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an instructional design for introductory physics that integrates previous research results of physics problem-solving and the use of external representation into direct instruction (DI). The research is a part of research in obtaining an established instructional design to support mental-modeling ability. By integrating with…

  14. Inter-rater Reliability of the Wolf Motor Function Test-Functional Ability Scale: Why it Matters

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Susan V.; He, Jiaxiu; Nelsen, Monica A.; Lane, Christianne J.; Rowe, Veronica T.; Wolf, Steven L.; Dromerick, Alexander W.; Winstein, Carolee J.

    2014-01-01

    Background One important objective for clinical trialists in rehabilitation is determining efficacy of interventions to enhance motor behavior. In part, limitation in the precision of measurement presents a challenge. The few valid, low-cost observational tools available to assess motor behavior cannot escape the variability inherent in test administration and scoring. This is especially true when there are multiple evaluators and raters as in the case of multi-site randomized controlled trials (RCT). One way to enhance reliability and reduce variability is to implement rigorous quality control (QC) procedures. Objective This paper describes a systematic QC process used to refine the administration and scoring procedures for the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT)-Functional Ability Scale (FAS). Methods The QC process, a systematic focus-group collaboration was developed and used for a phase III RCT, which enlisted multiple evaluators and an experienced WMFT-FAS Rater Panel. Results After three staged refinements to the administration and scoring instructions, we achieved a sufficiently high inter-rater reliability (weighted kappa = 0.8). Conclusions/Implications A systematic focus-group process was shown to be an effective method to improve reliability of observational assessment tools for motor behavior in neurorehabilitation. A reduction in noise-related variability in performance assessments will increase power and potentially lower the number needed to treat. Improved precision of measurement can lead to more cost effective and efficient clinical trials. Finally, we suggest that improved precision in measures of motor behavior may provide more insight into recovery mechanisms than a single measure of movement time alone. PMID:25323459

  15. Anthropometric and physical characteristics of motor disabilited paralympic rowers.

    PubMed

    Porto, Yuri Caldas; Almeida, Marcilene; de Sá, Cloud Kennedy C; Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Zoppi, Cláudio Cesar

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize aerobic, anaerobic, handgrip strength, and body fat content (BF) characteristics in paralympic rowers (ROW) in order to determine motor disabled rowers' fitness level and if specific motor disabilities could impair performance in this specific population. Upper body anaerobic threshold (LacT), peak (PK-AnP), mean (M-AnP), and lower (L-AnP) anaerobic power, peak anaerobic power to weight ratio (RelPk-AnP) and fatigue index (FI) were measured by the Wingate test (WinT). Handgrip strength was also measured and skinfold sum was used to estimate BF and were compared with a reference group of recreational disabled athletes (CON). LacT was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in ROW compared with CON. RelPk-AnP and BF were significantly different (p < 0.05) in ROW compared with CON as well. All other measured parameters did not significantly differ between ROW and CON. In most of cases, rowers have shown a relative low performance level, induced probably by specific disabilities.

  16. The influence of playing a non-reward game on motor ability and executive function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Araújo Lima, Alisson Menezes; Cordeiro Hirata, Fabiana de Campos; Sales de Bruin, Gabriela; Salani Mota, Rosa Maria; Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales de

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the acute effect of playing games on executive function and motor ability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Consecutive cases with PD were studied with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Mini-Mental State examination (MMSE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Stroop test, finger tapping and 14-meter walk test. After randomization, patients performed a game of dominoes and were tested before and after experiment being further categorized as control, winners or non-winners. Forty patients, 27 male (67.5%), aged 48 to 84 years (63.2 ± 8.5), Hoehn & Yahr I to III were included. Twenty-eight (70%) presented depressive symptoms (BDI > 10). Groups (Control N = 13; Winners = 14 and Non-winners = 13) were not different regarding age, disease duration, age at onset, BMI, MMSE scores, depressive symptoms, levodopa dose, and previous practice of games. Winners presented significantly better results on executive function (Stroop test, p = 0.002) and on motor activity (Finger tapping, p = 0.01). Non-winners showed a trend of better performance in the 14-meter-walk test. This study shows that the practice of a non-reward game acutely improved memory and motor skills in PD. Our results suggest a role for the reward system in the modulation of the dopaminergic function of the basal ganglia in these patients.

  17. The Influence of Playing a Non-Reward Game on Motor Ability and Executive Function in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Alisson Menezes Araújo; de Campos Cordeiro Hirata, Fabiana; de Bruin, Gabriela Sales; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the acute effect of playing games on executive function and motor ability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Consecutive cases with PD were studied with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Mini-Mental State examination (MMSE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Stroop test, finger tapping and 14-meter walk test. After randomization, patients performed a game of dominoes and were tested before and after experiment being further categorized as control, winners or non-winners. Forty patients, 27 male (67.5%), aged 48 to 84 years (63.2 ± 8.5), Hoehn & Yahr I to III were included. Twenty-eight (70%) presented depressive symptoms (BDI > 10). Groups (Control N = 13; Winners = 14 and Non-winners = 13) were not different regarding age, disease duration, age at onset, BMI, MMSE scores, depressive symptoms, levodopa dose, and previous practice of games. Winners presented significantly better results on executive function (Stroop test, p = 0.002) and on motor activity (Finger tapping, p = 0.01). Non-winners showed a trend of better performance in the 14-meter-walk test. This study shows that the practice of a non-reward game acutely improved memory and motor skills in PD. Our results suggest a role for the reward system in the modulation of the dopaminergic function of the basal ganglia in these patients. PMID:22530266

  18. Motor physical therapy in hospitalized patients in an intensive care unit: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Alessandra Rigo; Christofoletti, Gustavo

    2012-06-01

    To analyze the outcomes achieved by motor physical therapy in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units. A systematic literature review was performed, and clinical trials published between 2002 and 2011 were included in the study. The search involved the LILACS, SciELO, MedLine, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, using the keywords "intensive care unit", "physiotherapy", "physical therapy", "mobility", "mobilization" and "randomized controlled trials." Two researchers screened the articles independently and included works that addressed the effect of physical therapy on critically ill patients. From an initial analysis of 67 potentially relevant articles, only 8 met the selection criteria and addressed the outcomes of electrostimulation, cycle ergometry and kinesiotherapy techniques. The sample sizes ranged from 8 to 101 subjects, with mean ages between 52 and 79 years. All patients were undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. Among the analyzed articles, 6 reported significant benefits of motor physical therapy, such as improvement in peripheral muscle strength, respiratory capacity and functionality, in critically ill patients. With this systematic review, it is possible to conclude that motor physical therapy is a feasible and safe therapy for critically ill patients and can minimize the deleterious effects of prolonged immobilization. Approaches involving electrostimulation, cycle ergometry and kinesiotherapy showed positive responses in patients under intensive care. Available evidence regarding the impact of motor physical therapy on length of stay in intensive care units and on mortality is still scarce, and further study in this area is warranted.

  19. The Impact of Physical Activity on Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cusso, Melanie E; Donald, Kenneth J; Khoo, Tien K

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss, and Scopus using the MeSH search terms "Parkinson's," "Parkinson," and "Parkinsonism" in conjunction with "exercise," "physical activity," "physiotherapy," "occupational therapy," "physical therapy," "rehabilitation," "dance," and "martial arts." Twenty studies matched inclusion criteria of having 10 or more participants with diagnosed idiopathic PD participating in the intervention as well as having to evaluate the effects of physical activity on NMS in PD as controlled, randomized intervention studies. The outcomes of interest were NMS, including depression, cognition, fatigue, apathy, anxiety, and sleep. Risk of bias in the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Comparability of the various intervention methods, however, was challenging due to demographic variability and methodological differences. Nevertheless, physical activity can positively impact the global NMS burden including depression, apathy, fatigue, day time sleepiness, sleep, and cognition, thus supporting its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions such as PD. It is recommended that further adequately powered studies are conducted to assess the therapeutic role of physical activity on both motor and non-motor aspects of PD. These studies should be optimally designed to assess non-motor elements of disease using instruments validated in PD.

  20. Genetic and environmental transactions linking cognitive ability, physical fitness, and education in late life.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-03-01

    Cognitive ability and physical fitness are important to the ability to live independently in late life. Both are also related to level of attained education, with better educated older adults tending to display better cognitive ability and better late-life physical health. Chronic illnesses that affect both physical and cognitive function, lifetime cognitive ability that facilitates healthy lifestyle choices, and general biological aging processes have been offered as 3 explanations for the late-life physical-cognitive correlation. Education is generally assumed to provide a protective environment. The authors used a sample of 1,053 twin pairs aged 70 and over and gene-environment moderation models to explore 5 hypotheses that could help to disentangle the genetic and environmental transactions involving physical and cognitive functions and education. Results provide some support for all 3 explanations for the physical-cognitive correlation and indicate the ways in which better education may support better function and lack of education may undermine it.

  1. Object-based and egocentric mental rotation performance in older adults: the importance of gender differences and motor ability.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Petra; Kaltner, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mental rotation performance was assessed in both an object-based task, human figures and letters as stimuli, and in an egocentric-based task, a human figure as a stimulus, in 60 older persons between 60 and 71 years old (30 women, 30 men). Additionally all participants completed three motor tests measuring balance and mobility. The results show that the reaction time was slower for letters than for both human figure tasks and the mental rotation speed was faster over all for egocentric mental rotation tasks. Gender differences were found in the accuracy measurement, favoring males, and were independent of stimulus type, kind of transformation, and angular disparity. Furthermore, a regression analysis showed that the accuracy rate for object-based transformations with body stimuli could be predicted by gender and balance ability. This study showed that the mental rotation performance in older adults depends on stimulus type, kind of transformation, and gender and that performance partially relates to motor ability.

  2. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A LONGITUDINAL DISCORDANT TWIN-PAIR STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Aaltonen, Sari; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kujala, Urho M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous longitudinal research suggests that motor proficiency in early life predicts physical activity in adulthood. Familial effects including genetic and environmental factors could explain the association, but no long-term follow-up studies have taken into account potential confounding by genetic and social family background. The present twin study investigated whether childhood motor skill development is associated with leisure-time physical activity levels in adulthood independent of family background. Methods Altogether, 1 550 twin pairs from the FinnTwin12 study and 1 752 twin pairs from the FinnTwin16 study were included in the analysis. Childhood motor development was assessed by the parents’ report of whether one of the co-twins had been ahead of the other in different indicators of motor skill development in childhood. Leisure-time physical activity (MET hours/day) was self-reported by the twins in young adulthood and adulthood. Statistical analyses included conditional and ordinary linear regression models within twin pairs. Results Using all activity-discordant twin pairs, the within-pair difference in a sum score of motor development in childhood predicted the within-pair difference in the leisure-time physical activity level in young adulthood (p<0.001). Within specific motor development indicators, learning to stand unaided earlier in infancy predicted higher leisure-time MET values in young adulthood statistically significantly in both samples (FinnTwin12 p=0.02, FinnTwin16 p=0.001) and also in the pooled dataset of the FinnTwin12 and FinnTwin16 studies (p<0.001). Having been more agile than the co-twin as a child predicted higher leisure-time MET values up to adulthood (p=0.03). Conclusions More advanced childhood motor development is associated with higher leisure-time MET values in young adulthood at least partly independent of family background, in both men and women. PMID:26378945

  3. Motor Development and Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Discordant Twin-Pair Study.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, Sari; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kujala, Urho M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-10-01

    Previous longitudinal research suggests that motor proficiency in early life predicts physical activity in adulthood. Familial effects including genetic and environmental factors could explain the association, but no long-term follow-up studies have taken into account potential confounding by genetic and social family background. The present twin study investigated whether childhood motor skill development is associated with leisure-time physical activity levels in adulthood independent of family background. Altogether, 1550 twin pairs from the FinnTwin12 study and 1752 twin pairs from the FinnTwin16 study were included in the analysis. Childhood motor development was assessed by the parents' report of whether one of the co-twins had been ahead of the other in different indicators of motor skill development in childhood. Leisure-time physical activity (MET·h·d) was self-reported by the twins in young adulthood and adulthood. Statistical analyses included conditional and ordinary linear regression models within twin pairs. Using all activity-discordant twin pairs, the within-pair difference in a sum score of motor development in childhood predicted the within-pair difference in the leisure-time physical activity level in young adulthood (P < 0.001). Within specific motor development indicators, learning to stand unaided earlier in infancy predicted higher leisure-time MET values in young adulthood statistically significantly in both samples (FinnTwin12, P = 0.02; and FinnTwin16, P = 0.001) and also in the pooled data set of the FinnTwin12 and FinnTwin16 studies (P < 0.001). Having been more agile than the co-twin as a child predicted higher leisure-time MET values up to adulthood (P = 0.03). More advanced childhood motor development is associated with higher leisure-time MET values in young adulthood at least partly independent of family background in both men and women.

  4. Repeated-sprint and change-of-direction abilities in physically active individuals and soccer players: training and testing implications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Chan, Gar Sun; Smith, Andrew W

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated change-of-direction (RCOD) matched on intervals and distances was investigated in this study. The discrimination abilities of the tests were also examined. Using a within-subject repeated measures design, 25 physically active individuals (ACTs), 16 college soccer players (COL), and 18 professional soccer players (PRO) performed the RSA and RCOD tests during which the fastest time (FT), average time (AT), total time (TT), and percentage decrement score (%Dec) were recorded. We concluded that RSA and RCOD tested separate motor abilities because the shared variance between them in the FT, AT, and TT was ≤50%. Both RSA and RCOD tests were reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient ranged 0.79-0.90) and valid performance assessments in terms of construct in that they discriminated between ACT and soccer players (irrespective of the soccer skill level in this study). Specifically, the FT, AT, and TT (but not %Dec) of RSA and RCOD were significantly higher in ACT as compared with that in both COL and PRO (p < 0.05). Most values of the RSA/RCOD index in COL and PRO were 0.59, which were significantly higher than those of ACT (0.53, p < 0.05). We proposed the use of the RSA/RCOD index with a target value of 0.59 to prioritize and quantify the training needs of RSA and RCOD for soccer players.

  5. Association between physical and motor development in childhood: a longitudinal study of Japanese twins.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Latvala, Antti; Kaprio, Jaakko; Yokoyama, Yoshie

    2014-06-01

    Length and weight in infancy are associated with neurodevelopment, but less is known about growth in other anthropometric measures. In this study we analyzed how the development in length, weight, head circumference, and chest circumference over infancy is associated with motor development in early childhood, using a twin study design. Information on physical development over infancy and the age at achievement of eight developmental milestones over early childhood was collected for 370 Japanese twin pairs. Linear mixed models were used to analyze how physical development is associated with motor development between individual twins, as well as within twin pairs, adjusting the results for shared maternal and postnatal environmental factors. Delayed motor development was associated with smaller body size over infancy, and we also found some suggestive evidence that it was associated with catch-up growth as well. When studying the associations within twin pairs discordant for motor development, similar associations were found. However, chest circumference showed the most robust association within discordant twin pairs. Smaller body size and rapid catch-up growth are associated with delayed motor development. When studying these associations within twin pairs and thus adjusting the results for gestational age as well as many other maternal and postnatal environmental factors, chest circumference showed the most robust association. Chest circumference, rarely used in developed countries, can offer additional information on prenatal conditions relevant for further motor development not achieved by more traditional anthropometric measures.

  6. Non-exercise physical activity attenuates motor symptoms in Parkinson disease independent from nigrostriatal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jon; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J.H.; Frey, Kirk A; Albin, Roger L.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between time spent in non-exercise and exercise physical activity and severity of motor functions in Parkinson disease (PD). Background Increasing motor impairments of PD incline many patients to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the relationship between duration of both non-exercise and exercise physical activity over a 4-week period using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and severity of clinical motor symptoms in PD. We accounted for the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Methods Cross-sectional study. PD subjects, n=48 (40M); 69.4±7.4 (56–84) years old; 8.4±4.2 (2.5–20) years motor disease duration, mean UPDRS motor score 27.5 ± 10.3 (7–53) and mean MMSE score 28.4 ± 1.9 (22–30) underwent [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation and completed the CHAMPS questionnaire and clinical assessment. Results Bivariate correlations showed an inverse relationship between motor UPDRS severity scores and duration of non-exercise physical activity (R= −0.37, P=0.0099) but not with duration of exercise physical activity (R= −0.05, P= 0.76) over 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis using UPDRS motor score as outcome variable demonstrated a significant regressor effect for duration of non-exercise physical activity (F=6.15, P=0.017) while accounting for effects of nigrostriatal degeneration (F=4.93, P=0.032), levodopa-equivalent dose (LED; F=1.07, P=0.31), age (F=4.37, P=0.043) and duration of disease (F=1.46, P=0.23; total model (F=5.76, P=0.0004). Conclusions Non-exercise physical activity is a correlate of motor symptom severity in PD independent of the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Non-exercise physical activity may have positive effects on functional performance in PD. PMID:26330028

  7. Non-exercise physical activity attenuates motor symptoms in Parkinson disease independent from nigrostriatal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Snider, Jonathan; Müller, Martijn L T M; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J H; Frey, Kirk A; Albin, Roger L; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between time spent in non-exercise and exercise physical activity and severity of motor functions in Parkinson disease (PD). Increasing motor impairments of PD incline many patients to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the relationship between duration of both non-exercise and exercise physical activity over a 4-week period using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and severity of clinical motor symptoms in PD. We accounted for the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Cross-sectional study. PD subjects, n = 48 (40 M); 69.4 ± 7.4 (56-84) years old; 8.4 ± 4.2 (2.5-20) years motor disease duration, mean UPDRS motor score 27.5 ± 10.3 (7-53) and mean MMSE score 28.4 ± 1.9 (22-30) underwent [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation and completed the CHAMPS questionnaire and clinical assessment. Bivariate correlations showed an inverse relationship between motor UPDRS severity scores and duration of non-exercise physical activity (R = -0.37, P = 0.0099) but not with duration of exercise physical activity (R = -0.05, P = 0.76) over 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis using UPDRS motor score as outcome variable demonstrated a significant regressor effect for duration of non-exercise physical activity (F = 6.15, P = 0.017) while accounting for effects of nigrostriatal degeneration (F = 4.93, P = 0.032), levodopa-equivalent dose (LED; F = 1.07, P = 0.31), age (F = 4.37, P = 0.043) and duration of disease (F = 1.46, P = 0.23; total model (F = 5.76, P = 0.0004). Non-exercise physical activity is a correlate of motor symptom severity in PD independent of the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Non-exercise physical activity may have positive effects on functional performance in PD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Do subclinical vascular abnormalities precede impaired physical ability and ADL disability?

    PubMed

    den Ouden, Marjolein E M; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Mueller-Schotte, Sigrid; Bots, Michiel L; van der Schouw, YvonneT

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of disability in activities of daily living (ADL) through its effect on physical functioning. However, it is unclear whether subclinical vascular abnormalities and rate of change in subclinical vascular abnormalities is also associated with an impaired physical ability and with ADL disability. In a longitudinal study, 490 middle-aged and older persons were included. Physical ability was measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery and ADL disability using a questionnaire on self-reported basic and instrumental ADL. Subclinical vascular abnormalities were measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT, in men only). Longitudinal associations between baseline markers of subclinical vascular abnormalities, their rate of change, and change in physical ability or ADL disability were assessed using generalized estimation equation models. After adjustment for confounders, higher baseline PWV, change in PWV, baseline CIMT (in men) and change in CIMT (in men) were associated with a higher rate of change in physical ability (regression coefficients 0.035, 95% CI [0.018; 0.052]; 0.047, 95% CI [0.024; 0.069]; 0.214, 95% CI [0.070; 0.358] and 0.148, 95% CI [0.019; 0.277], respectively). No relations were found for change in ADL disability. In subjects with incident cardiovascular disease, higher change in PWV was associated with a higher rate of change in ADL disability (regression coefficient 0.054, 95% CI [0.001; 0.106]). The present study showed that subclinical vascular abnormalities and rate of change were associated with higher rate of change in physical ability. The association between (change in) subclinical vascular abnormalities and ADL disability tended to be stronger in persons with incident and prevalent cardiovascular disease. These data may suggest that ADL decline is more a direct effect of experienced clinically manifest vascular events rather than the effect of progression of

  9. Modulation of motor cortex excitability by physical similarity with an observed hand action.

    PubMed

    Désy, Marie-Christine; Théoret, Hugo

    2007-10-03

    The passive observation of hand actions is associated with increased motor cortex excitability, presumably reflecting activity within the human mirror neuron system (MNS). Recent data show that in-group ethnic membership increases motor cortex excitability during observation of culturally relevant hand gestures, suggesting that physical similarity with an observed body part may modulate MNS responses. Here, we ask whether the MNS is preferentially activated by passive observation of hand actions that are similar or dissimilar to self in terms of sex and skin color. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor evoked potentials were recorded from the first dorsal interosseus muscle while participants viewed videos depicting index finger movements made by female or male participants with black or white skin color. Forty-eight participants equally distributed in terms of sex and skin color participated in the study. Results show an interaction between self-attributes and physical attributes of the observed hand in the right motor cortex of female participants, where corticospinal excitability is increased during observation of hand actions in a different skin color than that of the observer. Our data show that specific physical properties of an observed action modulate motor cortex excitability and we hypothesize that in-group/out-group membership and self-related processes underlie these effects.

  10. Physical exercise prevents motor disorders and striatal oxidative imbalance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Sosa, P M; Schimidt, H L; Altermann, C; Vieira, A S; Cibin, F W S; Carpes, F P; Mello-Carpes, P B

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide, and most stroke survivors present some functional impairment. We assessed the striatal oxidative balance and motor alterations resulting from stroke in a rat model to investigate the neuroprotective role of physical exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: a) control, b) ischemia, c) physical exercise, and d) physical exercise and ischemia. Physical exercise was conducted using a treadmill for 8 weeks. Ischemia-reperfusion surgery involved transient bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 30 min. Neuromotor performance (open-field and rotarod performance tests) and pain sensitivity were evaluated beginning at 24 h after the surgery. Rats were euthanized and the corpora striata was removed for assay of reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation activity, and antioxidant markers. Ischemia-reperfusion caused changes in motor activity. The ischemia-induced alterations observed in the open-field test were fully reversed, and those observed in the rotarod test were partially reversed, by physical exercise. Pain sensitivity was similar among all groups. Levels of reactive oxygen species and lipoperoxidation increased after ischemia; physical exercise decreased reactive oxygen species levels. None of the treatments altered the levels of antioxidant markers. In summary, ischemia-reperfusion resulted in motor impairment and altered striatal oxidative balance in this animal model, but those changes were moderated by physical exercise.

  11. Physical exercise prevents motor disorders and striatal oxidative imbalance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, P.M.; Schimidt, H.L.; Altermann, C.; Vieira, A.S.; Cibin, F.W.S.; Carpes, F.P.; Mello-Carpes, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide, and most stroke survivors present some functional impairment. We assessed the striatal oxidative balance and motor alterations resulting from stroke in a rat model to investigate the neuroprotective role of physical exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: a) control, b) ischemia, c) physical exercise, and d) physical exercise and ischemia. Physical exercise was conducted using a treadmill for 8 weeks. Ischemia-reperfusion surgery involved transient bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 30 min. Neuromotor performance (open-field and rotarod performance tests) and pain sensitivity were evaluated beginning at 24 h after the surgery. Rats were euthanized and the corpora striata was removed for assay of reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation activity, and antioxidant markers. Ischemia-reperfusion caused changes in motor activity. The ischemia-induced alterations observed in the open-field test were fully reversed, and those observed in the rotarod test were partially reversed, by physical exercise. Pain sensitivity was similar among all groups. Levels of reactive oxygen species and lipoperoxidation increased after ischemia; physical exercise decreased reactive oxygen species levels. None of the treatments altered the levels of antioxidant markers. In summary, ischemia-reperfusion resulted in motor impairment and altered striatal oxidative balance in this animal model, but those changes were moderated by physical exercise. PMID:26222650

  12. Brain activation associated with motor imagery of coordination exercises and social abilities.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Akito Azumane; Sudo, Michiko Mochizuki; Kirino, Eiji; Itoh, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were: (1) to investigate the brain activation associated with coordination exercises done by one person and those by two persons and (2) to examine the interrelationships between the brain activation and social abilities. We were interested in testing the hypothesis that viewing two-person coordination exercises evokes more sophisticated brain activation than viewing one-person coordination exercises. Thirty Japanese college students served as subjects. There were two sessions in this study: the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session and the social ability session. In the fMRI session, the subjects were instructed to imagine they were performing coordination exercises. Also, we examined the social abilities from the viewpoint of empathising. Empathising was measured by self-reports on the Systemising, Empathy and Autism Spectrum Quotients (SQ, EQ and AQ). Regarding brain activation, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation was significant in specific areas such as the left cuneus (Brodmann area: BA 17) when the subjects imagined they were performing exercises involving two persons, as compared with the cases when they imagined they were performing exercises involving only one person. The fMRI results showed that exercises done by two persons require more sophisticated communication than those done by one person. Furthermore, the results of this study suggested that those with more autistic traits may undergo difficulties in the exercises done by two persons, especially in the case of playing a role as a follower.

