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Sample records for motor activity signals

  1. Nitrergic signalling via interstitial cells of Cajal regulates motor activity in murine colon.

    PubMed

    Lies, Barbara; Beck, Katharina; Keppler, Jonas; Saur, Dieter; Groneberg, Dieter; Friebe, Andreas

    2015-10-15

    In the enteric nervous systems, NO is released from nitrergic neurons as a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. NO acts via NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC), which is found in different gastrointestinal (GI) cell types including smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). The precise mechanism of nitrergic signalling through these two cell types to regulate colonic spontaneous contractions is not fully understood yet. In the present study we investigated the impact of endogenous and exogenous NO on colonic contractile motor activity using mice lacking nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) globally and specifically in SMCs and ICC. Longitudinal smooth muscle of proximal colon from wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mouse strains exhibited spontaneous contractile activity ex vivo. WT and smooth muscle-specific guanylyl cyclase knockout (SMC-GCKO) colon showed an arrhythmic contractile activity with varying amplitudes and frequencies. In contrast, colon from global and ICC-specific guanylyl cyclase knockout (ICC-GCKO) animals showed a regular contractile rhythm with constant duration and amplitude of the rhythmic contractions. Nerve blockade (tetrodotoxin) or specific blockade of NO signalling (L-NAME, ODQ) did not significantly affect contractions of GCKO and ICC-GCKO colon whereas the arrhythmic contractile patterns of WT and SMC-GCKO colon were transformed into uniform motor patterns. In contrast, the response to electric field-stimulated neuronal NO release was similar in SMC-GCKO and global GCKO. In conclusion, our results indicate that basal enteric NO release acts via myenteric ICC to influence the generation of spontaneous contractions whereas the effects of elevated endogenous NO are mediated by SMCs in the murine proximal colon.

  2. Metastasis suppressor, NDRG1, mediates its activity through signaling pathways and molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Daohai; Bae, Dong-Hun; Sahni, Sumit; Jansson, Patric; Zheng, Ying; Zhao, Qian; Yue, Fei; Zheng, Minhua; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R

    2013-09-01

    The metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), is negatively correlated with tumor progression in multiple neoplasms, being a promising new target for cancer treatment. However, the precise molecular effects of NDRG1 remain unclear. Herein, we summarize recent advances in understanding the impact of NDRG1 on cancer metastasis with emphasis on its interactions with the key oncogenic nuclear factor-kappaB, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/phosphorylated AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways. Recent studies demonstrating the inhibitory effects of NDRG1 on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a key initial step in metastasis, TGF-β pathway and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are also described. Furthermore, NDRG1 was also demonstrated to regulate molecular motors in cancer cells, leading to inhibition of F-actin polymerization, stress fiber formation and subsequent reduction of cancer cell migration. Collectively, this review summarizes the underlying molecular mechanisms of the antimetastatic effects of NDRG1 in cancer cells.

  3. Electronic bypass of spinal lesions: activation of lower motor neurons directly driven by cortical neural signals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower motor neurons in the spinal cord lose supraspinal inputs after complete spinal cord injury, leading to a loss of volitional control below the injury site. Extensive locomotor training with spinal cord stimulation can restore locomotion function after spinal cord injury in humans and animals. However, this locomotion is non-voluntary, meaning that subjects cannot control stimulation via their natural “intent”. A recent study demonstrated an advanced system that triggers a stimulator using forelimb stepping electromyographic patterns to restore quadrupedal walking in rats with spinal cord transection. However, this indirect source of “intent” may mean that other non-stepping forelimb activities may false-trigger the spinal stimulator and thus produce unwanted hindlimb movements. Methods We hypothesized that there are distinguishable neural activities in the primary motor cortex during treadmill walking, even after low-thoracic spinal transection in adult guinea pigs. We developed an electronic spinal bridge, called “Motolink”, which detects these neural patterns and triggers a “spinal” stimulator for hindlimb movement. This hardware can be head-mounted or carried in a backpack. Neural data were processed in real-time and transmitted to a computer for analysis by an embedded processor. Off-line neural spike analysis was conducted to calculate and preset the spike threshold for “Motolink” hardware. Results We identified correlated activities of primary motor cortex neurons during treadmill walking of guinea pigs with spinal cord transection. These neural activities were used to predict the kinematic states of the animals. The appropriate selection of spike threshold value enabled the “Motolink” system to detect the neural “intent” of walking, which triggered electrical stimulation of the spinal cord and induced stepping-like hindlimb movements. Conclusion We present a direct cortical “intent”-driven electronic spinal

  4. Cocaine increases dopaminergic neuron and motor activity via midbrain α1 adrenergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Richard Brandon; Wanat, Matthew J; Gomez, Jorge A; Brown, Zeliene J; Phillips, Paul E M; Paladini, Carlos A

    2015-03-13

    Cocaine reinforcement is mediated by increased extracellular dopamine levels in the forebrain. This neurochemical effect was thought to require inhibition of dopamine reuptake, but cocaine is still reinforcing even in the absence of the dopamine transporter. Here, we demonstrate that the rapid elevation in dopamine levels and motor activity elicited by cocaine involves α1 receptor activation within the ventral midbrain. Activation of α1 receptors increases dopaminergic neuron burst firing by decreasing the calcium-activated potassium channel current (SK), as well as elevates dopaminergic neuron pacemaker firing through modulation of both SK and the hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih). Furthermore, we found that cocaine increases both the pacemaker and burst-firing frequency of rat ventral-midbrain dopaminergic neurons through an α1 adrenergic receptor-dependent mechanism within the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta. These results demonstrate the mechanism underlying the critical role of α1 adrenergic receptors in the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission and behavior by cocaine.

  5. A simulated actuator driven by motor cortical signals.

    PubMed

    Lukashin, A V; Amirikian, B R; Georgopoulos, A P

    1996-11-04

    One problem in motor control concerns the mechanism whereby the central nervous system translates the motor cortical command encoded in cell activity into a coordinated contraction of limb muscles to generate a desired motor output. This problem is closely related to the design of adaptive systems that transform neuronal signals chronically recorded from the motor cortex into the physiologically appropriate motor output of multijoint prosthetic limbs. In this study we demonstrated how this transformation can be carried out by an artificial neural network using as command signals the actual impulse activity obtained from recordings in the motor cortex of monkeys during the performance of a task that required the exertion of force in different directions. The network receives experimentally measured brain signals and recodes them into motor actions of a simulated actuator that mimics the primate arm. The actuator responds to the motor cortical commands with surprising fidelity, generating forces in close quantitative agreement with those exerted by trained monkeys, in both the temporal and spatial domains. Moreover, we show that the time-varying motor output may be controlled by the impulse activity of as few as 15 motor cortical cells. These results outline a potentially implementable computation scheme that utilizes raw neuronal signals to drive artificial mechanical systems.

  6. Signal transduction of aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors is not modified by central command during spontaneous motor activity in decerebrate cats.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Ishii, Kei; Kadowaki, Akito; Ishida, Tomoko; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Liang, Nan

    2014-05-15

    Our laboratory has suggested that central command provides selective inhibition of the cardiomotor component of aortic baroreflex at the start of exercise, preserving carotid sinus baroreflex. It is postulated that central command may modify the signal transduction of aortic baroreceptors, so as to decrease aortic baroreceptor input to the cardiovascular centers, and, thereby, can cause the selective inhibition of aortic baroreflex. To test the hypothesis, we directly analyzed the responses in multifiber aortic nerve activity (AoNA) and carotid sinus nerve activity (CsNA) during spontaneous motor activity in decerebrate, paralyzed cats. The increases of 62-104% in mean AoNA and CsNA were found during spontaneous motor activity, in proportion to a rise of 35 ± 3 mmHg (means ± SE) in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and had an attenuating tendency by restraining heart rate (HR) at the lower intrinsic frequency of 154 ± 6 beats/min. Brief occlusion of the abdominal aorta was conducted before and during spontaneous motor activity to produce a mechanically evoked increase in MAP and, thereby, to examine the stimulus-response relationship of arterial baroreceptors. Although the sensitivity of the MAP-HR baroreflex curve was markedly blunted during spontaneous motor activity, the stimulus-response relationships of AoNA and CsNA were not influenced by spontaneous motor activity, irrespective of the absence or presence of the HR restraint. Thus, it is concluded that aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors can code beat-by-beat blood pressure during spontaneous motor activity in decerebrate cats and that central command is unlikely to modulate the signal transduction of arterial baroreceptors. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Noradrenergic modulation of masseter muscle activity during natural rapid eye movement sleep requires glutamatergic signalling at the trigeminal motor nucleus.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Peter B; Mir, Saba; Peever, John H

    2014-08-15

    Noradrenergic neurotransmission in the brainstem is closely coupled to changes in muscle activity across the sleep-wake cycle, and noradrenaline is considered to be a key excitatory neuromodulator that reinforces the arousal-related stimulus on motoneurons to drive movement. However, it is unknown if α-1 noradrenoceptor activation increases motoneuron responsiveness to excitatory glutamate (AMPA) receptor-mediated inputs during natural behaviour. We studied the effects of noradrenaline on AMPA receptor-mediated motor activity at the motoneuron level in freely behaving rats, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a period during which both AMPA receptor-triggered muscle twitches and periods of muscle quiescence in which AMPA drive is silent are exhibited. Male rats were subjected to electromyography and electroencephalography recording to monitor sleep and waking behaviour. The implantation of a cannula into the trigeminal motor nucleus of the brainstem allowed us to perfuse noradrenergic and glutamatergic drugs by reverse microdialysis, and thus to use masseter muscle activity as an index of motoneuronal output. We found that endogenous excitation of both α-1 noradrenoceptor and AMPA receptors during waking are coupled to motor activity; however, REM sleep exhibits an absence of endogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor activity. Importantly, exogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor stimulation cannot reverse the muscle twitch suppression induced by AMPA receptor blockade and nor can it elevate muscle activity during quiet REM, a phase when endogenous AMPA receptor activity is subthreshold. We conclude that the presence of an endogenous glutamatergic drive is necessary for noradrenaline to trigger muscle activity at the level of the motoneuron in an animal behaving naturally.

  8. LRRK2 overexpression alters glutamatergic presynaptic plasticity, striatal dopamine tone, postsynaptic signal transduction, motor activity and memory.

    PubMed

    Beccano-Kelly, Dayne A; Volta, Mattia; Munsie, Lise N; Paschall, Sarah A; Tatarnikov, Igor; Co, Kimberley; Chou, Patrick; Cao, Li-Ping; Bergeron, Sabrina; Mitchell, Emma; Han, Heather; Melrose, Heather L; Tapia, Lucia; Raymond, Lynn A; Farrer, Matthew J; Milnerwood, Austen J

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (Lrrk2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder affecting 1-2% of those >65 years old. The neurophysiology of LRRK2 remains largely elusive, although protein loss suggests a role in glutamatergic synapse transmission and overexpression studies show altered dopamine release in aged mice. We show that glutamate transmission is unaltered onto striatal projection neurons (SPNs) of adult LRRK2 knockout mice and that adult animals exhibit no detectable cognitive or motor deficits. Basal synaptic transmission is also unaltered in SPNs of LRRK2 overexpressing mice, but they do exhibit clear alterations to D2-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity, behavioral hypoactivity and impaired recognition memory. These phenomena are associated with decreased striatal dopamine tone and abnormal dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 32 kDa signal integration. The data suggest that LRRK2 acts at the nexus of dopamine and glutamate signaling in the adult striatum, where it regulates dopamine levels, presynaptic glutamate release via D2-dependent synaptic plasticity and dopamine-receptor signal transduction.

  9. Reconstruction of movement-related intracortical activity from micro-electrocorticogram array signals in monkey primary motor cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hidenori; Sato, Masa-aki; Suzuki, Takafumi; Nambu, Atsushi; Nishimura, Yukio; Kawato, Mitsuo; Isa, Tadashi

    2012-06-01

    Subdural electrode arrays provide stable, less invasive electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings of neural signals than multichannel needle electrodes. Accurate reconstruction of intracortical local field potentials (LFPs) from ECoG signals would provide a critical step for the development of a less invasive, high-performance brain-machine interface; however, neural signals from individual ECoG channels are generally coarse and have limitations in estimating deep layer LFPs. Here, we developed a high-density, 32-channel, micro-ECoG array and applied a sparse linear regression algorithm to reconstruct the LFPs at various depths of primary motor cortex (M1) in a monkey performing a reach-and-grasp task. At 0.2 mm beneath the cortical surface, the real and estimated LFPs were significantly correlated (correlation coefficient (r); 0.66 ± 0.11), and the r at 3.2 mm was still as high as 0.55 ± 0.04. A time-frequency analysis of the reconstructed LFP showed clear transition between resting and movements by the monkey. These methods would be a powerful tool with wide-ranging applicability in neuroscience studies.

  10. Decoding 3D reach and grasp from hybrid signals in motor and premotor cortices: spikes, multiunit activity, and local field potentials

    PubMed Central

    Truccolo, Wilson; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos E.; Donoghue, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Neural activity in motor cortex during reach and grasp movements shows modulations in a broad range of signals from single-neuron spiking activity (SA) to various frequency bands in broadband local field potentials (LFPs). In particular, spatiotemporal patterns in multiband LFPs are thought to reflect dendritic integration of local and interareal synaptic inputs, attentional and preparatory processes, and multiunit activity (MUA) related to movement representation in the local motor area. Nevertheless, the relationship between multiband LFPs and SA, and their relationship to movement parameters and their relative value as brain-computer interface (BCI) control signals, remain poorly understood. Also, although this broad range of signals may provide complementary information channels in primary (MI) and ventral premotor (PMv) areas, areal differences in information have not been systematically examined. Here, for the first time, the amount of information in SA and multiband LFPs was compared for MI and PMv by recording from dual 96-multielectrode arrays while monkeys made naturalistic reach and grasp actions. Information was assessed as decoding accuracy for 3D arm end point and grip aperture kinematics based on SA or LFPs in MI and PMv, or combinations of signal types across areas. In contrast with previous studies with ≤16 simultaneous electrodes, here ensembles of >16 units (on average) carried more information than multiband, multichannel LFPs. Furthermore, reach and grasp information added by various LFP frequency bands was not independent from that in SA ensembles but rather typically less than and primarily contained within the latter. Notably, MI and PMv did not show a particular bias toward reach or grasp for this task or for a broad range of signal types. For BCIs, our results indicate that neuronal ensemble spiking is the preferred signal for decoding, while LFPs and combined signals from PMv and MI can add robustness to BCI control. PMID:22157115

  11. Motor activity under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.; Cherepakhin, M. A.; Yuganov, Y. M.

    1975-01-01

    The material presented on the motor activity under weightless conditions (brief and long) leads to the conclusion that it is not significantly disrupted, if those being examined are secured at the workplaces. Some discoordination of movement, moderately expressed disruption of the precision of reproduction of assigned muscular forces, etc., were observed. Motor disorders decrease significantly in proportion to the length of stay under weightless conditions. This apparently takes place, as a consequence of formation of a new functional system, adequate to the conditions of weightlessness. Tests on intact and labyrinthectomized animals have demonstrated that signaling from the inner ear receptors is superfluous in weightlessness, since it promotes the onset of disruptions in the combined work of the position analyzers.

  12. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Stopped Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.22 Emergency signals... activate the vehicular hazard warning signal flashers and continue the flashing until the driver places the warning devices required by paragraph (b) of this section. The flashing signals shall be used during...

  13. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Stopped Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.22 Emergency signals... activate the vehicular hazard warning signal flashers and continue the flashing until the driver places the warning devices required by paragraph (b) of this section. The flashing signals shall be used during...

  14. GDE2 regulates subtype-specific motor neuron generation through inhibition of Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Priyanka; Lee, Changhee; Park, Sungjin; Rao, Meenakshi; Sockanathan, Shanthini

    2011-09-22

    The specification of spinal interneuron and motor neuron identities initiates within progenitor cells, while motor neuron subtype diversification is regulated by hierarchical transcriptional programs implemented postmitotically. Here we find that mice lacking GDE2, a six-transmembrane protein that triggers motor neuron generation, exhibit selective losses of distinct motor neuron subtypes, specifically in defined subsets of limb-innervating motor pools that correlate with the loss of force-generating alpha motor neurons. Mechanistically, GDE2 is expressed by postmitotic motor neurons but utilizes extracellular glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase activity to induce motor neuron generation by inhibiting Notch signaling in neighboring motor neuron progenitors. Thus, neuronal GDE2 controls motor neuron subtype diversity through a non-cell-autonomous feedback mechanism that directly regulates progenitor cell differentiation, implying that subtype specification initiates within motor neuron progenitor populations prior to their differentiation into postmitotic motor neurons.

  15. GDE2 regulates subtype specific motor neuron generation through inhibition of Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sabharwal, Priyanka; Lee, Changhee; Park, Sungjin; Rao, Meenakshi; Sockanathan, Shanthini

    2011-01-01

    The specification of spinal interneuron and motor neuron identities initiates within progenitor cells, while motor neuron subtype diversification is regulated by hierarchical transcriptional programs implemented postmitotically. Here, we find that mice lacking GDE2, a six-transmembrane protein that triggers motor neuron generation, exhibit selective losses of distinct motor neuron subtypes, specifically in defined subsets of limb-innervating motor pools that correlate with the loss of force-generating alpha motor neurons. Mechanistically, GDE2 is expressed by postmitotic motor neurons but utilizes extracellular glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase activity to induce motor neuron generation by inhibiting Notch signaling in neighboring motor neuron progenitors. Thus, neuronal GDE2 controls motor neuron subtype diversity through a non cell-autonomous feedback mechanism that directly regulates progenitor cell differentiation, implying that subtype specification initiates within motor neuron progenitor populations prior to their differentiation into postmitotic motor neurons. PMID:21943603

  16. Motor patterns during active electrosensory acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Volker; Geurten, Bart R. H.; Sanguinetti-Scheck, Juan I.; Gómez-Sena, Leonel; Engelmann, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Motor patterns displayed during active electrosensory acquisition of information seem to be an essential part of a sensory strategy by which weakly electric fish actively generate and shape sensory flow. These active sensing strategies are expected to adaptively optimize ongoing behavior with respect to either motor efficiency or sensory information gained. The tight link between the motor domain and sensory perception in active electrolocation make weakly electric fish like Gnathonemus petersii an ideal system for studying sensory-motor interactions in the form of active sensing strategies. Analyzing the movements and electric signals of solitary fish during unrestrained exploration of objects in the dark, we here present the first formal quantification of motor patterns used by fish during electrolocation. Based on a cluster analysis of the kinematic values we categorized the basic units of motion. These were then analyzed for their associative grouping to identify and extract short coherent chains of behavior. This enabled the description of sensory behavior on different levels of complexity: from single movements, over short behaviors to more complex behavioral sequences during which the kinematics alter between different behaviors. We present detailed data for three classified patterns and provide evidence that these can be considered as motor components of active sensing strategies. In accordance with the idea of active sensing strategies, we found categorical motor patterns to be modified by the sensory context. In addition these motor patterns were linked with changes in the temporal sampling in form of differing electric organ discharge frequencies and differing spatial distributions. The ability to detect such strategies quantitatively will allow future research to investigate the impact of such behaviors on sensing. PMID:24904337

  17. Emergence of Motor Circuit Activity

    PubMed Central

    Law, Chris; Paquet, Michel; Kania, Artur

    2014-01-01

    In the developing nervous system, ordered neuronal activity patterns can occur even in the absence of sensory input and to investigate how these arise, we have used the model system of the embryonic chicken spinal motor circuit, focusing on motor neurons of the lateral motor column (LMC). At the earliest stages of their molecular differentiation, we can detect differences between medial and lateral LMC neurons in terms of expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits, including CHRNA5, CHRNA7, GRIN2A, GRIK1, HTR1A and HTR1B, as well as the KCC2 transporter. Using patch-clamp recordings we also demonstrate that medial and lateral LMC motor neurons have subtly different activity patterns that reflect the differential expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits. Using a combination of patch-clamp recordings in single neurons and calcium-imaging of motor neuron populations, we demonstrate that inhibition of nicotinic, muscarinic or GABA-ergic activity, has profound effects of motor circuit activity during the initial stages of neuromuscular junction formation. Finally, by analysing the activity of large populations of motor neurons at different developmental stages, we show that the asynchronous, disordered neuronal activity that occurs at early stages of circuit formation develops into organised, synchronous activity evident at the stage of LMC neuron muscle innervation. In light of the considerable diversity of neurotransmitter receptor expression, activity patterns in the LMC are surprisingly similar between neuronal types, however the emergence of patterned activity, in conjunction with the differential expression of transmitter systems likely leads to the development of near-mature patterns of locomotor activity by perinatal ages. PMID:24722186

  18. Activities for a Perceptual Motor Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinning, Dorothy; And Others

    Perceptual motor activities for physically handicapped children are presented in the areas of fine and gross motor skills. Also detailed are activities to develop body image, visual motor skills, and tactile and auditory perception. (JD)

  19. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  20. Gating of neural error signals during motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Kimpo, Rhea R; Rinaldi, Jacob M; Kim, Christina K; Payne, Hannah L; Raymond, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Cerebellar climbing fiber activity encodes performance errors during many motor learning tasks, but the role of these error signals in learning has been controversial. We compared two motor learning paradigms that elicited equally robust putative error signals in the same climbing fibers: learned increases and decreases in the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). During VOR-increase training, climbing fiber activity on one trial predicted changes in cerebellar output on the next trial, and optogenetic activation of climbing fibers to mimic their encoding of performance errors was sufficient to implant a motor memory. In contrast, during VOR-decrease training, there was no trial-by-trial correlation between climbing fiber activity and changes in cerebellar output, and climbing fiber activation did not induce VOR-decrease learning. Our data suggest that the ability of climbing fibers to induce plasticity can be dynamically gated in vivo, even under conditions where climbing fibers are robustly activated by performance errors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02076.001 PMID:24755290

  1. Signal focusing through active transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy of molecular signaling in biological cells and novel diagnostic devices is ultimately limited by the counting noise floor imposed by the thermal diffusion. Motivated by the fact that messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signaling molecules transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported in biological cells, we show here that the random active delivery of signaling particles to within a typical diffusion distance to the receptor generically reduces the correlation time of the counting noise. Considering a variety of signaling particle sizes from mRNA to vesicles and cell sizes from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, we show that the conditions for active focusing—faster and more precise signaling—are indeed compatible with observations in living cells. Our results improve the understanding of molecular cellular signaling and novel diagnostic devices.

  2. Quaternion-Based Signal Analysis for Motor Imagery Classification from Electroencephalographic Signals.

    PubMed

    Batres-Mendoza, Patricia; Montoro-Sanjose, Carlos R; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I; Almanza-Ojeda, Dora L; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J; Ibarra-Manzano, Mario A

    2016-03-05

    Quaternions can be used as an alternative to model the fundamental patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in the time domain. Thus, this article presents a new quaternion-based technique known as quaternion-based signal analysis (QSA) to represent EEG signals obtained using a brain-computer interface (BCI) device to detect and interpret cognitive activity. This quaternion-based signal analysis technique can extract features to represent brain activity related to motor imagery accurately in various mental states. Experimental tests in which users where shown visual graphical cues related to left and right movements were used to collect BCI-recorded signals. These signals were then classified using decision trees (DT), support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) techniques. The quantitative analysis of the classifiers demonstrates that this technique can be used as an alternative in the EEG-signal modeling phase to identify mental states.

  3. Quaternion-Based Signal Analysis for Motor Imagery Classification from Electroencephalographic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Batres-Mendoza, Patricia; Montoro-Sanjose, Carlos R.; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I.; Almanza-Ojeda, Dora L.; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.; Ibarra-Manzano, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaternions can be used as an alternative to model the fundamental patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in the time domain. Thus, this article presents a new quaternion-based technique known as quaternion-based signal analysis (QSA) to represent EEG signals obtained using a brain-computer interface (BCI) device to detect and interpret cognitive activity. This quaternion-based signal analysis technique can extract features to represent brain activity related to motor imagery accurately in various mental states. Experimental tests in which users where shown visual graphical cues related to left and right movements were used to collect BCI-recorded signals. These signals were then classified using decision trees (DT), support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) techniques. The quantitative analysis of the classifiers demonstrates that this technique can be used as an alternative in the EEG-signal modeling phase to identify mental states. PMID:26959029

  4. Comparison of Brain Activation during Motor Imagery and Motor Movement Using fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmoo E.

    2017-01-01

    Motor-activity-related mental tasks are widely adopted for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) as they are a natural extension of movement intention, requiring no training to evoke brain activity. The ideal BCI aims to eliminate neuromuscular movement, making motor imagery tasks, or imagined actions with no muscle movement, good candidates. This study explores cortical activation differences between motor imagery and motor execution for both upper and lower limbs using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Four simple finger- or toe-tapping tasks (left hand, right hand, left foot, and right foot) were performed with both motor imagery and motor execution and compared to resting state. Significant activation was found during all four motor imagery tasks, indicating that they can be detected via fNIRS. Motor execution produced higher activation levels, a faster response, and a different spatial distribution compared to motor imagery, which should be taken into account when designing an imagery-based BCI. When comparing left versus right, upper limb tasks are the most clearly distinguishable, particularly during motor execution. Left and right lower limb activation patterns were found to be highly similar during both imagery and execution, indicating that higher resolution imaging, advanced signal processing, or improved subject training may be required to reliably distinguish them. PMID:28546809

  5. Statistical Signal Processing and the Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Brockwell, A E; Kass, R E; Schwartz, A B

    2007-05-01

    Over the past few decades, developments in technology have significantly improved the ability to measure activity in the brain. This has spurred a great deal of research into brain function and its relation to external stimuli, and has important implications in medicine and other fields. As a result of improved understanding of brain function, it is now possible to build devices that provide direct interfaces between the brain and the external world. We describe some of the current understanding of function of the motor cortex region. We then discuss a typical likelihood-based state-space model and filtering based approach to address the problems associated with building a motor cortical-controlled cursor or robotic prosthetic device. As a variation on previous work using this approach, we introduce the idea of using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for parameter estimation in this context. By doing this instead of performing maximum likelihood estimation, it is possible to expand the range of possible models that can be explored, at a cost in terms of computational load. We demonstrate results obtained applying this methodology to experimental data gathered from a monkey.

  6. Purmorphamine as a Shh Signaling Activator Small Molecule Promotes Motor Neuron Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured on Nanofibrous PCL Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Naghmeh; Bayat, Mohammad; Mohamadnia, Abdolreza; Khakbiz, Mehrdad; Yazdankhah, Meysam; Ai, Jafar; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh

    2016-09-14

    There is variety of stem cell sources but problems in ethical issues, contamination, and normal karyotype cause many limitations in obtaining and using these cells. The cells in Wharton's jelly region of umbilical cord are abundant and available stem cells with low immunological incompatibility, which could be considered for cell replacement therapy. Small molecules have been presented as less expensive biologically active compounds that can regulate different developmental process. Purmorphamine (PMA) is a small molecule that, according to some studies, possesses certain differentiation effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of the PMA on Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cell (WJ-MSC) differentiation into motor neuronal lineages instead of sonic hedgehog (Shh) on PCL scaffold. After exposing to induction media for 15 days, the cells were characterized for expression of motor neuron markers including PAX6, NF-H, Islet1, HB9, and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) by quantitative reverse transcription (PCR) and immunocytochemistry. Our results demonstrated that induced WJ-MSCs with PMA could significantly express motor neuron markers in RNA and protein levels 15 days post induction. These results suggested that WJ-MSCs can differentiate to motor neuron-like cells with PMA on PCL scaffold and might provide a potential source in cell therapy for nervous system.

  7. Nocturnal motor activity in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, E; Alanen, E; Hyyppä, M T

    1993-09-01

    The relationships between nocturnal motor activity and daytime psychophysiological activation were investigated in a random community sample of 199 subjects aged 35-55 years. Nocturnal motor activity was recorded with the static charge sensitive bed (SCSB, Bio-Matt). The association of nocturnal motor activity with demographic features, health status, laboratory blood values, afternoon electrodermal activity (EDA) and psychological distress was studied. A model for nocturnal motor activity was constructed and statistically analyzed. The analysis revealed that psychological distress, breathing disturbance, plasma glucose level and sympathetic activity were related significantly and independently to nocturnal motor activity. Their relations and the associations of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), sleep latency and health status with nocturnal motor activity were discussed in the context of the arousal theory of poor sleep.

  8. Neurofeedback-based functional near-infrared spectroscopy upregulates motor cortex activity in imagined motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Lapborisuth, Pawan; Zhang, Xian; Noah, Adam; Hirsch, Joy

    2017-04-01

    Neurofeedback is a method for using neural activity displayed on a computer to regulate one's own brain function and has been shown to be a promising technique for training individuals to interact with brain-machine interface applications such as neuroprosthetic limbs. The goal of this study was to develop a user-friendly functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based neurofeedback system to upregulate neural activity associated with motor imagery, which is frequently used in neuroprosthetic applications. We hypothesized that fNIRS neurofeedback would enhance activity in motor cortex during a motor imagery task. Twenty-two participants performed active and imaginary right-handed squeezing movements using an elastic ball while wearing a 98-channel fNIRS device. Neurofeedback traces representing localized cortical hemodynamic responses were graphically presented to participants in real time. Participants were instructed to observe this graphical representation and use the information to increase signal amplitude. Neural activity was compared during active and imaginary squeezing with and without neurofeedback. Active squeezing resulted in activity localized to the left premotor and supplementary motor cortex, and activity in the motor cortex was found to be modulated by neurofeedback. Activity in the motor cortex was also shown in the imaginary squeezing condition only in the presence of neurofeedback. These findings demonstrate that real-time fNIRS neurofeedback is a viable platform for brain-machine interface applications.

  9. Gap Junction-Mediated Signaling from Motor Neurons Regulates Motor Generation in the Central Circuits of Larval Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Teruyuki; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Nose, Akinao

    2017-02-22

    In this study, we used the peristaltic crawling of Drosophila larvae as a model to study how motor patterns are regulated by central circuits. We built an experimental system that allows simultaneous application of optogenetics and calcium imaging to the isolated ventral nerve cord (VNC). We then investigated the effects of manipulating local activity of motor neurons (MNs) on fictive locomotion observed as waves of MN activity propagating along neuromeres. Optical inhibition of MNs with halorhodopsin3 in a middle segment (A4, A5, or A6), but not other segments, dramatically decreased the frequency of the motor waves. Conversely, local activation of MNs with channelrhodopsin2 in a posterior segment (A6 or A7) increased the frequency of the motor waves. Since peripheral nerves mediating sensory feedback were severed in the VNC preparation, these results indicate that MNs send signals to the central circuits to regulate motor pattern generation. Our results also indicate segmental specificity in the roles of MNs in motor control. The effects of the local MN activity manipulation were lost in shaking-B(2) (shakB(2) ) or ogre(2) , gap-junction mutations in Drosophila, or upon acute application of the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone, implicating electrical synapses in the signaling from MNs. Cell-type-specific RNAi suggested shakB and ogre function in MNs and interneurons, respectively, during the signaling. Our results not only reveal an unexpected role for MNs in motor pattern regulation, but also introduce a powerful experimental system that enables examination of the input-output relationship among the component neurons in this system.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motor neurons are generally considered passive players in motor pattern generation, simply relaying information from upstream interneuronal circuits to the target muscles. This study shows instead that MNs play active roles in the control of motor generation by conveying information via gap junctions to the

  10. The role of sensory signals from the insect coxa-trochanteral joint in controlling motor activity of the femur-tibia joint.

    PubMed

    Akay, T; Bässler, U; Gerharz, P; Büschges, A

    2001-02-01

    Interjoint coordination in multi-jointed limbs is essential for the generation of functional locomotor patterns. Here we have focused on the role that sensory signals from the coxa-trochanteral (CT) joint play in patterning motoneuronal activity of the femur-tibia (FT) joint in the stick insect middle leg. This question is of interest because when the locomotor system is active, movement signals from the FT joint are known to contribute to patterning of activity of the central rhythm-generating networks governing the CT joint. We investigated the influence of femoral levation and depression on the activity of tibial motoneurons. When the locomotor system was active, levation of the femur often induced a decrease or inactivation of tibial extensor activity while flexor motoneurons were activated. Depression of the femur had no systematic influence on tibial motoneurons. Ablation experiments revealed that this interjoint influence was not mediated by signals from movement and/or position sensitive receptors at the CT joint, i.e., trochanteral hairplate, rhombal hairplate, or internal levator receptor organ. Instead the influence was initiated by sensory signals from a field of campaniform sensillae, situated on the proximal femur (fCS). Selective stimulation of these fCS produced barrages of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in tibial extensor motoneurons and activated tibial flexor motoneurons. During pharmacologically activated rhythmic activity of the otherwise isolated mesothoracic ganglion (pilocarpine, 5 x 10(-4) M), deafferented except for the CT joint, levation of the femur as well had an inhibitory influence on tibial extensor motoneurons. However, the influence of femoral levation on the rhythm generated was rather labile and only sometimes a reset of the rhythm was induced. In none of the preparations could entrainment of rhythmicity by femoral movement be achieved, suggesting that sensory signals from the CT joint only weakly affect central

  11. A structural pathway for activation of the kinesin motor ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mikyung; Zhang, Xiaohua; Park, Cheon-Gil; Park, Hee-Won; Endow, Sharyn A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors move along actin or microtubules by rapidly hydrolyzing ATP and undergoing changes in filament-binding affinity with steps of the nucleotide hydrolysis cycle. It is generally accepted that motor binding to its filament greatly increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis, but the structural changes in the motor associated with ATPase activation are not known. To identify the conformational changes underlying motor movement on its filament, we solved the crystal structures of three kinesin mutants that decouple nucleotide and microtubule binding by the motor, and block microtubule-activated, but not basal, ATPase activity. Conformational changes in the structures include a disordered loop and helices in the switch I region and a visible switch II loop, which is disordered in wild-type structures. Switch I moved closer to the bound nucleotide in two mutant structures, perturbing water-mediated interactions with the Mg2+. This could weaken Mg2+ binding and accelerate ADP release to activate the motor ATPase. The structural changes we observe define a signaling pathway within the motor for ATPase activation that is likely to be essential for motor movement on microtubules. PMID:11387196

  12. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    PubMed

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  13. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease. PMID:25938462

  14. Monitoring Local Regional Hemodynamic Signal Changes during Motor Execution and Motor Imagery Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Iso, Naoki; Moriuchi, Takefumi; Sagari, Akira; Kitajima, Eiji; Iso, Fumiko; Tanaka, Koji; Kikuchi, Yasuki; Tabira, Takayuki; Higashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the topographical localization of motor-related regional hemodynamic signal changes during motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), as this technique is more clinically expedient than established methods (e.g., fMRI). Twenty right-handed healthy subjects participated in this study. The experimental protocol was a blocked design consisting of 3 cycles of 20 s of task performance and 30 s of rest. The tapping sequence task was performed with their fingers under 4 conditions: ME and MI with the right or left hand. Hemodynamic brain activity was measured with NIRS to monitor changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration. Oxy-Hb in the somatosensory motor cortex (SMC) increased significantly only during contralateral ME and showed a significant interaction between task and hand. There was a main effect of hand in the left SMC. Although there were no significant main effects or interactions in the supplemental motor area (SMA) and premotor area (PMA), oxy-Hb increased substantially under all conditions. These results clarified the topographical localization by motor-related regional hemodynamic signal changes during ME and MI by using NIRS. PMID:26793118

  15. Monitoring Local Regional Hemodynamic Signal Changes during Motor Execution and Motor Imagery Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iso, Naoki; Moriuchi, Takefumi; Sagari, Akira; Kitajima, Eiji; Iso, Fumiko; Tanaka, Koji; Kikuchi, Yasuki; Tabira, Takayuki; Higashi, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the topographical localization of motor-related regional hemodynamic signal changes during motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), as this technique is more clinically expedient than established methods (e.g., fMRI). Twenty right-handed healthy subjects participated in this study. The experimental protocol was a blocked design consisting of 3 cycles of 20 s of task performance and 30 s of rest. The tapping sequence task was performed with their fingers under 4 conditions: ME and MI with the right or left hand. Hemodynamic brain activity was measured with NIRS to monitor changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration. Oxy-Hb in the somatosensory motor cortex (SMC) increased significantly only during contralateral ME and showed a significant interaction between task and hand. There was a main effect of hand in the left SMC. Although there were no significant main effects or interactions in the supplemental motor area (SMA) and premotor area (PMA), oxy-Hb increased substantially under all conditions. These results clarified the topographical localization by motor-related regional hemodynamic signal changes during ME and MI by using NIRS.

  16. Perceptual Motor Activities in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinning, Dorothy; And Others

    Designed for parents, the guide offers instructions for home activities to supplement the school program for children with perceptual motor disturbances. An individual program sheet is provided; behavioral characteristics and the child's need for structure are explained. Activities detailed include motor planning, body image, fine motor…

  17. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Stopped Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.22 Emergency signals...

  18. Motor cortex activity predicts response alternation during sensorimotor decisions

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Anna-Antonia; Siegel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Our actions are constantly guided by decisions based on sensory information. The motor cortex is traditionally viewed as the final output stage in this process, merely executing motor responses based on these decisions. However, it is not clear if, beyond this role, the motor cortex itself impacts response selection. Here, we report activity fluctuations over motor cortex measured using MEG, which are unrelated to choice content and predict responses to a visuomotor task seconds before decisions are made. These fluctuations are strongly influenced by the previous trial's response and predict a tendency to switch between response alternatives for consecutive decisions. This alternation behaviour depends on the size of neural signals still present from the previous response. Our results uncover a response-alternation bias in sensorimotor decision making. Furthermore, they suggest that motor cortex is more than an output stage and instead shapes response selection during sensorimotor decision making. PMID:27713396

  19. Motor-Skill Learning Is Dependent on Astrocytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Padmashri, Ragunathan; Suresh, Anand; Boska, Michael D; Dunaevsky, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Motor-skill learning induces changes in synaptic structure and function in the primary motor cortex through the involvement of a long-term potentiation- (LTP-) like mechanism. Although there is evidence that calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes plays an important role in synaptic transmission and plasticity, the role of astrocytes in motor-skill learning is not known. To test the hypothesis that astrocytic activity is necessary for motor-skill learning, we perturbed astrocytic function using pharmacological and genetic approaches. We find that perturbation of astrocytes either by selectively attenuating IP3R2 mediated astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling or using an astrocyte specific metabolic inhibitor fluorocitrate (FC) results in impaired motor-skill learning of a forelimb reaching-task in mice. Moreover, the learning impairment caused by blocking astrocytic activity using FC was rescued by administration of the gliotransmitter D-serine. The learning impairments are likely caused by impaired LTP as FC blocked LTP in slices and prevented motor-skill training-induced increases in synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptor in vivo. These results support the conclusion that normal astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling during a reaching task is necessary for motor-skill learning.

  20. Fetal motor activity and maternal cortisol

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    The contemporaneous association between maternal salivary cortisol and fetal motor activity was examined at 32 and 36 weeks gestation. Higher maternal cortisol was positively associated with the amplitude of fetal motor activity at 32 weeks, r(48) = .39, p < .01, and 36 weeks, r(77)=.27, p < .05, and the amount of time fetuses spent moving at 32 weeks during the 50 minute observation period, r(48) = 33, p < .05. Observation of periods of unusually intense fetal motor activity were more common in fetuses of women with higher cortisol, Mann-Whitney U = 58.5. There were no sex differences in fetal motor activity, but the associations between maternal cortisol and fetal motor amplitude and overall movement were significantly stronger for male than female fetuses. PMID:19630038

  1. Signal-dependent noise determines motor planning.

    PubMed

    Harris, C M; Wolpert, D M

    1998-08-20

    When we make saccadic eye movements or goal-directed arm movements, there is an infinite number of possible trajectories that the eye or arm could take to reach the target. However, humans show highly stereotyped trajectories in which velocity profiles of both the eye and hand are smooth and symmetric for brief movements. Here we present a unifying theory of eye and arm movements based on the single physiological assumption that the neural control signals are corrupted by noise whose variance increases with the size of the control signal. We propose that in the presence of such signal-dependent noise, the shape of a trajectory is selected to minimize the variance of the final eye or arm position. This minimum-variance theory accurately predicts the trajectories of both saccades and arm movements and the speed-accuracy trade-off described by Fitt's law. These profiles are robust to changes in the dynamics of the eye or arm, as found empirically. Moreover, the relation between path curvature and hand velocity during drawing movements reproduces the empirical 'two-thirds power law. This theory provides a simple and powerful unifying perspective for both eye and arm movement control.

  2. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Hallett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that CD with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated 2-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Eleven CD patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula, and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system, which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation.

  3. Signal differentiation in position tracking control of dc motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltran-Carbajal, F.; Valderrabano-Gonzalez, A.; Rosas-Caro, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    An asymptotic differentiation approach with respect to time is used for on-line estimation of velocity and acceleration signals in controlled dc motors. The attractive feature of this differentiator of signals is that it does not require any system mathematical model, which allows its use in engineering systems that require the signal differentiation for its control, identification, fault detection, among other applications. Moreover, it is shown that the differentiation approach can be applied for output signals showing a chaotic behavior. In addition a differential flatness control scheme with additional integral compensation of the output error is proposed for tracking tasks of position reference trajectories for direct current electric motors using angular position measurements only.

  4. Motor Activity and the Education of Retardates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    Presented are chapters concerned with the relationship of motor activity to education. The topics discussed are research, movement and performance in infants and children, principles of teaching motor skills; arousal level and attention; scribbling, drawing, writing, strength, flexibility, endurance, and control of large muscles; music and rhythm;…

  5. Motor Activity and the Education of Retardates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    Presented are chapters concerned with the relationship of motor activity to education. The topics discussed are research, movement and performance in infants and children, principles of teaching motor skills; arousal level and attention; scribbling, drawing, writing, strength, flexibility, endurance, and control of large muscles; music and rhythm;…

  6. Condition monitoring of gearboxes using synchronously averaged electric motor signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottewill, J. R.; Orkisz, M.

    2013-07-01

    Due to their prevalence in rotating machinery, the condition monitoring of gearboxes is extremely important in the minimization of potentially dangerous and expensive failures. Traditionally, gearbox condition monitoring has been conducted using measurements obtained from casing-mounted vibration transducers such as accelerometers. A well-established technique for analyzing such signals is the synchronous signal average, where vibration signals are synchronized to a measured angular position and then averaged from rotation to rotation. Driven, in part, by improvements in control methodologies based upon methods of estimating rotor speed and torque, induction machines are used increasingly in industry to drive rotating machinery. As a result, attempts have been made to diagnose defects using measured terminal currents and voltages. In this paper, the application of the synchronous signal averaging methodology to electric drive signals, by synchronizing stator current signals with a shaft position estimated from current and voltage measurements is proposed. Initially, a test-rig is introduced based on an induction motor driving a two-stage reduction gearbox which is loaded by a DC motor. It is shown that a defect seeded into the gearbox may be located using signals acquired from casing-mounted accelerometers and shaft mounted encoders. Using simple models of an induction motor and a gearbox, it is shown that it should be possible to observe gearbox defects in the measured stator current signal. A robust method of extracting the average speed of a machine from the current frequency spectrum, based on the location of sidebands of the power supply frequency due to rotor eccentricity, is presented. The synchronous signal averaging method is applied to the resulting estimations of rotor position and torsional vibration. Experimental results show that the method is extremely adept at locating gear tooth defects. Further results, considering different loads and different

  7. Motor Activity for Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    Articles included in this journal are a report on the President's Conference on Early Childhood Education entitled "The Young Child: The Significance of Motor Development" by Delores M. Curtis; A Real Look at the Young Child by Lolas E. Halverson; What Movement Means to a Young Child by Keturah E. Whitehouse; Who Says the Young Child…

  8. [Neuronal mechanisms of motor signal transmission in thalamic Voi nucleus in spasmodic torticollis patients].

    PubMed

    Sedov, A S; Raeva, S N; Pavlenko, V B

    2014-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of motor signal transmission in ventrooral (Voi) nucleus of motor thalamus during the realization-of voluntary and involuntary abnormal (dystonic) movements in patients with spasmodic torticollis were investigated by means of microelectrode technique. The high reactivity of the cellular Voi elements to various functional (mainly motor) tests was proved. Analysis of neuronal activity showed: (1) the difference of neural mechanisms of motor signal transmission in the realization of voluntary movement with and without the involvement of the pathological axial neck muscles, as well as passive and abnormal involuntary dystonic movements; (2) significance of sensory component in the mechanisms of sensorimotor interactions during realization of voluntary and involuntary dystonic head and neck movements, causing the activation of the axial neck muscles; (3) important role of the rhythmic and synchronized neuronal activity in motor signal transmission during the realization of active and passive movements. Participation of Voi nucleus in pathological mechanisms of spasmodic torticollis was shown. The data obtained can be used for identificatiori of Voi thalamic nucleus during stereotactic neurosurgical operations in patients with spasmodic torticollis for selection the optimum destruction (stimulation) target and reduction of postoperative effects.

  9. Changes in hemodynamic signals accompanying motor imagery and motor execution of swallowing: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Kober, S E; Wood, G

    2014-06-01

    In the present study we investigated hemodynamic changes in the brain in response to motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) of swallowing using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Previous studies provide evidence that ME and MI of limb movements lead to comparable brain activation patterns indicating the potential value of MI for motor rehabilitation. In this context, identifying brain correlates of MI of swallowing may be potentially useful for the treatment of dysphagia. Fourteen healthy participants actively swallowed water (ME) and mentally imagined to swallow water (MI) in a randomized order while changes in concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) were assessed. MI and ME led to the strongest NIRS signal changes in the inferior frontal gyrus. During and after ME, oxy-Hb significantly increased, with a maximum peak around 15s after task onset. In contrast, oxy-Hb decreased during MI compared to a rest period probably because of motor inhibition mechanisms. Changes in deoxy-Hb were largely comparable between MI and ME, especially when participants used a kinesthetic motor imagery strategy during MI compared to no specific strategy. Hence, the present study provides new evidence concerning timing and topographical distribution of the hemodynamic response during ME and MI of swallowing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interference in Ballistic Motor Learning: Specificity and Role of Sensory Error Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are capable of learning numerous motor skills, but newly acquired skills may be abolished by subsequent learning. Here we ask what factors determine whether interference occurs in motor learning. We speculated that interference requires competing processes of synaptic plasticity in overlapping circuits and predicted specificity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic motor task. Interference was observed following subsequent learning of an accuracy-tracking task, but only if the competing task involved the same muscles and movement direction. Interference was not observed from a non-learning task suggesting that interference requires competing learning. Subsequent learning of the competing task 4 h after initial learning did not cause interference suggesting disruption of early motor memory consolidation as one possible mechanism underlying interference. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of corticospinal motor output at intensities below movement threshold did not cause interference, whereas suprathreshold rTMS evoking motor responses and (re)afferent activation did. Finally, the experiments revealed that suprathreshold repetitive electrical stimulation of the agonist (but not antagonist) peripheral nerve caused interference. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that peripheral nerve stimulation may cause interference. The finding underscores the importance of sensory feedback as error signals in motor learning. We conclude that interference requires competing plasticity in overlapping circuits. Interference is remarkably specific for circuits involved in a specific movement and it may relate to sensory error signals. PMID:21408054

  11. Chaos and Fractal Analysis of Electroencephalogram Signals during Different Imaginary Motor Movement Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soe, Ni Ni; Nakagawa, Masahiro

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the novel approach to evaluate the effects of different motor activation tasks of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). The applications of chaos and fractal properties that are the most important tools in nonlinear analysis are been presented for four tasks of EEG during the real and imaginary motor movement. Three subjects, aged 23-30 years, participated in the experiment. Correlation dimension (D2), Lyapunov spectrum (λi), and Lyapunov dimension (DL) are been estimated to characterize the movement related EEG signals. Experimental results show that these nonlinear measures are good discriminators of EEG signals. There are significant differences in all conditions of subjective task. The fractal dimension appeared to be higher in movement conditions compared to the baseline condition. It is concluded that chaos and fractal analysis could be powerful methods in investigating brain activities during motor movements.

  12. Signals from the ventrolateral thalamus to the motor cortex during locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Marlinski, Vladimir; Nilaweera, Wijitha U.; Zelenin, Pavel V.; Sirota, Mikhail G.

    2012-01-01

    The activity of the motor cortex during locomotion is profoundly modulated in the rhythm of strides. The source of modulation is not known. In this study we examined the activity of one of the major sources of afferent input to the motor cortex, the ventrolateral thalamus (VL). Experiments were conducted in chronically implanted cats with an extracellular single-neuron recording technique. VL neurons projecting to the motor cortex were identified by antidromic responses. During locomotion, the activity of 92% of neurons was modulated in the rhythm of strides; 67% of cells discharged one activity burst per stride, a pattern typical for the motor cortex. The characteristics of these discharges in most VL neurons appeared to be well suited to contribute to the locomotion-related activity of the motor cortex. In addition to simple locomotion, we examined VL activity during walking on a horizontal ladder, a task that requires vision for correct foot placement. Upon transition from simple to ladder locomotion, the activity of most VL neurons exhibited the same changes that have been reported for the motor cortex, i.e., an increase in the strength of stride-related modulation and shortening of the discharge duration. Five modes of integration of simple and ladder locomotion-related information were recognized in the VL. We suggest that, in addition to contributing to the locomotion-related activity in the motor cortex during simple locomotion, the VL integrates and transmits signals needed for correct foot placement on a complex terrain to the motor cortex. PMID:21994259

  13. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder

    PubMed Central

    Voon, V; Brezing, C; Gallea, C; Hallett, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Conversion disorder is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that conversion disorder with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amgydala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Methods Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated two-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Results Eleven conversion disorder patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Conclusion We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. PMID:21935985

  14. Depalmitoylation preferentially downregulates AMPA induced Ca2+ signaling and neurotoxicity in motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Mehta, Bhupesh; Singh, Mahendra; Tewari, Bhanu P; Joshi, Preeti G; Joshi, Nanda B

    2013-09-05

    Excessive activation of AMPA receptor has been implicated in motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, it is not clear why motor neurons are preferentially sensitive to AMPA receptor mediated excessive [Ca(2+)]i rise and excitotoxicity. In the present study we examined whether palmitoylation regulates Ca(2+) permeability of AMPA receptor and excitotoxicity in cultured spinal cord neurons. We adapted chronic 2-bromopalmitate (2-BrP) treatment to achieve depalmitoylation and examined its effect on the cytotoxicity in spinal cord neurons exposed to AMPA. The change in AMPA induced signaling and cytotoxicity in motor neurons and other spinal neurons under identical conditions of exposure to AMPA was studied. 2-BrP treatment inhibited AMPA induced rise in [Ca(2+)]i and cytotoxicity in both types of neurons but the degree of inhibition was significantly higher in motor neurons as compared to other spinal neurons. The AMPA induced [Na(+)]i rise was moderately affected in both type of neurons on depalmitoylation. Depalmitoylation reduced the expression levels of AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1 and GluR2) and also PSD-95 but stargazin levels remained unaffected. Our results demonstrate that 2-BrP attenuates AMPA receptor activated Ca(2+) signaling and cytotoxicity preferentially in motor neurons and suggest that AMPA receptor modulation by depalmitoylation could play a significant role in preventing motor neuron degeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-modulation of primary motor cortex activity with motor and motor imagery tasks using real-time fMRI-based neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Brian D.; Horovitz, Silvina G.; Venkataraman, Gaurav; Hallett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Advances in fMRI data acquisition and processing have made it possible to analyze brain activity as rapidly as the images are acquired allowing this information to be fed back to subjects in the scanner. The ability of subjects to learn to volitionally control localized brain activity within motor cortex using such real-time fMRI-based neurofeedback (NF) is actively being investigated as it may have clinical implications for motor rehabilitation after central nervous system injury and brain-computer interfaces. We investigated the ability of fifteen healthy volunteers to use NF to modulate brain activity within the primary motor cortex (M1) during a finger tapping and tapping imagery task. The M1 hand area ROI (ROIm) was functionally localized during finger tapping and a visual representation of BOLD signal changes within the ROIm fed back to the subject in the scanner. Surface EMG was used to assess motor output during tapping and ensure no motor activity was present during motor imagery task. Subjects quickly learned to modulate brain activity within their ROIm during the finger-tapping task, which could be dissociated from the magnitude of the tapping, but did not show a significant increase within the ROIm during the hand motor imagery task at the group level despite strongly activating a network consistent with the performance of motor imagery. The inability of subjects to modulate M1 proper with motor imagery may reflect an inherent difficulty in activating synapses in this area, with or without NF, since such activation may lead to M1 neuronal output and obligatory muscle activity. Future real-time fMRI-based NF investigations involving motor cortex may benefit from focusing attention on cortical regions other than M1 for feedback training or alternative feedback strategies such as measures of functional connectivity within the motor system. PMID:21803163

  16. Age-dependent changes of the antioxidant system in rat livers are accompanied by altered MAPK activation and a decline in motor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Burkhardt, Britta; Fischer, Luise; Beirow, Maja; Bork, Nadja; Wönne, Eva C.; Wagner, Cornelia; Husen, Bettina; Zeilinger, Katrin; Liu, Liegang; Nussler, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive decrease of cellular functions, because cells gradually lose their capacity to respond to injury. Increased oxidative stress is considered to be one of the major contributors to age-related changes in all organs including the liver. Our study has focused on elucidating whether important antioxidative enzymes, the mTOR pathway, and MAPKs exhibit age-dependent changes in the liver of rats during aging. We found an age-dependent increase of GSH in the cytosol and mitochondria. The aged liver showed an increased SOD enzyme activity, while the CAT enzyme activity decreased. HO-1 and NOS-2 gene expression was lower in adult rats, but up-regulated in aged rats. Western blot analysis revealed that SOD1, SOD2, GPx, GR, γ-GCL, and GSS were age-dependent up-regulated, while CAT remained constant. We also demonstrated that the phosphorylation of Akt, JNK, p38, and TSC2Ser1254 decreased while ERK1/2 and TSC2Thr1462 increased age-dependently. Furthermore, our data show that the mTOR pathway seems to be activated in livers of aged rats, and hence stimulating cell proliferation/regeneration, as confirmed by an age-dependent increase of PCNA and p-eIF4ESer209 protein expression. Our data may help to explain the fact that liver cells only proliferate in cases of necessity, like injury and damage. In summary, we have demonstrated that, age-dependent changes of the antioxidant system and stress-related signaling pathways occur in the livers of rats, which may help to better understand organ aging. PMID:27004051

  17. A circuit for motor cortical modulation of auditory cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anders; Schneider, David M; Takatoh, Jun; Sakurai, Katsuyasu; Wang, Fan; Mooney, Richard

    2013-09-04

    Normal hearing depends on the ability to distinguish self-generated sounds from other sounds, and this ability is thought to involve neural circuits that convey copies of motor command signals to various levels of the auditory system. Although such interactions at the cortical level are believed to facilitate auditory comprehension during movements and drive auditory hallucinations in pathological states, the synaptic organization and function of circuitry linking the motor and auditory cortices remain unclear. Here we describe experiments in the mouse that characterize circuitry well suited to transmit motor-related signals to the auditory cortex. Using retrograde viral tracing, we established that neurons in superficial and deep layers of the medial agranular motor cortex (M2) project directly to the auditory cortex and that the axons of some of these deep-layer cells also target brainstem motor regions. Using in vitro whole-cell physiology, optogenetics, and pharmacology, we determined that M2 axons make excitatory synapses in the auditory cortex but exert a primarily suppressive effect on auditory cortical neuron activity mediated in part by feedforward inhibition involving parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Using in vivo intracellular physiology, optogenetics, and sound playback, we also found that directly activating M2 axon terminals in the auditory cortex suppresses spontaneous and stimulus-evoked synaptic activity in auditory cortical neurons and that this effect depends on the relative timing of motor cortical activity and auditory stimulation. These experiments delineate the structural and functional properties of a corticocortical circuit that could enable movement-related suppression of auditory cortical activity.

  18. A Circuit for Motor Cortical Modulation of Auditory Cortical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Anders; Schneider, David M.; Takatoh, Jun; Sakurai, Katsuyasu; Wang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Normal hearing depends on the ability to distinguish self-generated sounds from other sounds, and this ability is thought to involve neural circuits that convey copies of motor command signals to various levels of the auditory system. Although such interactions at the cortical level are believed to facilitate auditory comprehension during movements and drive auditory hallucinations in pathological states, the synaptic organization and function of circuitry linking the motor and auditory cortices remain unclear. Here we describe experiments in the mouse that characterize circuitry well suited to transmit motor-related signals to the auditory cortex. Using retrograde viral tracing, we established that neurons in superficial and deep layers of the medial agranular motor cortex (M2) project directly to the auditory cortex and that the axons of some of these deep-layer cells also target brainstem motor regions. Using in vitro whole-cell physiology, optogenetics, and pharmacology, we determined that M2 axons make excitatory synapses in the auditory cortex but exert a primarily suppressive effect on auditory cortical neuron activity mediated in part by feedforward inhibition involving parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Using in vivo intracellular physiology, optogenetics, and sound playback, we also found that directly activating M2 axon terminals in the auditory cortex suppresses spontaneous and stimulus-evoked synaptic activity in auditory cortical neurons and that this effect depends on the relative timing of motor cortical activity and auditory stimulation. These experiments delineate the structural and functional properties of a corticocortical circuit that could enable movement-related suppression of auditory cortical activity. PMID:24005287

  19. Activities to Develop Your Students' Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Mary Kay; Safran, Joan S.

    1986-01-01

    Instructions and illustrations support this discussion of learning activities designed to remediate deficiences and build skills in balance and/or motor skills for mildly handicapped students who may not have access to physical therapy or adaptive physical education. Appropriate for both regular and special classes, activities include arm…

  20. Neurofeedback Using Real-Time Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Enhances Motor Imagery Related Cortical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, Masahito; Miyai, Ichiro; Hattori, Noriaki; Hatakenaka, Megumi; Yagura, Hajime; Kawano, Teiji; Okibayashi, Masaki; Danjo, Nobuyoshi; Ishikawa, Akihiro; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Kisou

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that motor imagery and motor execution share common neural networks. Accordingly, mental practices in the form of motor imagery have been implemented in rehabilitation regimes of stroke patients with favorable results. Because direct monitoring of motor imagery is difficult, feedback of cortical activities related to motor imagery (neurofeedback) could help to enhance efficacy of mental practice with motor imagery. To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a real-time neurofeedback system mediated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), two separate experiments were performed. Experiment 1 was used in five subjects to evaluate whether real-time cortical oxygenated hemoglobin signal feedback during a motor execution task correlated with reference hemoglobin signals computed off-line. Results demonstrated that the NIRS-mediated neurofeedback system reliably detected oxygenated hemoglobin signal changes in real-time. In Experiment 2, 21 subjects performed motor imagery of finger movements with feedback from relevant cortical signals and irrelevant sham signals. Real neurofeedback induced significantly greater activation of the contralateral premotor cortex and greater self-assessment scores for kinesthetic motor imagery compared with sham feedback. These findings suggested the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a NIRS-mediated real-time neurofeedback system on performance of kinesthetic motor imagery. However, these results warrant further clinical trials to determine whether this system could enhance the effects of mental practice in stroke patients. PMID:22396753

  1. Neurofeedback using real-time near-infrared spectroscopy enhances motor imagery related cortical activation.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Masahito; Miyai, Ichiro; Hattori, Noriaki; Hatakenaka, Megumi; Yagura, Hajime; Kawano, Teiji; Okibayashi, Masaki; Danjo, Nobuyoshi; Ishikawa, Akihiro; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Kisou

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that motor imagery and motor execution share common neural networks. Accordingly, mental practices in the form of motor imagery have been implemented in rehabilitation regimes of stroke patients with favorable results. Because direct monitoring of motor imagery is difficult, feedback of cortical activities related to motor imagery (neurofeedback) could help to enhance efficacy of mental practice with motor imagery. To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a real-time neurofeedback system mediated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), two separate experiments were performed. Experiment 1 was used in five subjects to evaluate whether real-time cortical oxygenated hemoglobin signal feedback during a motor execution task correlated with reference hemoglobin signals computed off-line. Results demonstrated that the NIRS-mediated neurofeedback system reliably detected oxygenated hemoglobin signal changes in real-time. In Experiment 2, 21 subjects performed motor imagery of finger movements with feedback from relevant cortical signals and irrelevant sham signals. Real neurofeedback induced significantly greater activation of the contralateral premotor cortex and greater self-assessment scores for kinesthetic motor imagery compared with sham feedback. These findings suggested the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a NIRS-mediated real-time neurofeedback system on performance of kinesthetic motor imagery. However, these results warrant further clinical trials to determine whether this system could enhance the effects of mental practice in stroke patients.