  13. Assessing students' ability to solve introductory physics problems using integrals in symbolic and graphical representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Neelam; Hu, Dehui; Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    Integration is widely used in physics in electricity and magnetism (E&M), as well as in mechanics, to calculate physical quantities from other non-constant quantities. We designed a survey to assess students' ability to apply integration to physics problems in introductory physics. Each student was given a set of eight problems, and each set of problems had two different versions; one consisted of symbolic problems and the other graphical problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' strategies for solving physics problems that use integrals in first and second-semester calculus-based physics. Our results indicate that most students had difficulty even recognizing that an integral is needed to solve the problem.

  14. Peer victimization and changes in physical and relational aggression: The moderating role of executive functioning abilities.

    PubMed

    McQuade, Julia D

    2017-09-01

    This study is the first to examine whether executive functioning (EF) abilities moderate longitudinal associations between peer victimization and engagement in physically and relationally aggressive behavior. Participants were 61 children (9-13 years, M = 10.68, SD = 1.28; 48% male) drawn from a partially clinical sample who were assessed at two time points, approximately 12 months apart. At time 1, children were administered a battery of EF tests; adult reports of children's relational and physical victimization and use of relational and physical aggression were collected. At time 2, adult-reported aggression was re-collected. Regression analyses tested whether EF ability moderated the association between peer victimization and increased engagement in aggression. Form-specific (e.g., physical victimization predicting physical aggression) and cross-form (e.g., physical victimization predicting relational aggression) models were tested. EF moderated the association between physical victimization and increases in physical aggression over time and between relational victimization and increases in relational aggression over time. Physical victimization predicted increases in physical aggression only among children with poor EF. However, relational victimization predicted increases in relational aggression for children with good EF skills but decreases in relational aggression for children with poor EF skills. Interaction effects for cross-form models were not significant. Results suggest that there are distinct risk factors implicated in children's engagement in physical and relational aggression. Established cognitive vulnerability models for engagement in physical aggression should not be assumed to apply to engagement in relational aggression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Environmental constraints on motor abilities used in grooming, swimming, and eating by decorticate rats.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, I Q; Nonneman, A J; Kolb, B

    1981-10-01

    In a number of successive tests, grooming, swimming, and eating behaviors of decorticate rats were reexamined by evoking the behaviors in various circumstances (stimulus conditions). The rats showed normal-length grooming sequences during spontaneous home cage grooming; when grooming was elicited by removing the rats from their home cage and soaking their fur by a brief swim, grooming-sequence length was abbreviated. In cold (18 degrees C) water, they swam well and with exaggerated vigor and frequently inhibited forelimb movements; in warm (37 degrees C) water, they swam poorly and paddled with all four limbs. To eat small pieces of food, they sat up and used their forepaws as do normal rats, but they frequently dropped the food; they did not use their forepaws to eat large pieces of food. When given powdered food, they first tried to grasp it in their mouth while they scratched at the floor surface with their front limbs; thereafter, they became increasingly proficient in licking it up. Thus, in a narrow range of stimulus conditions, decorticate rats can make movements resembling those of normal rats. They also improve with practice in some (eating powdered food) but not other (forepaw immobility, eating large food pellets) tasks. The study shows that in order to elucidate the role of the cortex in control of motor behavior, it is necessary to obtain "behavior profiles" of each behavior by testing the animals repeatedly and under widely varying test conditions.

  16. Hemispheric speech lateralisation in the developing brain is related to motor praxis ability.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jessica C; Hirst, Rebecca J; Hudson, John M

    2016-12-01

    Commonly displayed functional asymmetries such as hand dominance and hemispheric speech lateralisation are well researched in adults. However there is debate about when such functions become lateralised in the typically developing brain. This study examined whether patterns of speech laterality and hand dominance were related and whether they varied with age in typically developing children. 148 children aged 3-10 years performed an electronic pegboard task to determine hand dominance; a subset of 38 of these children also underwent functional Transcranial Doppler (fTCD) imaging to derive a lateralisation index (LI) for hemispheric activation during speech production using an animation description paradigm. There was no main effect of age in the speech laterality scores, however, younger children showed a greater difference in performance between their hands on the motor task. Furthermore, this between-hand performance difference significantly interacted with direction of speech laterality, with a smaller between-hand difference relating to increased left hemisphere activation. This data shows that both handedness and speech lateralisation appear relatively determined by age 3, but that atypical cerebral lateralisation is linked to greater performance differences in hand skill, irrespective of age. Results are discussed in terms of the common neural systems underpinning handedness and speech lateralisation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Physical and motor skill training for children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kimiyasu; Kobayashi, Kando

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of using special training machines for children with intellectual disabilities to strengthen their body's inner muscles and improve their ability to maintain standing posture and improve walking movement. The participants were 23 high school age boys with intellectual disabilities who had difficulties expressing greetings, and needed to be led by the hand when walking. Four special training machines were used for walking movements, for standing and walking balance, for leg-hip extension, and for ipsilateral movement in a sitting position. Each participant underwent 30 min. of training once a week over a 3-mo. period during school time. Body control ability required to perform each training exercise was improved over the training period. A significant improvement was observed in the 50-m dash, mean 10-m walk time, and 10-m obstacle course walk. The hip joint split angle showed a significant increase. Legal guardians all reported their child had "improved and/or progressed" for each of the targeted movements.

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASSOW, RUTH B.; AND OTHERS

    CHILDREN IN THE FIRST, THIRD, AND FIFTH GRADES IN A SELECTED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL WERE EXPOSED TO AN EXPERIMENTALLY DEVELOPED PROGRAM OF MOTOR ACTIVITIES AS PART OF A PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM DESIGNED TO CHALLENGE A CHILD. PERFORMANCE MEASURES IN THE STANDING BROAD JUMP, THE 30-YARD DASH, THE OVER ARM THROW, THE PULL-UP, AND SHUTTLE RUN WERE…

  19. Does (Non-)Meaningful Sensori-Motor Engagement Promote Learning with Animated Physical Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; Eielts, Charly; Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that sensori-motor experience with physical systems can have a positive effect on learning. However, it is not clear whether this effect is caused by mere bodily engagement or the intrinsically meaningful information that such interaction affords in performing the learning task. We investigated (N = 74), through the use…

  20. Motor Activity Programs Designed for Teaching Supportive Personnel in Physical Therapy. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Lucy V.; And Others

    A study developed a format for the programed instruction of various physical therapy skills to paramedical personnel. Principles of motor learning and programed instruction served as a guide. An effective first practice and several formats for a second practice evolved. Mandatory second practice with a branching format that allowed students to…

  1. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  2. Modified Delphi Investigation of Motor Development and Learning in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Susan; Metcalf, Amanda; Bulger, Sean M.; Housner, Lynn D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: As the scope of motor development and learning knowledge has successfully broadened over the years, there is an increased need to identify the content and learning experiences that are essential in preparing preservice physical educators. The purpose of this study was to generate expert consensus regarding the most critical motor…

  3. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  4. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  5. THE EFFECT OF MENTAL AND PHYSICAL PRACTICE ON THE LEARNING OF GROSS MOTOR SKILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OXENDINE, JOSEPH B.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SCHEDULES OF MENTAL AND PHYSICAL PRACTICE ON THE LEARNING AND RETENTION OF THREE MOTOR TASKS--USING THE PURSUIT ROTOR AND LEARNING THE SOCCER KICK, AND JUMP SHOT. THREE SEPARATE EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED IN THREE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS USING 80, 72, AND 60 SEVENTH GRADE BOYS AS…

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASSOW, RUTH B.; AND OTHERS

    CHILDREN IN THE FIRST, THIRD, AND FIFTH GRADES IN A SELECTED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL WERE EXPOSED TO AN EXPERIMENTALLY DEVELOPED PROGRAM OF MOTOR ACTIVITIES AS PART OF A PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM DESIGNED TO CHALLENGE A CHILD. PERFORMANCE MEASURES IN THE STANDING BROAD JUMP, THE 30-YARD DASH, THE OVER ARM THROW, THE PULL-UP, AND SHUTTLE RUN WERE…

  7. Modified Delphi Investigation of Motor Development and Learning in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Susan; Metcalf, Amanda; Bulger, Sean M.; Housner, Lynn D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: As the scope of motor development and learning knowledge has successfully broadened over the years, there is an increased need to identify the content and learning experiences that are essential in preparing preservice physical educators. The purpose of this study was to generate expert consensus regarding the most critical motor…

  8. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  9. Problems in Measuring the Physical and Motor Performance of the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.; Horvat, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    Although some progress has been made, there are still many problems in obtaining adequate tests of physical motor performance for handicapped individuals. Various problems with populations, with individuals, testing of sports skills, and testing of cardiorespiratory endurance are dicussed along with specific fitness batteries. Testing suggestions…

  10. Does (Non-)Meaningful Sensori-Motor Engagement Promote Learning with Animated Physical Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; Eielts, Charly; Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that sensori-motor experience with physical systems can have a positive effect on learning. However, it is not clear whether this effect is caused by mere bodily engagement or the intrinsically meaningful information that such interaction affords in performing the learning task. We investigated (N = 74), through the use…

  11. Design and Reflection Help Students Develop Scientific Abilities: Learning in Introductory Physics Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etkina, Eugenia; Karelina, Anna; Ruibal-Villasenor, Maria; Rosengrant, David; Jordan, Rebecca; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2010-01-01

    Design activities, when embedded in an inquiry cycle and appropriately scaffolded and supplemented with reflection, can promote the development of the habits of mind (scientific abilities) that are an important part of scientific practice. Through the Investigative Science Learning Environment ("ISLE"), students construct physics knowledge by…

  12. Young Children's Ability to Distinguish Past and Future Changes in Physical and Mental States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby Grant, Janie; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Two studies (N=108) investigated preschool children's ability to use descriptions of past and future events to infer current physical and mental states. In Study 1, stories described characters that either acquired an object or knowledge "yesterday", or will acquire that object or knowledge "tomorrow". Children were asked to identify which…

  13. Effects of Grouping Forms, Student Gender and Ability Level on the Pleasure Experienced in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentillon-Kaestner, Vanessa; Patelli, Gianpaolo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the main and interaction effects of grouping forms, student gender and ability level on the pleasure experienced in physical education (PE). The participants included 178 secondary school students (M = 13.17, SD = 0.81), with 72 students enrolled in a basketball unit and 106 students enrolled in an…

  14. Relationships between the Physical Education Course Sportsmanship Behaviors with Tendency to Violence and Empathetic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Yakup

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine relationship between the physical education course sportsmanship behaviors, tendency to violence, and empathetic ability for elementary school students. The sample of study consists of randomly selected 919 elementary school students attending state schools in the province of Erzincan in 2013-2014 academic year.…

  15. Inclusion and Participation in Everyday School Life: Experiences of Children with Physical (Dis)Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbjørnslett, Mona; Engelsrud, Gunn Helene; Helseth, Sølvi

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the school experiences of children with physical (dis)abilities. Based on 39 interviews with 15 Norwegian children, participation in everyday school life is introduced as a central theme and divided into three sub-themes: community and independence; adequate help and influence in the classroom; and influence in planning and…

  16. Screening and Assessment for Physical and Mental Health Issues That Impact TANF Recipients' Ability To Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Fredrica D.

    2001-01-01

    This document examines screening and assessment for physical and mental health conditions that impact Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients' ability to work. The document begins by defining screening and assessment and discussing their relevance for agencies serving TANF recipients. The next section answers policy questions…

  17. Corrections Officer Physical Abilities Report. Standards and Training for Corrections Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Board of Corrections, Sacramento.

    A study examined the physical ability requirements for entry-level corrections officers in the California. The study, which was undertaken at the request of the California Board of Corrections, had the following objectives: statewide job analysis of the requirements of three entry-level positions in county agencies--corrections officer, probation…

  18. Orientation to the Social vs. Physical Environment: Relationship to Intellectual Abilities of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Kay D.

    In this study, preferences for activities with people vs. objects were examined in preschool children and related to two kinds of intellectual abilities. Children with high object orientation were expected to be relatively advanced in organizing and classifying physical objects. In contrast, children with high people orientation were expected to…

  19. Effects of combined ferrous sulphate administration and exposure to static magnetic field on spatial learning and motor abilities in rats.

    PubMed

    Maaroufi, Karima; Ammari, Mohamed; Elferchichi, Miryam; Poucet, Bruno; Sakly, Mohsen; Save, Etienne; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2013-01-01

    Occupational exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) increases, in particular due to the widespread use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for medical diagnosis, thus raising health concerns. This study investigated the behavioural effects of 128 mT SMF in rats and examined the hypothesis that iron supplementation (3 mg kg(-1) for 5 days) potentiate the effects of SMF. Spatial learning abilities in the water maze, motor co-ordination in the rotarod and motor skills in the stationary beam and suspending string tests were assessed in iron-treated, SMF-exposed and co-exposed SMF-iron rats. Acquisition of the water maze navigation task was unaffected in all groups. SMF-exposed and iron-treated rats showed a deficit in the 7-day retention test. No deficit was found in the rotarod and suspended string tests in all groups. Only iron-treated rats were impaired in the stationary beam test. A combination of iron and SMF treatments did not produce additional degradation of performance in all tests. SMF exposure had no massive effect but affected long-term spatial memory. Iron supplementation and 128 mT SMF had no synergistic effects.

  20. Characterizing skill acquisition through motor imagery with no prior physical practice.

    PubMed

    Kraeutner, Sarah N; MacKenzie, Laura A; Westwood, David A; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-02-01

    Motor learning depends upon plasticity in neural networks involved in the planning and execution of movement. Physical practice (PP) is the primary means of motor learning, but it can be augmented with nonphysical forms of practice including motor imagery (MI)-the mental rehearsal of movement. It is unknown if MI alone, without prior PP of a movement, can produce robust learning. Here the authors used an implicit sequence learning task to explore motor learning via MI alone or PP. Participants underwent implicit sequence learning training via MI (n = 31) or PP (n = 33). Posttraining reaction time was faster for implicit versus random sequences for both the MI group (M = 583 ± 84 ms; 632 ± 86 ms, d = 0.59) and PP group (M = 532 ± 73 ms; 589 ± 70 ms, d = 0.80), demonstrating that MI without PP facilitated skill acquisition. Relative to MI alone, PP led to reduced reaction time for both random (d = 0.65) and implicit sequences (d = 0.55) consistent with a nonspecific motor benefit favoring PP over MI. These results have broad implication for theories of MI and support the use of MI as a form of practice to acquire implicit motor skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Physical activity-associated gene expression signature in nonhuman primate motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Amanda C; Leak, Rehana K; Garbett, Krassimira; Zigmond, Michael J; Cameron, Judy L; Mirnics, Károly

    2012-03-01

    It has been established that weight gain and weight loss are heavily influenced by activity level. In this study, we hypothesized that the motor cortex exhibits a distinct physical activity-associated gene expression profile, which may underlie changes in weight associated with movement. Using DNA microarrays we profiled gene expression in the motor cortex of a group of 14 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with a wide range of stable physical activity levels. We found that neuronal growth factor signaling and nutrient sensing transcripts in the brain were highly correlated with physical activity. A follow-up of AKT3 expression changes (a gene at the apex of neuronal survival and nutrient sensing) revealed increased protein levels of total AKT, phosphorylated AKT, and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3), one of AKT's main downstream effectors. In addition, we successfully validated three other genes via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (cereblon (CRBN), origin recognition complex subunit 4-like, and pyruvate dehydrogenase 4 (PDK4)). We conclude that these genes are important in the physical activity-associated pathway in the motor cortex, and may be critical for physical activity-associated changes in body weight and neuroprotection.

  2. Two-year changes in anthropometric and motor ability values as talent identification indexes in youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Norikazu; Seki, Taigo

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined 2-year changes in anthropometric variables and motor abilities in elite male youth soccer players to identify potential talent identification indexes. This was a cross-sequential study examining two different age groups at two time points. Height, weight, 40-m sprint speed, muscular power (5-step bounding), and change of direction (COD) ability (10 m×5 COD) were measured in 12- and 14-year-old soccer players and repeated after 2 years (at 14 and 16 years of age). Correlations and changes in ranking between the two measurements were determined. Both groups had small ranking changes in height (12-14-year-olds: r=0.80, 14-16-year-olds: r=0.89; p<0.01), weight (r=0.94, r=0.80; p<0.01), 40-m sprint speed (r=0.81, r=0.90; p<0.01), and muscular power (r=0.48, r=0.64; p<0.05), with a statistically significant correlation between the initial values and those obtained 2 years later. However, 10m×5 COD ability had a large ranking change, with no statistically significant correlation observed between the first- and second-year values. Because of the minimal ranking change in sprint speed in normal circumstances of soccer practice, linear sprint speed has the potential to be a useful talent identification index for youth soccer players. On the other hand, muscular power and COD ability is changeable during growth period suggests that these parameters is not useful for talent identification index. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. "Are the Good Beautiful or the Beautiful Good?" The Relationship between Children's Perceptions of Ability and Perceptions of Physical Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.; Bohrnstedt, George W.

    1979-01-01

    Children's ratings were obtained, examining reciprocal feedback between perceptions of physical attractiveness and ability. Data supported the conclusion that perceptions of ability affect those of physical attractiveness but not vice versa. The role of the relative ambiguity of stimuli associated with physical attractiveness may explain the…

  4. Associations among Elementary School Children’s Actual Motor Competence, Perceived Motor Competence, Physical Activity and BMI: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Stodden, David; Brian, Ali; True, Larissa; Cardon, Greet; Tallir, Isabel; Haerens, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Background Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Materials and Methods Children’s (N = 361; 180 boys = 50%; Mage = 9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor competence was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and their perceived motor competence via the Self Perception Profile for Children. We assessed physical activity via accelerometers; height through stadiometers, and weight through scales. Cluster analyses (aim 1) and MANCOVAs (aim 2 & 3) were used to analyze the data. Results The analysis generated two predictable groups: one group displaying relatively high levels of both actual (M TGMD-2 percentile = 42.54, SD = 2.33) and perceived motor competence (M = 3.42, SD = .37; high-high), and one group with relatively low levels of both (M percentile = 9.71, SD = 3.21; M PMC = 2.52, SD = .35; low-low). One additional group was also identified as having relatively low levels of actual motor competence (M percentile = 4.22, SD = 2.85) but relatively high levels of perceived motor competence (M = 3.52, SD = .30; low-high). The high-high group demonstrated higher daily physical activity (M = 48.39±2.03) and lower BMI (M = 18.13±.43) than the low-low group (MMVPA = 37.93±2.01; MBMI = 20.22±.42). The low-high group had similar physical activity-levels as the low-low group (M = 36.21±2.18) and did not significantly differ in BMI (M = 19.49±.46) from the other two groups. Conclusions A combination of high actual and perceived motor competence is related to higher physical activity and lower weight status. It is thus

  5. Motor control. How posture and movements are governed.

    PubMed

    Brooks, V B

    1983-05-01

    This article is a review of the nature of motor control: the abilities and limitations of the body, the principles of doing and learning, how parts of the nervous system interact, and how information is processed to generate the blend of sensory, perceptive, and motor functions that we call motor control. The relation to physical therapy is stressed: PT is regarded as an emerging applied science of motor control, and motor control is regarded as a basic science of physical therapy.

  6. Dose-response association between leisure time physical activity and work ability: Cross-sectional study among 3000 workers.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Casaña, Jose; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-12-01

    Regular physical activity is important for longevity and health, but knowledge about the optimal dose of physical activity for maintaining good work ability is unknown. This study investigates the association between intensity and duration of physical activity during leisure time and work ability in relation to physical demands of the job. From the 2010 round of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study, currently employed wage earners with physically demanding work (n = 2952) replied to questions about work, lifestyle and health. Excellent (100 points), very good (75 points), good (50 points), fair (25 points) and poor (0 points) work ability in relation to the physical demands of the job was experienced by 18%, 40%, 30%, 10% and 2% of the respondents, respectively. General linear models that controlled for gender, age, physical and psychosocial work factors, lifestyle and chronic disease showed that the duration of high-intensity physical activity during leisure was positively associated with work ability, in a dose-response fashion (p < 0.001). Those performing ⩾ 5 hours of high-intensity physical activity per week had on average 8 points higher work ability than those not performing such activities. The duration of low-intensity leisure-time physical activity was not associated with work ability (p = 0.5668). The duration of high-intensity physical activity during leisure time is associated in a dose-response fashion with work ability, in workers with physically demanding jobs. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. [Clinical techniques for use in neurological physical examinations. II. Motor and reflex functions].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, P L; Rodríguez-Pupo, L; Rodríguez-García, D

    The aim of this study is to highlight the chief practical aspects of the techniques used in the neurological physical examination of the motor and reflex functions. We recommend clinicians to carry out a brief but consistent and effective exploration in a systematic, flexible and orderly manner to check for abnormalities in the motor and reflex functions of the nervous system. Should any anomalies be detected, then a more detailed and thorough neurological exploration must be performed selectively. We present a detailed review of the practical aspects of the main techniques used in the physical examination of these neurological categories. The motor function is explored using techniques that examine muscle tone, muscle strength, muscle fatigability, hypokinesia, tremor, coordination and gait. Lastly, in this category several manoeuvres that are useful in hysterical or mimicking paralyses are also dealt with. Reflexes to examination are usually divided into: 1. Myotatic reflexes; 2. Cutaneomucous reflexes; 3. Spinal cord or defence automatism reflexes; 4. Posture and attitude reflexes. We also add the study of primitive pathological reflexes, remote reflexes, synkinesias and signs of meningeal irritation. We present a detailed description of the main clinical techniques used in the neurological physical examination of motility and reflexes, as well as an approach that allows them to be performed on adult patients. In addition, we underline the importance of physically examining the nervous system in contemporary medicine and the need to continually perfect the way these techniques are performed in order to achieve an efficient clinical practice.

  8. An Operational Model of Motor Skill Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinheiro, Victor E. D.; Simon, Herbert A.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to diagnose motor skills is important for physical educators. The paper discusses processes critical in motor skill diagnosis, proposing an operational model of motor skill development diagnosis for teacher educators and practitioners. The model provides a foundation upon which to build instructional strategies for developing…

  9. Tracking cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in children with and without motor coordination problems.

    PubMed

    Cairney, John; Veldhuizen, Scott; King-Dowling, Sara; Faught, Brent E; Hay, John

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has shown children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have lower cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) than typically developing (TD) children. This has been hypothesized to be due to an activity deficit, whereby poor motor functioning discourages children from participating in physical activities, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In this study, we use longitudinal data to measure the extent to which physical activity explains differences in CRF between children with and without motor coordination deficits. Longitudinal observational study. The study sample is an open cohort of children, numbering 2278 at baseline (age 9-10), that was followed for up to 5 years (to age 13-14). Motor skills were assessed once over the study period. Children scoring at or below the 5th percentile (n=103) on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form were considered to have possible DCD (pDCD). CRF (estimated peak VO2) was estimated from performance on the Léger 20m shuttle run test, and physical activity was measured with the Participation Questionnaire. Both fitness and physical activity were measured up to 7 times over the study period. Children with pDCD had significantly lower CRF than their TD peers at each time point. CRF declined for both groups, but this decline was steeper for children with pDCD. Physical activity explained only a small part of the difference in CRF. The activity deficit did not contribute to the persistent and gradually widening gap in CRF between children with and without possible DCD. Possible reasons for this and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Disrupting the supplementary motor area makes physical effort appear less effortful.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2015-06-10

    The perception of physical effort is relatively unaffected by the suppression of sensory afferences, indicating that this function relies mostly on the processing of the central motor command. Neural signals in the supplementary motor area (SMA) correlate with the intensity of effort, suggesting that the motor signal involved in effort perception could originate from this area, but experimental evidence supporting this view is still lacking. Here, we tested this hypothesis by disrupting neural activity in SMA, in primary motor cortex (M1), or in a control site by means of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, while measuring effort perception during grip forces of different intensities. After each grip force exertion, participants had the opportunity to either accept or refuse to replicate the same effort for varying amounts of reward. In addition to the subjective rating of perceived exertion, effort perception was estimated on the basis of the acceptance rate, the effort replication accuracy, the influence of the effort exerted in trial t on trial t+1, and pupil dilation. We found that disruption of SMA activity, but not of M1, led to a consistent decrease in effort perception, whatever the measure used to assess it. Accordingly, we modeled effort perception in a structural equation model and found that only SMA disruption led to a significant alteration of effort perception. These findings indicate that effort perception relies on the processing of a signal originating from motor-related neural circuits upstream of M1 and that SMA is a key node of this network.

  11. Gross motor performance and physical fitness in children with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J; Van Wieringen, Piet C W; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J

    2011-02-01

    Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). One hundred children receiving psychiatric care (81 males, 19 females, mean age 9y 11mo, SD 1y 8mo) completed both the Test of Gross Motor Development, measuring locomotion and object control, and the Motor Performance test, measuring neuromotor and aerobic fitness. The emotional disorders, behavioural disorders (BD), and PDD subgroups consisted of 17, 44 and 39 children respectively. The mean gross motor performance scores of the BD and PDD group were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the score of the emotional disorders group, but even the latter score was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the population norm score. Physical fitness was poor in all subgroups. The subdomains locomotion and object control were unusually highly correlated in the PDD group (r = 0.68). Moreover, only in the PDD group were the locomotion scores significantly correlated with neuromotor fitness (r = 0.47, p = 0.02). The specific combinations of impairments in gross motor skills and physical fitness in children with psychiatric disorders indicate the importance of the assessment of these domains in order to provide interventions tailored to the specific profile of each individual child. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  12. The impact of physical activity on motor preparation in young adults.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, John; Finch, Jonathan B; Anson, J Greg

    2017-01-18

    Regular physical activity benefits brain health and function. Physical activity performed by young adults is declining. However, the influence of diminished physical activity on cognitive performance and motor preparation in young adults remains unclear. This study measured changes in behavior and brain activity during preparation and performance of simple (SRT) and choice (CRT) reaction time tasks in less and more physically active young adults. Electromyograms were obtained from left and right first dorsal interossei muscles. Midline and hemisphere-specific electroencephalograms were analyzed from frontal and central scalp regions in 11 less- and 11 more-active participants. Physical activity level was assessed by questionnaire (IPAQ). Reaction and premotor times were slower for SRT and CRT tasks in less active participants. No statistically significant difference in contingent negative variation (CNV) amplitude was present between groups. Hemisphere-specific CNV amplitude over frontal scalp regions was evident for both less and more active participants for right hand SRT, whereas only the more active group showed hemisphere-specific CNVs for left hand SRT. Decreased levels of physical activity in young adults may be detrimental for cognitive processing and motor function measured by reaction time and changes in brain activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Valley, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy influences individual behaviors, such as physical activity engagement patterns, and as a result influences the physical and cognitive benefits that are outcomes from engagement. Children with higher self-efficacy are more likely to participate in physical activity than those with lower…

  14. [Motor-independent communication by severely physically challenged patients: neuroscientific research results and patient autonomy].

    PubMed

    Brukamp, K

    2013-10-01

    Motor-independent communication is a novel diagnostic and therapeutic method that is currently in development in order to enable communication with severely physically challenged patients. Some patients with locked-in syndromes or with chronic disorders of consciousness are capable of modulating their brain activities to such a degree that the latter can be analyzed regarding communicative intentions with neuroscientific technologies, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging. Further scientific development and an increasing clinical use of motor-independent communication will aid in meeting essential quality standards for this method. In particular, the requirements need to be clarified under which the method may be utilized to support the patients' autonomy by enabling them to make their own decisions about therapeutic interventions. Communication mediated by technology promises to significantly improve the quality of life for severely physically challenged patients.

  15. Academic Achievement in Physics-Chemistry: The Predictive Effect of Attitudes and Reasoning Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Vilia, Paulo N.; Candeias, Adelinda A.; Neto, António S.; Franco, Maria Da Glória S.; Melo, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Science education plays a critical role as political priority due to its fundamental importance in engaging students to pursue technological careers considered essential in modern societies, in order to face scientific development challenges. High-level achievement on science education and positive attitudes toward science constitutes a crucial challenge for formal education. Several studies indicate close relationships between students’ attitudes, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of student’s attitudes toward the school discipline of Physics and Chemistry and their reasoning abilities on academic achievement on that school subject, among Portuguese 9th grade students using the data collected during the Project Academic Performance and Development: a longitudinal study on the effects of school transitions in Portuguese students (PTDC/CPE-CED/104884/2008). The participants were 470 students (267 girls – 56.8% and 203 boys – 43.2%), aged 14–16 years old (μ = 14.3 ± 0.58). The attitude data were collected using the Attitude toward Physics-Chemistry Questionnaire (ATPCQ) and, the Reasoning Test Battery (RTB) was used to assess the students reasoning abilities. Achievement was measured using the students’ quarterly (9-week) grades in the physics and chemistry subject. The relationships between the attitude dimensions toward Physics-chemistry and the reasoning dimensions and achievement in each of the three school terms were assessed by multiple regression stepwise analyses and standardized regression coefficients (β), calculated with IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. Both variables studied proved to be significant predictor variables of school achievement. The models obtained from the use of both variables were always stronger accounting for higher proportions of student’s grade variations. The results show that ATPCQ and RTB had a significantly positive relationship with student

  16. Academic Achievement in Physics-Chemistry: The Predictive Effect of Attitudes and Reasoning Abilities.

    PubMed

    Vilia, Paulo N; Candeias, Adelinda A; Neto, António S; Franco, Maria Da Glória S; Melo, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Science education plays a critical role as political priority due to its fundamental importance in engaging students to pursue technological careers considered essential in modern societies, in order to face scientific development challenges. High-level achievement on science education and positive attitudes toward science constitutes a crucial challenge for formal education. Several studies indicate close relationships between students' attitudes, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of student's attitudes toward the school discipline of Physics and Chemistry and their reasoning abilities on academic achievement on that school subject, among Portuguese 9th grade students using the data collected during the Project Academic Performance and Development: a longitudinal study on the effects of school transitions in Portuguese students (PTDC/CPE-CED/104884/2008). The participants were 470 students (267 girls - 56.8% and 203 boys - 43.2%), aged 14-16 years old (μ = 14.3 ± 0.58). The attitude data were collected using the Attitude toward Physics-Chemistry Questionnaire (ATPCQ) and, the Reasoning Test Battery (RTB) was used to assess the students reasoning abilities. Achievement was measured using the students' quarterly (9-week) grades in the physics and chemistry subject. The relationships between the attitude dimensions toward Physics-chemistry and the reasoning dimensions and achievement in each of the three school terms were assessed by multiple regression stepwise analyses and standardized regression coefficients (β), calculated with IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. Both variables studied proved to be significant predictor variables of school achievement. The models obtained from the use of both variables were always stronger accounting for higher proportions of student's grade variations. The results show that ATPCQ and RTB had a significantly positive relationship with student's achievement in

  17. The Effects of Basic Gymnastics Training Integrated with Physical Education Courses on Selected Motor Performance Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpkaya, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of gymnastics training integrated with physical education courses on selected motor performance variables in seven year old girls. Subjects were divided into two groups: (1) control group (N=15, X=7.56 plus or minus 0.46 year old); (2) gymnastics group (N=16, X=7.60 plus or minus 0.50 year…

  18. The Effects of Basic Gymnastics Training Integrated with Physical Education Courses on Selected Motor Performance Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpkaya, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of gymnastics training integrated with physical education courses on selected motor performance variables in seven year old girls. Subjects were divided into two groups: (1) control group (N=15, X=7.56 plus or minus 0.46 year old); (2) gymnastics group (N=16, X=7.60 plus or minus 0.50 year…

  19. Comparative Study of Motor Performance of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Reaction Time, Visual-Motor Control and Upper Limb Speed and Dexterity Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gkouvatzi, Anastasia N.; Mantis, Konstantinos; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    Using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test the motor performance of 34 deaf--hard-of-hearing pupils, 6-14 year, was evaluated in reaction time, visual-motor control and upper limb speed and dexterity. The two-way ANOVA variance analysis for two independent variables, group, age, and the Post Hoc (Scheffe test) for multiple comparisons were used. The…

  20. Changes in Reading Achievement, Perceptual Motor Ability, and Behavior Adjustment as a Function of Perceptual Motor Training and Individualized Remedial Reading Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Coralie

    Forty-four 7-11 year-old subjects with normal to high IQ's but who fell in the lower half of their respective age groups in reading were studied to determine the relative effectiveness of perceptual motor training (PMT) and individualized remedial reading instruction (IRRI) upon the reading achievement, perceptual motor development, and behavior…

  1. Motor imagery during action observation increases eccentric hamstring force: an acute non-physical intervention.

    PubMed

    Scott, Matthew; Taylor, Stephen; Chesterton, Paul; Vogt, Stefan; Eaves, Daniel Lloyd

    2017-03-21

    Rehabilitation professionals typically use motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO) to increase physical strength for injury prevention and recovery. Here we compared hamstring force gains for MI during AO (AO + MI) against two pure MI training groups. Over a 3-week intervention physically fit adults imagined Nordic hamstring exercises in both legs and synchronized this with a demonstration of the same action (AO + MI), or they purely imagined this action (pure MI), or imagined upper-limb actions (pure MI-control). Eccentric hamstring strength gains were assessed using ANOVAs, and magnitude-based inference (MBI) analyses determined the likelihood of clinical/practical benefits for the interventions. Hamstring strength only increased significantly following AO + MI training. This effect was lateralized to the right leg, potentially reflecting a left-hemispheric dominance in motor simulation. MBIs: The right leg within-group treatment effect size for AO + MI was moderate and likely beneficial (d = 0.36), and only small and possibly beneficial for pure MI (0.23). Relative to pure MI-control, effects were possibly beneficial and moderate for AO + MI (0.72), although small for pure MI (0.39). Since hamstring strength predicts injury prevalence, our findings point to the advantage of combined AO + MI interventions, over and above pure MI, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation While hamstring strains are the most common injury across the many sports involving sprinting and jumping, Nordic hamstring exercises are among the most effective methods for building eccentric hamstring strength, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. In the acute injury phase it is crucial not to overload damaged soft tissues, and so non-physical rehabilitation techniques are well suited to this phase. Rehabilitation professionals typically use either motor imagery or action observation techniques to safely improve physical

  2. Grounding Early Intervention: Physical Therapy Cannot Just Be About Motor Skills Anymore

    PubMed Central

    Harbourne, Regina T.; Dusing, Stacey C.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article provides support for 4 interrelated tenets: grounded perceptual-motor experience within cultural and social contexts forms cognition; exploration through early behaviors, such as object interaction, sitting, and locomotion, broadly facilitates development; infants and children with limited exploration are at risk for global developmental impairments; and early interventions targeting exploratory behaviors may be feasible and effective at advancing a range of abilities across developmental domains and time. These tenets emphasize that through the promotion of early perceptual-motor behaviors, broader, more global developmental advancements can be facilitated and future delays can be minimized across domains for infants and children with special needs. Researchers, educators, and clinicians should build on these tenets to further demonstrate the effectiveness of targeted early interventions. The goals of these interventions should be not only to advance targeted perceptual-motor skills in the moment but also to more broadly advance future abilities and meet the early intervention goal of maximizing children's learning potential. PMID:23001524

  3. Effects of Increased Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Marks in Physical Education: An Intervention Study in School Years 1 through 9 in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Ingegerd

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that some children do not participate in sport or exercise because they did not establish early coordination and basic motor skills while at school. Basic motor skills form significant parts of the goals for students to achieve in the Swedish school subject Physical Education and Health (PEH). Aims: The aim was to…

  4. Effects of Increased Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Marks in Physical Education: An Intervention Study in School Years 1 through 9 in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Ingegerd

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that some children do not participate in sport or exercise because they did not establish early coordination and basic motor skills while at school. Basic motor skills form significant parts of the goals for students to achieve in the Swedish school subject Physical Education and Health (PEH). Aims: The aim was to…

  5. Relationships between physical activity and motor skills in middle school children.

    PubMed

    Reed, Julian A; Metzker, Andrea; Phillips, D Allen

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between physical activity measured as pedometer steps and performance on three motor skill tests. A secondary purpose was to determine if middle school children are meeting the recommendation for the number of daily steps. A sample (n =217) of 6th, 7th and 8th grade students participated. Each subject wore a Digi-Walker pedometer for three consecutive days. Subjects additionally recorded their pedometer steps in two 45 min.-physical education classes. There were strong significant correlations between daily steps taken by boys and girls, pedometer steps during physical education class and the AAHPERD Passing Test and the Bass Stick Balance. Similar correlations were weaker for the Side-Step Agility Test. Multivariate analysis of variance was utilized to examine variability of the three skills test by sex and year in school. Differences between students in Grades 7 and 8 on the AAHPERD Passing Test were significant. In addition, significant differences between daily pedometer steps and steps during physical education between Grades 6 and 7 were observed. Boys and girls had similar means on the AAHPERD Passing Test and Bass Stick Balance Test, but not on the Side-Step Agility Test. Scores on the three movement skills tested in this study were not strongly related to physical activity of the entire sample. Steps taken by middle school children appear not to be related to these measures of motor skills.

  6. Longitudinal development of manual motor ability in autism spectrum disorder from childhood to mid-adulthood relates to adaptive daily living skills.

    PubMed

    Travers, Brittany G; Bigler, Erin D; Duffield, Tyler C; Prigge, Molly D B; Froehlich, Alyson L; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L; Lainhart, Janet E

    2016-04-07

    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit motor difficulties, but it is unknown whether manual motor skills improve, plateau, or decline in ASD in the transition from childhood into adulthood. Atypical development of manual motor skills could impact the ability to learn and perform daily activities across the life span. This study examined longitudinal grip strength and finger tapping development in individuals with ASD (n = 90) compared to individuals with typical development (n = 56), ages 5 to 40 years old. We further examined manual motor performance as a possible correlate of current and future daily living skills. The group with ASD demonstrated atypical motor development, characterized by similar performance during childhood but increasingly poorer performance from adolescence into adulthood. Grip strength was correlated with current adaptive daily living skills, and Time 1 grip strength predicted daily living skills eight years into the future. These results suggest that individuals with ASD may experience increasingly more pronounced motor difficulties from adolescence into adulthood and that manual motor performance in ASD is related to adaptive daily living skills.

  7. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start"…

  8. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start"…

  9. Motor ability of forelimb both on- and off-riding during walk and trot cadence of horse

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the motor ability of forelimb according to on- or off-riding during cadences (walk and trot) of horse. Horses and rider selected as subject consisted of total 37 heads of Jeju native horse and 1 female rider. The variables analyzed composed of 1 stride length, 1 step length, elapsed time of stance, elapsed time of swing, elapsed time of 1 step, and forward velocity (x-axis). Two-way analysis of variance of variables was employed for the statistical analysis with the level of significance set at 5% (P<0.05). Trot cadence showed significant difference with the faster and shorter during trot than that of walk in velocity and elapsed time. When analyzed interaction effect in stance and swing phase, the locomotion showed the shorter elapsed time in trot than that of walk, but more delayed in case of on-riding during stance phase, whereas the case of on-riding showed with the shorter during swing phase than that of the case of off-riding These result of horse’s analysis meant that there was very close relation among variables of rider’s weight-velocity-stride length-stride elapsed time. Next study will be necessary to analyze cadence variables added both stride length and rider’s weight for riding activity and rehabilitation during horse riding using Jeju native horse. PMID:26933662

  10. Inter-Relationships of Functional Status in Cerebral Palsy: Analyzing Gross Motor Function, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification Systems in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Ho, Nhan Thi; Dodge, Nancy; Hurvitz, Edward A.; Slaughter, Jaime; Workinger, Marilyn Seif; Kent, Ray D.; Rosenbaum, Peter; Lenski, Madeleine; Messaros, Bridget M.; Vanderbeek, Suzette B.; Deroos, Steven; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationships among the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Using questionnaires describing each scale, mothers reported GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS levels in 222…

  11. Inter-Relationships of Functional Status in Cerebral Palsy: Analyzing Gross Motor Function, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification Systems in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Ho, Nhan Thi; Dodge, Nancy; Hurvitz, Edward A.; Slaughter, Jaime; Workinger, Marilyn Seif; Kent, Ray D.; Rosenbaum, Peter; Lenski, Madeleine; Messaros, Bridget M.; Vanderbeek, Suzette B.; Deroos, Steven; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationships among the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Using questionnaires describing each scale, mothers reported GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS levels in 222…

  12. [Changes in body composition and motor skills of young weight lifters during physical training].

    PubMed

    Farmosi, I

    1989-10-01

    In the course of an intense weightlifting training of young athletes the change characteristics of the first phase was an increase in lean body mass, while in the second phase it was the improvement of motor abilities. Obviously, the improvement of weightlifting performance took place at a pace matching motor conduction development. The influence to be drawn concerning training methodology is that at least a half or one whole year of conditioning is necessary to create the somatic and functional preconditions of a possibly correct execution of the weightlifting technique. This finding warns against encouraging to take in competitions at an early age as well as against employing great weights in training, because both of these are likely to severely disturb outlined healthy sequence of morphological and functional development.

  13. Differentiating technical skill and motor abilities in selected and non-selected 3-5 year old team-sports players.

    PubMed

    Archer, David T; Drysdale, Kristian; Bradley, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the difference in 22 3-5year old boys selected to an advanced or non-advanced group on an English community-based professional club training program. Time to complete 15m linear sprint and 15m zig-zag agility tests, with and without a ball, were used to assess the children's technical skill and motor ability. Age and body mass of both groups were the same, whereas height was greater and BMI was lower in the selected group (p<0.01). Linear sprint times without and with the ball were 3.98±0.35 and 4.44±0.36s, respectively for the selected and corresponding times were 4.64±1.04 and 11.2±5.37s for the non-selected (p<0.01, ES 0.8, 1.8). Similar results were found when a change of movement was included, both with and without the ball. A model of selection indicated that performance in an agility test with the ball and height had the greatest discriminatory power and explained 95.5% of between group variance. Selected players performed significantly better in tests when ball control was required. These findings suggest that technical proficiency and physical differences may influence team selection in three to five year old children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship of Logical Thinking and Disembedding Ability to a Conceptual Shift Using a Physical Science Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Abigail

    This study describes the relationship of two cognitive variables, logical thinking and disembedding ability, to learners' abilities to make conceptual shifts from less acceptable to more acceptable conceptual understandings of a physical phenomenon. The difference in the logical thinking and disembedding ability of students who exhibited different…

  15. The impact of aesthetic evaluation and physical ability on dance perception.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Kirsch, Louise; Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The field of neuroaesthetics attracts attention from neuroscientists and artists interested in the neural underpinnings of esthetic experience. Though less studied than the neuroaesthetics of visual art, dance neuroaesthetics is a particularly rich subfield to explore, as it is informed not only by research on the neurobiology of aesthetics, but also by an extensive literature on how action experience shapes perception. Moreover, it is ideally suited to explore the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience, which posits that activation within sensorimotor areas of the brain, known as the action observation network (AON), is a critical element of the esthetic response. In the present study, we address how observers' esthetic evaluation of dance is related to their perceived physical ability to reproduce the movements they watch. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating how much they liked and how well they thought they could physically replicate a range of dance movements performed by professional ballet dancers. We used parametric analyses to evaluate brain regions that tracked with degree of liking and perceived physical ability. The findings reveal strongest activation of occipitotemporal and parietal portions of the AON when participants view movements they rate as both esthetically pleasing and difficult to reproduce. As such, these findings begin to illuminate how the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience might apply to watching dance, and provide preliminary evidence as to why some people find enjoyment in an evening at the ballet.

  16. The Impact of Aesthetic Evaluation and Physical Ability on Dance Perception

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Emily S.; Kirsch, Louise; Ticini, Luca F.; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The field of neuroaesthetics attracts attention from neuroscientists and artists interested in the neural underpinnings of esthetic experience. Though less studied than the neuroaesthetics of visual art, dance neuroaesthetics is a particularly rich subfield to explore, as it is informed not only by research on the neurobiology of aesthetics, but also by an extensive literature on how action experience shapes perception. Moreover, it is ideally suited to explore the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience, which posits that activation within sensorimotor areas of the brain, known as the action observation network (AON), is a critical element of the esthetic response. In the present study, we address how observers’ esthetic evaluation of dance is related to their perceived physical ability to reproduce the movements they watch. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating how much they liked and how well they thought they could physically replicate a range of dance movements performed by professional ballet dancers. We used parametric analyses to evaluate brain regions that tracked with degree of liking and perceived physical ability. The findings reveal strongest activation of occipitotemporal and parietal portions of the AON when participants view movements they rate as both esthetically pleasing and difficult to reproduce. As such, these findings begin to illuminate how the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience might apply to watching dance, and provide preliminary evidence as to why some people find enjoyment in an evening at the ballet. PMID:21960969

  17. Problem solving based learning model with multiple representations to improve student's mental modelling ability on physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haili, Hasnawati; Maknun, Johar; Siahaan, Parsaoran

    2017-08-01

    Physics is a lessons that related to students' daily experience. Therefore, before the students studying in class formally, actually they have already have a visualization and prior knowledge about natural phenomenon and could wide it themselves. The learning process in class should be aimed to detect, process, construct, and use students' mental model. So, students' mental model agree with and builds in the right concept. The previous study held in MAN 1 Muna informs that in learning process the teacher did not pay attention students' mental model. As a consequence, the learning process has not tried to build students' mental modelling ability (MMA). The purpose of this study is to describe the improvement of students' MMA as a effect of problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach. This study is pre experimental design with one group pre post. It is conducted in XI IPA MAN 1 Muna 2016/2017. Data collection uses problem solving test concept the kinetic theory of gasses and interview to get students' MMA. The result of this study is clarification students' MMA which is categorized in 3 category; High Mental Modelling Ability (H-MMA) for 7Ability (M-MMA) for 3< x ≤ 7 score, and Low Mental Modelling Ability (L-MMA) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 score. The result shows that problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach can be an alternative to be applied in improving students' MMA.

  18. A model of motor performance during surface penetration: from physics to voluntary control.

    PubMed

    Klatzky, Roberta L; Gershon, Pnina; Shivaprabhu, Vikas; Lee, Randy; Wu, Bing; Stetten, George; Swendsen, Robert H

    2013-10-01

    The act of puncturing a surface with a hand-held tool is a ubiquitous but complex motor behavior that requires precise force control to avoid potentially severe consequences. We present a detailed model of puncture over a time course of approximately 1,000 ms, which is fit to kinematic data from individual punctures, obtained via a simulation with high-fidelity force feedback. The model describes puncture as proceeding from purely physically determined interactions between the surface and tool, through decline of force due to biomechanical viscosity, to cortically mediated voluntary control. When fit to the data, it yields parameters for the inertial mass of the tool/person coupling, time characteristic of force decline, onset of active braking, stopping time and distance, and late oscillatory behavior, all of which the analysis relates to physical variables manipulated in the simulation. While the present data characterize distinct phases of motor performance in a group of healthy young adults, the approach could potentially be extended to quantify the performance of individuals from other populations, e.g., with sensory-motor impairments. Applications to surgical force control devices are also considered.

  19. A model of motor performance during surface penetration: From physics to voluntary control

    PubMed Central

    Klatzky, Roberta L.; Gershon, Pnina; Shivaprabhu, Vikas; Lee, Randy; Wu, Bing; Stetten, George; Swendsen, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The act of puncturing a surface with a hand-held tool is a ubiquitous but complex motor behavior that requires precise force control to avoid potentially severe consequences. We present a detailed model of puncture over a time-course of approximately 1000 ms, which is fit to kinematic data from individual punctures, obtained via a simulation with high-fidelity force feedback. The model describes puncture as proceeding from purely physically determined interactions between the surface and tool, through decline of force due to biomechanical viscosity, to cortically mediated voluntary control. When fit to the data, it yields parameters for the inertial mass of the tool/person coupling, time-characteristic of force decline, onset of active braking, stopping time and distance, and late oscillatory behavior, all of which the analysis relates to physical variables manipulated in the simulation. While the present data characterize distinct phases of motor performance in a group of healthy young adults, the approach could potentially be extended to quantify the performance of individuals from other populations, e.g., with sensory-motor impairments. Applications to surgical force-control devices are also considered. PMID:23873494

  20. Physics in cell biology: on the physics of biopolymers and molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Frey, Erwin

    2002-03-12

    "What is Life?" is the title of a book by Erwin Schrödinger, first published in 1944. This book is a bold attempt to try to understand some of the wonders of life in terms of physics, in particular statistical mechanics. Since the publication of this visionary book, we have seen a revolution in molecular biology complemented by the development of new physical tools like single-molecule spectroscopy. The goal of this article is to highlight some examples where physics can contribute to questions in cell biology. One might hope that through interdisciplinary research one can get closer to answering Schrödinger's fundamental question.

  1. Neurophysiological correlates of visuo-motor learning through mental and physical practice.

    PubMed

    Allami, Nadia; Brovelli, Andrea; Hamzaoui, El Mehdi; Regragui, Fakhita; Paulignan, Yves; Boussaoud, Driss

    2014-03-01

    We have previously shown that mental rehearsal can replace up to 75% of physical practice for learning a visuomotor task (Allami, Paulignan, Brovelli, & Boussaoud, (2008). Experimental Brain Research, 184, 105-113). Presumably, mental rehearsal must induce brain changes that facilitate motor learning. We tested this hypothesis by recording scalp electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in two groups of subjects. In one group, subjects executed a reach to grasp task for 240 trials. In the second group, subjects learned the task through a combination of mental rehearsal for the initial 180 trials followed by the execution of 60 trials. Thus, one group physically executed the task for 240 trials, the other only for 60 trials. Amplitudes and latencies of event-related potentials (ERPs) were compared across groups at different stages during learning. We found that ERP activity increases dramatically with training and reaches the same amplitude over the premotor regions in the two groups, despite large differences in physically executed trials. These findings suggest that during mental rehearsal, neuronal changes occur in the motor networks that make physical practice after mental rehearsal more effective in configuring functional networks for skilful behaviour.

  2. The addition of functional task-oriented mental practice to conventional physical therapy improves motor skills in daily functions after stroke*

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C.; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Tierra-Criollo, Carlos J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental practice (MP) is a cognitive strategy which may improve the acquisition of motor skills and functional performance of athletes and individuals with neurological injuries. Objective To determine whether an individualized, specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional physical therapy (PT), promoted better learning of motor skills in daily functions in individuals with chronic stroke (13±6.5 months post-stroke). Method Nine individuals with stable mild and moderate upper limb impairments participated, by employing an A1-B-A2 single-case design. Phases A1 and A2 included one month of conventional PT, and phase B the addition of MP training to PT. The motor activity log (MAL-Brazil) was used to assess the amount of use (AOU) and quality of movement (QOM) of the paretic upper limb; the revised motor imagery questionnaire (MIQ-RS) to assess the abilities in kinesthetic and visual motor imagery; the Minnesota manual dexterity test to assess manual dexterity; and gait speed to assess mobility. Results After phase A1, no significant changes were observed for any of the outcome measures. However, after phase B, significant improvements were observed for the MAL, AOU and QOM scores (p<0.0001), and MIQ-RS kinesthetic and visual scores (p=0.003; p=0.007, respectively). The significant gains in manual dexterity (p=0.002) and gait speed (p=0.019) were maintained after phase A2. Conclusions Specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional PT, led to improvements in motor imagery abilities combined with increases in the AOU and QOM in daily functions, manual dexterity, and gait speed. PMID:24271094

  3. The addition of functional task-oriented mental practice to conventional physical therapy improves motor skills in daily functions after stroke.