  2. [Quality of neuronal signal registered in the monkey motor cortex with chronically implanted multiple microwires].

    PubMed

    Bondar', I V; Vasil'eva, L N; Badakva, A M; Miller, N V; Zobova, L N; Roshchin, V Iu

    2014-01-01

    Disconnection of central and peripheral parts of motor system leads to severe forms of disability. However, current research of brain-computer interfaces will solve the problem of rehabilitation of patients with motor disorders in future. Chronic recordings of single-unit activity in specialized areas of cerebral cortex could provide appropriate control signal for effectors with multiple degrees of freedom. In present article we evaluated the quality of chronic single-unit recordings in the primary motor cortex of awake behaving monkeys obtained with bundles of multiple microwires. Action potentials of proper quality were recorded from single units during three months. In some cases up to 7 single units could be extracted on a channel. Recording quality stabilized after 40 days since electrodes were implanted. Ultimately, functionality of multiple electrodes bundle makes it highly usable and reliable instrument for obtaining of control neurophysiologic signal from populations of neurons for brain-computer interfaces.

  3. Repeated Baclofen treatment ameliorates motor dysfunction, suppresses reflex activity and decreases the expression of signaling proteins in reticular nuclei and lumbar motoneurons after spinal trauma in rats.

    PubMed

    Kucharíková, Andrea; Schreiberová, Andrea; Závodská, Monika; Gedrová, Štefánia; Hricová, Ľudmila; Pavel, Jaroslav; Gálik, Ján; Maršala, Martin; Lukáčová, Nadežda

    2014-03-01

    The interruption of supraspinal input to the spinal cord leads to motor dysfunction and the development of spasticity. Clinical studies have shown that Baclofen (a GABAB agonist), while effective in modulating spasticity is associated with side-effects and the development of tolerance. The aim of the present study was to assess if discontinued Baclofen treatment and its repeated application leads antispasticity effects, and whether such changes affect neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the brainstem, nNOS and parvalbumin (PV) in lumbar α-motoneurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to Th9 spinal cord transection. Baclofen (30mg/b.w.) diluted in drinking water, was administered for 6 days, starting at week 1 after injury and then repeated till week 4 after injury. The behavior of the animals was tested (tail-flick test, BBB locomotor score) from 1 to 8 weeks. Our results clearly indicate the role of nitric oxide, produced by nNOS in the initiation and the maintenance of spasticity states 1, 6 and 8 weeks after spinal trauma. A considerable decrease of nNOS staining after Baclofen treatment correlates with improvement of motor dysfunction. The findings also show that parvalbumin and astrocytes participate in the regulation of ion concentrations in the sub-acute phase after the injury.

  4. Quantification of the power changes in BOLD signals using Welch spectrum method during different single-hand motor imageries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Yuan, Zhen; Huang, Jin; Yang, Qin; Chen, Huafu

    2014-12-01

    Motor imagery is an experimental paradigm implemented in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology. To investigate the asymmetry of the strength of cortical functional activity due to different single-hand motor imageries, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from right handed normal subjects were recorded and analyzed during both left-hand and right-hand motor imagery processes. Then the average power of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals in temporal domain was calculated using the developed tool that combines Welch power spectrum and the integral of power spectrum approach of BOLD signal changes during motor imagery. Power change analysis results indicated that cortical activity exhibited a stronger power in the precentral gyrus and medial frontal gyrus with left-hand motor imagery tasks compared with that from right-hand motor imagery tasks. These observations suggest that right handed normal subjects mobilize more cortical nerve cells for left-hand motor imagery. Our findings also suggest that the approach based on power differences of BOLD signals is a suitable quantitative analysis tool for quantification of asymmetry of brain activity intensity during motor imagery tasks.

  5. Signal processing and flagellar motor switching during phototaxis of Halobacterium salinarum.

    PubMed

    Nutsch, Torsten; Marwan, Wolfgang; Oesterhelt, Dieter; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    2003-11-01

    Prokaryotic taxis, the active search of motile cells for the best environmental conditions, is one of the paradigms for signal transduction. The search algorithm implemented by the cellular biochemistry modulates the probability of switching the rotational direction of the flagellar motor, a nanomachine that propels prokaryotic cells. On the basis of the well-known biochemical mechanisms of chemotaxis in Escherichia coli, kinetic modeling of the events leading from chemoreceptor activation by ligand binding to the motility response has been performed with great success. In contrast to Escherichia coli, Halobacterium salinarum, in addition, responds to visible light, which is sensed through specific photoreceptors of different wavelength sensitivity (phototaxis). Light stimuli of defined intensity and time course can be controlled precisely, which facilitates input-output measurements used for system analysis of the molecular network connecting the sensory receptors to the flagellar motor switch. Here, we analyze the response of halobacterial cells to single and double-pulse light stimuli and present the first kinetic model for prokaryotic cells that couples the signal-transduction pathway with the flagellar motor switch. Modeling based on experimental data supports the current biochemical model of halobacterial phototaxis. Moreover, the simulations demonstrate that motor switching occurs through subsequent rate-limiting steps, which are both under sensory control, suggesting that two signals may be involved in halobacterial phototaxis.

  6. Drosophila Motor Neuron Retraction during Metamorphosis Is Mediated by Inputs from TGF-β/BMP Signaling and Orphan Nuclear Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, Ana; Farge, Morgane; Ramanoudjame, Christophe; Wharton, Kristi; Dura, Jean-Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Larval motor neurons remodel during Drosophila neuro-muscular junction dismantling at metamorphosis. In this study, we describe the motor neuron retraction as opposed to degeneration based on the early disappearance of β-Spectrin and the continuing presence of Tubulin. By blocking cell dynamics with a dominant-negative form of Dynamin, we show that phagocytes have a key role in this process. Importantly, we show the presence of peripheral glial cells close to the neuro-muscular junction that retracts before the motor neuron. We show also that in muscle, expression of EcR-B1 encoding the steroid hormone receptor required for postsynaptic dismantling, is under the control of the ftz-f1/Hr39 orphan nuclear receptor pathway but not the TGF-β signaling pathway. In the motor neuron, activation of EcR-B1 expression by the two parallel pathways (TGF-β signaling and nuclear receptor) triggers axon retraction. We propose that a signal from a TGF-β family ligand is produced by the dismantling muscle (postsynapse compartment) and received by the motor neuron (presynaptic compartment) resulting in motor neuron retraction. The requirement of the two pathways in the motor neuron provides a molecular explanation for the instructive role of the postsynapse degradation on motor neuron retraction. This mechanism insures the temporality of the two processes and prevents motor neuron pruning before postsynaptic degradation. PMID:22792255

  7. Investigation of fMRI neurofeedback of differential primary motor cortex activity using kinesthetic motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Chiew, Mark; LaConte, Stephen M; Graham, Simon J

    2012-05-15

    Functional MRI neurofeedback (fMRI NF) is an emerging technique that trains subjects to regulate their brain activity while they manipulate sensory stimulus representations of fMRI signals in "real-time". Here we report an fMRI NF study of brain activity associated with kinesthetic motor imagery (kMI), analyzed using partial least squares (PLS), a multivariate analysis technique. Thirteen healthy young adult subjects performed kMI involving each hand separately, with NF training targeting regions of interest (ROIs) in the left and right primary motor cortex (M1). Throughout, subjects attempted to maximize a laterality index (LI) of brain activity-the difference in activity between the contralateral ROI (relative to the hand involved in kMI) and the ipsilateral M1 ROI-while receiving real-time updates on a visual display. Six of 13 subjects were successful in increasing the LI value, whereas the other 7 were not successful and performed similarly to 5 control subjects who received sham NF training. Ability to suppress activity in the ipsilateral M1 ROI was the primary driver of successful NF performance. Multiple PLS analyses depicted activated networks of brain regions involved with imagery, self-awareness, and feedback processing, and additionally showed that activation of the task positive network was correlated with task performance. These results indicate that fMRI NF of kMI is capable of modulating brain activity in primary motor regions in a subset of the population. In the future, such methods may be useful in the development of NF training methods for enhancing motor rehabilitation following stroke. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Motor-learning-related changes in piano players and non-musicians revealed by functional magnetic-resonance signals.

    PubMed

    Hund-Georgiadis, M; von Cramon, D Y

    1999-04-01

    In this study, we investigated blood-flow-related magnetic-resonance (MR) signal changes and the time course underlying short-term motor learning of the dominant right hand in ten piano players (PPs) and 23 non-musicians (NMs), using a complex finger-tapping task. The activation patterns were analyzed for selected regions of interest (ROIs) within the two examined groups and were related to the subjects' performance. A functional learning profile, based on the regional blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes, was assessed in both groups. All subjects achieved significant increases in tapping frequency during the training session of 35 min in the scanner. PPs, however, performed significantly better than NMs and showed increasing activation in the contralateral primary motor cortex throughout motor learning in the scanner. At the same time, involvement of secondary motor areas, such as bilateral supplementary motor area, premotor, and cerebellar areas, diminished relative to the NMs throughout the training session. Extended activation of primary and secondary motor areas in the initial training stage (7-14 min) and rapid attenuation were the main functional patterns underlying short-term learning in the NM group; attenuation was particularly marked in the primary motor cortices as compared with the PPs. When tapping of the rehearsed sequence was performed with the left hand, transfer effects of motor learning were evident in both groups. Involvement of all relevant motor components was smaller than after initial training with the right hand. Ipsilateral premotor and primary motor contributions, however, showed slight increases of activation, indicating that dominant cortices influence complex sequence learning of the non-dominant hand. In summary, the involvement of primary and secondary motor cortices in motor learning is dependent on experience. Interhemispheric transfer effects are present.

  9. Inhibitory Basal Ganglia Inputs Induce Excitatory Motor Signals in the Thalamus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongjin; Kim, Youngsoo; Nakajima, Ryuichi; Shin, Anna; Jeong, Minju; Park, Ah Hyung; Jeong, Yongcheol; Jo, Seonmi; Yang, Seungkyoung; Park, Hosung; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Shim, Insop; Chung, Jae Hoon; Paik, Se-Bum; Augustine, George J; Kim, Daesoo

    2017-08-30

    Basal ganglia (BG) circuits orchestrate complex motor behaviors predominantly via inhibitory synaptic outputs. Although these inhibitory BG outputs are known to reduce the excitability of postsynaptic target neurons, precisely how this change impairs motor performance remains poorly understood. Here, we show that optogenetic photostimulation of inhibitory BG inputs from the globus pallidus induces a surge of action potentials in the ventrolateral thalamic (VL) neurons and muscle contractions during the post-inhibitory period. Reduction of the neuronal population with this post-inhibitory rebound firing by knockout of T-type Ca(2+) channels or photoinhibition abolishes multiple motor responses induced by the inhibitory BG input. In a low dopamine state, the number of VL neurons showing post-inhibitory firing increases, while reducing the number of active VL neurons via photoinhibition of BG input, effectively prevents Parkinson disease (PD)-like motor symptoms. Thus, BG inhibitory input generates excitatory motor signals in the thalamus and, in excess, promotes PD-like motor abnormalities. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cervical spinal erythropoietin induces phrenic motor facilitation via ERK and Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Erica A.; Satriotomo, Irawan; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2012-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is typically known for its role in erythropoiesis, but is also a potent neurotrophic/neuroprotective factor for spinal motor neurons. Another trophic factor regulated by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), signals via ERK and Akt activation to elicit long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF). Since EPO also signals via ERK and Akt activation, we tested the hypothesis that EPO elicits similar pMF. Using retrograde labeling and immunohistochemical techniques, we demonstrate in adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats that EPO and its receptor, EPO-R, are expressed in identified phrenic motor neurons. Intrathecal EPO at C4 elicits long-lasting pMF; integrated phrenic nerve burst amplitude increased >90 min post-injection (63±12% baseline 90 min post-injection; p<0.001). EPO increased phosphorylation (and presumed activation) of ERK (1.6 fold vs controls; p<0.05) in phrenic motor neurons; EPO also increased pAkt (1.6 fold vs controls; p<0.05). EPO-induced pMF was abolished by the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 and the PI3 kinase/Akt inhibitor LY294002, demonstrating that ERK MAP kinases and Akt are both required for EPO-induced pMF. Pre-treatment with U0126 and LY294002 decreased both pERK and pAkt in phrenic motor neurons (p<0.05), indicating a complex interaction between these kinases. We conclude that EPO elicits spinal plasticity in respiratory motor control. Since EPO expression is hypoxia-sensitive, it may play a role in respiratory plasticity in conditions of prolonged or recurrent low oxygen. PMID:22539857

  11. Spinal 5-HT7 receptors induce phrenic motor facilitation via EPAC-mTORC1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fields, D. P.; Springborn, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal serotonin type 7 (5-HT7) receptors elicit complex effects on motor activity. Whereas 5-HT7 receptor activation gives rise to long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF), it also constrains 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF via “cross-talk inhibition.” We hypothesized that divergent cAMP-dependent signaling pathways give rise to these distinct 5-HT7 receptor actions. Specifically, we hypothesized that protein kinase A (PKA) mediates cross-talk inhibition of 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF whereas 5-HT7 receptor-induced pMF results from exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) signaling. Anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated rats receiving intrathecal (C4) 5-HT7 receptor agonist (AS-19) injections expressed pMF for >90 min, an effect abolished by pretreatment with a selective EPAC inhibitor (ESI-05) but not a selective PKA inhibitor (KT-5720). Furthermore, intrathecal injections of a selective EPAC activator (8-pCPT-2′-Me-cAMP) were sufficient to elicit pMF. Finally, spinal mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) inhibition via intrathecal rapamycin abolished 5-HT7 receptor- and EPAC-induced pMF, demonstrating that spinal 5-HT7 receptors elicit pMF by an EPAC-mTORC1 signaling pathway. Thus 5-HT7 receptors elicit and constrain spinal phrenic motor plasticity via distinct signaling mechanisms that diverge at cAMP (EPAC vs. PKA). Selective manipulation of these molecules may enable refined regulation of serotonin-dependent spinal motor plasticity for therapeutic advantage. PMID:26269554

  12. Spinal 5-HT7 receptors induce phrenic motor facilitation via EPAC-mTORC1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Fields, D P; Springborn, S R; Mitchell, G S

    2015-09-01

    Spinal serotonin type 7 (5-HT7) receptors elicit complex effects on motor activity. Whereas 5-HT7 receptor activation gives rise to long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF), it also constrains 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF via "cross-talk inhibition." We hypothesized that divergent cAMP-dependent signaling pathways give rise to these distinct 5-HT7 receptor actions. Specifically, we hypothesized that protein kinase A (PKA) mediates cross-talk inhibition of 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF whereas 5-HT7 receptor-induced pMF results from exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) signaling. Anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated rats receiving intrathecal (C4) 5-HT7 receptor agonist (AS-19) injections expressed pMF for >90 min, an effect abolished by pretreatment with a selective EPAC inhibitor (ESI-05) but not a selective PKA inhibitor (KT-5720). Furthermore, intrathecal injections of a selective EPAC activator (8-pCPT-2'-Me-cAMP) were sufficient to elicit pMF. Finally, spinal mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) inhibition via intrathecal rapamycin abolished 5-HT7 receptor- and EPAC-induced pMF, demonstrating that spinal 5-HT7 receptors elicit pMF by an EPAC-mTORC1 signaling pathway. Thus 5-HT7 receptors elicit and constrain spinal phrenic motor plasticity via distinct signaling mechanisms that diverge at cAMP (EPAC vs. PKA). Selective manipulation of these molecules may enable refined regulation of serotonin-dependent spinal motor plasticity for therapeutic advantage.

  13. Vibrissa motor cortex activity suppresses contralateral whisking behavior.

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, Christian Laut; Doron, Guy; Lenschow, Constanze; Brecht, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical, stimulation and lesion data implicate vibrissa motor cortex in whisker motor control. Work on motor cortex has focused on movement generation, but correlations between vibrissa motor cortex activity and whisking are weak. The exact role of vibrissa motor cortex remains unknown. We recorded vibrissa motor cortex neurons during various forms of vibrissal touch, which were invariably associated with whisker protraction and movement. Free whisking, object palpation and social touch all resulted in decreased cortical activity. To understand this activity decrease, we performed juxtacellular recordings, nanostimulation and in vivo whole-cell recordings. Social touch resulted in decreased spiking activity, decreased cell excitability and membrane hyperpolarization. Activation of vibrissa motor cortex by intracortical microstimulation elicited whisker retraction, as if to abort vibrissal touch. Various vibrissa motor cortex inactivation protocols resulted in contralateral protraction and increased whisker movements. These data collectively point to movement suppression as a prime function of vibrissa motor cortex activity.

  14. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.

  15. Enhanced Multisensory Integration and Motor Reactivation after Active Motor Learning of Audiovisual Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Andrew J.; James, Thomas W.; James, Karin Harman

    2011-01-01

    Everyday experience affords us many opportunities to learn about objects through multiple senses using physical interaction. Previous work has shown that active motor learning of unisensory items enhances memory and leads to the involvement of motor systems during subsequent perception. However, the impact of active motor learning on subsequent…

  16. Enhanced Multisensory Integration and Motor Reactivation after Active Motor Learning of Audiovisual Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Andrew J.; James, Thomas W.; James, Karin Harman

    2011-01-01

    Everyday experience affords us many opportunities to learn about objects through multiple senses using physical interaction. Previous work has shown that active motor learning of unisensory items enhances memory and leads to the involvement of motor systems during subsequent perception. However, the impact of active motor learning on subsequent…

  17. Programming an offline-analyzer of motor imagery signals via python language.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz María; Sepulveda, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems control the user's environment via his/her brain signals. Brain signals related to motor imagery (MI) have become a widespread method employed by the BCI community. Despite the large number of references describing the MI signal treatment, there is not enough information related to the available programming languages that could be suitable to develop a specific-purpose MI-based BCI. The present paper describes the development of an offline-analysis system based on MI-EEG signals via open-source programming languages, and the assessment of the system using electrical activity recorded from three subjects. The analyzer recognized at least 63% of the MI signals corresponding to three classes. The results of the offline analysis showed a promising performance considering that the subjects have never undergone MI trainings.

  18. Fine motor activities in Head Start and kindergarten classrooms.

    PubMed

    Marr, Deborah; Cermak, Sharon; Cohn, Ellen S; Henderson, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the fine motor activities in Head Start and kindergarten classrooms in order to open a dialogue between the two contexts about the fine motor activities children in preschool will face in kindergarten. Children in 10 Head Start and 10 kindergarten classrooms were observed for 1 day each. Time spent in activities was categorized into four groups: fine motor activities with no academic purpose, fine motor activities with academic purpose, academic activities with no fine motor component, and nonacademic activities with no fine motor component. Percentages of time were calculated and t tests were used for comparison between contexts. Children in Head Start spent 27%-46% (mean of 37%) of the in-class day in all fine motor activities whereas children in kindergarten spent 36%-66% (mean of 46%). For children in kindergarten, 42% of total fine motor activity time involved paper and pencil activities. In contrast, children in Head Start spent 10% of total fine motor activity time in paper and pencil activities. The higher mean percent of time spent in fine motor activities in kindergarten classrooms suggests a developmentally appropriate increase in fine motor demands. The percent of paper and pencil activity time the children engaged in substantially increased from Head Start to kindergarten. The findings describe a difference between the two environments, informing Head Start of the fine motor demands their graduates face in kindergarten.

  19. Analyzing power spectral of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal to identify motoric arm movement using EMOTIV EPOC+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustomi, A.; Wijaya, S. K.; Prawito

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation of motoric dysfunction from the body becomes the main objective of developing Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technique, especially in the field of medical rehabilitation technology. BCI technology based on electrical activity of the brain, allow patient to be able to restore motoric disfunction of the body and help them to overcome the shortcomings mobility. In this study, EEG signal phenomenon was obtained from EMOTIV EPOC+, the signals were generated from the imagery of lifting arm, and look for any correlation between the imagery of motoric muscle movement against the recorded signals. The signals processing were done in the time-frequency domain, using Wavelet relative power (WRP) as feature extraction, and Support vector machine (SVM) as the classifier. In this study, it was obtained the result of maximum accuracy of 81.3 % using 8 channel (AF3, F7, F3, FC5, FC6, F4, F8, and AF4), 6 channel remaining on EMOTIV EPOC + does not contribute to the improvement of the accuracy of the classification system

  20. Motor imagery muscle contraction strength influences spinal motor neuron excitability and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Bunno, Yoshibumi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Iwatsuki, Hiroyasu

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in spinal motor neuron excitability and autonomic nervous system activity during motor imagery of isometric thenar muscle activity at 10% and 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). [Methods] The F-waves and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio were recorded at rest, during motor imagery, and post-trial. For motor imagery trials, subjects were instructed to imagine thenar muscle activity at 10% and 50% MVC while holding the sensor of a pinch meter for 5 min. [Results] The F-waves and LF/HF ratio during motor imagery at 50% MVC were significantly increased compared with those at rest, whereas those during motor imagery at 10% MVC were not significantly different from those at rest. The relative values of the F/M amplitude ratio during motor imagery at 50% MVC were significantly higher than those at 10% MVC. The relative values of persistence and the LF/HF ratio during motor imagery were similar during motor imagery at the two muscle contraction strengths. [Conclusion] Motor imagery can increase the spinal motor neuron excitability and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity. Motor imagery at 50% MVC may be more effective than motor imagery at 10% MVC.

  1. Random motor unit activation by electrostimulation.

    PubMed

    Jubeau, M; Gondin, J; Martin, A; Sartorio, A; Maffiuletti, N A

    2007-11-01

    Whether the involvement of motor units is different between surface neuromuscular electrostimulation and voluntary activation remains an unresolved issue. The aim of this pilot study was to verify if motor unit activation during electrostimulation is nonselective/random (i.e., without obvious sequencing related to fibre type), as recently suggested by Gregory and Bickel [6]. Sixteen healthy men randomly performed submaximal isometric contractions (10-s duration) of the quadriceps femoris muscle at 20, 40 and 60 % of maximal voluntary torque under both stimulated and voluntary conditions. During the contractions, paired stimuli were delivered to the femoral nerve (twitch interpolation technique) and the characteristics of the superimposed doublet were compared between the two conditions. For each torque level, time-to-peak torque was significantly longer (p range = 0.05 - 0.0002) during electrostimulation compared to voluntary contractions. Moreover, time-to-peak torque during voluntary trials decreased significantly when increasing the torque level from 20 to 60 % of maximal voluntary torque (p range = 0.03 - 0.0001), whereas it was unchanged during electrostimulation. In conclusion, over-the-muscle electrostimulation would neither result in motor unit recruitment according to Henneman's size principle nor would it result in a reversal in voluntary recruitment order. During electrostimulation, muscle fibres are activated without obvious sequencing related to fibre type.

  2. Characterization of Volitional Electromyographic Signals in the Lower Extremity After Motor Complete Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Heald, Elizabeth; Hart, Ronald; Kilgore, Kevin; Peckham, P Hunter

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of intact axons across a spinal cord lesion, even in those clinically diagnosed with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). These axons may allow volitional motor signals to be transmitted through the injury, even in the absence of visible muscle contraction. To demonstrate the presence of volitional electromyographic (EMG) activity below the lesion in motor complete SCI and to characterize this activity to determine its value for potential use as a neuroprosthetic command source. Twenty-four subjects with complete (AIS A or B), chronic, cervical SCI were tested for the presence of volitional below-injury EMG activity. Surface electrodes recorded from 8 to 12 locations of each lower limb, while participants were asked to attempt specific movements of the lower extremity in response to visual and audio cues. EMG trials were ranked through visual inspection, and were scored using an amplitude threshold algorithm to identify channels of interest with volitional motor unit activity. Significant below-injury muscle activity was identified through visual inspection in 16 of 24 participants, and visual inspection rankings were well correlated to the algorithm scoring. The surface EMG protocol utilized here is relatively simple and noninvasive, ideal for a clinical screening tool. The majority of subjects tested were able to produce a volitional EMG signal below their injury level, and the algorithm developed allows automatic identification of signals of interest. The presence of this volitional activity in the lower extremity could provide an innovative new command signal source for implanted neuroprostheses or other assistive technology.

  3. Gear wear monitoring by modulation signal bispectrum based on motor current signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruiliang; Gu, Fengshou; Mansaf, Haram; Wang, Tie; Ball, Andrew D.

    2017-09-01

    Gears are important mechanical components for power transmissions. Tooth wear is one of the most common failure modes, which can present throughout a gear's lifetime. It is significant to accurately monitor gear wear progression in order to take timely predictive maintenances. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is an effective and non-intrusive approach which is able to monitor faults from both electrical and mechanical systems. However, little research has been reported in monitoring the gear wear and estimating its severity based on MCSA. This paper presents a novel gear wear monitoring method through a modulation signal bispectrum based motor current signal analysis (MSB-MCSA). For a steady gear transmission, it is inevitable to exist load and speed oscillations due to various errors including wears. These oscillations can induce small modulations in the current signals of the driving motor. MSB is particularly effective in characterising such small modulation signals. Based on these understandings, the monitoring process was implemented based on the current signals from a run-to-failure test of an industrial two stages helical gearbox under a moderate accelerated fatigue process. At the initial operation of the test, MSB analysis results showed that the peak values at the bifrequencies of gear rotations and the power supply can be effective monitoring features for identifying faulty gears and wear severity as they exhibit agreeable changes with gear loads. A monotonically increasing trend established by these features allows a clear indication of the gear wear progression. The dismantle inspection at 477 h of operation, made when one of the monitored features is about 123% higher than its baseline, has found that there are severe scuffing wear marks on a number of tooth surfaces on the driving gear, showing that the gear endures a gradual wear process during its long test operation. Therefore, it is affirmed that the MSB-MSCA approach proposed is reliable

  4. Movement Initiation Signals in Mouse Whisker Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Varun; Esmaeili, Vahid; Kiritani, Taro; Galan, Katia; Crochet, Sylvain; Petersen, Carl C H

    2016-12-21

    Frontal cortex plays a central role in the control of voluntary movements, which are typically guided by sensory input. Here, we investigate the function of mouse whisker primary motor cortex (wM1), a frontal region defined by dense innervation from whisker primary somatosensory cortex (wS1). Optogenetic stimulation of wM1 evokes rhythmic whisker protraction (whisking), whereas optogenetic inactivation of wM1 suppresses initiation of whisking. Whole-cell membrane potential recordings and silicon probe recordings of action potentials reveal layer-specific neuronal activity in wM1 at movement initiation, and encoding of fast and slow parameters of movements during whisking. Interestingly, optogenetic inactivation of wS1 caused hyperpolarization and reduced firing in wM1, together with reduced whisking. Optogenetic stimulation of wS1 drove activity in wM1 with complex dynamics, as well as evoking long-latency, wM1-dependent whisking. Our results advance understanding of a well-defined frontal region and point to an important role for sensory input in controlling motor cortex. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Subthreshold activation of the superior colliculus drives saccade motor learning.

    PubMed

    Soetedjo, Robijanto; Fuchs, Albert F; Kojima, Yoshiko

    2009-12-02

    How the brain learns and maintains accurate precision movements is currently unknown. At times throughout life, rapid gaze shifts (saccades) become inaccurate, but the brain makes gradual adjustments so they again stop on target. Previously, we showed that complex spikes (CSs) in Purkinje cells of the oculomotor cerebellum report the direction and amplitude by which saccades are in error. Anatomical studies indicate that this error signal could originate in the superior colliculus (SC). Here, we deliver subthreshold electrical stimulation of the SC after the saccade lands to signal an apparent error. The size of saccades in the same direction as the simulated error gradually increase; those in the opposite direction decrease. The electrically adapted saccades endure after stimulation is discontinued, exhibit an adaptation field, can undergo changes in direction, and depend on error timing. These electrically induced adaptations were virtually identical with those produced by the visually induced adaptations that we report here for comparable visual errors in the same monkeys. Therefore, our experiments reveal that an additional role for the SC in the generation of saccades is to provide a vector error signal that drives dysmetric saccades to adapt. Moreover, the characteristics of the electrically induced adaptation reflect those of error-related CS activity in the oculomotor cerebellum, suggesting that CS activity serves as the learning signal. We speculate that CS activity may serve as the error signal that drives other kinds of motor learning as well.

  6. Using ipsilateral motor signals in the unaffected cerebral hemisphere as a signal platform for brain-computer interfaces in hemiplegic stroke survivors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundy, David T.; Wronkiewicz, Mark; Sharma, Mohit; Moran, Daniel W.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems have emerged as a method to restore function and enhance communication in motor impaired patients. To date, this has been applied primarily to patients who have a compromised motor outflow due to spinal cord dysfunction, but an intact and functioning cerebral cortex. The cortical physiology associated with movement of the contralateral limb has typically been the signal substrate that has been used as a control signal. While this is an ideal control platform in patients with an intact motor cortex, these signals are lost after a hemispheric stroke. Thus, a different control signal is needed that could provide control capability for a patient with a hemiparetic limb. Previous studies have shown that there is a distinct cortical physiology associated with ipsilateral, or same-sided, limb movements. Thus far, it was unknown whether stroke survivors could intentionally and effectively modulate this ipsilateral motor activity from their unaffected hemisphere. Therefore, this study seeks to evaluate whether stroke survivors could effectively utilize ipsilateral motor activity from their unaffected hemisphere to achieve this BCI control. To investigate this possibility, electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were recorded from four chronic hemispheric stroke patients as they performed (or attempted to perform) real and imagined hand tasks using either their affected or unaffected hand. Following performance of the screening task, the ability of patients to utilize a BCI system was investigated during on-line control of a one-dimensional control task. Significant ipsilateral motor signals (associated with movement intentions of the affected hand) in the unaffected hemisphere, which were found to be distinct from rest and contralateral signals, were identified and subsequently used for a simple online BCI control task. We demonstrate here for the first time that EEG signals from the unaffected hemisphere, associated with overt and

  7. Using Ipsilateral Motor Signals in the Unaffected Cerebral Hemisphere as a Signal Platform for Brain Computer Interfaces in Hemiplegic Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Bundy, David T.; Wronkiewicz, Mark; Sharma, Mohit; Moran, Daniel W.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Brain computer interface (BCI) systems have emerged as a method to restore function and enhance communication in motor impaired patients. To date, this has been primarily applied to patients who have a compromised motor outflow due to spinal cord dysfunction, but an intact and functioning cerebral cortex. The cortical physiology associated with movement of the contralateral limb has typically been the signal substrate that has been used as a control signal. While this is an ideal control platform in patients with an intact motor cortex, these signals are lost after a hemispheric stroke. Thus, a different control signal is needed that could provide control capability for a patient with a hemiparetic limb. Previous studies have shown that there is a distinct cortical physiology associated with ipsilateral, or same sided, limb movements. Thus far, it was unknown whether stroke survivors could intentionally and effectively modulate this ipsilateral motor activity from their unaffected hemisphere. Therefore, this study seeks to evaluate whether stroke survivors could effectively utilize ipsilateral motor activity from their unaffected hemisphere to achieve this BCI control. Approach To investigate this possibility, electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were recorded from four chronic hemispheric stroke patients as they performed (or attempted to perform) real and imagined hand tasks using either their affected or unaffected hand. Following performance of the screening task, the ability of patients to utilize a BCI system was investigated during on-line control of a 1-dimensional control task. Main Results Significant ipsilateral motor signals (associated with movement intentions of the affected hand) in the unaffected hemisphere, which were found to be distinct from rest and contralateral signals, were identified and subsequently used for a simple online BCI control task. We demonstrate here for the first time that EEG signals from the unaffected hemisphere

  8. The Neural Feedback Response to Error As a Teaching Signal for the Motor Learning System.

    PubMed

    Albert, Scott T; Shadmehr, Reza

    2016-04-27

    When we experience an error during a movement, we update our motor commands to partially correct for this error on the next trial. How does experience of error produce the improvement in the subsequent motor commands? During the course of an erroneous reaching movement, proprioceptive and visual sensory pathways not only sense the error, but also engage feedback mechanisms, resulting in corrective motor responses that continue until the hand arrives at its goal. One possibility is that this feedback response is co-opted by the learning system and used as a template to improve performance on the next attempt. Here we used electromyography (EMG) to compare neural correlates of learning and feedback to test the hypothesis that the feedback response to error acts as a template for learning. We designed a task in which mixtures of error-clamp and force-field perturbation trials were used to deconstruct EMG time courses into error-feedback and learning components. We observed that the error-feedback response was composed of excitation of some muscles, and inhibition of others, producing a complex activation/deactivation pattern during the reach. Despite this complexity, across muscles the learning response was consistently a scaled version of the error-feedback response, but shifted 125 ms earlier in time. Across people, individuals who produced a greater feedback response to error, also learned more from error. This suggests that the feedback response to error serves as a teaching signal for the brain. Individuals who learn faster have a better teacher in their feedback control system. Our sensory organs transduce errors in behavior. To improve performance, we must generate better motor commands. How does the nervous system transform an error in sensory coordinates into better motor commands in muscle coordinates? Here we show that when an error occurs during a movement, the reflexes transform the sensory representation of error into motor commands. To learn from error

  9. The Neural Feedback Response to Error As a Teaching Signal for the Motor Learning System

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Reza

    2016-01-01

    When we experience an error during a movement, we update our motor commands to partially correct for this error on the next trial. How does experience of error produce the improvement in the subsequent motor commands? During the course of an erroneous reaching movement, proprioceptive and visual sensory pathways not only sense the error, but also engage feedback mechanisms, resulting in corrective motor responses that continue until the hand arrives at its goal. One possibility is that this feedback response is co-opted by the learning system and used as a template to improve performance on the next attempt. Here we used electromyography (EMG) to compare neural correlates of learning and feedback to test the hypothesis that the feedback response to error acts as a template for learning. We designed a task in which mixtures of error-clamp and force-field perturbation trials were used to deconstruct EMG time courses into error-feedback and learning components. We observed that the error-feedback response was composed of excitation of some muscles, and inhibition of others, producing a complex activation/deactivation pattern during the reach. Despite this complexity, across muscles the learning response was consistently a scaled version of the error-feedback response, but shifted 125 ms earlier in time. Across people, individuals who produced a greater feedback response to error, also learned more from error. This suggests that the feedback response to error serves as a teaching signal for the brain. Individuals who learn faster have a better teacher in their feedback control system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our sensory organs transduce errors in behavior. To improve performance, we must generate better motor commands. How does the nervous system transform an error in sensory coordinates into better motor commands in muscle coordinates? Here we show that when an error occurs during a movement, the reflexes transform the sensory representation of error into motor

  10. Motor Behavior Activates Bergmann Glial Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nimmerjahn, Axel; Mukamel, Eran A.; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Although it is firmly established neuronal activity is a prime determinant of animal behavior, relationships between astrocytic excitation and animal behavior have remained opaque. Cerebellar Bergmann glia are radial astrocytes that are implicated in motor behavior and exhibit Ca2+-excitation. However, Ca2+-excitation in these cells has not previously been studied in behaving animals. Using two-photon microscopy we found that Bergmann glia exhibit three forms of Ca2+-excitation in awake behaving mice. Two of these are ongoing within the cerebellar vermis. During locomotor performance concerted Ca2+-excitation arises in networks of at least hundreds of Bergmann glia extending across several hundred microns or more. Concerted Ca2+-excitation was abolished by anesthesia or blockade of either neural activity or glutamatergic transmission. Thus, large networks of Bergmann glia can be activated by specific animal behaviors and undergo excitation of sufficient magnitude to potentially initiate macroscopic changes in brain dynamics or blood flow. PMID:19447095

  11. Cortical activity predicts good variation in human motor output.

    PubMed

    Babikian, Sarine; Kanso, Eva; Kutch, Jason J

    2017-04-01

    Human movement patterns have been shown to be particularly variable if many combinations of activity in different muscles all achieve the same task goal (i.e., are goal-equivalent). The nervous system appears to automatically vary its output among goal-equivalent combinations of muscle activity to minimize muscle fatigue or distribute tissue loading, but the neural mechanism of this "good" variation is unknown. Here we use a bimanual finger task, electroencephalography (EEG), and machine learning to determine if cortical signals can predict goal-equivalent variation in finger force output. 18 healthy participants applied left and right index finger forces to repeatedly perform a task that involved matching a total (sum of right and left) finger force. As in previous studies, we observed significantly more variability in goal-equivalent muscle activity across task repetitions compared to variability in muscle activity that would not achieve the goal: participants achieved the task in some repetitions with more right finger force and less left finger force (right > left) and in other repetitions with less right finger force and more left finger force (left > right). We found that EEG signals from the 500 milliseconds (ms) prior to each task repetition could make a significant prediction of which repetitions would have right > left and which would have left > right. We also found that cortical maps of sites contributing to the prediction contain both motor and pre-motor representation in the appropriate hemisphere. Thus, goal-equivalent variation in motor output may be implemented at a cortical level.

  12. Enhanced multisensory integration and motor reactivation after active motor learning of audiovisual associations.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew J; James, Thomas W; James, Karin Harman

    2011-11-01

    Everyday experience affords us many opportunities to learn about objects through multiple senses using physical interaction. Previous work has shown that active motor learning of unisensory items enhances memory and leads to the involvement of motor systems during subsequent perception. However, the impact of active motor learning on subsequent perception and recognition of associations among multiple senses has not been investigated. Twenty participants were included in an fMRI study that explored the impact of active motor learning on subsequent processing of unisensory and multisensory stimuli. Participants were exposed to visuo-motor associations between novel objects and novel sounds either through self-generated actions on the objects or by observing an experimenter produce the actions. Immediately after exposure, accuracy, RT, and BOLD fMRI measures were collected with unisensory and multisensory stimuli in associative perception and recognition tasks. Response times during audiovisual associative and unisensory recognition were enhanced by active learning, as was accuracy during audiovisual associative recognition. The difference in motor cortex activation between old and new associations was greater for the active than the passive group. Furthermore, functional connectivity between visual and motor cortices was stronger after active learning than passive learning. Active learning also led to greater activation of the fusiform gyrus during subsequent unisensory visual perception. Finally, brain regions implicated in audiovisual integration (e.g., STS) showed greater multisensory gain after active learning than after passive learning. Overall, the results show that active motor learning modulates the processing of multisensory associations.

  13. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  14. The quantitative assessment of motor activity in mania and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook L.; Geyer, Mark A.; Paulus, Martin P.; Young, Jared W.; Perry, William

    2009-01-01

    Background Increased motor activity is a cardinal feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD), and is thought to reflect dopaminergic dysregulation. Motor activity in BD has been studied almost exclusively with self-report and observer-rated scales, limiting the ability to objectively quantify this behavior. We used an ambulatory monitoring device to quantify motor activity in BD and schizophrenia (SCZ) patients in a novel exploratory paradigm, the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM). Method 28 patients in the manic phase of BD, 17 SCZ patients, and 21 nonpatient (NC) subjects were tested in the BPM, an unfamiliar room containing novel objects. Motor activity was measured with a wearable ambulatory monitoring device (LifeShirt). Results Manic BD patients exhibited higher levels of motor activity when exploring the novel environment than SCZ and NC groups. Motor activity showed some modest relationships with symptom ratings of mania and psychosis and was not related to smoking or body mass index. Limitations Although motor activity did not appear to be impacted significantly by antipsychotic or mood-stabilizing medications, this was a naturalistic study and medications were not controlled, thus limiting conclusions about potential medication effects on motor activity. Conclusion Manic BD patients exhibit a unique signature of motoric overactivity in a novel exploratory environment. The use of an objective method to quantify exploration and motor activity may help characterize the unique aspects of BD and, because it is amenable to translational research, may further the study of the biological and genetic bases of the disease. PMID:19435640

  15. Relationship between motor activity-related cortical potential and voluntary muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, V; Yue, G H; Ranganathan, V K; Liu, J Z; Sahgal, V

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between EEG-derived motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) and voluntary muscle activation. Eight healthy volunteers participated in two experimental sessions. In one session, subjects performed isometric elbow-flexion contractions at four intensity levels [10%, 35%, 60%, and 85% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)]. In another session, a given elbow-flexion force (35% MVC) was generated at three different rates (slow, intermediate, and fast). Thirty to 40 contractions were performed at each force level or rate. EEG signals were recorded from the scalp overlying the supplementary motor area (SMA) and contralateral sensorimotor cortex, and EMG signals were recorded from the skin surface overlying the belly of the biceps brachii and brachioradialis muscles during all contractions. In each trial, the force was used as the triggering signal for MRCP averaging. MRCP amplitude was measured from the beginning to the peak of the negative slope. The magnitude of MRCP from both EEG recording locations (sensorimotor cortex and SMA) was highly correlated with elbow-flexion force, rate of rising of force, and muscle EMG signals. These results suggest that MRCP represents cortical motor commands that scale the level of muscle activation.

  16. Classification of prefrontal and motor cortex signals for three-class fNIRS-BCI.

    PubMed

    Hong, Keum-Shik; Naseer, Noman; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-02-05

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an optical imaging method that can be used for a brain-computer interface (BCI). In the present study, we concurrently measure and discriminate fNIRS signals evoked by three different mental activities, that is, mental arithmetic (MA), right-hand motor imagery (RI), and left-hand motor imagery (LI). Ten healthy subjects were asked to perform the MA, RI, and LI during a 10s task period. Using a continuous-wave NIRS system, signals were acquired concurrently from the prefrontal and the primary motor cortices. Multiclass linear discriminant analysis was utilized to classify MA vs. RI vs. LI with an average classification accuracy of 75.6% across the ten subjects, for a 2-7s time window during the a 10s task period. These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a three-class fNIRS-BCI using three different intentionally-generated cognitive tasks as inputs.

  17. Length regulation of active biopolymers by molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Johann, Denis; Erlenkämper, Christoph; Kruse, Karsten

    2012-06-22

    For biopolymers like cytoskeletal actin filaments and microtubules, assembly and disassembly are inherently dissipative processes. Molecular motors can affect the rates of subunit removal at filament ends. We introduce a driven lattice-gas model to study the effects of motor-induced depolymerization on the length of active biopolymers and find that increasing motor activity sharpens unimodal steady-state length distributions. Furthermore, for sufficiently fast moving motors, the relative width of the length distribution is determined only by the attachment rate of motors. Our results show how established molecular processes can be used to robustly regulate the size of cytoskeletal structures like mitotic spindles.

  18. Pedestrian signalization and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Quistberg, D Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J Jaime; Johnston, Brian D; Ebel, Beth E

    2014-09-01

    Safe walking environments are essential for protecting pedestrians and promoting physical activity. In Peru, pedestrians comprise over three-quarters of road fatality victims. Pedestrian signalization plays an important role managing pedestrian and vehicle traffic and may help improve pedestrian safety. We examined the relationship between pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and the presence of visible traffic signals, pedestrian signals, and signal timing to determine whether these countermeasures improved pedestrian safety. A matched case-control design was used where the units of study were crossing locations. We randomly sampled 97 control-matched collisions (weighted N=1134) at intersections occurring from October, 2010 to January, 2011 in Lima. Each case-control pair was matched on proximity, street classification, and number of lanes. Sites were visited between February, 2011 and September, 2011. Each analysis accounted for sampling weight and matching and was adjusted for vehicle and pedestrian traffic flow, crossing width, and mean vehicle speed. Collisions were more common where a phased pedestrian signal (green or red-light signal) was present compared to no signalization (odds ratio [OR] 8.88, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.32-59.6). A longer pedestrian-specific signal duration was associated with collision risk (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.02-9.60 per 15-s interval). Collisions occurred more commonly in the presence of any signalization visible to pedestrians or pedestrian-specific signalization, though these associations were not statistically significant. Signalization efforts were not associated with lower risk for pedestrians; rather, they were associated with an increased risk of pedestrian-vehicle collisions.

  19. Pedestrian signalization and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Johnston, Brian D.; Ebel, Beth E.

    2014-01-01

    Safe walking environments are essential for protecting pedestrians and promoting physical activity. In Peru, pedestrians comprise of over three-quarters of road fatality victims. Pedestrian signalization plays an important role managing pedestrian and vehicle traffic and may help improve pedestrian safety. We examined the relationship between pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and the presence of visible traffic signals, pedestrian signals, and signal timing to determine whether these countermeasures improved pedestrian safety. A matched case-control design was used where the units of study were crossing locations. We randomly sampled 97 control-matched collisions (weighted N=1134) at intersections occurring from October, 2010 to January, 2011 in Lima. Each case-control pair was matched on proximity, street classification, and number of lanes. Sites were visited between February, 2011 and September, 2011. Each analysis accounted for sampling weight and matching and was adjusted for vehicle and pedestrian traffic flow, crossing width, and mean vehicle speed. Collisions were more common where a phased pedestrian signal (green or red-lit signal) was present compared to no signalization (odds ratio [OR] 8.88, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.32–59.6). A longer pedestrian-specific signal duration was associated with collision risk (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.02–9.60 per 15-second interval). Collisions occurred more commonly in the presence of any signalization visible to pedestrians or pedestrian-specific signalization, though these associations were not statistically significant. Signalization efforts were not associated with lower risk for pedestrians; rather, they were associated with an increased risk of pedestrian-vehicle collisions. PMID:24821630

  20. Influence of motor activities on the release of transmitter quanta from motor nerve terminals in mice.

    PubMed

    Taquahashi, Y; Yonezawa, K; Nishimura, M

    1999-05-01

    We investigated the effects of motor activities on transmitter release in mouse nerve-muscle preparations of the diaphragm muscle (DPH), extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL), and soleus muscle (SOL). Mice were divided into a control group, a motor-restricted (RST) group, and a motor-compelled (CMP) group. The quantal content (m) of endplate potentials was measured intracellularly. In DPH the motor activity was unaffected. In the CMP group the m value of the EDL group increased with increases in the cooperativity of Ca2+ in transmitter release. Compared with the CMP group, the SOL of the RST group had a smaller m value with increases in the cooperativity of Ca2+ in transmitter release. These results suggest that motor activities can influence neuromuscular activity specific to different systems, however, the motor compulsion specifically activated the function of EDL and the motor restriction activated the function of SOL, and these effects might lead to altered activity of the release of transmitter quanta in motor nerve terminals of mice.

  1. Hemispheric asymmetry of ipsilateral motor cortex activation in motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomotaka; Higashi, Toshio; Takagi, Mineko; Sugawara, Kenichi

    2013-09-11

    In this study, we investigated how ipsilateral motor cortex (M1) activation during unimanual hand movements and hemispheric asymmetry changed after motor skill learning. Eleven right-handed participants preformed a two-ball-rotation motor task with the right and the left hand, separately, in all experimental sessions. Before and after exercise sessions, the degree of ipsilateral M1 activation during brief execution of the motor task was measured as changes in the size of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the thenar and the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the nontask hand using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Before exercise, MEPs of the nontask hand were significantly facilitated on both sides during the motor task. After exercise, facilitation of MEPs of the nontask hand during the motor task was significantly reduced for the right hand (thenar: P=0.014, first dorsal interosseous: P=0.022) but not for the left hand. We conclude that ipsilateral M1 activation, associated with a complex motor task, is first symmetrical in both hemispheres. However, on exercise, ipsilateral activation is reduced only in left M1, indicating a stronger learning-dependent modification of motor networks within the left hemisphere.

  2. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, D. T.

    1985-04-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The motor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor be regulated by applying a separate control signal and each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  3. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D. T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The motor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor be regulated by applying a separate control signal and each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  4. Motor Neurons Tune Premotor Activity in a Vertebrate Central Pattern Generator.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Kristy J; Perry, Wick M; Yamaguchi, Ayako; Zornik, Erik

    2017-03-22

    Central patterns generators (CPGs) are neural circuits that drive rhythmic motor output without sensory feedback. Vertebrate CPGs are generally believed to operate in a top-down manner in which premotor interneurons activate motor neurons that in turn drive muscles. In contrast, the frog (Xenopus laevis) vocal CPG contains a functionally unexplored neuronal projection from the motor nucleus to the premotor nucleus, indicating a recurrent pathway that may contribute to rhythm generation. In this study, we characterized the function of this bottom-up connection. The X. laevis vocal CPG produces a 50-60 Hz "fast trill" song used by males during courtship. We recorded "fictive vocalizations" in the in vitro CPG from the laryngeal nerve while simultaneously recording premotor activity at the population and single-cell level. We show that transecting the motor-to-premotor projection eliminated the characteristic firing rate of premotor neurons. Silencing motor neurons with the intracellular sodium channel blocker QX-314 also disrupted premotor rhythms, as did blockade of nicotinic synapses in the motor nucleus (the putative location of motor neuron-to-interneuron connections). Electrically stimulating the laryngeal nerve elicited primarily IPSPs in premotor neurons that could be blocked by a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Our results indicate that an inhibitory signal, activated by motor neurons, is required for proper CPG function. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first example of a CPG in which precise premotor rhythms are tuned by motor neuron activity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Central pattern generators (CPGs) are neural circuits that produce rhythmic behaviors. In vertebrates, motor neurons are not commonly known to contribute to CPG function, with the exception of a few spinal circuits where the functional significance of motor neuron feedback is still poorly understood. The frog hindbrain vocal circuit contains a previously unexplored connection from

  5. Opposing regulation of dopaminergic activity and exploratory motor behavior by forebrain and brainstem cholinergic circuits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jyoti C; Rossignol, Elsa; Rice, Margaret E; Machold, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine transmission is critical for exploratory motor behaviour. A key regulator is acetylcholine; forebrain acetylcholine regulates striatal dopamine release, whereas brainstem cholinergic inputs regulate the transition of dopamine neurons from tonic to burst firing modes. How these sources of cholinergic activity combine to control dopamine efflux and exploratory motor behaviour is unclear. Here we show that mice lacking total forebrain acetylcholine exhibit enhanced frequency-dependent striatal dopamine release and are hyperactive in a novel environment, whereas mice lacking rostral brainstem acetylcholine are hypoactive. Exploratory motor behaviour is normalized by the removal of both cholinergic sources. Involvement of dopamine in the exploratory motor phenotypes observed in these mutants is indicated by their altered sensitivity to the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist raclopride. These results support a model in which forebrain and brainstem cholinergic systems act in tandem to regulate striatal dopamine signalling for proper control of motor activity.

  6. Regulator of G Protein Signaling 6 (RGS6) Protein Ensures Coordination of Motor Movement by Modulating GABAB Receptor Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Biswanath; Stewart, Adele; Yang, Jianqi; Loo, Lipin; Sheff, David; Shepherd, Andrew J.; Mohapatra, Durga P.; Fisher, Rory A.

    2012-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from inhibitory interneurons located within the cerebellar cortex limits the extent of neuronal excitation in part through activation of metabotropic GABAB receptors. Stimulation of these receptors triggers a number of downstream signaling events, including activation of GIRK channels by the Gβγ dimer resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and inhibition of neurotransmitter release from presynaptic sites. Here, we identify RGS6, a member of the R7 subfamily of RGS proteins, as a key regulator of GABABR signaling in cerebellum. RGS6 is enriched in the granule cell layer of the cerebellum along with neuronal GIRK channel subunits 1 and 2 where RGS6 forms a complex with known binding partners Gβ5 and R7BP. Mice lacking RGS6 exhibit abnormal gait and ataxia characterized by impaired rotarod performance improved by treatment with a GABABR antagonist. RGS6−/− mice administered baclofen also showed exaggerated motor coordination deficits compared with their wild-type counterparts. Isolated cerebellar neurons natively expressed RGS6, GABABR, and GIRK channel subunits, and cerebellar granule neurons from RGS6−/− mice showed a significant delay in the deactivation kinetics of baclofen-induced GIRK channel currents. These results establish RGS6 as a key component of GABABR signaling and represent the first demonstration of an essential role for modulatory actions of RGS proteins in adult cerebellum. Dysregulation of RGS6 expression in human patients could potentially contribute to loss of motor coordination and, thus, pharmacological manipulation of RGS6 levels might represent a viable means to treat patients with ataxias of cerebellar origin. PMID:22179605

  7. Dominance of local sensory signals over inter-segmental effects in a motor system: experiments.

    PubMed

    Borgmann, Anke; Toth, Tibor I; Gruhn, Matthias; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia; Büschges, Ansgar

    2011-12-01

    Legged locomotion requires that information local to one leg, and inter-segmental signals coming from the other legs are processed appropriately to establish a coordinated walking pattern.However, very little is known about the relative importance of local and inter-segmental signals when they converge upon the central pattern generators (CPGs) of different leg joints.We investigated this question on the CPG of the middle leg coxa–trochanter (CTr)-joint of the stick insect which is responsible for lifting and lowering the leg.We used a semi-intact preparation with an intact front leg stepping on a treadmill, and simultaneously stimulated load sensors of the middle leg.We found that middle leg load signals induce bursts in the middle leg depressor motoneurons(MNs). The same local load signals could also elicit rhythmic activity in the CPG of the middle leg CTr-joint when the stimulation of middle leg load sensors coincided with front leg stepping. However, the influence of front leg stepping was generally weak such that front leg stepping alone was only rarely accompanied by switching between middle leg levator and depressor MN activity. We therefore conclude that the impact of the local sensory signals on the levator–depressor motor system is stronger than the inter-segmental influence through front leg stepping.

  8. ERK/MAPK Signaling Is Required for Pathway-Specific Striatal Motor Functions.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Scott R; Otis, James M; Kim, Erin M; Lamsal, Yashna; Stuber, Garret D; Snider, William D

    2017-08-23

    The ERK/MAPK intracellular signaling pathway is hypothesized to be a key regulator of striatal activity via modulation of synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. However, prior investigations into striatal ERK/MAPK functions have yielded conflicting results. Further, these studies have not delineated the cell-type-specific roles of ERK/MAPK signaling due to the reliance on globally administered pharmacological ERK/MAPK inhibitors and the use of genetic models that only partially reduce total ERK/MAPK activity. Here, we generated mouse models in which ERK/MAPK signaling was completely abolished in each of the two distinct classes of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). ERK/MAPK deletion in D1R-MSNs (direct pathway) resulted in decreased locomotor behavior, reduced weight gain, and early postnatal lethality. In contrast, loss of ERK/MAPK signaling in D2R-MSNs (indirect pathway) resulted in a profound hyperlocomotor phenotype. ERK/MAPK-deficient D2R-MSNs exhibited a significant reduction in dendritic spine density, markedly suppressed electrical excitability, and suppression of activity-associated gene expression even after pharmacological stimulation. Our results demonstrate the importance of ERK/MAPK signaling in governing the motor functions of the striatal direct and indirect pathways. Our data further show a critical role for ERK in maintaining the excitability and plasticity of D2R-MSNs.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alterations in ERK/MAPK activity are associated with drug abuse, as well as neuropsychiatric and movement disorders. However, genetic evidence defining the functions of ERK/MAPK signaling in striatum-related neurophysiology and behavior is lacking. We show that loss of ERK/MAPK signaling leads to pathway-specific alterations in motor function, reduced neuronal excitability, and the inability of medium spiny neurons to regulate activity-induced gene expression. Our results underscore the potential importance of the ERK/MAPK pathway in human movement disorders

  9. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of motor cortex activation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Jong; Preda, Adrian; Ford, Judith M; Mathalon, Daniel H; Keator, David B; van Erp, Theo G M; Turner, Jessica A; Potkin, Steven G

    2015-05-01

    Previous fMRI studies of sensorimotor activation in schizophrenia have found in some cases hypoactivity, no difference, or hyperactivity when comparing patients with controls; similar disagreement exists in studies of motor laterality. In this multi-site fMRI study of a sensorimotor task in individuals with chronic schizophrenia and matched healthy controls, subjects responded with a right-handed finger press to an irregularly flashing visual checker board. The analysis includes eighty-five subjects with schizophrenia diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria and eighty-six healthy volunteer subjects. Voxel-wise statistical parametric maps were generated for each subject and analyzed for group differences; the percent Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal changes were also calculated over predefined anatomical regions of the primary sensory, motor, and visual cortex. Both healthy controls and subjects with schizophrenia showed strongly lateralized activation in the precentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule, and strong activations in the visual cortex. There were no significant differences between subjects with schizophrenia and controls in this multi-site fMRI study. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in laterality found between healthy controls and schizophrenic subjects. This study can serve as a baseline measurement of schizophrenic dysfunction in other cognitive processes.

  10. Intestinal motor activity, endoluminal motion and transit.

    PubMed

    de Iorio, F; Malagelada, C; Azpiroz, F; Maluenda, M; Violanti, C; Igual, L; Vitrià, J; Malagelada, J-R

    2009-12-01

    A programme for evaluation of intestinal motility has been recently developed based on endoluminal image analysis using computer vision methodology and machine learning techniques. Our aim was to determine the effect of intestinal muscle inhibition on wall motion, dynamics of luminal content and transit in the small bowel. Fourteen healthy subjects ingested the endoscopic capsule (Pillcam, Given Imaging) in fasting conditions. Seven of them received glucagon (4.8 microg kg(-1) bolus followed by a 9.6 microg kg(-1) h(-1) infusion during 1 h) and in the other seven, fasting activity was recorded, as controls. This dose of glucagon has previously shown to inhibit both tonic and phasic intestinal motor activity. Endoluminal image and displacement was analyzed by means of a computer vision programme specifically developed for the evaluation of muscular activity (contractile and non-contractile patterns), intestinal contents, endoluminal motion and transit. Thirty-minute periods before, during and after glucagon infusion were analyzed and compared with equivalent periods in controls. No differences were found in the parameters measured during the baseline (pretest) periods when comparing glucagon and control experiments. During glucagon infusion, there was a significant reduction in contractile activity (0.2 +/- 0.1 vs 4.2 +/- 0.9 luminal closures per min, P < 0.05; 0.4 +/- 0.1 vs 3.4 +/- 1.2% of images with radial wrinkles, P < 0.05) and a significant reduction of endoluminal motion (82 +/- 9 vs 21 +/- 10% of static images, P < 0.05). Endoluminal image analysis, by means of computer vision and machine learning techniques, can reliably detect reduced intestinal muscle activity and motion.

  11. Synergistic integration of Netrin and ephrin axon guidance signals by spinal motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Poliak, Sebastian; Morales, Daniel; Croteau, Louis-Philippe; Krawchuk, Dayana; Palmesino, Elena; Morton, Susan; Cloutier, Jean-François; Charron, Frederic; Dalva, Matthew B; Ackerman, Susan L; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Kania, Artur

    2015-12-03

    During neural circuit assembly, axonal growth cones are exposed to multiple guidance signals at trajectory choice points. While axonal responses to individual guidance cues have been extensively studied, less is known about responses to combination of signals and underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we studied the convergence of signals directing trajectory selection of spinal motor axons entering the limb. We first demonstrate that Netrin-1 attracts and repels distinct motor axon populations, according to their expression of Netrin receptors. Quantitative in vitro assays demonstrate that motor axons synergistically integrate both attractive or repulsive Netrin-1 signals together with repulsive ephrin signals. Our investigations of the mechanism of ephrin-B2 and Netrin-1 integration demonstrate that the Netrin receptor Unc5c and the ephrin receptor EphB2 can form a complex in a ligand-dependent manner and that Netrin-ephrin synergistic growth cones responses involve the potentiation of Src family kinase signaling, a common effector of both pathways.