    PubMed

    Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Tierra-Criollo, Carlos J

    2013-01-01

    Mental practice (MP) is a cognitive strategy which may improve the acquisition of motor skills and functional performance of athletes and individuals with neurological injuries. To determine whether an individualized, specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional physical therapy (PT), promoted better learning of motor skills in daily functions in individuals with chronic stroke (13 ± 6.5 months post-stroke). Nine individuals with stable mild and moderate upper limb impairments participated, by employing an A1-B-A2 single-case design. Phases A1 and A2 included one month of conventional PT, and phase B the addition of MP training to PT. The motor activity log (MAL-Brazil) was used to assess the amount of use (AOU) and quality of movement (QOM) of the paretic upper limb; the revised motor imagery questionnaire (MIQ-RS) to assess the abilities in kinesthetic and visual motor imagery; the Minnesota manual dexterity test to assess manual dexterity; and gait speed to assess mobility. After phase A1, no significant changes were observed for any of the outcome measures. However, after phase B, significant improvements were observed for the MAL, AOU and QOM scores (p<0.0001), and MIQ-RS kinesthetic and visual scores (p=0.003; p=0.007, respectively). The significant gains in manual dexterity (p=0.002) and gait speed (p=0.019) were maintained after phase A2. Specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional PT, led to improvements in motor imagery abilities combined with increases in the AOU and QOM in daily functions, manual dexterity, and gait speed.

  4. FCI normalized gain, scientific reasoning ability, thinking in physics, and gender effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    We observe no significant effect of gender on grades in our IE introductory mechanics courses at Loyola Marymount University, but we do observe a significant gender gap on FCI normalized gains, with males achieving higher gains than females. Over the past three years, FCI gains have improved for both male and female students in IE classes taught with the Thinking in Physics (TIP) pedagogy. However, a gender gap on FCI gains remains, even when scientific reasoning abilities are taken into account. Indeed, the gap appears much greater for students with the strongest scientific reasoning skills and the highest FCI gains. Data from IE introductory physics courses using modeling at Edward Little High School in Maine show a similar result with some additional data showing a reverse gender gap for those students with very weak scientific reasoning skills.

  5. Effect of physical fatigue on motor control at different skill levels.

    PubMed

    Aune, T K; Ingvaldsen, R P; Ettema, G J C

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to explore the effect of fatigue on motor coordination, and of prospective adjustment strategies to compensate for fatigue in a multijoint movement. Two male groups (N = 8) participated in the experiment: Highly skilled table tennis players (M age = 27 yr., SD = 2.3, n = 4) and Recreational table tennis players (M age = 25.9 yr., SD = 0.04, n = 4). The task was an attacking forehand drive towards a scaled target on the opposite side of the net. The Highly skilled players adjusted their movement patterns and preserved the task requirements in terms of spatial accuracy under the condition of fatigue by using opportunistic movement coordination. The Recreational players did not adjust their forehand drive, and spatial accuracy deteriorated. The current results support the notion that expertise enhances potential to adjust motor coordination strategies as a reaction to induced physical fatigue.

  6. Physical functioning is related to both an impaired physical ability and ADL disability: a ten year follow-up study in middle-aged and older persons.

    PubMed

    den Ouden, Marjolein E M; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Brand, Judith S; Arts, Ilse E M A; Mueller-Schotte, Sigrid; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2013-01-01

    Identification of measures of physical function that mediate or link impaired physical ability with disability in activities of daily living (ADL) is necessary to facilitate the development of interventions to prevent or delay the onset of ADL disability. We examined whether measures of physical function at baseline are determinants of the Short Physical Performance Battery, as measure of physical ability, and disability, at ten years follow-up. Prospective cohort study in 625 middle-aged and older persons. Physical ability was measured by Guralniks Short Physical Performance Battery (impaired physical ability: score <6) and ADL ability by the KATZ questionnaire (ADL disability: score ≥ 1). Physical function was measured by lung function (in men only), handgrip strength, leg strength, and physical activity. The associations between physical function and the dichotomized impaired physical ability and disability-score were estimated using Poisson regression. Better lung function and higher leg strength were associated with a lower risk of having impaired physical ability, RR=0.98, 95% CI [0.96; 0.99] per 10 L/min and RR=0.97, 95% CI [0.94; 0.99] per 10Nm, respectively. Higher handgrip strength, leg strength and level of physical activity were associated with a lower risk of having ADL disability, RR=0.72, 95% CI [0.57; 0.92] per 10 kg, RR=0.95, 95% CI [0.92; 0.98] per 10Nm, RR=0.98, 95% CI [0.96; 0.99] per point-score, respectively. Additional adjustment for baseline ADL disability did not materially changed the point-estimates (except for handgrip strength). Overall, leg extensor strength was associated with both an impaired physical ability and ADL disability. Other measures of physical functioning were either related to an impaired physical ability or ADL disability. ADL disability may be an intermediate factor for hand grip strength in the causal chain from impaired physical ability to ADL disability at follow-up. The results of this study show that leg

  7. Beyond age and gender: Relationships between cortical and subcortical brain volume and cognitive-motor abilities in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Pangelinan, Melissa M.; Zhang, Guangyu; VanMeter, John W.; Clark, Jane E.; Hatfield, Bradley D.; Haufler, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cognitive and motor functions are interrelated and may rely on the development of the same cortical and subcortical neural structures. However, no study to date has examined the relationships between brain volume, cognitive ability, and motor ability in typically developing children. The NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development consists of a large, longitudinal database of structural MRI and performance measures from a battery of neuropsychological assessments from typically developing children. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to examine relationships between the brain and cognitive-motor abilities. A secondary analysis was conducted on data from 172 children between the ages of 6 to 13 years with up to 2 measurement occasions (initial testing and 2-year follow-up). Linear mixed effects modeling was employed to account for age and gender effects on the development of specific cortical and subcortical volumes as well as behavioral performance measures of interest. Above and beyond the effects of age and gender, significant relationships were found between general cognitive ability (IQ) and the volume of subcortical brain structures (cerebellum and caudate) as well as spatial working memory and the putamen. In addition, IQ was found to be related to global and frontal gray matter volume as well as parietal gray and white matter. At the behavioral level, general cognitive ability was also found to be related to visuomotor ability (pegboard) and executive function (spatial working memory). These results support the notion that cognition and motor skills may be fundamentally interrelated at both the levels of behavior and brain structure. PMID:21078402

  8. Beyond age and gender: relationships between cortical and subcortical brain volume and cognitive-motor abilities in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Pangelinan, Melissa M; Zhang, Guangyu; VanMeter, John W; Clark, Jane E; Hatfield, Bradley D; Haufler, Amy J

    2011-02-14

    There is growing evidence that cognitive and motor functions are interrelated and may rely on the development of the same cortical and subcortical neural structures. However, no study to date has examined the relationships between brain volume, cognitive ability, and motor ability in typically developing children. The NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development consists of a large, longitudinal database of structural MRI and performance measures from a battery of neuropsychological assessments from typically developing children. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to examine relationships between the brain and cognitive-motor abilities. A secondary analysis was conducted on data from 172 children between the ages of 6 to 13 years with up to 2 measurement occasions (initial testing and 2-year follow-up). Linear mixed effects modeling was employed to account for age and gender effects on the development of specific cortical and subcortical volumes as well as behavioral performance measures of interest. Above and beyond the effects of age and gender, significant relationships were found between general cognitive ability (IQ) and the volume of subcortical brain structures (cerebellum and caudate) as well as spatial working memory and the putamen. In addition, IQ was found to be related to global and frontal gray matter volume as well as parietal gray and white matter. At the behavioral level, general cognitive ability was also found to be related to visuomotor ability (pegboard) and executive function (spatial working memory). These results support the notion that cognition and motor skills may be fundamentally interrelated at both the levels of behavior and brain structure.

  9. Gender and motor competence affects perceived likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes among 14 year olds.

    PubMed

    Hands, B; Parker, H E; Rose, E; Larkin, D

    2016-03-01

    Perceptions of the effects of physical activity could facilitate or deter future participation. This study explored the differences between gender and motor competence at 14 years of age in the perceptions of likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes. The sample comprised 1582 14-year-old adolescents (769 girls) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Four motor competence groups were formed from a standardized Neuromuscular Developmental Index score (McCarron 1997). Perceptions of the likelihood and the importance of 15 physical activity outcomes were measured by a questionnaire developed for the NSW Schools Fitness and Physical Activity Survey (Booth et al. 1997). Gender (two) × motor competence (four) analyses of variance and Tukey post hoc were conducted on outcome scores (P < 0.02) using SPSS version 17. Gender differences were found in the perceived likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes within competition, social friendships and injury domains. Motor competence was significant in the perceived likelihood of physical health (P < 0.001), psychosocial (P < 0.009) and competition (P < 0.002) outcomes, with lower perceptions by the least competent groups. Significantly lower importance was perceived for academic outcomes for 14 year olds categorized with low compared with high motor competence (P < 0.005). Regardless of motor competence and gender, the same health and fun outcomes were ranked the highest in likelihood and the highest in importance. Although level of motor competence at 14 years affected the perceived likelihood of health, social and fun outcomes from future participation in physical activity, adolescents highly valued these outcomes, whereas gender affected competition and winning, outcomes that were less valued. Physical activity that promotes these key and valued outcomes may encourage young people's ongoing involvement in physical activity, especially for those

  10. Dopamine replacement therapy does not restore the ability of Parkinsonian patients to make rapid adjustments in motor strategies according to changing sensorimotor contexts

    PubMed Central

    Tunik, E.; Feldman, A. G.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of dopamine replacement to restore rapid motor adjustments in Parkinson's disease was investigated. Medicated and non-medicated patients performed finger-to-nose movements while simultaneously bending the trunk forward, without vision. Trunk motion was blocked unexpectedly, necessitating rapid adjustments in arm trajectories. Patients exhibited irregular hand paths, plateaus in hand velocity, and prolonged movement times which were significantly greater in perturbed trials. Medication improved kinematics but perturbation-induced disturbances persisted and did not approximate the levels of non-perturbed trials nor those of controls. Dopaminergic replenishment in Parkinson’s disease may therefore have limited restorative benefits for rapid context-specific motor control. PMID:17446116

  11. Language and Motor Abilities of Preschool Children Who Stutter: Evidence from Behavioral and Kinematic Indices of Nonword Repetition Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and…

  12. Language and Motor Abilities of Preschool Children Who Stutter: Evidence from Behavioral and Kinematic Indices of Nonword Repetition Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and…

  13. Young children's ability to distinguish past and future changes in physical and mental states.

    PubMed

    Grant, Janie Busby; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Two studies (N = 108) investigated preschool children's ability to use descriptions of past and future events to infer current physical and mental states. In Study 1, stories described characters that either acquired an object or knowledge 'yesterday', or will acquire that object or knowledge 'tomorrow'. Children were asked to identify which character currently possessed the object or knew the information. In Study 2, the terms 'will' and 'did' were used in the stories to identify past and future time. Ability to correctly respond in this type of task requires recognition of the different causal links past and future events have with the present. Five-year-olds consistently performed better than chance on these tasks. In contrast, 4-year-olds' performance was inconsistent across the studies. An appreciation of the fundamental distinction between descriptions of past and future events is essential to understanding the complexities of both the physical and social world. This research suggests that this understanding is acquired by 4-5 years of age.

  14. Physical Aggression and Language Ability from 17 to 72 Months: Cross-Lagged Effects in a Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children’s sex. Methods Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) (N = 2, 057) were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments. Results The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter. Conclusions Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months. PMID:25375971

  15. The Use of Health Related Physical Fitness Tests to Achieve Sex Fair Ability Grouping of Students in Junior and Senior High School Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    The use of health-related physical fitness tests for sex-fair ability grouping in physical education classes requires the verification of two assumptions: (1) that there exists a direct positive relationship between health-related physical fitness and development and/or improvement of various sport skills; and (2) that there is a physiological…

  16. Effectiveness of motor practice in lucid dreams: a comparison with physical and mental practice.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Motor practice in lucid dreams is a form of mental rehearsal where the dreamer can consciously rehearse motor skills in the dream state while being physically asleep. A previous pilot study showed that practice in lucid dreams can improve subsequent performance. This study aimed to replicate those findings with a different task (finger-tapping) and compare the effectiveness of lucid dream practice (LDP) not only to physical but also to mental practice (MP) in wakefulness. An online experiment was completed by 68 participants within four groups: LDP group, MP group, physical practice (PP) group and control (no practice) group. Pre-test was accomplished in the evening, post-test in the next morning, while the practice was done during the night. All three practice groups significantly improved their performance from pre-test to post-test, but no significant improvements were observed for the control group. Subjective sleep quality was not affected by night practice. This study thus corroborates the previous findings that practice in lucid dreams is effective in improving performance. Its effects seem to be similar to actual PP and MP in wakefulness. Future studies should establish reliable techniques for lucid dream induction and verify the effects of LDP in sleep laboratory conditions.

  17. Associations between time spent traveling in motor vehicles and physical activity in Colombian adults from urban areas.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana C; Gomez, Luis F; Mallarino, Christina; Arango, Carlos M; Flórez, Alberto; Nylander, Andrew; Parra, Diana C

    2014-11-01

    Sedentary behaviors are associated with less physical activity. Little evidence exists about this association and its relation with commuting time in Latin America. This study examined the association between time spent traveling in motor vehicles and physical activity levels in the domains of leisure time physical activity and transportation, among Colombian adults in urban areas. A secondary data analysis of the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. Time spent traveling in motor vehicles and physical activity were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Binary logistic regressions were conducted. Time spent traveling in motor vehicles for 120 minutes or more was reported among 27.6% of the sample. The prevalence of walking and bicycling as a means of transportation for at least 150 minutes per week was 34% and 4.4%, respectively. Achieving at least 150 minutes of leisure time physical activity a week was reported by 18.4% of the sample. This study suggests negative associations between time spent traveling in motor vehicles and active transport, with significant trend associations in stratified analyses. No significant associations were found between time spent traveling in motor vehicles and leisure time physical activity.

  18. Motor performance of tongue with a computer-integrated system under different levels of background physical exertion

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Johnson-Long, Ashley N.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Shinohara, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor performance of tongue, using Tongue Drive System, to hand operation for relatively complex tasks under different levels of background physical exertion. Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed tasks that tested the accuracy and variability in tracking a sinusoidal waveform, and the performance in playing two video games that require accurate and rapid movements with cognitive processing using tongue and hand under two levels of background physical exertion. Results show additional background physical activity did not influence rapid and accurate displacement motor performance, but compromised the slow waveform tracking and shooting performances in both hand and tongue. Slow waveform tracking performance by the tongue was compromised with an additional motor or cognitive task, but with an additional motor task only for the hand. Practitioner Summary We investigated the influence of task complexity and background physical exertion on the motor performance of tongue and hand. Results indicate the task performance degrades with an additional concurrent task or physical exertion due to the limited attentional resources available for handling both the motor task and background exertion. PMID:24003900

  19. Effect of Early Physical Activity Programs on Motor Performance and Neuromuscular Development in Infants Born Preterm: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Leila; Sanaeefar, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Mohammad Bager; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Shamili, Aryan

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation. Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks 'from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA). Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention. Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn't have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs.

  20. Effect of Early Physical Activity Programs on Motor Performance and Neuromuscular Development in Infants Born Preterm: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Leila; Sanaeefar, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Mohammad Bager; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Shamili, Aryan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation. Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks ‘from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA). Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention. Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn’t have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs. PMID:28299299

  1. Trends in Automobile Travel, Motor Vehicle Fatalities, and Physical Activity: 2003-2015.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Noreen C

    2017-05-01

    Annual per-capita automobile travel declined by 600 miles from 2003 to 2014 with decreases greatest among young adults. This article tests whether the decline has been accompanied by public health co-benefits of increased physical activity and decreased motor vehicle fatalities. Minutes of auto travel and physical activity derived from active travel, sports, and exercise were obtained from the American Time Use Survey. Fatalities were measured using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Longitudinal change was assessed for adults aged 20-59 years by age group and sex. Significance of changes was assessed by absolute differences and unadjusted and adjusted linear trends. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Daily auto travel decreased by 9.2 minutes from 2003 to 2014 for all ages (p<0.001) with the largest decrease among men aged 20-29 years (Δ= -21.7, p<0.001). No significant changes were observed in total minutes of physical activity. Motor vehicle occupant fatalities per 100,000 population showed significant declines for all ages (Δ=-5.8, p<0.001) with the largest for young men (Δ= -15.3, p<0.001). Fatalities per million minutes of auto travel showed only modest declines across age groups and, for men aged 20-29 years, varied from 10.9 (95% CI=10.0, 11.7) in 2003 to 9.7 (95% CI=8.7, 10.8) in 2014. Reduced motor vehicle fatalities are a public health co-benefit of decreased driving, especially for male millennials. Despite suggestions to the contrary, individuals did not switch from cars to active modes nor spend more time in sports and exercise. Maintenance of the safety benefits requires additional attention to road safety efforts, particularly as auto travel increases. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Balance impairment, physical ability, and its link with disease severity in patients with intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Risha A; Mockford, Katherine A; Mazari, Fayyaz; Khan, Junaid; Vanicek, Natalie; Chetter, Ian C; Coughlin, Patrick A

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether increasing claudication severity is associated with impaired balance and physical functional ability. A prospective observational study in claudicants was performed. Disease severity was determined according to Rutherford's criteria. Patient's balance was assessed objectively using computerized dynamic posturography (CDP-Sensory Organization Test [SOT]; NeuroCom). "Bedside" assessment of balance was performed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test (dynamic balance) and the Full Tandem Stance test (static balance). Physical function was assessed using the Summary Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score. 185 claudicants were assessed (median age of 69 [IQR 63-74] years; 137 [74.1%] men). Fourteen claudicants were classified as Rutherford grade 0, 26 as grade I, 76 as grade II, and 69 as grade III. All Rutherford groups were comparable for age, gender, BMI, and comorbidities. Increasing Rutherford grade was associated with a significant deterioration in objective balance as determined by a failed SOT test: 3 (21.4%) in grade 0; 9 (34.6%) in grade I; 39 (52.7%) in grade II; and 41 (59.4%) in grade III (chi-squared 9.693, df 3, P = 0.021). A significant difference was also found with dynamic balance (TUG test), but not static balance (full tandem stance). Increasing claudication severity was also associated with significantly worse physical function: SPPB score. Specific objective tests demonstrate impaired balance and physical function are common in claudicants and become more frequent with increasing severity of claudication. Simple "bedside" measures may be sufficiently sensitive to detect this. Copyright © 2013 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical Activity, Decision-Making Abilities, and Eating Disturbances in Pre- and Postbariatric Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Merle; Langenberg, Svenja; Gruner-Labitzke, Kerstin; Schulze, Mareike; Köhler, Hinrich; Crosby, Ross D; Marschollek, Michael; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) is considered to have a beneficial influence on executive functioning, including decision-making. Enhanced decision-making after bariatric surgery may strengthen patients' ability to delay gratification, helping to establish appropriate eating behavior. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare a preoperative group with a postoperative group with regard to daily PA, decision-making, and eating disturbances; and (2) investigate the relationship between these variables. The study included 71 bariatric surgery candidates (55 % women, BMI [kg/m(2)] M = 46.9, SD = 6.0) and 73 postoperative patients (57 % women, BMI M = 32.0, SD = 4.1; 89 % Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 11 % sleeve gastrectomy; months postoperative M = 8.2, SD = 3.5; total weight loss [%] M = 33.2, SD = 8.9) who completed SenseWear Pro2 activity monitoring. Decision-making was assessed using a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task and eating disorder psychopathology using the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. The number of patients who were classified as physically inactive was similarly high in the pre- and postoperative groups. No group differences emerged with regard to decision-making, but the postoperative group exhibited less eating disturbances than the preoperative group. No significant associations were found between PA, decision-making, and eating behavior. Patients after bariatric surgery were not more physically active than bariatric surgery candidates, which should be considered in care programs. Additionally, future research is needed to explore the possible link between PA, patients' decision-making abilities, and eating disturbances concerning dose-response questions.

  4. Self-management abilities, physical health and depressive symptoms among patients with cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the predictive role of direct resources (educational level and marital status) and self-management abilities on physical health and depressive symptoms in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our cross-sectional questionnaire-based study included 1570 CVD patients, 917 COPD patients, and 412 patients with diabetes. Physical health and depressive symptoms of COPD patients was lower than those of CVD and diabetic patients. Correlation analyses indicated that self-management abilities were strong indicators for physical health and depressive symptoms (all p<0.001). This relationship was strongest for depressive symptoms. Self-management abilities were related to educational level in all groups (all p<0.001). Regression analyses revealed that self-management abilities were strong predictors of physical health and depressive symptoms in all three patient groups (all p<0.001). This research showed that self-management abilities are strong predictors of physical health and depressive symptoms. Interventions that improve self-management abilities may counteract a decline in physical health and depressive symptoms. Such interventions may be important tools in the prevention of the loss of self-management abilities, because they may motivate people who are not yet experiencing serious problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Does the selection of fox for tame and aggressive behavior changes their ability to focus attention, and training the motor skills?].

    PubMed

    Mukhamedshina, I A; Kharlamova, A V; Trut, L N

    2014-01-01

    Foxes long time selected for tame and aggressive behavior were compared on ability to focus attention on the object of food reinforcement. Attenuation of this behavior and rate of training for motor skills also has been examined. Maximal duration of eye focusing was significantly higher in aggressive foxes, in comparison with tame ones. Our experiments allowed divide the group of tame foxes into two subgroups "calm" and "emotional", on the base of emotionality and motor activity during tests. Features of behavior of these two subgroups steadily differed in all tests. "Calm" tame foxes at the extinction test continued the trained skill longer than "emotional" and aggressive ones. Tame foxes were more successful than aggressive in the training for motor skills. The possible reasons of the data obtained are discussed.

  6. The effects of an early motor skill intervention on motor skills, levels of physical activity, and socialization in young children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ketcheson, Leah; Hauck, Janet; Ulrich, Dale

    2017-05-01

    Despite evidence suggesting one of the earliest indicators of an eventual autism spectrum disorder diagnoses is an early motor delay, there remain very few interventions targeting motor behavior as the primary outcome for young children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this pilot study was to measure the efficacy of an intensive motor skill intervention on motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), physical activity (accelerometers), and socialization (Playground Observation of Peer Engagement) in young children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 20 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-6 years participated. The experimental group ( n = 11) participated in an 8-week intervention consisting of motor skill instruction for 4 h/day, 5 days/week. The control group ( n = 9) did not receive the intervention. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant differences between groups in all three motor outcomes, locomotor ( F(1, 14) = 10.07, p < 0.001, partial η(2) = 0.42), object control ( F(1, 14) = 12.90, p < 0.001, partial η(2) = 0.48), and gross quotient ( F(1, 14) = 15.61, p < 0.01, partial η(2) = 0.53). Findings shed light on the importance of including motor programming as part of the early intervention services delivered to young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  7. Motor Performance as Predictor of Physical Activity in Children: The CHAMPS Study-DK.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Junge, Tina; Rexen, Christina Trifonov; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with several health benefits in children, and PA habits developed in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. PA may be the foundation of a healthy lifestyle, and motor performance has been shown to be positively associated with PA in cross-sectional studies. The purpose of this study was to explore the longitudinal relation between motor performance and PA in a 3-yr follow-up study. Longitudinal analyses were performed using data from 673 participants (44% boys, 6-12 yr old) who had been included in the Childhood Health Activity and Motor Performance School study-DK. Baseline motor performance tests consisted of vertical jump, shuttle run, hand grip strength, backward balance, precision throw, and cardiovascular fitness. Composite z-scores were generated to express health-related fitness and performance-related fitness. PA was measured by accelerometer at baseline and at 3-yr follow-up and was expressed as a percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Cardiovascular fitness, vertical jump, health-related fitness, and performance-related fitness showed significant positive associations with 3-yr follow-up measures of PA in both sexes. Furthermore, shuttle run showed significant inverse associations with follow-up measures of PA for both sexes. Cardiorespiratory fitness, shuttle run, vertical jump, health-related fitness, and performance-related fitness were significantly associated with time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA at 3-yr follow-up. The clinical relevance of the results indicates that cardiorespiratory fitness and shuttle run in childhood may be important determinants of PA in adolescence.

  8. The influence of a real job on upper limb performance in motor skill tests: which abilities are transferred?

    PubMed

    Giangiardi, Vivian Farahte; Alouche, Sandra Regina; de Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira; Pires, Raquel Simoni; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2017-03-28

    To investigate whether the specificities of real jobs create distinctions in the performance of workers in different motor tests for the upper limbs, 24 participants were divided into two groups according to their specific job: fine and repetitive tasks and general tasks. Both groups reproduced tasks related to aiming movements, handling and strength of the upper limbs. There were no significant differences between groups in the dexterity and performance of aiming movements. However, the general tasks group had higher grip strength than the repetitive tasks group, demonstrating differences according to job specificity. The results suggest that a particular motor skill in a specific job cannot improve performance in other tasks with the same motor requirements. The transfer of the fine and gross motor skills from previous experience in a job-specific task is the basis for allocating training and guidance to workers.

  9. Ability to negotiate stairs predicts free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Matar Abdullah; Dean, Catherine M; Ada, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Which clinical measures of walking performance best predict free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke? Cross-sectional observational study. 42 community-dwelling stroke survivors. Predictors were four clinical measures of walking performance (speed, automaticity, capacity, and stairs ability). The outcome of interest was free-living physical activity, measured as frequency (activity counts) and duration (time on feet), collected using an activity monitor called the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity. Time on feet was predicted by stairs ability alone (B 166, 95% CI 55 to 278) which accounted for 48% of the variance. Activity counts were also predicted by stairs ability alone (B 6486, 95% CI 2922 to 10 050) which accounted for 58% of the variance. The best predictor of free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke was stairs ability.

  10. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified…

  11. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified…

  12. Benefits of Physical Exercise on Basic Visuo-Motor Functions Across Age

    PubMed Central

    Berchicci, Marika; Lucci, Giuliana; Perri, Rinaldo Livio; Spinelli, Donatella; Di Russo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Motor performance deficits of older adults are due to dysfunction at multiple levels. Age-related differences have been documented on executive functions; motor control becomes more reliant on cognitive control mechanisms, including the engagement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), possibly compensating for age-related sensorimotor declines. Since at functional level the PFC showed the largest age-related differences during discriminative response task, we wonder whether those effects are mainly due to the cognitive difficulty in stimulus discrimination or they could be also detected in a much easier task. In the present study, we measured the association of physical exercise with the PFC activation and response times (RTs) using a simple response task (SRT), in which the participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible by manual key-press to visual stimuli. Simultaneous behavioral (RTs) and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were performed on 84 healthy participants aged 19–86 years. The whole sample was divided into three cohorts (young, middle-aged, and older); each cohort was further divided into two equal sub-cohorts (exercise and not-exercise) based on a self-report questionnaire measuring physical exercise. The EEG signal was segmented in epochs starting 1100 prior to stimulus onset and lasting 2 s. Behavioral results showed age effects, indicating a slowing of RTs with increasing age. The EEG results showed a significant interaction between age and exercise on the activities recorded on the PFC. The results indicates that: (a) the brain of older adults needs the PFC engagement also to perform elementary task, such as the SRT, while this activity is not necessary in younger adults, (b) physical exercise could reduce this age-related reliance on extra cognitive control also during the performance of a SRT, and (c) the activity of the PFC is a sensitive index of the benefits of physical exercise on sensorimotor decline. PMID:24672482

  13. The Relationship between Chinese High School Students' Implicit Theories of Ability in Sports and Perceived Enjoyment in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    According to theory, students' implicit theories of ability can affect their motivation and engagement in physical education (PE). Limited research has been conducted to examine the relationships between implicit theories of ability and motivation and engagement among K-12 students in PE. Our study examined the relationship between implicit…

  14. [Comparative study of the effect of Ladasten, Sydnocarb and their combination on physical work ability of laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Levina, M N; Badyshtov, B A; Iarkova, M A

    2006-01-01

    The action of Ladasten, Sydnocarb and their combination used at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg, produce on working ability of mice was evaluated in the swimming test. It was shown that single doses of tested drugs as compared to their combination produce more pronounced and prolonged positive action on physical work ability of animals used in the experiments.

  15. Importance of physical qualities for speed and change of direction ability in elite female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Emmonds, Stacey; Nicholson, G; Beggs, C; Jones, B; Bissas, A

    2017-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of physical qualities for speed and change of direction (CoD) ability in female soccer players. Data were collected on 10 female soccer players who were part of a professional English Women's Super League team. Player assessments included anthropometric (stature and body mass), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), speed (10m, 30m sprint), CoD ability (505 agility), aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test), lower-body strength (bilateral knee extensions) and power (countermovement jump [CMJ], squat jump [SJ], 30cm drop jump [DJ]) measures. The relationships between the variables were evaluated using eigenvector analysis and Pearson correlation analysis. Multiple linear regression revealed that the performance variables (10 and 20m speed, mean 505, and CoD deficit mean) can be predicted with almost 100% accuracy (i.e. adjusted R > 0.999) using various combinations of the predictor variables (DJ height, CMJ height, SJ height, lean body mass). An increase of one standard deviation (SD) in DJ height was associated with reductions of -5.636 and -9.082 SD in 10 m and 20 m sprint times. A one SD increase in CMJ also results in a reduction of -3.317 and -0.922 SD respectively in mean 505 and CoD deficit mean values. This study provides comparative data for professional English female soccer players that can be used by strength and conditioning coaches when monitoring player development and assessing the effectiveness of training programmes. Findings highlight the importance of developing reactive strength to improve speed and CoD ability in female soccer players.

  16. Chemical-physical Properties and Apatite-forming Ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Flow.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Bruno Martini; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Piazza, Bruno; Alcalde, Murilo Priori; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the chemical-physical properties, including pH, volumetric change, radiopacity, and apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid, of a new tricalcium silicate material (MTA Flow; Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, UT). MTA Flow was tested in comparison with MTA Angelus (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil). The pH of soaking water was tested up to 168 hours in deionized water. In the solubility test, the root-end fillings of 20 acrylic teeth were scanned twice by micro-computed tomographic imaging before and after immersion in ultrapure water for 168 hours. In addition, using an aluminum step wedge, the radiopacity of each material was evaluated as recommended by international standards. The mean gray values of the test materials were measured using ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). The morphologic and chemical analyses of the material surface were performed using scanning electron microscopic energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis after 28 days in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). The data were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance with the Student-Newman-Keuls test (P < .05). MTA Flow showed similar alkalizing activity to that of MTA Angelus. In the solubility test, both materials presented lower values without statistical differences. Both materials showed a marked alkalinizing activity within 3 hours, which continued for 168 hours. MTA Angelus showed statistically higher radiopacity values (P < .05). All materials showed the ability to nucleate calcium phosphate on their surface after 28 days in HBSS. MTA Flow showed remarkable alkalinizing capability, low solubility, good radiopacity, and the ability to form calcium phosphate deposits after being soaked in simulated body fluid, showing values similar to those of MTA Angelus. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Birth Weight, School Sports Ability, and Adulthood Leisure-Time Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Cooper, Rachel; Bann, David; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine the associations of birth weight with ability in school sports in adolescence and participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) across adulthood and to investigate whether associations between birth weight and LTPA change with age. Methods Study participants were British singletons born in 1946 and followed up to age 68 yr (the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development). Birth weights were extracted from birth records. Teacher reports of ability in school sports were collected at age 13 yr. LTPA was self-reported at ages 36, 43, 53, 60–64, and 68 yr and categorized at each age as participating in sports, exercise, and other vigorous LTPA at least once per month versus no participation. Associations were examined using standard and mixed-effects logistic regression models. Results Relevant data were available for 2739 study participants (50.1% female). When compared with the low birth weight group (≤2.50 kg), those with heavier birth weights were more likely to be rated as above average or average at school sports (vs below average); fully adjusted odds ratio = 1.78 (95% confidence interval = 1.14–2.77). Across adulthood, those with heavier birth weights were more likely to participate in LTPA than those with low birth weight; fully adjusted odds ratio of LTPA across adulthood = 1.52 (95% confidence interval = 1.09–2.14). This association did not vary by age (P = 0.5 for birth weight by age interaction). Conclusions Low birth weight was associated with lower ability in school sports and with nonparticipation in LTPA across adulthood. Identifying the underlying developmental and social processes operating across life for low birth weight infants may inform the design of appropriate interventions to support participation in LTPA across life. PMID:27580148

  18. Effects of an integrated physical education/music program in changing early childhood perceptual-motor performance.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Sherrill, C; Gench, B

    1981-08-01

    Two approaches to facilitating perceptual-motor development in children, ages 4 to 6 yr., were investigated. The experimental group (n = 15) received 24 sessions of integrated physical education/music instruction based upon concepts of Kodaly and Dalcroze. The control group (n = 15) received 24 sessions of movement exploration and self-testing instruction. Analysis of covariance indicated that significant improvement occurred only in the experimental group, with discharges changes in the motor, auditory, and language aspects of perceptual-motor performance as well as total score.

  19. A multigenerational family study of oral and hand motor sequencing ability provides evidence for a familial speech sound disorder subtype

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Beate; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate phenotypic expressions of speech sound disorder (SSD) in multigenerational families with evidence of familial forms of SSD. Method Members of five multigenerational families (N = 36) produced rapid sequences of monosyllables and disyllables and tapped computer keys with repetitive and alternating movements. Results Measures of repetitive and alternating motor speed were correlated within and between the two motor systems. Repetitive and alternating motor speeds increased in children and decreased in adults as a function of age. In two families with children who had severe speech deficits consistent with disrupted praxis, slowed alternating, but not repetitive, oral movements characterized most of the affected children and adults with a history of SSD, and slowed alternating hand movements were seen in some of the biologically related participants as well. Conclusion Results are consistent with a familial motor-based SSD subtype with incomplete penetrance, motivating new clinical questions about motor-based intervention not only in the oral but also the limb system. PMID:21909176

  20. The Influence of Friendships and Friendship-Making Ability in Physical Activity Participation in Chiang Mai, Thailand High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Taylor, Jerry; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Novilla, Lelinneth M.

    2005-01-01

    Unfortunately, the influence of friendships is a neglected area of investigation in studies of youth physical activity. This study investigated the degree to which three friendship variables (ability to make friends, level of involvement with friends, perceived friends' involvement in exercise/physical activity) was associated with physical…

  1. Investigation of Problem Solving Ability of Students in School of Physical Education and Sports (Kafkas University Sample)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the problem solving abilities of School of Physical Education and Sports students. To achieve this aim, in the academic year 2013-2014, a research group did a study of 433 students of the School of Physical Education and Sports, Kafkas University. This sample consisted of 184 female and 249 male students.…

  2. Investigation of Problem Solving Ability of Students in School of Physical Education and Sports (Kafkas University Sample)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the problem solving abilities of School of Physical Education and Sports students. To achieve this aim, in the academic year 2013-2014, a research group did a study of 433 students of the School of Physical Education and Sports, Kafkas University. This sample consisted of 184 female and 249 male students.…

  3. Do environmental influences alter motor abilities acquisition? A comparison among children from day-care centers and private schools.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Karla Mônica F T; Fragoso, Andreza Gusmão Câmara; de Oliveira, Andréa Lemos Bezerra; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2003-06-01

    Development occurs in a proper rhythm as result of genetic inheritance and environment factors. This study had the aim to identify some environmental risk factors for the motor development in two groups of healthy children. 100 pre-school aged (five years children) from two day-care centers and a private school were evaluated, in Recife-PE. All the children underwent to a motor skills assessment and their parents answered a questionnaire. The children from the public nursery remained behind in fine motor skills. The results showed that the biologically healthy children development can suffer negative influence of the environmental risk factors. In this research these factors were: the father absence, improper toys use to the correct age, the place were the child was kept in the early childhood, the lack of pedagogical guidance and extra-parental socialization and low familiar socioeconomic status.

  4. Spatial ability in secondary school students: intra-sex differences based on self-selection for physical education.

    PubMed

    Tlauka, Michael; Williams, Jennifer; Williamson, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Past research has demonstrated consistent sex differences with men typically outperforming women on tests of spatial ability. However, less is known about intra-sex effects. In the present study, two groups of female students (physical education and non-physical education secondary students) and two corresponding groups of male students explored a large-scale virtual shopping centre. In a battery of tasks, spatial knowledge of the shopping centre as well as mental rotation ability were tested. Additional variables considered were circulating testosterone levels, the ratio of 2D:4D digit length, and computer experience. The results revealed both sex and intra-sex differences in spatial ability. Variables related to virtual navigation and computer ability and experience were found to be the most powerful predictors of group membership. Our results suggest that in female and male secondary students, participation in physical education and spatial skill are related.

  5. Nitric Oxide and the Biological Cascades Underlying Increased Neurogenesis, Enhanced Learning Ability, and Academic Ability as an Effect of Increased Bouts of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    HUNT, SAMUEL J.; NAVALTA, JAMES W.

    2012-01-01

    The consummate principle underlying all physiological research is corporeal adaptation at every level of the organism observed. With respect to humans, the body learns to function based on the external stimuli from the environment, beginning in the womb, throughout the developmental stages of life. Nitric Oxide (NO) appears to be the governor of the plasticity of several systems in mammals implicit in their proper development. It is the purpose of this review to describe the physiological pathways that lead to plasticity of not only the vasculature but also of the brain and how physical activity plays a key role in those alterations by initiating the mechanism that triggers NO production. Further, this review hopes to show a connection between these changes and learning, comprising both motor learning and cognitive learning. This review will show how NO plays a significant role in vascularization and neurogenesis, necessary to enhance the mind-body connection and comprehensive physical performance and adaptation. It is our belief that this review effectively demonstrates, using a multidisciplinary approach, the causal mechanisms underlying the increases in neurogenesis as related to improved learning and academic performance as a result of adequate bouts of physical activity of a vigorous nature. PMID:27182387

  6. Nitric Oxide and the Biological Cascades Underlying Increased Neurogenesis, Enhanced Learning Ability, and Academic Ability as an Effect of Increased Bouts of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Samuel J; Navalta, James W

    The consummate principle underlying all physiological research is corporeal adaptation at every level of the organism observed. With respect to humans, the body learns to function based on the external stimuli from the environment, beginning in the womb, throughout the developmental stages of life. Nitric Oxide (NO) appears to be the governor of the plasticity of several systems in mammals implicit in their proper development. It is the purpose of this review to describe the physiological pathways that lead to plasticity of not only the vasculature but also of the brain and how physical activity plays a key role in those alterations by initiating the mechanism that triggers NO production. Further, this review hopes to show a connection between these changes and learning, comprising both motor learning and cognitive learning. This review will show how NO plays a significant role in vascularization and neurogenesis, necessary to enhance the mind-body connection and comprehensive physical performance and adaptation. It is our belief that this review effectively demonstrates, using a multidisciplinary approach, the causal mechanisms underlying the increases in neurogenesis as related to improved learning and academic performance as a result of adequate bouts of physical activity of a vigorous nature.

  7. The Impact of Physical Activity on Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cusso, Melanie E.; Donald, Kenneth J.; Khoo, Tien K.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss, and Scopus using the MeSH search terms “Parkinson’s,” “Parkinson,” and “Parkinsonism” in conjunction with “exercise,” “physical activity,” “physiotherapy,” “occupational therapy,” “physical therapy,” “rehabilitation,” “dance,” and “martial arts.” Twenty studies matched inclusion criteria of having 10 or more participants with diagnosed idiopathic PD participating in the intervention as well as having to evaluate the effects of physical activity on NMS in PD as controlled, randomized intervention studies. The outcomes of interest were NMS, including depression, cognition, fatigue, apathy, anxiety, and sleep. Risk of bias in the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias. Comparability of the various intervention methods, however, was challenging due to demographic variability and methodological differences. Nevertheless, physical activity can positively impact the global NMS burden including depression, apathy, fatigue, day time sleepiness, sleep, and cognition, thus supporting its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions such as PD. It is recommended that further adequately powered studies are conducted to assess the therapeutic role of physical activity on both motor and non-motor aspects of PD. These studies should be optimally designed to assess non-motor elements of disease using instruments validated

  8. Differences in activities of daily living (ADL) abilities of children across world regions: a validity study of the assessment of motor and process skills.

    PubMed

    Gantschnig, B E; Fisher, A G; Page, J; Meichtry, A; Nilsson, I

    2015-03-01

    One important goal of paediatric occupational therapy services is to improve activities of daily living (ADL) abilities of children. In order to plan and evaluate the effectiveness of targeted interventions, valid assessments are critically needed. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) is an internationally standardized assessment of ADL performance that has not been validated for use with children in Middle Europe. To evaluate for (i) significant differences in mean ADL motor and mean ADL process ability measures among children from Middle Europe compared with children from North America, UK/Republic of Ireland, Nordic countries, Western Europe, Australia/New Zealand and Asia; and (ii) meaningful differences between the international age-normative means of the AMPS and those for children from Middle Europe. We analysed data of children across world regions extracted from the international AMPS database using many-facet Rasch and two-way anova analyses and by estimating contrasts to evaluate for significant group differences. anova analyses of data for 11 189 children ages 2-15 revealed significant effects for mean ADL motor and ADL process ability by region [F ≥ 15.32, d.f. = (6, 11 091), MSE ≥ 0.20, P < 0.001, ή(2) ≥ 0.008], and age [F ≥ 253.47, d.f. = (13, 11 091), MSE ≥ 0.20, P < 0.001, ή(2) ≥ 0.229], and a significant interaction effect for mean ADL process ability [F = 1.48, d.f. = (78, 11 091), P = 0.004, ή(2) = 0.010]. Out of 168 estimated contrasts between Middle Europe and the other world regions for mean ADL motor and ADL process ability, seven were statistically significant (4.17%), but none exceeded ±1SE from the international means. The AMPS remains free of relevant differences in mean ADL ability measures between Middle Europe and other world regions, indicating that the international age-normative mean values are likely to be applicable to children from Middle Europe. The AMPS can be used internationally to evaluate ADL

  9. Fine Motor Skill Mediates Visual Memory Ability with Microstructural Neuro-correlates in Cerebellar Peduncles in Prematurely Born Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alyssa R; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Ment, Laura R; Scheinost, Dustin

    2017-01-19

    Adolescents born preterm (PT) with no evidence of neonatal brain injury are at risk of deficits in visual memory and fine motor skills that diminish academic performance. The association between these deficits and white matter microstructure is relatively unexplored. We studied 190 PTs with no brain injury and 92 term controls at age 16 years. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF), the Beery visual-motor integration (VMI), and the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) were collected for all participants, while a subset (40 PTs and 40 terms) underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. PTs performed more poorly than terms on ROCF, VMI, and GPT (all P < 0.01). Mediation analysis showed fine motor skill (GPT score) significantly mediates group difference in ROCF and VMI (all P < 0.001). PTs showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05, corrected) between fractional anisotropy (FA) in the bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles and GPT score, with higher FA correlating to lower (faster task completion) GPT scores, and between FA in the right superior cerebellar peduncle and ROCF scores. PTs also had a positive correlation (P < 0.05, corrected) between VMI and left middle cerebellar peduncle FA. Novel strategies to target fine motor skills and the cerebellum may help PTs reach their full academic potential.

  10. [Growing complexity of cardiologic intensive rehabilitation: motor rehabilitation resources and programs of physical training].

    PubMed

    Michelis, E; Capurro, E; Remaggi, C; Belloni, L; Griffo, R

    2002-09-01

    In the last few years the population referred to cardiac rehabilitation centers has changed profoundly: the number of survivors of acute cardiac events has increased and heart surgery is being proposed to ever greater numbers of elderly patients with frequent and greater comorbidities, which make the management of physical training programs more complex. Consequently, just as rehabilitation cardiologists have had to expand their field of analyses and professional skills and nurses have had to integrate their care protocols, physiotherapists too have had to adapt the management of motor rehabilitation programs to the various needs and problems of each patient in the different phases of recovery. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss the procedures followed in our center concerning both the mode and contents of a standard course of motor rehabilitation for patients without complications and those for patients with complications. The paper analyzes the various assessments, the training program, the instruments of control and verification of the results, and discusses the instruments of intervention in patients affected by complications such as respiratory disturbances, musculoskeletal impairment, complications arising from injury, neurological deficit and severe deconditioning. Finally, the role of the physiotherapist in the active, propositive management of a recovery program is discussed.

  11. Constraint-induced therapy versus dose-matched control intervention to improve motor ability, basic/extended daily functions, and quality of life in stroke.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wu, Ching-yi; Liu, Jung-sen; Chen, Yueh-tsen; Hsu, Chen-jung

    2009-02-01

    Trials of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIT) to improve upper extremity function after stroke have usually not included an actively treated control group. This study compared a modified CIT intervention with a dose-matched control intervention that included restraint of the less affected hand and assessed for differences in motor and functional performance and health-related quality of life. This 2-group randomized controlled trial, using pretreatment and posttreatment measures, enrolled 32 patients within 6 to 40 months after onset of a first stroke (mean age, 55.7 years). They received either CIT (restraint of the less affected limb combined with intensive training of the affected limb for 2 hours daily 5 days per week for 3 weeks and restraint of the less affected hand for 5 hours outside of the rehabilitation training) or a conventional intervention with hand restraint for the same duration. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Functional Independence Measure, Motor Activity Log, Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Stroke Impact Scale. Compared with the control group, the CIT group exhibited significantly better performance in motor function, level of functional independence, mobility of extended activities during daily life, and health-related quality of life after treatment. The robust effects of this form of CIT were demonstrated in various aspects of outcome, including motor function, basic and extended functional ability, and quality of life.

  12. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelopmental therapy was applied. The Pediatric Balance Scale test and standing and gait items of the Gross Motor Function Measure were evaluated before and after intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale scores statistically significantly increased after the intervention. The control group showed no statistically significant difference in either score after the intervention. [Conclusion] Concentric and eccentric control exercise therapy in children with spastic hemiplegia can be effective in improving gross motor function and balance ability, and can be used to solve functional problems in a paretic leg.

  13. Physical capacity and functional abilities improve in young adults with intellectual disabilities after functional training.

    PubMed

    Barwick, Ryan B; Tillman, Mark D; Stopka, Christine B; Dipnarine, Krishna; Delisle, Anthony; Sayedul Huq, Mona

    2012-06-01

    Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have higher rates of obesity, lower rates of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular endurance than do typically developed individuals (TDI) and are twice as likely to develop chronic disease, living half as long as TDIs do. The purpose of this study was to examine the improvements in physical capacity and functional ability in Special Olympic Athletes (SOAs) aged 19-22 years after participating in a functional training (FT) program and compare these scores with those of the SOAs in a resistance weight training (WT) program. Twenty SOAs (13 men, 7 women with mild to moderate ID) participated in a 1-hour FT program, twice a week, for 10 weeks, compared with 22 same-aged SOAs (14 men, 8 women) participating in a 1-hour WT program (2× week for 8 weeks). Prefitness and postfitness tests consisting of heart rate (HR) for the 3-minute step test, static plank, body weight squats, static bar hang, and knee push-ups were conducted. Two-tailed, paired sample t-tests (p < 0.05) were used to evaluate the differences in the FT group. Change scores were used to compare FTG with the WT group. The HR decreased by 31.8 b·min⁻¹ pre-post in the FTG (p < 0.001). Static plank duration improved by 22.4 seconds in the FTG (p = 0.016); static plank change scores improved (p = 0.037) for the FTG (26.5 ± 32.1 seconds compared with that for the WT group (4.6 ± 22 seconds). Height and weight values were unchanged in both the groups. The results of this study demonstrate the value of FT programs for this population, because weight equipment is not always available in many settings.

  14. Assessing the Ability of a VR-Based Assembly Task Simulation to Evaluate Physical Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Pontonnier, Charles; Samani, Afshin; Badawi, Marwan; Madeleine, Pascal; Dumont, Georges

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the process of workstation design tends to include assessment steps in a virtual environment (VE) to evaluate the ergonomic features. These approaches are cost-effective and convenient since working directly on the digital mock-up in a VE is preferable to constructing a real physical mock-up in a real environment (RE). This study aimed at understanding the ability of a VR-based assembly tasks simulator to evaluate physical risk factors in ergonomics. Sixteen subjects performed simplified assembly tasks in RE and VE. Motion of the upper body and five muscle electromyographic activities were recorded to compute normalized and averaged objective indicators of discomfort, that is, rapid upper limb assessment score, averaged muscle activations, and total task time. Rated perceived exertion (RPE) and a questionnaire were used as subjective indicators of discomfort. The timing regime and complexity of the assembly tasks were investigated as within-subject factors. The results revealed significant differences between measured indicators in RE and VE. While objective measures indicated lower activity and exposure in VE, the subjects experienced more discomfort than in RE. Fairly good correlation levels were found between RE and VE for six of the objective indicators. This study clearly demonstrates that ergonomic studies of assembly tasks using VR are still challenging. Indeed, objective and subjective measurements of discomfort that are usually used in ergonomics to minimize the risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders development exhibit opposite trends in RE and VE. Nevertheless, the high level of correlation found during this study indicates that the VR-based simulator can be used for such assessments.

  15. Providing Interactive Access to Cave Geology for All Students, Regardless of Physical Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, C. `; Stredney, D.; Hittle, B.; Irving, K.; Toomey, R. S., III; Lemon, N. N.; Price, A.; Kerwin, T.

    2013-12-01

    Based on an identified need to accommodate students with mobility impairments in field-based instructional experiences, this presentation will discuss current efforts to promote participation, broaden diversity, and impart a historical perspective in the geosciences through the use of an interactive virtual environment. Developed through the integration of emerging simulation technologies, this prototypical virtual environment is created from LIDAR data of the Historic Tour route of Mammoth Cave National Park. The educational objectives of the simulation focus on four primary locations within the tour route that provide evidence of the hydrologic impact on the cave and karst formation. The overall objective is to provide a rich experience of a geological field-based learning for all students, regardless of their physical abilities. Employing a virtual environment that interchangeably uses two and three-dimensional representation of geoscience content, this synthetic field-based cave and karst module will provide an opportunity to assess the effectiveness in engaging the student community, and its efficacy in the curriculum when used as an alternative representation of a traditional field experience. The expected outcome is that based on the level of interactivity, the simulated environment will provide adequate pedagogical representation for content transfer without the need for physical experience in the uncontrolled field environment. Additionally, creating such an environment will impact all able-bodied students by providing supplemental resources that can both precede a traditional field experience and allow for students to re-examine a field site long after a the field experience, in both current formal and informal educational settings.