  12. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, Douglas T. (Inventor); Schmitt, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The rotor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor may be regulated by applying a separate control signal to each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  13. Cerebellar granule cells acquire a widespread predictive feedback signal during motor learning.

    PubMed

    Giovannucci, Andrea; Badura, Aleksandra; Deverett, Ben; Najafi, Farzaneh; Pereira, Talmo D; Gao, Zhenyu; Ozden, Ilker; Kloth, Alexander D; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios; Paninski, Liam; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Medina, Javier F; Wang, Samuel S-H

    2017-03-20

    Cerebellar granule cells, which constitute half the brain's neurons, supply Purkinje cells with contextual information necessary for motor learning, but how they encode this information is unknown. Here we show, using two-photon microscopy to track neural activity over multiple days of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning in mice, that granule cell populations acquire a dense representation of the anticipatory eyelid movement. Initially, granule cells responded to neutral visual and somatosensory stimuli as well as periorbital airpuffs used for training. As learning progressed, two-thirds of monitored granule cells acquired a conditional response whose timing matched or preceded the learned eyelid movements. Granule cell activity covaried trial by trial to form a redundant code. Many granule cells were also active during movements of nearby body structures. Thus, a predictive signal about the upcoming movement is widely available at the input stage of the cerebellar cortex, as required by forward models of cerebellar control.

  14. Human standing is modified by an unconscious integration of congruent sensory and motor signals

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Billy L; Inglis, J Timothy; Huryn, Thomas P; Van der Loos, H F Machiel; Croft, Elizabeth A; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether the muscle response evoked by an electrically induced vestibular perturbation during standing is related to congruent sensory and motor signals. A robotic platform that simulated the mechanics of a standing person was used to manipulate the relationship between the action of the calf muscles and the movement of the body. Subjects braced on top of the platform with the ankles sway referenced to its motion were required to balance its simulated body-like load by modulating ankle plantar-flexor torque. Here, afferent signals of body motion were congruent with the motor command to the calf muscles to balance the body. Stochastic vestibular stimulation (±4 mA, 0–25 Hz) applied during this task evoked a biphasic response in both soleus muscles that was similar to the response observed during standing for all subjects. When the body was rotated through the same motion experienced during the balancing task, a small muscle response was observed in only the right soleus and in only half of the subjects. However, the timing and shape of this response did not resemble the vestibular-evoked response obtained during standing. When the balancing task was interspersed with periods of computer-controlled platform rotations that emulated the balancing motion so that subjects thought that they were constantly balancing the platform, coherence between the input vestibular stimulus and soleus electromyogram activity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during the period when plantar-flexor activity did not affect the motion of the body. The decrease in coherence occurred at 175 ms after the transition to computer-controlled motion, which subjects did not detect until after 2247 ms (Confidence Interval 1801, 2693), and then only half of the time. Our results indicate that the response to an electrically induced vestibular perturbation is organised in the absence of conscious perception when sensory feedback is congruent with the underlying motor behaviour. PMID

  15. Analysis of electrical and magnetic bio-signals associated with motor performance and fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bing

    This dissertation reports findings centered principally on comprehensive research related to human bio-signals (EEG, MEG, EMG and fMRI) acquired during repetitive maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) that induced severe fatigue. Fatigue is a common experience that reduces productivity and quality of life and increases chances of injury. Although abundant information has been gained in the last several decades regarding muscular and spinal-level mechanisms of muscle fatigue, very little is known about how cortical centers control and respond to fatigue. The main purpose of this study was to examine the fatigue effects on the central nervous system by analyzing the bio-signals collected in the designed experiments. Healthy human subjects were asked to perform a series of repetitive handgrip MVCs with their dominant hand until exhaustion. Handgrip forces, electrical activity (EMG) from primary and non-primary muscles, and EEG, MEG, or fMRI signals from different locations of the brain were recorded simultaneously. The time series data were segmented into several physiologically meaningful epochs (time phases), from rest to preparation to movement execution/sustaining. A series of studies, including motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) analysis, power spectrum analysis, time-frequency (spectrogram) analysis of EEG, EEG source localization and nonlinear analysis (fractal dimension and largest Lyapunov exponent), and fMRI analysis, was applied to the data. We hypothesized that the fatigue effects would act differently on brain signals of different phases. The MRCP results showed that the negative potential (NP) related to motor task preparation only had minimal changes with fatigue. The power of all EEG frequencies did not alter significantly during the preparation phase but decreased significantly during the sustained phase of the contraction. The fractal dimension and the largest Lyapunov exponent decreased significantly during the sustained phase as fatigue

  16. Reduced Motor Cortex Activity during Movement Preparation following a Period of Motor Skill Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; Holmes, Paul; Di Russo, Francesco; Loporto, Michela; Smith, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Experts in a skill produce movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) of smaller amplitude and later onset than novices. This may indicate that, following long-term training, experts require less effort to plan motor skill performance. However, no longitudinal evidence exists to support this claim. To address this, EEG was used to study the effect of motor skill training on cortical activity related to motor planning. Ten non-musicians took part in a 5-week training study learning to play guitar. At week 1, the MRCP was recorded from motor areas whilst participants played the G Major scale. Following a period of practice of the scale, the MRCP was recorded again at week 5. Results showed that the amplitude of the later pre-movement components were smaller at week 5 compared to week 1. This may indicate that, following training, less activity at motor cortex sites is involved in motor skill preparation. This supports claims for a more efficient motor preparation following motor skill training. PMID:23251647

  17. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on the motor suppression in stop-signal task.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung Won; Nam, Seok Hyun; Lee, Na Kyung; Son, Sung Min; Choi, Yong Won; Kim, Chung Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex alters the response time in motor suppression using the stop-signal task (SST). Forty healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. The subjects were assigned randomly to either the tDCS condition or sham control condition. All subjects performed a stop-signal task in three consecutive phases: without, during or after the delivery of anodal tDCS on the primary motor cortex (the pre-tDCS motor phase, on-tDCS motor phase, and after-tDCS motor phase). The response times of the stopping process were significantly lower in each SST motor phase during or after tDCS (p < 0.05) and shorter immediately during delivery of the tDCS, whereas there was no change after the delivery of tDCS compared to sham condition. In contrast, the response times of the going process were similar under the two conditions (p > 0.05). No subjects complained of any adverse symptoms or signs. Anodal tDCS enhances voluntary going and stopping of movement in executive control. tDCS appears to be an effective modality to modulate motor suppression and its related dynamic behavioral changes in motor sequential learning.

  18. Daily update of motor predictions by physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Gueugneau, Nicolas; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2015-01-01

    Motor prediction, i.e., the ability to predict the sensory consequences of motor commands, is critical for adapted motor behavior. Like speed or force, the accuracy of motor prediction varies in a 24-hour basis. Although the prevailing view is that basic biological markers regulate this circadian modulation, behavioral factors such as physical activity, itself modulated by the alternation of night and day, can also regulate motor prediction. Here, we propose that physical activity updates motor prediction on a daily basis. We tested our hypothesis by up- and down-regulating physical activity via arm-immobilization and high-intensity training, respectively. Motor prediction was assessed by measuring the timing differences between actual and mental arm movements. Results show that although mental movement time was modulated during the day when the arm was unconstrained, it remained constant when the arm was immobilized. Additionally, increase of physical activity, via release from immobilization or intense bout of training, significantly reduced mental movement time. Finally, mental and actual times were similar in the afternoon in the unconstrained condition, indicating that predicted and actual movements match after sufficient amount of physical activity. Our study supports the view that physical activity calibrates motor predictions on a daily basis. PMID:26632341

  19. Daily update of motor predictions by physical activity.

    PubMed

    Gueugneau, Nicolas; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2015-12-03

    Motor prediction, i.e., the ability to predict the sensory consequences of motor commands, is critical for adapted motor behavior. Like speed or force, the accuracy of motor prediction varies in a 24-hour basis. Although the prevailing view is that basic biological markers regulate this circadian modulation, behavioral factors such as physical activity, itself modulated by the alternation of night and day, can also regulate motor prediction. Here, we propose that physical activity updates motor prediction on a daily basis. We tested our hypothesis by up- and down-regulating physical activity via arm-immobilization and high-intensity training, respectively. Motor prediction was assessed by measuring the timing differences between actual and mental arm movements. Results show that although mental movement time was modulated during the day when the arm was unconstrained, it remained constant when the arm was immobilized. Additionally, increase of physical activity, via release from immobilization or intense bout of training, significantly reduced mental movement time. Finally, mental and actual times were similar in the afternoon in the unconstrained condition, indicating that predicted and actual movements match after sufficient amount of physical activity. Our study supports the view that physical activity calibrates motor predictions on a daily basis.

  20. Brain Activation in Primary Motor and Somatosensory Cortices during Motor Imagery Correlates with Motor Imagery Ability in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Confalonieri, Linda; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Barsalou, Lawrence W.; Rajendra, Justin; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Butler, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. While studies on healthy subjects have shown a partial overlap between the motor execution and motor imagery neural circuits, few have investigated brain activity during motor imagery in stroke patients with hemiparesis. This work is aimed at examining similarities between motor imagery and execution in a group of stroke patients. Materials and Methods. Eleven patients were asked to perform a visuomotor tracking task by either physically or mentally tracking a sine wave force target using their thumb and index finger during fMRI scanning. MIQ-RS questionnaire has been administered. Results and Conclusion. Whole-brain analyses confirmed shared neural substrates between motor imagery and motor execution in bilateral premotor cortex, SMA, and in the contralesional inferior parietal lobule. Additional region of interest-based analyses revealed a negative correlation between kinaesthetic imagery ability and percentage BOLD change in areas 4p and 3a; higher imagery ability was associated with negative and lower percentage BOLD change in primary sensorimotor areas during motor imagery. PMID:23378930

  1. Motor axons are guided to exit points in the spinal cord by Slit and Netrin signals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minkyung; Fontelonga, Tatiana M; Lee, Clare H; Barnum, Sarah J; Mastick, Grant S

    2017-10-03

    In the spinal cord, motor axons project out the neural tube at specific exit points, then bundle together to project toward target muscles. The molecular signals that guide motor axons to and out of their exit points remain undefined. Since motor axons and their exit points are located near the floor plate, guidance signals produced by the floor plate and adjacent ventral tissues could influence motor axons as they project toward and out of exit points. The secreted Slit proteins are major floor plate repellents, and motor neurons express two Slit receptors, Robo1 and Robo2. Using mutant mouse embryos at early stages of motor axon exit, we found that motor exit points shifted ventrally in Robo1/2 or Slit1/2 double mutants. Along with the ventral shift, mutant axons had abnormal trajectories both within the neural tube toward the exit point, and after exit into the periphery. In contrast, the absence of the major ventral attractant, Netrin-1, or its receptor, DCC caused motor exit points to shift dorsally. Netrin-1 attraction on spinal motor axons was demonstrated by in vitro explant assays, showing that Netrin-1 increased outgrowth and attracted cultured spinal motor axons. The opposing effects of Slit/Robo and Netrin-1/DCC signals were tested genetically by combining Netrin-1 and Robo1/2 mutations. The location of exit points in the combined mutants was significantly recovered to their normal position compared to Netrin-1 or Robo1/2 mutants. Together, these results suggest that the proper position of motor exit points is determined by a "push-pull" mechanism, pulled ventrally by Netrin-1/DCC attraction and pushed dorsally by Slit/Robo repulsion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effect of slice orientation on reproducibility of fMRI motor activation at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Gustard, S; Fadili, J; Williams, E J; Hall, L D; Carpenter, T A; Brett, M; Bullmore, E T

    2001-12-01

    The effect of slice orientation on reproducibility and sensitivity of 3T fMRI activation using a motor task has been investigated in six normal volunteers. Four slice orientations were used; axial, oblique axial, coronal and sagittal. We applied analysis of variance (ANOVA) to suprathreshold voxel statistics to quantify variability in activation between orientations and between subjects. We also assessed signal detection accuracy in voxels across the whole brain by using a finite mixture model to fit receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to the data. Preliminary findings suggest that suprathreshold cluster characteristics demonstrate high motor reproducibility across subjects and orientations, although a significant difference between slice orientations in number of activated voxels was demonstrated in left motor cortex but not cerebellum. Subtle inter-orientation differences are highlighted in the ROC analyses, which are not obvious by ANOVA; the oblique axial slice orientation offers the highest signal detection accuracy, whereas coronal slices give the lowest.

  3. Design, Synthesis, and Monitoring of Light-Activated Motorized Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Pinn-Tsong

    Our group has developed a family of single molecules termed nanocars, which are aimed at performing controllable motion on surfaces. In this work, a series of light-activated motorized nanomachines incorporated with a MHz frequency light-activated unidirectional rotary motor were designed and synthesized. We hope the light-activated motor can serve as the powering unit for the nanomachines, and perform controllable translational motion on surfaces or in solution. A series of motorized nanovehicles intended for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging were designed and synthesized. A p-carborane-wheeled motorized nanocar was synthesized and monitored by STM. Single-molecule imaging was accomplished on a Cu(111) surface. However, further manipulations did lead to motor induced lateral motion. We attributed this result to the strong molecule-surface interactions between the p-carborane-wheeled nanocar and the Cu(111) surface and possible energy transfer between the rotary motor and the Cu(111) surface. To fine-tune the molecule-surface interactions, an adamantane-wheeled motorized nanocar and a three-wheel nanoroadster were designed and synthesized. In addition, the STM substrates will be varied and different combinations of molecule-surface interactions will be studied. As a complimentary imaging method to STM, single-molecule fluorescence microscopy (SMFM) also provides single-molecule level resolution. Unlike STM experiment requires ultra-high vacuum and conductive substrate, SMFM experiment is conducted at ambient conditions and uses non-conductive substrate. This imaging method allows us to study another category of molecule-surface interactions. We plan to design a fluorescent motorized nanocar that is suitable for SMFM studies. However, both the motor and fluorophore are photochemically active molecules. In proximity, some undesired energy transfer or interference could occur. A cyanine 5- (cy5-) tagged motorized nanocar incorporated with the MHz motor was

  4. 78 FR 46677 - Agency Information Collection Activities; New Information Collection Request: Commercial Motor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, 20590... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; New Information Collection Request: Commercial Motor Vehicle Marking Requirements AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...

  5. Piezoelectric motor development at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division

    SciTech Connect

    Pressly, R.B.; Mentesana, C.P.

    1994-11-01

    The Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal Inc. has been investigating the fabrication and use of piezoelectric motors in mechanisms for United States Department of Energy (DOE) weapons applications for about four years. These motors exhibit advantages over solenoids and other electromagnetic actuators. Prototype processes have been developed for complete fabrication of motors from stock materials, including abrasive machining of piezoelectric ceramics and more traditional machining of other motor components, electrode plating and sputtering, electric poling, cleaning, bonding and assembly. Drive circuits have been fabricated and motor controls are being developed. Laboratory facilities have been established for electrical/mechanical testing and evaluation of piezo materials and completed motors. Recent project efforts have focused on the potential of piezoelectric devices for commercial and industrial use. A broad range of various motor types and application areas has been identified, primarily in Japan. The Japanese have been developing piezo motors for many years and have more recently begun commercialization. Piezoelectric motor and actuator technology is emerging in the United States and quickly gaining in commercial interest. The Kansas City Division is continuing development of piezoelectric motors and actuators for defense applications while supporting and participating in the commercialization of piezoelectric devices with private industry through various technology transfer and cooperative development initiatives.

  6. Acylcarnitines activate proinflammatory signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rutkowsky, Jennifer M; Knotts, Trina A; Ono-Moore, Kikumi D; McCoin, Colin S; Huang, Shurong; Schneider, Dina; Singh, Shamsher; Adams, Sean H; Hwang, Daniel H

    2014-06-15

    Incomplete β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a feature of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies revealed that plasma concentrations of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines (by-products of incomplete β-oxidation) are elevated in T2DM and insulin resistance. In a previous study, we reported that mixed D,L isomers of C12- or C14-carnitine induced an NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting potential activation of proinflammatory pathways. Here, we determined whether the physiologically relevant L-acylcarnitines activate classical proinflammatory signaling pathways and if these outcomes involve pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-associated pathways. Acylcarnitines induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in a chain length-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. L-C14 carnitine (5-25 μM), used as a representative acylcarnitine, stimulated the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, L-C14 carnitine induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, common downstream components of many proinflammatory signaling pathways including PRRs. Knockdown of MyD88, a key cofactor in PRR signaling and inflammation, blunted the proinflammatory effects of acylcarnitine. While these results point to potential involvement of PRRs, L-C14 carnitine promoted IL-8 secretion from human epithelial cells (HCT-116) lacking Toll-like receptors (TLR)2 and -4, and did not activate reporter constructs in TLR overexpression cell models. Thus, acylcarnitines have the potential to activate inflammation, but the specific molecular and tissue target(s) involved remain to be identified.

  7. Acylcarnitines activate proinflammatory signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowsky, Jennifer M.; Knotts, Trina A.; Ono-Moore, Kikumi D.; McCoin, Colin S.; Huang, Shurong; Schneider, Dina; Singh, Shamsher; Hwang, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Incomplete β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a feature of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies revealed that plasma concentrations of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines (by-products of incomplete β-oxidation) are elevated in T2DM and insulin resistance. In a previous study, we reported that mixed d,l isomers of C12- or C14-carnitine induced an NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting potential activation of proinflammatory pathways. Here, we determined whether the physiologically relevant l-acylcarnitines activate classical proinflammatory signaling pathways and if these outcomes involve pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-associated pathways. Acylcarnitines induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in a chain length-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. l-C14 carnitine (5–25 μM), used as a representative acylcarnitine, stimulated the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, l-C14 carnitine induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, common downstream components of many proinflammatory signaling pathways including PRRs. Knockdown of MyD88, a key cofactor in PRR signaling and inflammation, blunted the proinflammatory effects of acylcarnitine. While these results point to potential involvement of PRRs, l-C14 carnitine promoted IL-8 secretion from human epithelial cells (HCT-116) lacking Toll-like receptors (TLR)2 and -4, and did not activate reporter constructs in TLR overexpression cell models. Thus, acylcarnitines have the potential to activate inflammation, but the specific molecular and tissue target(s) involved remain to be identified. PMID:24760988

  8. Cortical activity during motor execution, motor imagery, and imagery-based online feedback.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kai J; Schalk, Gerwin; Fetz, Eberhard E; den Nijs, Marcel; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Rao, Rajesh P N

    2010-03-02

    Imagery of motor movement plays an important role in learning of complex motor skills, from learning to serve in tennis to perfecting a pirouette in ballet. What and where are the neural substrates that underlie motor imagery-based learning? We measured electrocorticographic cortical surface potentials in eight human subjects during overt action and kinesthetic imagery of the same movement, focusing on power in "high frequency" (76-100 Hz) and "low frequency" (8-32 Hz) ranges. We quantitatively establish that the spatial distribution of local neuronal population activity during motor imagery mimics the spatial distribution of activity during actual motor movement. By comparing responses to electrocortical stimulation with imagery-induced cortical surface activity, we demonstrate the role of primary motor areas in movement imagery. The magnitude of imagery-induced cortical activity change was approximately 25% of that associated with actual movement. However, when subjects learned to use this imagery to control a computer cursor in a simple feedback task, the imagery-induced activity change was significantly augmented, even exceeding that of overt movement.

  9. Cortical activity during motor execution, motor imagery, and imagery-based online feedback

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kai J.; Schalk, Gerwin; Fetz, Eberhard E.; den Nijs, Marcel; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Rao, Rajesh P. N.

    2010-01-01

    Imagery of motor movement plays an important role in learning of complex motor skills, from learning to serve in tennis to perfecting a pirouette in ballet. What and where are the neural substrates that underlie motor imagery-based learning? We measured electrocorticographic cortical surface potentials in eight human subjects during overt action and kinesthetic imagery of the same movement, focusing on power in “high frequency” (76–100 Hz) and “low frequency” (8–32 Hz) ranges. We quantitatively establish that the spatial distribution of local neuronal population activity during motor imagery mimics the spatial distribution of activity during actual motor movement. By comparing responses to electrocortical stimulation with imagery-induced cortical surface activity, we demonstrate the role of primary motor areas in movement imagery. The magnitude of imagery-induced cortical activity change was ∼25% of that associated with actual movement. However, when subjects learned to use this imagery to control a computer cursor in a simple feedback task, the imagery-induced activity change was significantly augmented, even exceeding that of overt movement. PMID:20160084

  10. Relations between Playing Activities and Fine Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Pufke, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Children's fine motor skills (FMS) are being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of preschool development; yet, we know very little about the experiences that foster their development. We utilized a parent-administered children's fine and gross motor activities questionnaire (MAQ) to investigate links with FMS. We recruited a sample of…

  11. Innovative Perceptual Motor Activities: Programing Techniques That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrell, Howard M.

    1978-01-01

    A circuit approach and station techniques are used to depict perceptual motor games for handicapped and nonhandicapped children. Twenty activities are described in terms of objectives, materials, and procedures, and their focus on visual tracking, visual discrimination and copying of forms, spatial body perception, fine motor coordination, tactile…

  12. Afferent and efferent activity control in the design of brain computer interfaces for motor rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woosang; Vidaurre, Carmen; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Birbaumer, Niels; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is a cardiovascular accident within the brain resulting in motor and sensory impairment in most of the survivors. A stroke can produce complete paralysis of the limb although sensory abilities are normally preserved. Functional electrical stimulation (FES), robotics and brain computer interfaces (BCIs) have been used to induce motor rehabilitation. In this work we measured the brain activity of healthy volunteers using electroencephalography (EEG) during FES, passive movements, active movements, motor imagery of the hand and resting to compare afferent and efferent brain signals produced during these motor related activities and to define possible features for an online FES-BCI. In the conditions in which the hand was moved we limited the movement range in order to control the afferent flow. Although we observed that there is a subject dependent frequency and spatial distribution of efferent and afferent signals, common patterns between conditions and subjects were present mainly in the low beta frequency range. When averaging all the subjects together the most significant frequency bin comparing each condition versus rest was exactly the same for all conditions but motor imagery. These results suggest that to implement an on-line FES-BCI, afferent brain signals resulting from FES have to be filtered and time-frequency-spatial features need to be used.

  13. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2016-03-21

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy.

  14. Carbohydrate in the mouth enhances activation of brain circuitry involved in motor performance and sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, Cathy M; Gant, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth has been associated with the facilitation of motor output and improvements in physical performance. Oral receptors have been identified as a potential mode of afferent transduction for this novel form of nutrient signalling that is distinct from taste. In the current study oral exposure to carbohydrate was combined with a motor task in a neuroimaging environment to identify areas of the brain involved in this phenomenon. A mouth-rinsing protocol was conducted whilst carbohydrate (CHO) and taste-matched placebo (PLA) solutions were delivered and recovered from the mouths of 10 healthy volunteers within a double-blind, counterbalanced design. This protocol eliminates post-oral factors and controls for the perceptual qualities of solutions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was used to identify cortical areas responsive to oral carbohydrate during rest and activity phases of a hand-grip motor task. Mean blood-oxygen-level dependent signal change experienced in the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was larger for CHO compared with PLA during the motor task when contrasted with a control condition. Areas of activation associated with CHO exclusively were observed over the primary taste cortex and regions involved in visual perception. Regions in the limbic system associated with reward were also significantly more active with CHO. This is the first demonstration that oral carbohydrate signalling can increase activation within the primary sensorimotor cortex during physical activity and enhance activation of neural networks involved in sensory perception.

  15. VAV-1 acts in a single interneuron to inhibit motor circuit activity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Fry, Amanda L; Laboy, Jocelyn T; Norman, Kenneth R

    2014-11-21

    The complex molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying neuronal control of animal movement are not well understood. Locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a neuronal circuit that produces coordinated sinusoidal movement. Here we utilize this simple, yet elegant, behaviour to show that VAV-1, a conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho-family GTPases, negatively regulates motor circuit activity and the rate of locomotion. While vav-1 is expressed in a small subset of neurons, we find that VAV-1 function is required in a single interneuron, ALA, to regulate motor neuron circuit activity. Furthermore, we show by genetic and optogenetic manipulation of ALA that VAV-1 is required for the excitation and activation of this neuron. We find that ALA signalling inhibits command interneuron activity by abrogating excitatory signalling in the command interneurons, which is responsible for promoting motor neuron circuit activity. Together, our data describe a novel neuromodulatory role for VAV-1-dependent signalling in the regulation of motor circuit activity and locomotion.

  16. VAV-1 acts in a single interneuron to inhibit motor circuit activity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Amanda L.; Laboy, Jocelyn T.; Norman, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    The complex molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying neuronal control of animal movement are not well understood. Locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a neuronal circuit that produces coordinated sinusoidal movement. Here we utilize this simple, yet elegant, behaviour to show that VAV-1, a conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho-family GTPases, negatively regulates motor circuit activity and the rate of locomotion. While vav-1 is expressed in a small subset of neurons, we find that VAV-1 function is required in a single interneuron, ALA, to regulate motor neuron circuit activity. Furthermore, we show by genetic and optogenetic manipulation of ALA that VAV-1 is required for the excitation and activation of this neuron. We find that ALA signalling inhibits command interneuron activity by abrogating excitatory signalling in the command interneurons, which is responsible for promoting motor neuron circuit activity. Together, our data describe a novel neuromodulatory role for VAV-1-dependent signalling in the regulation of motor circuit activity and locomotion. PMID:25412913

  17. Motor Cortex Activity Organizes the Developing Rubrospinal System

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Preston T.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfusion between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 to examine activity-dependent interactions and whether the RN/RST compensates for corticospinal tract (CST) developmental motor impairments and CST misprojections after M1 inactivation. We examined the RN motor map and RST cervical projections at 7 weeks of age, while the corticospinal system was inactivated, and at 14 weeks, after activity returned. During M1 inactivation, the RN on the same side showed normal RST projections and reduced motor thresholds, suggestive of precocious development. By contrast, the RN on the untreated/active M1 side showed sparse RST projections and an immature motor map. After M1 activity returned later in adolescent cat development, RN on the active M1/CST side continued to show a substantial loss of spinal terminations and an impaired motor map. RN/RST on the inactivated side regressed to a smaller map and fewer axons. Our findings suggest that the developing rubrospinal system is under activity-dependent regulation by the corticospinal system for establishing mature RST connections and RN motor map. The lack of RS compensation on the non-inactivated side can be explained by development of ipsilateral misprojections from the active M1 that outcompete the RST. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Skilled movements reflect the activity of multiple descending motor systems and their interactions with spinal motor circuits. Currently, there is little insight into whether motor systems interact during development to

  18. Activity Regulates the Incidence of Heteronymous Sensory-Motor Connections

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Alana I.; Simon, Christian M.; Abbott, L. F.; Mentis, George Z.; Jessell, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The construction of spinal sensory-motor circuits involves the selection of appropriate synaptic partners and the allocation of precise synaptic input densities. Many aspects of spinal sensory-motor selectivity appear to be preserved when peripheral sensory activation is blocked, which has led to a view that sensory-motor circuits are assembled in an activity-independent manner. Yet it remains unclear whether activity-dependent refinement has a role in the establishment of connections between sensory afferents and those motor pools that have synergistic biomechanical functions. We show here that genetically abolishing central sensory-motor neurotransmission leads to a selective enhancement in the number and density of such “heteronymous” connections, whereas other aspects of sensory-motor connectivity are preserved. Spike-timing dependent synaptic refinement represents one possible mechanism for the changes in connectivity observed after activity blockade. Our findings therefore reveal that sensory activity does have a limited and selective role in the establishment of patterned monosynaptic sensory-motor connections. PMID:26094608

  19. Remote control of molecular motors using light-activated gearshifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Zev

    2013-03-01

    Engineering molecular motors with dynamically controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in vivo and provide sophisticated components for directed nanoscale transport in vitro. We previously constructed myosin motors that respond to a change in [Ca++] by reversing their direction of motion along the polarized actin filament. To expand the potential applications of controllable molecular motors, we have now developed myosins that shift gears in response to blue light illumination. Light is a versatile control signal that can be readily modulated in time and space, and is generally orthogonal to cellular signaling. Using structure-guided protein engineering, we have incorporated LOV photoreceptor domains into the lever arms of chimeric myosins, resulting in motors that robustly speed up, slow down, or switch directions upon illumination. These genetically encoded motors should be directly deployable inside living cells. Our successful designs include constructs based on two different myosin classes, and we show that optical velocity control can be implemented in motors that move at microns/sec speeds, enabling practical biological and bioengineering applications.

  20. Decoding human motor activity from EEG single trials for a discrete two-dimensional cursor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dandan; Lin, Peter; Fei, Ding-Yu; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou

    2009-08-01

    This study aims to explore whether human intentions to move or cease to move right and left hands can be decoded from spatiotemporal features in non-invasive EEG in order to control a discrete two-dimensional cursor movement for a potential multidimensional brain-computer interface (BCI). Five naïve subjects performed either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window by using motor execution with physical movement or motor imagery. Spatial filtering, temporal filtering, feature selection and classification methods were explored. The performance of the proposed BCI was evaluated by both offline classification and online two-dimensional cursor control. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and post-movement event-related synchronization (ERS) were observed on the contralateral hemisphere to the hand moved for both motor execution and motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity in the contralateral hemisphere over the motor cortex provided the best detection of either sustained or ceased movement of the right or left hand. The offline classification of four motor tasks (sustain or cease to move right or left hand) provided 10-fold cross-validation accuracy as high as 88% for motor execution and 73% for motor imagery. The subjects participating in experiments with physical movement were able to complete the online game with motor execution at an average accuracy of 85.5 ± 4.65%; the subjects participating in motor imagery study also completed the game successfully. The proposed BCI provides a new practical multidimensional method by noninvasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior, which does not need long-term training.

  1. Learning to associate novel words with motor actions: language-induced motor activity following short training.

    PubMed

    Fargier, Raphaël; Paulignan, Yves; Boulenger, Véronique; Monaghan, Padraic; Reboul, Anne; Nazir, Tatjana A

    2012-07-01

    Action words referring to face, arm or leg actions activate areas along the motor strip that also control the planning and execution of the actions specified by the words. This electroencephalogram (EEG) study aimed to test the learning profile of this language-induced motor activity. Participants were trained to associate novel verbal stimuli to videos of object-oriented hand and arm movements or animated visual images on two consecutive days. Each training session was preceded and followed by a test-session with isolated videos and verbal stimuli. We measured motor-related brain activity (reflected by a desynchronization in the μ frequency bands; 8-12 Hz range) localized at centro-parietal and fronto-central electrodes. We compared activity from viewing the videos to activity resulting from processing the language stimuli only. At centro-parietal electrodes, stable action-related μ suppression was observed during viewing of videos in each test-session of the two days. For processing of verbal stimuli associated with motor actions, a similar pattern of activity was evident only in the second test-session of Day 1. Over the fronto-central regions, μ suppression was observed in the second test-session of Day 2 for the videos and in the second test-session of Day 1 for the verbal stimuli. Whereas the centro-parietal μ suppression can be attributed to motor events actually experienced during training, the fronto-central μ suppression seems to serve as a convergence zone that mediates underspecified motor information. Consequently, sensory-motor reactivations through which concepts are comprehended seem to differ in neural dynamics from those implicated in their acquisition.

  2. Brain oscillatory activity during motor imagery in EEG-fMRI coregistration.

    PubMed

    Formaggio, Emanuela; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Cerini, Roberto; Fiaschi, Antonio; Manganotti, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the correlation between topographical changes in brain oscillatory activity and the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during a motor imagery (MI) task using electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) coregistration. EEG was recorded in 7 healthy subjects inside a 1.5 T MR scanner during the imagination of the kinesthetic experience of movement. A Fast Fourier Transform was applied to EEG signal in the rest and active conditions. We used the event-related-synchronization (ERS)/desynchronization (ERD) approach to characterize where the imagination of movement produces a decrease in alpha and beta power. The mean alpha map showed ERD decrease localized over the contralateral sensory motor area (SM1c) and a light desynchronization in the ipsilateral sensory motor area (SM1i); whereas the mean beta map showed ERD decrease over the supplementary motor area (SMA). fMRI showed significant activation in SMA, SM1c, SM1i. The correlation is negative in the contralateral side and positive in the ipsilateral side. Using combined EEG-fMRI signals we obtained useful new information on the description of the changes in oscillatory activity in alpha and beta bands during MI and on the investigation of the sites of BOLD activity as possible sources in generating these rhythms. By correlating BOLD and ERD/ERS we may identify more accurately which regions contribute to changes of the electrical response.

  3. Improving Robot Motor Learning with Negatively Valenced Reinforcement Signals.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Guerrero, Nicolás; Lowe, Robert J; Wermter, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Both nociception and punishment signals have been used in robotics. However, the potential for using these negatively valenced types of reinforcement learning signals for robot learning has not been exploited in detail yet. Nociceptive signals are primarily used as triggers of preprogrammed action sequences. Punishment signals are typically disembodied, i.e., with no or little relation to the agent-intrinsic limitations, and they are often used to impose behavioral constraints. Here, we provide an alternative approach for nociceptive signals as drivers of learning rather than simple triggers of preprogrammed behavior. Explicitly, we use nociception to expand the state space while we use punishment as a negative reinforcement learning signal. We compare the performance-in terms of task error, the amount of perceived nociception, and length of learned action sequences-of different neural networks imbued with punishment-based reinforcement signals for inverse kinematic learning. We contrast the performance of a version of the neural network that receives nociceptive inputs to that without such a process. Furthermore, we provide evidence that nociception can improve learning-making the algorithm more robust against network initializations-as well as behavioral performance by reducing the task error, perceived nociception, and length of learned action sequences. Moreover, we provide evidence that punishment, at least as typically used within reinforcement learning applications, may be detrimental in all relevant metrics.

  4. Motor Skill Competence and Physical Activity in Preschoolers: A Review.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Roger; An, Ruopeng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Preschoolers 3-5 years of age are in a crucial stage of motor skill competence. While preschoolers develop their motor skill competence through engagement in physical activity, a majority of them fail to meet guideline-recommended physical activity level. This study reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers. Methods This systematic review followed the PRISMA framework. Keyword and reference search were conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria included-age: 3-5 years of age; setting: preschool environment (e.g., preschool, childcare, head start); main outcomes: motor skill competence and physical activity; study design: cross-sectional study, case-control study, retrospective cohort study, prospective cohort study, or randomized controlled trial; language: English; and article type: peer-reviewed publication. Results Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including 6 randomized controlled trials and 5 cross-sectional studies. Studies were conducted in 5 countries: United States (5), United Kingdom (2), Australia (2), Switzerland (1), and Finland (1). Eight out of the 11 studies included in the review reported a significant relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity. The specific pattern and strength of the relationship tend to differ by gender, physical activity intensity, motor skill type, and day of the week (weekdays versus weekends). Conclusions An association has been consistently documented between motor skill competence and physical activity. Future research is warranted to elucidate the underlining causal link, examine potential heterogeneity, and determine the role of environment in the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers.

  5. Prepotent motor activity and inhibitory control demands in different variants of the go/no-go paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R

    2017-04-08

    Inhibitory control enables humans to stop prepotent motor activity, and is commonly studied using go/no-go or stop-signal tasks. In stop-signal tasks, prepotent motor activity is elicited by delaying stop signals relative to go signals. In go/no-go tasks, however, trials include only one signal-go or no-go. Hence, prepotent motor activity has to be ensured differently-for example, by using rare no-go trials and short trial durations. However, a literature survey shows that ∼40% of studies use equiprobable go/no-go trials and ∼20% use long stimulus-stimulus intervals (> 4 s). It is unclear whether such slow-paced, equiprobable go/no-go tasks elicit prepotent motor activity and probe inhibitory control. We recorded EEG during four go/no-go tasks, varying in no-go probability and trial duration. We quantified prepotent motor activity on successfully inhibited no-go trials using the lateralized readiness potential. Only fast-paced go/no-go tasks with rare no-go trials reliably evoked such activity. We then used a stop-signal task and independent component analysis to isolate an established neural signature of inhibitory control, and investigated this signature's activity across the go/no-go tasks. Across tasks, increased prepotent motor activity on individual no-go trials was accompanied by greater frontocentral P3 amplitudes, confirming it as an index of inhibition. Crucially, this inhibition-related activity showed a 75% reduction in slow-paced, equiprobable go/no-go tasks compared to fast-paced, rare no-go versions. Therefore, since many common go/no-go task configurations do not reliably evoke prepotent motor activity, their inhibitory requirements are greatly reduced. This has major implications for the usage of go/no-go tasks in psychological experiments.

  6. A novel approach in automatic estimation of rats' loco-motor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anishchenko, Lesya N.; Ivashov, Sergey I.; Vasiliev, Igor A.

    2014-05-01

    The paper contains feasibility study of a method for bioradar monitoring of small laboratory animals loco-motor activity improved by using a corner reflector. It presents results of mathematical simulation of bioradar signal reflection from the animal with the help of finite-difference time-domain method. It was proved both by theoretical and experimental results that a corner reflector usage during monitoring of small laboratory animals loco-motor activity improved the effectiveness of the method by reducing the dependency of the power flux density level from the distance between antennas block and the object.

  7. Motor-related signals in the auditory system for listening and learning.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David M; Mooney, Richard

    2015-08-01

    In the auditory system, corollary discharge signals are theorized to facilitate normal hearing and the learning of acoustic behaviors, including speech and music. Despite clear evidence of corollary discharge signals in the auditory cortex and their presumed importance for hearing and auditory-guided motor learning, the circuitry and function of corollary discharge signals in the auditory cortex are not well described. In this review, we focus on recent developments in the mouse and songbird that provide insights into the circuitry that transmits corollary discharge signals to the auditory system and the function of these signals in the context of hearing and vocal learning.

  8. Individual variation in sleep and motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangdong; Yang, Linghui; Sanford, Larry D

    2007-06-04

    We examined individual differences in sleep and motor activity across 2 consecutive days in rats. EEG and motor activity were recorded via telemetry in Wistar rats (n=29) for 48h under well-habituated conditions. Rats were grouped based on sleep amounts and stability across days (short [SS, n=7], intermediate [IS, n=15] and long [LS, n=7] sleep) and comparisons were conducted to determine group differences for measures of sleep and motor activity. We found that correlations across recording days were significant for all selected sleep measures and motor activity counts. Rankings for 24h total sleep time and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) were SSmotor activity counts (per waking min) were greater (32-38%) in SS compared to LS rats on both recording days. The results indicate that individual differences in sleep and motor activity in Wistar rats are stable across days. Differences between SS and LS rats have parallels to those reported for short and long sleep humans.

  9. Fault diagnosis of motor drives using stator current signal analysis based on dynamic time warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, D.; Wang, T.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Electrical motor stator current signals have been widely used to monitor the condition of induction machines and their downstream mechanical equipment. The key technique used for current signal analysis is based on Fourier transform (FT) to extract weak fault sideband components from signals predominated with supply frequency component and its higher order harmonics. However, the FT based method has limitations such as spectral leakage and aliasing, leading to significant errors in estimating the sideband components. Therefore, this paper presents the use of dynamic time warping (DTW) to process the motor current signals for detecting and quantifying common faults in a downstream two-stage reciprocating compressor. DTW is a time domain based method and its algorithm is simple and easy to be embedded into real-time devices. In this study DTW is used to suppress the supply frequency component and highlight the sideband components based on the introduction of a reference signal which has the same frequency component as that of the supply power. Moreover, a sliding window is designed to process the raw signal using DTW frame by frame for effective calculation. Based on the proposed method, the stator current signals measured from the compressor induced with different common faults and under different loads are analysed for fault diagnosis. Results show that DTW based on residual signal analysis through the introduction of a reference signal allows the supply components to be suppressed well so that the fault related sideband components are highlighted for obtaining accurate fault detection and diagnosis results. In particular, the root mean square (RMS) values of the residual signal can indicate the differences between the healthy case and different faults under varying discharge pressures. It provides an effective and easy approach to the analysis of motor current signals for better fault diagnosis of the downstream mechanical equipment of motor drives in the time

  10. Chained Activation of the Motor System during Language Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Barbara F.; Borghi, Anna M.; Buccino, Giovanni; Riggio, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether and how one important characteristic of the motor system, that is its goal-directed organization in motor chains, is reflected in language processing. This possibility stems from the embodied theory of language, according to which the linguistic system re-uses the structures of the motor system. The participants were presented with nouns of common tools preceded by a pair of verbs expressing grasping or observational motor chains (i.e., grasp-to-move, grasp-to-use, look-at-to-grasp, and look-at-to-stare). They decided whether the tool mentioned in the sentence was the same as that displayed in a picture presented shortly after. A primacy of the grasp-to-use motor chain over the other motor chains in priming the participants' performance was observed in both the experiments. More interestingly, we found that the motor information evoked by the noun was modulated by the specific motor-chain expressed by the preceding verbs. Specifically, with the grasping chain aimed at using the tool, the functional motor information prevailed over the volumetric information, and vice versa with the grasping chain aimed at moving the tool (Experiment 2). Instead, the functional and volumetric information were balanced for those motor chains that comprise at least an observational act (Experiment 1). Overall our results are in keeping with the embodied theory of language and suggest that understanding sentences expressing an action directed toward a tool drives a chained activation of the motor system. PMID:28265247

  11. Chained Activation of the Motor System during Language Understanding.

    PubMed

    Marino, Barbara F; Borghi, Anna M; Buccino, Giovanni; Riggio, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether and how one important characteristic of the motor system, that is its goal-directed organization in motor chains, is reflected in language processing. This possibility stems from the embodied theory of language, according to which the linguistic system re-uses the structures of the motor system. The participants were presented with nouns of common tools preceded by a pair of verbs expressing grasping or observational motor chains (i.e., grasp-to-move, grasp-to-use, look-at-to-grasp, and look-at-to-stare). They decided whether the tool mentioned in the sentence was the same as that displayed in a picture presented shortly after. A primacy of the grasp-to-use motor chain over the other motor chains in priming the participants' performance was observed in both the experiments. More interestingly, we found that the motor information evoked by the noun was modulated by the specific motor-chain expressed by the preceding verbs. Specifically, with the grasping chain aimed at using the tool, the functional motor information prevailed over the volumetric information, and vice versa with the grasping chain aimed at moving the tool (Experiment 2). Instead, the functional and volumetric information were balanced for those motor chains that comprise at least an observational act (Experiment 1). Overall our results are in keeping with the embodied theory of language and suggest that understanding sentences expressing an action directed toward a tool drives a chained activation of the motor system.

  12. Brain activation in motor sequence learning is related to the level of native cortical excitability.

    PubMed

    Lissek, Silke; Vallana, Guido S; Güntürkün, Onur; Dinse, Hubert; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cortical excitability may be subject to changes through training and learning. Motor training can increase cortical excitability in motor cortex, and facilitation of motor cortical excitability has been shown to be positively correlated with improvements in performance in simple motor tasks. Thus cortical excitability may tentatively be considered as a marker of learning and use-dependent plasticity. Previous studies focused on changes in cortical excitability brought about by learning processes, however, the relation between native levels of cortical excitability on the one hand and brain activation and behavioral parameters on the other is as yet unknown. In the present study we investigated the role of differential native motor cortical excitability for learning a motor sequencing task with regard to post-training changes in excitability, behavioral performance and involvement of brain regions. Our motor task required our participants to reproduce and improvise over a pre-learned motor sequence. Over both task conditions, participants with low cortical excitability (CElo) showed significantly higher BOLD activation in task-relevant brain regions than participants with high cortical excitability (CEhi). In contrast, CElo and CEhi groups did not exhibit differences in percentage of correct responses and improvisation level. Moreover, cortical excitability did not change significantly after learning and training in either group, with the exception of a significant decrease in facilitatory excitability in the CEhi group. The present data suggest that the native, unmanipulated level of cortical excitability is related to brain activation intensity, but not to performance quality. The higher BOLD mean signal intensity during the motor task might reflect a compensatory mechanism in CElo participants.

  13. Orientation-dependent changes in single motor neuron activity during adaptive soft-bodied locomotion.

    PubMed

    Metallo, Cinzia; Trimmer, Barry A

    2015-01-01

    Recent major advances in understanding the organizational principles underlying motor control have focused on a small number of animal species with stiff articulated skeletons. These model systems have the advantage of easily quantifiable mechanics, but the neural codes underlying different movements are difficult to characterize because they typically involve a large population of neurons controlling each muscle. As a result, studying how neural codes drive adaptive changes in behavior is extremely challenging. This problem is highly simplified in the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta, which, in its larval stage (caterpillar), is predominantly soft-bodied. Since each M. sexta muscle is innervated by one, occasionally two, excitatory motor neurons, the electrical activity generated by each muscle can be mapped to individual motor neurons. In the present study, muscle activation patterns were converted into motor neuron frequency patterns by identifying single excitatory junction potentials within recorded electromyographic traces. This conversion was carried out with single motor neuron resolution thanks to the high signal selectivity of newly developed flexible microelectrode arrays, which were specifically designed to record from M. sexta muscles. It was discovered that the timing of motor neuron activity and gait kinematics depend on the orientation of the plane of motion during locomotion. We report that, during climbing, the motor neurons monitored in the present study shift their activity to correlate with movements in the animal's more anterior segments. This orientation-dependent shift in motor activity is in agreement with the expected shift in the propulsive forces required for climbing. Our results suggest that, contrary to what has been previously hypothesized, M.sexta uses central command timing for adaptive load compensation.

  14. Classification of Motor Imagery EEG Signals with Support Vector Machines and Particle Swarm Optimization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuliang; Ding, Xiaohui; She, Qingshan; Luo, Zhizeng; Potter, Thomas; Zhang, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    Support vector machines are powerful tools used to solve the small sample and nonlinear classification problems, but their ultimate classification performance depends heavily upon the selection of appropriate kernel and penalty parameters. In this study, we propose using a particle swarm optimization algorithm to optimize the selection of both the kernel and penalty parameters in order to improve the classification performance of support vector machines. The performance of the optimized classifier was evaluated with motor imagery EEG signals in terms of both classification and prediction. Results show that the optimized classifier can significantly improve the classification accuracy of motor imagery EEG signals.

  15. BDNF heightens the sensitivity of motor neurons to excitotoxic insults through activation of TrkB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Peter; Kalb, Robert G.; Walton, K. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The survival promoting and neuroprotective actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are well known but under certain circumstances this growth factor can also exacerbate excitotoxic insults to neurons. Prior exploration of the receptor through which BDNF exerts this action on motor neurons deflects attention away from p75. Here we investigated the possibility that BDNF acts through the receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB, to confer on motor neurons sensitivity to excitotoxic challenge. We blocked BDNF activation of TrkB using a dominant negative TrkB mutant or a TrkB function blocking antibody, and found that this protected motor neurons against excitotoxic insult in cultures of mixed spinal cord neurons. Addition of a function blocking antibody to BDNF to mixed spinal cord neuron cultures is also neuroprotective indicating that endogenously produced BDNF participates in vulnerability to excitotoxicity. We next examined the intracellular signaling cascades that are engaged upon TrkB activation. Previously we found that inhibition of the phosphatidylinositide-3'-kinase (PI3'K) pathway blocks BDNF-induced excitotoxic sensitivity. Here we show that expression of a constitutively active catalytic subunit of PI3'K, p110, confers excitotoxic sensitivity (ES) upon motor neurons not incubated with BDNF. Parallel studies with purified motor neurons confirm that these events are likely to be occuring specifically within motor neurons. The abrogation of BDNF's capacity to accentuate excitotoxic insults may make it a more attractive neuroprotective agent.

  16. BDNF heightens the sensitivity of motor neurons to excitotoxic insults through activation of TrkB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Peter; Kalb, Robert G.; Walton, K. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The survival promoting and neuroprotective actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are well known but under certain circumstances this growth factor can also exacerbate excitotoxic insults to neurons. Prior exploration of the receptor through which BDNF exerts this action on motor neurons deflects attention away from p75. Here we investigated the possibility that BDNF acts through the receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB, to confer on motor neurons sensitivity to excitotoxic challenge. We blocked BDNF activation of TrkB using a dominant negative TrkB mutant or a TrkB function blocking antibody, and found that this protected motor neurons against excitotoxic insult in cultures of mixed spinal cord neurons. Addition of a function blocking antibody to BDNF to mixed spinal cord neuron cultures is also neuroprotective indicating that endogenously produced BDNF participates in vulnerability to excitotoxicity. We next examined the intracellular signaling cascades that are engaged upon TrkB activation. Previously we found that inhibition of the phosphatidylinositide-3'-kinase (PI3'K) pathway blocks BDNF-induced excitotoxic sensitivity. Here we show that expression of a constitutively active catalytic subunit of PI3'K, p110, confers excitotoxic sensitivity (ES) upon motor neurons not incubated with BDNF. Parallel studies with purified motor neurons confirm that these events are likely to be occuring specifically within motor neurons. The abrogation of BDNF's capacity to accentuate excitotoxic insults may make it a more attractive neuroprotective agent.

  17. Observing shadow motions: resonant activity within the observer's motor system?

    PubMed

    Alaerts, Kaat; Van Aggelpoel, Tinne; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2009-09-25

    Several studies have demonstrated that the human motor cortex is activated by the mere observation of actions performed by others. In the present study, we explored whether the perception of 'impoverished motion stimuli', such as shadow animations, is sufficient to activate motor areas. To do so, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied over the hand area of the primary motor cortex (M1) while subjects observed shadow animations depicting finger motions. Data showed that resonant motor responses in M1 were only found when a biological effector was recognized from the observed shadow animation. Interestingly, M1 responses were similar for observing shadow or real motions. Therefore, the loss of 'pictorial' movement features in a shadow animation appeared to have no effect on motor resonance in M1. In summary, these findings suggest that the 'recognition' of biological motion from sparse visual input is both necessary and sufficient to recruit motor areas. This supports the hypothesis that the motor system is involved in recognizing the actions performed by others.

  18. Motor neuron cell bodies are actively positioned by Slit/Robo repulsion and Netrin/DCC attraction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minkyung; Fontelonga, Tatiana; Roesener, Andrew P; Lee, Haeram; Gurung, Suman; Mendonca, Philipe R F; Mastick, Grant S

    2015-03-01

    Motor neurons differentiate from a ventral column of progenitors and settle in static clusters, the motor nuclei, next to the floor plate. Within these cell clusters, motor neurons receive afferent input and project their axons out to muscle targets. The molecular mechanisms that position motor neurons in the neural tube remain poorly understood. The floor plate produces several types of guidance cues with well-known roles in attracting and repelling axons, including the Slit family of chemorepellents via their Robo receptors, and Netrin1 via its DCC attractive receptor. In the present study we found that Islet1(+) motor neuron cell bodies invaded the floor plate of Robo1/2 double mutant mouse embryos or Slit1/2/3 triple mutants. Misplaced neurons were born in their normal progenitor column, but then migrated tangentially into the ventral midline. Robo1 and 2 receptor expression in motor neurons was confirmed by reporter gene staining and anti-Robo antibody labeling. Mis-positioned motor neurons projected their axons longitudinally within the floor plate, and failed to reach their normal exit points. To test for potential counteracting ventral attractive signals, we examined Netrin-1 and DCC mutants, and found that motor neurons shifted dorsally in the hindbrain and spinal cord, suggesting that Netrin-1/DCC signaling normally attracts motor neurons closer to the floor plate. Our results show that motor neurons are actively migrating cells, and are normally trapped in a static position by Slit/Robo repulsion and Netrin-1/DCC attraction.

  19. Physiological basis and image processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Neuronal and motor activity in brain

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rakesh; Sharma, Avdhesh

    2004-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is recently developing as imaging modality used for mapping hemodynamics of neuronal and motor event related tissue blood oxygen level dependence (BOLD) in terms of brain activation. Image processing is performed by segmentation and registration methods. Segmentation algorithms provide brain surface-based analysis, automated anatomical labeling of cortical fields in magnetic resonance data sets based on oxygen metabolic state. Registration algorithms provide geometric features using two or more imaging modalities to assure clinically useful neuronal and motor information of brain activation. This review article summarizes the physiological basis of fMRI signal, its origin, contrast enhancement, physical factors, anatomical labeling by segmentation, registration approaches with examples of visual and motor activity in brain. Latest developments are reviewed for clinical applications of fMRI along with other different neurophysiological and imaging modalities. PMID:15125779

  20. Neuromodulation of parietal and motor activity affects motor planning and execution.

    PubMed

    Convento, Silvia; Bolognini, Nadia; Fusaro, Martina; Lollo, Federica; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool, which effectively modulates behavior, and related brain activity. When applied to the primary motor cortex (M1), tDCS affects motor function, enhancing or decreasing performance of both healthy participants and brain-damaged patients. Beyond M1, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is also crucially involved in controlling and guiding movement. Therefore, we explored whether the modulation of cortical excitability within PPC can also affect hand motor function in healthy right-handed participants. In Experiment 1, anodal tDCS (2 mA, 10 min) was applied to PPC and to M1 of both hemispheres. Skilled motor function of the non-dominant left hand, measured using the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTT), improved after anodal tDCS of the right, contralateral M1, as well as after the anodal stimulation of the left, ipsilateral PPC. Conversely, in Experiment 2, cathodal tDCS of the left PPC, or of the right M1, reduced motor performance of the left hand. Finally, Experiment 3 shows that the anodal tDCS of the left PPC selectively facilitated action planning, while the anodal tDCS of the right M1 modulated action execution only. This evidence shows that motor improvement induced by left parietal and right motor stimulations relies on substantial different mechanisms, opening up novel perspectives in the neurorehabilitation of stroke patients with motor and apraxic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity during motor learning.

    PubMed

    Peters, Andrew J; Chen, Simon X; Komiyama, Takaki

    2014-06-12

    The motor cortex is capable of reliably driving complex movements yet exhibits considerable plasticity during motor learning. These observations suggest that the fundamental relationship between motor cortex activity and movement may not be fixed but is instead shaped by learning; however, to what extent and how motor learning shapes this relationship are not fully understood. Here we addressed this issue by using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to monitor the activity of the same population of hundreds of layer 2/3 neurons while mice learned a forelimb lever-press task over two weeks. Excitatory and inhibitory neurons were identified by transgenic labelling. Inhibitory neuron activity was relatively stable and balanced local excitatory neuron activity on a movement-by-movement basis, whereas excitatory neuron activity showed higher dynamism during the initial phase of learning. The dynamics of excitatory neurons during the initial phase involved the expansion of the movement-related population which explored various activity patterns even during similar movements. This was followed by a refinement into a smaller population exhibiting reproducible spatiotemporal sequences of activity. This pattern of activity associated with the learned movement was unique to expert animals and not observed during similar movements made during the naive phase, and the relationship between neuronal activity and individual movements became more consistent with learning. These changes in population activity coincided with a transient increase in dendritic spine turnover in these neurons. Our results indicate that a novel and reproducible activity-movement relationship develops as a result of motor learning, and we speculate that synaptic plasticity within the motor cortex underlies the emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity patterns for learned movements. These results underscore the profound influence of learning on the way that the cortex produces movements.

  2. Methodology for fault detection in induction motors via sound and vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Arredondo, Paulo Antonio; Morinigo-Sotelo, Daniel; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Avina-Cervantes, Juan Gabriel; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, timely maintenance of electric motors is vital to keep up the complex processes of industrial production. There are currently a variety of methodologies for fault diagnosis. Usually, the diagnosis is performed by analyzing current signals at a steady-state motor operation or during a start-up transient. This method is known as motor current signature analysis, which identifies frequencies associated with faults in the frequency domain or by the time-frequency decomposition of the current signals. Fault identification may also be possible by analyzing acoustic sound and vibration signals, which is useful because sometimes this information is the only available. The contribution of this work is a methodology for detecting faults in induction motors in steady-state operation based on the analysis of acoustic sound and vibration signals. This proposed approach uses the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition for decomposing the signal into several intrinsic mode functions. Subsequently, the frequency marginal of the Gabor representation is calculated to obtain the spectral content of the IMF in the frequency domain. This proposal provides good fault detectability results compared to other published works in addition to the identification of more frequencies associated with the faults. The faults diagnosed in this work are two broken rotor bars, mechanical unbalance and bearing defects.

  3. Adaptations of motor neural structures' activity to lapses in attention.

    PubMed

    Derosière, Gérard; Billot, Maxime; Ward, E Tomas; Perrey, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Sustained attention is fundamental for cognition and when impaired, impacts negatively on important contemporary living skills. Degradation in sustained attention is characterized by the time-on-task (TOT) effect, which manifests as a gradual increase in reaction time (RT). The TOT effect is accompanied by changes in relative brain activity patterns in attention-related areas, most noticeably in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right parietal areas. However, activity changes in task-relevant motor structures have not been confirmed to date. This article describes an investigation of such motor-related activity changes as measured with 1) the time course of corticospinal excitability (CSE) through single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation; and 2) the changes in activity of premotor (PMC), primary motor (M1), PFC, and right parietal areas by means of near-infrared spectroscopy, during a sustained attention RT task exhibiting the TOT effect. Our results corroborate established findings such as a significant increase (P < 0.05) in lateral prefrontal and right parietal areas activity after the emergence of the TOT effect but also reveal adaptations in the form of motor activity changes--in particular, a significant increase in CSE (P < 0.01) and in primary motor area (M1) activity (P < 0.05). © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Neurofeedback fMRI-mediated learning and consolidation of regional brain activation during motor imagery

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung-Schik; Lee, Jong-Hwan; O’Leary, Heather; Panych, Lawrence P.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the long-term effect of real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI) training on voluntary regulation of the level of activation from a hand motor area. During the performance of a motor imagery task of a right hand, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal originating from a primary motor area was presented back to the subject in real-time. Demographically matched individuals also received the same procedure without valid feedback information. Followed by the initial rtfMRI sessions, both groups underwent two-week long, daily-practice of the task. Off-line data analysis revealed that the individuals in the experimental group were able to increase the level of BOLD signal from the regulatory target to a greater degree compared to the control group. Furthermore, the learned level of activation was maintained after the two-week period, with the recruitment of additional neural circuitries such as the hippocampus and the limbo-thalamo-cortical pathway. The activation obtained from the control group, in the absence of proper feedback, was indifferent across the training conditions. The level of BOLD activity from the target regulatory region was positively correlated with a self evaluative score within the experimental group, while the majority of control subjects had difficulty adopting a strategy to attain the desired level of functional regulation. Our results suggest that rtfMRI helped individuals learn how to increase region-specific cortical activity associated with a motor imagery task, and the level of increased activation in motor areas was consolidated after the two-week self-practice period, with the involvement of neural circuitries implicated in motor skill learning. PMID:19526048

  5. Symposium FF: Molecular Motors, Nanomachines, and Active Nanostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-23

    catalytic activity and HMM propelled actin filament sliding may be exploited for highly parallel, far-field light- microscopy based characterization of...stochastic model for motor cooperation based on the known properties of single motor molecules and in vitro bead assays with latex beads that were incubated...scientists from diverse fields working on the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. Topics presented spanned the nano- ( single molecule

  6. Median nerve stimulation modulates extracellular signals in the primary motor area of a macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Papazachariadis, Odysseas; Dante, Vittorio; Ferraina, Stefano

    2013-08-29

    Aiming to better define the functional influence of somatosensory stimuli on the primary motor cortex (M1) of primates, we investigated changes in extracellular neural activity induced by repetitive median nerve stimulation (MNS). We described neural adaptation and signal integration in both the multiunit activity (MUA) and the local field potential (LFP). To identify integration of initial M1 activity in the MNS response, we tested the correlation between peak amplitude responses and band energy preceding the peaks. Most of the sites studied in the M1 resulted responsive to MNS. MUA response peak amplitude decreased significantly in time in all sites during repetitive MNS, LFP response peak amplitude instead resulted more variable. Similarly, correlation analysis with the initial activity revealed a significant influence when tested using MUA peak amplitude modulation and a less significant correlation when tested using LFP peak amplitude. Our findings improve current knowledge on mechanisms underlying early M1 changes consequent to afferent somatosensory stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The functional role of motor activation in language processing: motor cortical oscillations support lexical-semantic retrieval.

    PubMed

    van Elk, M; van Schie, H T; Zwaan, R A; Bekkering, H

    2010-04-01

    There is increasing experimental evidence that processing action-related language results in the automatic activation of associated regions of the motor and premotor cortex. However, the functional significance of motor activation in language processing is still under debate. In the present EEG study, we set out to investigate if language-induced motor activation primarily reflects the retrieval of lexical-semantic information or post-lexical motor imagery. The processing of action verbs was found accompanied by an early activation of motor-related brain areas, as reflected by a desynchronization in the mu- and beta-frequency bands which was localized to motor and premotor areas. A stronger motor activation was observed for verbs presented in an animal context (e.g. "The deer jumped over the stream") compared to a human context (e.g. "The athlete jumped over the fence") and motor resonance was directly modulated by the cloze probability of the noun-verb pairs. The onset of the motor effects preceded classical measures of semantic integration (i.e. the N400 component) and the strength of motor activation was found inversely related to the size of the N400 effect. These findings support the hypothesis that motor activation in language processing primarily supports the retrieval and integration of lexical-semantic information. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Motor Neuron-Specific Overexpression of the Presynaptic Choline Transporter: Impact on Motor Endurance and Evoked Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lund, David; Ruggiero, Alicia M.; Ferguson, Shawn M.; Wright, Jane; English, Brett A.; Reisz, Peter A.; Whitaker, Sarah M.; Peltier, Amanda C.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2010-01-01

    The presynaptic, hemicholinium-3 sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) supplies choline for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis. In mice, a homozygous deletion of CHT (CHT−/−) leads to premature cessation of spontaneous or evoked neuromuscular signaling and is associated with perinatal cyanosis and lethality within 1 hr. Heterozygous (CHT+/−) mice exhibit diminished brain ACh levels and demonstrate an inability to sustain vigorous motor activity. We sought to explore the contribution of CHT gene dosage to motor function in greater detail using transgenic mice where CHT is expressed under control of the motor neuron promoter Hb9 (Hb9:CHT). On a CHT−/− background, the Hb9:CHT transgene conferred mice with the ability to move and breath for a postnatal period of ~24 hrs, thus increasing survival. Conversely, Hb9:CHT expression on a wild-type background (CHT+/+;Hb9:CHT) leads to an increased capacity for treadmill running compared to wild-type littermates. Analysis of the stimulated compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in these animals under basal conditions established that CHT+/+;Hb9:CHT mice display an unexpected, bidirectional change, producing either elevated or reduced CMAP amplitude, relative to CHT+/+ animals. To examine whether these two groups arise from underlying changes in synaptic properties, we used high-frequency stimulation of motor axons to assess CMAP recovery kinetics. Although CHT+/+;Hb9:CHT mice in the two groups display an equivalent, time-dependent reduction in CMAP amplitude, animals with a higher basal CMAP amplitude demonstrate a significantly enhanced rate of recovery. To explain our findings, we propose a model whereby CHT support for neuromuscular signaling involves contributions to ACh synthesis as well as cholinergic synaptic vesicle availability. PMID:20888396

  9. Motor neuron-specific overexpression of the presynaptic choline transporter: impact on motor endurance and evoked muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Lund, D; Ruggiero, A M; Ferguson, S M; Wright, J; English, B A; Reisz, P A; Whitaker, S M; Peltier, A C; Blakely, R D

    2010-12-29

    The presynaptic, hemicholinium-3 sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) supplies choline for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis. In mice, a homozygous deletion of CHT (CHT-/-) leads to premature cessation of spontaneous or evoked neuromuscular signaling and is associated with perinatal cyanosis and lethality within 1 h. Heterozygous (CHT+/-) mice exhibit diminished brain ACh levels and demonstrate an inability to sustain vigorous motor activity. We sought to explore the contribution of CHT gene dosage to motor function in greater detail using transgenic mice where CHT is expressed under control of the motor neuron promoter Hb9 (Hb9:CHT). On a CHT-/- background, the Hb9:CHT transgene conferred mice with the ability to move and breath for a postnatal period of ∼24 h, thus increasing survival. Conversely, Hb9:CHT expression on a wild-type background (CHT+/+;Hb9:CHT) leads to an increased capacity for treadmill running compared to wild-type littermates. Analysis of the stimulated compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in these animals under basal conditions established that CHT+/+;Hb9:CHT mice display an unexpected, bidirectional change, producing either elevated or reduced CMAP amplitude, relative to CHT+/+ animals. To examine whether these two groups arise from underlying changes in synaptic properties, we used high-frequency stimulation of motor axons to assess CMAP recovery kinetics. Although CHT+/+; Hb9:CHT mice in the two groups display an equivalent, time-dependent reduction in CMAP amplitude, animals with a higher basal CMAP amplitude demonstrate a significantly enhanced rate of recovery. To explain our findings, we propose a model whereby CHT support for neuromuscular signaling involves contributions to ACh synthesis as well as cholinergic synaptic vesicle availability.

  10. Signal peptides are allosteric activators of the protein translocase

    PubMed Central

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Gelis, Ioannis; Kalodimos, Charalampos G.; Economou, Anastassios

    2010-01-01

    Extra-cytoplasmic polypeptides are usually synthesized as “preproteins” carrying aminoterminal, cleavable signal peptides1 and secreted across membranes by translocases. The main bacterial translocase comprises the SecYEG protein-conducting channel and the peripheral ATPase motor SecA2,3. Most proteins destined for the periplasm and beyond are exported post-translationally by SecA2,3. Preprotein targeting to SecA is thought to involve signal peptides4 and chaperones like SecB5,6. Here we reveal that signal peptides have a novel role beyond targeting: they are essential allosteric activators of the translocase. Upon docking on their binding groove on SecA, signal peptides act in trans to drive three successive states: first, “triggering” that drives the translocase to a lower activation energy state; then “trapping” that engages non-native preprotein mature domains docked with high affinity on the secretion apparatus and, finally, “secretion” during which trapped mature domains undergo multiple turnovers of translocation in segments7. A significant contribution by mature domains renders signal peptides less critical in bacterial secretory protein targeting than currently assumed. Rather, it is their function as allosteric activators of the translocase that renders signal peptides essential for protein secretion. A role for signal peptides and targeting sequences as allosteric activators may be universal in protein translocases. PMID:19924216

  11. Inflammation Effects on Motivation and Motor Activity: Role of Dopamine.

    PubMed

    Felger, Jennifer C; Treadway, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Motivational and motor deficits are common in patients with depression and other psychiatric disorders, and are related to symptoms of anhedonia and motor retardation. These deficits in motivation and motor function are associated with alterations in corticostriatal neurocircuitry, which may reflect abnormalities in mesolimbic and mesostriatal dopamine (DA). One pathophysiologic pathway that may drive changes in DAergic corticostriatal circuitry is inflammation. Biomarkers of inflammation such as inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins are reliably elevated in a significant proportion of psychiatric patients. A variety of inflammatory stimuli have been found to preferentially target basal ganglia function to lead to impaired motivation and motor activity. Findings have included inflammation-associated reductions in ventral striatal neural responses to reward anticipation, decreased DA and DA metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid, and decreased availability, and release of striatal DA, all of which correlated with symptoms of reduced motivation and/or motor retardation. Importantly, inflammation-associated symptoms are often difficult to treat, and evidence suggests that inflammation may decrease DA synthesis and availability, thus circumventing the efficacy of standard pharmacotherapies. This review will highlight the impact of administration of inflammatory stimuli on the brain in relation to motivation and motor function. Recent data demonstrating similar relationships between increased inflammation and altered DAergic corticostriatal circuitry and behavior in patients with major depressive disorder will also be presented. Finally, we will discuss the mechanisms by which inflammation affects DA neurotransmission and relevance to novel therapeutic strategies to treat reduced motivation and motor symptoms in patients with high inflammation.

  12. Electrical Motor Current Signal Analysis using a Modulation Signal Bispectrum for the Fault Diagnosis of a Gearbox Downstream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haram, M.; Wang, T.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    Motor current signal analysis has been an effective way for many years of monitoring electrical machines themselves. However, little work has been carried out in using this technique for monitoring their downstream equipment because of difficulties in extracting small fault components in the measured current signals. This paper investigates the characteristics of electrical current signals for monitoring the faults from a downstream gearbox using a modulation signal bispectrum (MSB), including phase effects in extracting small modulating components in a noisy measurement. An analytical study is firstly performed to understand amplitude, frequency and phase characteristics of current signals due to faults. It then explores the performance of MSB analysis in detecting weak modulating components in current signals. Experimental study based on a 10kw two stage gearbox, driven by a three phase induction motor, shows that MSB peaks at different rotational frequencies can be based to quantify the severity of gear tooth breakage and the degrees of shaft misalignment. In addition, the type and location of a fault can be recognized based on the frequency at which the change of MSB peak is the highest among different frequencies.

  13. [Characterization of electrical brain activity related to hand motor imagery in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Cantillo-Negrete, Jessica; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Josefina; Flores-Rodríguez, Teodoro B; Cariño-Escobar, Rubén I; Elías-Viñas, David

    2014-07-01

    Brain computer interface systems (BCI) translate the intentions of patients affected with locked-in syndrome through the EEG signal characteristics, which are converted into commands used to control external devices. One of the strategies used, is to decode the motor imagery of the subject, which can modify the neuronal activity in the sensory-motor areas in a similar way to which it is observed in real movement. The present study shows the activation patterns that are registered in motor and motor imagery tasks of right and left hand movement in a sample of young healthy subjects of Mexican nationality. By means of frequency analysis it was possible to determine the difference conditions of motor imagery and movement. Using U Mann- Whitney tests, differences with statistical significance (p < 0.05) where obtained, in the EEG channels C3, Cz, C4, T3 and P3 in the mu and beta rhythms, for subjects with similar characteristics (age, gender, and education). With these results, it would be possible to define a classifier or decoder by gender that improves the performance rate and diminishes the training time, with the goal of designing a functional BCI system that can be transferred from the laboratory to the clinical application in patients with motor disabilities.

  14. Prediction of hand trajectory from electrocorticography signals in primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Shin, Duk; Watanabe, Hidenori; Nakanishi, Yasuhiko; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Natsue; Nambu, Atsushi; Isa, Tadashi; Nishimura, Yukio; Koike, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Due to their potential as a control modality in brain-machine interfaces, electrocorticography (ECoG) has received much focus in recent years. Studies using ECoG have come out with success in such endeavors as classification of arm movements and natural grasp types, regression of arm trajectories in two and three dimensions, estimation of muscle activity time series and so on. However, there still remains considerable work to be done before a high performance ECoG-based neural prosthetic can be realized. In this study, we proposed an algorithm to decode hand trajectory from 15 and 32 channel ECoG signals recorded from primary motor cortex (M1) in two primates. To determine the most effective areas for prediction, we applied two electrode selection methods, one based on position relative to the central sulcus (CS) and another based on the electrodes' individual prediction performance. The best coefficients of determination for decoding hand trajectory in the two monkeys were 0.4815 ± 0.0167 and 0.7780 ± 0.0164. Performance results from individual ECoG electrodes showed that those with higher performance were concentrated at the lateral areas and areas close to the CS. The results of prediction according with different numbers of electrodes based on proposed methods were also shown and discussed. These results also suggest that superior decoding performance can be achieved from a group of effective ECoG signals rather than an entire ECoG array.

  15. Motor activity after colon replacement of esophagus. Manometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Benages, A; Moreno-Ossett, E; Paris, F; Ridocci, M T; Blasco, E; Pastor, J; Tarazona, V; Molina, R; Mora, F

    1981-09-01

    Motor activity of the colon transplant for esophageal reconstruction is a point of controversy. In this paper we present manometric studies carried out in 15 patients subjected to isoperistaltic colon interposition. Manometric studies were carried out with two polyvinyl water-filled catheters inserted through pressure transducers. Basal colonic activity and motor activity following several stimuli and "dry swallows" were registered. The type of waves after stimuli were classified as (1) synchronous, (2) sequential or progressive, and (3) segmental. Details of the basal colonic waves and colon contractions after stimuli are given: i.e., rate, duration, amplitude, interval from the stimulus, and percentage of motor activity. The data reported here indicate the good motor response of the isoperistaltic colon to intraluminal injection of water or 0. 1 N hydrochloric acid and to chachet swallowing. Only two free-symptoms patients did not have motor activity. One of them was submitted to manometric studies too soon after the operation. We conclude that the presence of sequential waves in the interposed segment likely can help to propel the contents of the colon into the stomach and to clear gastric juice if reflux from the stomach should occur.

  16. [Study of cardiac, respiratory, and motor activity in rat fetuses].

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, O P; Vdovichenko, N D

    2009-01-01

    Development of the cardiac, respiratory, and motor activity was studied in rat fetuses with preserved placenta circulation was studied at the 16th, 18th, and 20th gestation days. The presence of three main movement types has been found: complexes of generalization activity, local movements, and jerks. In development of respiratory function, there is observed a gradual transition from individual inspirations to series of respiratory movements and then to formation of periodic respiration episodes. At the studied period, the heart rate has been found to increase. The existence of the slow-wave modulations it the heart rate with a period of 20-40 s has been revealed. Analysis of interrelations between the respiratory and motor systems has shown that in the 16-day fetuses, each respiratory movement is accompanied by extensor jerk. By the 20th days of embryonic development (E20), uncoupling of the respiratory and motor activities occurs. Comparison of the activity observed in the cardiac and somatomotor systems has shown that at E16, the cardiac rhythm fluctuations do not depend on the motor excitation jerks. In the 18-day fetuses, brief slowing down (decelerations) of the cardiac rhythm appeared during the motor activity jerks, whereas at E20, on the contrary, an increase of frequency (accelerations) of the cardiac rhythm occurred.

  17. Antennal motor activity induced by pilocarpine in the American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Okada, Jiro; Morimoto, Yusuke; Toh, Yoshihiro

    2009-04-01

    The antennal motor system is activated by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine in the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, and its output patterns were examined both in restrained intact animals and in isolated CNS preparations. The three-dimensional antennal movements induced by the hemocoelic drug injection were analyzed in in vivo preparations. Pilocarpine effectively induced prolonged rhythmic movements of both antennae. The antennae tended to describe a spatially patterned trajectory, forming loops or the symbol of infinity (infinity). Such spatial regularity is comparable to that during spontaneous tethered-walking. Rhythmic bursting activities of the antennal motor nerves in in vitro preparations were also elicited by bath application of pilocarpine. Cross-correlation analyses of the bursting spike activities revealed significant couplings among certain motor units, implying the spatial regularity of the antennal trajectory. The pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of antennal motor nerves was effectively suppressed by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. These results indicate that the activation of the antennal motor system is mediated by muscarinic receptors.

  18. Social interaction is associated with changes in infants’ motor activity

    PubMed Central

    Scola, Céline; Bourjade, Marie; Jover, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Background In developmental research, infants are commonly assumed to be early stakeholders in interactions with their caregivers. The tools that infants can use to interact with others vary from visual contact to smiling or vocalizing, and also include motor activity. However, surprisingly few studies have explored how the nature and context of social interactions affect infants’ engagement in motor activity. Methods We investigated the kinematic properties of foot and face movements produced by 11 infants aged between 5 and 9 months during six contrasting dyadic episodes (i.e. passive presence of a stranger or the infant's mother, weak or intense interaction with the stranger/mother as she sings a nursery play song). Results The infants’ face and foot motor activity was significantly reduced during the interactive episodes, compared with the episodes without any interaction, in both the mother and stranger conditions. Furthermore, the level of their motor activity was significantly lower in the stranger condition than in the mother one for some parameters. Conclusion These results are in line with those reported by previous studies and confirm the relevance of using motor activity to delineate the early forms of interactive episodes in infants. PMID:26546793

  19. AMPA receptor-induced local brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling mediates motor recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Andrew N; Overman, Justine J; Zhong, Sheng; Mueller, Rudolf; Lynch, Gary; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2011-03-09

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Recovery after stroke shares similar molecular and cellular properties with learning and memory. A main component of learning-induced plasticity involves signaling through AMPA receptors (AMPARs). We systematically tested the role of AMPAR function in motor recovery in a mouse model of focal stroke. AMPAR function controls functional recovery beginning 5 d after the stroke. Positive allosteric modulators of AMPARs enhance recovery of limb control when administered after a delay from the stroke. Conversely, AMPAR antagonists impair motor recovery. The contributions of AMPARs to recovery are mediated by release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in periinfarct cortex, as blocking local BDNF function in periinfarct cortex blocks AMPAR-mediated recovery and prevents the normal pattern of motor recovery. In contrast to a delayed AMPAR role in motor recovery, early administration of AMPAR agonists after stroke increases stroke damage. These findings indicate that the role of glutamate signaling through the AMPAR changes over time in stroke: early potentiation of AMPAR signaling worsens stroke damage, whereas later potentiation of the same signaling system improves functional recovery.

  20. Synergistic integration of Netrin and ephrin axon guidance signals by spinal motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Poliak, Sebastian; Morales, Daniel; Croteau, Louis-Philippe; Krawchuk, Dayana; Palmesino, Elena; Morton, Susan; Cloutier, Jean-François; Charron, Frederic; Dalva, Matthew B; Ackerman, Susan L; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Kania, Artur

    2015-01-01

    During neural circuit assembly, axonal growth cones are exposed to multiple guidance signals at trajectory choice points. While axonal responses to individual guidance cues have been extensively studied, less is known about responses to combination of signals and underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we studied the convergence of signals directing trajectory selection of spinal motor axons entering the limb. We first demonstrate that Netrin-1 attracts and repels distinct motor axon populations, according to their expression of Netrin receptors. Quantitative in vitro assays demonstrate that motor axons synergistically integrate both attractive or repulsive Netrin-1 signals together with repulsive ephrin signals. Our investigations of the mechanism of ephrin-B2 and Netrin-1 integration demonstrate that the Netrin receptor Unc5c and the ephrin receptor EphB2 can form a complex in a ligand-dependent manner and that Netrin–ephrin synergistic growth cones responses involve the potentiation of Src family kinase signaling, a common effector of both pathways. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10841.001 PMID:26633881

  1. Electrical motor current signal analysis using a modified bispectrum for fault diagnosis of downstream mechanical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, F.; Shao, Y.; Hu, N.; Naid, A.; Ball, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the use of the induction motor current to identify and quantify common faults within a two-stage reciprocating compressor based on bispectrum analysis. The theoretical basis is developed to understand the nonlinear characteristics of current signals when the motor undertakes a varying load under different faulty conditions. Although conventional bispectrum representation of current signal allows the inclusion of phase information and the elimination of Gaussian noise, it produces unstable results due to random phase variation of the sideband components in the current signal. A modified bispectrum based on the amplitude modulation feature of the current signal is then adopted to combine both lower sidebands and higher sidebands simultaneously and hence characterise the current signal more accurately. Based on this new bispectrum analysis a more effective diagnostic feature, namely normalised bispectral peak, is developed for fault classification. In association with the kurtosis value of the raw current signal, the bispectrum feature gives rise to reliable fault classification results. In particular, the low feature values can differentiate the belt looseness from the other fault cases and different degrees of discharge valve leakage and inter-cooler leakage can be separated easily using two linear classifiers. This work provides a novel approach to the analysis of stator current for the diagnosis of motor drive faults from downstream driving equipment.

  2. Probing the Mechanism of Oscillations in Newborn Motor Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Steven S.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclical fluctuation in spontaneous motor activity (CM) emerges in fetus and persists in newborn. This "resetting" experiment perturbed CM by noise stimulus during infants' active sleep. Pre- and postperturbation CM were measured and compared. Subjects were 33 infants between 1 and 3 days of age. The stimulus induced a relative slowing of CM…

  3. The Dynamic Association between Motor Skill Development and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2007-01-01

    Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…

  4. Activity Analysis for Cognitive-Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorens, Lela A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a review of several approaches to activity and task analysis for their selection for use in occupational therapy and proposes a neuro-behavioral approach to activity analysis and selection for use in treatment of cognitive-perceptual-motor dysfunction. (Editors/JA)

  5. Probing the Mechanism of Oscillations in Newborn Motor Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Steven S.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclical fluctuation in spontaneous motor activity (CM) emerges in fetus and persists in newborn. This "resetting" experiment perturbed CM by noise stimulus during infants' active sleep. Pre- and postperturbation CM were measured and compared. Subjects were 33 infants between 1 and 3 days of age. The stimulus induced a relative slowing of CM…

  6. Does motor interference arise from mirror system activation? The effect of prior visuo-motor practice on automatic imitation.

    PubMed

    Capa, Rémi L; Marshall, Peter J; Shipley, Thomas F; Salesse, Robin N; Bouquet, Cédric A

    2011-03-01

    Action perception may involve a mirror-matching system, such that observed actions are mapped onto the observer's own motor representations. The strength of such mirror system activation should depend on an individual's experience with the observed action. The motor interference effect, where an observed action interferes with a concurrently executed incongruent action, is thought to arise from mirror system activation. However, this view was recently challenged. If motor interference arises from mirror system activation, this effect should be sensitive to prior sensorimotor experience with the observed action. To test this prediction, we measured motor interference in two groups of participants observing the same incongruent movements. One group had received brief visuo-motor practice with the observed incongruent action, but not the other group. Action observation induced a larger motor interference in participants who had practiced the observed action. This result thus supports a mirror system account of motor interference.

  7. Motor cortex activation in Parkinson's disease: dissociation of electrocortical and peripheral measures of response generation.

    PubMed

    Praamstra, P; Plat, E M; Meyer, A S; Horstink, M W

    1999-09-01

    This study investigated characteristics of motor cortex activation and response generation in Parkinson's disease with measures of electrocortical activity (lateralized readiness potential [LRP]), electromyographic activity (EMG), and isometric force in a noise-compatibility task. When presented with stimuli consisting of incompatible target and distractor elements asking for responses of opposite hands, patients were less able than control subjects to suppress activation of the motor cortex controlling the wrong response hand. This was manifested in the pattern of reaction times and in an incorrect lateralization of the LRP. Onset latency and rise time of the LRP did not differ between patients and control subjects, but EMG and response force developed more slowly in patients. Moreover, in patients but not in control subjects, the rate of development of EMG and response force decreased as reaction time increased. We hypothesize that this dissociation between electrocortical activity and peripheral measures in Parkinson's disease is the result of changes in motor cortex function that alter the relation between signal-related and movement-related neural activity in the motor cortex. In the LRP, this altered balance may obscure an abnormal development of movement-related neural activity.

  8. Recognition Method of Limb Motor Imagery EEG Signals Based on Integrated Back-propagation Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingyang; Chen, Wanzhong; Cui, Bingyi; Tian, Yantao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in order to solve the existing problems of the low recognition rate and poor real-time performance in limb motor imagery, the integrated back-propagation neural network (IBPNN) was applied to the pattern recognition research of motor imagery EEG signals (imagining left-hand movement, imagining right-hand movement and imagining no movement). According to the motor imagery EEG data categories to be recognized, the IBPNN was designed to consist of 3 single three-layer back-propagation neural networks (BPNN), and every single neural network was dedicated to recognizing one kind of motor imagery. It simplified the complicated classification problems into three mutually independent two-class classifications by the IBPNN. The parallel computing characteristic of IBPNN not only improved the generation ability for network, but also shortened the operation time. The experimental results showed that, while comparing the single BPNN and Elman neural network, IBPNN was more competent in recognizing limb motor imagery EEG signals. Also among these three networks, IBPNN had the least number of iterations, the shortest operation time and the best consistency of actual output and expected output, and had lifted the success recognition rate above 97 percent while other single network is around 93 percent.

  9. Mushroom bodies enhance initial motor activity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Serway, Christine N; Kaufman, Rebecca R; Strauss, Roland; de Belle, J Steven

    2009-01-01

    The central body (or central complex, CCX) and the mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain structures in most insect phyla that have been shown to influence aspects of locomotion. The CCX regulates motor coordination and enhances activity while MBs have, thus far, been shown to suppress motor activity levels measured over time intervals ranging from hours to weeks. In this report, we investigate MB involvement in motor behavior during the initial stages (15 minutes) of walking in Buridan's paradigm. We measured aspects of walking in flies that had MB lesions induced by mutations in six different genes and by chemical ablation. All tested flies were later examined histologically to assess MB neuroanatomy. Mutant strains with MB structural defects were generally less active in walking than wild-type flies. Most mutants in which MBs were also ablated with hydroxyurea (HU) showed additional activity decrements. Variation in measures of velocity and orientation to landmarks among wild-type and mutant flies was attributed to pleiotropy, rather than to MB lesions. We conclude that MBs upregulate activity during the initial stages of walking, but suppress activity thereafter. An MB influence on decision making has been shown in a wide range of complex behaviors. We suggest that MBs provide appropriate contextual information to motor output systems in the brain, indirectly fine tuning walking by modifying the quantity (i.e., activity) of behavior.

  10. Classification of EEG signals to identify variations in attention during motor task execution.

    PubMed

    Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Susan; Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu; Jiang, Ning; Farina, Dario; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie

    2017-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems in neuro-rehabilitation use brain signals to control external devices. User status such as attention affects BCI performance; thus detecting the user's attention drift due to internal or external factors is essential for high detection accuracy. An auditory oddball task was applied to divert the users' attention during a simple ankle dorsiflexion movement. Electroencephalogram signals were recorded from eighteen channels. Temporal and time-frequency features were projected to a lower dimension space and used to analyze the effect of two attention levels on motor tasks in each participant. Then, a global feature distribution was constructed with the projected time-frequency features of all participants from all channels and applied for attention classification during motor movement execution. Time-frequency features led to significantly better classification results with respect to the temporal features, particularly for electrodes located over the motor cortex. Motor cortex channels had a higher accuracy in comparison to other channels in the global discrimination of attention level. Previous methods have used the attention to a task to drive external devices, such as the P300 speller. However, here we focus for the first time on the effect of attention drift while performing a motor task. It is possible to explore user's attention variation when performing motor tasks in synchronous BCI systems with time-frequency features. This is the first step towards an adaptive real-time BCI with an integrated function to reveal attention shifts from the motor task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Autonomic nervous system activities during motor imagery in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Kazuo; Maeshima, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI), a mental simulation of voluntary motor actions, has been used as a training method for athletes for many years. It is possible that MI techniques might similarly be useful as part of rehabilitative strategies to help people regain skills lost as a consequence of diseases or stroke. Mental activity and stress induce several different autonomic responses as part of the behavioral response to movement (e.g., motor anticipation) and as part of the central planning and preprogramming of movement. However, the interrelationships between MI, the autonomic responses, and the motor system have not yet been worked out. The authors compare a number of autonomic responses (respiration, heart rate, electro skin resistance) and motoneuron excitability (soleus H-reflex) in elite and nonelite speed skaters during MI. In contrast to the nonelite athletes, MI of elite speed skaters is characterized by larger changes in heart rate and respiration, a greater reliance on an internal perspective for MI, a more vivid MI, a more accurate correspondence between the MI and actual race times, and decreased motoneuron excitability. Two observations suggest that the changes in the autonomic responses and motoneuron excitability for the elite speed skaters are related to the effects of central motor programming: (1) there was no correlation between the autonomic responses for MI and those recorded during mental arithmetic; and (2) mental arithmetic did not significantly alter motoneuron activity. It is suggested that in elite speed skaters, the descending neural mechanisms that reduce motoneuron excitability are activated even when full, vivid MI is performed internally. These inhibitory responses of the motor system may enhance actual motor performance under conditions of remarkably high mental stress, such as that which occurs in the Olympic games.

  12. Fault diagnosis of motor bearing with speed fluctuation via angular resampling of transient sound signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Siliang; Wang, Xiaoxian; He, Qingbo; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yongbin

    2016-12-01

    Transient signal analysis (TSA) has been proven an effective tool for motor bearing fault diagnosis, but has yet to be applied in processing bearing fault signals with variable rotating speed. In this study, a new TSA-based angular resampling (TSAAR) method is proposed for fault diagnosis under speed fluctuation condition via sound signal analysis. By applying the TSAAR method, the frequency smearing phenomenon is eliminated and the fault characteristic frequency is exposed in the envelope spectrum for bearing fault recognition. The TSAAR method can accurately estimate the phase information of the fault-induced impulses using neither complicated time-frequency analysis techniques nor external speed sensors, and hence it provides a simple, flexible, and data-driven approach that realizes variable-speed motor bearing fault diagnosis. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed TSAAR method are verified through a series of simulated and experimental case studies.

  13. A comparative study of recording procedures for motor evoked potential signals.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gracee; Iyer, Shrivats; All, Angelo H

    2009-01-01

    Motor evoked potential (MEP) signals serve as an objective measure of the functional integrity of motor pathways in the spinal cord. Hence, they provide a reliable assessment of the extent of spinal cord injury (SCI). There are two methods currently being used for serial MEP recordings in rats: a low-frequency and a high-frequency method. In this paper, we compared the two methods and determined the better method for MEP recordings. We also compared the effect of two anesthetic agents - inhalational isoflurane and intraperitoneal ketamine - on the MEP signals. We found that under ketamine anesthesia, low-frequency stimulation led to more consistent results, while high-frequency stimulation required greater stimulation intensity and was prone to unwanted side-effects including excessive head twitches. We further found that isoflurane anesthesia severely depressed the MEP response for both low-frequency and high-frequency stimulation which rendered the resulting signal unusable.

  14. Predominance of Movement Speed Over Direction in Neuronal Population Signals of Motor Cortex: Intracranial EEG Data and A Simple Explanatory Model

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Jiří; Pistohl, Tobias; Fischer, Jörg; Kršek, Pavel; Tomášek, Martin; Marusič, Petr; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2016-01-01

    How neuronal activity of motor cortex is related to movement is a central topic in motor neuroscience. Motor-cortical single neurons are more closely related to hand movement velocity than speed, that is, the magnitude of the (directional) velocity vector. Recently, there is also increasing interest in the representation of movement parameters in neuronal population activity, such as reflected in the intracranial EEG (iEEG). We show that in iEEG, contrasting to what has been previously found on the single neuron level, speed predominates over velocity. The predominant speed representation was present in nearly all iEEG signal features, up to the 600–1000 Hz range. Using a model of motor-cortical signals arising from neuronal populations with realistic single neuron tuning properties, we show how this reversal can be understood as a consequence of increasing population size. Our findings demonstrate that the information profile in large population signals may systematically differ from the single neuron level, a principle that may be helpful in the interpretation of neuronal population signals in general, including, for example, EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Taking advantage of the robust speed population signal may help in developing brain–machine interfaces exploiting population signals. PMID:26984895

  15. Predominance of Movement Speed Over Direction in Neuronal Population Signals of Motor Cortex: Intracranial EEG Data and A Simple Explanatory Model.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Jiří; Pistohl, Tobias; Fischer, Jörg; Kršek, Pavel; Tomášek, Martin; Marusič, Petr; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2016-06-01

    How neuronal activity of motor cortex is related to movement is a central topic in motor neuroscience. Motor-cortical single neurons are more closely related to hand movement velocity than speed, that is, the magnitude of the (directional) velocity vector. Recently, there is also increasing interest in the representation of movement parameters in neuronal population activity, such as reflected in the intracranial EEG (iEEG). We show that in iEEG, contrasting to what has been previously found on the single neuron level, speed predominates over velocity. The predominant speed representation was present in nearly all iEEG signal features, up to the 600-1000 Hz range. Using a model of motor-cortical signals arising from neuronal populations with realistic single neuron tuning properties, we show how this reversal can be understood as a consequence of increasing population size. Our findings demonstrate that the information profile in large population signals may systematically differ from the single neuron level, a principle that may be helpful in the interpretation of neuronal population signals in general, including, for example, EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Taking advantage of the robust speed population signal may help in developing brain-machine interfaces exploiting population signals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Automatic motor activation in the executive control of action

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Jennifer; Boy, Frédéric; Husain, Masud; Sumner, Petroc

    2012-01-01

    Although executive control and automatic behavior have often been considered separate and distinct processes, there is strong emerging and convergent evidence that they may in fact be intricately interlinked. In this review, we draw together evidence showing that visual stimuli cause automatic and unconscious motor activation, and how this in turn has implications for executive control. We discuss object affordances, alien limb syndrome, the visual grasp reflex, subliminal priming, and subliminal triggering of attentional orienting. Consideration of these findings suggests automatic motor activation might form an intrinsic part of all behavior, rather than being categorically different from voluntary actions. PMID:22536177

  17. The origin of segmentation motor activity in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, Jan D; Chen, Ji-Hong; Zhu, Yong Fang; Pawelka, Andrew; McGinn, Ryan J; Bardakjian, Berj L; Parsons, Sean P; Kunze, Wolfgang A; Wu, Richard You; Bercik, Premysl; Khoshdel, Amir; Chen, Sifeng; Yin, Sheng; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Yuanjie; Gao, Qingmin; Li, Kongling; Hu, Xinghai; Zarate, Natalia; Collins, Phillip; Pistilli, Marc; Ma, Junling; Zhang, Ruixue; Chen, David

    2014-01-01

    The segmentation motor activity of the gut that facilitates absorption of nutrients was first described in the late 19th century, but the fundamental mechanisms underlying it remain poorly understood. The dominant theory suggests alternate excitation and inhibition from the enteric nervous system. Here we demonstrate that typical segmentation can occur after total nerve blockade. The segmentation motor pattern emerges when the amplitude of the dominant pacemaker, the slow wave generated by interstitial cells of Cajal associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP), is modulated by the phase of induced lower frequency rhythmic transient depolarizations, generated by ICC associated with the deep muscular plexus (ICC-DMP), resulting in a waxing and waning of the amplitude of the slow wave and a rhythmic checkered pattern of segmentation motor activity. Phase-amplitude modulation of the slow waves points to an underlying system of coupled nonlinear oscillators originating in the networks of ICC.

  18. THE ORIGIN OF SEGMENTATION MOTOR ACTIVITY IN THE INTESTINE

    PubMed Central

    Huizinga, Jan D.; Chen, Ji-Hong; Zhu, Yong Fang; Pawelka, Andrew; McGinn, Ryan J.; Bardakjian, Berj L.; Parsons, Sean P.; Kunze, Wolfgang A.; Wu, Richard You; Bercik, Premysl; Khoshdel, Amir; Chen, Sifeng; Yin, Sheng; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Yuanjie; Gao, Qingmin; Li, Kongling; Hu, Xinghai; Zarate, Natalia; Collins, Phillip; Pistilli, Marc; Ma, Junling; Zhang, Ruixue; Chen, David

    2016-01-01

    The segmentation motor activity of the gut that facilitates absorption of nutrients, was first described in the late 19th century but the fundamental mechanisms underlying it remain poorly understood. The dominant theory suggests alternate excitation and inhibition from the enteric nervous system. Here we demonstrate that typical segmentation can occur after total nerve blockade. The segmentation motor pattern emerges when the amplitude of the dominant pacemaker, the slow wave generated by ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP), is modulated by the phase of induced lower frequency rhythmic transient depolarizations, generated by ICC associated with the deep muscular plexus (ICC-DMP), resulting in a waxing and waning of the amplitude of the slow wave and a rhythmic checkered pattern of segmentation motor activity. Phase amplitude modulation of the slow waves points to an underlying system of coupled nonlinear oscillators originating in ICC. PMID:24561718

  19. Actigraphic motor activity during sleep from infancy to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Scher, Anat; Atun-Einy, Osnat; Samuel, Moran; Boreggiani, Michele; Natale, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    A secondary analysis of longitudinal and cohort studies was carried out to quantitatively investigate the motor activity pattern, recorded through actigraphy, during the first six hours of nocturnal sleep. The first study was of longitudinal nature. Ten healthy participants (four females) were monitored three times, at baseline (T1) when they were infants (mean age 7.10 ± 0.32 months), at the first follow-up examination (T2) around 4 months later (mean age 11.20 ± 0.63 months) and at the second follow-up (T3) around three years later, when they were preschoolers (mean age 4.68 ± 0.14 years). At T1, T2 and T3 each participant wore the actigraph Basic Mini-Motionlogger (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., Ardsley, NY, USA) over at least two consecutive nycthemeral cycles, with the aim to measure the mean hourly motor activity count. Seven- and 11-month-old infants had a higher level of motor activity over the night compared to preschoolers. Furthermore, motor activity increased as the night progressed, with a pronounced increment at both T1 and T2, while at T3 such an increase was less marked. The second study was cross-sectional and aimed to explore the motor activity pattern, using actigraphy, during the first six hours of nocturnal sleep in multiple-age healthy groups, from infancy to adulthood. We assigned participants to eight groups according to age: 20 (five females) aged around 10 months old (mean age 10.65 ± 0.67 months); 13 (nine females) aged around 4 years (mean age 4.38 ± 0.51 years); 21 (10 females) aged around 10 years (mean age 9.67 ± 0.91 years); 21 (nine females) aged around 20 years (mean age 19.33 ± 2.44 years); 20 (10 females) aged around 30 years (mean age 29.80 ± 1.99 years); 20 (15 females) aged around 40 years (mean age 40.70 ± 1.26 years); 20 (11 females) aged around 50 years (mean age 50.15 ± 2.80 years) and 20 (nine females) aged around 60 years (mean age 59.25 ± 3.23 years). The participants aged between 10 and 60 years wore the

  20. Emotion affects action: Midcingulate cortex as a pivotal node of interaction between negative emotion and motor signals.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; de Oliveira, Letícia; Erthal, Fátima Smith; Joffily, Mateus; Mocaiber, Izabela F; Volchan, Eliane; Pessoa, Luiz

    2010-03-01

    Affective pictures drive the activity of brain networks and impact behavior. We showed previously that viewing unpleasant pictures interfered in the performance of a basic nonemotional visual detection task. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that behavioral interference may result from the interaction between negatively valenced and motor-related signals in the brain. As in our previous study (Pereira et al., 2006), participants performed a simple target detection task that followed the presentation of unpleasant or neutral pictures. Our results revealed that an unpleasant emotional context modulated evoked responses in several regions engaged by the simple target detection task. In particular, the midcingulate cortex was recruited when participants performed target detection trials during the unpleasant context, and signal responses in this region closely mirrored the pattern of behavioral interference (as revealed via reaction time). Our findings suggest that the midcingulate cortex may be an important site for the interaction between negatively valenced signals and motor signals in the brain and that it may be involved in the implementation of defensive responses, such as freezing.

  1. Abstract art and cortical motor activation: an EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Umilta', M. Alessandra; Berchio, Cristina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    The role of the motor system in the perception of visual art remains to be better understood. Earlier studies on the visual perception of abstract art (from Gestalt theory, as in Arnheim, 1954 and 1988, to balance preference studies as in Locher and Stappers, 2002, and more recent work by Locher et al., 2007; Redies, 2007, and Taylor et al., 2011), neglected the question, while the field of neuroesthetics (Ramachandran and Hirstein, 1999; Zeki, 1999) mostly concentrated on figurative works. Much recent work has demonstrated the multimodality of vision, encompassing the activation of motor, somatosensory, and viscero-motor brain regions. The present study investigated whether the observation of high-resolution digitized static images of abstract paintings by Lucio Fontana is associated with specific cortical motor activation in the beholder's brain. Mu rhythm suppression was evoked by the observation of original art works but not by control stimuli (as in the case of graphically modified versions of these works). Most interestingly, previous visual exposure to the stimuli did not affect the mu rhythm suppression induced by their observation. The present results clearly show the involvement of the cortical motor system in the viewing of static abstract art works. PMID:23162456

  2. Abstract art and cortical motor activation: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Umilta', M Alessandra; Berchio, Cristina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    The role of the motor system in the perception of visual art remains to be better understood. Earlier studies on the visual perception of abstract art (from Gestalt theory, as in Arnheim, 1954 and 1988, to balance preference studies as in Locher and Stappers, 2002, and more recent work by Locher et al., 2007; Redies, 2007, and Taylor et al., 2011), neglected the question, while the field of neuroesthetics (Ramachandran and Hirstein, 1999; Zeki, 1999) mostly concentrated on figurative works. Much recent work has demonstrated the multimodality of vision, encompassing the activation of motor, somatosensory, and viscero-motor brain regions. The present study investigated whether the observation of high-resolution digitized static images of abstract paintings by Lucio Fontana is associated with specific cortical motor activation in the beholder's brain. Mu rhythm suppression was evoked by the observation of original art works but not by control stimuli (as in the case of graphically modified versions of these works). Most interestingly, previous visual exposure to the stimuli did not affect the mu rhythm suppression induced by their observation. The present results clearly show the involvement of the cortical motor system in the viewing of static abstract art works.

  3. A new method of accurate broken rotor bar diagnosis based on modulation signal bispectrum analysis of motor current signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, F.; Wang, T.; Alwodai, A.; Tian, X.; Shao, Y.; Ball, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) has been an effective way of monitoring electrical machines for many years. However, inadequate accuracy in diagnosing incipient broken rotor bars (BRB) has motivated many studies into improving this method. In this paper a modulation signal bispectrum (MSB) analysis is applied to motor currents from different broken bar cases and a new MSB based sideband estimator (MSB-SE) and sideband amplitude estimator are introduced for obtaining the amplitude at (1 ± 2 s)fs (s is the rotor slip and fs is the fundamental supply frequency) with high accuracy. As the MSB-SE has a good performance of noise suppression, the new estimator produces more accurate results in predicting the number of BRB, compared with conventional power spectrum analysis. Moreover, the paper has also developed an improved model for motor current signals under rotor fault conditions and an effective method to decouple the BRB current which interferes with that of speed oscillations associated with BRB. These provide theoretical supports for the new estimators and clarify the issues in using conventional bispectrum analysis.

  4. A plural role for lipids in motor neuron diseases: energy, signaling and structure

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Florent; Hussain, Ghulam; Dupuis, Luc; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Henriques, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are characterized by selective death of motor neurons and include mainly adult-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Neurodegeneration is not the single pathogenic event occurring during disease progression. There are multiple lines of evidence for the existence of defects in lipid metabolism at peripheral level. For instance, hypermetabolism is well characterized in ALS, and dyslipidemia correlates with better prognosis in patients. Lipid metabolism plays also a role in other MNDs. In SMA, misuse of lipids as energetic nutrients is described in patients and in related animal models. The composition of structural lipids in the central nervous system is modified, with repercussion on membrane fluidity and on cell signaling mediated by bioactive lipids. Here, we review the main epidemiologic and mechanistic findings that link alterations of lipid metabolism and motor neuron degeneration, and we discuss the rationale of targeting these modifications for therapeutic management of MNDs. PMID:24600344

  5. Greater activation of secondary motor areas is related to less arm use after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kokotilo, Kristen J; Eng, Janice J; Boyd, Lara A; McKeown, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Background Past studies have identified reorganization of brain activity in relation to motor outcome through standardized laboratory measures, which are quantifiable surrogates for arm use in real-life. In contrast, accelerometers can provide a real-life estimate of arm and hand usage. Methods Ten persons with chronic, subcortical stroke and ten healthy controls of similar age performed a squeeze motor task at 40% maximum voluntary contraction during fMRI. Use of the upper extremity was quantified over 3 consecutive days using wrist accelerometers. Correlations were performed between arm use and peak percent signal change (PSC) during grasp force production in six regions of interest (ROIs): bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and premotor cortex (PM). Results Results demonstrate that in healthy controls, PSC across all ROIs did not show a relationship between arm use and brain activation during force production. In contrast, after stroke, contralesional PM and M1 showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlation between increasing activation and decreasing paretic arm use, while ipsilesional PM showed a significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between increasing activation and decreasing non-paretic arm use. Conclusions The results of this pilot study demonstrate a negative relationship between brain activation and actual arm use after stroke. Larger studies using accelerometers that can detect amount and types of movement may offer further insight into brain reorganization and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:19737873

  6. Increased activity in frontal motor cortex compensates impaired speech perception in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi; Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Grady, Cheryl L.; Alain, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Understanding speech in noisy environments is challenging, especially for seniors. Although evidence suggests that older adults increasingly recruit prefrontal cortices to offset reduced periphery and central auditory processing, the brain mechanisms underlying such compensation remain elusive. Here we show that relative to young adults, older adults show higher activation of frontal speech motor areas as measured by functional MRI during a syllable identification task at varying signal-to-noise ratios. This increased activity correlates with improved speech discrimination performance in older adults. Multivoxel pattern classification reveals that despite an overall phoneme dedifferentiation, older adults show greater specificity of phoneme representations in frontal articulatory regions than auditory regions. Moreover, older adults with stronger frontal activity have higher phoneme specificity in frontal and auditory regions. Thus, preserved phoneme specificity and upregulation of activity in speech motor regions provide a means of compensation in older adults for decoding impoverished speech representations in adverse listening conditions. PMID:27483187

  7. Different laws govern motor activity in sleep than in wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, J J; Yahr, M D

    1990-01-01

    A wide range of elementary and complex motor activities are known to occur during sleep, but very little is known about the basic physiologic condition of the skeletal muscle during sleep. The present study provides evidence that a minute electric random activity constitutes the basic physiologic condition of the skeletal muscles during sleep. During the NonREM stages of each sleep cycle a regression of the continuous random minute activity occurs, followed by a sudden increase of the isolated motor unit action potentials during REM sleep. Particular structural features of the anterior tibial (AT) muscle make it the most active skeletal muscle during sleep. During wakefulness, at rest, the random muscle activity disappears.

  8. Recreational Activities and Motor Skills of Children in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Viviene A.; Crane, Jeff R.; Brown, Amy; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Bell, Rick I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental theorists suggest that physical activity during early childhood promotes fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency; and that differences in FMS proficiency are largely related to children's experiences. Aim: To examine associations between participation in different types of recreation/leisure and FMS proficiency of boys…

  9. Brains and Brawn: Complex Motor Activities to Maximize Cognitive Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, David

    2015-01-01

    The target articles in this special issue address the timely question of embodied cognition in the classroom, and in particular the potential of this approach to facilitate learning in children. The interest for motor activities within settings that typically give little space to nontraditional content is proof of a shift from a Cartesian…

  10. Face Preference in Infancy and Its Relation to Motor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Klaus; Needham, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Infants' preference for faces was investigated in a cross-sectional sample of 75 children, aged 3 to 11 months, and 23 adults. A visual preference paradigm was used where pairs of faces and toys were presented side-by-side while eye gaze was recorded. In addition, motor activity was assessed via parent report and the relation between motor…

  11. Face Preference in Infancy and Its Relation to Motor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Klaus; Needham, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Infants' preference for faces was investigated in a cross-sectional sample of 75 children, aged 3 to 11 months, and 23 adults. A visual preference paradigm was used where pairs of faces and toys were presented side-by-side while eye gaze was recorded. In addition, motor activity was assessed via parent report and the relation between motor…

  12. Brains and Brawn: Complex Motor Activities to Maximize Cognitive Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, David

    2015-01-01

    The target articles in this special issue address the timely question of embodied cognition in the classroom, and in particular the potential of this approach to facilitate learning in children. The interest for motor activities within settings that typically give little space to nontraditional content is proof of a shift from a Cartesian…

  13. Recreational Activities and Motor Skills of Children in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Viviene A.; Crane, Jeff R.; Brown, Amy; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Bell, Rick I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental theorists suggest that physical activity during early childhood promotes fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency; and that differences in FMS proficiency are largely related to children's experiences. Aim: To examine associations between participation in different types of recreation/leisure and FMS proficiency of boys…

  14. Sport and Other Motor Activities of Warsaw Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biernat, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the engagement of students of Warsaw university schools in sports and in recreational motor activities. Material and methods: A cohort (n = 1100) of students attending B.S. or M.S. courses at 6 university schools in Warsaw were studied by applying questionnaire techniques. The questions pertained to participation in…

  15. Impairment of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-controlled motor activity in LYN-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Umemori, H; Ogura, H; Tozawa, N; Mikoshiba, K; Nishizumi, H; Yamamoto, T

    2003-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, an ionotropic glutamate receptor, is implicated in motor activity that is regulated in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of the brain. A Src family kinase Lyn is highly expressed in striatum, cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum in the brain. Here we show that spontaneous motor activity is suppressed in lyn-/- mice. S.c. injection of methylphenidate, which causes accumulation of dopamine in synapses, reveals that dopaminergic pathway is normal in lyn-/- mice. After blocking the NMDA receptor, motor activity of lyn-/- mice increased to the same level as that of wild type mice. Therefore, the NMDA receptor-mediated signaling is enhanced in lyn-/- mice, indicating that Lyn regulates the NMDA receptor pathway negatively. Intriguingly, the activity of protein kinase C (PKC), an enzyme regulated downstream of NMDA receptors, is increased in lyn-/- mice. The present data suggest that the NMDA receptor signal that is enhanced in the absence of Lyn suppresses the motor activity, probably through inhibition of dopaminergic pathway at striatum. We conclude that Lyn contributes to coordination of motor activity through regulation of the NMDA pathway. It appears that this negative regulation involves suppression of downstream signaling of NMDA receptor such as those mediated by PKC.

  16. Alternative Wnt Signaling Activates YAP/TAZ

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Woo; Kim, Young Chul; Yu, Bo; Moroishi, Toshiro; Mo, Jung-Soon; Plouffe, Steven W.; Meng, Zhipeng; Lin, Kimberly C.; Yu, Fa-Xing; Alexander, Caroline M.; Wang, Cunyu; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ are key regulators of organ size and tissue homeostasis, and their dysregulation contributes to human cancer. Here we discover YAP/TAZ as bona fide downstream effectors of the alternative Wnt signaling pathway. Wnt5a/b and Wnt3a induce YAP/TAZ activation independent of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Mechanistically, we delineate the ‘alternative Wnt-YAP/TAZ signaling axis’ that consists of Wnt - FZD/ROR - Gα12/13 - Rho GTPases -Lats1/2 to promote YAP/TAZ activation and TEAD-mediated transcription. YAP/TAZ mediate the biological functions of alternative Wnt signaling including gene expression, osteogenic differentiation, cell migration, and antagonism of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Together, our work establishes YAP/TAZ as critical mediators of alternative Wnt signaling. PMID:26276632

  17. Eph:ephrin-B1 forward signaling controls fasciculation of sensory and motor axons.

    PubMed

    Luxey, Maëva; Jungas, Thomas; Laussu, Julien; Audouard, Christophe; Garces, Alain; Davy, Alice

    2013-11-15

    Axon fasciculation is one of the processes controlling topographic innervation during embryonic development. While axon guidance steers extending axons in the accurate direction, axon fasciculation allows sets of co-extending axons to grow in tight bundles. The Eph:ephrin family has been involved both in axon guidance and fasciculation, yet it remains unclear how these two distinct types of responses are elicited. Herein we have characterized the role of ephrin-B1, a member of the ephrinB family in sensory and motor innervation of the limb. We show that ephrin-B1 is expressed in sensory axons and in the limb bud mesenchyme while EphB2 is expressed in motor and sensory axons. Loss of ephrin-B1 had no impact on the accurate dorso-ventral innervation of the limb by motor axons, yet EfnB1 mutants exhibited decreased fasciculation of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. Using tissue-specific excision of EfnB1 and in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that ephrin-B1 controls fasciculation of axons via a surround repulsion mechanism involving growth cone collapse of EphB2-expressing axons. Altogether, our results highlight the complex role of Eph:ephrin signaling in the development of the sensory-motor circuit innervating the limb.

  18. Perceptual Motor Activities for Specific Cognitive Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Charlene Kimbro

    The slide presentation depicts movement activities through which children can perceive and form concepts, thus building cognitive skills in certain areas. The presentation is based on the fact that children interact with their environments through all their senses and benefit from perceiving through their kinesthetic senses. The areas presented…

  19. Self-organizing model of motor cortical activities during drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Siming H.; Si, Jennie; Schwartz, Andrew B.

    1996-05-01

    The population vector algorithm has been developed to combine the simultaneous direction- related activities of a population of motor cortical neurons to predict the trajectory of the arm movement. In our study, we consider a self-organizing model of a neural representation of the arm trajectory based on neuronal discharge rates. Self-organizing feature mapping (SOFM) is used to select the optimal set of weights in the model to determine the contribution of individual neuron to the overall movement. The correspondence between the movement directions and the discharge patterns of the motor cortical neurons is established in the output map. The topology preserving property of the SOFM is used to analyze real recorded data of a behavior monkey. The data used in this analysis were taken while the monkey was drawing spirals and doing the center out movement. Using such a statistical model, the monkey's arm moving directions could be well predicted based on the motor cortex neuronal firing information.

  20. Wrist Actigraphy: A Simple Way to Record Motor Activity in Elderly Patients with Dementia and Apathy or Aberrant Motor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Valembois, L; Oasi, C; Pariel, S; Jarzebowski, W; Lafuente-Lafuente, C; Belmin, J

    2015-08-01

    In dementia, behavioral psychological symptoms are frequent and variable. To assess the value of wrist actigraphy as a measure of disorder in motor behavior especially apathy, aberrant motor behavior, agitation and anxiety. Cross sectional observational study of consecutive patients older than 75 years admitted to an intermediate care unit of a geriatric hospital ward during a two-year period. Psycho behavioral symptoms and cognitive status were assessed using the NPI scale and MMSE and diagnosis of dementia was done using DSMIV criteria. A wrist actigraph was worn for 10 days to record motor activity, sleep time and number of periods of sleep. 183 patients were included. Among patients with dementia, a significant decrease in motor activity was recorded in those with apathy from 9h to 12h and 18h to 21h (p <0.05) and in those with anxiety from 21h to 24h (p <0.05). Aberrant motor behavior in dementia was associated with a significant increase in motor activity from 21h to 24h (p <0.01). Agitation was not associated with a significant differences in motor activity. Wrist actigraphy can be used to record motor activity in elderly patients with dementia especially in those with apathy and aberrant motor behavior.

  1. 3D visualization of movements can amplify motor cortex activation during subsequent motor imagery

    PubMed Central

    Sollfrank, Teresa; Hart, Daniel; Goodsell, Rachel; Foster, Jonathan; Tan, Tele

    2015-01-01

    A repetitive movement practice by motor imagery (MI) can influence motor cortical excitability in the electroencephalogram (EEG). This study investigated if a realistic visualization in 3D of upper and lower limb movements can amplify motor related potentials during subsequent MI. We hypothesized that a richer sensory visualization might be more effective during instrumental conditioning, resulting in a more pronounced event related desynchronization (ERD) of the upper alpha band (10–12 Hz) over the sensorimotor cortices thereby potentially improving MI based brain-computer interface (BCI) protocols for motor rehabilitation. The results show a strong increase of the characteristic patterns of ERD of the upper alpha band components for left and right limb MI present over the sensorimotor areas in both visualization conditions. Overall, significant differences were observed as a function of visualization modality (VM; 2D vs. 3D). The largest upper alpha band power decrease was obtained during MI after a 3-dimensional visualization. In total in 12 out of 20 tasks the end-user of the 3D visualization group showed an enhanced upper alpha ERD relative to 2D VM group, with statistical significance in nine tasks.With a realistic visualization of the limb movements, we tried to increase motor cortex activation during subsequent MI. The feedback and the feedback environment should be inherently motivating and relevant for the learner and should have an appeal of novelty, real-world relevance or aesthetic value (Ryan and Deci, 2000; Merrill, 2007). Realistic visual feedback, consistent with the participant’s MI, might be helpful for accomplishing successful MI and the use of such feedback may assist in making BCI a more natural interface for MI based BCI rehabilitation. PMID:26347642

  2. 3D visualization of movements can amplify motor cortex activation during subsequent motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Sollfrank, Teresa; Hart, Daniel; Goodsell, Rachel; Foster, Jonathan; Tan, Tele

    2015-01-01

    A repetitive movement practice by motor imagery (MI) can influence motor cortical excitability in the electroencephalogram (EEG). This study investigated if a realistic visualization in 3D of upper and lower limb movements can amplify motor related potentials during subsequent MI. We hypothesized that a richer sensory visualization might be more effective during instrumental conditioning, resulting in a more pronounced event related desynchronization (ERD) of the upper alpha band (10-12 Hz) over the sensorimotor cortices thereby potentially improving MI based brain-computer interface (BCI) protocols for motor rehabilitation. The results show a strong increase of the characteristic patterns of ERD of the upper alpha band components for left and right limb MI present over the sensorimotor areas in both visualization conditions. Overall, significant differences were observed as a function of visualization modality (VM; 2D vs. 3D). The largest upper alpha band power decrease was obtained during MI after a 3-dimensional visualization. In total in 12 out of 20 tasks the end-user of the 3D visualization group showed an enhanced upper alpha ERD relative to 2D VM group, with statistical significance in nine tasks.With a realistic visualization of the limb movements, we tried to increase motor cortex activation during subsequent MI. The feedback and the feedback environment should be inherently motivating and relevant for the learner and should have an appeal of novelty, real-world relevance or aesthetic value (Ryan and Deci, 2000; Merrill, 2007). Realistic visual feedback, consistent with the participant's MI, might be helpful for accomplishing successful MI and the use of such feedback may assist in making BCI a more natural interface for MI based BCI rehabilitation.

  3. Signaling during platelet adhesion and activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenyu; Delaney, M. Keegan; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Du, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Upon vascular injury, platelets are activated by adhesion to adhesive proteins like von Willebrand factor and collagen, or by soluble platelet agonists like ADP, thrombin, and thromboxane A2. These adhesive proteins and soluble agonists induce signal transduction via their respective receptors. The various receptor-specific platelet activation signaling pathways converge into common signaling events, which stimulate platelet shape change, granule secretion, and ultimately induce the “inside-out” signaling process leading to activation of the ligand binding function of integrin αIIbβ3. Ligand binding to integrin αIIbβ3 mediates platelet adhesion and aggregation and triggers “outside-in” signaling, resulting in platelet spreading, additional granule secretion, stabilization of platelet adhesion and aggregation, and clot retraction. It has become increasingly evident that agonist-induced platelet activation signals also crosstalk with integrin “outside-in” signals to regulate platelet responses. Platelet activation involves a series of rapid positive feedback loops that greatly amplify initial activation signals, and enable robust platelet recruitment and thrombus stabilization. Recent studies have provided novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of these processes. PMID:21071698

  4. Vicarious motor activation during action perception: beyond correlational evidence

    PubMed Central

    Avenanti, Alessio; Candidi, Matteo; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Neurophysiological and imaging studies have shown that seeing the actions of other individuals brings about the vicarious activation of motor regions involved in performing the same actions. While this suggests a simulative mechanism mediating the perception of others' actions, one cannot use such evidence to make inferences about the functional significance of vicarious activations. Indeed, a central aim in social neuroscience is to comprehend how vicarious activations allow the understanding of other people's behavior, and this requires to use stimulation or lesion methods to establish causal links from brain activity to cognitive functions. In the present work, we review studies investigating the effects of transient manipulations of brain activity or stable lesions in the motor system on individuals' ability to perceive and understand the actions of others. We conclude there is now compelling evidence that neural activity in the motor system is critical for such cognitive ability. More research using causal methods, however, is needed in order to disclose the limits and the conditions under which vicarious activations are required to perceive and understand actions of others as well as their emotions and somatic feelings. PMID:23675338

  5. Ongoing slow oscillatory phase modulates speech intelligibility in cooperation with motor cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Onojima, Takayuki; Kitajo, Keiichi; Mizuhara, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Neural oscillation is attracting attention as an underlying mechanism for speech recognition. Speech intelligibility is enhanced by the synchronization of speech rhythms and slow neural oscillation, which is typically observed as human scalp electroencephalography (EEG). In addition to the effect of neural oscillation, it has been proposed that speech recognition is enhanced by the identification of a speaker's motor signals, which are used for speech production. To verify the relationship between the effect of neural oscillation and motor cortical activity, we measured scalp EEG, and simultaneous EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a speech recognition task in which participants were required to recognize spoken words embedded in noise sound. We proposed an index to quantitatively evaluate the EEG phase effect on behavioral performance. The results showed that the delta and theta EEG phase before speech inputs modulated the participant's response time when conducting speech recognition tasks. The simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment showed that slow EEG activity was correlated with motor cortical activity. These results suggested that the effect of the slow oscillatory phase was associated with the activity of the motor cortex during speech recognition.