  16. Forced mild physical training improves blood volume in the motor and hippocampal cortex of old mice.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, R; Fattoretti, P; Malatesta, M; Nicolato, E; Sandri, M; Zancanaro, C

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effect of mild forced physical training on cerebral blood volume (CBV) and other brain parameters in old mice. Treadmill in the animal house. Thirty old (>25 mo) male mice were randomly assigned to one of three groups, exercise (E), exercise plus testosterone (T) (ET), and rest (C). Mild physical training on treadmill (30 min a day at belt speed = 8 m/min, five days a week) with or without one weekly injection of testosterone. CBV, quantitative transverse relaxation time (T2) maps, and cortical thickness were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A significant increase of CBV was found in the motor and hippocampal cortex of E and ET mice; cortical thickness was not affected. T2 maps analysis suggested that water distribution did not change. T administration did not add to the effect of physical training. This work provides first quantitative evidence that exercise initiated at old age is able to improve the hemodynamic status of the brain cortex in key regions for movement and cognition without inducing edema.

  17. One-dimensional chain of quantum molecule motors as a mathematical physics model for muscle fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Tie-Yan

    2015-12-01

    A quantum chain model of multiple molecule motors is proposed as a mathematical physics theory for the microscopic modeling of classical force-velocity relation and tension transients in muscle fibers. The proposed model was a quantum many-particle Hamiltonian to predict the force-velocity relation for the slow release of muscle fibers, which has not yet been empirically defined and was much more complicated than the hyperbolic relationships. Using the same Hamiltonian model, a mathematical force-velocity relationship was proposed to explain the tension observed when the muscle was stimulated with an alternative electric current. The discrepancy between input electric frequency and the muscle oscillation frequency could be explained physically by the Doppler effect in this quantum chain model. Further more, quantum physics phenomena were applied to explore the tension time course of cardiac muscle and insect flight muscle. Most of the experimental tension transient curves were found to correspond to the theoretical output of quantum two- and three-level models. Mathematical modeling electric stimulus as photons exciting a quantum three-level particle reproduced most of the tension transient curves of water bug Lethocerus maximus. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Foundation for the Central Universities of China.

  18. Does Relative Age Influence Motor Test Performance of Fourth Grade Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattie, Nick; Tietjens, Maike; Schorer, Jörg; Ghanbari, Marie-Christine; Strauss, Bernd; Seidel, Ilka; Baker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore relative age's influence on physical and motor tests among fourth grade children (9 to 10 years) from Germany. Data from 1218 children (49% female) who had performed the German Motor Ability Test (Bös et al., 2009) were analysed. The test battery, which was comprised of physical and motor tests, included…

  19. Does Relative Age Influence Motor Test Performance of Fourth Grade Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattie, Nick; Tietjens, Maike; Schorer, Jörg; Ghanbari, Marie-Christine; Strauss, Bernd; Seidel, Ilka; Baker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore relative age's influence on physical and motor tests among fourth grade children (9 to 10 years) from Germany. Data from 1218 children (49% female) who had performed the German Motor Ability Test (Bös et al., 2009) were analysed. The test battery, which was comprised of physical and motor tests, included…

  20. Children with special physical health care needs: restraint use and injury risk in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Patty; Kallan, Michael J; O'Neil, Joseph; Bull, Marilyn J; Blum, Nathan J; Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-10-01

    Physical disabilities may affect a child passenger's fit within a conventional motor vehicle restraint. The aim of this study is to describe and compare injury risk in motor vehicle crashes (MVC) among children with and without special physical health care needs (SPHCN). This analysis, conducted in 2007-2008, utilizes data collected between December 1998 and November 2002 in a cross-sectional study of children ≤15 years old involved in crashes of State-Farm insured vehicles in 15 states and the District of Columbia. Parent reports via telephone survey were used to define pre-crash SPHCN, restraint status, and occurrence of significant injuries using a validated survey. Complete data were collected for 18,852 children aged 0-15 years; 159 children were reported to have a SPHCN (0.8% and 0.7% of children aged 0-8 and 9-15 years, respectively). A greater proportion of children with SPHCN aged 0-8 years were appropriately restrained (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in restraint use among children with and without SPHCN aged 9-15 years. There was no significant association between the presence of a SPHCN and injury risk in either age group, after adjustment for child/driver characteristics (children aged 0-8 years: OR 1.27, 95% CI: 0.48-3.33; children aged 9-15 years: OR 1.51, 95% CI: 0.38-6.11). Children with and without SPHCN have similar injury risk in MVC, despite increased age-appropriate restraint usage among children aged 0-8 years. When counseling families about vehicle safety, practitioners should consider the fit of a child with SPHCN in a restraint system.

  1. Relationship Between ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism and Physical Abilities in Polish Athletes.

    PubMed

    Orysiak, Joanna; Busko, Krzysztof; Mazur-RóŻycka, Joanna; Michalski, Radoslaw; Gajewski, Jan; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga; Sitkowski, Dariusz

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between α-actinin 3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism and physical abilities of male athletes performing various sports (volleyball, ice hockey, canoeing, swimming). One hundred eighty-five subjects were recruited for the study. The following measurements were taken: height of jump and power output in countermovement jump and spike jump (SPJ) and muscle strength of 10 muscle groups. The R577X polymorphism of ACTN3 was typed using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results showed that RR genotype carriers develop greater power output in SPJ than RX and XX individuals (44.6 ± 11.1, 42.6 ± 11.0, and 38.4 ± 7.9 W·kg(-1) for RR, RX, and XX genotypes, respectively) and height of jump in SPJ (0.537 ± 0.075, 0.523 ± 0.072, and 0.498 ± 0.053 m for RR, RX, and XX genotypes, respectively). Muscle strength did not differ between genotype groups. This suggests that the ACTN3 gene has a greater impact on determining dynamic movements than influencing static muscle strength.

  2. Translating good intentions into physical activity: older adults with low prospective memory ability profit from planning.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an intended action in the future and is necessary for regular physical activity (PA). For older adults with declining PM, planning strategies may help them to act upon their intentions. This study investigates PM as a moderator in a mediation process: intention predicting PA via planning. A mediated moderation was estimated with longitudinal data of older adults (M = 70 years). Intentions (T1) predicted PA (T3) via action and coping planning (T2). PM was included as moderator on the planning-PA association. Both planning strategies were significant partial mediators (action planning: b = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.10, 0.29]; coping planning: b = 0.08, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.18]). For individuals with lower PM, the indirect effect via coping planning was stronger than with higher PM (b = 0.06, 95 % CI [0.01, 0.16]). Action planning is important for PA in old age regardless of PM performance, whereas older adults with lower PM benefitted most from coping planning. Intervention studies for older adults should consider training PM and promote planning skills.

  3. Physical Exercise as a Diagnostic, Rehabilitation, and Preventive Tool: Influence on Neuroplasticity and Motor Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pin-Barre, Caroline; Laurin, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of adult motor disabilities in the world and accounts for the greatest number of hospitalizations for neurological disease. Stroke treatments/therapies need to promote neuroplasticity to improve motor function. Physical exercise is considered as a major candidate for ultimately promoting neural plasticity and could be used for different purposes in human and animal experiments. First, acute exercise could be used as a diagnostic tool to understand new neural mechanisms underlying stroke physiopathology. Indeed, better knowledge of stroke mechanisms that affect movements is crucial for enhancing treatment/rehabilitation effectiveness. Secondly, it is well established that physical exercise training is advised as an effective rehabilitation tool. Indeed, it reduces inflammatory processes and apoptotic marker expression, promotes brain angiogenesis and expression of some growth factors, and improves the activation of affected muscles during exercise. Nevertheless, exercise training might also aggravate sensorimotor deficits and brain injury depending on the chosen exercise parameters. For the last few years, physical training has been combined with pharmacological treatments to accentuate and/or accelerate beneficial neural and motor effects. Finally, physical exercise might also be considered as a major nonpharmacological preventive strategy that provides neuroprotective effects reducing adverse effects of brain ischemia. Therefore, prestroke regular physical activity may also decrease the motor outcome severity of stroke. PMID:26682073

  4. Physical Exercise as a Diagnostic, Rehabilitation, and Preventive Tool: Influence on Neuroplasticity and Motor Recovery after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Pin-Barre, Caroline; Laurin, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of adult motor disabilities in the world and accounts for the greatest number of hospitalizations for neurological disease. Stroke treatments/therapies need to promote neuroplasticity to improve motor function. Physical exercise is considered as a major candidate for ultimately promoting neural plasticity and could be used for different purposes in human and animal experiments. First, acute exercise could be used as a diagnostic tool to understand new neural mechanisms underlying stroke physiopathology. Indeed, better knowledge of stroke mechanisms that affect movements is crucial for enhancing treatment/rehabilitation effectiveness. Secondly, it is well established that physical exercise training is advised as an effective rehabilitation tool. Indeed, it reduces inflammatory processes and apoptotic marker expression, promotes brain angiogenesis and expression of some growth factors, and improves the activation of affected muscles during exercise. Nevertheless, exercise training might also aggravate sensorimotor deficits and brain injury depending on the chosen exercise parameters. For the last few years, physical training has been combined with pharmacological treatments to accentuate and/or accelerate beneficial neural and motor effects. Finally, physical exercise might also be considered as a major nonpharmacological preventive strategy that provides neuroprotective effects reducing adverse effects of brain ischemia. Therefore, prestroke regular physical activity may also decrease the motor outcome severity of stroke.

  5. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Methods Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Results Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p < 0.01). Conclusions At this early age, there were no significant weight status- or gender-related differences in global motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion

  6. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children.

    PubMed

    Bonvin, Antoine; Barral, Jérôme; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Kriemler, Susi; Longchamp, Anouk; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J

    2012-03-09

    Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p < 0.01). At this early age, there were no significant weight status- or gender-related differences in global motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion interventions in young children.

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Description of Oral Motor, Articulatory, Short-Term Memory, Grammatical, and Semantic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Marianne; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The communication skills of 8 children (ages 4 to 9) with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS) were assessed and compared with non-FAS children matched for ethnic background, living situation, and nonverbal cognitive ability. FAS children showed abnormalities of the speech mechanism and inconsistent articulation, comprehension, and grammatical abilities.…

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Description of Oral Motor, Articulatory, Short-Term Memory, Grammatical, and Semantic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Marianne; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The communication skills of 8 children (ages 4 to 9) with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS) were assessed and compared with non-FAS children matched for ethnic background, living situation, and nonverbal cognitive ability. FAS children showed abnormalities of the speech mechanism and inconsistent articulation, comprehension, and grammatical abilities.…

  9. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  10. Motor skills and school performance in children with daily physical education in school--a 9-year intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, I; Karlsson, M K

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P < 0.001), 96% of the pupils in the intervention group compared to 89% in the control group (P < 0.05) qualified for upper secondary school. The sum of evaluated marks was higher among boys in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The sum of marks was also higher in pupils with no motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P < 0.01), as was the proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school (97% vs 81%, P < 0.001). Daily PE and adapted motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Affective status in relation to impulsive, motor and motivational symptoms: personality, development and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Tomas; Beninger, Richard J; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Archer, Trevor

    2008-10-01

    The contributions of impulsive and risk-taking behaviour in depressive and bipolar disorders, motivational and motor behaviours in anhedonic and substance addictive states, and the factors, particularly distress and trauma, underlying the development of neuropathology in affective status are described from clinical, epidemiological and laboratory perspectives. In order to distinguish one case factor for biopsychological substrates of health, an array of self-reported characteristics, e.g., positive or negative affect, stress or energy, optimism, etc., that may be predictive or counterpredictive for the propensity for physical exercise and activity were analysed using a linear regression in twelve different studies. Several individual characteristics were found to be markedly and significantly predictive of the exercise propensity, i.e., positive affect, energy, health-seeking behaviour and character, while optimism was of lesser, though significant, importance. Several individual characteristics were found to be significantly counterpredictive: expression of BDI- and HAD-depression, major sleep problems and lack/negligence of health-seeking behaviour. The consequences of physical activity and exercise for both affective well-being, cognitive mobility and neurogenesis is noted, particularly with regard to developmental assets for younger individuals. Affective disorder states may be studied through analyses of personal characteristics that unfold predispositions for symptoms-profiles and biomarkers derived from properties of dysfunction, such as impulsiveness, temperament dimensions, anhedonia and 'over-sensitivity', whether interpersonal or to reward.

  12. Physics of transport and traffic phenomena in biology: from molecular motors and cells to organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2005-12-01

    Traffic-like collective movements are observed at almost all levels of biological systems. Molecular motor proteins like, for example, kinesin and dynein, which are the vehicles of almost all intra-cellular transport in eukaryotic cells, sometimes encounter traffic jam that manifests as a disease of the organism. Similarly, traffic jam of collagenase MMP-1, which moves on the collagen fibrils of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, has also been observed in recent experiments. Novel efforts have been made to utilize some uni-cellular organisms as “micro-transporters”. Traffic-like movements of social insects like ants and termites on trails are, perhaps, more familiar in our everyday life. Experimental, theoretical and computational investigations in the last few years have led to a deeper understanding of the generic or common physical principles involved in these phenomena. In this review we critically examine the current status of our understanding, expose the limitations of the existing methods, mention open challenging questions and speculate on the possible future directions of research in this interdisciplinary area where physics meets not only chemistry and biology but also (nano-)technology.

  13. The Relationship of Selected Measures of Proprioception to Physical Growth, Motor Performance, and Academic Achievement in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubenstricker, John L.; Milne, D. Conrad

    This study investigates the relationship of selected measures of proprioception to measures of physical growth, motor performance, and academic achievement in young children. Measures were obtained from 321 boys and girls attending kindergarten and first and second grade. Sample correlation matrices were computed on all variables at each grade…

  14. The Relationship among Motor Proficiency, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition in Children with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the motor skills and physical fitness of school-age children (6-12 years) with visual impairments (VI; n = 60) and sighted children (n = 60). The relationships between the performance parameters and the children's body composition are investigated as well as the role of the severity of the impairment. The degree of VI did not…

  15. An Exciting Experiment for Pre-Engineering and Introductory Physics Students: Creating a DC Motor Using the Lorentz Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq N.; Boehm, Manfred H.; Bushey, Ryan K.

    2008-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have been demonstrated in some instances to be difficult or uninteresting to students at the collegiate level. We have developed a laboratory that introduces the concept of the Lorentz force and allows students to build a non-traditional DC motor out of easily acquired materials. Basic electricity and magnetism…

  16. An Exciting Experiment for Pre-Engineering and Introductory Physics Students: Creating a DC Motor Using the Lorentz Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq N.; Boehm, Manfred H.; Bushey, Ryan K.

    2008-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have been demonstrated in some instances to be difficult or uninteresting to students at the collegiate level. We have developed a laboratory that introduces the concept of the Lorentz force and allows students to build a non-traditional DC motor out of easily acquired materials. Basic electricity and magnetism…

  17. Directly Observed Physical Activity and Fundamental Motor Skills in Four-Year-Old Children in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, S.; Sääkslahti, A. K.; Mehtälä, A.; Villberg, J. J.; Soini, A.; Poskiparta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), its location, social interactions and fundamental motor skills (FMS) were investigated in four-year-old Finnish children in day care. Six skills in the stability, locomotor and manipulative domains were assessed in 53 children (24 boys, 29 girls, normal anthropometry) with the APM-Inventory manual for assessing children's…

  18. Directly Observed Physical Activity and Fundamental Motor Skills in Four-Year-Old Children in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, S.; Sääkslahti, A. K.; Mehtälä, A.; Villberg, J. J.; Soini, A.; Poskiparta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), its location, social interactions and fundamental motor skills (FMS) were investigated in four-year-old Finnish children in day care. Six skills in the stability, locomotor and manipulative domains were assessed in 53 children (24 boys, 29 girls, normal anthropometry) with the APM-Inventory manual for assessing children's…

  19. Effects of an Integrated Physical Education/Music Program in Changing Early Childhood Perceptual-Motor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judy; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two approaches to facilitating perceptual-motor development in children ages 4-6 were investigated. Fifteen children (the experimental group) received integrated physical education/music instruction based on Kodaly and Dalcroze (Eurhythmics) concepts. The control group received movement exploration and self-testing instruction. Significant…

  20. The Relationship among Motor Proficiency, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition in Children with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the motor skills and physical fitness of school-age children (6-12 years) with visual impairments (VI; n = 60) and sighted children (n = 60). The relationships between the performance parameters and the children's body composition are investigated as well as the role of the severity of the impairment. The degree of VI did not…

  1. Can Quantitative Muscle Strength and Functional Motor Ability Differentiate the Influence of Age and Corticosteroids in Ambulatory Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Buckon, Cathleen; Sienko, Susan; Bagley, Anita; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Fowler, Eileen; Staudt, Loretta; Heberer, Kent; McDonald, Craig M.; Sussman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    motor skill ability seen in the older age group regardless of treatment group. Interaction effects were seen for the walking, running, and jumping dimension of the GMFM with the naïve boys scoring higher in the younger group and boys on corticosteroid therapy scoring higher in the older group. The TMT of climb 4-stairs demonstrated a significant treatment effect with the boys on corticosteroid therapy climbing stairs faster than those who were naïve, regardless of age. Examination of individual items within the upper level GMFM dimensions revealed select motor skills are more informative of disease progression than others; indicating their potential to be sensitive indicators of alterations in disease progression and intervention efficacy. Analysis of the relationship between muscle group strength and motor skill performance revealed differences in use patterns in the corticosteroid versus naïve boys. Conclusion: Significant muscle weakness is apparent in young boys with DMD regardless of corticosteroid treatment; however, older boys on corticosteroid therapy tend to have greater retention of muscle strength and motor skill ability than those who are naive. Quantification of muscle strength via isokinetic dynamometry is feasible and sensitive to the variable rates of disease progression in lower extremity muscle groups, but possibly most informative are the subtle changes in the performance characteristics of select motor skills. Further analysis of longitudinal data from this study will explore the influence of corticosteroid therapy on muscle strength and further clarify its impact on motor performance. PMID:27500011

  2. Physical fitness and health indices in children, adolescents and adults with high or low motor competence.

    PubMed

    Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan G; Tish Doyle-Baker, P K

    2008-04-01

    The overall purpose of the study was to examine if individuals with low motor competence achieve age-adequate fitness and health. A group of 149 children, adolescents, and adults with low or high motor competence participated in motor, fitness, and health assessments. Individuals with low motor competence did not differ on their basic physiological health parameters, but they had less optimal levels of overall health and fitness indices than those with high motor competence. As a function of age, musculoskeletal fitness was significantly compromised for the low motor competence group. The metabolic indices suggested that the low motor competence group had significantly higher BMI's compared to the high motor competence group. Motor skills and static balance were significant predictors of the BMI. Exercise intensity differed between children in the low and high motor competence group. The findings suggest that individuals with low motor competence have compromised health-related fitness. In order to discriminate between individuals with high and low motor competence, fitness assessment should include at least back extension, curl ups, and sit and reach. In addition, health-related fitness measurements such as BMI, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and bone mineral density are also recommended.

  3. MEASURING SPORT-SPECIFIC PHYSICAL ABILITIES IN MALE GYMNASTS: THE MEN'S GYMNASTICS FUNCTIONAL MEASUREMENT TOOL

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Lisa K.; Elliott, James M; Cheng, M. Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Background Despite the availability of various field-tests for many competitive sports, a reliable and valid test specifically developed for use in men's gymnastics has not yet been developed. The Men's Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool (MGFMT) was designed to assess sport-specific physical abilities in male competitive gymnasts. The purpose of this study was to develop the MGFMT by establishing a scoring system for individual test items and to initiate the process of establishing test-retest reliability and construct validity. Methods A total of 83 competitive male gymnasts ages 7-18 underwent testing using the MGFMT. Thirty of these subjects underwent re-testing one week later in order to assess test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a simple regression analysis between total MGFMT scores and the gymnasts’ USA-Gymnastics competitive level to calculate the coefficient of determination (r2). Test-retest reliability was analyzed using Model 1 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Statistical significance was set at the p<0.05 level. Results The relationship between total MGFMT scores and subjects’ current USA-Gymnastics competitive level was found to be good (r2 = 0.63). Reliability testing of the MGFMT composite test score showed excellent test-retest reliability over a one-week period (ICC = 0.97). Test-retest reliability of the individual component tests ranged from good to excellent (ICC = 0.75-0.97). Conclusions The results of this study provide initial support for the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the MGFMT. Level of Evidence Level 3 PMID:27999723

  4. Non-physical practice improves task performance in an unstable, perturbed environment: motor imagery and observational balance training.

    PubMed

    Taube, Wolfgang; Lorch, Michael; Zeiter, Sibylle; Keller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    For consciously performed motor tasks executed in a defined and constant way, both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have been shown to promote motor learning. It is not known whether these forms of non-physical training also improve motor actions when these actions have to be variably applied in an unstable and unpredictable environment. The present study therefore investigated the influence of MI balance training (MI_BT) and a balance training combining AO and MI (AO+MI_BT) on postural control of undisturbed and disturbed upright stance on unstable ground. As spinal reflex excitability after classical (i.e., physical) balance training (BT) is generally decreased, we tested whether non-physical BT also has an impact on spinal reflex circuits. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated into an MI_BT group, in which participants imagined postural exercises, an AO+MI_BT group, in which participants observed videos of other people performing balance exercises and imagined being the person in the video, and a non-active control group (CON). Before and after 4 weeks of non-physical training, balance performance was assessed on a free-moving platform during stance without perturbation and during perturbed stance. Soleus H-reflexes were recorded during stable and unstable stance. The post-measurement revealed significantly decreased postural sway during undisturbed and disturbed stance after both MI_BT and AO+MI_BT. Spinal reflex excitability remained unchanged. This is the first study showing that non-physical training (MI_BT and AO+MI_BT) not only promotes motor learning of "rigid" postural tasks but also improves performance of highly variable and unpredictable balance actions. These findings may be relevant to improve postural control and thus reduce the risk of falls in temporarily immobilized patients.

  5. Non-physical practice improves task performance in an unstable, perturbed environment: motor imagery and observational balance training

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Wolfgang; Lorch, Michael; Zeiter, Sibylle; Keller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    For consciously performed motor tasks executed in a defined and constant way, both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have been shown to promote motor learning. It is not known whether these forms of non-physical training also improve motor actions when these actions have to be variably applied in an unstable and unpredictable environment. The present study therefore investigated the influence of MI balance training (MI_BT) and a balance training combining AO and MI (AO+MI_BT) on postural control of undisturbed and disturbed upright stance on unstable ground. As spinal reflex excitability after classical (i.e., physical) balance training (BT) is generally decreased, we tested whether non-physical BT also has an impact on spinal reflex circuits. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated into an MI_BT group, in which participants imagined postural exercises, an AO+MI_BT group, in which participants observed videos of other people performing balance exercises and imagined being the person in the video, and a non-active control group (CON). Before and after 4 weeks of non-physical training, balance performance was assessed on a free-moving platform during stance without perturbation and during perturbed stance. Soleus H-reflexes were recorded during stable and unstable stance. The post-measurement revealed significantly decreased postural sway during undisturbed and disturbed stance after both MI_BT and AO+MI_BT. Spinal reflex excitability remained unchanged. This is the first study showing that non-physical training (MI_BT and AO+MI_BT) not only promotes motor learning of “rigid” postural tasks but also improves performance of highly variable and unpredictable balance actions. These findings may be relevant to improve postural control and thus reduce the risk of falls in temporarily immobilized patients. PMID:25538598

  6. Structural white matter changes in descending motor tracts correlate with improvements in motor impairment after undergoing a treatment course of tDCS and physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Motor impairment after stroke has been related to the structural and functional integrity of corticospinal tracts including multisynaptic motor fibers and tracts such as the cortico-rubral-spinal and the cortico-tegmental-spinal tract. Furthermore, studies have shown that the concurrent use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with peripheral sensorimotor activities can improve motor impairment. We examined microstructural effects of concurrent non-invasive bihemispheric stimulation and physical/occupational therapy for 10 days on the structural components of the CST as well as other descending motor tracts which will be referred to here as alternate motor fibers (aMF). In this pilot study, ten chronic patients with a uni-hemispheric stroke underwent Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer assessments (UE-FM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for determining diffusivity measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) before and after treatment in a section of the CST and aMF that spanned between the lower end of the internal capsule (below each patient's lesion) and the upper pons region on the affected and unaffected hemisphere. The treated group (tDCS + PT/OT) showed significant increases in the proportional UE-FM scores (+21%; SD 10%), while no significant changes were observed in an untreated comparison group. Significant increases in FA (+0.007; SD 0.0065) were found in the ipsilesional aMF in the treated group while no significant changes were found in the contralesional aMF, in either CST, or in any tracts in the untreated group. The FA changes in the ipsilesional aMF significantly correlated with the proportional change in the UE-FM (r = 0.65; p < 0.05). The increase in FA might indicate an increase in motor fiber alignment, myelination, and overall fiber integrity. Crossed and uncrossed fibers from multiple cortical regions might be one reason why the aMF fiber system showed more plastic structural changes that correlate with motor improvements than the CST.