  6. CDPK Activation in PRR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Seybold, Heike; Boudsocq, Marie; Romeis, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases undergo a rapid biochemical activation in response to an intracellular Ca increase induced by the PRR-dependent perception of a pathogen-related stimulus. Based on SDS gel resolution, the in-gel kinase assay allows the analysis of multiple in vivo protein samples in parallel, combining the advantage of protein separation according to molecular mass with the activity read-out of a protein kinase assay. It thus enables to follow the transient CDPK activation and inactivation in response to in vivo elicitation with a time-wise resolution. In addition, changes of CDPK phosphorylation activity often correlate with slight shifts in the enzyme's apparent molecular mass, indicating posttranslational modifications and a conformational change of the active enzyme compared to its inactive resting form. These band shifts can be detected by a simple immunoblotting to monitor CDPK activation.

  7. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  8. The Effect of Prolonged Restraint of Motor Activity on the Vital Activity of Monkeys,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-26

    Ri28 579 THE EFFECT OF PROLONGED PESTRRINT OF MOTOR ACTIVITY ON i/ THE VITAL RCTIVITY..(U) FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT PATTERSON AFB OH N R...STANDAfO-1963-A -a 𔃻. FTD-ID(RS)T-1128-82 d FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION 1° ] THE EFFECT OF PROLONGED RESTRAINT OF MOTOR ACTIVITY ON THE- VITAL ACTIVITY OF...7TD-82-C-001141 THE EFFECT OF PROLONGED RESTRAINT OF MOTOR ACTIVITY ON THE VITAL ACTIVITY OF MONKEYS By: N.A. Rokotova, P.D. Bogina, et al English

  9. Evaluation of Teaching Signals for Motor Control in the Cerebellum during Real-World Robot Application

    PubMed Central

    Pinzon Morales, Ruben Dario; Hirata, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning in the cerebellum is believed to entail plastic changes at synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells, induced by the teaching signal conveyed in the climbing fiber (CF) input. Despite the abundant research on the cerebellum, the nature of this signal is still a matter of debate. Two types of movement error information have been proposed to be plausible teaching signals: sensory error (SE) and motor command error (ME); however, their plausibility has not been tested in the real world. Here, we conducted a comparison of different types of CF teaching signals in real-world engineering applications by using a realistic neuronal network model of the cerebellum. We employed a direct current motor (simple task) and a two-wheeled balancing robot (difficult task). We demonstrate that SE, ME or a linear combination of the two is sufficient to yield comparable performance in a simple task. When the task is more difficult, although SE slightly outperformed ME, these types of error information are all able to adequately control the robot. We categorize granular cells according to their inputs and the error signal revealing that different granule cells are preferably engaged for SE, ME or their combination. Thus, unlike previous theoretical and simulation studies that support either SE or ME, it is demonstrated for the first time in a real-world engineering application that both SE and ME are adequate as the CF teaching signal in a realistic computational cerebellar model, even when the control task is as difficult as stabilizing a two-wheeled balancing robot. PMID:27999381

  10. Scale-Dependent Signal Identification in Low-Dimensional Subspace: Motor Imagery Task Classification

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Haitao; Potter, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG) has been successfully used in locomotor rehabilitation programs. While the noise-assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition (NA-MEMD) algorithm has been utilized to extract task-specific frequency bands from all channels in the same scale as the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), identifying and extracting the specific IMFs that contain significant information remain difficult. In this paper, a novel method has been developed to identify the information-bearing components in a low-dimensional subspace without prior knowledge. Our method trains a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) of the composite data, which is comprised of the IMFs from both the original signal and noise, by employing kernel spectral regression to reduce the dimension of the composite data. The informative IMFs are then discriminated using a GMM clustering algorithm, the common spatial pattern (CSP) approach is exploited to extract the task-related features from the reconstructed signals, and a support vector machine (SVM) is applied to the extracted features to recognize the classes of EEG signals during different motor imagery tasks. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified by both computer simulations and motor imagery EEG datasets. PMID:27891256

  11. Motor imagery beyond the motor repertoire: Activity in the primary visual cortex during kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole body movements.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, N; Nakata, H; Kanosue, K

    2016-02-19

    To elucidate the neural substrate associated with capabilities for kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements, we measured brain activity during a trial involving both kinesthetic motor imagery and action observation as well as during a trial with action observation alone. Brain activity was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen participants imagined three types of whole-body movements with the horizontal bar: the giant swing, kip, and chin-up during action observation. No participant had previously tried to perform the giant swing. The vividness of kinesthetic motor imagery as assessed by questionnaire was highest for the chin-up, less for the kip and lowest for the giant swing. Activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) during kinesthetic motor imagery with action observation minus that during action observation alone was significantly greater in the giant swing condition than in the chin-up condition within participants. Across participants, V1 activity of kinesthetic motor imagery of the kip during action observation minus that during action observation alone was negatively correlated with vividness of the kip imagery. These results suggest that activity in V1 is dependent upon the capability of kinesthetic motor imagery for difficult whole-body movements. Since V1 activity is likely related to the creation of a visual image, we speculate that visual motor imagery is recruited unintentionally for the less vivid kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotion affects action: Midcingulate cortex as a pivotal node of interaction between negative emotion and motor signals

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, M.G.; Oliveira, L; Erthal, FS; Joffily, M; Mocaiber, I.F.; Volchan, E.; Pessoa, L.

    2010-01-01

    Affective pictures drive the activity of brain networks and impact behavior. We showed previously that viewing unpleasant pictures interfered in the performance of a basic non-emotional visual detection task. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that behavioral interference may result from the interaction between negatively valenced and motor-related signals in the brain. As in our previous study, subjects performed a simple target-detection task that followed the presentation of unpleasant or neutral pictures. Our results revealed that an unpleasant emotional context modulated evoked responses in several regions engaged by the simple target-detection task. In particular, the midcingulate cortex was recruited when participants performed target-detection trials during the unpleasant context and signal responses in this region closely mirrored the pattern of behavioral interference (as revealed via reaction time). Our findings suggest that the midcingulate cortex may be an important site for the interaction between negatively valenced and motor signals in the brain, and that it may be involved in the implementation of defensive responses, such as freezing. PMID:20233958

  13. Population calcium imaging of spontaneous respiratory and novel motor activity in the facial nucleus and ventral brainstem in newborn mice

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Karin; Rekling, Jens C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The brainstem contains rhythm and pattern forming circuits, which drive cranial and spinal motor pools to produce respiratory and other motor patterns. Here we used calcium imaging combined with nerve recordings in newborn mice to reveal spontaneous population activity in the ventral brainstem and in the facial nucleus. In Fluo-8 AM loaded brainstem–spinal cord preparations, respiratory activity on cervical nerves was synchronized with calcium signals at the ventrolateral brainstem surface. Individual ventrolateral neurons at the level of the parafacial respiratory group showed perfect or partial synchrony with respiratory nerve bursts. In brainstem–spinal cord preparations, cut at the level of the mid-facial nucleus, calcium signals were recorded in the dorsal, lateral and medial facial subnuclei during respiratory activity. Strong activity initiated in the dorsal subnucleus, followed by activity in lateral and medial subnuclei. Whole-cell recordings from facial motoneurons showed weak respiratory drives, and electrical field potential recordings confirmed respiratory drive to particularly the dorsal and lateral subnuclei. Putative facial premotoneurons showed respiratory-related calcium signals, and were predominantly located dorsomedial to the facial nucleus. A novel motor activity on facial, cervical and thoracic nerves was synchronized with calcium signals at the ventromedial brainstem extending from the level of the facial nucleus to the medulla–spinal cord border. Cervical dorsal root stimulation induced similar ventromedial activity. The medial facial subnucleus showed calcium signals synchronized with this novel motor activity on cervical nerves, and cervical dorsal root stimulation induced similar medial facial subnucleus activity. In conclusion, the dorsal and lateral facial subnuclei are strongly respiratory-modulated, and the brainstem contains a novel pattern forming circuit that drives the medial facial subnucleus and cervical motor

  14. Increasing MuSK activity delays denervation and improves motor function in ALS mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, María J; Burden, Steven J

    2012-09-27

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease that progresses from detachment of motor nerve terminals to complete muscle paralysis and lethal respiratory failure within 5 years of diagnosis. Genetic studies have linked mutations in several genes to ALS, and mice bearing mutations in SOD1 recapitulate hallmark features of the disease. We investigated whether disease symptoms can be ameliorated by co-opting the retrograde signaling pathway that promotes attachment of nerve terminals to muscle. We crossed SOD1G93A mice with transgenic mice that express MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase that is required for retrograde signaling, and we used histological and behavioral assays to assess motor innervation and behavior. A 3-fold increase in MuSK expression delayed the onset and reduced the extent of muscle denervation, improving motor function for more than a month without altering survival. These findings suggest that increasing MuSK activity by pharmacological means has the potential to improve motor function in ALS.

  15. Chronotype predicts activity patterns in the neural underpinnings of the motor system during the day.

    PubMed

    Peres, Isabella; Vetter, Céline; Blautzik, Janusch; Reiser, Maximilian; Pöppel, Ernst; Meindl, Thomas; Roenneberg, Till; Gutyrchik, Evgeny

    2011-12-01

    Neuroimaging is increasingly used to study the motor system in vivo. Despite many reports of time-of-day influences on motor function at the behavioral level, little is known about these influences on neural motor networks and their activations recorded in neuroimaging. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the authors studied 15 healthy subjects (9 females; mean ± SD age: 23 ± 3 yrs) performing a self-paced finger-tapping task at different times of day (morning, midday, afternoon, and evening). Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal showed systematic differences across the day in task-related motor areas of the brain, specifically in the supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, and rolandic operculum (p(corr)< .0125). The authors found that these time-of-day-dependent hemodynamic modulations are associated with chronotype and not with homeostatic sleep pressure. These results show that consideration of time-of-day for the analysis of fMRI studies is imperative.

  16. Subcortical evoked activity and motor enhancement in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Khan, Sadaquate; Javed, Shazia; Gill, Steven S.; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Akram, Harith; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of ‘paradoxical kinesis’ in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the intensity of the stimulus delivered and corresponding enhancements in biomechanical measures of maximal handgrips, independent of the dopaminergic state of our subjects with Parkinson's disease. Recordings of a similar evoked potential in the related pedunculopontine nucleus – a key component of the reticular activating system – provide support for this neural signature in the subthalmic nucleus being a novel correlate of ascending arousal, propagated from the reticular activating system to exert an ‘energizing’ influence on motor circuitry. Future manipulation of this system linking arousal and motor performance may provide a novel approach for the non-dopaminergic enhancement of motor performance in patients with hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:26687971

  17. Subcortical evoked activity and motor enhancement in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Khan, Sadaquate; Javed, Shazia; Gill, Steven S; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Akram, Harith; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of 'paradoxical kinesis' in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the intensity of the stimulus delivered and corresponding enhancements in biomechanical measures of maximal handgrips, independent of the dopaminergic state of our subjects with Parkinson's disease. Recordings of a similar evoked potential in the related pedunculopontine nucleus - a key component of the reticular activating system - provide support for this neural signature in the subthalmic nucleus being a novel correlate of ascending arousal, propagated from the reticular activating system to exert an 'energizing' influence on motor circuitry. Future manipulation of this system linking arousal and motor performance may provide a novel approach for the non-dopaminergic enhancement of motor performance in patients with hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

  18. [Functional magnetic resonance and the motor cortex II: measurement of activity].

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, R; Matthews, P M; Maestú, C; Bardasano, J L

    Functional magnetic resonance (fMR) with BOLD contrast has been shown to be a useful tool for clinical investigation. It is still uncertain which is the best way to establish the measures of activation for subsequent comparisons and their physiological significance. To explore the activation expressed as a function of different parameters. We did fMR with BOLD contrast at 3T and a motor paradigm in 14 healthy persons. The activation was expressed as the number of voxels activated within each area; their percentage in relation to the total number of voxels activated; z value; laterality index, speed and degree of temporal variation in the signal of these voxels. Somatomotor area (SM) activated 121% more voxels than supplementary motor area (SMA), but their variation expressed with their standard variation was very large. The percentage of voxels activated was 163.6% greater in SM than in SMA. The laterality index increased at the expense of activation outside SM. The variation of the two relative measurements was less than the total number of voxels. The z value did not correlate with the degree of activity. The time course of the SMA signal was slightly different to SM. Very high field fMR is very sensitive to changes in signal. The number of voxels activated varies considerably, so its use as a measurement of activity should be limited. Relative value, such as the index of laterality of the percentage of voxels may show less variability. The centre of mass and z value are stable figures but the physiological significance of the latter is not clear. The study of the temporal variation of the signal seems to be a potentially useful parameter with a certain degree of physiological significance, although better understanding and further analysis is necessary.

  19. Rewarding feedback promotes motor skill consolidation via striatal activity.

    PubMed

    Widmer, M; Ziegler, N; Held, J; Luft, A; Lutz, K

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of performance can activate the striatum, a key region of the reward system and highly relevant for motivated behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, striatal activity linked to knowledge of performance was measured during the training of a repetitive arc-tracking task. Knowledge of performance was given after a random selection of trials or after good performance. The third group received knowledge of performance after good performance plus a monetary reward. Skill learning was measured from pre- to post- (acquisition) and from post- to 24h posttraining (consolidation). Our results demonstrate an influence of feedback on motor skill learning. Adding a monetary reward after good performance leads to better consolidation and higher ventral striatal activation than knowledge of performance alone. In turn, rewarding strategies that increase ventral striatal response during training of a motor skill may be utilized to improve skill consolidation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ice nucleus activity measurements of solid rocket motor exhaust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The ice Nucleus activity of exhaust particles generated from combustion of Space Shuttle propellant in small rocket motors has been measured. The activity at -20 C was substantially lower than that of aerosols generated by unpressurized combustion of propellant samples in previous studies. The activity decays rapidly with time and is decreased further in the presence of moist air. These tests corroborate the low effectivity ice nucleus measurement results obtained in the exhaust ground cloud of the Space Shuttle. Such low ice nucleus activity implies that Space Shuttle induced inadvertent weather modification via an ice phase process is extremely unlikely.

  1. Wnt7A identifies embryonic γ-motor neurons and reveals early postnatal dependence of γ-motor neurons on a muscle spindle-derived signal.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Soha; Lalancette-Hébert, Melanie; Friese, Andreas; Sigrist, Markus; Arber, Silvia; Shneider, Neil A; Kaltschmidt, Julia A

    2012-06-20

    Motor pools comprise a heterogeneous population of motor neurons that innervate distinct intramuscular targets. While the organization of motor neurons into motor pools has been well described, the time course and mechanism of motor pool diversification into functionally distinct classes remains unclear. γ-Motor neurons (γ-MNs) and α-motor neurons (α-MNs) differ in size, molecular identity, synaptic input and peripheral target. While α-MNs innervate extrafusal skeletal muscle fibers to mediate muscle contraction, γ-MNs innervate intrafusal fibers of the muscle spindle, and regulate sensitivity of the muscle spindle in response to stretch. In this study, we find that the secreted signaling molecule Wnt7a is selectively expressed in γ-MNs in the mouse spinal cord by embryonic day 17.5 and continues to molecularly distinguish γ-from α-MNs into the third postnatal week. Our data demonstrate that Wnt7a is the earliest known γ-MN marker, supporting a model of developmental divergence between α- and γ-MNs at embryonic stages. Furthermore, using Wnt7a expression as an early marker of γ-MN identity, we demonstrate a previously unknown dependence of γ-MNs on a muscle spindle-derived, GDNF-independent signal during the first postnatal week.

  2. Quantification of the cortical contribution to the NIRS signal over the motor cortex using concurrent NIRS-fMRI measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Louis; Yücel, Meryem A.; Dehaes, Mathieu; Cooper, Robert J.; Perdue, Katherine L.; Selb, Juliette; Huppert, Theodore J.; Hoge, Richard D.; Boas, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) measures the functional hemodynamic response occuring at the surface of the cortex. Large pial veins are located above the surface of the cerebral cortex. Following activation, these veins exhibit oxygenation changes but their volume likely stays constant. The back-reflection geometry of the NIRS measurement renders the signal very sensitive to these superficial pial veins. As such, the measured NIRS signal contains contributions from both the cortical region as well as the pial vasculature. In this work, the cortical contribution to the NIRS signal was investigated using (1) Monte Carlo simulations over a realistic geometry constructed from anatomical and vascular MRI and (2) multimodal NIRS-BOLD recordings during motor stimulation. A good agreement was found between the simulations and the modeling analysis of in vivo measurements. Our results suggest that the cortical contribution to the deoxyhemoglobin signal change (ΔHbR) is equal to 16–22% of the cortical contribution to the total hemoglobin signal change (ΔHbT). Similarly, the cortical contribution of the oxyhemoglobin signal change (ΔHbO) is equal to 73–79% of the cortical contribution to the ΔHbT signal. These results suggest that ΔHbT is far less sensitive to pial vein contamination and therefore, it is likely that the ΔHbT signal provides better spatial specificity and should be used instead of ΔHbO or ΔHbR to map cerebral activity with NIRS. While different stimuli will result in different pial vein contributions, our finger tapping results do reveal the importance of considering the pial contribution. PMID:22036999

  3. Enhanced auditory evoked activity to self-generated sounds is mediated by primary and supplementary motor cortices.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Daniel; Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy

    2015-02-04

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates that responses in auditory cortex to auditory consequences of self-generated actions are modified relative to the responses evoked by identical sounds generated by an external source. Such modifications have been suggested to occur through a corollary discharge sent from the motor system, although the exact neuroanatomical origin is unknown. Furthermore, since tactile input has also been shown to modify responses in auditory cortex, it is not even clear whether the source of such modifications is motor output or somatosensory feedback. We recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from healthy human subjects (n = 11) while manipulating the rate at which they performed sound-producing actions with their right hand. In addition, we manipulated the amount of tactile feedback to examine the relative roles of motor and somatosensory cortices in modifying evoked activity in auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus). We found an enhanced fMRI signal in left auditory cortex during perception of self-generated sounds relative to passive listening to identical sounds. Moreover, the signal difference between active and passive conditions in left auditory cortex covaried with the rate of sound-producing actions and was invariant to the amount of tactile feedback. Together with functional connectivity analysis, our results suggest motor output from supplementary motor area and left primary motor cortex as the source of signal modification in auditory cortex during perception of self-generated sounds. Motor signals from these regions could represent a predictive signal of the expected auditory consequences of the performed action.

  4. Signaling events in axons and/or dendrites render motor neurons vulnerable to mutant superoxide dismutase toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Goo-Bo; Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Jelena; Boccitto, Marco; Kalb, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The survival of dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic neurons is promoted whether nerve growth factor (NGF) activates TrkA receptors on the cell body or axon. Yet other aspects of neurotrophic factor actions (i.e., ability to promote axon growth, selection of neurochemical phenotype and engagement of signaling modules) differ as a function of the location of the ligand-receptor interaction. The extent to which these observations are relevant to central nervous system neurons (CNS) is unknown. This may be particularly relevant to neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), where beneficial axon-target interactions are disturbed early in the disease process. Here we characterize the growth of pure motor neurons in compartment cultures and show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulation of the cell body or axons/dendrites promotes survival. Expression of G37R mutant superoxide dismutase (SOD) in motor neurons will lead to death and this depends on BDNF activation of TrkB on axons and/or dendrites. BDNF action depends upon endocytosis of the BDNF-TrkB complex and de novo protein synthesis. These results highlight the importance of signaling events occurring in axons/dendrites in mutant SOD toxicity. PMID:21209215

  5. Primary motor cortex activity is elevated with incremental exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Brümmer, V; Schneider, S; Strüder, H K; Askew, C D

    2011-05-05

    While the effects of exercise on brain cortical activity from pre-to post-exercise have been thoroughly evaluated, few studies have investigated the change in activity during exercise. As such, it is not clear to what extent changes in exercise intensity influence brain cortical activity. Furthermore, due to the difficulty in using brain-imaging methods during complex whole-body movements like cycling, it is unclear to what extent the activity in specific brain areas is altered with incremental exercise intensity over time. Latterly, active electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes combined with source localization methods allow for the assessment of brain activity, measured as EEG current density, within specific cortical regions. The present study aimed to investigate the application of this method during exercise on a cycle ergometer, and to investigate the effect of increasing exercise intensity on the magnitude and location of any changes in electrocortical current density. Subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test until subjective exhaustion. Current density of the EEG recordings during each test stage, as well as before and after exercise, was determined. Spatial changes in current density were localized using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to three regions of interest; the primary motor cortex, primary sensory cortex and prefrontal cortex, and were expressed relative to current density within the local lobe. It was demonstrated that the relative current density of the primary motor cortex was intensified with increasing exercise intensity, whereas activity of the primary sensory cortex and that of the prefrontal cortex were not altered with exercise. The results indicate that the combined active EEG/LORETA method allows for the recording of brain cortical activity during complex movements and incremental exercise. These findings indicate that primary motor cortex activity is elevated with incremental exercise intensity

  6. Chemical and thermal modulation of molecular motor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Weili

    Molecular motors of kinesin and dynein families are responsible for various intracellular activities, from long distance movement of organelles, vesicles, protein complexes, and mRNAs to powering mitotic processes. They can take nanometer steps using chemical energy from the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and their dysfunction is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases that require long distance transport of cargos. Here I report on the study of the properties of molecular motors at a single-molecule level using optical trappings. I first studied the inhibition properties of kinesin motors by marine natural compound adociasulfates. I showed that adociasulfates compete with microtubules for binding to kinesins and thus inhibit kinesins' activity. Although adociasulfates are a strong inhibitor for all kinesin members, they show a much higher inhibition effect for conventional kinesins than for mitotic kinesins. Thus adociasulfates can be used to specifically inhibit conventional kinesins. By comparing the inhibition of kinesins by two structurally similar adociasulfates, one can see that the negatively charged sulfate residue of adociasulfates can be replaced by other negative residues and thus make it possible for adociasulfate-derived compounds to be more cell permeable. Kinesins and dyneins move cargos towards opposite directions along a microtubule. Cargos with both kinesins and dyneins attached often move bidirectionally due to undergoing a tug-of-war between the oppositely moving kinesin and dynein motors. Here I studied the effect of temperature on microtubule-based kinesin and dynein motor transport. While kinesins' and dyneins' velocities are closely matched above 15 °C, below this temperature the dyneins' velocity decreases much faster than the kinesins'. The kinesins' and dyneins' forces do not measurably change with temperature. The results suggest that temperature has significant effects on bidirectional transport and can be used to

  7. Activation of sensory-motor areas in sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rutvik H; Binder, Jeffrey R; Conant, Lisa L; Seidenberg, Mark S

    2010-02-01

    The sensory-motor account of conceptual processing suggests that modality-specific attributes play a central role in the organization of object and action knowledge in the brain. An opposing view emphasizes the abstract, amodal, and symbolic character of concepts, which are thought to be represented outside the brain's sensory-motor systems. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which the participants listened to sentences describing hand/arm action events, visual events, or abstract behaviors. In comparison to visual and abstract sentences, areas associated with planning and control of hand movements, motion perception, and vision were activated when understanding sentences describing actions. Sensory-motor areas were activated to a greater extent also for sentences with actions that relied mostly on hands, as opposed to arms. Visual sentences activated a small area in the secondary visual cortex, whereas abstract sentences activated superior temporal and inferior frontal regions. The results support the view that linguistic understanding of actions partly involves imagery or simulation of actions, and relies on some of the same neural substrate used for planning, performing, and perceiving actions.

  8. Impaired motor activity and motor learning function in rat with middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuchuan; Zhou, Yandong; Lai, Qin; Li, Jie; Park, Hun; Diaz, Fernando G

    2002-04-15

    The poor quality of life after a stroke is largely attributed to deficits in cognitive-motor functioning. The goals of this study were to detect if damaged motor learning function were attributed to motor deficits in rats following a transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Stroke was induced by a 2-h occlusion of the MCA using an intraluminal filament. Motor functions were evaluated from 5 up to 28 days after reperfusion in ischemic and control rats. Motor function was detected by a series of motor tests (runway traversing and beam balancing, as well as foot fault placing, parallel bar crossing, rope and ladder climbing), and motor learning behavior was determined by analyzing the rate of improvement of impaired function during performance of the motor tasks. Significant (P<0.001) motor deficits were detected in the stroke group (n=10) while performing motor tasks that involve extensive coordination, in comparison to the controls (n=12). Although motor behavior was improved with repeated behavior testing, unparalleled rate of improvement of motor performance on rope and ladder climbing tests was found between the two groups, suggesting an impaired motor learning function. Brain tissue damage was detected in the ischemic animals 28 days after surgery, demonstrated by 40% infarct volume of contralateral hemisphere. Both motor learning and motor function were impaired in ischemic rats. The motor tests used in this study are sensitive, semi-quantitative, and reproducible measurements of functional impairment in rats following an ischemic stroke.

  9. A novel deep learning approach for classification of EEG motor imagery signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei Tabar, Yousef; Halici, Ugur

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Signal classification is an important issue in brain computer interface (BCI) systems. Deep learning approaches have been used successfully in many recent studies to learn features and classify different types of data. However, the number of studies that employ these approaches on BCI applications is very limited. In this study we aim to use deep learning methods to improve classification performance of EEG motor imagery signals. Approach. In this study we investigate convolutional neural networks (CNN) and stacked autoencoders (SAE) to classify EEG Motor Imagery signals. A new form of input is introduced to combine time, frequency and location information extracted from EEG signal and it is used in CNN having one 1D convolutional and one max-pooling layers. We also proposed a new deep network by combining CNN and SAE. In this network, the features that are extracted in CNN are classified through the deep network SAE. Main results. The classification performance obtained by the proposed method on BCI competition IV dataset 2b in terms of kappa value is 0.547. Our approach yields 9% improvement over the winner algorithm of the competition. Significance. Our results show that deep learning methods provide better classification performance compared to other state of art approaches. These methods can be applied successfully to BCI systems where the amount of data is large due to daily recording.

  10. Separation of spinal cord motor signals using the FastICA method.

    PubMed

    Tie, Yanmei; Sahin, Mesut

    2005-12-01

    Evoked motor signals descending down the corticospinal tract can be recorded selectively with multi-contact electrodes from the spinal cord surface. This method of extracting motor signals from the spinal cord may provide a means of communication for people with spinal cord injury. The information rate obtained with such an interface will improve if the separation of neural channels can be increased. In this study, the feasibility of increasing the channel separation was investigated using the blind source separation (BSS) technique. Neural signals recorded with multi-contact surface electrodes were treated as a linear mixture of independent neural sources located inside the spinal cord. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to estimate the dimensionality of the raw signals, and then the fixed-point FastICA algorithm was used to separate the primary neural sources from the secondary (smaller) ones. In all trials but one, the separation between the neural channels has increased by eliminating the secondary sources. These results suggest that the information rate of a spinal cord interface can be improved by separating the neural recordings into their independent components and selecting the ones with the largest distance between them. Comparison of independent component analysis (ICA) and PCA reveals that ICA performs better in this application.

  11. Physical activity-associated gene expression signature in nonhuman primate motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Amanda C; Leak, Rehana K; Garbett, Krassimira; Zigmond, Michael J; Cameron, Judy L; Mirnics, Károly

    2012-03-01

    It has been established that weight gain and weight loss are heavily influenced by activity level. In this study, we hypothesized that the motor cortex exhibits a distinct physical activity-associated gene expression profile, which may underlie changes in weight associated with movement. Using DNA microarrays we profiled gene expression in the motor cortex of a group of 14 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with a wide range of stable physical activity levels. We found that neuronal growth factor signaling and nutrient sensing transcripts in the brain were highly correlated with physical activity. A follow-up of AKT3 expression changes (a gene at the apex of neuronal survival and nutrient sensing) revealed increased protein levels of total AKT, phosphorylated AKT, and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3), one of AKT's main downstream effectors. In addition, we successfully validated three other genes via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (cereblon (CRBN), origin recognition complex subunit 4-like, and pyruvate dehydrogenase 4 (PDK4)). We conclude that these genes are important in the physical activity-associated pathway in the motor cortex, and may be critical for physical activity-associated changes in body weight and neuroprotection.

  12. STAT3 phosphorylation in injured axons before sensory and motor neuron nuclei: potential role for STAT3 as a retrograde signaling transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy; Neitzel, Karen L; Devlin, Brenda K; MacLennan, A John

    2004-07-05

    STAT3 is a latent transcription factor that is activated by plasma membrane growth factor receptor complexes. Conditional gene disruption data indicate that it contributes to the survival of cranial motor neurons after peripheral nerve lesion. In agreement, levels of activated STAT3 (Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3) have been shown to increase in the nuclei of adult cranial motor neurons during their regeneration after the same injury. The data presented here demonstrate that STAT3 is similarly but not identically affected in sciatic motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury. In addition, we find that sensory neuron nuclei also display an analogous increase in activated STAT3, thereby supporting a role for STAT3 in the survival and regeneration of these cells. Most interesting, the present data indicate that peripheral nerve lesion leads to a very rapid activation of STAT3 in axons at the lesion site. This response increases during the first 24 hours after injury and extends back to the motor and sensory neurons such that phospho-STAT3-immunoreactive axons are first detected in the dorsal root ganglia and ventral spinal cord at the same postlesion time intervals at which the activated STAT3 is first detected in the neuronal nuclei. Together these data raise the possibility that axonal STAT3, activated at the injury site, acts as a retrograde signaling transcription factor, which promotes the survival and regeneration of both sensory and motor neurons.

  13. Gesturing Meaning: Non-action Words Activate the Motor System

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Patric; Griffiths, Debra; Weigelt, Matthias; Tipper, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Across cultures, speakers produce iconic gestures, which add – through the movement of the speakers’ hands – a pictorial dimension to the speakers’ message. These gestures capture not only the motor content but also the visuospatial content of the message. Here, we provide first evidence for a direct link between the representation of perceptual information and the motor system that can account for these observations. Across four experiments, participants’ hand movements captured both shapes that were directly perceived, and shapes that were only implicitly activated by unrelated semantic judgments of object words. These results were obtained even though the objects were not associated with any motor behaviors that would match the gestures the participants had to produce. Moreover, implied shape affected not only gesture selection processes but also their actual execution – as measured by the shape of hand motion through space – revealing intimate links between implied shape representation and motor output. The results are discussed in terms of ideomotor theories of action and perception, and provide one avenue for explaining the ubiquitous phenomenon of iconic gestures. PMID:21120138

  14. KIF4 motor regulates activity-dependent neuronal survival by suppressing PARP-1 enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Ryosuke; Takei, Yosuke; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

    2006-04-21

    In brain development, apoptosis is a physiological process that controls the final numbers of neurons. Here, we report that the activity-dependent prevention of apoptosis in juvenile neurons is regulated by kinesin superfamily protein 4 (KIF4), a microtubule-based molecular motor. The C-terminal domain of KIF4 is a module that suppresses the activity of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a nuclear enzyme known to maintain cell homeostasis by repairing DNA and serving as a transcriptional regulator. When neurons are stimulated by membrane depolarization, calcium signaling mediated by CaMKII induces dissociation of KIF4 from PARP-1, resulting in upregulation of PARP-1 activity, which supports neuron survival. After dissociation from PARP-1, KIF4 enters into the cytoplasm from the nucleus and moves to the distal part of neurites in a microtubule-dependent manner. We suggested that KIF4 controls the activity-dependent survival of postmitotic neurons by regulating PARP-1 activity in brain development.

  15. Stabilities of negative correlations between blood oxygen level-dependent signals associated with sensory and motor cortices.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lixia; Jiang, Tianzi; Liang, Meng; Li, Xiaobo; He, Yong; Wang, Kun; Cao, Bingli; Jiang, Tao

    2007-07-01

    Compared with positive correlations, negative correlations of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals (NCOBSs) have been much less studied. In most related studies, the NCOBSs have been accepted as stable without further consideration. To investigate the stabilities of NCOBSs associated with the auditory, motor, and visual cortices, we evaluated the negative correlation maps of each brain region under different "task-backgrounds" within the same subject-group, as well as within different subject-groups during a conscious resting state. These "task-backgrounds" refer to tasks not expected to activate the specific ROI under consideration and are in some sense analogous to "resting states." We found that the negative correlation maps of the motor and visual cortices were quite variable between either different task-backgrounds or different subject-groups, whereas those of the auditory cortex exhibited some similarities. These results indicate that the NCOBSs associated with the motor and visual cortices were unstable both under task-backgrounds and during the conscious resting state. The auditory cortex tended to have stable NCOBSs during these "resting states" (but scanner noise could make the auditory cortex "less resting"). This study highlights the importance of paying attention to the influence of the stabilities of NCOBSs in related studies and establishes the need for further studies on NCOBSs. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Differential actigraphy for monitoring asymmetry in upper limb motor activities.

    PubMed

    Rabuffetti, M; Meriggi, P; Pagliari, C; Bartolomeo, P; Ferrarin, M

    2016-09-21

    Most applications of accelerometry-based actigraphy require a single sensor, properly located onto the body, to estimate, for example, the level of activity or the energy expenditure. Some approaches adopt a multi-sensor setup to improve those analyses or to classify different types of activity. The specific case of two symmetrically placed actigraphs allowing, by some kind of differential analysis, for the assessment of asymmetric motor behaviors, has been considered in relatively few studies. This article presents a novel method for differential actigraphy, which requires the synchronized measurements of two triaxial accelerometers (programmable eZ430-Chronos, Texas Instruments, USA) placed symmetrically on both wrists. The method involved the definition of a robust epoch-related activity index and its implementation on-board the adopted programmable platform. Finally, the activity recordings from both sensors allowed us to define a novel asymmetry index AR24 h ranging from  -100% (only the left arm moves) to  +100% (only the right arm moves) with null value marking a perfect symmetrical behavior. The accuracy of the AR24 h index was 1.3%. Round-the-clock monitoring on 31 healthy participants (20-79 years old, 10 left handed) provided for the AR24 h reference data (range  -5% to 21%) and a fairly good correlation to the clinical handedness index (r  =  0.66, p  <  0.001). A subset of 20 participants repeated the monitoring one week apart evidencing an excellent test-retest reliability (r  =  0.70, p  <  0.001). Such figures support future applications of the methodology for the study of pathologies involving motor asymmetries, such as in patients with motor hemisyndromes and, in general, for those subjects for whom a quantification of the asymmetry in daily motor performances is required to complement laboratory tests.

  17. Coupling mechanical forces to electrical signaling: molecular motors and the intracellular transport of ion channels.

    PubMed

    Barry, Joshua; Gu, Chen

    2013-04-01

    Proper localization of various ion channels is fundamental to neuronal functions, including postsynaptic potential plasticity, dendritic integration, action potential initiation and propagation, and neurotransmitter release. Microtubule-based forward transport mediated by kinesin motors plays a key role in placing ion channel proteins to correct subcellular compartments. PDZ- and coiled-coil-domain proteins function as adaptor proteins linking ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptors to various kinesin motors, respectively. Recent studies show that several voltage-gated ion channel/transporter proteins directly bind to kinesins during forward transport. Three major regulatory mechanisms underlying intracellular transport of ion channels are also revealed. These studies contribute to understanding how mechanical forces are coupled to electrical signaling and illuminating pathogenic mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Electroencephalograph (EEG) signal processing method of motor imaginary potential for attention level classification.

    PubMed

    Ming, Dong; Xi, Youyuan; Zhang, Mingming; Qi, Hongzhi; Cheng, Longlong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Liyong

    2009-01-01

    Research of visual attention is one of the important domains of psychology and neurophysiology. In this study, an attention related electroencephalograph (EEG) signal processing method was proposed to distinguish the different levels of people's attention during the imaginary limbs motor. There were two EEG feedback experiments (playing tennis and walking) to measure the different levels of visual attention. Three imaginary motor tasks (attention, inattention, and rest task) were performed with the flash stimulus displayed on the screen in the experiments. A nonlinear dynamics parameter of multi-scale entropy (MSE) was extracted from those EEG data recorded. According to the statistics analysis of 14 subjects, there was an obvious declining tendency of MSE with the level of attention declining, which validated the effectiveness of the proposed method to classify the visual attention level.

  19. Motor Activity in Adult Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mjeldheim, Kristin; Førland, Wenche; Hansen, Anita L.; Dilsaver, Steven; Oedegaard, Ketil J.; Berle, Jan Øystein

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hyperactivity is a core symptom of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited information is available on analysis of activity patterns in this disorder. The aim of the study was to analyze motor activity during daily living in adult patients with ADHD. Methods Patients (n=76) from the private psychiatric practice of two of the authors were recruited, and were compared to patients with other psychiatric disorders and to normal controls. Actigraphs were used to record motor activity for six days, with one minute intervals, and data were analysed using linear and non-linear mathematical methods. Results For short recording periods (300 minutes) the activity levels of ADHD patients do not differ from normal controls, but the autocorrelation (lag 1) is lower and Fourier analysis shows higher power in the high frequency range, corresponding to the period from 2-8 min. During recordings for six days there are no significant differences between ADHD patients and the control groups. The combined and inattentive subgroups differ only in the six days recordings. The Fourier analyses show that the combined type has lower power in the high frequency range, corresponding to the period from 4-8 hours, and in the analysis of rhythms the intra-daily variability is lower, compared to the inattentive type. Conclusion Adult ADHD patients do not show evidence of hyperactivity, but have levels of activity similar to normal controls. However, on several measures ADHD patients display altered activity patterns, indicating that the regulation of motor activity in this disorder is different from controls. PMID:26508958

  20. Repression of inactive motor nerve terminals in partially denervated rat muscle after regeneration of active motor axons.

    PubMed Central

    Ribchester, R R; Taxt, T

    1984-01-01

    The fourth deep lumbrical muscle in the hind foot of adult rats was partially denervated by crushing the sural nerve (s.n.). The denervated muscle fibres became completely reinnervated by sprouts from lateral plantar nerve (l.p.n.) motor axons. By about 20 days after the nerve crush, s.n. motor axons started to reinnervate the muscle. In control muscles, a small proportion of the muscle fibres--about 2.5% of the muscle per motor unit--was reinnervated by s.n. motor axons over the following 20 days. Hence the regenerating terminals were able to re-establish functional synapses, despite the fact that all the muscle fibres were functionally innervated by l.p.n. terminals. When nerve impulse conduction in the l.p.n. was blocked with tetrodotoxin for up to 2 weeks, starting from the time when s.n. axons returned to the muscle, s.n. motor axons retrieved a much larger proportion of the muscle fibres--about 6.5% of the muscle per motor unit. There was a concomitant decrease in the tension produced by the sprouted l.p.n. motor axons. Intracellular recordings showed that many muscle fibres became innervated exclusively by regenerated s.n. motor nerve terminals. Measurements of end-plate potentials suggested that l.p.n. sprouts and the original nerve terminals were eliminated non-selectively. These results suggest that regenerating, active motor nerve terminals have an additional competitive advantage in reinnervating innervated muscles, if the intact terminals are inactive. When the l.p.n. was cut, rather than blocked, extensive reinnervation by the s.n. occurred-about 30% of the muscle per motor unit. This suggests that the absence of an intact nerve terminal in the motor end-plate provides a stronger stimulus than inactivity for synapse formation by regenerating motor axons. PMID:6707966

  1. Impact of neural noise on a sensory-motor pathway signaling impending collision

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Noise is a major concern in circuits processing electrical signals, including neural circuits. There are many factors that influence how noise propagates through neural circuits, and there are few systems in which noise levels have been studied throughout a processing pathway. We recorded intracellularly from multiple stages of a sensory-motor pathway in the locust that detects approaching objects. We found that responses are more variable and that signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are lower further from the sensory periphery. SNRs remain low even with the use of stimuli for which the pathway is most selective and for which the neuron representing its final sensory level must integrate many synaptic inputs. Modeling of this neuron shows that variability in the strength of individual synaptic inputs within a large population has little effect on the variability of the spiking output. In contrast, jitter in the timing of individual inputs and spontaneous variability is important for shaping the responses to preferred stimuli. These results suggest that neural noise is inherent to the processing of visual stimuli signaling impending collision and contributes to shaping neural responses along this sensory-motor pathway. PMID:22114160

  2. Motor unit action potential conduction velocity estimated from surface electromyographic signals using image processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fabiano Araujo; Carvalho, João Luiz Azevedo; Miosso, Cristiano Jacques; de Andrade, Marcelino Monteiro; da Rocha, Adson Ferreira

    2015-09-17

    In surface electromyography (surface EMG, or S-EMG), conduction velocity (CV) refers to the velocity at which the motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) propagate along the muscle fibers, during contractions. The CV is related to the type and diameter of the muscle fibers, ion concentration, pH, and firing rate of the motor units (MUs). The CV can be used in the evaluation of contractile properties of MUs, and of muscle fatigue. The most popular methods for CV estimation are those based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). This work proposes an algorithm for estimating CV from S-EMG signals, using digital image processing techniques. The proposed approach is demonstrated and evaluated, using both simulated and experimentally-acquired multichannel S-EMG signals. We show that the proposed algorithm is as precise and accurate as the MLE method in typical conditions of noise and CV. The proposed method is not susceptible to errors associated with MUAP propagation direction or inadequate initialization parameters, which are common with the MLE algorithm. Image processing -based approaches may be useful in S-EMG analysis to extract different physiological parameters from multichannel S-EMG signals. Other new methods based on image processing could also be developed to help solving other tasks in EMG analysis, such as estimation of the CV for individual MUs, localization and tracking of innervation zones, and study of MU recruitment strategies.

  3. Scaffolds are 'active' regulators of signaling modules.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Anita; Varga, János; Reményi, Attila

    2010-11-01

    Signaling cascades, in addition to proteins with obvious signaling-relevant activities (e.g. protein kinases or receptors), also employ dedicated 'inactive' proteins whose functions appear to be the organization of the former components into higher order complexes through protein-protein interactions. The core function of signaling adaptors, anchors and scaffolds is the recruitment of proteins into one macromolecular complex. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the recruiter and the recruited molecules mutually influence each other in a scaffolded complex. This yields fundamentally novel properties for the signaling complex as a whole. Because these are not merely additive to the properties of the individual components, scaffolded signaling complexes may behave as functionally distinct modules.

  4. Motor system activation after subcortical stroke depends on corticospinal system integrity

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Nick S.; Newton, Jennifer M.; Swayne, Orlando B. C.; Lee, Lucy; Thompson, Alan J.; Greenwood, Richard J.; Rothwell, John C.; Frackowiak, Richard S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Movement-related brain activation patterns after subcortical stroke are characterized by relative overactivations in cortical motor areas compared with controls. In patients able to perform a motor task, overactivations are greater in those with more motor impairment. We hypothesized that recruitment of motor regions would shift from primary to secondary motor networks in response to impaired functional integrity of the corticospinal system (CSS). We measured the magnitude of brain activation using functional MRI during a motor task in eight chronic subcortical stroke patients. CSS functional integrity was assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation to obtain stimulus/response curves for the affected first dorsal interosseus muscle, with a shallower gradient representing increasing disruption of CSS functional integrity. A negative correlation between the gradient of stimulus/response curve and magnitude of task-related brain activation was found in several motor-related regions, including ipsilesional posterior primary motor cortex [Brodmann area (BA) 4p], contralesional anterior primary motor cortex (BA 4a), bilateral premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, intraparietal sulcus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and contralesional superior cingulate sulcus. There were no significant positive correlations in any brain region. These results suggest that impaired functional integrity of the CSS is associated with recruitment of secondary motor networks in both hemispheres in an attempt to generate motor output to spinal cord motoneurons. Secondary motor regions are less efficient at generating motor output so this reorganization can only be considered partially successful in reducing motor impairment after stroke. PMID:16421171

  5. Loss of Npn1 from motor neurons causes postnatal deficits independent from Sema3A signaling.

    PubMed

    Helmbrecht, Michaela S; Soellner, Heidi; Truckenbrodt, Anna M L; Sundermeier, Julia; Cohrs, Christian; Hans, Wolfgang; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Feuchtinger, Annette; Aichler, Michaela; Fouad, Karim; Huber, Andrea B

    2015-03-01

    The correct wiring of neuronal circuits is of crucial importance for the function of the vertebrate nervous system. Guidance cues like the neuropilin receptors (Npn) and their ligands, the semaphorins (Sema) provide a tight spatiotemporal control of sensory and motor axon growth and guidance. Among this family of guidance partners the Sema3A-Npn1 interaction has been shown to be of great importance, since defective signaling leads to wiring deficits and defasciculation. For the embryonic stage these defects have been well described, however, also after birth the organism can adapt to new challenges by compensational mechanisms. Therefore, we used the mouse lines Olig2-Cre;Npn1(cond) and Npn1(Sema-) to investigate how postnatal organisms cope with the loss of Npn1 selectively from motor neurons or a systemic dysfunctional Sema3A-Npn1 signaling in the entire organism, respectively. While in Olig2-Cre(+);Npn1(cond-/-) mice clear anatomical deficits in paw posturing, bone structure, as well as muscle and nerve composition became evident, Npn1(Sema-) mutants appeared anatomically normal. Furthermore, Olig2-Cre(+);Npn1(cond) mutants revealed a dysfunctional extensor muscle innervation after single-train stimulation of the N.radial. Interestingly, these mice did not show obvious deficits in voluntary locomotion, however, skilled motor function was affected. In contrast, Npn1(Sema-) mutants were less affected in all behavioral tests and able to improve their performance over time. Our data suggest that loss of Sema3A-Npn1 signaling is not the only cause for the observed deficits in Olig2-Cre(+);Npn1(cond-/-) mice and that additional, yet unknown binding partners for Npn1 may be involved that allow Npn1(Sema-) mutants to compensate for their developmental deficits.

  6. Listening to rhythms activates motor and premotor cortices.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Sara L; Ullén, Fredrik; Ehrsson, H Henrik; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Kito, Tomonori; Naito, Eiichi; Forssberg, Hans; Sadato, Norihiro

    2009-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain areas involved in auditory rhythm perception. Participants listened to three rhythm sequences that varied in temporal predictability. The most predictable sequence was an isochronous rhythm sequence of a single interval (ISO). The other two sequences had nine intervals with unequal durations. One of these had interval durations of integer ratios relative to the shortest interval (METRIC). The other had interval durations of non-integer ratios relative to the shortest interval (NON-METRIC), and was thus perceptually more complex than the other two. In addition, we presented unpredictable sequences with randomly distributed intervals (RAN). We tested two hypotheses. Firstly, that areas involved in motor timing control would also process the temporal predictability of sensory cues. Therefore, there was no active task included in the experiment that could influence the participant perception or induce motor preparation. We found that dorsal premotor cortex (PMD), SMA, preSMA, and lateral cerebellum were more active when participants listen to rhythm sequences compared to random sequences. The activity pattern in supplementary motor area (SMA) and preSMA suggested a modulation dependent on sequence predictability, strongly suggesting a role in temporal sensory prediction. Secondly, we hypothesized that the more complex the rhythm sequence, the more it would engage short-term memory processes of the prefrontal cortex. We found that the superior prefrontal cortex was more active when listening to METRIC and NON-METRIC compared to ISO. We argue that the complexity of rhythm sequences is an important factor in modulating activity in many of the rhythm areas. However, the difference in complexity of our stimuli should be regarded as continuous.

  7. Activation of attention networks using frequency analysis of a simple auditory-motor paradigm.

    PubMed

    Astrakas, Loukas G; Teicher, Martin; Tzika, A Aria

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to devise a paradigm that stimulates attention using a frequency-based analysis of the data acquired during a motor task. Six adults (30-40 years of age) and one child (10 years) were studied. Each subject was requested to attend to "start" and "stop" commands every 20 s alternatively and had to respond with the motor task every second time. Attention was stimulated during a block-designed, motor paradigm in which a start-stop commands cycle produced activation at the fourth harmonic of the motor frequency. We disentangled the motor and attention functions using statistical analysis with subspaces spanned by vectors generated by a truncated trigonometric series of motor and attention frequency. During our auditory-motor paradigm, all subjects showed activation in areas that belong to an extensive attention network. Attention and motor functions were coactivated but with different frequencies. While the motor-task-related areas were activated with slower frequency than attention, the activation in the attention-related areas was enhanced every time the subject had to start or end the motor task. We suggest that although a simple block-designed, auditory-motor paradigm stimulates the attention network, motor preparation, and motor inhibition concurrently, a frequency-based analysis can distinguish attention from motor functions. Due to its simplicity the paradigm can be valuable in studying children with attention deficit disorders.

  8. Activity in primary motor cortex during action observation covaries with subsequent behavioral changes in execution.

    PubMed

    Aridan, Nadav; Mukamel, Roy

    2016-11-01

    Observing someone else perform a movement facilitates motor planning, execution, and motor memory formation. Rate, an important feature in the execution of repeated movements, has been shown to vary following movement observation although the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, we examined how the rate of self-paced index finger pressing is implicitly modified following passive observation of a similar action performed at a different rate. Fifty subjects performed a finger pressing sequence with their right hand at their own pace before and after passive observation of either a 1-min video depicting the task performed at 3 Hz by someone else or a black screen. An additional set of 15 subjects performed the task in an MRI scanner. Across all 50 subjects, the spontaneous execution rate prior to video observation had a bimodal distribution with modes around 2 and 4 Hz. Following video observation, the slower subjects performed the task at an increased rate. In the 15 subjects who performed the task in the MRI scanner, we found positive correlation between fMRI signal in the left primary motor strip during passive video observation and subsequent behavioral changes in task performance rate. We conclude that observing someone else perform an action at a higher rate implicitly increases the spontaneous rate of execution, and that this implicit induction is mediated by activity in the contralateral primary motor cortex.

  9. Assessing the feasibility of time-resolved fNIRS to detect brain activity during motor imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalmalak, Androu; Milej, Daniel; Diop, Mamadou; Naci, Lorina; Owen, Adrian M.; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2016-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive optical technique for detecting brain activity, which has been previously used during motor and motor executive tasks. There is an increasing interest in using fNIRS as a brain computer interface (BCI) for patients who lack the physical, but not the mental, ability to respond to commands. The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of time-resolved fNIRS to detect brain activity during motor imagery. Stability tests were conducted to ensure the temporal stability of the signal, and motor imagery data were acquired on healthy subjects. The NIRS probes were placed on the scalp over the premotor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA), as these areas are responsible for motion planning. To confirm the fNIRS results, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the same task. Seven subjects have participated to date, and significant activation in the SMA and/or the PMC during motor imagery was detected by both fMRI and fNIRS in 4 of the 7 subjects. No activation was detected by either technique in the remaining three participants, which was not unexpected due to the nature of the task. The agreement between the two imaging modalities highlights the potential of fNIRS as a BCI, which could be adapted for bedside studies of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  10. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity in Wistar and August rats with low and high motor activity (a cytochemical study).

    PubMed

    Sergutina, A V; Rakhmanova, V I

    2014-08-01

    Acetylcholinesterase activity was quantitatively evaluated by cytochemical method in brain structures (layers III and V of the sensorimotor cortex, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus CA3 field) of August and Wistar rats demonstrating high and low motor activity in the open field test. In August rats, acetylcholinesterase activity in the analyzed brain structures prevailed in animals with high motor activity in comparison with rats with low motor activity. In Wistar rats, the differences between the animals demonstrating high and low motor activity were less pronounced, but varied depending on the experimental series of studies. Comparisons of August rats with low motor activity and Wistar rats with high motor activity (maximum difference of motor function in these animals) revealed significant excess of acetylcholinesterase activity in layer III of the sensorimotor cortex in August rats and no differences in other brain structures of the examined animals.

  11. Dominance of local sensory signals over inter-segmental effects in a motor system: modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Daun-Gruhn, Silvia; Tóth, Tibor I; Borgmann, Anke

    2011-12-01

    Recent experiments, reported in the accompanying paper, have supplied key data on the impact afferent excitation has on the activity of the levator–depressor motor system of an extremity in the stick insect. The main finding was that, stimulation of the campaniform sensillae of the partially amputated middle leg in an animal where all other but one front leg had been removed, had a dominating effect over that of the stepping ipsilateral front leg. In fact,the latter effect was minute compared to the former. In this article, we propose a local network that involves the neuronal part of the levator–depressor motor system and use it to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the generation of neuronal activity in the experiments. In particular, we show that by appropriately modulating the activity in the neurons of the central pattern generator of the levator–depressor motor system, we obtain activity patterns of the motoneurons in the model that closely resemble those found in extracellular recordings in the stick insect. In addition, our model predicts specific properties of these records which depend on the stimuli applied to the stick insect leg. We also discuss our results on the segmental mechanisms in the context of inter-segmental coordination.

  12. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-09-01

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow moving phase, the particle can be captured by the trap. To account for the possibility that the particle avoids the trap, an absorbing boundary is placed at the end of the track. Two local signaling mechanisms—intended to improve the chances of capturing the target—are considered by allowing the trap to affect the tug-of-war parameters within a small region around itself. The first is based on a localized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration gradient surrounding a synapse, and the second is based on a concentration of tau—a microtubule-associated protein involved in Alzheimer's disease—coating the microtubule near the synapse. It is shown that both mechanisms can lead to dramatic improvements in the capture probability, with a minimal increase in the mean capture time. The analysis also shows that tau can cause a cargo to undergo random oscillations, which could explain some experimental observations.

  13. Active Fault Tolerant Control for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhnifer, Moussa

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasonic piezoelectric motor technology is an important system component in integrated mechatronics devices working on extreme operating conditions. Due to these constraints, robustness and performance of the control interfaces should be taken into account in the motor design. In this paper, we apply a new architecture for a fault tolerant control using Youla parameterization for an ultrasonic piezoelectric motor. The distinguished feature of proposed controller architecture is that it shows structurally how the controller design for performance and robustness may be done separately which has the potential to overcome the conflict between performance and robustness in the traditional feedback framework. A fault tolerant control architecture includes two parts: one part for performance and the other part for robustness. The controller design works in such a way that the feedback control system will be solely controlled by the proportional plus double-integral PI2 performance controller for a nominal model without disturbances and H∞ robustification controller will only be activated in the presence of the uncertainties or an external disturbances. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant control architecture.

  14. Motor neuronal activity varies least among individuals when it matters most for behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cullins, Miranda J.; Shaw, Kendrick M.; Gill, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    How does motor neuronal variability affect behavior? To explore this question, we quantified activity of multiple individual identified motor neurons mediating biting and swallowing in intact, behaving Aplysia californica by recording from the protractor muscle and the three nerves containing the majority of motor neurons controlling the feeding musculature. We measured multiple motor components: duration of the activity of identified motor neurons as well as their relative timing. At the same time, we measured behavioral efficacy: amplitude of grasping movement during biting and amplitude of net inward food movement during swallowing. We observed that the total duration of the behaviors varied: Within animals, biting duration shortened from the first to the second and third bites; between animals, biting and swallowing durations varied. To study other sources of variation, motor components were divided by behavior duration (i.e., normalized). Even after normalization, distributions of motor component durations could distinguish animals as unique individuals. However, the degree to which a motor component varied among individuals depended on the role of that motor component in a behavior. Motor neuronal activity that was essential for the expression of biting or swallowing was similar among animals, whereas motor neuronal activity that was not essential for that behavior varied more from individual to individual. These results suggest that motor neuronal activity that matters most for the expression of a particular behavior may vary least from individual to individual. Shaping individual variability to ensure behavioral efficacy may be a general principle for the operation of motor systems. PMID:25411463

  15. Impaired motor inhibition in adults who stutter - evidence from speech-free stop-signal reaction time tasks.

    PubMed

    Markett, Sebastian; Bleek, Benjamin; Reuter, Martin; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Müller, Thilo; Yaruss, J Scott; Montag, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Idiopathic stuttering is a fluency disorder characterized by impairments during speech production. Deficits in the motor control circuits of the basal ganglia have been implicated in idiopathic stuttering but it is unclear how these impairments relate to the disorder. Previous work has indicated a possible deficiency in motor inhibition in children who stutter. To extend these findings to adults, we designed two experiments to probe executive motor control in people who stutter using manual reaction time tasks that do not rely on speech production. We used two versions of the stop-signal reaction time task, a measure for inhibitory motor control that has been shown to rely on the basal ganglia circuits. We show increased stop-signal reaction times in two independent samples of adults who stutter compared to age- and sex-matched control groups. Additional measures involved simple reaction time measurements and a task-switching task where no group difference was detected. Results indicate a deficiency in inhibitory motor control in people who stutter in a task that does not rely on overt speech production and cannot be explained by general deficits in executive control or speeded motor execution. This finding establishes the stop-signal reaction time as a possible target for future experimental and neuroimaging studies on fluency disorders and is a further step towards unraveling the contribution of motor control deficits to idiopathic stuttering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor Skill Learning Is Associated with Phase-Dependent Modifications in the Striatal cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32 Signaling Pathway in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yu; Forssberg, Hans; Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys

    2015-01-01

    Abundant evidence points to a key role of dopamine in motor skill learning, although the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used a skilled-reaching paradigm to first examine changes in the expression of the plasticity-related gene Arc to map activity in cortico-striatal circuitry during different phases of motor skill learning in young animals. In the early phase, Arc mRNA was significantly induced in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), cingulate cortex, primary motor cortex, and striatum. In the late phase, expression of Arc did not change in most regions, except in the mPFC and dorsal striatum. In the second series of experiments, we studied the learning-induced changes in the phosphorylation state of dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32k Da (DARPP-32). Western blot analysis of the phosphorylation state of DARPP-32 and its downstream target cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the striatum revealed that the early, but not late, phase of motor skill learning was associated with increased levels of phospho-Thr34-DARPP-32 and phospho-Ser133-CREB. Finally, we used the DARPP-32 knock-in mice with a point mutation in the Thr34 regulatory site (i.e., protein kinase A site) to test the significance of this pathway in motor skill learning. In accordance with our hypothesis, inhibition of DARPP-32 activity at the Thr34 regulatory site strongly attenuated the motor learning rate and skilled reaching performance of mice. These findings suggest that the cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32 signaling pathway is critically involved in the acquisition of novel motor skills, and also demonstrate a dynamic shift in the contribution of cortico-striatal circuitry during different phases of motor skill learning. PMID:26488498

  17. Motor Skill Learning Is Associated with Phase-Dependent Modifications in the Striatal cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32 Signaling Pathway in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Forssberg, Hans; Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys

    2015-01-01

    Abundant evidence points to a key role of dopamine in motor skill learning, although the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used a skilled-reaching paradigm to first examine changes in the expression of the plasticity-related gene Arc to map activity in cortico-striatal circuitry during different phases of motor skill learning in young animals. In the early phase, Arc mRNA was significantly induced in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), cingulate cortex, primary motor cortex, and striatum. In the late phase, expression of Arc did not change in most regions, except in the mPFC and dorsal striatum. In the second series of experiments, we studied the learning-induced changes in the phosphorylation state of dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32k Da (DARPP-32). Western blot analysis of the phosphorylation state of DARPP-32 and its downstream target cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the striatum revealed that the early, but not late, phase of motor skill learning was associated with increased levels of phospho-Thr34-DARPP-32 and phospho-Ser133-CREB. Finally, we used the DARPP-32 knock-in mice with a point mutation in the Thr34 regulatory site (i.e., protein kinase A site) to test the significance of this pathway in motor skill learning. In accordance with our hypothesis, inhibition of DARPP-32 activity at the Thr34 regulatory site strongly attenuated the motor learning rate and skilled reaching performance of mice. These findings suggest that the cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32 signaling pathway is critically involved in the acquisition of novel motor skills, and also demonstrate a dynamic shift in the contribution of cortico-striatal circuitry during different phases of motor skill learning.