  7. Effect of hyperhydration on bone mineralization in physically healthy subjects after prolonged restriction of motor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Naexu, Konstantin A.

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a daily intake of fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) on bone mineralization in physically healthy male volunteers after exposure to hypokinesia (decreased number of steps taken/day) over a period of 364 days. The studies were performed after exposure to 364 days of hypokinesia (HK) on 18 physically healthy male volunteers who had an average VO2max of 65 ml/kg/min and were aged between 19 and 24 years. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect the volunteers were kept under an average of 1000 steps/day. The subjects were divided into three equal groups of 6: 6 underwent a normal ambulatory life (control group), 6 were placed under HK (hypokinetic group) and the remaining 6 were subjected to HK and consumed a daily FSS (water 26 ml/kg body wt and NaCl 0.10 mg/kg body wt) (hyperhydrated group). The density of the ulnar, radius, tibia, fibular, lumbar vertebrae and calcenous was measured. Calcium and phosphorus changes, plasma volume, blood pressure and body weight were determined. Calcium content in the examined skeletal bones decreased more in the hypokinetic subjects than in the hyperhydrated subjects. Urinary calcium and phosphorus losses were more pronounced in hypokinetic than hyperhydrated subjects. Plasma volume and body weight increased in hyperhydrated subjects, while it decreased in hypokinetic subjects. It was concluded that a daily intake of FSS may be used to neutralize bone demineralization in physically healthy subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity.

  8. [The effectiveness of physical therapy methods (Bobath and motor relearning program) in rehabilitation of stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Krutulyte, Grazina; Kimtys, Algimantas; Krisciūnas, Aleksandras

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether two different physiotherapy regimes caused any differences in outcome in the rehabilitation after stroke. We examined 240 patients with stroke. Examination was carried out at the Rehabilitation Center of Kaunas Second Clinical Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Bobath method was applied to the first (I) group (n=147), motor relearning program (MRP) method was applied to the second (II) group (n=93). In every group of patients we established samples according to sex, age, hospitalization to rehab unit as occurrence of CVA degree of disorder (hemiplegia, hemiparesis). The mobility of patients was evaluated according to European Federation for Research in Rehabilitation (EFRR) scale. Activities of daily living were evaluated by Barthel index. Analyzed groups were evaluated before physical therapy. When preliminary analysis was carried out it proved no statically reliable differences between analyzed groups (reliability 95%). The same statistical analysis was carried out after physical therapy. The results of differences between patient groups were compared using chi(2) method. Bobath method was applied working with the first group of patients. The aim of the method is to improve quality of the affected body side's movements in order to keep both sides working as harmoniously as possible. While applying this method at work, physical therapist guides patient's body on key-points, stimulating normal postural reactions, and training normal movement pattern. MRP method was used while working with the second group patients. This method is based on movement science, biomechanics and training of functional movement. Program is based on idea that movement pattern shouldn't be trained; it must be relearned. CONCLUSION. This study indicates that physiotherapy with task-oriented strategies represented by MRP, is preferable to physiotherapy with facilitation/inhibition strategies, such the Bobath programme, in the

  9. Sex differences in motor and cognitive abilities predicted from human evolutionary history with some implications for models of the visual system.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article expands the knowledge base available to sex researchers by reviewing recent evidence for sex differences in coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT), motor control with the hand and arm, and visual processing of stimuli in near and far space. In CAT, the differences are between sex and, therefore, typical of other widely reported sex differences. Men perform CAT tasks with greater accuracy and precision than women, who tend to underestimate time to arrival. Null findings arise because significant sex differences are found with easy but not with difficult tasks. The differences in motor control and visual processing are within sex, and they underlie reciprocal patterns of performance in women and men. Motor control is exerted better by women with the hand than the arm. In contrast, men showed the reverse pattern. Visual processing is performed better by women with stimuli within hand reach (near space) as opposed to beyond hand reach (far space); men showed the reverse pattern. The sex differences seen in each of these three abilities are consistent with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting-related skills and women for gathering-related skills. The implications of the sex differences in visual processing for two visual system models of human vision are discussed.

  10. Small forces that differ with prior motor experience can communicate movement goals during human-human physical interaction.

    PubMed

    Sawers, Andrew; Bhattacharjee, Tapomayukh; McKay, J Lucas; Hackney, Madeleine E; Kemp, Charles C; Ting, Lena H

    2017-01-31

    Physical interactions between two people are ubiquitous in our daily lives, and an integral part of many forms of rehabilitation. However, few studies have investigated forces arising from physical interactions between humans during a cooperative motor task, particularly during overground movements. As such, the direction and magnitude of interaction forces between two human partners, how those forces are used to communicate movement goals, and whether they change with motor experience remains unknown. A better understanding of how cooperative physical interactions are achieved in healthy individuals of different skill levels is a first step toward understanding principles of physical interactions that could be applied to robotic devices for motor assistance and rehabilitation. Interaction forces between expert and novice partner dancers were recorded while performing a forward-backward partnered stepping task with assigned "leader" and "follower" roles. Their position was recorded using motion capture. The magnitude and direction of the interaction forces were analyzed and compared across groups (i.e. expert-expert, expert-novice, and novice-novice) and across movement phases (i.e. forward, backward, change of direction). All dyads were able to perform the partnered stepping task with some level of proficiency. Relatively small interaction forces (10-30N) were observed across all dyads, but were significantly larger among expert-expert dyads. Interaction forces were also found to be significantly different across movement phases. However, interaction force magnitude did not change as whole-body synchronization between partners improved across trials. Relatively small interaction forces may communicate movement goals (i.e. "what to do and when to do it") between human partners during cooperative physical interactions. Moreover, these small interactions forces vary with prior motor experience, and may act primarily as guiding cues that convey information about

  11. Developing Physics E-Scaffolding Teaching Media to Increase the Eleventh-Grade Students' Problem Solving Ability and Scientific Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saputri, Affa Ardhi; Wilujeng, Insih

    2017-01-01

    This research aims at revealing (1) the suitability of physics e-scaffolding teaching media with mathematical and image/diagrammatic representation, as well as (2) the effectiveness of the e-scaffolding teaching media with mathematical and image/diagrammatic representation to improve students' problem solving ability and scientific attitude. It is…

  12. Comparison of air-driven vs electric torque control motors on canal centering ability by ProTaper NiTi rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Javidi, Maryam; Erfanian, Mahdi; Lomee, Mahdi; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Cleaning and shaping is one of the most important phases in root canal therapy. Various rotary NiTi systems minimize accidents and facilitate the shaping process. Todays NiTi files are used with air-driven and electric handpieces. This study compared the canal centering after instrumentation using the ProTaper system using Endo IT, electric torque-control motor, and NSK air-driven handpiece. This ex vivo randomized controlled trial study involved 26 mesial mandibular root canals with 10 to 35° curvature. The roots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 13 canals each. The roots were mounted in an endodontic cube with acrylic resin, sectioned horizontally at 2, 6 and 10 mm from the apex and then reassembled. The canals were instrumented according to the manufacturer's instructions using ProTaper rotary files and electric torque-control motors (group 1) or air-driven handpieces (group 2). Photographs of the cross-sections included shots before and after instrumentation, and image analysis was performed using Photoshop software. The centering ability and canal transportation was also evaluated. Repeated measurement and independent t-test provided statistical analysis of canal transportation. The comparison of the rate of transportation toward internal or external walls between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.62). Comparison of the rate of transportation of sections within one group was not significant (p = 0.28). Use of rotary NiTi file with either electric torquecontrol motor or air-driven handpiece had no effect on canal centering. NiTi rotary instruments can be used with air-driven motors without any considerable changes in root canal anatomy, however it needs the clinician to be expert.

  13. Improvement of Spatial Ability Using Innovative Tools: Alternative View Screen and Physical Model Rotator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Brad L.; Towle, Erick; Onyancha, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial ability, which is positively correlated with retention and achievement in engineering, mathematics, and science disciplines, has been shown to improve over the course of a Computer-Aided Design course or through targeted training. However, which type of training provides the most beneficial improvements to spatial ability and whether other…

  14. Improvement of Spatial Ability Using Innovative Tools: Alternative View Screen and Physical Model Rotator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Brad L.; Towle, Erick; Onyancha, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial ability, which is positively correlated with retention and achievement in engineering, mathematics, and science disciplines, has been shown to improve over the course of a Computer-Aided Design course or through targeted training. However, which type of training provides the most beneficial improvements to spatial ability and whether other…

  15. Duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2012-02-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty ratio), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track. © 2012 American Physical Society

  16. Effects of sleep deprivation and time-of-day on selected physical abilities in off-road motorcycle riders.

    PubMed

    Bougard, Clément; Davenne, Damien

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe how the combined effects of time-of-day and sleep deprivation impact motocross riders' physical abilities. Balance, flexibility and maximal anaerobic alactic power were tested across laboratory tests that required only one ability (stork stand test, sit-and-reach test, Abalakov test) or across field tests that concentrated on a particular ability (narrow board riding test, riding under a rod test, long jump riding test) to maximise the sensitivity of the assessments and the interpretability of findings. Eight motocross riders of confirmed level took part in test sessions set up at 0600 and 1800 hours following a normal night's sleep and a night of sleep deprivation, i.e. after 1, 13, 23 and 35 waking hours. On the one hand, the results confirmed the influence of time-of-day on riders' physical abilities, performances being better at 1800 hours than at 0600 hours after the normal night's sleep. On the other hand, as far as sleep deprivation effects are concerned, the results seemed to differ on the basis of the ability under consideration and the type of test that had been set up. Performance in the field tests still presented a diurnal fluctuation, whereas this improvement over the day did not occur for the performance in the laboratory tests. It seems that compensation mechanisms between the various abilities brought into play are set up in order to moderate the effects of the lack of sleep when riding.

  17. The role of parents and temperament on children's estimation of physical ability: links to unintentional injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; Bounds, Marjorie L

    2003-01-01

    Unintentional injuries, the leading cause of pediatric mortality, are caused by a complex set of intrapersonal and environmental factors. The role of three critical variables--parental supervision, children's temperament, and estimation of children's physical abilities--was examined. Sixty-four 6- and 8-year-old children completed a laboratory experiment with a parent. Both children and parents judged the child's ability to complete reaching, stepping, and crouching tasks. Parents also completed a parent-report measure of children's temperament. Both children and parents overestimated children's ability, although children did so more than parents. Parents of temperamentally impulsive and undercontrolled children judged that their children could complete tasks that were actually beyond the child's ability. Temperament also affected children's judgments while parents were known to be present or absent: Temperamentally impulsive and undercontrolled children were more accurate in their judgments when parents were standing next to them than when parents were hidden from view behind a one-way mirror. The mechanism by which parental supervision might protect children from injury appears to be at least twofold: (a) Parents overestimate children's ability less frequently than children themselves, suggesting supervising parents could intervene to prevent children from attempting dangerous activities; and (b) children judge their physical abilities more cautiously when parents are present. Implications for temperament theory and for injury prevention are discussed.

  18. Gross motor control

    MedlinePlus

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  19. Physical exercise at the workplace prevents deterioration of work ability among healthcare workers: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-11-25

    Imbalance between individual resources and work demands can lead to musculoskeletal disorders and reduced work ability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on work ability among healthcare workers. Two hundred female healthcare workers (Age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1, work ability index [WAI]: 43.1) from 18 departments at three Danish hospitals participated (Copenhagen, Denmark, Aug 2013-Jan 2014). Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: 1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed during working hours for 5x10 min per week and up to 5 group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or 2) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed during leisure time for 5x10 min per week. Both groups received ergonomic counseling on patient handling and use of lifting aides. The main outcome measure was the change from baseline to 10-week follow-up in WAI. Significant group by time interaction was observed for WAI (p < 0.05). WAI at follow-up was 1.1 (0.3 to 1.8) higher in WORK compared with HOME corresponding to a small effect size (Cohens'd = 0.24). Within-group changes indicated that between-group differences were mainly caused by a reduction in WAI in HOME. Of the seven items of WAI, item 2 (work ability in relation to the demands of the job) and item 5 (sickness absence during the past year) were improved in WORK compared with HOME (P < 0.05). Performing physical exercise together with colleagues at the workplace prevents deterioration of work ability among female healthcare workers. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01921764 . Registered 10 August 2013.

  20. Functional electrical stimulation early after stroke improves lower limb motor function and ability in activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    You, Guoqing; Liang, Huiying; Yan, Tiebin

    2014-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) to patients early after stroke has been proved to improve walking ability. The effects on abilities in activities of daily living (ADL) are not clear. To investigate the effectiveness of FES in improving lower limb function and ability in ADL of early stroke patients. Thirty-seven stroke patients were randomly allocated to standard rehabilitation (SR) group (n = 18), and FES group with FES and SR (n = 19). SR included 60 minutes each for physiotherapy and occupational therapy. FES was delivered for 30 min to induce ankle dorsiflexion and eversion. Treatments were 5 days per week for 3 weeks. Evaluations including the composite spasticity scale (CSS), lower-extremity subscale of Fugl-Myer Assessment (FMA), postural assessment scale for stroke patients (PASS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and modified Barthel Index (MBI) assessed before treatment, after 2 and 3 week treatment respectively. After 2 week treatment, FES group showed a significant reduction of CSS and improvements of FMA, MBI and PASS. After 3 week treatment, FES group showed a further reduction of CSS and also improvement of FMA, MBI and BBS as well. FES on the paretic lower limbs early after stroke improved the mobility and ability in ADL.

  1. Primary motor cortex changes after amputation correlate with phantom limb pain and the ability to move the phantom limb.

    PubMed

    Raffin, Estelle; Richard, Nathalie; Giraux, Pascal; Reilly, Karen T

    2016-04-15

    A substantial body of evidence documents massive reorganization of primary sensory and motor cortices following hand amputation, the extent of which is correlated with phantom limb pain. Many therapies for phantom limb pain are based upon the idea that plastic changes after amputation are maladaptive and attempt to normalize representations of cortical areas adjacent to the hand area. Recent data suggest, however, that higher levels of phantom pain are associated with stronger local activity and more structural integrity in the missing hand area rather than with reorganization of neighbouring body parts. While these models appear to be mutually exclusive they could co-exist, and one reason for the apparent discrepancy between them might be that no single study has examined the organisation of lip, elbow, and hand movements in the same participants. In this study we thoroughly examined the 3D anatomy of the central sulcus and BOLD responses during movements of the hand, elbow, and lips using MRI techniques in 11 upper-limb amputees and 17 healthy control subjects. We observed different reorganizational patterns for all three body parts as the former hand area showed few signs of reorganization, but the lip and elbow representations reorganized and shifted towards the hand area. We also found that poorer voluntary control and higher levels of pain in the phantom limb were powerful drivers of the lip and elbow topological changes. In addition to providing further support for the maladaptative plasticity model, we demonstrate for the first time that motor capacities of the phantom limb correlate with post-amputation reorganization, and that this reorganization is not limited to the face and hand representations but also includes the proximal upper-limb.

  2. Data on amyloid precursor protein accumulation, spontaneous physical activity, and motor learning after traumatic brain injury in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Shishido, Hajime; Sawanishi, Mayumi; Toyota, Yasunori; Ueno, Masaki; Kubota, Takashi; Kirino, Yutaka; Tamiya, Takashi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled "Traumatic brain injury accelerates amyloid-β deposition and impairs spatial learning in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease" (H. Shishido, Y. Kishimoto, N. Kawai, Y. Toyota, M. Ueno, T. Kubota, Y. Kirino, T. Tamiya, 2016) [1]. Triple-transgenic (3×Tg)-Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) model mice exhibited significantly poorer spatial learning than sham-treated 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Correspondingly, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition within the hippocampus was significantly greater in 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after TBI. However, data regarding the short-term and long-term influences of TBI on amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation in AD model mice remain limited. Furthermore, there is little data showing whether physical activity and motor learning are affected by TBI in AD model mice. Here, we provide immunocytochemistry data confirming that TBI induces significant increases in APP accumulation in 3×Tg-AD mice at both 7 days and 28 days after TBI. Furthermore, 3×Tg-AD model mice exhibit a reduced ability to acquire conditioned responses (CRs) during delay eyeblink conditioning compared to sham-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice 28 days after TBI. However, physical activity and motor performance are not significantly changed in TBI-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice.

  3. Review of Physics Related Research and Development Activities in Nondestructive Characterization of Solid Rocket Motor Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Lee H.

    1998-10-01

    The perception that solid rocket motors (srm) are of relatively simple mechanical construction with a long history in private, military, and NASA applications may lead some to believe that little is left to be done in terms of basic and applied research and development in support of this technology. The fact is that srm?s are very complicated primarily because of the complexity of the materials from which they are built. The reliability and performance of srm?s are determined by the ballistic and mechanical properties of each individual material component, and by the manufacturing processes that conjoin these materials. In order to insure reliability and good performance, there are on-going materials research and development activities in the srm community. Included are activities involving the development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods used for materials and processes characterization. Typical applications include: detection and characterization of defects in fiber reinforced composite materials, detection of weak bonds and debonds, verification of surface cleanliness prior to bonding, characterization of aging materials and bondlines, measurement of elastic properties in filled polymeric materials, monitoring of cure in polymeric materials, and measurement of film or coating thicknesses. NDE methods and physics principles upon which they are based will be described. Challenges and future research and development directions will be identified.

  4. Physical training in man. Skeletal muscle metabolism in relation to muscle morphology and running ability.

    PubMed

    Bylund, A C; Bjurö, T; Cederblad, G; Holm, J; Lundholm, K; Sjöstroöm, M; Angquist, K A; Scherstén, T

    1977-03-15

    The metabolic and morphologic adaptation to physical training in skeletal muscle tissue of eleven middle-aged, physically untrained men was studied. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before, after 8 weeks and after 6 months of physical training for analysis of metabolic and morphologic variables. Glucose tolerance test indicated increased insulin sensitivity after 6 months of physical training. The activities of glycogen phosphorylase, hexokinase and glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase were increased but other enzymes involved in glycogen turnover and glycolysis were unchanged after 6 months of physical traning. The activities of citrate synthase and cytochrome-c-oxidase, representing the oxidative capacity were significantly increased already after 8 weeks of physical training. The incorporation rate of palmitate-carbon into CO2 and triglycerides increased, and the incorporation rate of leucine-carbon into CO2 decreased with 6 months of physical training. The fiber diameter of both Type 1- and Type 2-fibers increased, while the mitochondrial volume increased predominantly in Type 2-fibers. Significant correlations were found between metabolic, physiologic and morphologic variables before and after physical training. The results indicate an increased oxidative capacity, mainly located to Type 2-fibers, and an increased utilization of fatty acids in response to this type of physical training.

  5. Quality of Life and Physical Ability Changes After Hospital-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients With Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life (QOL) and physical ability in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Patients with MI who were referred to the Cardiac Health and Rehabilitation Center 2 weeks after percutaneous coronary intervention were divided into CR and non-CR groups. The CR group performed supervised exercises 3 times a week for 2 months. QOL assessment, using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and physical ability evaluation were performed at the beginning and end of CR. Results The CR group demonstrated statistically significant improvements in physical functioning (PF), physical role functioning (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health perceptions (GH), vitality (VT), social role functioning (SF), emotional role functioning (RE), mental health (MH), physical component summary (PCS), and mental component summary (MCS). The non-CR group showed improvement in RP. Secondary outcomes, including resting heart rate (RHR), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), metabolic equivalent of task (MET), maximal exercise time (ETmax), stage 3 Borg rating of perceived exertion (3RPE), maximal Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPEmax), and stage 3 rate pressure product (3RPP), improved in the CR group. The non-CR group showed improvements in VO2max, MET, ETmax, and 3RPE. There were significant differences in improvements in PF, RP, BP, VT, SF, MH, MCS, RHR, VO2max, MET, ETmax, 3RPE, and 3RPP between the two groups. Conclusion Male patients with MI demonstrated improvements in QOL and physical ability following hospital-based CR; the impact on the mental component was greater than that on the physical component. PMID:28289644

  6. Motor Learning Abilities Are Similar in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Compared to Controls as Assessed by Adaptation to Unilateral Leg-Weighting during Gait: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Diane L.; Stanley, Christopher J.; Bulea, Thomas C.; Park, Hyung Soon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) demonstrate high response variability to motor training insufficiently accounted for by age or severity. We propose here that differences in the inherent ability to learn new motor tasks may explain some of this variability. Damage to motor pathways involving the cerebellum, which may be a direct or indirect effect of the brain injury for many with CP, has been shown to adversely affect the ability to learn new motor tasks and may be a potential explanation. Classic adaptation paradigms that evaluate cerebellar integrity have been utilized to assess adaptation to gait perturbations in adults with stroke, traumatic brain injury and other neurological injuries but not in children with CP. Materials and Methods: A case-control study of 10 participants with and 10 without hemiplegic CP within the age range of 5–20 years was conducted. Mean age of participants in the CP group was slightly but not significantly higher than controls. Step length and swing time adaptation, defined as gradual accommodation to a perturbation, and aftereffects, or maintenance of the accommodation upon removal of the perturbation, to unilateral leg weighing during treadmill gait were quantified to assess group differences in learning. Results: Adaptation and aftereffects were demonstrated in step length across groups with no main effect for group. In CP, the dominant leg had a greater response when either leg was weighted. Swing time accommodated immediately (no adaptation) in the weighted leg only, with the non-dominant leg instead showing a more pronounced response in CP. Discussion: This group of participants with unilateral CP did not demonstrate poorer learning or retention similar to reported results in adult stroke. Deficits, while not found here, may become evident in those with other etiologies or greater severity of CP. Our data further corroborate an observation from the stroke literature that repeated practice of exaggerating the

  7. Motor Learning Abilities Are Similar in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Compared to Controls as Assessed by Adaptation to Unilateral Leg-Weighting during Gait: Part I.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Diane L; Stanley, Christopher J; Bulea, Thomas C; Park, Hyung Soon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) demonstrate high response variability to motor training insufficiently accounted for by age or severity. We propose here that differences in the inherent ability to learn new motor tasks may explain some of this variability. Damage to motor pathways involving the cerebellum, which may be a direct or indirect effect of the brain injury for many with CP, has been shown to adversely affect the ability to learn new motor tasks and may be a potential explanation. Classic adaptation paradigms that evaluate cerebellar integrity have been utilized to assess adaptation to gait perturbations in adults with stroke, traumatic brain injury and other neurological injuries but not in children with CP. Materials and Methods: A case-control study of 10 participants with and 10 without hemiplegic CP within the age range of 5-20 years was conducted. Mean age of participants in the CP group was slightly but not significantly higher than controls. Step length and swing time adaptation, defined as gradual accommodation to a perturbation, and aftereffects, or maintenance of the accommodation upon removal of the perturbation, to unilateral leg weighing during treadmill gait were quantified to assess group differences in learning. Results: Adaptation and aftereffects were demonstrated in step length across groups with no main effect for group. In CP, the dominant leg had a greater response when either leg was weighted. Swing time accommodated immediately (no adaptation) in the weighted leg only, with the non-dominant leg instead showing a more pronounced response in CP. Discussion: This group of participants with unilateral CP did not demonstrate poorer learning or retention similar to reported results in adult stroke. Deficits, while not found here, may become evident in those with other etiologies or greater severity of CP. Our data further corroborate an observation from the stroke literature that repeated practice of exaggerating the

  8. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lisa M; Morgan, Philip J; van Beurden, Eric; Beard, John R

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile), physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire) and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test). Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw), and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57%) were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4%) with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs). Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6%) students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3%) for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18) of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30) of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Conclusion Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth. PMID:18687148

  9. Increased resting state connectivity between ipsilesional motor cortex and contralesional premotor cortex after transcranial direct current stimulation with physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joyce L; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2016-03-16

    Non-invasive stimulation of the brain using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during motor rehabilitation can improve the recovery of movements in individuals with stroke. However, the neural substrates that underlie the clinical improvements are not well understood. In this proof-of-principle open-label pilot study, five individuals with stroke received 10 sessions of tDCS while undergoing usual care physical/occupational therapy for the arm and hand. Motor impairment as indexed by the Upper Extremity Fugl Meyer assessment was significantly reduced after the intervention. Resting state fMRI connectivity increased between ipsilesional motor cortex and contralesional premotor cortex after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the neural underpinnings of tDCS coupled with rehabilitation exercises, may be mediated by interactions between motor and premotor cortex. The latter, of which has been shown to play an important role in the recovery of movements post-stroke. Our data suggest premotor cortex could be tested as a target region for non-invasive brain-stimulation to enhance connectivity between regions that might be beneficial for stroke motor recovery.

  10. Increased resting state connectivity between ipsilesional motor cortex and contralesional premotor cortex after transcranial direct current stimulation with physical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joyce L; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive stimulation of the brain using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during motor rehabilitation can improve the recovery of movements in individuals with stroke. However, the neural substrates that underlie the clinical improvements are not well understood. In this proof-of-principle open-label pilot study, five individuals with stroke received 10 sessions of tDCS while undergoing usual care physical/occupational therapy for the arm and hand. Motor impairment as indexed by the Upper Extremity Fugl Meyer assessment was significantly reduced after the intervention. Resting state fMRI connectivity increased between ipsilesional motor cortex and contralesional premotor cortex after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the neural underpinnings of tDCS coupled with rehabilitation exercises, may be mediated by interactions between motor and premotor cortex. The latter, of which has been shown to play an important role in the recovery of movements post-stroke. Our data suggest premotor cortex could be tested as a target region for non-invasive brain-stimulation to enhance connectivity between regions that might be beneficial for stroke motor recovery. PMID:26980052

  11. Motor imagery of locomotion with an additional load: actual load experience does not affect differences between physical and mental durations.