  18. Associations among Elementary School Children's Actual Motor Competence, Perceived Motor Competence, Physical Activity and BMI: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    De Meester, An; Stodden, David; Brian, Ali; True, Larissa; Cardon, Greet; Tallir, Isabel; Haerens, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Children's (N = 361; 180 boys = 50%; Mage = 9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor competence was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and their perceived motor competence via the Self Perception Profile for Children. We assessed physical activity via accelerometers; height through stadiometers, and weight through scales. Cluster analyses (aim 1) and MANCOVAs (aim 2 & 3) were used to analyze the data. The analysis generated two predictable groups: one group displaying relatively high levels of both actual (M TGMD-2 percentile = 42.54, SD = 2.33) and perceived motor competence (M = 3.42, SD = .37; high-high), and one group with relatively low levels of both (M percentile = 9.71, SD = 3.21; M PMC = 2.52, SD = .35; low-low). One additional group was also identified as having relatively low levels of actual motor competence (M percentile = 4.22, SD = 2.85) but relatively high levels of perceived motor competence (M = 3.52, SD = .30; low-high). The high-high group demonstrated higher daily physical activity (M = 48.39±2.03) and lower BMI (M = 18.13±.43) than the low-low group (MMVPA = 37.93±2.01; MBMI = 20.22±.42). The low-high group had similar physical activity-levels as the low-low group (M = 36.21±2.18) and did not significantly differ in BMI (M = 19.49±.46) from the other two groups. A combination of high actual and perceived motor competence is related to higher physical activity and lower weight status. It is thus recommended to expand health interventions in children

  19. Multiscale AM-FM methods on EEG signals for motor task classification.

    PubMed

    Flores Vega, Christian; Murray, Victor

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present the use of customized, multiscale amplitude-modulation frequency-modulation (AMFM) methods on electroencephalography (EEG) brain signals during the subject development a motor task: right hand and left hand. This approach is compared to various non-linear patterns and methods that have been applied in order to characterize and understand the dynamic behavior of the EEG signals. The AM-FM methods have been optimized in terms of multiscale filters for the mu band (8-12 Hz). The instantaneous AM-FM values are processed using their probability density function and classified using multiple layer perceptron (MLP) and the partial least squares regression (PLS). The system is tested using the standard BCI dataset with results with a precision to 89% and an area under the ROC to 91%.

  20. Predicting brain activation patterns associated with individual lexical concepts based on five sensory-motor attributes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Gross, William L.; Conant, Lisa L.; Binder, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    While major advances have been made in uncovering the neural processes underlying perceptual representations, our grasp of how the brain gives rise to conceptual knowledge remains relatively poor. Recent work has provided strong evidence that concepts rely, at least in part, on the same sensory and motor neural systems through which they were acquired, but it is still unclear whether the neural code for concept representation uses information about sensory-motor features to discriminate between concepts. In the present study, we investigate this question by asking whether an encoding model based on five semantic attributes directly related to sensory-motor experience – sound, color, visual motion, shape, and manipulation – can successfully predict patterns of brain activation elicited by individual lexical concepts. We collected ratings on the relevance of these five attributes to the meaning of 820 words, and used these ratings as predictors in a multiple regression model of the fMRI signal associated with the words in a separate group of participants. The five resulting activation maps were then combined by linear summation to predict the distributed activation pattern elicited by a novel set of 80 test words. The encoding model predicted the activation patterns elicited by the test words significantly better than chance. As expected, prediction was successful for concrete but not for abstract concepts. Comparisons between encoding models based on different combinations of attributes indicate that all five attributes contribute to the representation of concrete concepts. Consistent with embodied theories of semantics, these results show, for the first time, that the distributed activation pattern associated with a concept combines information about different sensory-motor attributes according to their respective relevance. Future research should investigate how additional features of phenomenal experience contribute to the neural representation of conceptual

  1. Active data selection for motor imagery EEG classification.

    PubMed

    Tomida, Naoki; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Ono, Shunsuke; Yamagishi, Masao; Higashi, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Rejecting or selecting data from multiple trials of electroencephalography (EEG) recordings is crucial. We propose a sparsity-aware method to data selection from a set of multiple EEG recordings during motor-imagery tasks, aiming at brain machine interfaces (BMIs). Instead of empirical averaging over sample covariance matrices for multiple trials including low-quality data, which can lead to poor performance in BMI classification, we introduce weighted averaging with weight coefficients that can reject such trials. The weight coefficients are determined by the l1-minimization problem that lead to sparse weights such that almost zero-values are allocated to low-quality trials. The proposed method was successfully applied for estimating covariance matrices for the so-called common spatial pattern (CSP) method, which is widely used for feature extraction from EEG in the two-class classification. Classification of EEG signals during motor imagery was examined to support the proposed method. It should be noted that the proposed data selection method can be applied to a number of variants of the original CSP method.

  2. Auto-correlation in the motor/imaginary human EEG signals: A vision about the FDFA fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Zebende, Gilney Figueira; Oliveira Filho, Florêncio Mendes; Leyva Cruz, Juan Alberto

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed, by the FDFA root mean square fluctuation (rms) function, the motor/imaginary human activity produced by a 64-channel electroencephalography (EEG). We utilized the Physionet on-line databank, a publicly available database of human EEG signals, as a standardized reference database for this study. Herein, we report the use of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method for EEG analysis. We show that the complex time series of the EEG exhibits characteristic fluctuations depending on the analyzed channel in the scalp-recorded EEG. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, we analyzed four distinct channels represented here by F332, F637 (frontal region of the head) and P349, P654 (parietal region of the head). We verified that the amplitude of the FDFA rms function is greater for the frontal channels than for the parietal. To tabulate this information in a better way, we define and calculate the difference between FDFA (in log scale) for the channels, thus defining a new path for analysis of EEG signals. Finally, related to the studied EEG signals, we obtain the auto-correlation exponent, αDFA by DFA method, that reveals self-affinity at specific time scale. Our results shows that this strategy can be applied to study the human brain activity in EEG processing.

  3. Neural control of computer cursor velocity by decoding motor cortical spiking activity in humans with tetraplegia*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Phil; Simeral, John D; Hochberg, Leigh R; Donoghue, John P; Black, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Computer-mediated connections between human motor cortical neurons and assistive devices promise to improve or restore lost function in people with paralysis. Recently, a pilot clinical study of an intracortical neural interface system demonstrated that a tetraplegic human was able to obtain continuous two-dimensional control of a computer cursor using neural activity recorded from his motor cortex. This control, however, was not sufficiently accurate for reliable use in many common computer control tasks. Here, we studied several central design choices for such a system including the kinematic representation for cursor movement, the decoding method that translates neuronal ensemble spiking activity into a control signal and the cursor control task used during training for optimizing the parameters of the decoding method. In two tetraplegic participants, we found that controlling a cursor's velocity resulted in more accurate closed-loop control than controlling its position directly and that cursor velocity control was achieved more rapidly than position control. Control quality was further improved over conventional linear filters by using a probabilistic method, the Kalman filter, to decode human motor cortical activity. Performance assessment based on standard metrics used for the evaluation of a wide range of pointing devices demonstrated significantly improved cursor control with velocity rather than position decoding. PMID:19015583

  4. Neural control of computer cursor velocity by decoding motor cortical spiking activity in humans with tetraplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Phil; Simeral, John D.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Donoghue, John P.; Black, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    Computer-mediated connections between human motor cortical neurons and assistive devices promise to improve or restore lost function in people with paralysis. Recently, a pilot clinical study of an intracortical neural interface system demonstrated that a tetraplegic human was able to obtain continuous two-dimensional control of a computer cursor using neural activity recorded from his motor cortex. This control, however, was not sufficiently accurate for reliable use in many common computer control tasks. Here, we studied several central design choices for such a system including the kinematic representation for cursor movement, the decoding method that translates neuronal ensemble spiking activity into a control signal and the cursor control task used during training for optimizing the parameters of the decoding method. In two tetraplegic participants, we found that controlling a cursor's velocity resulted in more accurate closed-loop control than controlling its position directly and that cursor velocity control was achieved more rapidly than position control. Control quality was further improved over conventional linear filters by using a probabilistic method, the Kalman filter, to decode human motor cortical activity. Performance assessment based on standard metrics used for the evaluation of a wide range of pointing devices demonstrated significantly improved cursor control with velocity rather than position decoding. Disclosure. JPD is the Chief Scientific Officer and a director of Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems (CYKN); he holds stock and receives compensation. JDS has been a consultant for CYKN. LRH receives clinical trial support from CYKN.

  5. Dynamics of brain activity in motor and frontal cortical areas during music listening: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Mihai; Otsuka, Asuka; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2004-04-01

    There are formidable problems in studying how 'real' music engages the brain over wide ranges of temporal scales extending from milliseconds to a lifetime. In this work, we recorded the magnetoencephalographic signal while subjects listened to music as it unfolded over long periods of time (seconds), and we developed and applied methods to correlate the time course of the regional brain activations with the dynamic aspects of the musical sound. We showed that frontal areas generally respond with slow time constants to the music, reflecting their more integrative mode; motor-related areas showed transient-mode responses to fine temporal scale structures of the sound. The study combined novel analysis techniques designed to capture and quantify fine temporal sequencing from the authentic musical piece (characterized by a clearly defined rhythm and melodic structure) with the extraction of relevant features from the dynamics of the regional brain activations. The results demonstrated that activity in motor-related structures, specifically in lateral premotor areas, supplementary motor areas, and somatomotor areas, correlated with measures of rhythmicity derived from the music. These correlations showed distinct laterality depending on how the musical performance deviated from the strict tempo of the music score, that is, depending on the musical expression.

  6. Primary motor cortex activity reduction under the regulation of SMA by real-time fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jia; Zhao, Xiaojie; Li, Yi; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei

    2012-03-01

    Real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) is a new technology which allows human subjects to observe and control their own BOLD signal change from one or more localized brain regions during scanning. Current rtfMRI-neurofeedback studies mainly focused on the target region itself without considering other related regions influenced by the real-time feedback. However, there always exits important directional influence between many of cooperative regions. On the other hand, rtfMRI based on motor imagery mainly aimed at somatomotor cortex or primary motor area, whereas supplement motor area (SMA) was a relatively more integrated and pivotal region. In this study, we investigated whether the activities of SMA can be controlled utilizing different motor imagery strategies, and whether there exists any possible impact on an unregulated but related region, primary motor cortex (M1). SMA was first localized using overt finger tapping task, the activities of SMA were feedback to subjects visually on line during each of two subsequent imagery motor movement sessions. All thirteen healthy participants were found to be able to successfully control their SMA activities by self-fit imagery strategies which involved no actual motor movements. The activation of right M1 was also found to be significantly reduced in both intensity and extent with the neurofeedback process targeted at SMA, suggestive that not only the part of motor cortex activities were influenced under the regulation of a key region SMA, but also the increased difference between SMA and M1 might reflect the potential learning effect.

  7. Perineurial glia require Notch signaling during motor nerve development but not regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Binari, Laura A.; Lewis, Gwendolyn M.; Kucenas, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Motor nerves play the critical role of shunting information out of the CNS to targets in the periphery. Their formation requires the coordinated development of distinct cellular components, including motor axons and the Schwann cells and perineurial glia that ensheath them. During nervous system assembly, these glial cells must migrate long distances and terminally differentiate, ensuring the efficient propagation of action potentials. Although we know quite a bit about the mechanisms that control Schwann cell development during this process, nothing is known about the mechanisms that mediate the migration and differentiation of perineurial glia. Using in vivo imaging in zebrafish, we demonstrate that Notch signaling is required for both perineurial migration and differentiation during nerve formation, but not regeneration. Interestingly, loss of Notch signaling in perineurial cells also causes a failure of Schwann cell differentiation, demonstrating that Schwann cells require perineurial glia for aspects of their own development. These studies describe a novel mechanism that mediates multiple aspects of perineurial development and reveal the critical importance of perineurial glia for Schwann cell maturation and nerve formation. PMID:23467342

  8. Real time moving object detection using motor signal and depth map for robot car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Siu, Wan-Chi

    2013-12-01

    Moving object detection from a moving camera is a fundamental task in many applications. For the moving robot car vision, the background movement is 3D motion structure in nature. In this situation, the conventional moving object detection algorithm cannot be use to handle the 3D background modeling effectively and efficiently. In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed by utilizing the motor control signal and depth map obtained from a stereo camera to model the perspective transform matrix between different frames under a moving camera. In our approach, the coordinate relationship between frames during camera moving is modeled by a perspective transform matrix which is obtained by using current motor control signals and the pixel depth value. Hence, the relationship between a static background pixel and the moving foreground corresponding to the camera motion can be related by a perspective matrix. To enhance the robustness of classification, we allowed a tolerance range during the perspective transform matrix prediction and used multi-reference frames to classify the pixel on current frame. The proposed scheme has been found to be able to detect moving objects for our moving robot car efficiently. Different from conventional approaches, our method can model the moving background in 3D structure, without online model training. More importantly, the computational complexity and memory requirement are low making it possible to implement this scheme in real-time, which is even valuable for a robot vision system.

  9. Active learning of novel sound-producing objects: motor reactivation and enhancement of visuo-motor connectivity.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew J; James, Karin Harman

    2013-02-01

    Our experience with the world commonly involves physical interaction with objects enabling us to learn associations between multisensory information perceived during an event and our actions that create an event. The interplay among active interactions during learning and multisensory integration of object properties is not well understood. To better understand how action might enhance multisensory associative recognition, we investigated the interplay among motor and perceptual systems after active learning. Fifteen participants were included in an fMRI study during which they learned visuo-auditory-motor associations between novel objects and the sounds they produce, either through self-generated actions on the objects (active learning) or by observing an experimenter produce the actions (passive learning). Immediately after learning, behavioral and BOLD fMRI measures were collected while perceiving the objects used during unisensory and multisensory training in associative perception and recognition tasks. Active learning was faster and led to more accurate recognition of audiovisual associations than passive learning. Functional ROI analyses showed that in motor, somatosensory, and cerebellar regions there was greater activation during both the perception and recognition of actively learned associations. Finally, functional connectivity between visual- and motor-related processing regions was enhanced during the presentation of actively learned audiovisual associations. Overall, the results of the current study clarify and extend our own previous work [Butler, A. J., James, T. W., & Harman James, K. Enhanced multisensory integration and motor reactivation after active motor learning of audiovisual associations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3515-3528, 2011] by providing several novel findings and highlighting the task-based nature of motor reactivation and retrieval after active learning.

  10. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state.

  11. Fluoxetine modulates motor performance and cerebral activation of patients recovering from stroke.

    PubMed

    Pariente, J; Loubinoux, I; Carel, C; Albucher, J F; Leger, A; Manelfe, C; Rascol, O; Chollet, F

    2001-12-01

    In order to determine the influence of a single dose of fluoxetine on the cerebral motor activation of lacunar stroke patients in the early phase of recovery, we conducted a prospective, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study on 8 patients with pure motor hemiparesia. Each patient underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations: one under fluoxetine and one under placebo. The first was performed 2 weeks after stroke onset and the second a week later. During the two fMRI examinations, patients performed an active controlled motor task with the affected hand and a passive one conducted by the examiner with the same hand. Motor performance was evaluated by motor tests under placebo and under fluoxetine immediately before the examinations to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on motor function. Under fluoxetine, during the active motor task, hyperactivation in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex was found. Moreover, fluoxetine significantly improved motor skills of the affected side. We found that a single dose of fluoxetine was enough to modulate cerebral sensory-motor activation in patients. This redistribution of activation toward the motor cortex output activation was associated with an enhancement of motor performance.

  12. Reward-related activity in the human motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Campion, Paul; Grafman, Jordan; Wassermann, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    The human primary motor cortex (M1) participates in motor learning and response selection, functions that rely on feedback on the success of behavior (i.e. reward). To investigate the possibility that behavioral contingencies alter M1 activity in humans, we tested intracortical inhibition with single and paired (subthreshold/suprathreshold) transcranial magnetic stimulation during a slot machine simulation that delivered variable money rewards for three-way matches and required no movement. A two-way match before the third barrel had stopped (increased reward expectation) was associated with more paired-pulse inhibition than no match. Receiving a large reward on the preceding trial augmented this effect. A control task that manipulated attention to the same stimuli produced no changes in excitability. The origin of this reward-related activity is not clear, although dopaminergic ventral tegmental area neurons project to M1, where they are thought to inhibit output neurons and could be the source of the finding. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of M1 may be useful as a quantitative measure of reward-related activity. PMID:18371077

  13. Brassinosteroid nuclear signaling recruits HSP90 activity.

    PubMed

    Samakovli, Despina; Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Prassinos, Constantinos; Milioni, Dimitra; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2014-08-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) controls a number of developmental circuits, and serves a sophisticated and highly regulatory function in signaling pathways. Brassinosteroids (BRs) control many aspects of plant development. Genetic, physiological, cytological, gene expression, live cell imaging, and pharmacological approaches provide conclusive evidence for HSP90 involvement in Arabidopsis thalianaBR signaling. Nuclear-localized HSP90s translocate to cytoplasm when their activity is blocked by the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDA). GDA treatment promoted the export of BIN2, a regulator of BR signaling, from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, indicating that active HSP90 is required to sustain BIN2 in the nucleus. HSP90 nuclear localization was inhibited by brassinolide (BL). HSP90s interact with BIN2 in the nucleus of untreated cells and in the cytoplasm of BL-treated cells, showing that the site-specific action of HSP90 on BIN2 is controlled by BRs. GDA and BL treatments change the expression of a common set of previously identified BR-responsive genes. This highlights the effect of active HSP90s on the regulation of BR-responsive genes. Our observations reveal that HSP90s have a central role in sustaining BIN2 nuclear function. We propose that BR signaling is mediated by HSP90 activity and via trafficking of BIN2-HSP90 complexes into the cytoplasm. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Li J.; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J.; Cheng, Jia L.; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state. PMID:27536264

  15. Levodopa medication does not influence motor inhibition or conflict resolution in a conditional stop-signal task in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Ignacio; Wilkinson, Leonora; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2011-09-01

    Evidence from animal, clinical, and imaging studies suggests that the basal ganglia and their frontal connections mediate motor inhibition, but the role of dopamine remains unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate, for the first time, whether levodopa medication influences motor inhibition and conflict resolution on the conditional stop-signal reaction time task in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) tested on or off their medication. Sixteen PD patients and 17 healthy controls performed the conditional stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) task, which requires inhibition of responses when a stop signal is presented on "critical" trials. Additionally, on "non-critical" trials, participants are instructed to ignore the stop signal and respond, thus generating conflict between motor inhibition and initiation; and conflict-induced slowing (CIS) on these "non-critical" trials. Levodopa medication did not significantly influence response initiation, inhibition (SSRT) or the measure of conflict resolution (CIS). Compared to healthy controls, PD patients showed significantly worse response initiation and inhibition both on and off their levodopa medication. Our results suggest that motor inhibition or conflict-induced slowing on the conditional stop-signal RT task are not altered by dopamine replacement in PD. This conclusion is consistent with evidence from animal studies and clinical pharmacological investigations suggesting a role for noradrenaline in motor inhibition and impulsivity.

  16. From Spontaneous Motor Activity to Coordinated Behaviour: A Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Hugo Gravato; Bharadwaj, Arjun; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the developmental path that links the primary behaviours observed during foetal stages to the full fledged behaviours observed in adults is still beyond our understanding. Often theories of motor control try to deal with the process of incremental learning in an abstract and modular way without establishing any correspondence with the mammalian developmental stages. In this paper, we propose a computational model that links three distinct behaviours which appear at three different stages of development. In order of appearance, these behaviours are: spontaneous motor activity (SMA), reflexes, and coordinated behaviours, such as locomotion. The goal of our model is to address in silico four hypotheses that are currently hard to verify in vivo: First, the hypothesis that spinal reflex circuits can be self-organized from the sensor and motor activity induced by SMA. Second, the hypothesis that supraspinal systems can modulate reflex circuits to achieve coordinated behaviour. Third, the hypothesis that, since SMA is observed in an organism throughout its entire lifetime, it provides a mechanism suitable to maintain the reflex circuits aligned with the musculoskeletal system, and thus adapt to changes in body morphology. And fourth, the hypothesis that by changing the modulation of the reflex circuits over time, one can switch between different coordinated behaviours. Our model is tested in a simulated musculoskeletal leg actuated by six muscles arranged in a number of different ways. Hopping is used as a case study of coordinated behaviour. Our results show that reflex circuits can be self-organized from SMA, and that, once these circuits are in place, they can be modulated to achieve coordinated behaviour. In addition, our results show that our model can naturally adapt to different morphological changes and perform behavioural transitions. PMID:25057775

  17. From spontaneous motor activity to coordinated behaviour: a developmental model.

    PubMed

    Marques, Hugo Gravato; Bharadwaj, Arjun; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-07-01

    In mammals, the developmental path that links the primary behaviours observed during foetal stages to the full fledged behaviours observed in adults is still beyond our understanding. Often theories of motor control try to deal with the process of incremental learning in an abstract and modular way without establishing any correspondence with the mammalian developmental stages. In this paper, we propose a computational model that links three distinct behaviours which appear at three different stages of development. In order of appearance, these behaviours are: spontaneous motor activity (SMA), reflexes, and coordinated behaviours, such as locomotion. The goal of our model is to address in silico four hypotheses that are currently hard to verify in vivo: First, the hypothesis that spinal reflex circuits can be self-organized from the sensor and motor activity induced by SMA. Second, the hypothesis that supraspinal systems can modulate reflex circuits to achieve coordinated behaviour. Third, the hypothesis that, since SMA is observed in an organism throughout its entire lifetime, it provides a mechanism suitable to maintain the reflex circuits aligned with the musculoskeletal system, and thus adapt to changes in body morphology. And fourth, the hypothesis that by changing the modulation of the reflex circuits over time, one can switch between different coordinated behaviours. Our model is tested in a simulated musculoskeletal leg actuated by six muscles arranged in a number of different ways. Hopping is used as a case study of coordinated behaviour. Our results show that reflex circuits can be self-organized from SMA, and that, once these circuits are in place, they can be modulated to achieve coordinated behaviour. In addition, our results show that our model can naturally adapt to different morphological changes and perform behavioural transitions.

  18. Effects of an energy and micronutrient supplement on motor development and motor activity in undernourished children in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jahari, A B; Saco-Pollitt, C; Husaini, M A; Pollitt, E

    2000-05-01

    This paper reports the effects of an energy and micronutrient supplement on the motor development, motor milestones and motor activity of nutritionally at risk infants and toddlers in Pangalengan, Indonesia. Two cohorts of children were randomly assigned to three treatments E = 1171 kJ + 12 mg iron; M = 209 kJ + 12 mg iron; S = 104 kJ. Supplementation was given for 12 months. The sites were six tea plantations in Pangalengan, West Java. A 12-month-old (n = 53) and an 18-month-old (n = 83) cohort were recruited from day-care-centers. Twenty children that received S belonged to the 12- and 18-month-old cohorts. Inclusion criteria were: no chronic disease; length-for-age < or = -1 standard deviation (s.d.) and weight-for-length between -1 and -2 s.d. of the median of the reference of the World Health Organization. Evaluations of intake were made at baseline and every 2 months thereafter. Motor development was assessed with the Bayley Scale and with a custom-made scale to assess gross motor development leading to bipedal locomotion. Motor activity was assessed through 4 h continuous observations of the child's interaction with the social and physical environment. In the 12-month-old cohort, as compared to the M and S groups the children that received the E supplement walked at an earlier age, had higher scores in the Bayley Scale and were motorically more active. Similar intergroup differences were observed in the 18-month-old cohort in the total motor activity score.

  19. Examination of Hand Muscle Activation and Motor Unit Indices Derived from Surface EMG in Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jie; Li, Sheng; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used muscle and motor unit indices, derived from convenient surface electromyography (EMG) measurements, for examination of paretic muscle changes post stroke. For 12 stroke subjects, compound muscle action potential and voluntary surface EMG signals were recorded from paretic and contralateral first dorsal interosseous, abductor pollicis brevis, and abductor digiti minimi muscles. Muscle activation index (AI), motor unit number index (MUNIX), and motor unit size index (MUSIX) were then calculated for each muscle. There was a significant AI reduction for all the three muscles in paretic side compared with contralateral side, providing an evidence of muscle activation deficiency after stroke. The hand MUNIX (defined by summing the values from the three muscles) was significantly reduced in paretic side compared with contralateral side, whereas the hand MUSIX was not significantly different. Furthermore, diverse changes in MUNIX and MUSIX were observed from the three muscles. A major feature of the present examinations is the primary reliance on surface EMG, which offers practical benefits because it is noninvasive, induces minimal discomfort and can be performed quickly. PMID:24967982

  20. Coordination of Fictive Motor Activity in the Larval Zebrafish Is Generated by Non-Segmental Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wiggin, Timothy D.; Peck, Jack H.; Masino, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular and network basis for most vertebrate locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) is incompletely characterized, but organizational models based on known CPG architectures have been proposed. Segmental models propose that each spinal segment contains a circuit that controls local coordination and sends longer projections to coordinate activity between segments. Unsegmented/continuous models propose that patterned motor output is driven by gradients of neurons and synapses that do not have segmental boundaries. We tested these ideas in the larval zebrafish, an animal that swims in discrete episodes, each of which is composed of coordinated motor bursts that progress rostrocaudally and alternate from side to side. We perturbed the spinal cord using spinal transections or strychnine application and measured the effect on fictive motor output. Spinal transections eliminated episode structure, and reduced both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination. Preparations with fewer intact segments were more severely affected, and preparations consisting of midbody and caudal segments were more severely affected than those consisting of rostral segments. In reduced preparations with the same number of intact spinal segments, side-to-side coordination was more severely disrupted than rostrocaudal coordination. Reducing glycine receptor signaling with strychnine reversibly disrupted both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination in spinalized larvae without disrupting episodic structure. Both spinal transection and strychnine decreased the stability of the motor rhythm, but this effect was not causal in reducing coordination. These results are inconsistent with a segmented model of the spinal cord and are better explained by a continuous model in which motor neuron coordination is controlled by segment-spanning microcircuits. PMID:25275377

  1. Mining Research on Vibration Signal Association Rules of Quayside Container Crane Hoisting Motor Based on Apriori Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chencheng; Tang, Gang; Hu, Xiong

    2017-07-01

    Shore-hoisting motor in the daily work will produce a large number of vibration signal data,in order to analyze the correlation among the data and discover the fault and potential safety hazard of the motor, the data are discretized first, and then Apriori algorithm are used to mine the strong association rules among the data. The results show that the relationship between day 1 and day 16 is the most closely related, which can guide the staff to analyze the work of these two days of motor to find and solve the problem of fault and safety.

  2. Active learning: learning a motor skill without a coach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-08-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence.

  3. [Gallbladder motor activity in patients with virus hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Mamos, Arkadiusz; Wichan, Paweł; Chojnacki, Jan; Grzegorczyk, Krzysztof

    2003-12-01

    In acute stage of virus hepatitis B patients often complain of dyspeptic discomfort. They may be a consequence of alimentary tract motor activity disorders including these of gallbladder. Routine ultrasonography in an early phase of virus hepatitis often reveals gallbladder wall thickening what may confirm the above thesis. Thus, a group of 15 patients in an acute phase of virus hepatitis B was subjected to examinations. Gallbladder motor activity was assessed by ultrasonographic method determining its total volume and ejection fraction and volume after test meal stimulus. First examination was performed in the first week since the appearance of yellowing of the walls, successive in 4 and 8 week of the disease. Obtained results were compared to the values obtained in the group of 25 healthy volunteers. It was found out that gallbladder volume was significantly decreased and ejection fraction increased in the acute phase of virus hepatitis B than in the controls. This may speak for gallbladder hyperreactivity in patients in the course of virus hepatitis B. These disorders decreased during two-month observation but even in the 8 week the investigated parameters differed from those found in the control group.

  4. Signal transduction activated by cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Laviada, Inés; Ruiz-Llorente, Lidia

    2005-07-01

    Since the discovery that cannabinoids exert biological actions through binding to specific receptors, signal mechanisms triggered by these receptors have been focus of extensive study. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signalling events produced by cannabinoids from membrane receptors to downstream regulators. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified to date: CB(1) and CB(2) both belonging to the heptahelichoidal receptor family but with different tissue distribution and signalling mechanisms. Coupling to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and thus inhibition of adenylyl cyclase has been observed in both receptors but other signal transduction pathways that are regulated or not by these G proteins are differently activated upon ligand-receptor binding including ion channels, sphingomyelin hydrolysis, ceramide generation, phospholipases activation and downstream targets as MAP kinase cascade, PI3K, FAK or NOS regulation. Cannabinoids may also act independently of CB(1)or CB(2) receptors. The existence of new unidentified putative cannabinoid receptors has been claimed by many investigators. Endocannabinoids activate vanilloid TRPV1 receptors that may mediate some of the cannabinoid effects. Other actions of cannabinoids can occur through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms.

  5. Dynamical changes and temporal precision of synchronized spiking activity in monkey motor cortex during movement preparation.

    PubMed

    Riehle, A; Grammont, F; Diesmann, M; Grün, S

    2000-01-01

    Movement preparation is considered to be based on central processes which are responsible for improving motor performance. For instance, it has been shown that motor cortical neurones change their activity selectively in relation to prior information about movement parameters. However, it is not clear how groups of neurones dynamically organize their activity to cope with computational demands. The aim of the study was to compare the firing rate of multiple simultaneously recorded neurones with the interaction between them by describing not only the frequency of occurrence of epochs of significant synchronization, but also its modulation in time and its changes in temporal precision during an instructed delay. Multiple single-neurone activity was thus recorded in monkey motor cortex during the performance of two different delayed multi-directional pointing tasks. In order to detect conspicuous spike coincidences in simultaneously recorded spike trains by tolerating temporal jitter ranging from 0 to 20 ms and to calculate their statistical significance, a modified method of the 'Unitary Events' analysis was used. Two main results were obtained. First, simultaneously recorded neurones synchronize their spiking activity in a highly dynamic way. Synchronization becomes significant only during short periods (about 100 to 200 ms). Several such periods occurred during a behavioural trial more or less regularly. Second, in many pairs of neurones, the temporal precision of synchronous activity was highest at the end of the preparatory period. As a matter of fact, at the beginning of this period, after the presentation of the preparatory signal, neurones significantly synchronize their spiking activity, but with low temporal precision. As time advances, significant synchronization becomes more precise. Data indicate that not only the discharge rate is involved in preparatory processes, but also temporal aspects of neuronal activity as expressed in the precise synchronization

  6. Comparison of Environmental Interactions and Motor Activity of Visually Handicapped and Sighted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneekloth, Lynda H.; Day, Diane

    The study compared the motor activities and environmental interactions of 36 sighted, partially sighted, and blind children (7 to 13 years old) during unstructured play. Objectives were to assess motor proficiency level; to establish frequency and kind of gross motor, manipulative self stimulation, and social/play behaviors; and to assess use of…

  7. Beta band oscillations in motor cortex reflect neural population signals that delay movement onset

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Preeya; Carmena, Jose M

    2017-01-01

    Motor cortical beta oscillations have been reported for decades, yet their behavioral correlates remain unresolved. Some studies link beta oscillations to changes in underlying neural activity, but the specific behavioral manifestations of these reported changes remain elusive. To investigate how changes in population neural activity, beta oscillations, and behavior are linked, we recorded multi-scale neural activity from motor cortex while three macaques performed a novel neurofeedback task. Subjects volitionally brought their beta oscillatory power to an instructed state and subsequently executed an arm reach. Reaches preceded by a reduction in beta power exhibited significantly faster movement onset times than reaches preceded by an increase in beta power. Further, population neural activity was found to shift farther from a movement onset state during beta oscillations that were neurofeedback-induced or naturally occurring during reaching tasks. This finding establishes a population neural basis for slowed movement onset following periods of beta oscillatory activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24573.001 PMID:28467303

  8. Physical activity, motor function, and white matter hyperintensity burden in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingyun; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E.; Turner, Arlener D.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.; Buchman, Aron S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and motor function in healthy older persons without dementia. Methods: Total daily activity (exercise and nonexercise physical activity) was measured for up to 11 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Respironics, Bend, OR) in 167 older adults without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Eleven motor performances were summarized into a previously described global motor score. WMH volume was expressed as percent of intracranial volume. Linear regression models, adjusted for age, education, and sex, were performed with total WMH volume as the predictor and global motor score as the outcome. Terms for total daily physical activity and its interaction with WMH volume were then added to the model. Results: Higher WMH burden was associated with lower motor function (p = 0.006), and total daily activity was positively associated with motor function (p = 0.002). Total daily activity modified the association between WMH and motor function (p = 0.007). WMH burden was not associated with motor function in persons with high activity (90th percentile). By contrast, higher WMH burden remained associated with lower motor function in persons with average (50th percentile; estimate = −0.304, slope = −0.133) and low (10th percentile; estimate = −1.793, slope = −0.241) activity. Conclusions: Higher levels of physical activity may reduce the effect of WMH burden on motor function in healthy older adults. PMID:25762710

  9. Physical activity, motor function, and white matter hyperintensity burden in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Debra A; Yang, Jingyun; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E; Turner, Arlener D; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Buchman, Aron S

    2015-03-31

    To test the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and motor function in healthy older persons without dementia. Total daily activity (exercise and nonexercise physical activity) was measured for up to 11 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Respironics, Bend, OR) in 167 older adults without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Eleven motor performances were summarized into a previously described global motor score. WMH volume was expressed as percent of intracranial volume. Linear regression models, adjusted for age, education, and sex, were performed with total WMH volume as the predictor and global motor score as the outcome. Terms for total daily physical activity and its interaction with WMH volume were then added to the model. Higher WMH burden was associated with lower motor function (p = 0.006), and total daily activity was positively associated with motor function (p = 0.002). Total daily activity modified the association between WMH and motor function (p = 0.007). WMH burden was not associated with motor function in persons with high activity (90th percentile). By contrast, higher WMH burden remained associated with lower motor function in persons with average (50th percentile; estimate = -0.304, slope = -0.133) and low (10th percentile; estimate = -1.793, slope = -0.241) activity. Higher levels of physical activity may reduce the effect of WMH burden on motor function in healthy older adults. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Synchronization of motor unit activity during voluntary contraction in man.

    PubMed

    Datta, A K; Stephens, J A

    1990-03-01

    1. Motor unit synchronization has been studied in human first dorsal interosseous muscle. 2. Two needle electrodes were inserted into the muscle and the activity of pairs of motor units recorded. 3. Pre- and post-stimulus histograms of the firing of unit pairs showed a narrow central peak of duration 1.3-9.3 ms (88% of sample in the range 1-6 ms; mode 3.0 ms), together with a variable amount of synchronization of somewhat longer duration. 4. For the duration of the whole synchronization peak (85% sample in range 5-15 ms; mode between 6.1 and 8.0 ms (31% of sample], units fired between 8 and 485% times more often than would have been expected had the units been firing independently of one another. Amplitudes of the peak of the recorded histograms expressed as a proportion of control ranged from 1.8 to 10.9 (mean 3.9; bin width 160 microseconds). 5. The strength of synchronization between the firing of motor unit pairs was inversely related to differences in recruitment threshold. The largest amount of synchronization was observed for pairs of units in which both had recruitment thresholds less than 0.5 N or greater than 1.0 N. Less synchronization was found between pairs of units in which one had a recruitment threshold less than 0.05 N and the other a threshold greater than 1.0 N. 6. The time course of synchronization was well matched by the predictions of a theoretical model based on the hypothesis that underlying the observed synchronization is the joint arrival of EPSPs from branched last-order input fibres.

  11. Principal components of hand kinematics and neurophysiological signals in motor cortex during reach to grasp movements

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vikram; Thakor, Nitish V.; Schieber, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    A few kinematic synergies identified by principal component analysis (PCA) account for most of the variance in the coordinated joint rotations of the fingers and wrist used for a wide variety of hand movements. To examine the possibility that motor cortex might control the hand through such synergies, we collected simultaneous kinematic and neurophysiological data from monkeys performing a reach-to-grasp task. We used PCA, jPCA and isomap to extract kinematic synergies from 18 joint angles in the fingers and wrist and analyzed the relationships of both single-unit and multiunit spike recordings, as well as local field potentials (LFPs), to these synergies. For most spike recordings, the maximal absolute cross-correlations of firing rates were somewhat stronger with an individual joint angle than with any principal component (PC), any jPC or any isomap dimension. In decoding analyses, where spikes and LFP power in the 100- to 170-Hz band each provided better decoding than other LFP-based signals, the first PC was decoded as well as the best decoded joint angle. But the remaining PCs and jPCs were predicted with lower accuracy than individual joint angles. Although PCs, jPCs or isomap dimensions might provide a more parsimonious description of kinematics, our findings indicate that the kinematic synergies identified with these techniques are not represented in motor cortex more strongly than the original joint angles. We suggest that the motor cortex might act to sculpt the synergies generated by subcortical centers, superimposing an ability to individuate finger movements and adapt the hand to grasp a wide variety of objects. PMID:24990564

  12. Principal components of hand kinematics and neurophysiological signals in motor cortex during reach to grasp movements.

    PubMed

    Mollazadeh, Mohsen; Aggarwal, Vikram; Thakor, Nitish V; Schieber, Marc H

    2014-10-15

    A few kinematic synergies identified by principal component analysis (PCA) account for most of the variance in the coordinated joint rotations of the fingers and wrist used for a wide variety of hand movements. To examine the possibility that motor cortex might control the hand through such synergies, we collected simultaneous kinematic and neurophysiological data from monkeys performing a reach-to-grasp task. We used PCA, jPCA and isomap to extract kinematic synergies from 18 joint angles in the fingers and wrist and analyzed the relationships of both single-unit and multiunit spike recordings, as well as local field potentials (LFPs), to these synergies. For most spike recordings, the maximal absolute cross-correlations of firing rates were somewhat stronger with an individual joint angle than with any principal component (PC), any jPC or any isomap dimension. In decoding analyses, where spikes and LFP power in the 100- to 170-Hz band each provided better decoding than other LFP-based signals, the first PC was decoded as well as the best decoded joint angle. But the remaining PCs and jPCs were predicted with lower accuracy than individual joint angles. Although PCs, jPCs or isomap dimensions might provide a more parsimonious description of kinematics, our findings indicate that the kinematic synergies identified with these techniques are not represented in motor cortex more strongly than the original joint angles. We suggest that the motor cortex might act to sculpt the synergies generated by subcortical centers, superimposing an ability to individuate finger movements and adapt the hand to grasp a wide variety of objects.

  13. Familiarity modulates motor activation while other species' actions are observed: a magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Lucia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Observing other people's actions facilitates the observer's motor system as compared with observing the same individuals at rest. This motor activation is thought to result from mirror-like activity in fronto-parietal areas, which enhances the excitability of the primary motor cortex via cortico-cortical pathways. Although covert motor activation in response to observed actions has been widely investigated between conspecifics, how humans cope with other species' actions has received less attention. For example, it remains unclear whether the human motor system is activated by observing other species' actions, and whether prior familiarity with the non-conspecific agent modulates this activation. Here, we combined single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor-evoked potential recording to explore the impact of familiarity on motor activation during the observation of non-conspecific actions. Videos displaying actions performed either by a conspecific (human) or by a non-conspecific (dog) were shown to individuals who had prior familiarity or no familiarity at all with the non-conspecific agent. We found that, whereas individuals with long-lasting familiarity showed similar levels of motor activation for human and canine actions, individuals who had no familiarity showed higher motor activation for human than for canine actions. These findings suggest that the human motor system is flexible enough to resonate with other species, and that familiarity plays a key role in tuning this ability.

  14. Motor noise is rich signal in autism research and pharmacological treatments

    PubMed Central

    Torres, E. B.; Denisova, K.

    2016-01-01

    The human body is in constant motion, from every breath that we take, to every visibly purposeful action that we perform. Remaining completely still on command is a major achievement as involuntary fluctuations in our motions are difficult to keep under control. Here we examine the noise-to-signal ratio of micro-movements present in time-series of head motions extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans in 1048 participants. These included individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and healthy-controls in shared data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) and the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-200) databases. We find excess noise and randomness in the ASD cases, suggesting an uncertain motor-feedback signal. A power-law emerged describing an orderly relation between the dispersion and shape of the probability distribution functions best describing the stochastic properties under consideration with respect to intelligence quotient (IQ-scores). In ASD, deleterious patterns of noise are consistently exacerbated with the presence of secondary (comorbid) neuropsychiatric diagnoses, lower verbal and performance intelligence, and autism severity. Importantly, such patterns in ASD are present whether or not the participant takes psychotropic medication. These data unambiguously establish specific noise-to-signal levels of head micro-movements as a biologically informed core feature of ASD. PMID:27869148

  15. Identification of Anisomerous Motor Imagery EEG Signals Based on Complex Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rensong; Zhang, Zhiwen; Duan, Feng; Zhou, Xin; Meng, Zixuan

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) electroencephalograph (EEG) signals are widely applied in brain-computer interface (BCI). However, classified MI states are limited, and their classification accuracy rates are low because of the characteristics of nonlinearity and nonstationarity. This study proposes a novel MI pattern recognition system that is based on complex algorithms for classifying MI EEG signals. In electrooculogram (EOG) artifact preprocessing, band-pass filtering is performed to obtain the frequency band of MI-related signals, and then, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) combined with wavelet threshold denoising (WTD) is used for EOG artifact preprocessing. We propose a regularized common spatial pattern (R-CSP) algorithm for EEG feature extraction by incorporating the principle of generic learning. A new classifier combining the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM) approaches is used to classify four anisomerous states, namely, imaginary movements with the left hand, right foot, and right shoulder and the resting state. The highest classification accuracy rate is 92.5%, and the average classification accuracy rate is 87%. The proposed complex algorithm identification method can significantly improve the identification rate of the minority samples and the overall classification performance.

  16. Microbiota-gut-brain signalling in Parkinson's disease: Implications for non-motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Felice, Valeria D; Quigley, Eamonn M; Sullivan, Aideen M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; O'Mahony, Siobhain M

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 1-2% of the population over 65 years of age. The primary neuropathology is the loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, resulting in characteristic motor deficits, upon which the clinical diagnosis is based. However, a number of significant non-motor symptoms (NMS) are also evident that appear to have a greater impact on the quality of life of these patients. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that neurobiological processes can be modified by the bi-directional communication that occurs along the brain-gut axis. The microbiota plays a key role in this communication throughout different routes in both physiological and pathological conditions. Thus, there has been an increasing interest in investigating how microbiota changes within the gastrointestinal tract may be implicated in health and disease including PD. Interestingly α-synuclein-aggregates, the cardinal neuropathological feature in PD, are present in both the submucosal and myenteric plexuses of the enteric nervous system, prior to their appearance in the brain, indicating a possible gut to brain route of "prion-like" spread. In this review we highlight the potential importance of gut to brain signalling in PD with particular focus on the role of the microbiota as major player in this communication.

  17. Mitochondrial alarmins released by degenerating motor axon terminals activate perisynaptic Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Duregotti, Elisa; Negro, Samuele; Scorzeto, Michele; Zornetta, Irene; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Chang, Christopher J.; Montecucco, Cesare; Rigoni, Michela

    2015-01-01

    An acute and highly reproducible motor axon terminal degeneration followed by complete regeneration is induced by some animal presynaptic neurotoxins, representing an appropriate and controlled system to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying degeneration and regeneration of peripheral nerve terminals. We have previously shown that nerve terminals exposed to spider or snake presynaptic neurotoxins degenerate as a result of calcium overload and mitochondrial failure. Here we show that toxin-treated primary neurons release signaling molecules derived from mitochondria: hydrogen peroxide, mitochondrial DNA, and cytochrome c. These molecules activate isolated primary Schwann cells, Schwann cells cocultured with neurons and at neuromuscular junction in vivo through the MAPK pathway. We propose that this inter- and intracellular signaling is involved in triggering the regeneration of peripheral nerve terminals affected by other forms of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25605902

  18. Activity-based intervention in motor skill development.

    PubMed

    Apache, R R Goyakla

    2005-06-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of an activity-based intervention program and a direct instruction program for preschool children with disabilities. Two groups of preschool students (average age=4.1 yr.), classified as having developmental delays or at risk for such delays, were selected. They were provided 15 weeks of physical education through activity-based intervention and 15 weeks of physical education by direct instruction. Instruction was provided three times a week for 30-min. each session. In the fall semester the morning group received physical education through activity-based intervention, while the afternoon group received physical education through direct instruction. In the spring semester delivery of instruction was reversed for each group. The curriculum and activities provided to each group were identical with only the instructional delivery format altered. Two sets of pre- and post-tests using the Test of Gross Motor Development were administered before and after each 15-wk. instructional period. Group improvement in skills was compared between instructional methods. Significant improvement in both locomotor and object control skills through the activity-based intervention was found compared to direct instruction. Activity-based intervention was shown to be easily adapted to a naturalistic educational setting befitting that of preschool education.

  19. The influence of motor expertise on the brain activity of motor task performance: A meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has investigated the influence of long-term motor training on the brain activity of motor processes, but the findings are inconsistent. To clarify how acquiring motor expertise induces cortical reorganization during motor task performance, the current study conducted a quantitative meta-analysis on 26 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that investigate motor task performance in people with long-term motor training experience (e.g., athletes, musicians, and dancers) and control participants. Meta-analysis of the brain activation in motor experts and novices showed similar effects in the bilateral frontal and parietal regions. The meta-analysis on the contrast between motor experts and novices indicated that experts showed stronger effects in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) than did novices in motor execution and prediction tasks. In motor observation tasks, experts showed stronger effects in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9) and left precentral gyrus (BA 6) than novices. On the contrary, novices had stronger effects in the right motor areas and basal ganglia as compared with motor experts. These results indicate that motor experts have effect increases in brain areas involved in action planning and action comprehension, and suggest that intensive motor training might elaborate the motor representation related to the task performance.

  20. Active fluidization of polymer networks through molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, D; Duggan, C; Saha, D; Smith, D; Käs, J

    2002-03-28

    Entangled polymer solutions and melts exhibit elastic, solid-like resistance to quick deformations and a viscous, fluid-like response to slow deformations. This viscoelastic behaviour reflects the dynamics of individual polymer chains driven by brownian motion: since individual chains can only move in a snake-like fashion through the mesh of surrounding polymer molecules, their diffusive transport, described by reptation, is so slow that the relaxation of suddenly imposed stress is delayed. Entangled polymer solutions and melts therefore elastically resist deforming motions that occur faster than the stress relaxation time. Here we show that the protein myosin II permits active control over the viscoelastic behaviour of actin filament solutions. We find that when each actin filament in a polymerized actin solution interacts with at least one myosin minifilament, the stress relaxation time of the polymer solution is significantly shortened. We attribute this effect to myosin's action as a 'molecular motor', which allows it to interact with randomly oriented actin filaments and push them through the solution, thus enhancing longitudinal filament motion. By superseding reptation with sliding motion, the molecular motors thus overcome a fundamental principle of complex fluids: that only depolymerization makes an entangled, isotropic polymer solution fluid for quick deformations.

  1. Active magnetic suspension in main magnetic field of electric motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urusov, I. D.; Galkin, V. I.; Likhoshvay, I. P.

    1985-10-01

    An active magnetic suspension for the rotor of an electric motor is considered, especially in small or miniature high-speed devices such as gyros, microturbomachines, and machine-tool spindle drives where it would eliminate the need for extra bearings and contribute to size and weight reduction. A disk-type rotor made of a ferromagnetic material is located horizontally inside the bore of a vertical stator so that weight and external loads compensate the magnetic pull upward. This pull is generated by the magnetic field in the air gap and can be automatically controlled by an electronic feedback circuit which regulates the stator input voltage depending on the rotor position along the stator bore, with a displacement transducer on the rotor indicating the position. The performance of such a suspension with automatic control in a 3-phase induction motor is analyzed on the basis of the system of differential equations describing the behavior of the electromechanical system during axial oscillations of the rotor, assuming a constant rotor speed during the transient periods.

  2. The Homeostatic Interaction Between Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Motor Learning in Humans is Related to GABAA Activity

    PubMed Central

    Amadi, Ugwechi; Allman, Claire; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Stagg, Charlotte J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The relative timing of plasticity-induction protocols is known to be crucial. For example, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which increases cortical excitability and typically enhances plasticity, can impair performance if it is applied before a motor learning task. Such timing-dependent effects have been ascribed to homeostatic plasticity, but the specific synaptic site of this interaction remains unknown. Objective We wished to investigate the synaptic substrate, and in particular the role of inhibitory signaling, underpinning the behavioral effects of anodal tDCS in homeostatic interactions between anodal tDCS and motor learning. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate cortical excitability and inhibitory signaling following tDCS and motor learning. Each subject participated in four experimental sessions and data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests as appropriate. Results As predicted, we found that anodal tDCS prior to the motor task decreased learning rates. This worsening of learning after tDCS was accompanied by a correlated increase in GABAA activity, as measured by TMS-assessed short interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI). Conclusion This provides the first direct demonstration in humans that inhibitory synapses are the likely site for the interaction between anodal tDCS and motor learning, and further, that homeostatic plasticity at GABAA synapses has behavioral relevance in humans. PMID:26279408

  3. The Homeostatic Interaction Between Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Motor Learning in Humans is Related to GABAA Activity.

    PubMed

    Amadi, Ugwechi; Allman, Claire; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Stagg, Charlotte J

    2015-01-01

    The relative timing of plasticity-induction protocols is known to be crucial. For example, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which increases cortical excitability and typically enhances plasticity, can impair performance if it is applied before a motor learning task. Such timing-dependent effects have been ascribed to homeostatic plasticity, but the specific synaptic site of this interaction remains unknown. We wished to investigate the synaptic substrate, and in particular the role of inhibitory signaling, underpinning the behavioral effects of anodal tDCS in homeostatic interactions between anodal tDCS and motor learning. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate cortical excitability and inhibitory signaling following tDCS and motor learning. Each subject participated in four experimental sessions and data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests as appropriate. As predicted, we found that anodal tDCS prior to the motor task decreased learning rates. This worsening of learning after tDCS was accompanied by a correlated increase in GABAA activity, as measured by TMS-assessed short interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI). This provides the first direct demonstration in humans that inhibitory synapses are the likely site for the interaction between anodal tDCS and motor learning, and further, that homeostatic plasticity at GABAA synapses has behavioral relevance in humans. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IH activity is increased in populations of slow versus fast motor axons of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Chad; Jones, Kelvin E.

    2014-01-01

    Much is known about the electrophysiological variation in motoneuron somata across different motor units. However, comparatively less is known about electrophysiological variation in motor axons and how this could impact function or electrodiagnosis in healthy or diseased states. We performed nerve excitability testing on two groups of motor axons in Sprague–Dawley rats that are known to differ significantly in their chronic daily activity patterns and in the relative proportion of motor unit types: one group innervating the soleus (“slow motor axons”) and the other group innervating the tibialis anterior (“fast motor axons”) muscles. We found that slow motor axons have significantly larger accommodation compared to fast motor axons upon application of a 100 ms hyperpolarizing conditioning stimulus that is 40% of axon threshold (Z = 3.24, p = 0.001) or 20% of axon threshold (Z = 2.67, p = 0.008). Slow motor axons had larger accommodation to hyperpolarizing currents in the current-threshold measurement (-80% Z = 3.07, p = 0.002; -90% Z = 2.98, p = 0.003). In addition, we found that slow motor axons have a significantly smaller rheobase than fast motor axons (Z = -1.99, p = 0.047) accompanied by a lower threshold in stimulus-response curves. The results provide evidence that slow motor axons have greater activity of the hyperpolarization-activated inwardly rectifying cation conductance (IH) than fast motor axons. It is possible that this difference between fast and slow axons is caused by an adaptation to their chronic differences in daily activity patterns, and that this adaptation might have a functional effect on the motor unit. Moreover, these findings indicate that slow and fast motor axons may react differently to pathological conditions. PMID:25309406

  5. Activation of cerebellar lobules VI-VII during motor imagery but not during motor activation in unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Habas, Christophe; Manto, Mario

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 25 year-old patient who underwent morphological and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate a left neocerebellar hypoplasia discovered incidentally. We compared brain activation during overt and covert finger movements, and haptic discrimination. The contralateral cerebellar hemisphere compensated for mental imagery of hand movements and haptic discrimination, but not for motor execution. Moreover, the resting-state functional connectivity did not show compensatory functional coherence between the right cerebellum and cerebral areas connected with the hypoplastic cerebellum. Our case illustrates for the first time that cerebellar compensatory recruitment is an active, specific process related to task complexity and under the control of executive networks.

  6. Neuromagnetic Abnormality of Motor Cortical Activation and Phases of Headache Attacks in Childhood Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jing; deGrauw, Xinyao; Korman, Abraham M.; Allen, Janelle R.; O'Brien, Hope L.; Kabbouche, Marielle A.; Powers, Scott W.; Hershey, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    The cerebral cortex serves a primary role in the pathogenesis of migraine. This aberrant brain activation in migraine can be noninvasively detected with magnetoencephalography (MEG). The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in motor cortical activation between attacks (ictal) and pain free intervals (interictal) in children and adolescents with migraine using both low- and high-frequency neuromagnetic signals. Thirty subjects with an acute migraine and 30 subjects with a history of migraine, while pain free, were compared to age- and gender-matched controls using MEG. Motor cortical activation was elicited by a standardized, validated finger-tapping task. Low-frequency brain activation (1∼50 Hz) was analyzed with waveform measurements and high-frequency oscillations (65–150 Hz) were analyzed with wavelet-based beamforming. MEG waveforms showed that the ictal latency of low-frequency brain activation was significantly delayed as compared with controls, while the interictal latency of brain activation was similar to that of controls. The ictal amplitude of low-frequency brain activation was significantly increased as compared with controls, while the interictal amplitude of brain activation was similar to that of controls. The ictal source power of high-frequency oscillations was significantly stronger than that of the controls, while the interictal source power of high-frequency oscillations was significantly weaker than that of controls. The results suggest that aberrant low-frequency brain activation in migraine during a headache attack returned to normal interictally. However, high-frequency oscillations changed from ictal hyper-activation to interictal hypo-activation. Noninvasive assessment of cortical abnormality in migraine with MEG opens a new window for developing novel therapeutic strategies for childhood migraine by maintaining a balanced cortical excitability. PMID:24386250

  7. Motor imagery-based brain activity parallels that of motor execution: evidence from magnetic source imaging of cortical oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kraeutner, Sarah; Gionfriddo, Alicia; Bardouille, Timothy; Boe, Shaun

    2014-11-07

    Motor imagery (MI) is a form of practice in which an individual mentally performs a motor task. Previous research suggests that skill acquisition via MI is facilitated by repetitive activation of brain regions in the sensorimotor network similar to that of motor execution, however this evidence is conflicting. Further, many studies do not control for overt muscle activity and thus the activation patterns reported for MI may be driven in part by actual movement. The purpose of the current research is to further establish MI as a secondary modality of skill acquisition by providing electrophysiological evidence of an overlap between brain areas recruited for motor execution and imagery. Non-disabled participants (N=18; 24.7±3.8 years) performed both execution and imagery of a unilateral sequence button-press task. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was utilized to capture neural activity, while electromyography used to rigorously monitor muscle activity. Event-related synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) analysis was conducted in the beta frequency band (15-30 Hz). Whole head dual-state beamformer analysis was applied to MEG data and 3D t-tests were conducted after Talairach normalization. Source-level analysis showed that MI has similar patterns of spatial activity as ME, including activation of contralateral primary motor and somatosensory cortices. However, this activation is significantly less intense during MI (p<0.05). As well, activation during ME was more lateralized (i.e., within the contralateral hemisphere). These results confirm that ME and MI have similar spatial activation patterns. Thus, the current research provides direct electrophysiological evidence to further establish MI as a secondary form of skill acquisition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Remodeling of cortical activity for motor control following upper limb loss

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Laura; Pirouz, Nikta; Mizelle, J.C.; Cusack, William; Kistenberg, Rob; Wheaton, Lewis A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Upper extremity loss presents immediate and lasting challenges for motor control. While sensory and motor representations of the amputated limb undergo plasticity to adjacent areas of the sensorimotor homunculus, it remains unclear whether laterality of motor-related activity is affected by neural reorganization following amputation. Methods Using electroencephalography, we evaluated neural activation patterns of formerly right hand dominant persons with upper limb loss (amputees) performing a motor task with their residual right limb, then their sound left limb. We compared activation patterns with left- and right-handed persons performing the same task. Results Amputees have involvement of contralateral motor areas when using their sound limb and atypically increased activation of posterior parietal regions when using the affected limb. When using the non-amputated left arm, patterns of activation remains similar to right handed persons using their left arm. Conclusions A remodeling of activations from traditionally motor areas into posterior parietal areas occurs for motor planning and execution when using the amputated limb. This may reflect an amputation-specific adaptation of heightened visuospatial feedback for motor control involving the amputated limb. Significance These results identify a neuroplastic mechanism for motor control in amputees, which may have great relevance to development of motor rehabilitation paradigms and prosthesis adaptation. PMID:27472549

  9. Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Hiroyuki; Mochiki, Erito; Ohno, Tetsuro; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Nakabayashi, Toshihiro; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) is involved in mediating abnormal motor activity in dogs after cisplatin administration. METHODS: After the dogs had been given a 2-wk recovery period, all of them were administered cisplatin, and the motor activity was recorded using strain gauge force transducers. Blood and intestinal fluid samples were collected to measure 5-HT for 24 h. To determine whether 5-HT in plasma or that in intestinal fluids is more closely related to abnormal motor activity we injected 5-HT into the bloodstream and the intestinal tract of the dogs. RESULTS: Cisplatin given intravenously produced abnormal motor activity that lasted up to 5 h. From 3 to 4 h after cisplatin administration, normal intact dogs exhibited retropropagation of motor activity accompanied by emesis. The concentration of 5-HT in plasma reached the peak at 4 h, and that in intestinal fluids reached the peak at 3 h. In normal intact dogs with resection of the vagus nerve that were administered kytril, cisplatin given intravenously did not produce abnormal motor activity. Intestinal serotonin administration did not produce abnormal motor activity, but intravenous serotonin administration did. CONCLUSION: After the intravenous administration of cisplatin, abnormal motor activity was produced in the involved vagus nerve and in the involved serotonergic neurons via another pathway. This study was the first to determine the relationship between 5-HT and emesis-induced motor activity. PMID:25400453

  10. Fault degradation assessment of water hydraulic motor by impulse vibration signal with Wavelet Packet Analysis and Kolmogorov Smirnov Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. X.; Chua, Patrick S. K.; Lim, G. H.

    2008-10-01

    The machinery fault diagnosis is important for improving reliability and performance of systems. Many methods such as Time Synchronous Average (TSA), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based spectrum analysis and short-time Fourier transform (STFT) have been applied in fault diagnosis and condition monitoring of mechanical system. The above methods analyze the signal in frequency domain with low resolution, which is not suitable for non-stationary vibration signal. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test is a simple and precise technique in vibration signal analysis for machinery fault diagnosis. It has limited use and advantage to analyze the vibration signal with higher noise directly. In this paper, a new method for the fault degradation assessment of the water hydraulic motor is proposed based on Wavelet Packet Analysis (WPA) and KS test to analyze the impulsive energy of the vibration signal, which is used to detect the piston condition of water hydraulic motor. WPA is used to analyze the impulsive vibration signal from the casing of the water hydraulic motor to obtain the impulsive energy. The impulsive energy of the vibration signal can be obtained by the multi-decomposition based on Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) and used as feature values to assess the fault degradation of the pistons. The kurtosis of the impulsive energy in the reconstructed signal from the Wavelet Packet coefficients is used to extract the feature values of the impulse energy by calculating the coefficients of the WPT multi-decomposition. The KS test is used to compare the kurtosis of the impulse energy of the vibration signal statistically under the different piston conditions. The results show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method to assess the fault degradation of the pistons in the water hydraulic motor.

  11. Robot-assisted motor activation monitored by time-domain optical brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkellner, O.; Wabnitz, H.; Schmid, S.; Steingräber, R.; Schmidt, H.; Krüger, J.; Macdonald, R.

    2011-07-01

    Robot-assisted motor rehabilitation proved to be an effective supplement to conventional hand-to-hand therapy in stroke patients. In order to analyze and understand motor learning and performance during rehabilitation it is desirable to develop a monitor to provide objective measures of the corresponding brain activity at the rehabilitation progress. We used a portable time-domain near-infrared reflectometer to monitor the hemodynamic brain response to distal upper extremity activities. Four healthy volunteers performed two different robot-assisted wrist/forearm movements, flexion-extension and pronation-supination in comparison with an unassisted squeeze ball exercise. A special headgear with four optical measurement positions to include parts of the pre- and postcentral gyrus provided a good overlap with the expected activation areas. Data analysis based on variance of time-of-flight distributions of photons through tissue was chosen to provide a suitable representation of intracerebral signals. In all subjects several of the four detection channels showed a response. In some cases indications were found of differences in localization of the activated areas for the various tasks.

  12. Actin network architecture can determine myosin motor activity.

    PubMed

    Reymann, Anne-Cécile; Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Guérin, Christophe; Cao, Wenxiang; Chin, Harvey F; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2012-06-08

    The organization of actin filaments into higher-ordered structures governs eukaryotic cell shape and movement. Global actin network size and architecture are maintained in a dynamic steady state through regulated assembly and disassembly. Here, we used experimentally defined actin structures in vitro to investigate how the activity of myosin motors depends on network architecture. Direct visualization of filaments revealed myosin-induced actin network deformation. During this reorganization, myosins selectively contracted and disassembled antiparallel actin structures, while parallel actin bundles remained unaffected. The local distribution of nucleation sites and the resulting orientation of actin filaments appeared to regulate the scalability of the contraction process. This "orientation selection" mechanism for selective contraction and disassembly suggests how the dynamics of the cellular actin cytoskeleton can be spatially controlled by actomyosin contractility.

  13. Heparin activates Wnt signaling for neuronal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Colombres, Marcela; Henríquez, Juan Pablo; Reig, Germán F; Scheu, Jessica; Calderón, Rosario; Alvarez, Alejandra; Brandan, Enrique; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2008-09-01

    Wnt factors are secreted ligands that affect different aspects of the nervous system behavior like neurodevelopment, synaptogenesis and neurodegeneration. In different model systems, Wnt signaling has been demonstrated to be regulated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Whether HSPGs modulate Wnt signaling in the context of neuronal behavior is currently unknown. Here we demonstrate that activation of Wnt signaling with the endogenous ligand Wnt-7a results in an increased of neurite outgrowth in the neuroblastoma N2a cell line. Interestingly, heparin induces glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibition, beta-catenin stabilization and morphological differentiation in both N2a cells and in rat primary hippocampal neuronal cultures. We also show that heparin modulates Wnt-3a-induced stabilization of beta-catenin. Several extracellular matrix and membrane-attached HSPGs were found to be expressed in both in vitro neuronal models. Changes in the expression of specific HSPGs were observed upon differentiation of N2a cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that HSPGs may modulate canonical Wnt signaling for neuronal morphogenesis.

  14. Functional mapping of protein kinase A reveals its importance in adult Schistosoma mansoni motor activity.

    PubMed

    de Saram, Paulu S R; Ressurreição, Margarida; Davies, Angela J; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M; Walker, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A (PKA) is the major transducer of cAMP signalling in eukaryotic cells. Here, using laser scanning confocal microscopy and 'smart' anti-phospho PKA antibodies that exclusively detect activated PKA, we provide a detailed in situ analysis of PKA signalling in intact adult Schistosoma mansoni, a causative agent of debilitating human intestinal schistosomiasis. In both adult male and female worms, activated PKA was consistently found associated with the tegument, oral and ventral suckers, oesophagus and somatic musculature. In addition, the seminal vesicle and gynaecophoric canal muscles of the male displayed activated PKA whereas in female worms activated PKA localized to the ootype wall, the ovary, and the uterus particularly around eggs during expulsion. Exposure of live worms to the PKA activator forskolin (50 µM) resulted in striking PKA activation in the central and peripheral nervous system including at nerve endings at/near the tegument surface. Such neuronal PKA activation was also observed without forskolin treatment, but only in a single batch of worms. In addition, PKA activation within the central and peripheral nervous systems visibly increased within 15 min of worm-pair separation when compared to that observed in closely coupled worm pairs. Finally, exposure of adult worms to forskolin induced hyperkinesias in a time and dose dependent manner with 100 µM forskolin significantly increasing the frequency of gross worm movements to 5.3 times that of control worms (P≤0.001). Collectively these data are consistent with PKA playing a central part in motor activity and neuronal communication, and possibly interplay between these two systems in S. mansoni. This study, the first to localize a protein kinase when exclusively in an activated state in adult S. mansoni, provides valuable insight into the intricacies of functional protein kinase signalling in the context of whole schistosome physiology.

  15. T & I--Electric Motors. Kit No. 621. Instructor's Manual and Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomar, William

    This instructor's manual and student learning activity guide comprise a kit for trade and industrial education (T & I) activities on electric motors. Purpose stated for the activities is to teach the student the four basic types of electric motors, the advantages and disadvantages of each, the types of jobs each can perform, and how to disassemble…

  16. T & I--Electric Motors. Kit No. 621. Instructor's Manual and Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomar, William

    This instructor's manual and student learning activity guide comprise a kit for trade and industrial education (T & I) activities on electric motors. Purpose stated for the activities is to teach the student the four basic types of electric motors, the advantages and disadvantages of each, the types of jobs each can perform, and how to disassemble…

  17. Activation of α2A-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Mediates Nicotine-Induced Motor Output in Embryonic Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Menelaou, Evdokia; Udvadia, Ava J.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Svoboda, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that cholinergic signaling has critical roles during central nervous system development. In physiological and behavioral studies, activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors has been implicated in mediating cholinergic signaling. In developing spinal cord, cholinergic transmission is associated with neural circuits responsible for producing locomotor behaviors. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of the α2A nAChR subunit as evidence from others suggested it could be expressed by spinal neurons. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that the α2A nAChR subunits are expressed in spinal Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons and olfactory sensory neurons in young embryos. In order to examine the functional role of the α2A nAChR subunit during embryogenesis, we blocked its expression using antisense modified oligonucleotides. Blocking the expression of α2A nAChR subunits had no effect on spontaneous motor activity. However, it did alter the embryonic nicotine-induced motor output. This reduction in motor activity was not accompanied by defects in neuronal and muscle elements associated with the motor output. Moreover, the anatomy and functionality of RB neurons was normal even in the absence of the α2A nAChR subunit. Thus, we propose that α2A-containing nAChR are dispensable for normal RB development. However, in the context of nicotine-induced motor output, α2A-containing nAChRs on RB neurons provide the substrate that nicotine acts upon to induce the motor output. These findings also indicate that functional neuronal nAChRs are present within spinal cord at the time when locomotor output in zebrafish first begins to manifest itself. PMID:24738729

  18. Modulation of motor cortex neuronal activity and motor behavior during subthalamic nucleus stimulation in the normal primate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Luke A; Xu, Weidong; Baker, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jianyu; Vitek, Jerrold L

    2015-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established surgical therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). An emerging hypothesis is that the therapeutic benefit of DBS is derived from direct modulation of primary motor cortex (M1), yet little is known about the influence of STN DBS on individual neurons in M1. We investigated the effect of STN DBS, delivered at discrete interval intensities (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) of corticospinal tract threshold (CSTT), on motor performance and M1 neuronal activity in a naive nonhuman primate. Motor performance during a food reach and retrieval task improved during low-intensity stimulation (20% CSTT) but worsened as intensity approached the threshold for activation of corticospinal fibers (80% and 100% CSTT). To assess cortical effects of STN DBS, spontaneous, extracellular neuronal activity was collected from M1 neurons before, during, and after DBS at the same CSTT stimulus intensities. STN DBS significantly modulated the firing of a majority of M1 neurons; however, the direction of effect varied with stimulus intensity such that, at 20% CSTT, most neurons were suppressed, whereas at the highest stimulus intensities the majority of neurons were activated. At a population level, firing rates increased as stimulus intensity increased. These results show that STN DBS influences both motor performance and M1 neuronal activity systematically according to stimulus intensity. In addition, the unanticipated reduction in reach times suggests that STN DBS, at stimulus intensities lower than typically used for treatment of PD motor signs, can enhance normal motor performance.

  19. Motor Neuron Activation in Peripheral Nerves Using Infrared Neural Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, EJ; Tyler, DJ

    2014-01-01

    Objective Localized activation of peripheral axons may improve selectivity of peripheral nerve interfaces. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) employs localized delivery to activate neural tissue. This study investigated INS to determine whether localized delivery limited functionality in larger mammalian nerves. Approach The rabbit sciatic nerve was stimulated extraneurally with 1875 nm-wavelength infrared light, electrical stimulation, or a combination of both. Infrared-sensitive regions (ISR) of the nerve surface and electromyogram (EMG) recruitment of the Medial Gastrocnemius, Lateral Gastrocnemius, Soleus, and Tibialis Anterior were the primary output measures. Stimulation applied included infrared-only, electrical-only, and combined infrared and electrical. Main results 81% of nerves tested were sensitive to INS, with 1.7± 0.5 ISR detected per nerve. INS was selective to a single muscle within 81% of identified ISR. Activation energy threshold did not change significantly with stimulus power, but motor activation decreased significantly when radiant power was decreased. Maximum INS levels typically recruited up to 2–9% of any muscle. Combined infrared and electrical stimulation differed significantly from electrical recruitment in 7% of cases. Significance The observed selectivity of INS indicates it may be useful in augmenting rehabilitation, but significant challenges remain in increasing sensitivity and response magnitude to improve the functionality of INS. PMID:24310923

  20. Motor neuron activation in peripheral nerves using infrared neural stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, E. J.; Tyler, D. J.

    2014-02-01

    Objective. Localized activation of peripheral axons may improve selectivity of peripheral nerve interfaces. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) employs localized delivery to activate neural tissue. This study investigated INS to determine whether localized delivery limited functionality in larger mammalian nerves. Approach. The rabbit sciatic nerve was stimulated extraneurally with 1875 nm wavelength infrared light, electrical stimulation, or a combination of both. Infrared-sensitive regions (ISR) of the nerve surface and electromyogram (EMG) recruitment of the Medial Gastrocnemius, Lateral Gastrocnemius, Soleus, and Tibialis Anterior were the primary output measures. Stimulation applied included infrared-only, electrical-only, and combined infrared and electrical. Main results. 81% of nerves tested were sensitive to INS, with 1.7 ± 0.5 ISR detected per nerve. INS was selective to a single muscle within 81% of identified ISR. Activation energy threshold did not change significantly with stimulus power, but motor activation decreased significantly when radiant power was decreased. Maximum INS levels typically recruited up to 2-9% of any muscle. Combined infrared and electrical stimulation differed significantly from electrical recruitment in 7% of cases. Significance. The observed selectivity of INS indicates that it may be useful in augmenting rehabilitation, but significant challenges remain in increasing sensitivity and response magnitude to improve the functionality of INS.

  1. Motor unit activity after eccentric exercise and muscle damage in humans.

    PubMed

    Semmler, J G

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle damage and soreness, which can produce long-lasting effects on muscle function. How this muscle damage influences muscle activation is poorly understood. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight the effect of eccentric exercise on the activation of muscle by the nervous system, by examining the change in motor unit activity obtained from surface electromyography (EMG) and intramuscular recordings. Previous research shows that eccentric exercise produces unusual changes in the EMG–force relation that influences motor performance during isometric, shortening and lengthening muscle contractions and during fatiguing tasks. When examining the effect of eccentric exercise at the single motor unit level, there are substantial changes in recruitment thresholds, discharge rates, motor unit conduction velocities and synchronization, which can last for up to 1 week after eccentric exercise. Examining the time course of these changes suggests that the increased submaximal EMG after eccentric exercise most likely occurs through a decrease in motor unit conduction velocity and an increase in motor unit activity related to antagonist muscle coactivation and low-frequency fatigue. Furthermore, there is a commonly held view that eccentric exercise produces preferential damage to high-threshold motor units, but the evidence for this in humans is limited. Further research is needed to establish whether there is preferential damage to high-threshold motor units after eccentric exercise in humans, preferably by linking changes in motor unit activity with estimates of motor unit size using selective intramuscular recording techniques.

  2. D1 Dopamine Receptor Signaling Is Modulated by the R7 RGS Protein EAT-16 and the R7 Binding Protein RSBP-1 in Caenoerhabditis elegans Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Khursheed A.; Catanese, Mary; Normantowicz, Robyn; Herd, Muriel; Maher, Kathryn N.; Chase, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine signaling modulates voluntary movement and reward-driven behaviors by acting through G protein-coupled receptors in striatal neurons, and defects in dopamine signaling underlie Parkinson's disease and drug addiction. Despite the importance of understanding how dopamine modifies the activity of striatal neurons to control basal ganglia output, the molecular mechanisms that control dopamine signaling remain largely unclear. Dopamine signaling also controls locomotion behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. To better understand how dopamine acts in the brain we performed a large-scale dsRNA interference screen in C. elegans for genes required for endogenous dopamine signaling and identified six genes (eat-16, rsbp-1, unc-43, flp-1, grk-1, and cat-1) required for dopamine-mediated behavior. We then used a combination of mutant analysis and cell-specific transgenic rescue experiments to investigate the functional interaction between the proteins encoded by two of these genes, eat-16 and rsbp-1, within single cell types and to examine their role in the modulation of dopamine receptor signaling. We found that EAT-16 and RSBP-1 act together to modulate dopamine signaling and that while they are coexpressed with both D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors, they do not modulate D2 receptor signaling. Instead, EAT-16 and RSBP-1 act together to selectively inhibit D1 dopamine receptor signaling in cholinergic motor neurons to modulate locomotion behavior. PMID:22629462

  3. [Change of character of directed motor reactions of female crickets Gryllus argentinus Sauss. to intraspecies signals under conditions of sensory pathology at different stages of adult ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Zhemchuzhnikov, M K; Kniazev, A N

    2011-01-01

    The character of motor activity of female crickets Gryllus argentinus Sauss. was studied in norm and under conditions of inactivation of cercal organ at realization of reproductive and protective behavior at various steps of adult ontogenesis (at the 2nd, 7th, and 12th day). There are described and analyzed various forms of female motor reactions on a movable track-ball at presentation f models of male intraspecies call and aggressive signals. The reversible inactivation or cereal receptors was shown to lead to disturbance of mechanisms of realization of normal reproductive behavior in the end of prereproductive and in the beginning of reproductive periods of adult ontogenesis. This is manifested as a significant decrease of reactions of positive phonotaxis in response to presentation of model of the male call signal in individuals with experimental sensory pathology as compared with the control cricket group (norm). No significant differences in portions of typical directed motor reactions were established in norm and under conditions of sensory pathology at presentation of aggressive signal. Thus, we have managed to show that preservation of tympanal organ is the necessary, but not sufficient condition of realization of adequate acoustic reproductive behavior. Only by working together, the distant mechanoreceptor systems (the cereal and the tympanal ones) are able to provide adequate behavior. This confirmed to earlier put forward hypothesis about interaction of distant mechanoreceptor systems and about the existence of the single sensory complex necessary for realization of insect adequate behavior.

  4. Analysis of neural activity in human motor cortex -- Towards brain machine interface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secundo, Lavi

    The discovery of directional tuned neurons in the primary motor cortex has advanced motor research in several domains. For instance, in the area of brain machine interface (BMI), researchers have exploited the robust characteristic of tuned motor neurons to allow monkeys to learn control of various machines. In the first chapter of this work we examine whether this phenomena can be observed using the less invasive method of recording electrocorticographic signals (ECoG) from the surface of a human's brain. Our findings reveal that individual ECoG channels contain complex movement information about the neuronal population. While some ECoG channels are tuned to hand movement direction (direction specific channels), others are associated to movement but do not contain information regarding movement direction (non-direction specific channels). More specifically, directionality can vary temporally and by frequency within one channel. In addition, a handful of channels contain no significant information regarding movement at all. These findings strongly suggest that directional and non-directional regions of cortex can be identified with ECoG and provide solutions to decoding movement at the signal resolution provided by ECoG. In the second chapter we examine the influence of movement context on movement reconstruction accuracy. We recorded neuronal signals recorded from electro-corticography (ECoG) during performance of cued- and self-initiated movements. ECoG signals were used to train a reconstruction algorithm to reconstruct continuous hand movement. We found that both cued- and self-initiated movements could be reconstructed with similar accuracy from the ECoG data. However, while an algorithm trained on the cued task could reconstruct performance on a subsequent cued trial, it failed to reconstruct self-initiated arm movement. The same task-specificity was observed when the algorithm was trained with self-initiated movement data and tested on the cued task. Thus

  5. A comparison of sensory-motor activity during speech in first and second languages.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Anna J; Wise, Richard J S; Dhanjal, Novraj S; Leech, Robert

    2011-07-01

    A foreign language (L2) learned after childhood results in an accent. This functional neuroimaging study investigated speech in L2 as a sensory-motor skill. The hypothesis was that there would be an altered response in auditory and somatosensory association cortex, specifically the planum temporale and parietal operculum, respectively, when speaking in L2 relative to L1, independent of rate of speaking. These regions were selected for three reasons. First, an influential computational model proposes that these cortices integrate predictive feedforward and postarticulatory sensory feedback signals during articulation. Second, these adjacent regions (known as Spt) have been identified as a "sensory-motor interface" for speech production. Third, probabilistic anatomical atlases exist for these regions, to ensure the analyses are confined to sensory-motor differences between L2 and L1. The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and participants produced connected overt speech. The first hypothesis was that there would be greater activity in the planum temporale and the parietal operculum when subjects spoke in L2 compared with L1, one interpretation being that there is less efficient postarticulatory sensory monitoring when speaking in the less familiar L2. The second hypothesis was that this effect would be observed in both cerebral hemispheres. Although Spt is considered to be left-lateralized, this is based on studies of covert speech, whereas overt speech is accompanied by sensory feedback to bilateral auditory and somatosensory cortices. Both hypotheses were confirmed by the results. These findings provide the basis for future investigations of sensory-motor aspects of language learning using serial fMRI studies.

  6. Inferior olive oscillations gate transmission of motor cortical activity to the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Sarah P; Lang, Eric J

    2004-12-15

    Inferior olivary (IO) neurons display spontaneous oscillatory activity, yet the importance of these oscillations for shaping the responses of this system to its afferents is uncertain. We used multiple electrode recording of crus 2a Purkinje cell complex spikes (CSs) in ketamine-xylazine-anesthetized rats to investigate olivocerebellar responses to activation of motor cortico-olivary pathways. Trains of electrical stimuli were applied to the motor cortex at frequencies between 4 and 30 Hz. Various frequency-response curves were observed, with the most common types being unimodal with a maximum at 9.5 +/- 2.3 Hz and bimodal with peaks at 8.9 +/- 1.0 and 15.1 +/- 1.3 Hz. To determine whether IO oscillatory properties underlie the resonance peaks in the frequency-response curves, apamin and charybdotoxin were injected into the IO. These toxins, which weaken and enhance spontaneous IO oscillations, respectively, had corresponding effects on the sharpness of resonance peaks. Next, the variation of CS entrainment patterns with frequency was investigated to characterize the nature of the IO oscillator. Low-frequency (4 Hz) stimulation was relatively ineffective in entraining CS activity. Between 4 and 30 Hz, two predominant entrainment patterns emerged. For low-frequency (4-6 Hz) and high-frequency (17-30 Hz) ranges, a 1:2 entrainment dominated, whereas in the intermediate range (6-17 Hz), 1:1 entrainment was most prevalent. These results indicate that IO neurons respond as nonlinear oscillators to afferent signals.

  7. Motor unit activity within the depth of the masseter characterized by an adapted scanning EMG technique.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, J P; Eiglsperger, U; Hellmann, D; Giannakopoulos, N N; McGill, K C; Schindler, H J; Lapatki, B G

    2016-09-01

    To study motor unit activity in the medio-lateral extension of the masseter using an adapted scanning EMG technique that allows studying the territories of multiple motor units (MUs) in one scan. We studied the m. masseter of 10 healthy volunteers in whom two scans were performed. A monopolar scanning needle and two pairs of fine-wire electrodes were inserted into the belly of the muscle. The signals of the fine wire electrodes were decomposed into the contribution of single MUs and used as a trigger for the scanning needle. In this manner multiple MU territory scans were obtained simultaneously. We determined 161 MU territories. The maximum number of territories obtained in one scan was 15. The median territory size was 4.0mm. Larger and smaller MU territories were found throughout the muscle. The presented technique showed its feasibility in obtaining multiple MU territories in one scan. MUs were active throughout the depth of the muscle. The distribution of electrical and anatomical size of MUs substantiates the heterogeneous distribution of MUs throughout the muscle volume. This distributed activity may be of functional significance for the stabilization of the muscle during force generation. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased prefrontal activity and reduced motor cortex activity during imagined eccentric compared to concentric muscle actions

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, C.-J.; Hedlund, M.; Sojka, P.; Lundström, R.; Lindström, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine differences in recruited brain regions during the concentric and the eccentric phase of an imagined maximum resistance training task of the elbow flexors in healthy young subjects. The results showed that during the eccentric phase, pre-frontal cortex (BA44) bilaterally was recruited when contrasted to the concentric phase. During the concentric phase, however, the motor and pre-motor cortex (BA 4/6) was recruited when contrasted to the eccentric phase. Interestingly, the brain activity of this region was reduced, when compared to the mean activity of the session, during the eccentric phase. Thus, the neural mechanisms governing imagined concentric and eccentric contractions appear to differ. We propose that the recruitment of the pre-frontal cortex is due to an increased demand of regulating force during the eccentric phase. Moreover, it is possible that the inability to fully activate a muscle during eccentric contractions may partly be explained by a reduction of activity in the motor and pre-motor cortex. PMID:22973217

  9. Magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex evokes skin sympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Silber, D H; Sinoway, L I; Leuenberger, U A; Amassian, V E

    2000-01-01

    Single-pulse magnetic coil stimulation (Cadwell MES 10) over the cranium induces without pain an electric pulse in the underlying cerebral cortex. Stimulation over the motor cortex can elicit a muscle twitch. In 10 subjects, we tested whether motor cortical stimulation could also elicit skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA; n = 8) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; n = 5) in the peroneal nerve. Focal motor cortical stimulation predictably elicited bursts of SSNA but not MSNA; with successive stimuli, the SSNA responses did not readily extinguish (94% of discharges to the motor cortex evoked SSNA responses) and had predictable latencies [739 +/- 33 (SE) to 895 +/- 13 ms]. The SSNA responses were similar after stimulation of dominant and nondominant sides. Focal stimulation posterior to the motor cortex elicited extinguishable SSNA responses. In three of six subjects, anterior cortical stimulation evoked SSNA responses similar to those seen with motor cortex stimulation but without detectable movement; in the other subjects, anterior stimulation evoked less SSNA discharge than that seen with motor cortex stimulation. Contrasting with motor cortical stimulation, evoked SSNA responses were more readily extinguished with 1) peripheral stimulation that directly elicited forearm muscle activation accompanied by electromyograms similar to those with motor cortical stimulation; 2) auditory stimulation by the click of the energized coil when off the head; and 3) in preliminary experiments, finger afferent stimulation sufficient to cause tingling. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that motor cortex stimulation can cause activation of both alpha-motoneurons and SSNA.

  10. Motor neuronal activity varies least among individuals when it matters most for behavior.

    PubMed

    Cullins, Miranda J; Shaw, Kendrick M; Gill, Jeffrey P; Chiel, Hillel J

    2015-02-01

    How does motor neuronal variability affect behavior? To explore this question, we quantified activity of multiple individual identified motor neurons mediating biting and swallowing in intact, behaving Aplysia californica by recording from the protractor muscle and the three nerves containing the majority of motor neurons controlling the feeding musculature. We measured multiple motor components: duration of the activity of identified motor neurons as well as their relative timing. At the same time, we measured behavioral efficacy: amplitude of grasping movement during biting and amplitude of net inward food movement during swallowing. We observed that the total duration of the behaviors varied: Within animals, biting duration shortened from the first to the second and third bites; between animals, biting and swallowing durations varied. To study other sources of variation, motor components were divided by behavior duration (i.e., normalized). Even after normalization, distributions of motor component durations could distinguish animals as unique individuals. However, the degree to which a motor component varied among individuals depended on the role of that motor component in a behavior. Motor neuronal activity that was essential for the expression of biting or swallowing was similar among animals, whereas motor neuronal activity that was not essential for that behavior varied more from individual to individual. These results suggest that motor neuronal activity that matters most for the expression of a particular behavior may vary least from individual to individual. Shaping individual variability to ensure behavioral efficacy may be a general principle for the operation of motor systems. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Motor overflow in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is associated with decreased extent of neural activation in the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, Andrew; Rosch, Keri S; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Crocetti, Deana; MacNeil, Lindsey; Barber, Anita D; Muschelli, John; Caffo, Brian; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-09-30

    Motor overflow is a developmental phenomenon that typically disappears by late childhood. Abnormal persistence of motor overflow is often present in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a finger-sequencing task to examine whether excessive motor overflow in children with ADHD is associated with decreased extent of motor circuit activation. Thirty-four right-handed children (18 typically developing controls, 16 ADHD) completed fMRI while performing a finger-sequencing task. Motor overflow was evaluated during a finger-sequencing task and a motor examination (the PANESS) performed outside the scanner. Diagnostic differences in behavioral measures of overflow and extent of activation in the contralateral and ipsilateral motor network ROIs were examined, along with correlations between overflow and extent of activation. Children with ADHD demonstrated greater overflow and lesser extent of activation in left primary motor cortex (BA4) and bilateral premotor cortex (BA6) and supplementary motor area (SMA) during right-hand finger-sequencing compared to controls. Decreased extent of primary motor and premotor activation correlated with increased hand-related overflow movements in children with ADHD but not controls. These findings suggest that overflow movements in children with ADHD may reflect decreased recruitment of neural circuitry involved in active inhibition of homologous motor circuitry unnecessary to task execution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Children with cerebral palsy have altered oscillatory activity in the motor and visual cortices during a knee motor task.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Max J; Proskovec, Amy L; Gehringer, James E; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2017-01-01

    The neuroimaging literature on cerebral palsy (CP) has predominantly focused on identifying structural aberrations within the white matter (e.g., fiber track integrity), with very few studies examining neural activity within the key networks that serve the production of motor actions. The current investigation used high-density magnetoencephalography to begin to fill this knowledge gap by quantifying the temporal dynamics of the alpha and beta cortical oscillations in children with CP (age = 15.5 ± 3 years; GMFCS levels II-III) and typically developing (TD) children (age = 14.1 ± 3 years) during a goal-directed isometric target-matching task using the knee joint. Advanced beamforming methods were used to image the cortical oscillations during the movement planning and execution stages. Compared with the TD children, our results showed that the children with CP had stronger alpha and beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) within the primary motor cortices, premotor area, inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus during the motor planning stage. Differences in beta ERD amplitude extended through the motor execution stage within the supplementary motor area and premotor cortices, and a stronger alpha ERD was detected in the anterior cingulate. Interestingly, our results also indicated that alpha and beta oscillations were weaker in the children with CP within the occipital cortices and visual MT area during movement execution. These altered alpha and beta oscillations were accompanied by slower reaction times and substantial target matching errors in the children with CP. We also identified that the strength of the alpha and beta ERDs during the motor planning and execution stages were correlated with the motor performance. Lastly, our regression analyses suggested that the beta ERD within visual areas during motor execution primarily predicted the amount of motor errors. Overall, these data suggest that uncharacteristic alpha and beta

  13. [Quantitative estimation of connection of the heart rate rhythm with motor activity in rat fetuses].

    PubMed

    Vdovichenko, N D; Timofeeva, O P; Bursian, A V

    2014-01-01

    In rat fetuses at E17-20 with preserved placental circulation with use of mathematical analysis there were revealed value and character of connections of slow wave oscillations of the heart rhythm with motor activity for 30 min of observation. In the software "PowerGraph 3.3.8", normalization and filtration of the studied signals were performed at three frequency diapasons: D1 - 0.02-0.2 Hz (5-50 s), D2 - 0.0083-0.02 Hz (50 s-2 min), and D3 - 0.0017-0.0083 Hz (2-10 min). The EMG curves filtrated by diapasons or piezograms were compared with periodograms in the corresponding diapasons of the heart rhythm variations. In the software "Origin 8.0", quantitative estimation of the degree of intersystemic interrelations for each frequency diapason was performed by Pearson correlation of coefficient, by the correlation connection value, and by the time shift of maximum of cross-correlation function. It has been established that in the frequency D1, regardless of age, the connection of heart rhythm oscillations with motor activity is expressed weakly. In the frequency diapason D2, the connection in most cases is located in the zone of weak and moderate correlations. In the multiminute diapason (D3), the connection is more pronounced. The number of animals that have a significant value of the correlation connection rises. The fetal MA fires in the decasecond diapason in all age groups are accompanied by short-time decelerations of the heart rhythms. In the minute diapason, there is observed a transition from positive connections at E17 and E18 to the negative ones at E19-20. Results of the study are considered in association with age-related changes of ratios of positive and negative oscillations of the heart rhythm change depending on the character of motor activity.

  14. Molecular motors robustly drive active gels to a critically connected state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, José; Sheinman, Michael; Sharma, Abhinav; Mackintosh, Fred C.; Koenderink, Gijsje H.

    2013-09-01

    Living systems naturally exhibit internal driving: active, molecular processes drive non-equilibrium phenomena such as metabolism or migration. Active gels constitute a fascinating class of internally driven matter, in which molecular motors exert localized stresses inside polymer networks. There is evidence that network crosslinking is required to allow motors to induce macroscopic contraction. Yet a quantitative understanding of how network connectivity enables contraction is lacking. Here we show experimentally that myosin motors contract crosslinked actin polymer networks to clusters with a scale-free size distribution. This critical behaviour occurs over an unexpectedly broad range of crosslink concentrations. To understand this robustness, we developed a quantitative model of contractile networks that takes into account network restructuring: motors reduce connectivity by forcing crosslinks to unbind. Paradoxically, to coordinate global contractions, motor activity should be low. Otherwise, motors drive initially well-connected networks to a critical state where ruptures form across the entire network.

  15. Complementary activation of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex during a sustained handgrip task.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Kuboyama, Naomi; Yamada, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to examine bilateral motor cortex activation during a sustained motor task in brain areas where increased oxygenation reflects cortical activation. This study examines the time course of activation of the bilateral motor cortex during a moderate-intensity handgrip task. Ten healthy right-handed male subjects participated in this study. Functional NIRS probes were placed over the cortex to measure motor cortical activations while the subjects performed a 180-s handgrip task incrementally [30-60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at 0.17% increase/s] Contralateral primary motor cortex (ContraM1) oxygenation values significantly increased from baseline between 40 and 120 s after the start of the motor task (p < 0.05). Moreover, the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (IpsiM1) oxygenation values significantly increased from baseline between 140 and 180 s after the start of the motor task (p < 0.05). IpsiM1 oxygenation gradually increased from 140 to 180 s, whereas ContraM1 oxygenation gradually decreased from 120 to 180 s after the start of the motor task. These results suggest that the complementary functions of IpsiM1 become activated in response to the working of the ContraM1 during a continuous handgrip task.

  16. Top-down suppression of incompatible motor activations during response selection under conflict.

    PubMed

    Klein, Pierre-Alexandre; Petitjean, Charlotte; Olivier, Etienne; Duque, Julie

    2014-02-01

    Top-down control is critical to select goal-directed actions in changeable environments, particularly when several options compete for selection. This control system is thought to involve a mechanism that suppresses activation of unwanted response representations. We tested this hypothesis, in humans, by measuring motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in a left finger muscle during motor preparation in an adapted Eriksen flanker task. Subjects reported, by a left or right button-press, the orientation of a left- or right-facing central arrow, flanked by two distractor arrows on each side. Central and peripheral arrows either pointed in the same (congruent trial) or in the opposite direction (incongruent trial). Top-down control was manipulated by changing the probability of congruent and incongruent trials in a given block. In the "mostly incongruent" (MI) blocks, 80% of trials were incongruent, producing a context in which subjects strongly anticipated that they would have to face conflict. In the "mostly congruent" (MC) blocks, 80% of trials were congruent and thus subjects barely anticipated conflict in that context. Thus, we assume that top-down control was stronger in the MI than in the MC condition. Accordingly, subjects displayed a lower error rate and shorter reaction times for the incongruent trials in the MI context than for similar trials in the MC context. More interestingly, we found that top-down control specifically reduced activation of the incompatible motor representation during response selection under high conflict. That is, when the central arrow specified a right hand response, left (non-selected) MEPs became smaller in the MI than in the MC condition, but only for incongruent trials, and this measure was positively correlated with performance. In contrast, MEPs elicited in the non-selected hand during congruent trials, or during all trials in which the left hand was selected, tended to increase

  17. Ghrelin induces fasted motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract in conscious fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Kazunori; Inui, Akio; Asakawa, Akihiro; Kihara, Naoki; Fujimura, Masaki; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2003-01-01

    Ghrelin is a newly discovered orexigenic peptide originating from the stomach. However, its action in regulating the fed and fasted motor activity of the digestive tract is not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intravenous (i.v.) injection of ghrelin on the physiological fed and fasted motor activities in the stomach and duodenum of freely moving conscious rats. i.c.v. and i.v. injection of ghrelin induced fasted motor activity in the duodenum in normal fed rats, while i.v. injection of ghrelin induced fasted motor activity in both the stomach and duodenum in vagotomized rats. The effects of i.c.v. and i.v. injected ghrelin were blocked by growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) antagonist given by the same route and also blocked by immunoneutralization of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the brain. The effects of i.v. injected ghrelin were not altered by i.c.v. injection of GHS-R antagonist in vagotomized rats. Injection of GHS-R antagonist blocked the fasted motor activity in both the stomach and duodenum in vagotomized rats but did not affect the fasted motor activity in normal rats. Low intragastric pH inhibited the effect of ghrelin. The present results indicate that ghrelin is involved in regulation of fasted motor activity in the stomach and duodenum. Peripheral ghrelin may induce the fasted motor activity by activating the NPY neurons in the brain, probably through ghrelin receptors on vagal afferent neurons. Once the brain mechanism is eliminated by truncal vagotomy, ghrelin might be primarily involved in the regulation of fasted motor activity through ghrelin receptors on the stomach and duodenum. The action of ghrelin to induce fasted motor activity is strongly affected by intragastric pH; low pH inhibits the action. PMID:12837928

  18. Activation of thalamus in motor imagery results from gating by hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Katharina; Bacht, Katrin; Prochnow, Denise; Schramm, Stefanie; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2013-02-01

    The ability to mentally imagine the performance of automatic movements has been well-established being employed in sports and physiotherapy as a tool for motor learning and rehabilitation. This is probably mediated by engagement of the same brain areas as during real motor performance. Here we investigated the effect of hypnotic trance on the cerebral activation pattern engaged in motor imagery in 16 healthy, right-handed subjects using fMRI. Motor imagery as compared with rest was related to activations in the left medial frontal areas (preSMA/SMA), prefrontal- and frontal areas, putamen and inferior parietal areas. When compared with performance of the same movements motor imagery resulted in activation of the left middle frontal cortex, precuneus, and posterior cingulate. Under hypnotic trance there was one extra-activation in the left thalamus which occurred specifically in the motor imagery condition. The regional beta indices were highly correlated among the areas of the cortical-subcortical motor network. Our data accord with the notion that hypnotic trance enhances the motor control circuit engaged in motor imagery by modulating the gating function of the thalamus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sub-threshold spinal cord stimulation facilitates spontaneous motor activity in spinal rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidural stimulation of the spinal cord can be used to enable stepping on a treadmill (electrical enabling motor control, eEmc) after a complete mid-thoracic spinal cord transection in adult rats. Herein we have studied the effects of eEmc using a sub-threshold intensity of stimulation combined with spontaneous load-bearing proprioception to facilitate hindlimb stepping and standing during daily cage activity in paralyzed rats. Methods We hypothesized that eEmc combined with spontaneous cage activity would greatly increase the frequency and level of activation of the locomotor circuits in paralyzed rats. Spontaneous cage activity was recorded using a specially designed swivel connector to record EMG signals and an IR based camcorder to record video. Results and conclusion The spinal rats initially were very lethargic in their cages showing little movement. Without eEmc, the rats remained rather inactive with the torso rarely being elevated from the cage floor. When the rats used their forelimbs to move, the hindlimbs were extended and dragged behind with little or no flexion. In contrast, with eEmc the rats were highly active and the hindlimbs showed robust alternating flexion and extension resulting in step-like movements during forelimb-facilitated locomotion and often would stand using the sides of the cages as support. The mean and summed integrated EMG levels in both a hindlimb flexor and extensor muscle were higher with than without eEmc. These data suggest that eEmc, in combination with the associated proprioceptive input, can modulate the spinal networks to significantly amplify the amount and robustness of spontaneous motor activity in paralyzed rats. PMID:24156340

  20. Task-dependent activity of motor unit populations in feline ankle extensor muscles

    PubMed Central

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F.; Pantall, Annette; Maas, Huub; Farrell, Brad; Gregor, Robert J.; Prilutsky, Boris I.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the functional significance of the morphological diversity of mammalian skeletal muscles is limited by technical difficulties of estimating the contribution of motor units with different properties to unconstrained motor behaviours. Recently developed wavelet and principal components analysis of intramuscular myoelectric signals has linked signals with lower and higher frequency contents to the use of slower and faster motor unit populations. In this study we estimated the relative contributions of lower and higher frequency signals of cat ankle extensors (soleus, medial and lateral gastrocnemii, plantaris) during level, downslope and upslope walking and the paw-shake response. This was done using the first two myoelectric signal principal components (PCI, PCII), explaining over 90% of the signal, and an angle θ, a function of PCI/PCII, indicating the relative contribution of slower and faster motor unit populations. Mean myoelectric frequencies in all walking conditions were lowest for slow soleus (234 Hz) and highest for fast gastrocnemii (307 and 330 Hz) muscles. Motor unit populations within and across the studied muscles that demonstrated lower myoelectric frequency (suggesting slower populations) were recruited during tasks and movement phases with lower mechanical demands on the ankle extensors – during downslope and level walking and in early walking stance and paw-shake phases. With increasing mechanical demands (upslope walking, mid-phase of paw-shake cycles), motor unit populations generating higher frequency signals (suggesting faster populations) contributed progressively more. We conclude that the myoelectric frequency contents within and between feline ankle extensors vary across studied motor behaviours, with patterns that are generally consistent with muscle fibre-type composition. PMID:22811250

  1. Central command does not decrease cardiac parasympathetic efferent nerve activity during spontaneous fictive motor activity in decerebrate cats.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Akito; Matsukawa, Kanji; Wakasugi, Rie; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Liang, Nan

    2011-04-01

    To examine whether withdrawal of cardiac vagal efferent nerve activity (CVNA) predominantly controls the tachycardia at the start of exercise, the responses of CVNA and cardiac sympathetic efferent nerve activity (CSNA) were directly assessed during fictive motor activity that occurred spontaneously in unanesthetized, decerebrate cats. CSNA abruptly increased by 71 ± 12% at the onset of the motor activity, preceding the tachycardia response. The increase in CSNA lasted for 4-5 s and returned to the baseline, even though the motor activity was not ended. The increase of 6 ± 1 beats/min in heart rate appeared with the same time course of the increase in CSNA. In contrast, CVNA never decreased but increased throughout the motor activity, in parallel with a rise in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). The peak increase in CVNA was 37 ± 9% at 5 s after the motor onset. The rise in MAP gradually developed to 21 ± 2 mmHg and was sustained throughout the spontaneous motor activity. Partial sinoaortic denervation (SAD) blunted the baroreflex sensitivity of the MAP-CSNA and MAP-CVNA relationship to 22-33% of the control. Although partial SAD blunted the initial increase in CSNA to 53% of the control, the increase in CSNA was sustained throughout the motor activity. In contrast, partial SAD almost abolished the increase in CVNA during the motor activity, despite the augmented elevation of 31 ± 1 mmHg in MAP. Because afferent inputs from both muscle receptors and arterial baroreceptors were absent or greatly attenuated in the partial SAD condition, only central command was operating during spontaneous fictive motor activity in decerebrate cats. Therefore, it is likely that central command causes activation of cardiac sympathetic outflow but does not produce withdrawal of cardiac parasympathetic outflow during spontaneous motor activity.

  2. Brain activation patterns of motor imagery reflect plastic changes associated with intensive shooting training.

    PubMed

    Baeck, Jong-Su; Kim, Yang-Tae; Seo, Jee-Hye; Ryeom, Hun-Kyu; Lee, Jongmin; Choi, Sung-Mook; Woo, Minjung; Kim, Woojong; Kim, Jin Gu; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-09-01

    Evidence from previous studies has suggested that motor imagery and motor action engage overlapping brain systems. As a result of this observation that motor imagery can activate brain regions associated with actual motor movement, motor imagery is expected to enhance motor skill performance and become an underlying principle for physical training in sports and physical rehabilitation. However, few studies have examined the effects of physical training on motor imagery in beginners. Also, differences in neural networks related to motor imagery before and after training have seldom been studied. In the current study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the question of whether motor imagery can reflect plastic changes of neural correlates associated with intensive training. In fact, motor imagery was used in this study as a tool to assess the brain areas involved in shooting and involved in learning of shooting. We discovered that use of motor imagery resulted in recruitment of widely distributed common cortical areas, which were suggested to play a role in generation and maintenance of mental images before and after 90 h of shooting training. In addition to these common areas, brain activation before and after 90 h of shooting practice showed regionally distinct patterns of activity change in subcortical motor areas. That is, basal ganglia showed increased activity after 90 h of shooting practice, suggesting the occurrence of plastic change in association with gains in performance and reinforcement learning. Therefore, our results suggest that, in order to reach a level of expertise, the brain would change through initial reinforcement of preexistent connections during the training period and then use more focused neural correlates through formation of new connections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stem cell cytoskeleton is slaved to active motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehfeldt, Florian; Brown, Andre; Engler, Adam; Discher, Dennis

    2007-03-01

    Cells feel their physical microenvironment through their adhesion and respond to it in various ways. Indeed, matrix elasticity can even guide the differentiation of human adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) [Engler et al. Cell 2006]. Sparse cultures of MSCs on elastic collagen--coated substrates that are respectively soft, stiff, or extremely stiff were shown to induce neurogenesis, myogenesis, and osteogenesis. Lineage commitment was evaluated by morphological analysis, protein expression profiles, and transcription microarrays. Differentiation could be completely blocked with a specific non-muscle myosin II (NMM II) inhibitor, suggesting that contractile motor activity is essential for the cells to sense matrix elasticity. Current studies by AFM and near-field fluorescence imaging show that NMM II inhibition in stem cells on rigid glass surfaces promotes actin-rich dendritic outgrowth resembling neurite extension. Dynamic cell studies have been conducted to elucidate the complex molecular interplay of the contractile apparatus in response to selected physical and biochemical stimuli. Additional insight is being gained by using AFM to investigate the local elasticity of the cell's cytoskeletal force sensing machinery.

  4. Analysis of motor activities of professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Marcin; Chmura, Jan; Pluta, Beata; Kasprzak, Andrzej

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the distance covered by professional soccer players during matches with the use of the computerized match analysis system Amisco Pro® (version 1.0.2, Nice, France). Kinematic examination included the specification of the distance covered by 31 players participating in 4 matches in the Union of European Football Association Cup competitions during the 2008-2009 season. Data were analyzed based on players' positions on the pitch, changes in the players' motor activity intensity level, and match period (first or second half). The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all players (n = 31) was 11,288 ± 734 m. With respect to the player's position on the pitch, the midfielders traveled the longest average distance (11,770 ± 554 m) during the game. This was 3% longer than the distance achieved by the attackers at 11,377 ± 584 m, and 7% longer than that achieved by the defenders 10,932 ± 728 m. The analysis of physical loads on soccer players during a match is highly useful for training individualization. It provides a tool for effective planning and for recording the loads on players, which is an indispensable element of modern coaching.

  5. Microanalysis of ozone depression of motor activity. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tepper, J.L.; Weiss, B.; Cox, C.

    1982-01-01

    Ozone, the principal oxidant in photochemical smog, impairs athletic performance and induces complaints of fatigue and lethargy. It also reduces motor activity in rodents. A detailed analysis of this finding was attempted. Eight male Long-Evans rats were housed in cages attached to running wheels located within a 2-m/sup 3/ exposure chamber. Each revolution of a wheel closed a switch with the time between switch closures recorded by an attached computer. The rats were exposed for 6-hr periods during the nocturnal phase of their light cycle to ozone concentrations of 0.12, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 ppM. Ozone produced initial decrements in the number of revolutions and a progressively greater decrease with continued exposure. Statistically significant depression took place at 0.12 ppM. analysis of the individual components of wheel running revealed differential susceptibility to ozone. After termination of exposure to low concentrations of ozone, animals showed increased running. At the higher concentrations, running remained suppressed below control values for several hours. A new multivariate graphical technique, the biplot, is presented as a way to simultaneously display the relationships among many complex variables.

  6. Developmental Exposure to Pesticides Alters Motor Activity and Coordination in Rats: Sex Differences and Underlying Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Giménez, B; Felipo, V; Cabrera-Pastor, A; Agustí, A; Hernández-Rabaza, V; Llansola, M

    2017-10-03

    It has been proposed that developmental exposure to pesticides contributes to increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, such as attention deficit with hyperactivity (ADHD) and to alterations in coordination skills. However, the mechanisms involved in these alterations remain unclear. We analyzed the effects on spontaneous motor activity and motor coordination of developmental exposure to a representative pesticide of each one of the four main chemical families: organophosphates (chlorpyrifos), carbamates (carbaryl), organochlorines (endosulfan), and pyrethroids (cypermethrin). Pesticides were administered once a day orally, in a sweet jelly, from gestational day 7 to post natal day 21. Spontaneous motor activity was assessed by an actimeter and motor coordination using the rotarod, when rats were adults. The effects were analyzed separately in males and females. Extracellular GABA in cerebellum and NMDA receptor subunits in hippocampus were assessed as possible underlying mechanisms of motor alterations. Motor coordination was impaired by developmental exposure to endosulfan, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos in females but not in males. The effect of endosulfan and cypermethrin would be due to increased extracellular GABA in cerebellum, which remains unaltered in male rats. Chlorpyrifos increased motor activity in males and females. Cypermethrin decreased motor activity mainly in males. In male rats, but not in females, expression of the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor in hippocampus correlated with motor activity. These results show sex-specific effects of different pesticides on motor activity and coordination, associated with neurotransmission alterations. These data contribute to better understand the relationship between developmental exposure to the main pesticide families and motor disorders in children.

  7. Sensory-motor cortex activity modulation by hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis during finger movement.

    PubMed

    Gemignani, A; Tosetti, M; Montanaro, D; Biagi, L; Ghelarducci, B; Guazzelli, M; Santarcangelo, E L

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study whether the activity of the primary sensory-motor (S1/M1), supplementary motor (SMA) and pre-motor (PMA) areas during fingers movement is modulated by hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis. Cortical activity was studied through functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during a finger-to-thumb opposition task in awake (Highs) and hypnotized highly susceptible (H-Highs) as well as in awake non susceptible subjects (Lows). Results did not show any significant difference in sensory-motor areas activation between Highs and Lows (trait effect) and between Highs and H-Highs (state effect). The activation in 3 subjects among Highs and only 1 among Lows (out of 5) of the caudal S1, receiving the most part of the cutaneous input, appears noteworthy and prompts further investigation on possible hypnotizability-related differences in sensory-motor integration.

  8. Functional responses in the human spinal cord during willed motor actions: evidence for side- and rate-dependent activity.

    PubMed

    Maieron, Marta; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Bodurka, Jerzy; Tracey, Irene; Bandettini, Peter A; Porro, Carlo A

    2007-04-11

    Although the spinal cord is the output station of the central motor system, little is known about the relationships between its functional activity and willed movement parameters in humans. We investigated here blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal changes in the cervical spinal cord during a simple finger-to-thumb opposition task in 13 right-handed volunteers, using a dedicated array of 16 receive-only surface coils on a 3 Tesla MRI system. In a first experiment, we found significant fMRI signal increases on both sides of the lower cervical spinal cord while subjects performed the motor task at a comfortable pace (approximately 0.5 Hz) using either hand. Both the spatial extent of movement-related clusters and peak signal increases were significantly higher on the side of the cord ipsilateral to the moving hand than on the contralateral side. Movement-related activity was consistently larger than signal fluctuations during rest. In a second experiment, we recorded spinal cord responses while the same motor sequence was performed using the dominant hand at two different rates (approximately 0.5 or 1 Hz). The intensity but not the spatial extent of the response was larger during higher rates, and it was higher on the ipsilateral side of the cord. Notwithstanding the limited spatial resolving power of the adopted technique, the present results clearly indicate that the finger movement-related fMRI signals recorded from the spinal cord have a neural origin and that as a result of recent technological advances, fMRI can be used to obtain novel and quantitative physiological information on the activity of spinal circuits.

  9. Bilateral motor tasks involve more brain regions and higher neural activation than unilateral tasks: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Noble, Jeremy W; Eng, Janice J; Boyd, Lara A

    2014-09-01

    Movements that involve simultaneous coordination of muscles of the right and left lower limbs form a large part of our daily activities (e.g., standing, rising from a chair). This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine which brain areas are used to control coordinated lower-limb movements, specifically comparing regions that are activated during bilateral exertions to those performed unilaterally. Plantarflexor exertions were produced at a target force level of 15% of the participants' maximum voluntary contraction, in three conditions, with their right (dominant) foot, with their left foot, and with both feet simultaneously. A voxel-wise analysis determined which regions were active in the bilateral, but not in the unilateral conditions. In addition, a region of interest (ROI) approach was used to determine differences in the percent signal change (PSC) between the conditions within motor areas. The voxel-wise analysis showed a large number of regions (cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar) that were active during the bilateral condition, but not during either unilateral condition. The ROI analysis showed several motor regions with higher activation in the bilateral condition than unilateral conditions; further, the magnitude of bilateral PSC was more than the sum of the two unilateral conditions in several of these regions. We postulate that the greater levels of activation during bilateral exertions may arise from interhemispheric inhibition, as well as from the greater need for motor coordination (e.g., synchronizing the two limbs to activate together) and visual processing (e.g., monitoring of two visual stimuli).

  10. Divergent Hox Coding and Evasion of Retinoid Signaling Specifies Motor Neurons Innervating Digit Muscles.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Alana I; Dasen, Jeremy S; Jessell, Thomas M

    2017-02-22

    The establishment of spinal motor neuron subclass diversity is achieved through developmental programs that are aligned with the organization of muscle targets in the limb. The evolutionary emergence of digits represents a specialized adaptation of limb morphology, yet it remains unclear how the specification of digit-innervating motor neuron subtypes parallels the elaboration of digits. We show that digit-innervating motor neurons can be defined by selective gene markers and distinguished from other LMC neurons by the expression of a variant Hox gene repertoire and by the failure to express a key enzyme involved in retinoic acid synthesis. This divergent developmental program is sufficient to induce the specification of digit-innervating motor neurons, emphasizing the specialized status of digit control in the evolution of skilled motor behaviors. Our findings suggest that the emergence of digits in the limb is matched by distinct mechanisms for specifying motor neurons that innervate digit muscles.

  11. Sleep Loss Activates Cellular Inflammatory Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Wang, Minge; Ribeiro, Denise; Cho, Hyong Jin; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Martinez-Maza, Otoniel; Cole, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that sleep disturbance is associated with inflammation and related disorders including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to test the effects of sleep loss on activation of nuclear factor (NF) -κB, a transcription factor that serves a critical role in the inflammatory signaling cascade. Methods In 14 healthy adults (7 females; 7 males), peripheral blood mononuclear cell NF-κB was repeatedly assessed, along with enumeration of lymphocyte subpopulations, in the morning after baseline sleep, partial sleep deprivation (awake from 23:00 h to 03:00 h), and recovery sleep. Results In the morning after a night of sleep loss, mononuclear cell NF-κB activation was significantly greater compared with morning levels following uninterrupted baseline or recovery sleep, in which the response was found in females but not in males. Conclusions These results identify NF-κB activation as a molecular pathway by which sleep disturbance may influence leukocyte inflammatory gene expression and the risk of inflammation-related disease. PMID:18561896

  12. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jeffrey K; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S

    2015-08-18

    Life is fundamentally a nonequilibrium phenomenon. At the expense of dissipated energy, living things perform irreversible processes that allow them to propagate and reproduce. Within cells, evolution has designed nanoscale machines to do meaningful work with energy harnessed from a continuous flux of heat and particles. As dictated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics and its fluctuation theorem corollaries, irreversibility in nonequilibrium processes can be quantified in terms of how much entropy such dynamics produce. In this work, we seek to address a fundamental question linking biology and nonequilibrium physics: can the evolved dissipative pathways that facilitate biomolecular function be identified by their extent of entropy production in general relaxation processes? We here synthesize massive molecular dynamics simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and nonequilibrium statistical mechanical theory to probe dissipation in two key classes of signaling proteins: kinases and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Applying machinery from large deviation theory, we use MSMs constructed from protein simulations to generate dynamics conforming to positive levels of entropy production. We note the emergence of an array of peaks in the dynamical response (transient analogs of phase transitions) that draw the proteins between distinct levels of dissipation, and we see that the binding of ATP and agonist molecules modifies the observed dissipative landscapes. Overall, we find that dissipation is tightly coupled to activation in these signaling systems: dominant entropy-producing trajectories become localized near important barriers along known biological activation pathways. We go on to classify an array of equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular switches that harmonize to promote functional dynamics.

  13. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jeffrey K.; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Life is fundamentally a nonequilibrium phenomenon. At the expense of dissipated energy, living things perform irreversible processes that allow them to propagate and reproduce. Within cells, evolution has designed nanoscale machines to do meaningful work with energy harnessed from a continuous flux of heat and particles. As dictated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics and its fluctuation theorem corollaries, irreversibility in nonequilibrium processes can be quantified in terms of how much entropy such dynamics produce. In this work, we seek to address a fundamental question linking biology and nonequilibrium physics: can the evolved dissipative pathways that facilitate biomolecular function be identified by their extent of entropy production in general relaxation processes? We here synthesize massive molecular dynamics simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and nonequilibrium statistical mechanical theory to probe dissipation in two key classes of signaling proteins: kinases and G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). Applying machinery from large deviation theory, we use MSMs constructed from protein simulations to generate dynamics conforming to positive levels of entropy production. We note the emergence of an array of peaks in the dynamical response (transient analogs of phase transitions) that draw the proteins between distinct levels of dissipation, and we see that the binding of ATP and agonist molecules modifies the observed dissipative landscapes. Overall, we find that dissipation is tightly coupled to activation in these signaling systems: dominant entropy-producing trajectories become localized near important barriers along known biological activation pathways. We go on to classify an array of equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular switches that harmonize to promote functional dynamics. PMID:26240354

  14. Oxytocin stimulates colonic motor activity in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, B; Ringström, G; Abrahamsson, H; Simrén, M; Björnsson, E S

    2004-04-01

    The effects of oxytocin in the gastrointestinal tract are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of infusion of oxytocin on colonic motility and sensitivity in healthy women. Fourteen healthy women were investigated twice. A 6-channel perfusion catheter, with three recording points (2 cm apart) proximally and three recording points distally to a barostat balloon, was inserted to the splenic flexure. An intestinal feeding tube was placed in the mid-duodenum. A 90-min duodenal lipid infusion of 3 kcal min(-1) was administered. Thirty minutes after the start of the lipid infusion, the subject randomly received either 20 or 40 mU min(-1) of oxytocin, or isotonic saline as intravenous infusions for 90 min. Meanwhile, the colonic motility was recorded. During the last 30 min of oxytocin and saline infusion, the visceral sensitivity to balloon distensions was examined. During lipid infusion the number of antegrade contractions per hour was 0.7 +/- 0.3 after saline and 3.9 +/- 1.4 after oxytocin (P = 0.03), indicating more pronounced lumen-occlusive contractile activity after oxytocin administration. Some of these consisted of high-amplitude (> 103 mmHg in amplitude) antegrade contractions. Lipid infusion evoked a decrease of the balloon volume, reflecting increased colonic tone, but there was no difference between saline and oxytocin. Sensory thresholds did not differ significantly between saline and oxytocin. Infusion of oxytocin stimulates antegrade peristaltic contractions in stimulated colon in healthy women. The effects of oxytocin on colonic motor activity deserve to be further explored, especially in patients with colonic peristaltic dysfunction.

  15. Piezoceramic Ultrasonic Motor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, J.S.

    1999-02-24

    The objective of this project was to team Aerotech and AlliedSignal FM and T (AS) to develop a cost-efficient process for small-batch, high performance PZT motor production. Aerotech would acquire the basic process expertise in motor fabrication, assembly, and testing from AS. Together, Aerotech and AS were to identify appropriate process improvements, focusing on raw material quality, manufacturing processes, and durability assessment. Aerotech would then design and build a motor in consultation with AS. Aerotech engineering observed motor manufacturing in the AS piezo lab and worked side by side with AS personnel to build and test a prototype motor to facilitate learning the technology. Using information from AS and hands-on experience with the AS motor drive system enabled Aerotech to design and build its own laboratory drive system to operate motors. The team compiled information to establish a potential piezo motor users' list, and an intellectual property search was conducted to understand current patent and IP (intellectual property) status of motor design. Work was initiated to identify and develop an American source for piezo motor elements; however, due to manpower restraints created by the resignation of the AS Ph.D. ceramist responsible for these tasks, the project schedule slipped. The project was subsequently terminated before significant activities were accomplished. AS did, however, provide Aerotech with contacts in Japanese industry that are willing and capable of supplying them with special design motor elements.