    PubMed

    Munzert, Jörn; Blischke, Klaus; Krüger, Britta

    2015-03-01

    Motor imagery relies strongly on motor representations. Currently, it is widely accepted that both the imagery and execution of actions share the same neural representations (Jeannerod, Neuroimage 14:S103-S109, 2001). Comparing mental with actual movement durations opens a window through which to examine motor representations and how they relate to cognitive motor processes. The present experiment examined mental durations reported by participants standing upright who imagined walking either with or without an additional load while actually carrying or not carrying that same load. Results showed a robust effect of longer durations when imagining the additional load during mental walking, whereas physical walking with an additional load did not extend movement durations accordingly. However, experiencing an actual load during imagery did not influence mental durations substantially. This dissociation of load-related effects can be interpreted as being due to an interaction of motor processes and their cognitive representation along with a reduction in neural activity in vestibular and somatosensory areas during imagery of locomotion. It is argued that this effect might be specific to locomotion and not generalize to a broader range of movements.

  12. Relationship between masticatory ability and physical performance in community-dwelling edentulous older adults wearing complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Shingo; Notani, Kenji; Miura, Hiroko; Inoue, Nobuo

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the association between masticatory ability and physical performance in community-dwelling edentulous older adults wearing complete dentures. Physical performance parameters are significant predictors of decreased activities of daily living. Previous studies have shown the relationships between oral conditions and these parameters. Here, we focused on complete denture wearers. Two hundred and ten edentulous adults aged ≥65 years and wearing complete dentures were enrolled. The following oral conditions were examined: masticatory ability measured by colour-changing chewing gum, number of foods considered chewable, pain when using dentures and denture base fit. Handgrip strength (HG) and one-leg standing time with eyes open (OLST) were used to evaluate muscle strength and static balance. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the correlations between oral conditions and physical performance. Forward stepwise linear regression models were applied with each physical performance parameters as the dependent variable and oral conditions as the independent variable. The women did not show significant correlations between oral conditions and the physical performance. In men, significant and positive correlations were found between the number of chewable foods and HG, and between the colour scores and OLST. The significant correlation between the colour scores and OLST was still noted in the stepwise liner regression analysis after adjusting for demographic, social and medical conditions, and other oral conditions. In Japanese elderly edentulous men wearing complete dentures, masticatory ability evaluated as the mixing ability may be associated with static balance. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The yeast product Milmed enhances the effect of physical exercise on motor performance and dopamine neurochemistry recovery in MPTP-lesioned mice.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Fredriksson, Anders

    2013-10-01

    Both clinical and laboratory studies have demonstrated that different types of physical exercise may alleviate Parkinsonism yet evidence for complete restoration of motor function and biomarker integrity are difficult to identify. MPTP (1 × 30 mg/kg, s.c., 4 groups) or saline (vehicle 1 × 5 ml/kg, s.c., 1 group) were administered in a single dose regime over three consecutive weeks on Fridays. Three MPTP groups were given four 30-min periods/week (Mondays to Thursdays), of these two groups, MPTP + Exer + M(i) and MPTP + Exer + M(ii); the former were introduced to exercise and Milmed (oral injection) on the week following the 1st MPTP injection and the latter on the Monday prior to the 1st injection of MPTP onwards. One MPTP group, MPTP + Exer, was given access to exercise (running wheels) from the week following the 1st MPTP injection onwards. The fourth MPTP group, MPTP-NoEx, and the Vehicle group were only given access to exercise on a single day each week (Wednesdays, exercise test) from the week following the 1st MPTP injection onwards. The exercise/exercise + Milmed regime was maintained for a further 9 weeks. It was observed that exercise by itself ameliorated MPTP-induced deficits regarding motor function and dopamine loss only partially whereas in the groups combining exercise with twice weekly dosages of Milmed the MPTP-induced deficits were abolished by the 10th week of the intervention. The three main conclusions that were drawn from correlational analyses of individual mice were: (i) that DA integrity was observed to be a direct function of ability to express running exercise in a treadmill wheel-running arrangement, and (ii) that DA integrity was observed to be a direct function of the capacity for motor performance as measured by spontaneous motor activity and subthreshold L-Dopa (5 mg/kg) induced activity in the motor activity test chambers, and (iii) that the extent to which running exercise in a running wheel was predictive of later motor

  14. Motor Skills and Free-Living Physical Activity Showed No Association Among Preschoolers in 2012 U.S. National Youth Fitness Survey.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Albeit limited, some emerging work, using convenience-based samples, has demonstrated that greater motor skill development is associated with higher physical activity among preschool-aged children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this topic using data from the 2012 National Youth Fitness Survey that included 329 preschool-aged children (3-5 years). Parents proxy-reported their child's physical activity, with motor skill level assessed from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD2). Motor skill levels (Gross Motor Quotient, locomotor or object control) were not associated with preschool free-living physical activity in any analytic model. Thus, in this large sample of preschoolers, contrary to research with older children, motor skill level was not associated with physical activity. Findings are discussed in terms of study limitations of (a) a reliance on parent report of children's physical activity levels and (b) the possibility that physical activity data within the national survey were too limited in range to show possible associations to motor skill development with higher levels of free-living physical activity in preschoolers.

  15. A Strategy for Embedding Functional Motor and Early Numeracy Skill Instruction into Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.; Eddins, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges educators face when attempting to find a balance between both functional and academic skill instruction for students with severe, multiple disabilities including motor impairments. The authors describe a strategy that employs embedded instruction of early numeracy and functional motor skills during physical…

  16. Motor Coordination Difficulties and Physical Fitness of Extremely-Low-Birthweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Yvonne R.; Danks, Marcella; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.; Cooper, David; Poulsen, Leith; Watter, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    Motor coordination difficulties and poor fitness exist in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) population. This study investigated the relative impact of motor coordination on the fitness of ELBW children aged 11 to 13 years. One hundred and nine children were recruited to the study: 54 ELBW participants (mean age at assessment 12y 6mo; 31 male,…

  17. Motor Coordination Difficulties and Physical Fitness of Extremely-Low-Birthweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Yvonne R.; Danks, Marcella; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.; Cooper, David; Poulsen, Leith; Watter, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    Motor coordination difficulties and poor fitness exist in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) population. This study investigated the relative impact of motor coordination on the fitness of ELBW children aged 11 to 13 years. One hundred and nine children were recruited to the study: 54 ELBW participants (mean age at assessment 12y 6mo; 31 male,…

  18. "A Clear and Obvious "Ability" to "Perform Physical Activity"": Revisiting Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Talent in PE and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croston, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper examines physical education (PE) teachers' perceptions of talent in PE and sport within the context of English policy, where the process of identifying talent has been formalised and supported through specific resources (YST 2009). English policy has merged educational and sporting targets, which has resulted in a shift in…

  19. "A Clear and Obvious "Ability" to "Perform Physical Activity"": Revisiting Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Talent in PE and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croston, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper examines physical education (PE) teachers' perceptions of talent in PE and sport within the context of English policy, where the process of identifying talent has been formalised and supported through specific resources (YST 2009). English policy has merged educational and sporting targets, which has resulted in a shift in…

  20. Computer work and self-reported variables on anthropometrics, computer usage, work ability, productivity, pain, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Madeleine, Pascal; Vangsgaard, Steffen; Hviid Andersen, Johan; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2013-08-01

    Computer users often report musculoskeletal complaints and pain in the upper extremities and the neck-shoulder region. However, recent epidemiological studies do not report a relationship between the extent of computer use and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD).The aim of this study was to conduct an explorative analysis on short and long-term pain complaints and work-related variables in a cohort of Danish computer users. A structured web-based questionnaire including questions related to musculoskeletal pain, anthropometrics, work-related variables, work ability, productivity, health-related parameters, lifestyle variables as well as physical activity during leisure time was designed. Six hundred and ninety office workers completed the questionnaire responding to an announcement posted in a union magazine. The questionnaire outcomes, i.e., pain intensity, duration and locations as well as anthropometrics, work-related variables, work ability, productivity, and level of physical activity, were stratified by gender and correlations were obtained. Women reported higher pain intensity, longer pain duration as well as more locations with pain than men (P < 0.05). In parallel, women scored poorer work ability and ability to fulfil the requirements on productivity than men (P < 0.05). Strong positive correlations were found between pain intensity and pain duration for the forearm, elbow, neck and shoulder (P < 0.001). Moderate negative correlations were seen between pain intensity and work ability/productivity (P < 0.001). The present results provide new key information on pain characteristics in office workers. The differences in pain characteristics, i.e., higher intensity, longer duration and more pain locations as well as poorer work ability reported by women workers relate to their higher risk of contracting WMSD. Overall, this investigation confirmed the complex interplay between anthropometrics, work ability, productivity, and pain perception among

  1. Computer work and self-reported variables on anthropometrics, computer usage, work ability, productivity, pain, and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer users often report musculoskeletal complaints and pain in the upper extremities and the neck-shoulder region. However, recent epidemiological studies do not report a relationship between the extent of computer use and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD). The aim of this study was to conduct an explorative analysis on short and long-term pain complaints and work-related variables in a cohort of Danish computer users. Methods A structured web-based questionnaire including questions related to musculoskeletal pain, anthropometrics, work-related variables, work ability, productivity, health-related parameters, lifestyle variables as well as physical activity during leisure time was designed. Six hundred and ninety office workers completed the questionnaire responding to an announcement posted in a union magazine. The questionnaire outcomes, i.e., pain intensity, duration and locations as well as anthropometrics, work-related variables, work ability, productivity, and level of physical activity, were stratified by gender and correlations were obtained. Results Women reported higher pain intensity, longer pain duration as well as more locations with pain than men (P < 0.05). In parallel, women scored poorer work ability and ability to fulfil the requirements on productivity than men (P < 0.05). Strong positive correlations were found between pain intensity and pain duration for the forearm, elbow, neck and shoulder (P < 0.001). Moderate negative correlations were seen between pain intensity and work ability/productivity (P < 0.001). Conclusions The present results provide new key information on pain characteristics in office workers. The differences in pain characteristics, i.e., higher intensity, longer duration and more pain locations as well as poorer work ability reported by women workers relate to their higher risk of contracting WMSD. Overall, this investigation confirmed the complex interplay between anthropometrics, work ability

  2. Wii-based exercise program to improve physical fitness, motor proficiency and functional mobility in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silva, V; Campos, C; Sá, A; Cavadas, M; Pinto, J; Simões, P; Machado, S; Murillo-Rodríguez, E; Barbosa-Rocha, N

    2017-08-01

    People with Down syndrome (DS) usually display reduced physical fitness (aerobic capacity, muscle strength and abnormal body composition), motor proficiency impairments (balance and postural control) and physical functional limitations. Exergames can be an appealing alternative to enhance exercise engagement and compliance, whilst improving physical fitness and motor function. This study aims to analyse the effects of a Wii-based exercise program on physical fitness, functional mobility and motor proficiency of adults with DS. Twenty-seven adults with DS were randomly allocated to an experimental group (Wii; n = 14) or control group (n = 13). Participants in the experimental group completed a 2-month Wii-based exercise program, with three 1-h sessions per week that included training games for aerobic endurance, balance and isometric strength. Participants completed assessments regarding anthropometric measures, physical fitness, functional mobility and motor proficiency. Mixed ANOVA analysis showed a significant group by time interaction for aerobic endurance, explosive leg power and flexibility. Independent samples t-test for change scores indicated significant between-group differences favouring the experimental group regarding speed of limb movement, trunk strength and functional mobility, as well as a trend towards significance on body weight. Mann-Whitney's U test for change scores demonstrated between-group differences favouring the experimental group for visceral fat as well as running speed and agility. Large within-group effect sizes were observed for explosive leg power (d = 1.691), body weight (d = 1.281), functional mobility (d = 1.218), aerobic endurance (d = 1.020), speed of limb movement (d = 0.867) and flexibility (d = 0.818) in the experimental group. Our findings suggest that Wii-based exercise can be an effective tool to improve physical fitness, functional mobility and motor proficiency of adults with DS, including crucial

  3. Effect of body-weight suspension training versus treadmill training on gross motor abilities of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Emara, Hatem A; El-Gohary, Tarek M; Al-Johany, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    Suspension training and treadmill training are commonly used for promoting functional gross motor skills in children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of body-weight suspension training versus treadmill training on gross motor functional skills. Assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled intervention study. Outpatient rehabilitation facility. Twenty children with spastic diplegia (7 boys and 13 girls) in the age ranged from 6 to 8 years old were randomly allocated into two equal groups. All children were assessed at baseline, after 18-session and after 36-session. During the twelve-week outpatient rehabilitation program, both groups received traditional therapeutic exercises. Additionally, one group received locomotor training using the treadmill while the other group received locomotor training using body-weight suspension through the dynamic spider cage. Assessment included dimensions "D" standing and "E" walking of the gross motor function measure, in addition to the 10-m Walking Test and the five times sit to stand test. Training was applied three times per week for twelve consecutive weeks. No significant difference was found in standing or walking ability for measurements taken at baseline or after 18-session of therapy. Measurements taken at 36-session showed that suspension training achieved significantly (P<0.05) higher average score than treadmill training for dimension D as well as for dimension E. No significant difference was found between suspension training and treadmill training regarding walking speed or sit to stand transitional skills. Body-weight suspension training is effective in improving walking and locomotor capabilities in children with spastic diplegia. After three month suspension training was superior to treadmill training. Body-weight suspension training promotes adequate postural stability, good balance control, and less exertion which facilitates efficient and safe gait.

  4. Neither Flower Child nor "Artiste" Be: Aesthetics, Ability and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the meaning of ability in the context of dance education, in part, via the lens of aesthetic education, a reasonably well-developed body of ideas, and asks what it means to be "aesthetically able". While aesthetic education tends to focus on aesthetic appreciation, it does also deal with a person's capacity to respond…

  5. Neither Flower Child nor "Artiste" Be: Aesthetics, Ability and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the meaning of ability in the context of dance education, in part, via the lens of aesthetic education, a reasonably well-developed body of ideas, and asks what it means to be "aesthetically able". While aesthetic education tends to focus on aesthetic appreciation, it does also deal with a person's capacity to respond…

  6. Motor proficiency, strength, endurance, and physical activity among middle school children who are healthy, overweight, and obese.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Gaunaurd, Annabel; Moore, James G; Roach, Kathryn E; Miller, Tracie L; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J

    2013-01-01

    To compare motor proficiency, strength, endurance, and physical activity among children from minority backgrounds who were healthy weight (HW), overweight (OW), or obese (OB). Eighty-six children, aged 10 to 15 years, of mostly Hispanic ethnicity, participated. Children were categorized according to body mass index-for-age percentile. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT2) Short Form, Sit-to-Stand (STS), Timed Up and Down Stairs, and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) were administered. Physical activity was measured by using activity monitors. Forty-five percent of children were classified as OW/OB. Children who were OB had lower mean BOT2, STS, and 6MWT performance than children of HW. Among children who were OW/OB, daily mean steps were lower and sedentary minutes higher than children of HW. In children who were OW/OB, body mass index was negatively correlated with BOT2, STS, and abdominal curls. Children who are OB demonstrate greater impairments in motor proficiency, strength, and endurance and participate in less physical activity than peers of HW.

  7. A simple assessment of physical activity is associated with obesity and motor fitness in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Otmar; Bolte, Gabriele; Morlock, Gabriele; Rückinger, Simon; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2009-08-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of energy balance. However, its impact on overweight/obesity has proved difficult to measure in pre-school children and few studies have found significant associations. A set of simple questions was used to distinguish pre-school children with high and low physical activity, and the association of this classification with childhood overweight/obesity and performance in an established motor test was investigated. Survey, cross-sectional. Weight and height were measured in 12,556 children taking part in the obligatory school entrance health examination 2004-5 and 2005-6 in three urban and three rural Bavarian regions. Their parents were asked to answer a questionnaire with a set of questions on physical activity. The mean age of the children evaluated was 5.78 (sd 0.43) years, 6535 (52.1 %) were boys. Physically active children were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.786, 95 % CI 0.687, 0.898) or obese (OR = 0.655, 95 % CI 0.506, 0.849) and achieved 6.7 (95 % CI 5.8, 7.7) % more jumps per 30 s than less active children in a motor test, adjusted for a number of potentially confounding variables. Classification of pre-school children as physically active or not, based on a small set of questions, revealed significant associations with overweight/obesity and a motor test. Once further validated, this classification might provide a valuable tool to assess the impact of physical activity on the risk of childhood overweight and obesity.

  8. Effects of mirror therapy combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on motor recovery of lower limbs and walking ability of patients with stroke: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qun; Guo, Feng; Salem, Hassan M Abo; Chen, Hong; Huang, Xiaolin

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of mirror therapy combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation in promoting motor recovery of the lower limbs and walking ability in patients suffering from foot drop after stroke. Randomized controlled study. Inpatient rehabilitation center of a teaching hospital. Sixty-nine patients with foot drop. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: control, mirror therapy, and mirror therapy + neuromuscular electrical stimulation. All groups received interventions for 0.5 hours/day and five days/week for four weeks. 10-Meter walk test, Brunnstrom stage of motor recovery of the lower limbs, Modified Ashworth Scale score of plantar flexor spasticity, and passive ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion were assessed before and after the four-week period. After four weeks of intervention, Brunnstrom stage ( P = 0.04), 10-meter walk test ( P < 0.05), and passive range of motion ( P < 0.05) showed obvious improvements between patients in the mirror therapy and control groups. Patients in the mirror therapy + neuromuscular electrical stimulation group showed better results than those in the mirror therapy group in the 10-meter walk test ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in spasticity between patients in the two intervention groups. However, compared with patients in the control group, patients in the mirror therapy + neuromuscular electrical stimulation group showed a significant decrease in spasticity ( P < 0.001). Therapy combining mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation may help improve walking ability and reduce spasticity in stroke patients with foot drop.

  9. Automatically Characterizing Sensory-Motor Patterns Underlying Reach-to-Grasp Movements on a Physical Depth Inversion Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jillian; Majmudar, Ushma V.; Ravaliya, Jay H.; Papathomas, Thomas V.; Torres, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, movement variability has been of great interest to motor control physiologists as it constitutes a physical, quantifiable form of sensory feedback to aid in planning, updating, and executing complex actions. In marked contrast, the psychological and psychiatric arenas mainly rely on verbal descriptions and interpretations of behavior via observation. Consequently, a large gap exists between the body's manifestations of mental states and their descriptions, creating a disembodied approach in the psychological and neural sciences: contributions of the peripheral nervous system to central control, executive functions, and decision-making processes are poorly understood. How do we shift from a psychological, theorizing approach to characterize complex behaviors more objectively? We introduce a novel, objective, statistical framework, and visuomotor control paradigm to help characterize the stochastic signatures of minute fluctuations in overt movements during a visuomotor task. We also quantify a new class of covert movements that spontaneously occur without instruction. These are largely beneath awareness, but inevitably present in all behaviors. The inclusion of these motions in our analyses introduces a new paradigm in sensory-motor integration. As it turns out, these movements, often overlooked as motor noise, contain valuable information that contributes to the emergence of different kinesthetic percepts. We apply these new methods to help better understand perception-action loops. To investigate how perceptual inputs affect reach behavior, we use a depth inversion illusion (DII): the same physical stimulus produces two distinct depth percepts that are nearly orthogonal, enabling a robust comparison of competing percepts. We find that the moment-by-moment empirically estimated motor output variability can inform us of the participants' perceptual states, detecting physiologically relevant signals from the peripheral nervous system that reveal internal

  10. Comparison of a linear and a non-linear model for using sensory-motor, cognitive, personality, and demographic data to predict driving ability in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hoggarth, Petra A; Innes, Carrie R H; Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Severinsen, Julie E; Jones, Richard D

    2010-11-01

    This study compared the ability of binary logistic regression (BLR) and non-linear causal resource analysis (NCRA) to utilize a range of cognitive, sensory-motor, personality and demographic measures to predict driving ability in a sample of cognitively healthy older drivers. Participants were sixty drivers aged 70 and above (mean=76.7 years, 50% men) with no diagnosed neurological disorder. Test data was used to build classification models for a Pass or Fail score on an on-road driving assessment. The generalizability of the models was estimated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Sixteen participants (27%) received an on-road Fail score. Area under the ROC curve values were .76 for BLR and .88 for NCRA (no significant difference, z=1.488, p=.137). The ROC curve was used to select three different cut-points for each model and to compare classification. At the cut-point corresponding to the maximum average of sensitivity and specificity, the BLR model had a sensitivity of 68.8% and specificity of 75.0% while NCRA had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 95.5%. However, leave-one-out cross-validation reduced sensitivity in both models and particularly reduced specificity for NCRA. Neither model is accurate enough to be relied on solely for determination of driving ability. The lowered accuracy of the models following leave-one-out cross-validation highlights the importance of investigating models beyond classification alone in order to determine a model's ability to generalize to new cases.

  11. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  12. Team-Teaching in Physical Education for Promoting Coordinative Motor Skills in Children: The More You Invest the More You Get

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardaglio, Giulia; Marasso, Danilo; Magno, Francesca; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Ciairano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard physical education (PE) programs and the team-teaching methodology have rarely been evaluated to investigate their real efficacy in changing children's motor skills. Aims: The aims of this study are two-fold: The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a PE program for improving coordinative motor skills in the team…

  13. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  14. Team-Teaching in Physical Education for Promoting Coordinative Motor Skills in Children: The More You Invest the More You Get

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardaglio, Giulia; Marasso, Danilo; Magno, Francesca; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Ciairano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard physical education (PE) programs and the team-teaching methodology have rarely been evaluated to investigate their real efficacy in changing children's motor skills. Aims: The aims of this study are two-fold: The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a PE program for improving coordinative motor skills in the team…

  15. How Physically Active Are People with Stroke in Physiotherapy Sessions Aimed at Improving Motor Function? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurpreet; English, Coralie; Hillier, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Targeted physical activity drives functional recovery after stroke. This review aimed to determine the amount of time stroke survivors spend physically active during physiotherapy sessions. Summary of Review. A systematic search was conducted to identify published studies that investigated the use of time by people with stroke during physiotherapy sessions. Seven studies were included; six observational and one randomised controlled trial. People with stroke were found to be physically active for an average of 60 percent of their physiotherapy session duration. The most common activities practiced in a physiotherapy session were walking, sitting, and standing with a mean (SD) practice time of 8.7 (4.3), 4.5 (4.0), and 8.3 (2.6) minutes, respectively. Conclusion. People with stroke were found to spend less than two-thirds of their physiotherapy sessions duration engaged in physical activity. In light of dosage studies, practice time may be insufficient to drive optimal motor recovery. PMID:22567542

  16. Dependence of young female volleyballers' performance on their body build, physical abilities, and psycho-physiological properties.

    PubMed

    Stamm, R; Veldre, G; Stamm, M; Thomson, K; Kaarma, H; Loko, J; Koskel, S

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the study was to establish which anthropometric characteristics, physical abilities and psycho-physiological properties determine the success of adolescent female volleyballers at competitions. For this purpose we studied 32 female volleyballers aged 13-16 years. The anthropometric examination included 43 measurements, 7 tests of physical fitness, and 4 series of computerised psycho-physiological tests (n=21). The performance of game elements was measured empirically during championship games using the original computer program "Game". The proficiency of performing volleyball elements - serve, reception, feint, block and spike - was calculated by regression models from the 14 anthropometric measurements, 4 physical fitness and 7 psychophysiological test results, which showed significant correlation with proficiency in the game. The predictive power of the models was at least 32% and in average 56%. The anthropometric factor was significant in the performance of all the elements of the game, being most essential (71-83%) for attack, block and feint. Good results in physical ability tests granted success in serve, attack and reception. It was possible to predict the efficiency of reception (44%) by endurance, flexibility and speed measuring tests. Medicine ball throwing test was essential for attack (22%). Psycho-physiological tests were significant for the performance of block (98%), attack (80%), feint (60%) and reception (39%).

  17. Teaching and Assessing Manipulative Motor Skills in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This article provides new ways to teach and assess motor skills in various lifetime sports such as tennis, golf, badminton, and other sports that students are likely to play as adults by focusing on five basic biomechanical principles.

  18. Teaching and Assessing Manipulative Motor Skills in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This article provides new ways to teach and assess motor skills in various lifetime sports such as tennis, golf, badminton, and other sports that students are likely to play as adults by focusing on five basic biomechanical principles.

  19. Investigating Middle School Students' Ability to Develop Energy as a Framework for Analyzing Simple Physical Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadouris, Nicos; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether it is possible for 12-year-old students to develop a qualitative conceptualization of energy and four associate features (forms of energy, transfer processes, conservation, and degradation) as a framework for constructing interpretive accounts for the operation of physical phenomena (specifically, for changes taking place…

  20. The Abilities of Physical Education Teachers in Educational Technologies and Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Cetin

    2008-01-01

    In the field of education, information and communication technologies and multimedia tools have become more prevalent then ever that almost all schools can obtain. Physical education which is not only very important component of formal and informal education but also an important part of lifelong learning has been affected by these developments…