  16. Dual traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor with single active vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Dawei; Yang, Ming; Zhuang, Xiaoqi; Yang, Tianyue; Meng, Fan; Dong, Zhaopeng

    2017-04-01

    Traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor with double vibrators can improve the output performance effectively. However, the rotor has to be energized through a slip ring, which increases the complexity and reduces the reliability. Inheriting the concept of two traveling waves propagating in the stator and rotor, a dual traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor energized only in the stator is proposed. By analyzing the oscillatory differential equation and the contact particles motion, a traveling wave is found in the rotor and the drive mechanism of dual traveling wave is studied. With the resonant rotor adopted, the consistent eigenfrequencies are calculated by finite element method and verified by an impedance analyzer. The performance experiment presents that the dual traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor is superior to the motor with single traveling wave. The no-load speed is 60 rpm and the stalling torque is 0.85 Nm. Additionally, compared with a reported motor with double vibrators, the proposed motor presents the better output performance and the simpler design.

  17. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, M. C.

    1998-12-11

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical ''signatures'' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration, the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can detect, recognize, and

  18. Single-unit activity, threshold crossings, and local field potentials in motor cortex differentially encode reach kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Perel, Sagi; Sadtler, Patrick T.; Oby, Emily R.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C.; Batista, Aaron P.

    2015-01-01

    A diversity of signals can be recorded with extracellular electrodes. It remains unclear whether different signal types convey similar or different information and whether they capture the same or different underlying neural phenomena. Some researchers focus on spiking activity, while others examine local field potentials, and still others posit that these are fundamentally the same signals. We examined the similarities and differences in the information contained in four signal types recorded simultaneously from multielectrode arrays implanted in primary motor cortex: well-isolated action potentials from putative single units, multiunit threshold crossings, and local field potentials (LFPs) at two distinct frequency bands. We quantified the tuning of these signal types to kinematic parameters of reaching movements. We found 1) threshold crossing activity is not a proxy for single-unit activity; 2) when examined on individual electrodes, threshold crossing activity more closely resembles LFP activity at frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz than it does single-unit activity; 3) when examined across multiple electrodes, threshold crossing activity and LFP integrate neural activity at different spatial scales; and 4) LFP power in the “beta band” (between 10 and 40 Hz) is a reliable indicator of movement onset but does not encode kinematic features on an instant-by-instant basis. These results show that the diverse signals recorded from extracellular electrodes provide somewhat distinct and complementary information. It may be that these signal types arise from biological phenomena that are partially distinct. These results also have practical implications for harnessing richer signals to improve brain-machine interface control. PMID:26133797

  19. Influence of respiratory motor neurone activity on human autonomic and haemodynamic rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonschorek, A. S.; Lu, L. L.; Halliwill, J. R.; Beightol, L. A.; Taylor, J. A.; Painter, J. A.; Warzel, H.; Eckberg, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    Although humans hold great advantages over other species as subjects for biomedical research, they also bring major disadvantages. One is that among the many rhythmic physiological signals that can be recorded, there is no sure way to know which individual change precedes another, or which change represents cause and which represents effect. In an attempt to deal with the inherent complexity of research conducted in intact human subjects, we developed and used a structural equation model to analyse responses of healthy young men to pharmacological changes of arterial pressure and graded inspiratory resistance, before and after vagomimetic atropine. Our model yielded a good fit of the experimental data, with a system weighted R2 of 0.77, and suggested that our treatments exerted both direct and indirect influences on the variables we measured. Thus, infusions of nitroprusside and phenylephrine exerted all of their direct effects by lowering and raising arterial pressure; the changes of R-R intervals, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and arterial pressure fluctuations that these drugs provoked, were indirect consequences of arterial pressure changes. The only direct effect of increased inspiratory resistance was augmentation of arterial pressure fluctuations. These results may provide a new way to disentangle and understand responses of intact human subjects to experimental forcings. The principal new insight we derived from our modelling is that respiratory gating of vagal-cardiac motor neurone firing is nearly maximal at usual levels of arterial pressure and inspiratory motor neurone activity.

  20. [The neuronal level of motor activity: determination of motor cortex excitability by TMS].

    PubMed

    Eichhammer, Peter; Langguth, Berthold; Müller, Jürgen; Hajak, Göran

    2005-04-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation as mapping method offers the possibility to measure aspects of motor cortex excitability painlessly and non-invasively. Using this neurophysiological tool, new insights into the effects of central-acting drugs are possible. Particularly striking seems to be the potential of this approach to gain new insights into neurobiological processes associated with neuropsychiatric diseases like schizophrenia or major depression. In combination with genetic aspects, TMS is able to bridge the gap between molecular research and clinical approach.

  1. Transport dynamics of molecular motors that switch between an active and inactive state.

    PubMed

    Pinkoviezky, I; Gov, N S

    2013-08-01

    Molecular motors are involved in key transport processes in the cell. Many of these motors can switch from an active to a nonactive state, either spontaneously or depending on their interaction with other molecules. When active, the motors move processively along the filaments, while when inactive they are stationary. We treat here the simple case of spontaneously switching motors, between the active and inactive states, along an open linear track. We use our recent analogy with vehicular traffic, where we go beyond the mean-field description. We map the phase diagram of this system, and find that it clearly breaks the symmetry between the different phases, as compared to the standard total asymmetric exclusion process. We make several predictions that may be testable using molecular motors in vitro and in living cells.

  2. A functional model and simulation of spinal motor pools and intrafascicular recordings of motoneuron activity in peripheral nerve

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghani, Mohamed N.; Abbas, James J.; Horch, Kenneth W.; Jung, Ranu

    2014-01-01

    Decoding motor intent from recorded neural signals is essential for the development of effective neural-controlled prostheses. To facilitate the development of online decoding algorithms we have developed a software platform to simulate neural motor signals recorded with peripheral nerve electrodes, such as longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (LIFEs). The simulator uses stored motor intent signals to drive a pool of simulated motoneurons with various spike shapes, recruitment characteristics, and firing frequencies. Each electrode records a weighted sum of a subset of simulated motoneuron activity patterns. As designed, the simulator facilitates development of a suite of test scenarios that would not be possible with actual data sets because, unlike with actual recordings, in the simulator the individual contributions to the simulated composite recordings are known and can be methodically varied across a set of simulation runs. In this manner, the simulation tool is suitable for iterative development of real-time decoding algorithms prior to definitive evaluation in amputee subjects with implanted electrodes. The simulation tool was used to produce data sets that demonstrate its ability to capture some features of neural recordings that pose challenges for decoding algorithms. PMID:25452711

  3. The impact of pedestrian countdown signals on pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions: a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Camden, Andi; Buliung, Ron; Rothman, Linda; Macarthur, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether pedestrian countdown signals (PCS) reduce pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions in the city of Toronto, Canada. Methods A quasi-experimental study design was used to evaluate the effect of PCS on the number of pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions in the city of Toronto, from January 2000 to December 2009. Each intersection acted as its own control. We compared the number of pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions per intersection-month before and after the intervention. Stratified models were used to evaluate effect modification by pedestrian age, injury severity and location (urban vs inner suburbs). Poisson regression analysis with repeated measures (generalised estimating equations) was used to estimate the RR and 95% CI. Results The analysis included 9262 pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions at 1965 intersections. The RR of collisions after PCS installation was 1.014 (95% CI 0.958 to 1.073), indicating no statistically significant effect of PCS on collisions. There was no evidence to suggest effect modification between PCS and collisions by age, injury severity or location. Conclusion The installation of PCS at 1965 signalised intersections in Toronto did not reduce the number of pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions at these intersections. PMID:22157206

  4. Redefining the functional roles of the gastrointestinal migrating motor complex and motilin in small bacterial overgrowth and hunger signaling.

    PubMed

    Deloose, Eveline; Tack, Jan

    2016-02-15

    During the fasting state the upper gastrointestinal tract exhibits a specific periodic migrating contraction pattern that is known as the migrating motor complex (MMC). Three different phases can be distinguished during the MMC. Phase III of the MMC is the most active of the three and can start either in the stomach or small intestine. Historically this pattern was designated to be the housekeeper of the gut since disturbances in the pattern were associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; however, its role in the involvement of hunger sensations was already hinted in the beginning of the 20th century by both Cannon (Cannon W, Washburn A. Am J Physiol 29: 441-454, 1912) and Carlson (Carlson A. The Control of Hunger in Health and Disease. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1916). The discovery of motilin in 1973 shed more light on the control mechanisms of the MMC. Motilin plasma levels fluctuate together with the phases of the MMC and induce phase III contractions with a gastric onset. Recent research suggests that these motilin-induced phase III contractions signal hunger in healthy subjects and that this system is disturbed in morbidly obese patients. This minireview describes the functions of the MMC in the gut and its regulatory role in controlling hunger sensations. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Children Move to Learn: A Guide to Planning Gross Motor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Judy

    This guide for persons working with young children with gross motor delays is designed to be used in the assessment of gross motor abilities, the detection and identification of delays and the planning and implementation of appropriate Individual Activity Plans (IAP) for correcting the delays. Observation guidelines in the form of questions (Can…

  6. Children Move to Learn: A Guide to Planning Gross Motor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Judy

    This guide for persons working with young children with gross motor delays is designed to be used in the assessment of gross motor abilities, the detection and identification of delays and the planning and implementation of appropriate Individual Activity Plans (IAP) for correcting the delays. Observation guidelines in the form of questions (Can…

  7. Strain Mediated Adaptation Is Key for Myosin Mechanochemistry: Discovering General Rules for Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Jana, Biman; Onuchic, José N

    2016-08-01

    A structure-based model of myosin motor is built in the same spirit of our early work for kinesin-1 and Ncd towards physical understanding of its mechanochemical cycle. We find a structural adaptation of the motor head domain in post-powerstroke state that signals faster ADP release from it compared to the same from the motor head in the pre-powerstroke state. For dimeric myosin, an additional forward strain on the trailing head, originating from the postponed powerstroke state of the leading head in the waiting state of myosin, further increases the rate of ADP release. This coordination between the two heads is the essence of the processivity of the cycle. Our model provides a structural description of the powerstroke step of the cycle as an allosteric transition of the converter domain in response to the Pi release. Additionally, the variation in structural elements peripheral to catalytic motor domain is the deciding factor behind diverse directionalities of myosin motors (myosin V & VI). Finally, we observe that there are general rules for functional molecular motors across the different families. Allosteric structural adaptation of the catalytic motor head in different nucleotide states is crucial for mechanochemistry. Strain-mediated coordination between motor heads is essential for processivity and the variation of peripheral structural elements is essential for their diverse functionalities.

  8. Strain Mediated Adaptation Is Key for Myosin Mechanochemistry: Discovering General Rules for Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Biman; Onuchic, José N.

    2016-01-01

    A structure-based model of myosin motor is built in the same spirit of our early work for kinesin-1 and Ncd towards physical understanding of its mechanochemical cycle. We find a structural adaptation of the motor head domain in post-powerstroke state that signals faster ADP release from it compared to the same from the motor head in the pre-powerstroke state. For dimeric myosin, an additional forward strain on the trailing head, originating from the postponed powerstroke state of the leading head in the waiting state of myosin, further increases the rate of ADP release. This coordination between the two heads is the essence of the processivity of the cycle. Our model provides a structural description of the powerstroke step of the cycle as an allosteric transition of the converter domain in response to the Pi release. Additionally, the variation in structural elements peripheral to catalytic motor domain is the deciding factor behind diverse directionalities of myosin motors (myosin V & VI). Finally, we observe that there are general rules for functional molecular motors across the different families. Allosteric structural adaptation of the catalytic motor head in different nucleotide states is crucial for mechanochemistry. Strain-mediated coordination between motor heads is essential for processivity and the variation of peripheral structural elements is essential for their diverse functionalities. PMID:27494025

  9. Does physical activity benefit motor performance and learning of upper extremity tasks in older adults? - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Lena; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Upper extremity motor performance declines with increasing age. However, older adults need to maintain, learn new and relearn known motor tasks. Research with young adults indicated that regular and acute physical activity might facilitate motor performance and motor learning processes. Therefore, this review aimed to examine the association between chronic physical activity and acute bouts of exercise on motor performance and motor learning in upper extremity motor tasks in older adults. Literature was searched via Cochrane library, PubMED, PsycINFO and Scopus and 27 studies met all inclusion criteria. All studies dealt with the influence of chronic physical activity on motor performance or motor learning, no appropriate study examining the influence of an acute bout of exercise in older adults was found. Results concerning the association of chronic physical activity and motor performance are mixed and seem to be influenced by the study design, kind of exercise, motor task, and exercise intensity. Regarding motor learning, a high physical activity or cardiovascular fitness level seems to boost the initial phase of motor learning; results differ with respect to motor retention. Overall, (motor-coordinative) intervention studies seem to be more promising than cross-sectional studies.

  10. Distribution of Active and Resting Periods in the Motor Activity of Patients with Depression and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hauge, Erik; Berle, Jan Øystein; Dilsaver, Steven; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Alterations of activity are prominent features of the major functional psychiatric disorders. Motor activity patterns are characterized by bursts of activity separated by periods with inactivity. The purpose of the present study has been to analyze such active and inactive periods in patients with depression and schizophrenia. Methods Actigraph registrations for 12 days from 24 patients with schizophrenia, 23 with depression and 29 healthy controls. Results Patients with schizophrenia and depression have distinctly different profiles with regard to the characterization and distribution of active and inactive periods. The mean duration of active periods is lowest in the depressed patients, and the duration of inactive periods is highest in the patients with schizophrenia. For active periods the cumulative probability distribution, using lengths from 1 to 35 min, follows a straight line on a log-log plot, suggestive of a power law function, and a similar relationship is found for inactive periods, using lengths from 1 to 20 min. For both active and inactive periods the scaling exponent is higher in the depressed compared to the schizophrenic patients. Conclusion The present findings add to previously published results, with other mathematical methods, suggesting there are important differences in control systems regulating motor behavior in these two major groups of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26766953

  11. Hand motor activity, cognition, mood, and the rest-activity rhythm in dementia: a clustered RCT.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Laura H P; Knol, Dirk L; Hol, Elly M; Swaab, Dick F; Scherder, Erik J A

    2009-01-23

    Physical activity such as walking may exert a positive impact on cognition and behaviour in older persons with dementia, but due to the frailty of the population it may be worthwhile to consider other motor activities as well. Examining the effects of hand motor activity on cognition, mood and the rest-activity rhythm in older persons with dementia. Sixty-one older nursing home residents with dementia (mean age 84.6 years) were randomly assigned to either a hand movement program (experimental) or read aloud program (control) for 30min, 5 days a week, during 6 weeks. Neuropsychological tests, mood questionnaires, and actigraphy data were assessed at baseline, after 6 weeks, and again after 6 weeks. Apolipoprotein epsilon (ApoE) genotype was determined. Scores on neuropsychological tests were combined and formed specific Cognitive domains. Symptoms of depression and anxiety formed the Mood domain. Actigraphy variables composed the Rest-activity domain. In mixed model analyses no significant group x time interactions were found on either the Cognitive, Mood or Rest-activity domains in the intention-to-treat analysis. In the per protocol analysis, that included people who attended at least 80% of the sessions, mood improved only in the experimental group. No significant time x group x ApoE interaction effects were found in either analysis. In older nursing home residents with dementia, increased attendance to the hand movement program appeared to have a positive effect on mood. Hand motor activity is a type of activity that can be applied at a large scale.

  12. Activity-dependent plasticity improves M1 motor representation and corticospinal tract connectivity.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, S; Friel, K M; Martin, J H

    2009-03-01

    Motor cortex (M1) activity between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 is essential for normal development of the corticospinal tract (CST) and visually guided movements. Unilateral reversible inactivation of M1, by intracortical muscimol infusion, during this period permanently impairs development of the normal dorsoventral distribution of CST terminations and visually guided motor skills. These impairments are abrogated if this M1 inactivation is followed by inactivation of the contralateral, initially active M1, from weeks 7 to 11 (termed alternate inactivation). This later period is when the M1 motor representation normally develops. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of alternate inactivation on the motor representation of the initially inactivated M1. We used intracortical microstimulation to map the left M1 1 to 2 mo after the end of left M1 muscimol infusion. We compared representations in the unilateral inactivation and alternate inactivation groups. Alternate inactivation converted the sparse proximal M1 motor representation produced by unilateral inactivation to a complete and high-resolution proximal-distal representation. The motor map was restored by week 11, the same age that our present and prior studies demonstrated that alternate inactivation restored CST spinal connectivity. Thus M1 motor map developmental plasticity closely parallels plasticity of CST spinal terminations. After alternate inactivation reestablished CST connections and the motor map, an additional 3 wk was required for motor skill recovery. Since motor map recovery preceded behavioral recovery, our findings suggest that the representation is necessary for recovering motor skills, but additional time, or experience, is needed to learn to take advantage of the restored CST connections and motor map.

  13. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... motor vehicle in the direction of approaching traffic; (ii) One at 40 paces (approximately 30 meters or... occupied by the commercial motor vehicle and in the direction of approaching traffic; and (iii) One at 40... fusees or liquid-burning flares in lieu of bidirectional reflective triangles or red flags, the...

  14. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... motor vehicle in the direction of approaching traffic; (ii) One at 40 paces (approximately 30 meters or... occupied by the commercial motor vehicle and in the direction of approaching traffic; and (iii) One at 40... fusees or liquid-burning flares in lieu of bidirectional reflective triangles or red flags, the...

  15. Amplitude spectrum EEG signal evidence for the dissociation of motor and perceptual spatial working memory in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Protopapa, Foteini; Tsoukas, Evangelos; Balogh, Allison; Siettos, Constantinos I; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the question whether spatial working memory related to movement plans (motor working memory) and spatial working memory related to spatial attention and perceptual processes (perceptual spatial working memory) share the same neurophysiological substrate or there is evidence for separate motor and perceptual working memory streams of processing. Towards this aim, ten healthy human subjects performed delayed responses to visual targets presented at different spatial locations. Two tasks were attained, one in which the spatial location of the target was the goal for a pointing movement and one in which the spatial location of the target was used for a perceptual (yes or no) change detection. Each task involved two conditions: a memory condition in which the target remained visible only for the first 250 ms of the delay period and a delay condition in which the target location remained visible throughout the delay period. The amplitude spectrum analysis of the EEG revealed that the alpha (8-12 Hz) band signal was smaller, while the beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (30-45 Hz) band signals were larger in the memory compared to the non-memory condition. The alpha band signal difference was confined to the frontal midline area; the beta band signal difference extended over the right hemisphere and midline central area, and the gamma band signal difference was confined to the right occipitoparietal area. Importantly, both in beta and gamma bands, we observed a significant increase in the movement-related compared to the perceptual-related memory-specific amplitude spectrum signal in the central midline area. This result provides clear evidence for the dissociation of motor and perceptual spatial working memory.

  16. Muscle activation described with a differential equation model for large ensembles of locally coupled molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Sam

    2014-10-01

    Molecular motors, by turning chemical energy into mechanical work, are responsible for active cellular processes. Often groups of these motors work together to perform their biological role. Motors in an ensemble are coupled and exhibit complex emergent behavior. Although large motor ensembles can be modeled with partial differential equations (PDEs) by assuming that molecules function independently of their neighbors, this assumption is violated when motors are coupled locally. It is therefore unclear how to describe the ensemble behavior of the locally coupled motors responsible for biological processes such as calcium-dependent skeletal muscle activation. Here we develop a theory to describe locally coupled motor ensembles and apply the theory to skeletal muscle activation. The central idea is that a muscle filament can be divided into two phases: an active and an inactive phase. Dynamic changes in the relative size of these phases are described by a set of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). As the dynamics of the active phase are described by PDEs, muscle activation is governed by a set of coupled ODEs and PDEs, building on previous PDE models. With comparison to Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the theory captures the behavior of locally coupled ensembles. The theory also plausibly describes and predicts muscle experiments from molecular to whole muscle scales, suggesting that a micro- to macroscale muscle model is within reach.

  17. Curcumin improves the recovery of motor function and reduces spinal cord edema in a rat acute spinal cord injury model by inhibiting the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zu, Jianing; Wang, Yufu; Xu, Gongping; Zhuang, Jinpeng; Gong, He; Yan, Jinglong

    2014-10-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment extracted from Carcuma longa, has been demonstrated to have extensive pharmacological activity in various studies, and it exhibits protective effects on injuries involving a number of human organs. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential effect and underlying mechanism of curcumin on the motor function and spinal cord edema in a rat acute spinal cord injury (SCI) model. The SCI model was induced by a heavy object falling. At 30min after the SCI was successfully induced, the animals were intraperitoneally given 40mg/kg curcumin. The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores showed that curcumin moderately improved the recovery of the motor function in the injured rats, and hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated the role of this compound in reducing the hemorrhage, edema and neutrophil infiltration of the traumatic spinal cord. Furthermore, curcumin also inhibited the SCI-associated aquaporin - 4 (AQP4) overexpression and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and repressed the unusual activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that curcumin exhibits a moderately protective effect on spinal cord injury, and this effect might be related to the inhibition of overexpressed AQP4 and GFAP and the activated JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Curcumin may have potential for use as a therapeutic option for spinal cord injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerebral-cortical networking and activation increase as a function of cognitive-motor task difficulty.

    PubMed

    Rietschel, Jeremy C; Miller, Matthew W; Gentili, Rodolphe J; Goodman, Ronald N; McDonald, Craig G; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2012-05-01

    Excessive increases in task difficulty typically result in marked attenuation of cognitive-motor performance. The psychomotor efficiency hypothesis suggests that poor performance is mediated by non-essential neural activity and cerebral cortical networking (inefficient cortical dynamics). This phenomenon may underlie the inverse relationship between excessive task difficulty and performance. However, investigation of the psychomotor efficiency hypothesis as it relates to task difficulty has not been conducted. The present study used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine cerebral cortical dynamics while participants were challenged with both Easy and Hard conditions during a cognitive-motor task (Tetris(®)). In accord with the psychomotor efficiency hypothesis, it was predicted that with increases in task difficulty, participants would demonstrate greater 'neural effort,' as indexed by EEG spectral power and cortical networking (i.e., EEG coherence) between the premotor (motor planning) region and sensory, executive, and motor regions. Increases in neural activation and cortical networking were observed during the Hard condition relative to the Easy condition, thus supporting the psychomotor efficiency hypothesis. To further determine the unique contributions of cognitive versus sensory-motor demands, a control experiment was conducted in which cognitive demand was increased while sensory-motor demand was held constant. This experiment revealed that regionally specific neural activation was influenced by changes in cognitive demand, whereas cortical networking to the motor planning region was sensitive only to changes in sensory-motor demand. Crucially, the present study is the first, to our knowledge, to characterize the separate impact of cognitive versus sensory-motor demands on cerebral cortical dynamics. The findings further inform the dynamics of the cortical processes that underlie the quality of cognitive-motor performance particularly with regard to task

  19. Motor training and physical activity among preschoolers with cerebral palsy: a survey of parents' experiences.

    PubMed

    Myrhaug, Hilde Tinderholt; Østensjø, Sigrid

    2014-05-01

    To describe motor training and physical activity among preschoolers with cerebral palsy (CP) in Norway, and assess associations between child, parent, and motor intervention characteristics, and parent-reported child benefits from interventions. Survey of 360 parents and data from the Norwegian CP follow-up program. The response rate was 34%. During the six months preceding the time of the survey, 75% of the children performed gross-motor training, 73% fine-motor training, 80% manual stretching, and 67% participated regularly in physical activities. The training was highly goal-directed, intensive, frequently incorporated in daily routines, and often with a high level of parental involvement. The use of goals was associated with higher parent-reported child benefits for all types of interventions. Moreover, the positive relationship, which was indicated between frequency of training, parent education, and parent-reported child benefits of gross-motor training, was not seen for fine-motor training. Parent-reported child benefits support goal-directed motor interventions, and the use of everyday activities to increase practice of motor skills.

  20. Orphanin FQ/nociceptin suppresses motor activity through an action along the mesoaccumbens axis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Shridhar; Lam, Hoa; Carroll, F. Ivy; Lutfy, Kabirullah

    2004-01-01

    Objective Intracerebroventricular administration of orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), the endogenous agonist ligand of the opioid receptor-like (ORL-1) receptor, decreases extracellular levels of dopamine and suppresses motor activity. The presence of the ORL-1 receptor on mesoaccumbal and nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons raises the possibility that an action along these pathways may be one means by which OFQ/N produces motor suppression. Thus, the present study used local administration of OFQ/N into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the substantia nigra, the nucleus accumbens and the striatum to determine the contribution of cell-body regions and terminal fields of the dopaminergic neurons to the motor-suppressant effect of OFQ/N. Methods Rats were implanted bilaterally with guide cannulae into one of the brain regions and tested 4 days later. First, the effect of a single dose of OFQ/N (30 μg/0.5 μL per side) on motor activity was determined after direct injection into the VTA, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens or striatum. Rats were habituated to activity chambers for 1 hour and then injected with either artificial cerebrospinal fluid or OFQ/N into one of the brain regions, and motor activity was recorded for a further 1 hour. Next, the dose–response effect of intra-VTA or intranigral OFQ/N (3 μg or 30 μg/0.5 μL per side) on motor activity was examined. Finally, the effect of intra-VTA OFQ/N (3 μg or 30 μg/0.5 μL per side) on motor activity was determined in the presence of J-113397, an ORL-1 receptor antagonist. Results OFQ/N suppressed motor activity when injected into the VTA and to a lesser extent after direct injection into the nucleus accumbens. However, OFQ/N failed to attenuate motor activity significantly after injection into the substantia nigra or the striatum. Subsequent dose–response studies showed that OFQ/N suppressed motor activity even at a 10-fold-lower dose after intrategmental but not intranigral administration. The motor

  1. Active transport improves the precision of linear long distance molecular signalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Molecular signalling in living cells occurs at low copy numbers and is thereby inherently limited by the noise imposed by thermal diffusion. The precision at which biochemical receptors can count signalling molecules is intimately related to the noise correlation time. In addition to passive thermal diffusion, messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signalling molecules can transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported across biological cells. Active transport is most beneficial when trafficking occurs over large distances, for instance up to the order of 1 metre in neurons. Here we explain how intermittent active transport allows for faster equilibration upon a change in concentration triggered by biochemical stimuli. Moreover, we show how intermittent active excursions induce qualitative changes in the noise in effectively one-dimensional systems such as dendrites. Thereby they allow for significantly improved signalling precision in the sense of a smaller relative deviation in the concentration read-out by the receptor. On the basis of linear response theory we derive the exact mean field precision limit for counting actively transported molecules. We explain how intermittent active excursions disrupt the recurrence in the molecular motion, thereby facilitating improved signalling accuracy. Our results provide a deeper understanding of how recurrence affects molecular signalling precision in biological cells and novel medical-diagnostic devices.

  2. The activity in the contralateral primary motor cortex, dorsal premotor and supplementary motor area is modulated by performance gains

    PubMed Central

    Sosnik, Ronen; Flash, Tamar; Sterkin, Anna; Hauptmann, Bjoern; Karni, Avi

    2014-01-01

    There is growing experimental evidence that the engagement of different brain areas in a given motor task may change with practice, although the specific brain activity patterns underlying different stages of learning, as defined by kinematic or dynamic performance indices, are not well understood. Here we studied the change in activation in motor areas during practice on sequences of handwriting-like trajectories, connecting four target points on a digitizing table “as rapidly and as accurately as possible” while lying inside an fMRI scanner. Analysis of the subjects' pooled kinematic and imaging data, acquired at the beginning, middle, and end of the training period, revealed no correlation between the amount of activation in the contralateral M1, PM (dorsal and ventral), supplementary motor area (SMA), preSMA, and Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC) and the amount of practice per-se. Single trial analysis has revealed that the correlation between the amount of activation in the contralateral M1 and trial mean velocity was partially modulated by performance gains related effects, such as increased hand motion smoothness. Furthermore, it was found that the amount of activation in the contralateral preSMA increased when subjects shifted from generating straight point-to-point trajectories to their spatiotemporal concatenation into a smooth, curved trajectory. Altogether, our results indicate that the amount of activation in the contralateral M1, PMd, and preSMA during the learning of movement sequences is correlated with performance gains and that high level motion features (e.g., motion smoothness) may modulate, or even mask correlations between activity changes and low-level motion attributes (e.g., trial mean velocity). PMID:24795591

  3. Association between Late-Life Social Activity and Motor Decline in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, Aron S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Wilson, Robert S.; Fleischman, Debra A.; Leurgans, Sue; Bennett, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Loss of motor function is a common consequence of aging, but little is known about factors that predict idiopathic motor decline. Methods We studied 906 persons without dementia, history of stroke or Parkinson's disease participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. At baseline, they rated their frequency of participation in common social activities. Outcome was annual change in global motor function, based on nine measures of muscle strength and nine motor performances. Results Mean social activity score at baseline was 2.6 (SD=0.58), with higher scores indicating more frequent participation in social activities. In a generalized estimating equation model, controlling for age, sex and education, motor function declined by about 0.05 unit/year [Estimate, 0.016; 95%CI (-0.057, -0.041); p=0.017]. Each 1-point decrease in social activity was associated with about a 33% more rapid rate of decline in motor function [Estimate, 0.016; 95%CI (0.003, 0.029); p=0.017)]. This amount of annual motor decline was associated with a more than 40% increased risk of death (Hazard Ratio: 1.44; 95%CI: 1.30, 1.60) and 65% increased risk of incident Katz disability (Hazard Ratio: 1.65; 95%CI: 1.48, 1.83). The association of social activity with change in motor function did not vary along demographic lines and was unchanged after controlling for potential confounders including late-life physical and cognitive activity, disability, global cognition, depressive symptoms, body composition and chronic medical conditions [Estimate, 0.025; 95%CI (0.005, 0.045); p=0.010]. Conclusion Less frequent participation in social activities is associated with a more rapid rate of motor decline in old age. PMID:19546415

  4. Effectiveness, active energy produced by molecular motors, and nonlinear capacitance of the cochlear outer hair cell.

    PubMed

    Spector, Alexander A

    2005-06-01

    Cochlear outer hair cells are crucial for active hearing. These cells have a unique form of motility, named electromotility, whose main features are the cell's length changes, active force production, and nonlinear capacitance. The molecular motor, prestin, that drives outer hair cell electromotility has recently been identified. We reveal relationships between the active energy produced by the outer hair cell molecular motors, motor effectiveness, and the capacitive properties of the cell membrane. We quantitatively characterize these relationships by introducing three characteristics: effective capacitance, zero-strain capacitance, and zero-resultant capacitance. We show that zero-strain capacitance is smaller than zero-resultant capacitance, and that the effective capacitance is between the two. It was also found that the differences between the introduced capacitive characteristics can be expressed in terms of the active energy produced by the cell's molecular motors. The effectiveness of the cell and its molecular motors is introduced as the ratio of the motors'active energy to the energy of the externally applied electric field. It is shown that the effectiveness is proportional to the difference between zero-strain and zero-resultant capacitance. We analyze the cell and motor's effectiveness within a broad range of cellular parameters and estimate it to be within a range of 12%-30%.

  5. [Motor unit activities of human masseter muscle during sustained voluntary contractions].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the motor unit activities of the human masseter muscle during sustained the bite force at a constant level. The electrical activities recorded with surface and inserted electrodes were studied, with the following results. 1. The masseter muscle had the changes of activities in two phases as a contraction progressed. 2. In the first phase, surface EMG activities decreased and discharge frequency of motor units also decreased. 3. In the second phase, surface EMG activities increased and discharge frequency of motor units also increased. 4. In the first phase, it was suggested that the bite force was maintained by an increase in the twitch tension produced by a motor unit and that there were no recruitment of additional motor units. 5. In the second phase, it was indicated that the bite force was maintained by the recruitment of new motor units and an increase in the discharge frequency of motor units to compensate a loss of force resulted from the contractile element fatigue.

  6. Oscillations in the power spectra of motor unit signals caused by refractoriness variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X. L.; Tong, K. Y.; Hung, L. K.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory period of a motor unit is an important mechanism that regulates the motor unit firing, and its variation has been found in many physiological cases. In this study, a new observation that an increase in the motor unit refractoriness results in an enhancement of oscillations, or ripple effects, in the motor unit output power density spectra (PDS) has been identified and studied. The effects of the refractoriness variation on the PDS of motor unit firing were investigated on three levels: theoretical modeling, simulation and electromyographic (EMG) experimentation on human subjects. Both theoretical modeling and simulation showed the enhanced oscillations, ripple effects, in MUAPT PDS, given the increase in the refractoriness. It was also found that the extent of the increment in output PDS oscillation could be related to the motor unit size and the mean firing rate of the stimulation. A needle EMG experiment on biceps brachii muscles of five healthy human subjects was carried out during isometric contraction at 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 20 s with a fatigue effort proceeded by MVC. The increased oscillations in the PDS of the real MUAPTs were observed with the rising of the motor unit refractoriness due to fatigue. The study gives new information for EMG spectra interpretation, and also provides a potential method for accessing neuromuscular transmission failure (NTF) due to fatigue during voluntary contraction.

  7. Progress toward motor recovery with active neuromuscular stimulation: muscle activation pattern evidence after a stroke.

    PubMed

    Cauraugh, James H; Kim, Sangbum

    2003-03-15

    Chronic cerebrovascular accident individuals with partial paralysis in an upper extremity typically demonstrate difficulty in voluntarily controlling movement initiation. This study investigated patterns of electromyogram (EMG) activation levels while stroke subjects voluntarily initiated their impaired wrist and finger extensor muscles. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral movement/stimulation group or a bilateral movement/stimulation group. Participants completed 4 days (6 h over 2 weeks) of active neuromuscular stimulation (i.e., 5 s/trial, 90 trials/day, biphasic waveform) on the wrist and finger extensors according to group assignments. The EMG activation levels were analyzed with a three-factor mixed design Motor recovery protocol x Session block x Trial block (2 x 2 x 3) ANOVA with repeated measures on the second and third factors. This robust analysis revealed higher EMG activation levels for the coupled bilateral movement/stimulation group than the unilateral movement/stimulation group. In addition, higher muscle activation levels were found for the second session block as well as trial blocks 2 and 3. Overall, these findings indicated improved motor capabilities of the impaired muscles as evidenced by the higher voluntary EMG activation levels.

  8. Patterns of presynaptic activity and synaptic strength interact to produce motor output.

    PubMed

    Wright, Terrence Michael; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2011-11-30

    Motor neuron activity is coordinated by premotor networks into a functional motor pattern by complex patterns of synaptic drive. These patterns combine both the temporal pattern of spikes of the premotor network and the profiles of synaptic strengths (i.e., conductances). Given the complexity of premotor networks in vertebrates, it has been difficult to ascertain the relative contributions of temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles to the motor patterns observed in these animals. Here, we use the leech (Hirudo sp.) heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG), in which we can measure both the temporal pattern and the synaptic strength profiles of the entire premotor network and the motor outflow in individual animals. In this system, a series of motor neurons all receive input from the same premotor interneurons of the CPG but must be coordinated differentially to produce a functional pattern. These properties allow a theoretical and experimental dissection of the rules that govern how temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles are combined in motor neurons so that functional motor patterns emerge, including an analysis of the impact of animal-to-animal variation in input to such variation in output. In the leech, segmental heart motor neurons are coordinated alternately in a synchronous and peristaltic pattern. We show that synchronous motor patterns result from a nearly synchronous premotor temporal pattern produced by the leech heartbeat CPG. For peristaltic motor patterns, the staggered premotor temporal pattern determines the phase range over which segmental motor neurons can fire while synaptic strength profiles define the intersegmental motor phase progression realized.

  9. Patterns of Presynaptic Activity and Synaptic Strength Interact to Produce Motor Output

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Terrence Michael; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Motor neuron activity is coordinated by premotor networks into a functional motor pattern by complex patterns of synaptic drive. These patterns combine both the temporal pattern of spikes of the premotor network and the profiles of synaptic strengths (i.e., conductances). Given the complexity of premotor networks in vertebrates, it has been difficult to ascertain the relative contributions of temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles to the motor patterns observed in these animals. Here, we use the leech (Hirudo sp.) heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG), in which we can measure both the temporal pattern and the synaptic strength profiles of the entire premotor network and the motor outflow in individual animals. In this system, a series of motor neurons all receive input from the same premotor interneurons of the CPG but must be coordinated differentially to produce a functional pattern. These properties allow a theoretical and experimental dissection of the rules that govern how temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles are combined in motor neurons so that functional motor patterns emerge, including an analysis of the impact of animal-to-animal variation in input to such variation in output. In the leech, segmental heart motor neurons are coordinated alternately in a synchronous and peristaltic pattern. We show that synchronous motor patterns result from a nearly synchronous premotor temporal pattern produced by the leech heartbeat CPG. For peristaltic motor patterns, the staggered premotor temporal pattern determines the phase range over which segmental motor neurons can fire while synaptic strength profiles define the intersegmental motor phase progression realized. PMID:22131417

  10. Trajectory curvature in saccade sequences: spatiotopic influences vs. residual motor activity.

    PubMed

    Megardon, Geoffrey; Ludwig, Casimir; Sumner, Petroc

    2017-08-01

    When decisions drive saccadic eye movements, traces of the decision process can be inferred from the movement trajectories. For example, saccades can curve away from distractor stimuli, which was thought to reflect cortical inhibition biasing activity in the superior colliculus. Recent neurophysiological work does not support this theory, and two recent models have replaced top-down inhibition with lateral interactions in the superior colliculus or neural fatigue in the brainstem saccadic burst generator. All current models operate in retinotopic coordinates and are based on single saccade paradigms. To extend these models to sequences of saccades, we assessed whether and how saccade curvature depends on previously fixated locations and the direction of previous saccades. With a two-saccade paradigm, we first demonstrated that second saccades curved away from the initial fixation stimulus. Furthermore, by varying the time from fixation offset and the intersaccadic duration, we distinguished the extent of curvature originating from the spatiotopic representation of the previous fixation location or residual motor activity of the previous saccade. Results suggest that both factors drive curvature, and we discuss how these effects could be implemented in current models. In particular, we propose that the collicular retinotopic maps receive an excitatory spatiotopic update from the lateral interparial region.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Saccades curve away from locations of previous fixation. Varying stimulus timing demonstrates the effects of both 1) spatiotopic representation and 2) motor residual activity from previous saccades. The spatiotopic effect can be explained if current models are augmented with an excitatory top-down spatiotopic signal. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Kempfner, Lykke; Jennum, Poul

    2015-10-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters for motor activity were defined. Motor activity was detected and quantified automatically. The optimal parameters for separating RBD patients from controls were investigated by identifying the greatest area under the receiver operating curve from a total of 648 possible combinations. The optimal parameters were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep. The method was stable and can be used to differentiate RBD from controls and to quantify motor activity during REM sleep in patients with neurodegeneration. No control had more than 30% of REM sleep with increased motor activity; patients with known RBD had as low activity as 4.5%. We developed and applied a sensitive, quantitative, automatic algorithm to evaluate loss of atonia in RBD patients.

  12. The monitoring of transient regimes on machine tools based on speed, acceleration and active electric power absorbed by motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodinca, M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper intend to propose some new results related with computer aided monitoring of transient regimes on machine-tools based on the evolution of active electrical power absorbed by the electric motor used to drive the main kinematic chains and the evolution of rotational speed and acceleration of the main shaft. The active power is calculated in numerical format using the evolution of instantaneous voltage and current delivered by electrical power system to the electric motor. The rotational speed and acceleration of the main shaft are calculated based on the signal delivered by a sensor. Three real-time analogic signals are acquired with a very simple computer assisted setup which contains a voltage transformer, a current transformer, an AC generator as rotational speed sensor, a data acquisition system and a personal computer. The data processing and analysis was done using Matlab software. Some different transient regimes were investigated; several important conclusions related with the advantages of this monitoring technique were formulated. Many others features of the experimental setup are also available: to supervise the mechanical loading of machine-tools during cutting processes or for diagnosis of machine-tools condition by active electrical power signal analysis in frequency domain.

  13. Reduced activity of AMP-activated protein kinase protects against genetic models of motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Lim, M A; Selak, M A; Xiang, Z; Krainc, D; Neve, R L; Kraemer, B C; Watts, J L; Kalb, R G

    2012-01-18

    A growing body of research indicates that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and mouse models of ALS exhibit metabolic dysfunction. A subpopulation of ALS patients possesses higher levels of resting energy expenditure and lower fat-free mass compared to healthy controls. Similarly, two mutant copper zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1) mouse models of familial ALS possess a hypermetabolic phenotype. The pathophysiological relevance of the bioenergetic defects observed in ALS remains largely elusive. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor of cellular energy status and thus might be activated in various models of ALS. Here, we report that AMPK activity is increased in spinal cord cultures expressing mSOD1, as well as in spinal cord lysates from mSOD1 mice. Reducing AMPK activity either pharmacologically or genetically prevents mSOD1-induced motor neuron death in vitro. To investigate the role of AMPK in vivo, we used Caenorhabditis elegans models of motor neuron disease. C. elegans engineered to express human mSOD1 (G85R) in neurons develops locomotor dysfunction and severe fecundity defects when compared to transgenic worms expressing human wild-type SOD1. Genetic reduction of aak-2, the ortholog of the AMPK α2 catalytic subunit in nematodes, improved locomotor behavior and fecundity in G85R animals. Similar observations were made with nematodes engineered to express mutant tat-activating regulatory (TAR) DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa molecular weight. Altogether, these data suggest that bioenergetic abnormalities are likely to be pathophysiologically relevant to motor neuron disease.

  14. A Guide for Perceptual-Motor Training Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Euclid - Lyndhurst City Schools, Lyndhurst, OH.

    This document has been prepared as part of a kindergarten perceptual-training program of the South Euclid-Lyndhurst City School District near Cleveland, Ohio. The guide contains information on training and procedures related to perceptual-motor learning. This information is structured primarily into 150 lesson plans, devised as 30-minute sessions…

  15. Oesophageal and gastric motor activity in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, A; Bergmann, H; Abatzi, T A; Schneider, C; Wiesnagrotzki, S; Höbart, J; Steiner-Mittelbach, G; Gaupmann, G; Kugi, A; Stacher-Janotta, G

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies showed that symptoms of oesophageal motor disorders can be misinterpreted as indicating anorexia nervosa and that in primary anorexia nervosa gastric motility is frequently impaired. We investigated in 32 women with bulimia nervosa whether symptoms of oesophageal motor disorders could be obscured by or be mistaken as forming part of bulimic behaviour, and whether impaired gastric motility was frequent as well. Oesophageal motility was normal in 18 of 26 patients studied, another four had incomplete lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation. Two patients had vigorous achalasia and each one achalasia and diffuse oesophageal spasm, all of whom experienced two types of vomiting: one self-induced and one involuntary, in which the vomit was non-acidic and tasted as the preceding meal. Gastric emptying of a semisolid meal was studied in all patients except of the eight with oesophageal motor abnormalities. Emptying was significantly slower than in healthy controls and grossly delayed in nine of 24 patients. Antral contraction amplitudes were lower and increased less postcibally than in controls. In conclusion (i) bulimic behaviour can obscure symptoms of oesophageal motor disorders and (ii) gastric emptying is frequently delayed in bulimia nervosa. PMID:2323585

  16. Project Success for the SLD Child, Motor-Perception Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne - Carroll Public Schools, Wayne, NE.

    Presented is a curriculum guide for a perceptual motor program which was developed by Project Success (Nebraska) through a Title III grant for language learning disabled elementary level students in kindergarten through grade 3. The program is said to be arranged in a hierarchy of skills ranging from simple to complex and to be written so that the…

  17. Drosophila non-muscle myosin II motor activity determines the rate of tissue folding.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Heissler, Sarah M; Billington, Neil; Sellers, James R; Martin, Adam C

    2016-12-30

    Non-muscle cell contractility is critical for tissues to adopt shape changes. Although, the non-muscle myosin II holoenzyme (myosin) is a molecular motor that powers contraction of actin cytoskeleton networks, recent studies have questioned the importance of myosin motor activity cell and tissue shape changes. Here, combining the biochemical analysis of enzymatic and motile properties for purified myosin mutants with in vivo measurements of apical constriction for the same mutants, we show that in vivo constriction rate scales with myosin motor activity. We show that so-called phosphomimetic mutants of the Drosophila regulatory light chain (RLC) do not mimic the phosphorylated RLC state in vitro. The defect in the myosin motor activity in these mutants is evident in developing Drosophila embryos where tissue recoil following laser ablation is decreased compared to wild-type tissue. Overall, our data highlights that myosin activity is required for rapid cell contraction and tissue folding in developing Drosophila embryos.

  18. Demonstration of motor imagery movement and phantom movement-related neuronal activity in human thalamus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William S; Weiss, Nirit; Lawson, Herman Christopher; Ohara, Shinji; Rowland, Lance; Lenz, Frederick A

    2011-01-26

    Functional imaging studies show that motor imagery activates multiple structures in the human forebrain. We now show that phantom movements in an amputee and imagined movements in intact individuals elicit responses from neurons in several human thalamic nuclei. These include the somatic sensory nucleus receiving input from the periphery (ventral caudal), and the motor nuclei receiving input from the cerebellum [ventral intermediate (Vim)] and the basal ganglia [ventral oral posterior (Vop)]. Seven neurons in the amputee showed phantom movement-related activity (three Vim, two Vop, and two ventral caudal). In addition, seven neurons in a group of three controls showed motor imagery-related activity (four Vim and three Vop). These studies were performed during single neuron recording sessions in patients undergoing therapeutic treatment of phantom pain, tremor, and chronic pain conditions by thalamic stimulation. The activity of neurons in these sensory and motor nuclei, respectively, may encode the expected sensory consequences and the dynamics of planned movements.

  19. Demonstration of Motor Imagery- and Phantom-Movement Related Neuronal Activity in Human Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nirit; Lawson, Herman Christopher; Ohara, Shinji; Rowland, Lance; Lenz, Frederick A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional imaging studies demonstrate that motor imagery activates multiple structures in the human forebrain. We now show that phantom movements in an amputee and imagined movements in intact subjects elicit responses from neurons in several human thalamic nuclei. These include the somatic sensory nucleus receiving input from the periphery (ventral caudal – Vc), and the motor nuclei receiving input from the cerebellum (ventral intermediate -Vim) and the basal ganglia (ventral oral posterior - Vop). Seven neurons in the amputee demonstrated phantom movement-related activity (3 Vim, 2 Vop, and 2 Vc). Additionally, seven neurons in a group of three controls demonstrated motor imagery-related activity (4 Vim, and 3 Vop). These studies were performed during single neuron recording sessions in patients undergoing therapeutic treatment of phantom pain, tremor, and chronic pain conditions by thalamic stimulation. The activity of neurons in these sensory and motor nuclei respectively may encode the expected sensory consequences and the dynamics of planned movements. PMID:21150804

  20. CORRELATIONS OF PESTICIDE-INDUCED CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION AND MOTOR ACTIVITY CHANGES IN ADULT RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute neurobehavioral effects of acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides are primarily due to overstimulation of the cholinergic system. Lowered motor activity levels represent a sensitive endpoint with which to monitor functional changes in laboratory animals exposed to ...

  1. Indatraline: synthesis and effect on the motor activity of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Márcia; Siqueira, Fernanda A; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam; Silva, Luiz F; Silva, Maria T A

    2011-11-10

    A new approach for the synthesis of indatraline was developed using as the key step an iodine(III)-mediated ring contraction of a 1,2-dihydronaphthalene derivative. Behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of indatraline and of its precursor indanamide on the motor activity of Wistar rats. Specific indexes for ambulation, raising and stereotypy were computed one, two and three hours after i.p. drug administration. Indatraline effects on motor activity lasted for at least three hours. On the other hand, no significant differences in motor activity were observed using indanamide. The results suggest that indatraline has a long lasting effect on motor activity and add evidence in favor of the potential use of that compound as a substitute in cocaine addiction.

  2. CORRELATIONS OF PESTICIDE-INDUCED CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION AND MOTOR ACTIVITY CHANGES IN ADULT RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute neurobehavioral effects of acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides are primarily due to overstimulation of the cholinergic system. Lowered motor activity levels represent a sensitive endpoint with which to monitor functional changes in laboratory animals exposed to ...

  3. Increased brain activation during motor imagery suggests central abnormality in Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy.

    PubMed

    Anguelova, Galia V; Rombouts, S A R B; van Dijk, J Gert; Buur, Pieter F; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2017-10-01

    Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy (NBPP) may lead to permanent impairment of arm function. As NBPP occurs when central motor programs develop, these may be ill-formed. We studied elbow flexion and motor imagery with fMRI to search for abnormal motor programming. We compared the cortical activity of adults with conservatively treated NBPP to that of healthy individuals stratified for hand dominance, using fMRI BOLD tasks of elbow flexion and motor imagery of flexion. Additionally, resting-state networks and regional gray matter volume were studied. Sixteen adult NBPP patients (seven men; median age 29 years) and sixteen healthy subjects (seven men, median age 27 years) participated. Cortical activation was significantly higher in patients during flexion imagery compared to healthy individuals and it increased with lesion extent and muscle weakness. The contralateral and ipsilateral premotor cortex, and the contralateral motor cortex showed stronger activity during imagined flexion in the right-handed NBPP subjects compared to healthy individuals. Activity patterns during actual flexion did not differ between groups. No differences in resting-state network connectivity or gray matter amount were found between the groups. NBPP affected imagined but not actual elbow flexion, suggesting an impairment of motor planning which would indicate abnormal motor programming in NBPP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinesin-Binding Protein Controls Microtubule Dynamics and Cargo Trafficking by Regulating Kinesin Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Kevenaar, Josta T; Bianchi, Sarah; van Spronsen, Myrrhe; Olieric, Natacha; Lipka, Joanna; Frias, Cátia P; Mikhaylova, Marina; Harterink, Martin; Keijzer, Nanda; Wulf, Phebe S; Hilbert, Manuel; Kapitein, Lukas C; de Graaff, Esther; Ahkmanova, Anna; Steinmetz, Michel O; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2016-04-04

    Kinesin motor proteins play a fundamental role for normal neuronal development by controlling intracellular cargo transport and microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton organization. Regulating kinesin activity is important to ensure their proper functioning, and their misregulation often leads to severe human neurological disorders. Homozygous nonsense mutations in kinesin-binding protein (KBP)/KIAA1279 cause the neurological disorder Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome (GOSHS), which is characterized by intellectual disability, microcephaly, and axonal neuropathy. Here, we show that KBP regulates kinesin activity by interacting with the motor domains of a specific subset of kinesins to prevent their association with the MT cytoskeleton. The KBP-interacting kinesins include cargo-transporting motors such as kinesin-3/KIF1A and MT-depolymerizing motor kinesin-8/KIF18A. We found that KBP blocks KIF1A/UNC-104-mediated synaptic vesicle transport in cultured hippocampal neurons and in C. elegans PVD sensory neurons. In contrast, depletion of KBP results in the accumulation of KIF1A motors and synaptic vesicles in the axonal growth cone. We also show that KBP regulates neuronal MT dynamics by controlling KIF18A activity. Our data suggest that KBP functions as a kinesin inhibitor that modulates MT-based cargo motility and depolymerizing activity of a subset of kinesin motors. We propose that misregulation of KBP-controlled kinesin motors may represent the underlying molecular mechanism that contributes to the neuropathological defects observed in GOSHS patients.

  5. Measuring motor activity in major depression: the association between the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and actigraphy.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Nadja; Horn, Helge; Koschorke, Philipp; Hügli, Simone; Höfle, Oliver; Müller, Thomas; Strik, Werner; Walther, Sebastian

    2011-12-30

    Despite the use of actigraphy in depression research, the association of depression ratings and quantitative motor activity remains controversial. In addition, the impact of recurring episodes on motor activity is uncertain. In 76 medicated inpatients with major depression (27 with a first episode, 49 with recurrent episodes), continuous wrist actigraphy for 24h and scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were obtained. In addition, 10 subjects of the sample wore the actigraph over a period of 5 days, in order to assess the reliability of a 1-day measurement. Activity levels were stable over 5 consecutive days. Actigraphic parameters did not differ between patients with a first or a recurrent episode, and quantitative motor activity failed to correlate with the HAMD total score. However, of the motor-related single items of the HAMD, the item activities was associated with motor activity parameters, while the items agitation and retardation were not. Actigraphy is consistent with clinical observation for the item activities. Expert raters may not correctly rate the motor aspects of retardation and agitation in major depression.

  6. [Evoked motor activity and maturation sequence of striate complex structures during chick embryogenesis].

    PubMed

    Gevorgian, E G; Bogdanov, O V; Medvedeva, M V

    1977-01-01

    Morphological and functional maturation of different structures of the striatal complex takes place heterochronously, as revealed in studies on motor activity of 17--21-day chick embryos evoked by electrical stimulation of these structures. Phylogenetically more ancient structures, i. e. archi- and paleostriatum, are the first to be involved into regulation of the motor activity. These structures together with the structures of the midbrain and cerebellum are considered as "the primary" step of regulatory mechanisms which develop during functional maturation of the motor analyser. Neostriatal mechanisms operate from the 19th day of incubation, whereas hyperstriatal ones--only to the day of hatching.

  7. AMPA receptor activation causes preferential mitochondrial Ca²⁺ load and oxidative stress in motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dinesh C; Tewari, Bhanu P; Singh, Mahendra; Joshi, Preeti G; Joshi, Nanda B

    2015-08-07

    suppressed the ROS formation only in motor neurons. It appears that activation of cytoplasmic nNOS leads to ROS formation in both types of spinal neurons but mitochondria is the major source of ROS in motor neurons. Spinal neurons exhibited a significant time dependent fall in glutathione (GSH) level. The GSH level in motor neurons did not recover even at 24h after AMPA exposure, whereas the other spinal neurons exhibited a tendency to maintain the GSH after a certain level suggesting that the oxidative stress is arrested in other spinal neurons but it continues to increase in motor neurons. Thus our results demonstrate that upon AMPA receptor stimulation the motor neurons employ some additional pathways for regulation of mitochondrial calcium and oxidative stress as compared to other spinal neurons. It is suggested that such differential signaling mechanisms in motor neurons could be crucial for their selective vulnerability to excitotoxicity.

  8. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  9. Motor cortex plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation is enhanced in physically active individuals.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, John; Lavender, Andrew P; Ridding, Michael C; Semmler, John G

    2009-12-15

    Recent evidence indicates that regular physical activity enhances brain plasticity (i.e. the ability to reorganise neural connections) and improves neurocognitive function. However, the effect of regular physical activity on human motor cortex function is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine motor cortex plasticity for a small hand muscle in highly active and sedentary individuals. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the left abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle of 14 active and 14 sedentary subjects (aged 18-38 yrs). The extent of physical activity was assessed by questionnaire, where the physically active subjects performed >150 min per day moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity on at least 5 days per week, whereas the sedentary group performed <20 min per day of physical activity on no more than 3 days per week. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the right hemisphere was used to assess changes in APB motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), input-output curve (IO curve), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and cortical silent period (CSP). Neuroplastic changes were induced using paired-associative stimulation (PAS), which consisted of 90 paired stimuli (0.05 Hz for 30 min) of median nerve electrical stimulation at the wrist followed 25 ms later by TMS to the hand area of motor cortex. The IO curve slope was 35% steeper in individuals with increased physical activity (combined before and after PAS, P < 0.05), suggesting increased motor cortex excitability, although there was no difference in SICI or CSP between groups. PAS induced an increase in MEP amplitude in the physically active subjects (54% increase compared with before, P < 0.01), but no significant facilitation in the sedentary subjects. We conclude that participation in regular physical activity may offer global benefits to motor cortex function that enhances neuroplasticity, which could improve motor learning and neurorehabilitation in physically active individuals.

  10. Exercise-induced Alteration in Brain Activity during Motor Performance under Cognitive Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-02

    stress . It is possible that the correlated activity between EEG and EMG is used for “fine-tuning” brain activity during the performance of fine motor...brain and muscle during simple fine motor performance under stress after high-intensity physical exertion. Healthy young adults were assigned to...leg resistance exercise. Oscillations in EEG and corticomuscular coherence in beta band both tended to decrease 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE

  11. Optogenetic activation of Gq signalling modulates pacemaker activity of cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Beiert, Thomas; Bruegmann, Tobias; Sasse, Philipp

    2014-06-01

    Investigation of Gq signalling with pharmacological agonists of Gq-coupled receptors lacks spatio-temporal precision. The aim of this study was to establish melanopsin, a light-sensitive Gq-coupled receptor, as a new tool for the investigation of spatial and temporal effects of Gq stimulation on pacemaking in cardiomyocytes at an early developmental stage. A vector for ubiquitous expression of melanopsin was tested in HEK293FT cells, which showed light-induced production of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Mouse embryonic stem cells were stably transfected with this plasmid and differentiated into spontaneously beating embryoid bodies (EBs). Cardiomyocytes within EBs showed melanopsin expression and illumination (60 s, 308.5 nW/mm(2), 470 nm) of EBs increased beating rate within 10.2 ± 1.7 s to 317.1 ± 16.3% of baseline frequency. Illumination as short as 5 s was sufficient for generating the maximal frequency response. After termination of illumination, baseline frequency was reached with a decay constant of 27.1 ± 2.5 s. The light-induced acceleration of beating frequency showed a sigmoid dependence on light intensity with a half maximal effective light intensity of 41.7 nW/mm(2). Interestingly, EBs showed a high rate of irregular contractions after termination of high-intensity illumination. Local Gq activation by illumination of a small region in a functional syncytium of cardiomyocytes led to pacemaker activity within the illuminated area. Light-induced Gq activation in melanopsin-expressing cardiomyocytes increases beating rate and generates local pacemaker activity. We propose that melanopsin is a powerful optogenetic tool for the investigation of spatial and temporal aspects of Gq signalling in cardiovascular research. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Esterases activity in the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum exposed to chlorpyrifos and its implication to motor activity.

    PubMed

    Robles-Mendoza, Cecilia; Zúñiga-Lagunes, Sebastian R; Ponce de León-Hill, Claudia A; Hernández-Soto, Jesús; Vanegas-Pérez, Cecilia

    2011-10-01

    The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is a neotenic salamander considered a good biological model due to its ability to regenerate limbs, tail, brain and heart cells. Nevertheless, severe reduction of A. mexicanum wild populations in the lacustrine area of Xochimilco, the natural habitat of the axolotl, could be related to several environmental pressures as the presence of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), intensively applied in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of environmentally realistic chlorpyrifos (CPF) concentrations, a OPP commonly used in this zone, on esterases activity (acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase) and bioconcentration of CPF and to relate them with the motor activity of A. mexicanum juveniles. Axolotls were exposed 48 h to 0.05 and 0.1mg CPF/L, and the responses were evaluated at the end of the CPF exposure. Results suggest that CPF is bioconcentrated into axolotls and that the CPF internal concentrations are related with the observed inhibition activity of AChE (>50%) and CbE (≈ 50%). CPF concentration responsible of the inhibition of the 50% of AChE activity (IC50) was estimated in 0.04 mg CPF/L; however IC50 for CbE activity was not possible to calculate since inhibition levels were lower than 50%, results that suggest a higher resistance of CbE enzymatic activity to CPF. However, motor activity was a more sensitive endpoint to CPF poisoning since time that axolotls spent active and walking, frequency and speed of swimming, frequency of prey attack were reduced >90% of control groups. The motor activity alterations in the axolotl could be related with the registered esterases inhibition. Thus important alterations on axolotls were identified even at short time and low concentrations of CPF exposure. Also, it was possible to link biochemical responses as esterases activity with higher levels of biological organization as behavior. This study provides tools for the regulation of the

  13. Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis